Orientational atom interferometers sensitive to gravitational waves
Lorek, Dennis; Laemmerzahl, Claus; Wicht, Andreas
2010-02-15
We present an atom interferometer that differs from common atom interferometers as it is not based on the spatial splitting of electronic wave functions, but on orienting atoms in space. As an example we present how an orientational atom interferometer based on highly charged hydrogen-like atoms is affected by gravitational waves. We show that a monochromatic gravitational wave will cause a frequency shift that scales with the binding energy of the system rather than with its physical dimension. For a gravitational wave amplitude of h=10{sup -23} the frequency shift is of the order of 110 {mu}Hz for an atom interferometer based on a 91-fold charged uranium ion. A frequency difference of this size can be resolved by current atom interferometers in 1 s.
Thermal Noise in Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flaminio, Raffaele
Thermal noise is one of the major limitations to the sensitivity of present and future laser interferometers devoted to gravitational wave detection. According to the fluctuation-dissipation theorem any mechanical oscillator is affected by a motion of thermal origin directly related to its thermodynamic temperature. The mirrors and their suspensions that are used in gravitational wave detectors such as Virgo or LIGO are examples of such mechanical oscillators. As a consequence their position is affected by this thermal vibration and the sensitivity of the gravitational wave detector is thermal noise limited over a wide range of frequencies. After recalling briefly the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and its origins, this chapter describes the main types of thermal noise affecting gravitational wave detectors. In the last part of the chapter a special emphasis is given to the thermal noise due to dissipation in the mirrors optical coatings.
A lunar gravitational wave antenna using a laser interferometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stebbins, R. T.; Bender, P. L.
1990-03-01
A moon-based laser interferometer for detecting gravitational radiation could detect signals in the band 0.1 - 10,000 Hz. A preliminary evaluation of the noise budget for an optimistic antenna design is reported here and compared to that for other planned gravitational wave interferometers. Over most of the frequency range, the sensitivity is controlled by the thermal noise in the test mass suspensions. From roughly 3 to a few hundred Hertz, it is about the same as the sensitivity expected in terrestrial antennas of the same construction, which will have been operating for at least a decade. Below 0.3 Hz, a proposed space-based interferometer, designed for operation down to 10 exp -5 Hz, would have better sensitivity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John G.; Thorpe, J. I.
2012-01-01
We consider a class of proposed gravitational wave detectors based on multiple atomic interferometers separated by large baselines and referenced by common laser systems. We compute the sensitivity limits of these detectors due to intrinsic phase noise of the light sources, non-inertial motion of the light sources, and atomic shot noise and compare them to sensitivity limits for traditional light interferometers. We find that atom interferometers and light interferometers are limited in a nearly identical way by intrinsic phase noise and that both require similar mitigation strategies (e.g. multiple arm instruments) to reach interesting sensitivities. The sensitivity limit from motion of the light sources is slightly different and favors the atom interferometers in the low-frequency limit, although the limit in both cases is severe. Whether this potential advantage outweighs the additional complexity associated with including atom interferometers will require further study.
Baker, John G; Thorpe, J I
2012-05-25
We consider a class of proposed gravitational-wave detectors based on multiple atomic interferometers separated by large baselines and referenced by common laser systems. We compute the sensitivity limits of these detectors due to intrinsic phase noise of the light sources, noninertial motion of the light sources, and atomic shot noise and compare them to sensitivity limits for traditional light interferometers. We find that atom interferometers and light interferometers are limited in a nearly identical way by intrinsic phase noise and that both require similar mitigation strategies (e.g., multiple-arm instruments) to reach interesting sensitivities. The sensitivity limit from motion of the light sources is slightly different and, in principle, favors the atom interferometers in the low-frequency limit, although the limit in both cases is severe. PMID:23003235
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John G.
2012-01-01
We consider a class of proposed gravitational wave detectors based on multiple atomic interferometers separated by large baselines and referenced by common laser systems. We compute the sensitivity limits of these detectors due to intrinsic phase noise of the light sources, non-inertial motion of the light sources, and atomic shot noise and compare them to sensitivity limits for traditional light interferometers. We find that atom interferometers and light interferometers are limited in a nearly identical way by intrinsic phase noise and that both require similar mitigation strategies (e.g. multiple arm instruments) to reach interesting sensitivities. The sensitivity limit from motion of the light sources is slightly different and favors the atom interferometers in the low-frequency limit, although the limit in both cases is severe.
Optimized multilayer dielectric mirror coatings for gravitational wave interferometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agresti, Juri; Castaldi, Giuseppe; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Galdi, Vincenzo; Pierro, Vincenzo; Pinto, Innocenzo M.
2006-08-01
The limit sensitivity of interferometric gravitational wave antennas is set by the thermal noise in the dielectric mirror coatings. These are currently made of alternating quarter-wavelength high/low index material layers with low mechanical losses. The quarter-wavelength design yields the maximum reflectivity for a fixed number of layers, but not the lowest noise for a prescribed reflectivity. This motivated our recent investigation of optimal thickness configurations, which guarantee the lowest thermal noise for a targeted reflectivity. This communication provides a compact overview of our results, involving nonperiodic genetically-engineered and truncated periodically-layered configurations. Possible implications for the advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (LIGO) are discussed.
Gravitational Wave Detection with Single-Laser Atom Interferometers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yu, Nan; Tinto, Massimo
2011-01-01
A new design for a broadband detector of gravitational radiation relies on two atom interferometers separated by a distance L. In this scheme, only one arm and one laser are used for operating the two atom interferometers. The innovation here involves the fact that the atoms in the atom interferometers are not only considered as perfect test masses, but also as highly stable clocks. Atomic coherence is intrinsically stable, and can be many orders of magnitude more stable than a laser.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Littenberg, T. B.; Larson, S. L.; Nelemans, G.; Cornish, N. J.
2013-03-01
Space-based gravitational wave interferometers are sensitive to the galactic population of ultracompact binaries. An important subset of the ultracompact binary population are those stars that can be individually resolved by both gravitational wave interferometers and electromagnetic telescopes. The aim of this paper is to quantify the multimessenger potential of space-based interferometers with arm-lengths between 1 and 5 Gm. The Fisher information matrix is used to estimate the number of binaries from a model of the Milky Way which are localized on the sky by the gravitational wave detector to within 1 and 10 deg2 and bright enough to be detected by a magnitude-limited survey. We find, depending on the choice of GW detector characteristics, limiting magnitude and observing strategy, that up to several hundred gravitational wave sources could be detected in electromagnetic follow-up observations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Littenberg, T. B.; Larson, S. L.; Nelemans, G.; Cornish, N. J.
2012-01-01
Space-based gravitational wave interferometers are sensitive to the galactic population of ultracompact binaries. An important subset of the ultracompact binary population are those stars that can be individually resolved by both gravitational wave interferometers and electromagnetic telescopes. The aim of this paper is to quantify the multimessenger potential of space-based interferometers with arm-lengths between 1 and 5 Gm. The Fisher information matrix is used to estimate the number of binaries from a model of the Milky Way which are localized on the sky by the gravitational wave detector to within 1 and 10 deg(exp 2) and bright enough to be detected by a magnitude-limited survey.We find, depending on the choice ofGW detector characteristics, limiting magnitude and observing strategy, that up to several hundred gravitational wave sources could be detected in electromagnetic follow-up observations.
The space microwave interferometer and the search for cosmic background gravitational wave radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, Allen Joel
1989-01-01
Present and planned investigations which use interplanetary spacecraft for gravitational wave searches are severely limited in their detection capability. This limitation has to do both with the Earth-based tracking procedures used and with the configuration of the experiments themselves. It is suggested that a much improved experiment can now be made using a multiarm interferometer designed with current operating elements. An important source of gravitational wave radiation, the cosmic background, may well be within reach of detection with these procedures. It is proposed to make a number of experimental steps that can now be carried out using TDRSS spacecraft and would conclude in the establishment of an operating multiarm microwave interferometer. This interferometer is projected to have a sensitivity to cosmic background gravitational wave radiation with an energy of less than 10(exp -4) cosmic closure density and to periodic waves generating spatial strain approaching 10(exp -19) in the range 0.1 to 0.001 Hz.
Using Resonant Bars and Interferometers to Search for Stochastic Gravitational Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whelan, John T.
2002-10-01
A stochastic background of gravitational waves (SBGW) may result from gravitational waves emitted in the early universe (e.g., during inflation) or from a superposition of many unresolved astrophysical sources. Pairs of resonant bar detectors, as well as pairs of prototype interferometers, have been used to set limits on SBGW strength by looking for correlations between the random signals in the two detectors, and data from the two LIGO interferometers are being analyzed right now for this purpose. I will describe a parallel analysis being carried out to look for SBGW-induced correlations between the LIGO detector in Livingston, LA and the ALLEGRO resonant bar detector in Baton Rouge, LA.
Eberle, Tobias; Steinlechner, Sebastian; Bauchrowitz, Jöran; Händchen, Vitus; Vahlbruch, Henning; Mehmet, Moritz; Müller-Ebhardt, Helge; Schnabel, Roman
2010-06-25
Only a few years ago, it was realized that the zero-area Sagnac interferometer topology is able to perform quantum nondemolition measurements of position changes of a mechanical oscillator. Here, we experimentally show that such an interferometer can also be efficiently enhanced by squeezed light. We achieved a nonclassical sensitivity improvement of up to 8.2 dB, limited by optical loss inside our interferometer. Measurements performed directly on our squeezed-light laser output revealed squeezing of 12.7 dB. We show that the sensitivity of a squeezed-light enhanced Sagnac interferometer can surpass the standard quantum limit for a broad spectrum of signal frequencies without the need for filter cavities as required for Michelson interferometers. The Sagnac topology is therefore a powerful option for future gravitational-wave detectors, such as the Einstein Telescope, whose design is currently being studied.
Ramette, Joshua; Kasprzack, Marie; Brooks, Aidan; Blair, Carl; Wang, Haoyu; Heintze, Matthew
2016-04-01
Advanced laser interferometer gravitational-wave detectors use high laser power to achieve design sensitivity. A small part of this power is absorbed in the interferometer cavity mirrors where it creates thermal lenses, causing aberrations in the main laser beam that must be minimized by the actuation of "ring heaters," which are additional heater elements that are aimed to reduce the temperature gradients in the mirrors. In this article we derive the first, to the best of our knowledge, analytical model of the temperature field generated by an ideal ring heater. We express the resulting optical aberration contribution to the main laser beam in this axisymmetric case. Used in conjunction with wavefront measurements, our model provides a more complete understanding of the thermal state of the cavity mirrors and will allow a more efficient use of the ring heaters in the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory. PMID:27139664
Ramette, Joshua; Kasprzack, Marie; Brooks, Aidan; Blair, Carl; Wang, Haoyu; Heintze, Matthew
2016-04-01
Advanced laser interferometer gravitational-wave detectors use high laser power to achieve design sensitivity. A small part of this power is absorbed in the interferometer cavity mirrors where it creates thermal lenses, causing aberrations in the main laser beam that must be minimized by the actuation of "ring heaters," which are additional heater elements that are aimed to reduce the temperature gradients in the mirrors. In this article we derive the first, to the best of our knowledge, analytical model of the temperature field generated by an ideal ring heater. We express the resulting optical aberration contribution to the main laser beam in this axisymmetric case. Used in conjunction with wavefront measurements, our model provides a more complete understanding of the thermal state of the cavity mirrors and will allow a more efficient use of the ring heaters in the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory.
Sagnac interferometer as a speed-meter-type, quantum-nondemolition gravitational-wave detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yanbei
2003-06-01
According to quantum measurement theory, “speed meters”—devices that measure the momentum, or speed, of free test masses—are immune to the standard quantum limit (SQL). It is shown that a Sagnac-interferometer gravitational-wave detector is a speed meter and therefore in principle it can beat the SQL by large amounts over a wide band of frequencies. It is shown, further, that, when one ignores optical losses, a signal-recycled Sagnac interferometer with Fabry-Perot arm cavities has precisely the same performance, for the same circulating light power, as the Michelson speed-meter interferometer recently invented and studied by Purdue and the author. The influence of optical losses is not studied, but it is plausible that they be fairly unimportant for the Sagnac interferometer, as for other speed meters. With squeezed vacuum (squeeze factor e-2R=0.1) injected into its dark port, the recycled Sagnac interferometer can beat the SQL by a factor (10)≃3 over the frequency band 10 Hz≲f≲150 Hz using the same circulating power Ic˜820 kW as is to be used by the (quantum limited) second-generation Advanced LIGO interferometers—if other noise sources are made sufficiently small. It is concluded that the Sagnac optical configuration, with signal recycling and squeezed-vacuum injection, is an attractive candidate for third-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors (LIGO-III and EURO).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimble, H. J.; Levin, Yuri; Matsko, Andrey B.; Thorne, Kip S.; Vyatchanin, Sergey P.
2002-01-01
The LIGO-II gravitational-wave interferometers (ca. 2006-2008) are designed to have sensitivities near the standard quantum limit (SQL) in the vicinity of 100 Hz. This paper describes and analyzes possible designs for subsequent LIGO-III interferometers that can beat the SQL. These designs are identical to a conventional broad band interferometer (without signal recycling), except for new input and/or output optics. Three designs are analyzed: (i) a squeezed-input interferometer (conceived by Unruh based on earlier work of Caves) in which squeezed vacuum with frequency-dependent (FD) squeeze angle is injected into the interferometer's dark port; (ii) a variational-output interferometer (conceived in a different form by Vyatchanin, Matsko and Zubova), in which homodyne detection with FD homodyne phase is performed on the output light; and (iii) a squeezed-variational interferometer with squeezed input and FD-homodyne output. It is shown that the FD squeezed-input light can be produced by sending ordinary squeezed light through two successive Fabry-Pérot filter cavities before injection into the interferometer, and FD-homodyne detection can be achieved by sending the output light through two filter cavities before ordinary homodyne detection. With anticipated technology (power squeeze factor e-2R=0.1 for input squeezed vacuum and net fractional loss of signal power in arm cavities and output optical train ɛ*=0.01) and using an input laser power Io in units of that required to reach the SQL (the planned LIGO-II power, ISQL), the three types of interferometer could beat the amplitude SQL at 100 Hz by the following amounts μ≡(Sh)/(SSQLh) and with the following corresponding increase V=1/μ3 in the volume of the universe that can be searched for a given noncosmological source: Squeezed input-μ~=(e-2R)~=0.3 and V~=1/0.33~=30 using Io/ISQL=1. Variational-output-μ~=ɛ1/4*~=0.3 and V~=30 but only if the optics can handle a ten times larger power: Io/ISQL~=1/(ɛ*)=10
Smith, Tristan L.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Cooray, Asantha
2006-06-15
A detection of the primordial gravitational wave background is considered to be the 'smoking-gun' evidence for inflation. While superhorizon waves are probed with cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization, the relic background will be studied with laser interferometers. The long lever arm spanned by the two techniques improves constraints on the inflationary potential and validation of consistency relations expected under inflation. If gravitational waves with a tensor-to-scalar amplitude ratio greater than 0.01 are detected by the CMB, then a direct-detection experiment with a sensitivity consistent with current concept studies should be pursued vigorously. If no primordial tensors are detected by the CMB, a direct-detection experiment to understand the simplest form of inflation must have a sensitivity improved by two to 3 orders of magnitude over current plans.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yagi, Kent
2013-01-01
Deci-Hertz Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (DECIGO) Pathfinder (DPF) has an ability to detect gravitational waves (GWs) from galactic intermediate mass black hole binaries. If the signal is detected, it would be possible to determine parameters of the binary components. Furthermore, by using future space-borne GW interferometers, it would be possible to test alternative theories of gravity in the strong field regime. In this review paper, we first explain how the detectors like DPF and DECIGO/BBO work and discuss the expected event rates. Then, we review how the observed gravitational waveforms from precessing compact binaries with slightly eccentric orbits can be calculated both in general relativity and in alternative theories of gravity. For the latter, we focus on Brans-Dicke (BD) and massive gravity (MG) theories. After reviewing these theories, we show the results of the parameter estimation with DPF using the Fisher analysis. We also discuss a possible joint search of DPF and ground-based interferometers. Then, we show the results of testing alternative theories of gravity using future space-borne interferometers. DECIGO/BBO would be able to place 4-5 orders of magnitude stronger constraint on BD theory than the solar system experiment. This is still 1-2 orders of magnitude stronger than the future solar system mission such as ASTROD I. On the other hand, LISA should be able to put four orders of magnitude more stringent constraint on the mass of the graviton than the current solar system bound. DPF may be able to place comparable constraint on the MG theories as the solar system bound. We also discuss the prospects of using eLISA and ASTROD-GW in testing alternative theories of gravity. The bounds using eLISA are similar to the LISA ones, but ASTROD-GW performs the best in constraining MG theories among all the GW detectors considered in this paper.
Quantum noise in differential-type gravitational-wave interferometer and signal recycling
Nishizawa, Atsushi; Sakagami, Masa-aki; Kawamura, Seiji
2007-08-15
There exists the standard quantum limit (SQL), derived from Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, in the sensitivity of laser interferometer gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. However, in the context of a full quantum-mechanical approach, SQL can be overcome using the correlation of shot noise and radiation-pressure noise. So far, signal recycling, which is one of the methods to overcome SQL, is considered only in a recombined-type interferometer such as Advanced LIGO, LCGT, and GEO600. In this paper, we investigated quantum noise and the possibility of signal recycling in a differential-type interferometer. As a result, we found that signal recycling is possible and creates at most three dips in the sensitivity curve of the detector due to two coupled resonators. The additional third dip makes it possible to decrease quantum noise at low frequencies, keeping the moderate sensitivity at high frequencies. Then, taking advantage of the third dip and comparing the sensitivity of a differential-type interferometer with that of a next-generation Japanese GW interferometer, LCGT, we found that signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of inspiral binary is improved by a factor of {approx_equal}1.43 for neutron star binary, {approx_equal}2.28 for 50M{sub {center_dot}} black hole binary, and {approx_equal}2.94 for 100M{sub {center_dot}} black hole binary. We also found that power recycling to increase laser power is possible in our signal-recycling configuration of a detector.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giaime, Joseph Anthony
1995-01-01
Two techniques are developed that are needed in the design of an interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detector such as the LIGO, or Long-baseline Interferometric Gravitational-wave Observatory. The detector sensitivity of a long-baseline instrument is studied. A multi-layer mechanical isolation stack to filter seismic noise from test masses is designed, modeled and tested in vacuum. This is a four-stage elastomer (spring) and stainless steel (mass) stack, consisting of a table resting on three separate legs of three layers each. The visco-elastic properties of elastomer springs are exploited to damp the stack's normal modes while providing rapid roll-off of stack transmission above these modal frequencies. The stack's transmission of base motion to top motion is measured in vacuum and compared with 3-D finite-element models. In one tested configuration, at 100 Hz, horizontal transmission is 10^{-7}, vertical transmission is 3 times 10^{-6}, and the cross-coupling terms are between these values. A length detection scheme using RF phase modulated light and synchronous detection is developed for Fabry -Perot arm power-recycled Michelson interferometer GW detectors. This scheme uses an external Mach-Zehnder interferometer to measure the GW signal, and a frequency-shifted subcarrier to measure ancillary interferometer degrees of freedom. Use of the Mach-Zehnder allows rejection of laser source amplitude noise from the output, as well as the ability to exploit well-balanced Fabry-Perot arms to reject frequency noise from the output. A long baseline GW detector using these techniques should meet the LIGO initial goal sensitivity to GW strain of h_{rm RMS} = 10^ {-21} at 100 Hz. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-1307. Ph. 617 -253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.).
Dooley, Katherine L; Arain, Muzammil A; Feldbaum, David; Frolov, Valery V; Heintze, Matthew; Hoak, Daniel; Khazanov, Efim A; Lucianetti, Antonio; Martin, Rodica M; Mueller, Guido; Palashov, Oleg; Quetschke, Volker; Reitze, David H; Savage, R L; Tanner, D B; Williams, Luke F; Wu, Wan
2012-03-01
We present the design and performance of the LIGO Input Optics subsystem as implemented for the sixth science run of the LIGO interferometers. The Initial LIGO Input Optics experienced thermal side effects when operating with 7 W input power. We designed, built, and implemented improved versions of the Input Optics for Enhanced LIGO, an incremental upgrade to the Initial LIGO interferometers, designed to run with 30 W input power. At four times the power of Initial LIGO, the Enhanced LIGO Input Optics demonstrated improved performance including better optical isolation, less thermal drift, minimal thermal lensing, and higher optical efficiency. The success of the Input Optics design fosters confidence for its ability to perform well in Advanced LIGO.
Tackling excess noise from bilinear and nonlinear couplings in gravitational-wave interferometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bose, Sukanta; Hall, Bernard; Mazumder, Nairwita; Dhurandhar, Sanjeev; Gupta, Anuradha; Lundgren, Andrew
2016-05-01
We describe a tool we improved to detect excess noise in the gravitational wave (GW) channel arising from its bilinear or nonlinear coupling with fluctuations of various components of a GW interferometer and its environment. We also describe a higher-order statistics tool we developed to characterize these couplings, e.g., by unraveling the frequencies of the fluctuations contributing to such noise, and demonstrate its utility by applying it to understand nonlinear couplings in Advanced LIGO engineering data. Once such noise is detected, it is highly desirable to remove it or correct for it. Such action in the past has been shown to improve the sensitivity of the instrument in searches of astrophysical signals. If this is not possible, then steps must be taken to mitigate its influence, e.g., by characterizing its effect on astrophysical searches. We illustrate this through a study of the effect of transient sine-Gaussian noise artifacts on a compact binary coalescence template bank.
Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blair, D. G.; Howell, E. J.; Ju, L.; Zhao, C.
2012-02-01
Part I. An Introduction to Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Detectors: 1. Gravitational waves D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao and E. J. Howell; 2. Sources of gravitational waves D. G. Blair and E. J. Howell; 3. Gravitational wave detectors D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao, H. Miao, E. J. Howell, and P. Barriga; 4. Gravitational wave data analysis B. S. Sathyaprakash and B. F. Schutz; 5. Network analysis L. Wen and B. F. Schutz; Part II. Current Laser Interferometer Detectors: Three Case Studies: 6. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory P. Fritschel; 7. The VIRGO detector S. Braccini; 8. GEO 600 H. Lück and H. Grote; Part III. Technology for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors: 9. Lasers for high optical power interferometers B. Willke and M. Frede; 10. Thermal noise, suspensions and test masses L. Ju, G. Harry and B. Lee; 11. Vibration isolation: Part 1. Seismic isolation for advanced LIGO B. Lantz; Part 2. Passive isolation J-C. Dumas; 12. Interferometer sensing and control P. Barriga; 13. Stabilizing interferometers against high optical power effects C. Zhao, L. Ju, S. Gras and D. G. Blair; Part IV. Technology for Third Generation Gravitational Wave Detectors: 14. Cryogenic interferometers J. Degallaix; 15. Quantum theory of laser-interferometer GW detectors H. Miao and Y. Chen; 16. ET. A third generation observatory M. Punturo and H. Lück; Index.
Kokeyama, Keiko; Sato, Shuichi; Nishizawa, Atsushi; Kawamura, Seiji; Chen Yanbei; Sugamoto, Akio
2009-10-23
The displacement- and frequency-noise-free interferometer (DFI) is a multiple laser interferometer array for gravitational-wave detection free from both the displacement noise of optics and laser frequency noise. So far, partial experimental demonstrations of the DFI have been done in 2D table top experiments. In this Letter, we report the complete demonstration of a 3D DFI. The DFI consists of four Mach-Zehnder interferometers with four mirrors and two beam splitters The attained maximum suppression of the displacement noise of both mirrors and beam splitters was 40 dB at about 50 MHz. The nonvanishing DFI response to a gravitational wave was successfully confirmed using multiple electro-optic modulators and computing methods.
Ando, M; Arai, K; Takahashi, R; Heinzel, G; Kawamura, S; Tatsumi, D; Kanda, N; Tagoshi, H; Araya, A; Asada, H; Aso, Y; Barton, M A; Fujimoto, M K; Fukushima, M; Futamase, T; Hayama, K; Horikoshi, G; Ishizuka, H; Kamikubota, N; Kawabe, K; Kawashima, N; Kobayashi, Y; Kojima, Y; Kondo, K; Kozai, Y; Kuroda, K; Matsuda, N; Mio, N; Miura, K; Miyakawa, O; Miyama, S M; Miyoki, S; Moriwaki, S; Musha, M; Nagano, S; Nakagawa, K; Nakamura, T; Nakao, K; Numata, K; Ogawa, Y; Ohashi, M; Ohishi, N; Okutomi, S; Oohara, K; Otsuka, S; Saito, Y; Sasaki, M; Sato, S; Sekiya, A; Shibata, M; Somiya, K; Suzuki, T; Takamori, A; Tanaka, T; Taniguchi, S; Telada, S; Tochikubo, K; Tomaru, T; Tsubono, K; Tsuda, N; Uchiyama, T; Ueda, A; Ueda, K; Waseda, K; Watanabe, Y; Yakura, H; Yamamoto, K; Yamazaki, T
2001-04-30
TAMA300, an interferometric gravitational-wave detector with 300-m baseline length, has been developed and operated with sufficient sensitivity to detect gravitational-wave events within our galaxy and sufficient stability for observations; the interferometer was operated for over 10 hours stably and continuously. With a strain-equivalent noise level of h approximately 5x10(-21)/sqrt[Hz], a signal-to-noise ratio of 30 is expected for gravitational waves generated by a coalescence of 1.4M-1.4M binary neutron stars at 10 kpc distance. We evaluated the stability of the detector sensitivity with a 2-week data-taking run, collecting 160 hours of data to be analyzed in the search for gravitational waves.
Thrane, Eric; Kandhasamy, Shivaraj; Dorsher, Steven; Mandic, Vuk; Prestegard, Tanner; Ott, Christian D.; Anderson, Warren G.; Christensen, Nelson L.; Coughlin, Michael W.; Giampanis, Stefanos; Mytidis, Antonis; Whiting, Bernard; Raffai, Peter
2011-04-15
Searches for gravitational waves (GWs) traditionally focus on persistent sources (e.g., pulsars or the stochastic background) or on transients sources (e.g., compact binary inspirals or core-collapse supernovae), which last for time scales of milliseconds to seconds. We explore the possibility of long GW transients with unknown waveforms lasting from many seconds to weeks. We propose a novel analysis technique to bridge the gap between short O(s)''burst'' analyses and persistent stochastic analyses. Our technique utilizes frequency-time maps of GW strain cross power between two spatially separated terrestrial GW detectors. The application of our cross power statistic to searches for GW transients is framed as a pattern recognition problem, and we discuss several pattern-recognition techniques. We demonstrate these techniques by recovering simulated GW signals in simulated detector noise. We also recover environmental noise artifacts, thereby demonstrating a novel technique for the identification of such artifacts in GW interferometers. We compare the efficiency of this framework to other techniques such as matched filtering.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levin, Yuri
2012-12-01
In gravitational-wave interferometers, test masses are suspended on thin fibers which experience considerable tension stress. Sudden microscopic stress release in a suspension fiber, which I call a “creep event,” would excite motion of the test mass that would be coupled to the interferometer’s readout. The random test-mass motion due to a time sequence of creep events is referred to as “creep noise.” In this paper I present an elastodynamic calculation for the test-mass motion due to a creep event. I show that within a simple suspension model, the main coupling to the optical readout occurs via a combination of a “dc” horizontal displacement of the test mass and excitation of the violin and pendulum modes, and not, as was thought previously, via lengthening of the fiber. When the creep events occur sufficiently frequently and their statistics is time independent, the creep noise can be well approximated by a stationary Gaussian random process. I derive the functional form of the creep noise spectral density in this limit, with the restrictive assumption that the creep events are statistically independent from each other.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seto, Naoki
2015-01-01
We analytically discuss probability distribution functions (PDFs) for inclinations of merging compact binaries whose gravitational waves are coherently detected by a network of ground-based interferometers. These PDFs would be useful for studying the possibility of (1) simultaneously detecting electromagnetic signals (such as gamma-ray bursts) associated with binary mergers and (2) statistically constraining the related theoretical models using actual observational data from multi-messenger astronomy. Our approach is similar to Schutz (2011), but we explicitly include the dependence of the polarization angles of the binaries, based on the concise formulation given in Cutler & Flanagan (1994). We find that the overall profiles of the PDFs are similar for any network of second-generation detectors (Advanced-LIGO, Advanced-Virgo, KAGRA and LIGO-India). For example, 5.1 per cent of detected binaries would have inclination angle less than 10° with at most 0.1 per cent differences between the potential networks. A perturbative expression is also provided for generating the PDFs with a small number of parameters given by directional averages of the quantity ɛ that characterizes the asymmetry of network sensitivities to two incoming orthogonal polarization modes.
Low frequency gravitational wave detection with ground-based atom interferometer arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaibi, W.; Geiger, R.; Canuel, B.; Bertoldi, A.; Landragin, A.; Bouyer, P.
2016-01-01
We propose a new detection strategy for gravitational waves (GWs) below a few hertz based on a correlated array of atom interferometers (AIs). Our proposal allows us to reduce the Newtonian noise (NN), which limits all ground based GW detectors below a few hertz, including previous atom interferometry-based concepts. Using an array of long baseline AI gradiometers yields several estimations of the NN, whose effect can thus be reduced via statistical averaging. Considering the km baseline of current optical detectors, a NN rejection of a factor of 2 could be achieved and tested with existing AI array geometries. Exploiting the correlation properties of the gravity acceleration noise, we show that a tenfold or more NN rejection is possible with a dedicated configuration. Considering a conservative NN model and the current developments in cold atom technology, we show that strain sensitivities below 1 ×10-19/√{Hz } in the 0.3 -3 Hz frequency band can be within reach, with a peak sensitivity of 3 ×10-23/√{Hz } at 2 Hz . Our proposed configuration could extend the observation window of current detectors by a decade and fill the gap between ground-based and space-based instruments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pustovoyt, V. I.
2016-07-01
In this paper we describe an observational method for determining black holes masses. The study shows that the knowledge of the recorded low-frequency gravitational waves and the period from the beginning of registration till the moment of black holes collapse is sufficient and even preferable in determining the possible values of collapsing black holes masses. The reason for this is that the proportion of the period in the measured interval containing relativistic corrections (i.e. those ones in which the black hole speed is comparable to the speed of light), is smaller if the observed and measured time interval is longer. The values of black holes masses and the measured time interval, obtained as a result of the first observations, according to this model are in a very good agreement.We examine the problem of mirror heating in Fabry-Perot cavity of Michelson interferometer, by incident laser radiation, and we conclude that the problem of heat removal can be solved by a different approach, without use of multilayer reflective openings. As an alternative approach to the creation of highly reflective structures, we suggest using a spatially extended structure with a sinusoidal variation of the refractive index. We consider some of the possible technological methods for producing such structures based on heterogeneous media.The article describes the effects of the incident laser radiation exposure on the periodic structure, and it shows that the volume ponderomotive force may lead to a mirror polarization due to the radiation, and consequently, to appearance of an additional mechanical connection of the mirror with the surrounding mirror suspension design. The article examines the impact of the surface ponderomotive forces on the media boundary with different dielectric permeability and it shows that pressure spatial variables arising at the same time lead to deformation of the media layers, and the deformation and pressure values depend on the difference in the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouyer, P.
2015-12-01
Since its first demonstration in 1991, Atomic Interferometry (AI) has shown to be an extremely performing probe of inertial forces. More recently, AI has revealed sensitivities to acceleration or rotation competing with or even beating state-of-the art sensors based on other technologies. The high stability and accuracy of AI sensors relying on cold atoms is at the basis of several applications ranging from fundamental physics (e.g. tests of general relativity and measurements of fundamental constants), geophysics (gravimetry, gradiometry) and inertial navigation. We are currently building a large scale matter-wave detector which will open new applications in geoscience and fundamental physics. In contrast to standard AI based sensors, our matter-wave laser interferometer gravitation antenna (MIGA) exploits the superb seismic environment of a low noise underground laboratory. This new infrastructure is embedded into the LSBB underground laboratory, in France, ideally located away from major anthropogenic disturbances and benefitting from very low background noise. MIGA combines atom and laser interferometry techniques, manipulating an array of atomic ensembles distributed along the antenna to simultanously read out seismic effects, inertial effects and eventually the passage of a gravity wave. The first version uses a set of three atomic sensors placed along an optical cavity. The spatial resolution obtained with this configuration will enable the separation of the seismic, inertial and GW contributions. This technique will bring unprecedented sensitivities to gravity gradients variations and open new perspectives for sub Hertz gravity wave and geodesic detection. MIGA will provide measurements of gravity gradients variations limited only by the AI shot noise, which will allow sensitivities of about 10-13 s-2Hz-1/2@ 2Hz. This instrument will then be capable to spatially resolve 1 m3 of water a distances of about 100 m, which opens important potential applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitryk, Shawn J.
2012-06-01
The existence of gravitational waves was theorized in 1916 by Albert Einstein in accordance with the linearized theory of general relativity. Most experiments and observations to date have supported general relativity, but now, nearly 100 years later, the scientific community has yet devise a method to directly measure gravitational radiation. With the first attempts towards a gravitational wave measurement in the 1960s, many methods have been proposed and tested since then, all failing thus far to provide a positive detection. The most promising gravitational radiation detection method is through the use of a space-based laser interferometer and with the advancement of modern technologies, these space-based gravitational wave measurements will eventually provide important scientific data to physics, astro-physics, and astronomy communities. The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is one such space-based laser interferometer. LISA's proposed design objective is to measure gravitational radiation in the frequency range from 30 microHz to 1 Hz using a modified Michelson interferometer. The interferometer arms are 5 Gm in length measured between each of the 3 spacecraft in the interferometer constellation. The differential arm-length will be measured to an accuracy of 18 pm/ Hz resulting in a baseline strain sensitivity of 3.6 x 10 --21 / Hz . Unfortunately, the dynamics of the spacecraft orbits complicate the differential arm-length measurements. The arms of the interferometer change in length resulting in time-dependent, unequal arm-lengths and laser Doppler shifts. Thus, to cancel the laser noise, laser beatnotes are formed between lasers on separate SC and, using these one-way laser phase measurements, one can reconstruct an equal-arm interferometer in post-processing. This is commonly referred to as time-delay interferometry (TDI) and can be exploited to cancel the laser phase noise and extract the gravitational wave (GW) induced arm-length strain. The
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Del Pozzo, Walter
2012-08-01
The advanced worldwide network of gravitational waves (GW) observatories is scheduled to begin operations within the current decade. Thanks to their improved sensitivity, they promise to yield a number of detections and thus to open new observational windows for astronomy and astrophysics. Among the scientific goals that should be achieved, there is the independent measurement of the value of the cosmological parameters, hence an independent test of the current cosmological paradigm. Because of the importance of such a task, a number of studies have evaluated the capabilities of GW telescopes in this respect. However, since GW do not yield information about the source redshift, different groups have made different assumptions regarding the means through which the GW redshift can be obtained. These different assumptions imply also different methodologies to solve this inference problem. This work presents a formalism based on Bayesian inference developed to facilitate the inclusion of all assumptions and prior information about a GW source within a single data analysis framework. This approach guarantees the minimization of information loss and the possibility of including naturally event-specific knowledge (such as the sky position for a gamma ray burst-GW coincident observation) in the analysis. The workings of the method are applied to a specific example, loosely designed along the lines of the method proposed by Schutz in 1986, in which one uses information from wide-field galaxy surveys as prior information for the location of a GW source. I show that combining the results from few tens of observations from a network of advanced interferometers will constrain the Hubble constant H0 to an accuracy of ˜4%-5% at 95% confidence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caprini, Chiara; Hindmarsh, Mark; Huber, Stephan; Konstandin, Thomas; Kozaczuk, Jonathan; Nardini, Germano; No, Jose Miguel; Petiteau, Antoine; Schwaller, Pedro; Servant, Géraldine; Weir, David J.
2016-04-01
We investigate the potential for the eLISA space-based interferometer to detect the stochastic gravitational wave background produced by strong first-order cosmological phase transitions. We discuss the resulting contributions from bubble collisions, magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, and sound waves to the stochastic background, and estimate the total corresponding signal predicted in gravitational waves. The projected sensitivity of eLISA to cosmological phase transitions is computed in a model-independent way for various detector designs and configurations. By applying these results to several specific models, we demonstrate that eLISA is able to probe many well-motivated scenarios beyond the Standard Model of particle physics predicting strong first-order cosmological phase transitions in the early Universe.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M. C.; Aston, S. M.; Blackburn, L.; Cannizzo, J.
2012-01-01
A stochastic background of gravitational waves is expected to arise from a superposition of many incoherent sources of gravitational waves, of either cosmological or astrophysical origin. This background is a target for the current generation of ground-based detectors. In this article we present the first joint search for a stochastic background using data from the LIGO and Virgo interferometers. In a frequency band of 600-1000 Hz, we obtained a 95% upper limit on the amplitude of omega(sub GW)(f) = omega(sub 3) (f/900Hz)3, of omega(sub 3) < 0.33, assuming a value of the Hubble parameter of h(sub 100) = 0.72. These new limits are a factor of seven better than the previous best in this frequency band.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rankins, Brooke; Cavagliá, Marco
2010-10-01
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) is an endeavor to directly confirm the existence of gravitational waves, funded by the National Science Foundation. As a publicly funded research project, it is both within its directive and within its best interest to educate and inform the public at large of its efforts. The Education and Public Outreach (EPO) group within LIGO, under the direction of Marco Cavaglià, has developed an interactive exhibit to educate, explain and showcase LIGO to the general public. The exhibit, entitled ``Astronomy's New Messengers,'' debuted at the World Science Festival in New York City, and includes features to explain gravitational waves and their possible sources, an interferometer, the space-time fabric model, and the difficulties in identifying a gravitational wave. The exhibit visitors were asked to complete a survey about their experience at ``Astronomy's New Messengers,'' and the presentation will report the survey results, and explore the full exhibit's reception by the general public.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Folkner, W. M.; Bender, P. L.; Stebbins, R. T.
1998-01-01
This document presents the results of a design feasibility study for LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna). The goal of LISA is to detect and study low-frequency astrophysical gravitational radiation from strongly relativistic regions. Astrophysical sources potentially visible to LISA include extra-galactic massive black hole binaries at cosmological distances, binary systems composed of a compact star and a massive black hole, galactic neutron star-black hole binaries, and background radiation from the Big Bang. The LISA mission will comprise three spacecraft located five million kilometers apart forming an equilateral triangle in an Earth-trailing orbit. Fluctuations in separation between shielded test masses located within each spacecraft will be determined by optical interferometry which determines the phase shift of laser light transmitted between the test masses.
Subtraction of correlated noise in global networks of gravitational-wave interferometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coughlin, Michael W.; Christensen, Nelson L.; De Rosa, Rosario; Fiori, Irene; Gołkowski, Mark; Guidry, Melissa; Harms, Jan; Kubisz, Jerzy; Kulak, Andrzej; Mlynarczyk, Janusz; Paoletti, Federico; Thrane, Eric
2016-11-01
The recent discovery of merging black holes suggests that a stochastic gravitational-wave background is within reach of the advanced detector network operating at design sensitivity. However, correlated magnetic noise from Schumann resonances threatens to contaminate observation of a stochastic background. In this paper, we report on the first effort to eliminate intercontinental correlated noise from Schumann resonances using Wiener filtering. Using magnetometers as proxies for gravitational-wave detectors, we demonstrate as much as a factor of two reduction in the coherence between magnetometers on different continents. While much work remains to be done, our results constitute a proof-of-principle and motivate follow-up studies with a dedicated array of magnetometers.
A cryogenic payload for the 3rd generation of gravitational wave interferometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basti, F.; Frasconi, F.; Majorana, E.; Naticchioni, L.; Perciballi, M.; Puppo, P.; Rapagnani, P.; Ricci, F.
2011-09-01
Thermal noise is a limiting factor of interferometric gravitational wave detectors sensitivity in the low and intermediate frequency range. A concrete possibility for beating this limit, is represented by the development of a cryogenic last stage suspension to be integrated within a complex seismic isolation system. To this purpose a last stage payload prototype has been designed and built. It has been suspended within a dedicated cryostat with the same technique adopted for the VIRGO payload and making use of two thin wires in a cradle configuration to support a mirror made of silicon. The cooling strategy, the thermal behaviour and the system mechanical response have been deeply studied while a measurement characterization campaign has been performed both at room temperature and at cryogenic temperature. In this paper, the preliminary results obtained together with the first cooling down of the 300 kg overall mass payload at about 25 K, are reported. This study will play a driving role in the design of the third generation gravitational wave detector.
The Detection of Gravitational Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blair, David G.
2005-10-01
Part I. An Introduction to Gravitational Waves and Methods for their Detection: 1. Gravitational waves in general relativity D. G. Blair; 2. Sources of gravitational waves D. G. Blair; 3. Gravitational wave detectors D. G. Blair; Part II. Gravitational Wave Detectors: 4. Resonant-bar detectors D. G. Blair; 5. Gravity wave dewars W. O. Hamilton; 6. Internal friction in high Q materials J. Ferreirinko; 7. Motion amplifiers and passive transducers J. P. Richard; 8. Parametric transducers P. J. Veitch; 9. Detection of continuous waves K. Tsubono; 10. Data analysis and algorithms for gravitational wave-antennas G. V. Paalottino; Part III. Laser Interferometer Antennas: 11. A Michelson interferometer using delay lines W. Winkler; 12. Fabry-Perot cavity gravity-wave detectors R. W. P. Drever; 13. The stabilisation of lasers for interferometric gravitational wave detectors J. Hough; 14. Vibration isolation for the test masses in interferometric gravitational wave detectors N. A. Robertson; 15. Advanced techniques A. Brillet; 16. Data processing, analysis and storage for interferometric antennas B. F. Schutz; 17. Gravitational wave detection at low and very low frequencies R. W. Hellings.
Gravitational wave detection in the laboratory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Y. T.; Kawashima, N.; Othman, M.; Chia, S. P.; Karim, M.; Sanugi, B.; Lim, B. H.; Chong, K. K.
1998-09-01
After reviewing the research work of gravitational wave detection in the laboratory, particularly long base laser interferometer detectors, the authors report on the recent progress of gravitational wave detection using laser interferometer (Tianyin-100) in Malaysia. The authors also outline the brief plan for Tianyin-500 in the future as a full-scale observatory competitive to other projects such as Ligo, Geo600, etc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D. V.; Andersen, M.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Ashton, G.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, Sukanta; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Branco, V.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Bustillo, J. Calderón; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Celerier, C.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Colombini, M.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Canton, T. Dal; Damjanic, M. D.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. Á.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gleason, J. R.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez, J.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hoelscher-Obermaier, J.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M. B.; Jang, H.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karlen, J. L.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelecsenyi, N.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kerrigan, J.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N. G.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J. T.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, J. P.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Lodhia, D.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; Macdonald, E. P.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Madden-Fong, D. X.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mangini, N. M.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nagy, M. F.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, M.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Okounkova, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, R.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W. E.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C. T.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patrick, Z.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J. H.; Poggiani, R.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rodger, A. S.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Sassolas, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffery, P.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Stebbins, J.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van den Broeck, C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vansuch, G.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, M.; Wade, L. E.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, K. J.; Williams, L.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.
2016-02-01
We report results of a wideband search for periodic gravitational waves from isolated neutron stars within the Orion spur towards both the inner and outer regions of our Galaxy. As gravitational waves interact very weakly with matter, the search is unimpeded by dust and concentrations of stars. One search disk (A) is 6.87° in diameter and centered on 2 0h1 0m54.7 1s+3 3 ° 3 3'25.2 9'' , and the other (B) is 7.45° in diameter and centered on 8h3 5m20.6 1s-4 6 ° 4 9'25.15 1''. We explored the frequency range of 50-1500 Hz and frequency derivative from 0 to -5 ×10-9 Hz /s . A multistage, loosely coherent search program allowed probing more deeply than before in these two regions, while increasing coherence length with every stage. Rigorous follow-up parameters have winnowed the initial coincidence set to only 70 candidates, to be examined manually. None of those 70 candidates proved to be consistent with an isolated gravitational-wave emitter, and 95% confidence level upper limits were placed on continuous-wave strain amplitudes. Near 169 Hz we achieve our lowest 95% C.L. upper limit on the worst-case linearly polarized strain amplitude h0 of 6.3 ×10-25, while at the high end of our frequency range we achieve a worst-case upper limit of 3.4 ×10-24 for all polarizations and sky locations.
Gravitational waves from gravitational collapse
Fryer, Christopher L; New, Kimberly C
2008-01-01
Gravitational wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.
Gravitational Wave Detection with Atom Interferometry
Dimopoulos, Savas; Graham, Peter W.; Hogan, Jason M.; Kasevich, Mark A.; Rajendran, Surjeet; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2008-01-23
We propose two distinct atom interferometer gravitational wave detectors, one terrestrial and another satellite-based, utilizing the core technology of the Stanford 10m atom interferometer presently under construction. The terrestrial experiment can operate with strain sensitivity {approx} 10{sup -19}/{radical}Hz in the 1 Hz-10 Hz band, inaccessible to LIGO, and can detect gravitational waves from solar mass binaries out to megaparsec distances. The satellite experiment probes the same frequency spectrum as LISA with better strain sensitivity {approx} 10{sup -20}/{radical}Hz. Each configuration compares two widely separated atom interferometers run using common lasers. The effect of the gravitational waves on the propagating laser field produces the main effect in this configuration and enables a large enhancement in the gravitational wave signal while significantly suppressing many backgrounds. The use of ballistic atoms (instead of mirrors) as inertial test masses improves systematics coming from vibrations and acceleration noise, and reduces spacecraft control requirements.
Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.
2014-11-15
This paper describes the design and performance of an extremely low-noise differential transimpedance amplifier, which takes its two inputs from separate photodiodes. The amplifier was planned to serve as the front-end electronics for a highly sensitive shadow-displacement sensing system, aimed at detecting very low-level “Violin-Mode” (VM) oscillations in 0.4 mm diameter by 600 mm long fused-silica suspension fibres. Four such highly tensioned fibres support the 40 kg test-masses/mirrors of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory interferometers. This novel design of amplifier incorporates features which prevent “noise-gain peaking” arising from large area photodiode (and cable) capacitances, and which also usefully separate the DC and AC photocurrents coming from the photodiodes. In consequence, the differential amplifier was able to generate straightforwardly two DC outputs, one per photodiode, as well as a single high-gain output for monitoring the VM oscillations—this output being derived from the difference of the photodiodes’ two, naturally anti-phase, AC photocurrents. Following a displacement calibration, the amplifier's final VM signal output was found to have an AC displacement responsivity at 500 Hz of (9.43 ± 1.20) MV(rms) m{sup −1}(rms), and, therefore, a shot-noise limited sensitivity to such AC shadow- (i.e., fibre-) displacements of (69 ± 13) picometres/√Hz at this frequency, over a measuring span of ±0.1 mm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.
2014-11-01
This paper describes the design and performance of an extremely low-noise differential transimpedance amplifier, which takes its two inputs from separate photodiodes. The amplifier was planned to serve as the front-end electronics for a highly sensitive shadow-displacement sensing system, aimed at detecting very low-level "Violin-Mode" (VM) oscillations in 0.4 mm diameter by 600 mm long fused-silica suspension fibres. Four such highly tensioned fibres support the 40 kg test-masses/mirrors of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory interferometers. This novel design of amplifier incorporates features which prevent "noise-gain peaking" arising from large area photodiode (and cable) capacitances, and which also usefully separate the DC and AC photocurrents coming from the photodiodes. In consequence, the differential amplifier was able to generate straightforwardly two DC outputs, one per photodiode, as well as a single high-gain output for monitoring the VM oscillations—this output being derived from the difference of the photodiodes' two, naturally anti-phase, AC photocurrents. Following a displacement calibration, the amplifier's final VM signal output was found to have an AC displacement responsivity at 500 Hz of (9.43 ± 1.20) MV(rms) m-1(rms), and, therefore, a shot-noise limited sensitivity to such AC shadow- (i.e., fibre-) displacements of (69 ± 13) picometres/√Hz at this frequency, over a measuring span of ±0.1 mm.
Lockerbie, N A; Tokmakov, K V
2014-11-01
This paper describes the design and performance of an extremely low-noise differential transimpedance amplifier, which takes its two inputs from separate photodiodes. The amplifier was planned to serve as the front-end electronics for a highly sensitive shadow-displacement sensing system, aimed at detecting very low-level "Violin-Mode" (VM) oscillations in 0.4 mm diameter by 600 mm long fused-silica suspension fibres. Four such highly tensioned fibres support the 40 kg test-masses/mirrors of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory interferometers. This novel design of amplifier incorporates features which prevent "noise-gain peaking" arising from large area photodiode (and cable) capacitances, and which also usefully separate the DC and AC photocurrents coming from the photodiodes. In consequence, the differential amplifier was able to generate straightforwardly two DC outputs, one per photodiode, as well as a single high-gain output for monitoring the VM oscillations-this output being derived from the difference of the photodiodes' two, naturally anti-phase, AC photocurrents. Following a displacement calibration, the amplifier's final VM signal output was found to have an AC displacement responsivity at 500 Hz of (9.43 ± 1.20) MV(rms) m(-1)(rms), and, therefore, a shot-noise limited sensitivity to such AC shadow- (i.e., fibre-) displacements of (69 ± 13) picometres/√Hz at this frequency, over a measuring span of ±0.1 mm. PMID:25430131
Lockerbie, N A; Tokmakov, K V
2014-11-01
This paper describes the design and performance of an extremely low-noise differential transimpedance amplifier, which takes its two inputs from separate photodiodes. The amplifier was planned to serve as the front-end electronics for a highly sensitive shadow-displacement sensing system, aimed at detecting very low-level "Violin-Mode" (VM) oscillations in 0.4 mm diameter by 600 mm long fused-silica suspension fibres. Four such highly tensioned fibres support the 40 kg test-masses/mirrors of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory interferometers. This novel design of amplifier incorporates features which prevent "noise-gain peaking" arising from large area photodiode (and cable) capacitances, and which also usefully separate the DC and AC photocurrents coming from the photodiodes. In consequence, the differential amplifier was able to generate straightforwardly two DC outputs, one per photodiode, as well as a single high-gain output for monitoring the VM oscillations-this output being derived from the difference of the photodiodes' two, naturally anti-phase, AC photocurrents. Following a displacement calibration, the amplifier's final VM signal output was found to have an AC displacement responsivity at 500 Hz of (9.43 ± 1.20) MV(rms) m(-1)(rms), and, therefore, a shot-noise limited sensitivity to such AC shadow- (i.e., fibre-) displacements of (69 ± 13) picometres/√Hz at this frequency, over a measuring span of ±0.1 mm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamanini, Nicola; Caprini, Chiara; Barausse, Enrico; Sesana, Alberto; Klein, Antoine; Petiteau, Antoine
2016-04-01
We investigate the capability of various configurations of the space interferometer eLISA to probe the late-time background expansion of the universe using gravitational wave standard sirens. We simulate catalogues of standard sirens composed by massive black hole binaries whose gravitational radiation is detectable by eLISA, and which are likely to produce an electromagnetic counterpart observable by future surveys. The main issue for the identification of a counterpart resides in the capability of obtaining an accurate enough sky localisation with eLISA. This seriously challenges the capability of four-link (2 arm) configurations to successfully constrain the cosmological parameters. Conversely, six-link (3 arm) configurations have the potential to provide a test of the expansion of the universe up to z ~ 8 which is complementary to other cosmological probes based on electromagnetic observations only. In particular, in the most favourable scenarios, they can provide a significant constraint on H0 at the level of 0.5%. Furthermore, (ΩM, ΩΛ) can be constrained to a level competitive with present SNIa results. On the other hand, the lack of massive black hole binary standard sirens at low redshift allows to constrain dark energy only at the level of few percent.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fontana, Giorgio
2005-02-01
There is only one experimental proof that gravitational waves exist. With such a limitation, it may seem premature to suggest the possibility that gravitational waves can became a preferred space propulsion technique. The present understanding of the problem indicates that this is not the case. The emission of gravitational waves from astrophysical sources has been confirmed by observation, the respective detection at large distance from the source is difficult and actually we have no confirmation of a successful detection. Therefore the required preliminary discovery has been already made. This opinion is enforced by many different proposals for building the required powerful gravitational wave generators that have recently appeared in the literature and discussed at conferences. It is no longer reasonable to wait for additional confirmation of the existence of gravitational waves to start a program for building generators and testing their possible application to space travel. A vast literature shows that gravitational waves can be employed for space propulsion. Gravitational wave rockets have been proposed, non-linearity of Einstein equations allows the conversion of gravitational waves to a static gravitational field and ``artificial gravity assist'' may become a new way of travelling in space-time. Different approaches to gravitational wave propulsion are reviewed and compared. Gravitational wave propulsion is also compared to traditional rocket propulsion and an undeniable advantage can be demonstrated in terms of efficiency and performance. Testing the predictions will require gravitational wave generators with high power and wavelength short enough for producing high energy densities. Detectors designed for the specific application must be developed, taking into account that non-linearity effects are expected. The study and development of Gravitational wave propulsion is a very challenging endeavor, involving the most complex theories, sophisticated
Gravitational-wave stochastic background from cosmic strings.
Siemens, Xavier; Mandic, Vuk; Creighton, Jolien
2007-03-16
We consider the stochastic background of gravitational waves produced by a network of cosmic strings and assess their accessibility to current and planned gravitational wave detectors, as well as to big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), cosmic microwave background (CMB), and pulsar timing constraints. We find that current data from interferometric gravitational wave detectors, such as Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), are sensitive to areas of parameter space of cosmic string models complementary to those accessible to pulsar, BBN, and CMB bounds. Future more sensitive LIGO runs and interferometers such as Advanced LIGO and Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be able to explore substantial parts of the parameter space. PMID:17501038
Comment on ``Atomic gravitational wave interferometric sensor''
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bender, Peter L.
2011-07-01
The use of laser interferometers for detecting and studying gravitational-wave signals from many types of astronomical sources is being pursued actively by a number of groups in different countries. However, it has been suggested recently that cooled atom clouds in atom interferometers could be used to replace the test masses in space-based gravitational-wave detectors and the end mirrors in ground-based detectors [S. Dimopoulos, P. W. Graham, J. M. Hogan, M. A. Kasevich, and S. Rajendran, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 78, 122002 (2008).10.1103/PhysRevD.78.122002]. Some new error sources that apparently have not been included in proposals of atom interferometer gravitational-wave detectors will be discussed in this comment. They are based on additional effects of aberrations in the laser wave fronts that interact with the atom clouds.
Gravitational waves from inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guzzetti, M. C.; Bartolo, N.; Liguori, M.; Matarrese, S.
2016-09-01
The production of a stochastic background of gravitational waves is a fundamental prediction of any cosmological inflationary model. The features of such a signal encode unique information about the physics of the Early Universe and beyond, thus representing an exciting, powerful window on the origin and evolution of the Universe. We review the main mechanisms of gravitational-wave production, ranging from quantum fluctuations of the gravitational field to other mechanisms that can take place during or after inflation. These include e.g. gravitational waves generated as a consequence of extra particle production during inflation, or during the (p)reheating phase. Gravitational waves produced in inflation scenarios based on modified gravity theories and second-order gravitational waves are also considered. For each analyzed case, the expected power spectrum is given. We discuss the discriminating power among different models, associated with the validity/violation of the standard consistency relation between tensor-to-scalar ratio r and tensor spectral index nT. In light of the prospects for (directly/indirectly) detecting primordial gravitational waves, we give the expected present-day gravitational radiation spectral energy-density, highlighting the main characteristics imprinted by the cosmic thermal history, and we outline the signatures left by gravitational waves on the Cosmic Microwave Background and some imprints in the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe. Finally, current bounds and prospects of detection for inflationary gravitational waves are summarized.
Primordial gravitational waves and cosmology.
Krauss, Lawrence M; Dodelson, Scott; Meyer, Stephan
2010-05-21
The observation of primordial gravitational waves could provide a new and unique window on the earliest moments in the history of the universe and on possible new physics at energies many orders of magnitude beyond those accessible at particle accelerators. Such waves might be detectable soon, in current or planned satellite experiments that will probe for characteristic imprints in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background, or later with direct space-based interferometers. A positive detection could provide definitive evidence for inflation in the early universe and would constrain new physics from the grand unification scale to the Planck scale.
Those Elusive Gravitational Waves
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
MOSAIC, 1976
1976-01-01
The presence of gravitational waves was predicted by Einstein in his theory of General Relativity. Since then, scientists have been attempting to develop a detector sensitive enough to measure these cosmic signals. Once the presence of gravitational waves is confirmed, scientists can directly study star interiors, galaxy cores, or quasars. (MA)
The Detection of Gravitational Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braccini, Stefano; Fidecaro, Francesco
The detection of gravitational waves is challenging researchers since half a century. The relative precision required, 10^{-21}, is difficult to imagine, this is 10^{-5} the diameter of a proton over several kilometres, using masses of tens of kilograms, or picometres over millions of kilometres. A theoretical description of gravitational radiation and its effects on matter, all consequence of the general theory of relativity, is given. Then the astrophysical phenomena that are candidates of gravitational wave emission are discussed, considering also amplitudes and rates. The binary neutron star system PSR1913+16, which provided the first evidence for energy loss by gravitational radiation in 1975, is briefly discussed. Then comes a description of the experimental developments, starting with ground-based interferometers, their working principles and their most important sources of noise. The earth-wide network that is being built describes how these instruments will be used in the observation era. Several other detection techniques, such as space interferometry, pulsar timing arrays and resonant detectors, covering different bands of the gravitational wave frequency spectrum complete these lectures.
C1IV:. Gravitational Wave Data Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sathyaprakash, B. S.
2002-09-01
Resonant bar detectors are routinely searching for astronomical sources of gravitational waves and to setting upper limits on event rates. Interferometric detectors are beginning to operate at sensitivity levels good enough to set meaningful upper limits and begin astrophysical searches. With the long baseline interferometers scheduled to take data at unprecedented sensitivity levels the next few years will be a very exciting period for gravitational waves. In session C1iv there were talks focusing on gravitational wave searches (Krolak and Sintes), setting upper limits on astrophysical signals (Brady and Whelan), theoretical developments in modelling binary black holes (Iyer), testing general relativity with gravitational wave data (Will) and tools for gravitational wave data analysis (Schutz). There was also a one-hour round-table discussion on setting upper limits chaired by Andersson.
Towards Gravitational Wave Astronomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Losurdo, Giovanni
This chapter is meant to introduce the reader to the forthcoming network of second-generation interferometric detectors of gravitational waves, at a time when their construction is close to completion and there is the ambition to detect gravitational waves for the first time in the next few years and open the way to gravitational wave astronomy. The legacy of first-generation detectors is discussed before giving an overview of the technology challenges that have been faced to make advanced detectors possible. The various aspects outlined here are then discussed in more detail in the subsequent chapters of the book.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conklin, John
2016-03-01
With the expected direct detection of gravitational waves by Advanced LIGO and pulsar timing arrays in the near future, and with the recent launch of LISA Pathfinder this can arguably be called the decade of gravitational waves. Low frequency gravitational waves in the mHz range, which can only be observed from space, provide the richest science and complement high frequency observatories on the ground. A space-based observatory will improve our understanding of the formation and growth of massive black holes, create a census of compact binary systems in the Milky Way, test general relativity in extreme conditions, and enable searches for new physics. LISA, by far the most mature concept for detecting gravitational waves from space, has consistently ranked among the nation's top priority large science missions. In 2013, ESA selected the science theme ``The Gravitational Universe'' for its third large mission, L3, under the Cosmic Visions Program, with a planned launch date of 2034. NASA has decided to join with ESA on the L3 mission as a junior partner and has recently assembled a study team to provide advice on how NASA might contribute to the European-led mission. This talk will describe these efforts and the activities of the Gravitational Wave Science Interest Group and the L3 Study Team, which will lead to the first space-based gravitational wave observatory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simakov, D. A.
2014-11-01
In this article, we study a particular method of detection of chirp signals from coalescing compact binary stars—the so-called dynamical tuning, i.e., amplification of the signal via tracking of its instantaneous frequency by the tuning of a signal-recycled detector. The motion of the signal-recycling mirror, the position of which defines the tuning of the detector, causes nonstationarity of the detector. The dynamically tuned detector can be simulated in a quasistationary approximation if the mirror position, amplitude, and frequency of a chirp signal are changing slowly. A time-domain consideration developed for signal-recycled interferometers, in particular GEO 600, describes the signal and noise evolution in the more general case of a purely nonstationary detector. We prove that the shot noise from the dark port and optical losses remains white in this case. The analysis of the transient effects shows that during the perfect tracking of the chirp frequency only transients from fast amplitude changes arise because the transients from changes of the detector tuning and signal frequency completely cancel each other. The slow change of the amplitude in this case establishes a so-called virtually stationary detection, meaning the signal fields at the detector hold their stationary values at each instance of time, corresponding to the instantaneous parameters of the gravitational wave and of the detector. The signal-to-noise-ratio gain from the implementation of dynamical tuning, calculated in this paper, is ˜17 for a shot noise-limited GEO 600-like detector and ˜7 for a detector with both shot and displacement noise.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
seyithocuk; jjeherrera; eltodesukane; GrahamRounce; rloldershaw; Beaker, Dr; Sandhu, G. S.; Ophiuchi
2016-03-01
In reply to the news article on the LIGO collaboration's groundbreaking detection of gravitational waves, first predicted by Einstein 100 years ago, from two black holes colliding (pp5, 6-7 and http://ow.ly/Ylsyt).
Quantum metrology for gravitational wave astronomy.
Schnabel, Roman; Mavalvala, Nergis; McClelland, David E; Lam, Ping K
2010-11-16
Einstein's general theory of relativity predicts that accelerating mass distributions produce gravitational radiation, analogous to electromagnetic radiation from accelerating charges. These gravitational waves (GWs) have not been directly detected to date, but are expected to open a new window to the Universe once the detectors, kilometre-scale laser interferometers measuring the distance between quasi-free-falling mirrors, have achieved adequate sensitivity. Recent advances in quantum metrology may now contribute to provide the required sensitivity boost. The so-called squeezed light is able to quantum entangle the high-power laser fields in the interferometer arms, and could have a key role in the realization of GW astronomy.
Quantum metrology for gravitational wave astronomy.
Schnabel, Roman; Mavalvala, Nergis; McClelland, David E; Lam, Ping K
2010-01-01
Einstein's general theory of relativity predicts that accelerating mass distributions produce gravitational radiation, analogous to electromagnetic radiation from accelerating charges. These gravitational waves (GWs) have not been directly detected to date, but are expected to open a new window to the Universe once the detectors, kilometre-scale laser interferometers measuring the distance between quasi-free-falling mirrors, have achieved adequate sensitivity. Recent advances in quantum metrology may now contribute to provide the required sensitivity boost. The so-called squeezed light is able to quantum entangle the high-power laser fields in the interferometer arms, and could have a key role in the realization of GW astronomy. PMID:21081919
Ground-based gravitational-wave detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuroda, Kazuaki
2015-01-01
Gravitational wave is predicted by Einstein’s general relativity, which conveys the information of source objects in the universe. The detection of the gravitational wave is the direct test of the theory and will be used as new tool to investigate dynamical nature of the universe. However, the effect of the gravitational wave is too tiny to be easily detected. From the first attempt utilizing resonant antenna in the 1960s, efforts of improving antenna sensitivity were continued by applying cryogenic techniques until approaching the quantum limit of sensitivity. However, by the year 2000, resonant antenna had given the way to interferometers. Large projects involving interferometers started in the 1990s, and achieved successful operations by 2010 with an accumulated extensive number of technical inventions and improvements. In this memorial year 2015, we enter the new phase of gravitational-wave detection by the forthcoming operation of the second-generation interferometers. The main focus in this paper is on how advanced techniques have been developed step by step according to scaling the arm length of the interferometer up and the history of fighting against technical noise, thermal noise, and quantum noise is presented along with the current projects, LIGO, Virgo, GEO-HF and KAGRA.
Gravitational lens time delays and gravitational waves
Frieman, J.A. Department of Astronomy Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 ); Harari, D.D.; Surpi, G.C. )
1994-10-15
Using Fermat's principle, we analyze the effects of very long wavelength gravitational waves upon the images of a gravitationally lensed quasar. We show that the lens equation in the presence of gravity waves is equivalent to that of a lens with a different alignment between source, deflector, and observer in the absence of gravity waves. Contrary to a recent claim, we conclude that measurements of time delays in gravitational lenses cannot serve as a method to detect or constrain a stochastic background of gravitational waves of cosmological wavelengths, because the wave-induced time delay is observationally indistinguishable from an intrinsic time delay due to the lens geometry.
Gravitational Wave Physics with Binary Love Relations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolas
2016-03-01
Gravitational waves from the late inspiral of neutron star binaries encode rich information about their internal structure at supranuclear densities through their tidal deformabilities. However, extracting the individual tidal deformabilities of the components of a binary is challenging with future ground-based gravitational wave interferometers due to degeneracies between them. We overcome this difficulty by finding new, approximate universal relations between the individual tidal deformabilities that depend on the mass ratio of the two stars and are insensitive to their internal structure. Such relations have applications not only to gravitational wave astrophysics, but also to nuclear physics as they improve the measurement accuracy of tidal parameters. Moreover, the relations improve our ability to test extreme gravity and perform cosmology with gravitational waves emitted from neutron star binaries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Hyunju; Feldman, Allan
2014-06-01
The LIGO Science Education Center in Livingston, LA, provides K-12 students with 3.5-hour field trip programs that consist of watching a documentary, touring the LIGO facilities, exploring interactive science exhibits, and hands-on classroom activities with the Center’s staff. In our study we administered a pre/post-survey, which consisted of Likert-type and open-ended questions, to approximately 1,000 secondary students who visited LIGO in Spring 2013. In this paper we report on our current findings from a half-way analysis about 1) the students’ attitudes and interests about science; 2) their understanding about basic scientific concepts relevant to LIGO science, gravity, light, and sound; and 3) their understanding about the LIGO project. In comparison between pre and post-responses using a paired-samples t-test, the results showed that the field trip to LIGO had significant (p<0.05) positive impact on increasing the number of students who think that "science is fun" and that they "would want to be a scientist." In addition, they had significant (p<0.05) knowledge gain in understanding that there are frequencies of light that are not visible, and they were able to correctly name the different kinds of electromagnetic waves after the visit. In pre-test 51.5% responded that they did not even hear about LIGO and 17.8% could not explain what it was although they heard about it (as they were from the local schools). On the other hand, 86.6% students were able to explain about LIGO project in post-test. Among them, more than half of the students (59.3%) correctly described the purpose of the LIGO project. Another 9.3% recognized it as a science research center without further information about what specifying the purpose of LIGO. About 8% held misconceptions, and 7% recognized LIGO as a science learning center. The students’ learning in this field trip happened mainly by: encountering the new concept; recalling their prior knowledge and reinforcing it; and being
Seto, Naoki
2009-11-15
Gravitational waves (GWs) from cosmological double neutron star binaries (NS+NS) can be significantly demagnified by the strong gravitational lensing effect, and the proposed future missions such as the Big Bang Observer or Deci-hertz Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory might miss some of the demagnified GW signals below a detection threshold. The undetectable binaries would form a GW foreground, which might hamper detection of a very weak primordial GW signal. We discuss the outlook of this potential problem, using a simple model based on the singular isothermal sphere lens profile. Fortunately, it is expected that, for a presumable merger rate of NS+NSs, the residual foreground would be below the detection limit {omega}{sub GW,lim}{approx}10{sup -16} realized with the Big Bang Observer/Deci-hertz Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory by correlation analysis.
Gravitational waves and light cosmic strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Depies, Matthew
Gravitational wave signatures from cosmic strings are analyzed numerically. Cosmic string networks form during phase transistions in the early universe and these networks of long cosmic strings break into loops that radiate energy in the form of gravitational waves until they decay. The gravitational waves come in the form of harmonic modes from individual string loops, a "confusion noise" from galactic loops, and a stochastic background of gravitational waves from a network of loops. In this study string loops of larger size a and lower string tensions G m, (where m the mass per unit length of the string) are investigated than in previous studies. Several detectors are currently searching for gravitational waves and a space based satellite, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), is in the final stages of pre-flight. The results for large loop sizes (a = 0.1) put an upper limit of about G m < 10 -9 and indicate that gravitational waves from string loops down to G m [approximate] 10 -20 could be detectabe by LISA. The string tension is related to the energy scale of the phase transition and the Planck mass via Gm = [Special characters omitted.] , so the limits on G m set the energy scale of any phase transition L s < 10^-4.5 m pl . Our results indicate that loops may form a significant gravitational wave signal, even for string tensions too low to have larger cosmological effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mottola, Emil
2016-03-01
General Relativity receives quantum corrections relevant at macroscopic distance scales and near event horizons. These arise from the conformal scalar degree of freedom in the extended effective field theory (EFT) of gravity generated by the trace anomaly of massless quantum fields in curved space. Linearized around flat space this quantum scalar degree of freedom combines with the conformal part of the metric and predicts the existence of scalar spin-0 ``breather'' propagating gravitational waves in addition to the transverse tensor spin-2 waves of classical General Relativity. Estimates of the expected strength of scalar gravitational radiation from compact astrophysical sources are given.
Gravitational Wave Experiments - Proceedings of the First Edoardo Amaldi Conference
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coccia, E.; Pizzella, G.; Ronga, F.
1995-07-01
The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Foreword * Notes on Edoardo Amaldi's Life and Activity * PART I. INVITED LECTURES * Sources and Telescopes * Sources of Gravitational Radiation for Detectors of the 21st Century * Neutrino Telescopes * γ-Ray Bursts * Space Detectors * LISA — Laser Interferometer Space Antenna for Gravitational Wave Measurements * Search for Massive Coalescing Binaries with the Spacecraft ULYSSES * Interferometers * The LIGO Project: Progress and Prospects * The VIRGO Experiment: Status of the Art * GEO 600 — A 600-m Laser Interferometric Gravitational Wave Antenna * 300-m Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Detector (TAMA300) in Japan * Resonant Detectors * Search for Continuous Gravitational Wave from Pulsars with Resonant Detector * Operation of the ALLEGRO Detector at LSU * Preliminary Results of the New Run of Measurements with the Resonant Antenna EXPLORER * Operation of the Perth Cryogenic Resonant-Bar Gravitational Wave Detector * The NAUTILUS Experiment * Status of the AURIGA Gravitational Wave Antenna and Perspectives for the Gravitational Waves Search with Ultracryogenic Resonant Detectors * Ultralow Temperature Resonant-Mass Gravitational Radiation Detectors: Current Status of the Stanford Program * Electromechanical Transducers and Bandwidth of Resonant-Mass Gravitational-Wave Detectors * Fully Numerical Data Analysis for Resonant Gravitational Wave Detectors: Optimal Filter and Available Information * PART II. CONTRIBUTED PAPERS * Sources and Telescopes * The Local Supernova Production * Periodic Gravitational Signals from Galactic Pulsars * On a Possibility of Scalar Gravitational Wave Detection from the Binary Pulsars PSR 1913+16 * Kazan Gravitational Wave Detector “Dulkyn”: General Concept and Prospects of Construction * Hierarchical Approach to the Theory of Detection of Periodic Gravitational Radiation * Application of Gravitational Antennae for Fundamental Geophysical Problems * On
Shot noise in gravitational-wave detectors with Fabry-Perot arms.
Lyons, T T; Regehr, M W; Raab, F J
2000-12-20
Shot-noise-limited sensitivity is calculated for gravitational-wave interferometers with Fabry-Perot arms, similar to those being installed at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and the Italian-French Laser Interferometer Collaboration (VIRGO) facility. This calculation includes the effect of nonstationary shot noise that is due to phase modulation of the light. The resulting formula is experimentally verified by a test interferometer with suspended mirrors in the 40-m arms. PMID:18354690
Sources of gravitational waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schutz, Bernard F.
1989-01-01
Sources of low frequency gravitational radiation are reviewed from an astrophysical point of view. Cosmological sources include the formation of massive black holes in galactic nuclei, the capture by such holes of neutron stars, the coalescence of orbiting pairs of giant black holes, and various means of producing a stochastic background of gravitational waves in the early universe. Sources local to our Galaxy include various kinds of close binaries and coalescing binaries. Gravitational wave astronomy can provide information that no other form of observing can supply; in particular, the positive identification of a cosmological background originating in the early universe would be an event as significant as was the detection of the cosmic microwave background.
Gravitational Waves: The Evidence Mounts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wick, Gerald L.
1970-01-01
Reviews the work of Weber and his colleagues in their attempts at detecting extraterrestial gravitational waves. Coincidence events recorded by special detectors provide the evidence for the existence of gravitational waves. Bibliography. (LC)
Twin mirrors for laser interferometric gravitational-wave detectors.
Sassolas, Benoît; Benoît, Quentin; Flaminio, Raffaele; Forest, Danièle; Franc, Janyce; Galimberti, Massimo; Lacoudre, Aline; Michel, Christophe; Montorio, Jean-Luc; Morgado, Nazario; Pinard, Laurent
2011-05-01
Gravitational-wave detectors such as Virgo and the laser interferometric gravitational-wave observatory (LIGO) use a long-baseline Michelson interferometer with Fabry-Perot cavities in the arms to search for gravitational waves. The symmetry between the two Fabry-Perot cavities is crucial to reduce the interferometer's sensitivity to the laser amplitude and frequency noise. To this purpose, the transmittance of the mirrors in both cavities should be as close as possible. This paper describes the realization and the characterization of the first twin large low-loss mirrors with transmissions differing by less than 0.01%. PMID:21532671
The gravitational wave experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bertotti, B.; Ambrosini, R.; Asmar, S. W.; Brenkle, J. P.; Comoretto, G.; Giampieri, G.; Less, L.; Messeri, A.; Wahlquist, H. D.
1992-01-01
Since the optimum size of a gravitational wave detector is the wave length, interplanetary dimensions are needed for the mHz band of interest. Doppler tracking of Ulysses will provide the most sensitive attempt to date at the detection of gravitational waves in the low frequency band. The driving noise source is the fluctuations in the refractive index of interplanetary plasma. This dictates the timing of the experiment to be near solar opposition and sets the target accuracy for the fractional frequency change at 3.0 x 10 exp -14 for integration times of the order of 1000 sec. The instrumentation utilized by the experiment is distributed between the radio systems on the spacecraft and the seven participating ground stations of the Deep Space Network and Medicina. Preliminary analysis is available of the measurements taken during the Ulysses first opposition test.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelly, Bernard J.
2010-01-01
Einstein's General Theory of Relativity is our best classical description of gravity, and informs modern astronomy and astrophysics at all scales: stellar, galactic, and cosmological. Among its surprising predictions is the existence of gravitational waves -- ripples in space-time that carry energy and momentum away from strongly interacting gravitating sources. In my talk, I will give an overview of the properties of this radiation, recent breakthroughs in computational physics allowing us to calculate the waveforms from galactic mergers, and the prospect of direct observation with interferometric detectors such as LIGO and LISA.
Gravitational waves from axion monodromy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hebecker, Arthur; Jaeckel, Joerg; Rompineve, Fabrizio; Witkowski, Lukas T.
2016-11-01
Large field inflation is arguably the simplest and most natural variant of slow-roll inflation. Axion monodromy may be the most promising framework for realising this scenario. As one of its defining features, the long-range polynomial potential possesses short-range, instantonic modulations. These can give rise to a series of local minima in the post-inflationary region of the potential. We show that for certain parameter choices the inflaton populates more than one of these vacua inside a single Hubble patch. This corresponds to a dynamical phase decomposition, analogously to what happens in the course of thermal first-order phase transitions. In the subsequent process of bubble wall collisions, the lowest-lying axionic minimum eventually takes over all space. Our main result is that this violent process sources gravitational waves, very much like in the case of a first-order phase transition. We compute the energy density and peak frequency of the signal, which can lie anywhere in the mHz-GHz range, possibly within reach of next-generation interferometers. We also note that this ``dynamical phase decomposition" phenomenon and its gravitational wave signal are more general and may apply to other inflationary or reheating scenarios with axions and modulated potentials.
Gravitational wave astronomy: the current status
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Chu, Qi; Fang, Qi; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Reitze, David H.; Arai, Koji; Zhang, Fan; Flaminio, Raffaele; Zhu, XingJiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N.; Shannon, Ryan M.; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Gao, Wei; Xu, Peng; Bian, Xing; Cao, ZhouJian; Chang, ZiJing; Dong, Peng; Gong, XueFei; Huang, ShuangLin; Ju, Peng; Luo, ZiRen; Qiang, Li'E.; Tang, WenLin; Wan, XiaoYun; Wang, Yue; Xu, ShengNian; Zang, YunLong; Zhang, HaiPeng; Lau, Yun-Kau; Ni, Wei-Tou
2015-12-01
In the centenary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, this paper reviews the current status of gravitational wave astronomy across a spectrum which stretches from attohertz to kilohertz frequencies. Sect. 1 of this paper reviews the historical development of gravitational wave astronomy from Einstein's first prediction to our current understanding the spectrum. It is shown that detection of signals in the audio frequency spectrum can be expected very soon, and that a north-south pair of next generation detectors would provide large scientific benefits. Sect. 2 reviews the theory of gravitational waves and the principles of detection using laser interferometry. The state of the art Advanced LIGO detectors are then described. These detectors have a high chance of detecting the first events in the near future. Sect. 3 reviews the KAGRA detector currently under development in Japan, which will be the first laser interferometer detector to use cryogenic test masses. Sect. 4 of this paper reviews gravitational wave detection in the nanohertz frequency band using the technique of pulsar timing. Sect. 5 reviews the status of gravitational wave detection in the attohertz frequency band, detectable in the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background, and discusses the prospects for detection of primordial waves from the big bang. The techniques described in sects. 1-5 have already placed significant limits on the strength of gravitational wave sources. Sects. 6 and 7 review ambitious plans for future space based gravitational wave detectors in the millihertz frequency band. Sect. 6 presents a roadmap for development of space based gravitational wave detectors by China while sect. 7 discusses a key enabling technology for space interferometry known as time delay interferometry.
Space Detection of Gravitational Waves (lisa)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Araujo, J. C. Neves; Buchman, S.; Cavalleri, A.; Danzmann, K.; Doles, R.; Fontana, G.; Hanso, J.; Hueller, M.; Sigurdsso, S.; Turneaure, J.; Ungarell, C.; Vecchi, A.; Vital, S.; Webe, W.
2002-12-01
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission is designed to observe gravitational waves from galactic and extra-galactic binary systems, including gravitational waves generated in the vicinity of the very massive black holes found in the centers of many galaxies. Acting as a giant Michelson interferometer the three spacecraft flying 5 million km apart will open the era of astronomy in the gravitational spectrum. We give an introduction to the mission and describe the status of selected experimental, theoretical, and planning LISA work, as reported at the Ninth Marcel Grossman Meeting in 2000 in Rome. We discuss the three areas of technology challenges facing the mission inertial sensors, micronewton thrusters, and picometer interferometry. We report on the progress in the development of free falling moving test-masses for LISA and for the related technology demonstration mission. We present simple formulas to evaluate the performance of the device as a function of the various design parameters, and we compare them with preliminary experimental results from a test prototype we are developing. Quantitative agreement is found. The gravitational radiation emitted during the final stages of coalescence of stellar mass compact objects with low massive black holes is a signal detectable by LISA. It will also provide the opportunity of measuring relativistic strong field effects. A brief discussion addresses the detection by LISA of gravitational waves generated by cataclysmic binary variables at frequencies below 1 mHz. Finally the prospects for cosmology work with LISA type antennas are being analyzed.
Exploring Gravitational Waves in the Classroom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cominsky, Lynn R.; McLin, Kevin M.; Peruta, Carolyn; Simonnet, Aurore
2016-04-01
On September 14, 2015, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) received the first confirmed gravitational wave signals. Now known as GW150914 (for the date on which the signals were received), the event represents the coalescence of two black holes that were previously in mutual orbit. LIGO’s exciting discovery provides direct evidence of what is arguably the last major unconfirmed prediction of Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity. The Education and Public Outreach group at Sonoma State University has created an educator's guide that provides a brief introduction to LIGO and to gravitational waves, along with two simple demonstration activities that can be done in the classroom to engage students in understanding LIGO’s discovery. Additional resources have also been provided to extend student explorations of Einstein’s Universe.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finn, L. S.
Astronomers rely on a multiplicity of observational perspectives in order to infer the nature of the Universe. Progress in astronomy has historically been associated with new or improved observational perspectives. Gravitational wave detectors now under construction will provide us with a perspective on the Universe fundamentally different from any we have come to know. With this new perspective comes the hope of new insights and understanding, not just of exotic astrophysical processes, but of "bread-and-butter" astrophysics: e.g., stars and stellar evolution, galaxy formation and evolution, neutron star structure, and cosmology. In this report the author discusses briefly a small subset of the areas of conventional, "bread-and-butter" astrophysics where we can reasonably hope that gravitational wave observations will provide us with valuable new insights and understandings.
Mesoscopic Interferometers for Electron Waves
Rohrlich, D.
2005-09-15
Mesoscopic interferometers are electronic analogues of optical interferometers, with 'quantum point contacts' playing the role of optical beam splitters. Mesoscopic analogues of two-slit, Mach-Zehnder and Fabry-Perot interferometers have been built. A fundamental difference between electron and photon interferometry is that electron interferometry is nonlocal.
Magnetar asteroseismology with long-term gravitational waves
Kashiyama, Kazumi; Ioka, Kunihito
2011-04-15
Magnetic flares and induced oscillations of magnetars (supermagnetized neutron stars) are promising sources of gravitational waves (GWs). We suggest that the GW emission, if any, would last longer than the observed x-ray quasiperiodic oscillations (X-QPOs), calling for longer-term GW analyses lasting a day to months, compared to current searches' durations. Like the pulsar timing, the oscillation frequency would also evolve with time because of the decay or reconfiguration of the magnetic field, which is crucial for the GW detection. With the observed GW frequency and its time-derivatives, we can probe the interior magnetic field strength of {approx}10{sup 16} G and its evolution to open a new GW asteroseismology with the next generation interferometers like the advanced laser interferometer gravitational wave observatory, the advanced Virgo gravitational wave detector at the European Gravitational Observatory, the Large-scale cryogenic gravitational wave telescope, and the Einstein telescope.
Gravitational-wave Mission Study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcnamara, Paul; Jennrich, Oliver; Stebbins, Robin T.
2014-01-01
In November 2013, ESA selected the science theme, the "Gravitational Universe," for its third large mission opportunity, known as L3, under its Cosmic Vision Programme. The planned launch date is 2034. ESA is considering a 20% participation by an international partner, and NASA's Astrophysics Division has indicated an interest in participating. We have studied the design consequences of a NASA contribution, evaluated the science benefits and identified the technology requirements for hardware that could be delivered by NASA. The European community proposed a strawman mission concept, called eLISA, having two measurement arms, derived from the well studied LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) concept. The US community is promoting a mission concept known as SGO Mid (Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory Mid-sized), a three arm LISA-like concept. If NASA were to partner with ESA, the eLISA concept could be transformed to SGO Mid by the addition of a third arm, augmenting science, reducing risk and reducing non-recurring engineering costs. The characteristics of the mission concepts and the relative science performance of eLISA, SGO Mid and LISA are described. Note that all results are based on models, methods and assumptions used in NASA studies
Limitations of atom interferometry for gravitational wave observations in space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bender, Peter L.
2012-03-01
A paper published recently (Hogan et al. in Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 43:1953-2009, 2011) suggests the use of atom interferometry between satellites in Earth orbit to observe gravitational waves. The proposed altitude and satellite separation are about 1,000 and 30 km respectively. The difference in acceleration between clouds of ultracold atoms in atom interferometers near the two satellites would be detected by using laser beams between the interferometers. Because of the measurement path being very short compared with the million km or longer measurement path for a proposed laser interferometer gravitational wave antenna in space, the sensitivity to differential fluctuations in the laser phase as seen by the atoms in the two atom interferometers is very high. Problems introduced by this high sensitivity to spurious laser beam phase changes will be described in the first part of this paper. Then other limitations on the performance and on the suggested types of sources that could be observed will be discussed.
An Atomic Gravitational Wave Interferometric Sensor (AGIS)
Dimopoulos, Savas; Graham, Peter W.; Hogan, Jason M.; Kasevich, Mark A.; Rajendran, Surjeet; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2008-08-01
We propose two distinct atom interferometer gravitational wave detectors, one terrestrial and another satellite-based, utilizing the core technology of the Stanford 10m atom interferometer presently under construction. Each configuration compares two widely separated atom interferometers run using common lasers. The signal scales with the distance between the interferometers, which can be large since only the light travels over this distance, not the atoms. The terrestrial experiment with baseline {approx} 1 km can operate with strain sensitivity {approx} 10{sup -19}/{radical}Hz in the 1 Hz-10 Hz band, inaccessible to LIGO, and can detect gravitational waves from solar mass binaries out to megaparsec distances. The satellite experiment with baseline {approx} 1000 km can probe the same frequency spectrum as LISA with comparable strain sensitivity {approx} 10{sup -20}/{radical}Hz. The use of ballistic atoms (instead of mirrors) as inertial test masses improves systematics coming from vibrations, acceleration noise, and significantly reduces spacecraft control requirements. We analyze the backgrounds in this configuration and discuss methods for controlling them to the required levels.
Multimode interferometer for guided matter waves.
Andersson, Erika; Calarco, Tommaso; Folman, Ron; Andersson, Mauritz; Hessmo, Björn; Schmiedmayer, Jörg
2002-03-11
Atoms can be trapped and guided with electromagnetic fields, using nanofabricated structures. We describe the fundamental features of an interferometer for guided matter waves, built of two combined Y-shaped beam splitters. We find that such a device is expected to exhibit high contrast fringes even in a multimode regime, analogous to a white light interferometer.
Nearby Stars as Gravitational Wave Detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopes, Ilídio; Silk, Joseph
2015-07-01
Sun-like stellar oscillations are excited by turbulent convection and have been discovered in some 500 main-sequence and sub-giant stars and in more than 12,000 red giant stars. When such stars are near gravitational wave sources, low-order quadrupole acoustic modes are also excited above the experimental threshold of detectability, and they can be observed, in principle, in the acoustic spectra of these stars. Such stars form a set of natural detectors to search for gravitational waves over a large spectral frequency range, from {10}-7 to {10}-2 Hz. In particular, these stars can probe the {10}-6-{10}-4 Hz spectral window which cannot be probed by current conventional gravitational wave detectors, such as the Square Kilometre Array and Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna. The Planetary Transits and Oscillations of State (PLATO) stellar seismic mission will achieve photospheric velocity amplitude accuracy of {cm} {{{s}}}-1. For a gravitational wave search, we will need to achieve accuracies of the order of {10}-2 {cm} {{{s}}}-1, i.e., at least one generation beyond PLATO. However, we have found that multi-body stellar systems have the ideal setup for this type of gravitational wave search. This is the case for triple stellar systems formed by a compact binary and an oscillating star. Continuous monitoring of the oscillation spectra of these stars to a distance of up to a kpc could lead to the discovery of gravitational waves originating in our galaxy or even elsewhere in the universe. Moreover, unlike experimental detectors, this observational network of stars will allow us to study the progression of gravitational waves throughout space.
Quantum Emulation of Gravitational Waves
Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Cirio, Mauro; Büse, Alexander; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel
2015-01-01
Gravitational waves, as predicted by Einstein’s general relativity theory, appear as ripples in the fabric of spacetime traveling at the speed of light. We prove that the propagation of small amplitude gravitational waves in a curved spacetime is equivalent to the propagation of a subspace of electromagnetic states. We use this result to propose the use of entangled photons to emulate the evolution of gravitational waves in curved spacetimes by means of experimental electromagnetic setups featuring metamaterials. PMID:26169801
Quantum Emulation of Gravitational Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Cirio, Mauro; Büse, Alexander; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel
2015-07-01
Gravitational waves, as predicted by Einstein’s general relativity theory, appear as ripples in the fabric of spacetime traveling at the speed of light. We prove that the propagation of small amplitude gravitational waves in a curved spacetime is equivalent to the propagation of a subspace of electromagnetic states. We use this result to propose the use of entangled photons to emulate the evolution of gravitational waves in curved spacetimes by means of experimental electromagnetic setups featuring metamaterials.
Quantum Emulation of Gravitational Waves.
Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Cirio, Mauro; Büse, Alexander; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel
2015-07-14
Gravitational waves, as predicted by Einstein's general relativity theory, appear as ripples in the fabric of spacetime traveling at the speed of light. We prove that the propagation of small amplitude gravitational waves in a curved spacetime is equivalent to the propagation of a subspace of electromagnetic states. We use this result to propose the use of entangled photons to emulate the evolution of gravitational waves in curved spacetimes by means of experimental electromagnetic setups featuring metamaterials.
Quantum Emulation of Gravitational Waves.
Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Cirio, Mauro; Büse, Alexander; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel
2015-01-01
Gravitational waves, as predicted by Einstein's general relativity theory, appear as ripples in the fabric of spacetime traveling at the speed of light. We prove that the propagation of small amplitude gravitational waves in a curved spacetime is equivalent to the propagation of a subspace of electromagnetic states. We use this result to propose the use of entangled photons to emulate the evolution of gravitational waves in curved spacetimes by means of experimental electromagnetic setups featuring metamaterials. PMID:26169801
Upper limits on a stochastic background of gravitational waves.
Abbott, B; Abbott, R; Adhikari, R; Agresti, J; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allen, J; Amin, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Ashley, M; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Balasubramanian, R; Ballmer, S; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barton, M A; Bayer, K; Belczynski, K; Betzwieser, J; Bhawal, B; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Black, E; Blackburn, K; Blackburn, L; Bland, B; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brown, D A; Buonanno, A; Busby, D; Butler, W E; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Cardenas, L; Carter, K; Casey, M M; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chen, Y; Chin, D; Christensen, N; Cokelaer, T; Colacino, C N; Coldwell, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T; Coyne, D; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Dalrymple, J; D'Ambrosio, E; Danzmann, K; Davies, G; DeBra, D; Dergachev, V; Desai, S; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandar, S; Díaz, M; Di Credico, A; Drever, R W P; Dupuis, R J; Ehrens, P; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Finn, L S; Franzen, K Y; Frey, R E; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Ganezer, K S; Garofoli, J; Gholami, I; Giaime, J A; Goda, K; Goggin, L; González, G; Gray, C; Gretarsson, A M; Grimmett, D; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guenther, M; Gustafson, R; Hamilton, W O; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Hardham, C; Harry, G; Heefner, J; Heng, I S; Hewitson, M; Hindman, N; Hoang, P; Hough, J; Hua, W; Ito, M; Itoh, Y; Ivanov, A; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, L; Kalogera, V; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kells, W; Khan, A; Kim, C; King, P; Klimenko, S; Koranda, S; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Lazzarini, A; Lei, M; Leonor, I; Libbrecht, K; Lindquist, P; Liu, S; Lormand, M; Lubinski, M; Lück, H; Luna, M; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Malec, M; Mandic, V; Marka, S; Maros, E; Mason, K; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McHugh, M; McNabb, J W C; Melissinos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messaritaki, E; Messenger, C; Mikhailov, E; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Mohanty, S; Moreno, G; Mossavi, K; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Myers, E; Myers, J; Nash, T; Nocera, F; Noel, J S; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Parameswariah, C; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Pitkin, M; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F; Radkins, H; Rahkola, R; Rakhmanov, M; Rawlins, K; Ray-Majumder, S; Re, V; Regimbau, T; Reitze, D H; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Robertson, D I; Robertson, N A; Robinson, C; Roddy, S; Rodriguez, A; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruet, L; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Sandberg, V; Sanders, G H; Sannibale, V; Sarin, P; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Sazonov, A; Schilling, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, S M; Seader, S E; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Sintes, A M; Smith, J; Smith, M R; Spjeld, O; Strain, K A; Strom, D M; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T; Sung, M; Sutton, P J; Tanner, D B; Taylor, R; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Tokmakov, K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Tyler, W; Ugolini, D; Ungarelli, C; Vallisneri, M; van Putten, M; Vass, S; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Wallace, L; Ward, H; Ward, R; Watts, K; Webber, D; Weiland, U; Weinstein, A; Weiss, R; Wen, S; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wiley, S; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Willke, B; Wilson, A; Winkler, W; Wise, S; Wiseman, A G; Woan, G; Woods, D; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yoshida, S; Zanolin, M; Zhang, L; Zotov, N; Zucker, M; Zweizig, J
2005-11-25
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory has performed a third science run with much improved sensitivities of all three interferometers. We present an analysis of approximately 200 hours of data acquired during this run, used to search for a stochastic background of gravitational radiation. We place upper bounds on the energy density stored as gravitational radiation for three different spectral power laws. For the flat spectrum, our limit of omega0 < 8.4 x 10(-4) in the 69-156 Hz band is approximately 10(5) times lower than the previous result in this frequency range. PMID:16384203
Numerical Relativity for Space-Based Gravitational Wave Astronomy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John G.
2011-01-01
In the next decade, gravitational wave instruments in space may provide high-precision measurements of gravitational-wave signals from strong sources, such as black holes. Currently variations on the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna mission concepts are under study in the hope of reducing costs. Even the observations of a reduced instrument may place strong demands on numerical relativity capabilities. Possible advances in the coming years may fuel a new generation of codes ready to confront these challenges.
Alternative derivation of the response of interferometric gravitational wave detectors
Cornish, Neil J.
2009-10-15
It has recently been pointed out by Finn that the long-standing derivation of the response of an interferometric gravitational wave detector contains several errors. Here I point out that a contemporaneous derivation of the gravitational wave response for spacecraft doppler tracking and pulsar timing avoids these pitfalls, and when adapted to describe interferometers, recovers a simplified version of Finn's derivation. This simplified derivation may be useful for pedagogical purposes.
Gravitational wave detection using atom interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hogan, Jason
2016-05-01
The advent of gravitational wave astronomy promises to provide a new window into the universe. Low frequency gravitational waves below 10 Hz are expected to offer rich science opportunities both in astrophysics and cosmology, complementary to signals in LIGO's band. Detector designs based on atom interferometry have a number of advantages over traditional approaches in this band, including the possibility of substantially reduced antenna baseline length in space and high isolation from seismic noise for a terrestrial detector. In particular, atom interferometry based on the clock transition in group II atoms offers tantalizing new possibilities. Such a design is expected to be highly immune to laser frequency noise because the signal arises strictly from the light propagation time between two ensembles of atoms. This would allow for a gravitational wave detector with a single linear baseline, potentially offering advantages in cost and design flexibility. In support of these proposals, recent progress in long baseline atom interferometry in a 10-meter drop tower has enabled observation of matter wave interference with atomic wavepacket separations exceeding 50 cm and interferometer durations of more than 2 seconds. This approach can provide ground-based proof-of-concept demonstrations of many of the technical requirements of both terrestrial and satellite gravitational wave detectors.
Gravitational Waves from Black Hole Mergers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2007-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based interferometer LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, data analysis, and astrophysics.
The Millimeter-Wave Bolometric Interferometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ali, S.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Novak, G.; Piccirillo, L.; Timbie, P.; Tucker, G. S.
2004-01-01
The Millimeter-wave Bolometric Interferometer (MBI) is a proposed ground-based instrument designed for a wide range of cosmological and astrophysical observations including studies of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). MBI combines the advantages of two well-developed technologies - interferometers and bolometric detectors. Interferometers have many advantages over .filled-aperture telescopes and are particularly suitable for high resolution imaging. Cooled bolometers are the highest sensitivity detectors at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. The combination of these two technologies results in an instrument with both high sensitivity and high angular resolution.
A simple pendulum laser interferometer for determining the gravitational constant
Parks, Harold V.; Faller, James E.
2014-01-01
We present a detailed account of our 2004 experiment to measure the Newtonian constant of gravitation with a suspended laser interferometer. The apparatus consists of two simple pendulums hanging from a common support. Each pendulum has a length of 72 cm and their separation is 34 cm. A mirror is embedded in each pendulum bob, which then in combination form a Fabry–Perot cavity. A laser locked to the cavity measures the change in pendulum separation as the gravitational field is modulated due to the displacement of four 120 kg tungsten masses. PMID:25201994
A simple pendulum laser interferometer for determining the gravitational constant.
Parks, Harold V; Faller, James E
2014-10-13
We present a detailed account of our 2004 experiment to measure the Newtonian constant of gravitation with a suspended laser interferometer. The apparatus consists of two simple pendulums hanging from a common support. Each pendulum has a length of 72 cm and their separation is 34 cm. A mirror is embedded in each pendulum bob, which then in combination form a Fabry-Perot cavity. A laser locked to the cavity measures the change in pendulum separation as the gravitational field is modulated due to the displacement of four 120 kg tungsten masses.
Gravitational waves from the first stars
Sandick, Pearl; Olive, Keith A.; Daigne, Frederic; Vangioni, Elisabeth
2006-05-15
We consider the stochastic background of gravitational waves produced by an early generation of Population III stars coupled with a normal mode of star formation at lower redshift. The computation is performed in the framework of hierarchical structure formation and is based on cosmic star formation histories constrained to reproduce the observed star formation rate at redshift z < or approx. 6, the observed chemical abundances in damped Lyman alpha absorbers and in the intergalactic medium, and to allow for an early reionization of the Universe at z{approx}11 as indicated by the third year results released by WMAP. We find that the normal mode of star formation produces a gravitational wave background which peaks at 300-500 Hz and is within LIGO III sensitivity. The Population III component peaks at lower frequencies (30-100 Hz depending on the model), and could be detected by LIGO III as well as the planned BBO and DECIGO interferometers.
Does an atom interferometer test the gravitational redshift at the Compton frequency?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolf, Peter; Blanchet, Luc; Bordé, Christian J.; Reynaud, Serge; Salomon, Christophe; Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude
2011-07-01
Atom interferometers allow the measurement of the acceleration of freely falling atoms with respect to an experimental platform at rest on Earth's surface. Such experiments have been used to test the universality of free fall by comparing the acceleration of the atoms to that of a classical freely falling object. In a recent paper, Müller et al (2010 Nature 463 926-9) argued that atom interferometers also provide a very accurate test of the gravitational redshift (or universality of clock rates). Considering the atom as a clock operating at the Compton frequency associated with the rest mass, they claimed that the interferometer measures the gravitational redshift between the atom-clocks in the two paths of the interferometer at different values of gravitational potentials. In this paper, we analyze this claim in the frame of general relativity and of different alternative theories. We show that the difference of 'Compton phases' between the two paths of the interferometer is actually zero in a large class of theories, including general relativity, all metric theories of gravity, most non-metric theories and most theoretical frameworks used to interpret the violations of the equivalence principle. Therefore, in most plausible theoretical frameworks, there is no redshift effect and atom interferometers only test the universality of free fall. We also show that frameworks in which atom interferometers would test the redshift pose serious problems, such as (i) violation of the Schiff conjecture, (ii) violation of the Feynman path integral formulation of quantum mechanics and of the principle of least action for matter waves, (iii) violation of energy conservation, and more generally (iv) violation of the particle-wave duality in quantum mechanics. Standard quantum mechanics is no longer valid in such frameworks, so that a consistent interpretation of the experiment would require an alternative formulation of quantum mechanics. As such an alternative has not been
Response of interferometric gravitational wave detectors
Finn, Lee Samuel
2009-01-15
The derivation of the response function of an interferometric gravitational wave detector is a paradigmatic calculation in the field of gravitational wave detection. Surprisingly, the standard derivation of the response wave detectors makes several unjustifiable assumptions, both conceptual and quantitative, regarding the coordinate trajectory and coordinate velocity of the null geodesic the light travels along. These errors, which appear to have remained unrecognized for at least 35 years, render the standard derivation inadequate and misleading as an archetype calculation. Here we identify the flaws in the existing derivation and provide, in full detail, a correct derivation of the response of a single-bounce Michelson interferometer to gravitational waves, following a procedure that will always yield correct results; compare it to the standard, but incorrect, derivation; show where the earlier mistakes were made; and identify the general conditions under which the standard derivation will yield correct results. By a fortuitous set of circumstances, not generally so, the final result is the same in the case of Minkowski background spacetime, synchronous coordinates, transverse-traceless gauge metric perturbations, and arm mirrors at coordinate rest.
Quantum Opportunities in Gravitational Wave Detectors
Mavalvala, Negris
2012-03-14
Direct observation of gravitational waves should open a new window into the Universe. Gravitational wave detectors are the most sensitive position meters ever constructed. The quantum limit in gravitational wave detectors opens up a whole new field of study. Quantum opportunities in gravitational wave detectors include applications of quantum optics techniques and new tools for quantum measurement on truly macroscopic (human) scales.
Matter-wave interferometers using TAAP rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navez, P.; Pandey, S.; Mas, H.; Poulios, K.; Fernholz, T.; von Klitzing, W.
2016-07-01
We present two novel matter-wave Sagnac interferometers based on ring-shaped time-averaged adiabatic potentials, where the atoms are put into a superposition of two different spin states and manipulated independently using elliptically polarized rf-fields. In the first interferometer the atoms are accelerated by spin-state-dependent forces and then travel around the ring in a matter-wave guide. In the second one the atoms are fully trapped during the entire interferometric sequence and are moved around the ring in two spin-state-dependent ‘buckets’. Corrections to the ideal Sagnac phase are investigated for both cases. We experimentally demonstrate the key atom-optical elements of the interferometer such as the independent manipulation of two different spin states in the ring-shaped potentials under identical experimental conditions.
Geometrical versus wave optics under gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angélil, Raymond; Saha, Prasenjit
2015-06-01
We present some new derivations of the effect of a plane gravitational wave on a light ray. A simple interpretation of the results is that a gravitational wave causes a phase modulation of electromagnetic waves. We arrive at this picture from two contrasting directions, namely, null geodesics and Maxwell's equations, or geometric and wave optics. Under geometric optics, we express the geodesic equations in Hamiltonian form and solve perturbatively for the effect of gravitational waves. We find that the well-known time-delay formula for light generalizes trivially to massive particles. We also recover, by way of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation, the phase modulation obtained under wave optics. Turning then to wave optics—rather than solving Maxwell's equations directly for the fields, as in most previous approaches—we derive a perturbed wave equation (perturbed by the gravitational wave) for the electromagnetic four-potential. From this wave equation it follows that the four-potential and the electric and magnetic fields all experience the same phase modulation. Applying such a phase modulation to a superposition of plane waves corresponding to a Gaussian wave packet leads to time delays.
Experimental Limits on Gravitational Waves in the MHz frequency Range
Lanza, Robert Jr.
2015-03-01
This thesis presents the results of a search for gravitational waves in the 1-11MHz frequency range using dual power-recycled Michelson laser interferometers at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. An unprecedented level of sensitivity to gravitational waves in this frequency range has been achieved by cross-correlating the output fluctuations of two identical and colocated 40m long interferometers. This technique produces sensitivities better than two orders of magnitude below the quantum shot-noise limit, within integration times of less than 1 hour. 95% confidence level upper limits are placed on the strain amplitude of MHz frequency gravitational waves at the 10^{-21} Hz^{-1/2} level, constituting the best direct limits to date at these frequencies. For gravitational wave power distributed over this frequency range, a broadband upper limit of 2.4 x 10^{-21}Hz^{-1/2} at 95% confidence level is also obtained. This thesis covers the detector technology, the commissioning and calibration of the instrument, the statistical data analysis, and the gravitational wave limit results. Particular attention is paid to the end-to-end calibration of the instrument’s sensitivity to differential arm length motion, and so to gravitational wave strain. A detailed statistical analysis of the data is presented as well.
Multibaseline gravitational wave radiometry
Talukder, Dipongkar; Bose, Sukanta; Mitra, Sanjit
2011-03-15
We present a statistic for the detection of stochastic gravitational wave backgrounds (SGWBs) using radiometry with a network of multiple baselines. We also quantitatively compare the sensitivities of existing baselines and their network to SGWBs. We assess how the measurement accuracy of signal parameters, e.g., the sky position of a localized source, can improve when using a network of baselines, as compared to any of the single participating baselines. The search statistic itself is derived from the likelihood ratio of the cross correlation of the data across all possible baselines in a detector network and is optimal in Gaussian noise. Specifically, it is the likelihood ratio maximized over the strength of the SGWB and is called the maximized-likelihood ratio (MLR). One of the main advantages of using the MLR over past search strategies for inferring the presence or absence of a signal is that the former does not require the deconvolution of the cross correlation statistic. Therefore, it does not suffer from errors inherent to the deconvolution procedure and is especially useful for detecting weak sources. In the limit of a single baseline, it reduces to the detection statistic studied by Ballmer [Classical Quantum Gravity 23, S179 (2006).] and Mitra et al.[Phys. Rev. D 77, 042002 (2008).]. Unlike past studies, here the MLR statistic enables us to compare quantitatively the performances of a variety of baselines searching for a SGWB signal in (simulated) data. Although we use simulated noise and SGWB signals for making these comparisons, our method can be straightforwardly applied on real data.
Outlook for Detecting Gravitational Waves with Pulsars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2016-04-01
Though the recent discovery of GW150914 is a thrilling success in the field of gravitational-wave astronomy, LIGO is only one tool the scientific community is using to hunt for these elusive signals. After 10 years of unsuccessful searching, how likely is it that pulsar-timing-array projects will make their own first detection soon?Frequency ranges for gravitational waves produced by different astrophysical sources. Pulsar timing arrays such as the EPTA and IPTA are used to detect low-frequency gravitational waves generated by the stochastic background and supermassive black hole binaries. [Christopher Moore, Robert Cole and Christopher Berry]Supermassive BackgroundGround-based laser interferometers like LIGO are ideal for probing ripples in space-time caused by the merger of stellar-mass black holes; these mergers cause chirps in the frequency range of tens to thousands of hertz. But how do we pick up the extremely low-frequency, nanohertz background signal caused by the orbits of pairs of supermassive black holes? For that, we need pulsar timing arrays.Pulsar timing arrays are sets of pulsars whose signals are analyzed to look for correlations in the pulse arrival time. As the space-time between us and a pulsar is stretched and then compressed by a passing gravitational wave, the pulsars pulses should arrive a little late and then a little early. Comparing these timing residuals in an array of pulsars could theoretically allow for the detection of the gravitational waves causing them.Globally, there are currently four pulsar timing array projects actively searching for this signal, with a fifth planned for the future. Now a team of scientists led by Stephen Taylor (NASA-JPL/Caltech) has estimated the likelihood that these projects will successfully detect gravitational waves in the future.Probability for SuccessExpected detection probability of the gravitational-wave background as a function of observing time, for five different pulsar timing arrays. Optimistic
LIGO and the Search for Gravitational Waves
Robertson, Norna A.
2006-10-16
Gravitational waves, predicted to exist by Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity but as yet undetected, are expected to be emitted during violent astrophysical events such as supernovae, black hole interactions and the coalescence of compact binary systems. Their detection and study should lead to a new branch of astronomy. However the experimental challenge is formidable: ground-based detection relies on sensing displacements of order 10^-18 m over a frequency range of tens of hertz to a few kHz. There is currently a large international effort to commission and operate long baseline interferometric detectors including those that comprise LIGO - the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory - in the USA. In this talk I will give an introduction to the topic of gravitational wave detection and in particular review the status of the LIGO project which is currently taking data at its design sensitivity. I will also look to the future to consider planned improvements in sensitivity for such detectors, focusing on Advanced LIGO, the proposed upgrade to the LIGO project
LIGO and the Search for Gravitational Waves
Robertson, Norna A.
2006-10-16
Gravitational waves, predicted to exist by Einstein's General Theory of Relativity but as yet undetected, are expected to be emitted during violent astrophysical events such as supernovae, black hole interactions and the coalescence of compact binary systems. Their detection and study should lead to a new branch of astronomy. However the experimental challenge is formidable: ground-based detection relies on sensing displacements of order 10{sup -18} m over a frequency range of tens of hertz to a few kHz. There is currently a large international effort to commission and operate long baseline interferometric detectors including those that comprise LIGO - the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory - in the USA. In this talk I will give an introduction to the topic of gravitational wave detection and in particular review the status of the LIGO project which is currently taking data at its design sensitivity. I will also look to the future to consider planned improvements in sensitivity for such detectors, focusing on Advanced LIGO, the proposed upgrade to the LIGO project.
Chiral primordial gravitational waves from dilaton induced delayed chromonatural inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Obata, Ippei; Soda, Jiro; CLEO Collaboration
2016-06-01
We study inflation driven by a dilaton and an axion, both of which are coupled to a SU(2) gauge field. We find that the inflation driven by the dilaton occurs in the early stage of inflation during which the gauge field grows due to the gauge-kinetic function. When the energy density of magnetic fields catches up with that of electric fields, chromonatural inflation takes over in the late stage of inflation, which we call delayed chromonatural inflation. Thus, the delayed chromonatural inflation driven by the axion and the gauge field is induced by the dilaton. The interesting outcome of the model is the generation of chiral primordial gravitational waves on small scales. Since the gauge field is inert in the early stage of inflation, it is viable in contrast to the conventional chromonatural inflation. We find the parameter region where chiral gravitational waves are generated in a frequency range higher than nHz, which are potentially detectable in future gravitational wave interferometers and pulsar-timing arrays such as DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO), evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), and Square Kilometer Array (SKA).
GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM STELLAR COLLAPSE
C. L. FRYER
2001-01-01
Stellar core-collapse plays an important role in nearly all facets of astronomy: cosmology (as standard candles), formation of compact objects, nucleosynthesis and energy deposition in galaxies. In addition, they release energy in powerful explosions of light over a range of energies, neutrinos, and the subject of this meeting, gravitational waves. Because of this broad range of importance, astronomers have discovered a number of constraints which can be used to help them understand the importance of stellar core-collapse as gravitational wave sources.
Methodological studies on the search for Gravitational Waves and Neutrinos from Type II Supernovae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casentini, Claudio
2016-02-01
Type II SNe, also called Core-collapse SuperNovae have a neutrino (v) emission, as confirmed by SN 1987A, and are also potential sources of gravitational waves. Neutrinos and gravitational waves from these sources reach Earth almost contemporaneously and without relevant interaction with stellar matter and interstellar medium. The upcoming advanced gravitational interferometers would be sensitive enough to detect gravitational waves signals from close galactic Core-collapse SuperNovae events. Nevertheless, significant uncertainties on theoretical models of emission remain. A joint search of coincident low energy neutrinos and gravitational waves events from these sources would bring valuable information from the inner core of the collapsing star and would enhance the detection of the so-called Silent SuperNovae. Recently a project for a joint search involving gravitational wave interferometers and neutrino detectors has started. We discuss the benefits of a joint search and the status of the search project.
Golovashkin, A. I.; Zherikhina, L. N. Tskhovrebov, A. M.; Izmailov, G. N.; Ozolin, V. V.
2010-08-15
When comparing the operation of a superfluid helium matter wave quantum interferometer (He SQUID) with that of an ordinary direct-current quantum interferometer (dc SQUID), we estimate their resolution limitation that correspond to quantum fluctuations. An alternative mode of operation of the interferometer as a unified macroquantum system is considered.
Gravitational Waves from Neutron Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kokkotas, Konstantinos
2016-03-01
Neutron stars are the densest objects in the present Universe, attaining physical conditions of matter that cannot be replicated on Earth. These unique and irreproducible laboratories allow us to study physics in some of its most extreme regimes. More importantly, however, neutron stars allow us to formulate a number of fundamental questions that explore, in an intricate manner, the boundaries of our understanding of physics and of the Universe. The multifaceted nature of neutron stars involves a delicate interplay among astrophysics, gravitational physics, and nuclear physics. The research in the physics and astrophysics of neutron stars is expected to flourish and thrive in the next decade. The imminent direct detection of gravitational waves will turn gravitational physics into an observational science, and will provide us with a unique opportunity to make major breakthroughs in gravitational physics, in particle and high-energy astrophysics. These waves, which represent a basic prediction of Einstein's theory of general relativity but have yet to be detected directly, are produced in copious amounts, for instance, by tight binary neutron star and black hole systems, supernovae explosions, non-axisymmetric or unstable spinning neutron stars. The focus of the talk will be on the neutron star instabilities induced by rotation and the magnetic field. The conditions for the onset of these instabilities and their efficiency in gravitational waves will be presented. Finally, the dependence of the results and their impact on astrophysics and especially nuclear physics will be discussed.
Hunting for MHz gravitational waves with the Fermilab Holometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamai, Brittany; The Holometer Collaboration Collaboration
2016-03-01
The highest frequency end of the gravitational wave spectrum remains poorly constrained. Cosmic strings and primordial black holes are potential gravitational waves candidates that could radiate at MHz frequencies. The existence of nearby sources can be tested using the Fermilab Holometer, two nested 40 meter Michelson interferometers. This instrument can achieve strain sensitivity better than 10- 20 / rt .Hz within the 1-10 MHz frequency band. The Holometer is fully operational and has taken long observational campaigns acquiring 100s of hours of science quality data. I will present results of a search for narrow-lined sources and constraints on the stochastic background in the MHz band.
Gravitational waves and multimessenger astronomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ricci, Fulvio
2016-07-01
It is widely expected that in the coming quinquennium the first gravitational wave signal will be directly detected. The ground-based advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors are being upgraded to a sensitivity level such that we expect to be measure a significant binary merger rate. Gravitational waves events are likely to be accompanied by electromagnetic counterparts and neutrino emission carrying complementary information to those associated to the gravitational signals. If it becomes possible to measure all these forms of radiation in concert, we will end up an impressive increase in the comprehension of the whole phenomenon. In the following we summarize the scientific outcome of the interferometric detectors in the past configuration. Then we focus on some of the potentialities of the advanced detectors once used in the new context of the multimessenger astronomy.
Merging Black Holes and Gravitational Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2009-01-01
This talk will focus on simulations of binary black hole mergers and the gravitational wave signals they produce. Applications to gravitational wave detection with LISA, and electronagnetic counterparts, will be highlighted.
Atom Interferometry for Detection of Gravitational Waves: Progress and Prospects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hogan, Jason
2015-04-01
Gravitational wave astronomy promises to provide a new window into the universe, collecting information about astrophysical systems and cosmology that is difficult or impossible to acquire by other methods. Detector designs based on atom interferometry offer a number of advantages over traditional approaches, including access to conventionally inaccessible frequency ranges and substantially reduced antenna baselines. Atomic physics techniques also make it possible to build a gravitational wave detector with a single linear baseline, potentially offering advantages in cost and design flexibility. In support of these proposals, recent progress in long baseline atom interferometry has enabled observation of matter wave interference with atomic wavepacket separations exceeding 10 cm and interferometer durations of more than 2 seconds. These results are obtained in a 10-meter drop tower incorporating large momentum transfer atom optics. This approach can provide ground-based proof-of-concept demonstrations of many of the technical requirements of both terrestrial and satellite gravitational wave detectors.
Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and LISA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John
2009-01-01
Binary black hole mergers are central to many key science objectives of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). For many systems the strongest part of the signal is only understood by numerical simulations. Gravitational wave emissions are understood by simulations of vacuum General Relativity (GR). I discuss numerical simulation results from the perspective of LISA's needs, with indications of work that remains to be done. Some exciting scientific opportunities associated with LISA observations would be greatly enhanced if prompt electromagnetic signature could be associated. I discuss simulations to explore this possibility. Numerical simulations are important now for clarifying LISA's science potential and planning the mission. We also consider how numerical simulations might be applied at the time of LISA's operation.
Gravitational Wave Astrophysics: Opening the New Frontier
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2011-01-01
The gravitational wave window onto the universe is expected to open in 5 years, when ground-based detectors make the first detections in the high-frequency regime. Gravitational waves are ripples in spacetime produced by the motions of massive objects such as black holes and neutron stars. Since the universe is nearly transparent to gravitational waves, these signals carry direct information about their sources such as masses, spins, luminosity distances, and orbital parameters through dense, obscured regions across cosmic time. This article explores gravitational waves as cosmic messengers, highlighting key sources, detection methods, and the astrophysical payoffs across the gravitational wave spectrum. Keywords: Gravitational wave astrophysics; gravitational radiation; gravitational wave detectors; black holes.
Searching for photon-sector Lorentz violation using gravitational-wave detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kostelecký, V. Alan; Melissinos, Adrian C.; Mewes, Matthew
2016-10-01
We study the prospects for using interferometers in gravitational-wave detectors as tools to search for photon-sector violations of Lorentz symmetry. Existing interferometers are shown to be exquisitely sensitive to tiny changes in the effective refractive index of light occurring at frequencies around and below the microhertz range, including at the harmonics of the frequencies of the Earth's sidereal rotation and annual revolution relevant for tests of Lorentz symmetry. We use preliminary data obtained by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) in 2006-2007 to place constraints on coefficients for Lorentz violation in the photon sector exceeding current limits by about four orders of magnitude.
Physics and Astronomy with Sources of Gravitational Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phinney, S.
Over the next decade, astrophysical sources of gravitational waves will almost certainly be detected at frequencies ranging from 10-17Hz to 1 kHz, by ground-based interferometers (e.g.GEO-600, LIGO, VIRGO), by the NASA/ESA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission planned for launch in 2012, by timing of millisecond pulsars, and by measurements of the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background. We describe the nature of the likely sources, and the impact their detection will have on our understanding of relativity, cosmology and a wide range of astrophysical phenomena.
Ultrahigh [ital Q] pendulum suspensions for gravitational wave detectors
Blair, D.G.; Ju, L.; Notcutt, M. )
1993-07-01
Pendulum suspensions for laser interferometer gravitational wave detectors need to have an extremely high [ital Q] factor to minimize Brownian motion noise. In this paper we analyze the limits to the [ital Q] factor of the compound pendulum. We show that the observed acoustic loss of niobium can allow pendulum [ital Q] factors of 10[sup 10] to be achieved. This should enable a 3 km terrestrial laser interferometer detector to achieve strain sensitivity of 10[sup [minus]22]/[radical]Hz at frequencies as low as 10 Hz. At cryogenic temperatures [ital Q] factors up to 10[sup 12] should be achievable.
Gravitational wave astronomy: needle in a haystack.
Cornish, Neil J
2013-02-13
A worldwide array of highly sensitive ground-based interferometers stands poised to usher in a new era in astronomy with the first direct detection of gravitational waves. The data from these instruments will provide a unique perspective on extreme astrophysical objects, such as neutron stars and black holes, and will allow us to test Einstein's theory of gravity in the strong field, dynamical regime. To fully realize these goals, we need to solve some challenging problems in signal processing and inference, such as finding rare and weak signals that are buried in non-stationary and non-Gaussian instrument noise, dealing with high-dimensional model spaces, and locating what are often extremely tight concentrations of posterior mass within the prior volume. Gravitational wave detection using space-based detectors and pulsar timing arrays bring with them the additional challenge of having to isolate individual signals that overlap one another in both time and frequency. Promising solutions to these problems will be discussed, along with some of the challenges that remain. PMID:23277598
Gravitational wave astronomy: needle in a haystack.
Cornish, Neil J
2013-02-13
A worldwide array of highly sensitive ground-based interferometers stands poised to usher in a new era in astronomy with the first direct detection of gravitational waves. The data from these instruments will provide a unique perspective on extreme astrophysical objects, such as neutron stars and black holes, and will allow us to test Einstein's theory of gravity in the strong field, dynamical regime. To fully realize these goals, we need to solve some challenging problems in signal processing and inference, such as finding rare and weak signals that are buried in non-stationary and non-Gaussian instrument noise, dealing with high-dimensional model spaces, and locating what are often extremely tight concentrations of posterior mass within the prior volume. Gravitational wave detection using space-based detectors and pulsar timing arrays bring with them the additional challenge of having to isolate individual signals that overlap one another in both time and frequency. Promising solutions to these problems will be discussed, along with some of the challenges that remain.
A new gravitational wave verification source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Gianninas, A.; Hermes, J. J.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Kenyon, S. J.
2014-10-01
We report the discovery of a detached 20-min orbital period binary white dwarf (WD). WD 0931+444 (SDSS J093506.93+441106.9) was previously classified as a WD + M dwarf system based on its optical spectrum. Our time-resolved optical spectroscopy observations obtained at the 8 m Gemini and 6.5 m MMT reveal peak-to-peak radial velocity variations of ≈400 km s-1 every 20 min for the WD, but no velocity variations for the M dwarf. In addition, high-speed photometry from the McDonald 2.1 m telescope shows no evidence of variability nor evidence of a reflection effect. An M dwarf companion is physically too large to fit into a 20 min orbit. Thus, the orbital motion of the WD is almost certainly due to an invisible WD companion. The M dwarf must be either an unrelated background object or the tertiary component of a hierarchical triple system. WD 0931+444 contains a pair of WDs, a 0.32 M⊙ primary and a ≥0.14 M⊙ secondary, at a separation of ≥0.19 R⊙. After J0651+2844, WD 0931+444 becomes the second shortest period detached binary WD currently known. The two WDs will lose angular momentum through gravitational wave radiation and merge in ≤9 Myr. The log h ≃ -22 gravitational wave strain from WD 0931+444 is strong enough to make it a verification source for gravitational wave missions in the milli-Hertz frequency range, e.g. the evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), bringing the total number of known eLISA verification sources to nine.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barsotti, Lisa
2013-04-01
After two decades of technology development, the first direct observation of gravitational waves appears to be imminent. Ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors world-wide are about to come back on-line after a major upgrade aimed to significantly improve their sensitivity. As these advanced detectors become a reality, the gravitational wave community is looking at new ways of further expanding their astrophysical reach. The quantum nature of light imposes a fundamental limit to the sensitivity that gravitational wave detectors can achieve, due to statistical fluctuations in the arrival time of photons at the interferometer output (shot noise) and the recoil of the mirrors due to radiation pressure noise. In this talk I will show how mature technology can be used to push interferometric precision measurement beyond the standard quantum limit by means of squeezed states of light, and current ideas on how to integrate this technology into the Advanced detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (LIGO).
New method for gravitational wave detection with atomic sensors.
Graham, Peter W; Hogan, Jason M; Kasevich, Mark A; Rajendran, Surjeet
2013-04-26
Laser frequency noise is a dominant noise background for the detection of gravitational waves using long-baseline optical interferometry. Amelioration of this noise requires near simultaneous strain measurements on more than one interferometer baseline, necessitating, for example, more than two satellites for a space-based detector or two interferometer arms for a ground-based detector. We describe a new detection strategy based on recent advances in optical atomic clocks and atom interferometry which can operate at long baselines and which is immune to laser frequency noise. Laser frequency noise is suppressed because the signal arises strictly from the light propagation time between two ensembles of atoms. This new class of sensor allows sensitive gravitational wave detection with only a single baseline. This approach also has practical applications in, for example, the development of ultrasensitive gravimeters and gravity gradiometers.
New method for gravitational wave detection with atomic sensors.
Graham, Peter W; Hogan, Jason M; Kasevich, Mark A; Rajendran, Surjeet
2013-04-26
Laser frequency noise is a dominant noise background for the detection of gravitational waves using long-baseline optical interferometry. Amelioration of this noise requires near simultaneous strain measurements on more than one interferometer baseline, necessitating, for example, more than two satellites for a space-based detector or two interferometer arms for a ground-based detector. We describe a new detection strategy based on recent advances in optical atomic clocks and atom interferometry which can operate at long baselines and which is immune to laser frequency noise. Laser frequency noise is suppressed because the signal arises strictly from the light propagation time between two ensembles of atoms. This new class of sensor allows sensitive gravitational wave detection with only a single baseline. This approach also has practical applications in, for example, the development of ultrasensitive gravimeters and gravity gradiometers. PMID:23679702
Gravitational Wave Astrophysics: Opening the New Frontier
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2011-01-01
The gravitational wave window onto the universe is expected to open in approx. 5 years, when ground-based detectors make the first detections in the high-frequency regime. Gravitational waves are ripples in spacetime produced by the motions of massive objects such as black holes and neutron stars. Since the universe is nearly transparent to gravitational waves, these signals carry direct information about their sources - such as masses, spins, luminosity distances, and orbital parameters, through dense, obscured regions across cosmic time. This article explores gravitational waves as cosmic messengers, highlighting key sources, detection methods, and the astrophysical payoffs across the gravitational wave spectrum.
Gravitational Wave Astrophysics: Opening the New Frontier
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2011-01-01
The gravitational wave window onto the universe is expected to open in approximately 5 years, when ground-based detectors make the first detections in the high-frequency regime. Gravitational waves are ripples in spacetime produced by the motions of massive objects such as black holes and neutron stars. Since the universe is nearly transparent to gravitational waves, these signals carry direct information about their sources - such as masses, spins, luminosity distances, and orbital parameters through dense, obscured regions across cosmic time. This talk will explore gravitational waves as cosmic messengers, highlighting key sources, detection methods, and the astrophysical payoffs across the gravitational wave spectrum.
Gravitational Wave Astronomy:The High Frequency Window
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andersson, Nils; Kokkotas, Kostas D.
As several large scale interferometers are beginning to take data at sensitivities where astrophysical sources are predicted, the direct detection of gravitational waves may well be imminent. This would (finally) open the long anticipated gravitational-wave window to our Universe, and should lead to a much improved understanding of the most violent processes imaginable; the formation of black holes and neutron stars following core collapse supernovae and the merger of compact objects at the end of binary inspiral. Over the next decade we can hope to learn much about the extreme physics associated with, in particular, neutron stars. This contribution is divided in two parts. The first part provides a text-book level introduction to gravitational radiation. The key concepts required for a discussion of gravitational-wave physics are introduced. In particular, the quadrupole formula is applied to the anticipated bread-and-butter source for detectors like LIGO, GEO600, EGO and TAMA300: inspiralling compact binaries. The second part provides a brief review of high frequency gravitational waves. In the frequency range above (say) 100 Hz, gravitational collapse, rotational instabilities and oscillations of the remnant compact objects are potentially important sources of gravitational waves. Significant and unique information concerning the various stages of collapse, the evolution of protoneutron stars and the details of the supranuclear equation of state of such objects can be drawn from careful study of the gravitational-wave signal. As the amount of exciting physics one may be able to study via the detections of gravitational waves from these sources is truly inspiring, there is strong motivation for the development of future generations of ground based detectors sensitive in the range from hundreds of Hz to several kHz.
NONLINEAR GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE MEMORY FROM BINARY BLACK HOLE MERGERS
Favata, Marc
2009-05-10
Some astrophysical sources of gravitational waves can produce a 'memory effect', which causes a permanent displacement of the test masses in a freely falling gravitational-wave detector. The Christodoulou memory is a particularly interesting nonlinear form of memory that arises from the gravitational-wave stress-energy tensor's contribution to the distant gravitational-wave field. This nonlinear memory contributes a nonoscillatory component to the gravitational-wave signal at leading (Newtonian-quadrupole) order in the waveform amplitude. Previous computations of the memory and its detectability considered only the inspiral phase of binary black hole coalescence. Using an 'effective-one-body' (EOB) approach calibrated to numerical relativity simulations, as well as a simple fully analytic model, the Christodoulou memory is computed for the inspiral, merger, and ringdown. The memory will be very difficult to detect with ground-based interferometers, but is likely to be observable in supermassive black hole mergers with LISA out to redshifts z {approx}< 2. Detection of the nonlinear memory could serve as an experimental test of the ability of gravity to 'gravitate'.
Gravitational wave science from space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gair, Jonathan R.
2016-05-01
The rich millihertz gravitational wave band can only be accessed with a space- based detector. The technology for such a detector will be demonstrated by the LISA Pathfinder satellite that is due to launch this year and ESA has selected gravitational wave detection from space as the science theme to be addressed by the L3 large mission to be launched around 2034. In this article we will discuss the sources that such an instrument will observe, and how the numbers of events and precision of parameter determination are affected by modifications to the, as yet not finalised, mission design. We will also describe some of the exciting scientific applications of these observations, to astrophysics, fundamental physics and cosmology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ira Thorpe, James; Jennrich, Oliver; McNamara, Paul; Baker, John G.
2012-07-01
The science enabled by a space-based low-frequency gravitational-wave instrument is a high-priority objective of the international astronomy community. Mission concepts based on laser interferometry, such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), have been thoroughly studied and determined to be capable of delivering significant science returns. Ongoing developments in laboratory atom interferometry techniques have inspired new gravitational-wave mission concepts. We present a comparative analysis of LISA-like light interferometer systems and atom interferometer systems for gravitational-wave detection. Specific attention is paid to the sources of instrumental noise that are most important for light interferometer systems. We find that the response to laser frequency noise is identical in light interferometer and atom interferometer systems and that similar mitigation strategies (e.g. multiple-arm interferometers) must be employed to reach interesting gravitational wave sensitivities. Response to acceleration of the optical platforms is slightly different, allowing smaller spacecraft separations in the atom interferometry approach, but the acceleration noise requirements are similar. Based on this analysis, we find no clear advantage of the atom interferometry approach over traditional laser interferometry.
NASA's Gravitational - Wave Mission Concept Study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stebbins, Robin; Jennrich, Oliver; McNamara, Paul
2012-01-01
With the conclusion of the NASA/ESA partnership on the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Project, NASA initiated a study to explore mission concepts that will accomplish some or all of the LISA science objectives at lower cost. The Gravitational-Wave Mission Concept Study consisted of a public Request for Information (RFI), a Core Team of NASA engineers and scientists, a Community Science Team, a Science Task Force, and an open workshop. The RFI yielded were 12 mission concepts, 3 instrument concepts and 2 technologies. The responses ranged from concepts that eliminated the drag-free test mass of LISA to concepts that replace the test mass with an atom interferometer. The Core Team reviewed the noise budgets and sensitivity curves, the payload and spacecraft designs and requirements, orbits and trajectories and technical readiness and risk. The Science Task Force assessed the science performance by calculating the horizons. the detection rates and the accuracy of astrophysical parameter estimation for massive black hole mergers, stellar-mass compact objects inspiraling into central engines. and close compact binary systems. Three mission concepts have been studied by Team-X, JPL's concurrent design facility. to define a conceptual design evaluate kt,y performance parameters. assess risk and estimate cost and schedule. The Study results are summarized.
NASA's Gravitational-Wave Mission Concept Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stebbins, Robin; Jennrich, Oliver; McNamara, Paul
2012-07-01
With the conclusion of the NASA/ESA partnership on the Laser interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Project, NASA initiated a study to explore mission concepts that will accomplish some or all of the LISA science objectives at lower cost. The Gravitational-Wave Mission Concept Study consisted of a public Request for Information (RFI), a Core Team of NASA engineers and scientists, a Community Science Team, a Science Task Force, and an open workshop. The RFI yielded were 12 mission concepts, 3 instrument concepts and 2 technologies. The responses ranged from concepts that eliminated the drag-free test mass of LISA to concepts that replace the test mass with an atom interferometer. The Core Team reviewed the noise budgets and sensitivity curves, the payload and spacecraft designs and requirements, orbits and trajectories and technical readiness and risk. The Science Task Force assessed the science performance by calculating the horizons, the detection rates and the accuracy of astrophysical parameter estimation for massive black hole mergers, stellar-mass compact objects inspiraling into central engines, and close compact binary systems. Three mission concepts have been studied by Team-X, JPL's concurrent design facility, to define a conceptual design, evaluate key performance parameters, assess risk and estimate cost and schedule. The Study results are summarized.
Mirror thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, Shanti Raja
2003-12-01
The LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory) project has begun its search for gravitational waves, and efforts are being made to improve its ability to detect these. The LIGO observatories are long, Fabry-Perot-Michelson interferometers, where the interferometer mirrors are also the gravitational wave test masses. LIGO is designed to detect the ripples in spacetime caused by cataclysmic astrophysical events, with a target gravitational wave minimum strain sensitivity of 4 × 10-22 [7] around 100 Hz. The Advanced LIGO concept [57] calls for an order of magnitude improvement in strain sensitivity, with a better signal to noise ratio to increase the rate of detection of events. Some of Advanced LIGO's major requirements are improvements over the LIGO design for thermal noise in the test mass substrates and reflective coatings [57]. Thermal noise in the interferometer mirrors is a significant challenge in LIGO's development. This thesis reviews the theory of test mass thermal noise and reports on several experiments conducted to understand this theory. Experiments to measure the thermal expansion of mirror substrates and coatings use the photothermal effect in a cross-polarized Fabry-Perot interferometer, with displacement sensitivity of 10-15m/rHz. Data are presented from 10 Hz to 4 kHz on solid aluminum, and on sapphire, BK7, and fused silica, with and without commercial TiO2/SiO2 dielectric mirror coatings. The substrate contribution to thermal expansion is compared to theories by Cerdonio et al. [32] and Braginsky, Vyatchanin, and Gorodetsky [22]. New theoretical models are presented for estimating the coating contribution to the thermal expansion. These results can also provide insight into how heat flows between coatings and substrates relevant to predicting coating thermoelastic noise [26, 108]. The Thermal Noise Interferometer (TNI) project is a interferometer built specifically to study thermal noise, and this thesis describes its
Gravitational Waves in Effective Quantum Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calmet, Xavier; Kuntz, Iberê; Mohapatra, Sonali
2016-08-01
In this short paper we investigate quantum gravitational effects on Einstein's equations using Effective Field Theory techniques. We consider the leading order quantum gravitational correction to the wave equation. Besides the usual massless mode, we find a pair of modes with complex masses. These massive particles have a width and could thus lead to a damping of gravitational waves if excited in violent astrophysical processes producing gravitational waves such as e.g. black hole mergers. We discuss the consequences for gravitational wave events such as GW 150914 recently observed by the Advanced LIGO collaboration.
Quantum Measurement Theory in Gravitational-Wave Detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danilishin, Stefan L.; Khalili, Farid Ya.
2012-04-01
The fast progress in improving the sensitivity of the gravitational-wave detectors, we all have witnessed in the recent years, has propelled the scientific community to the point at which quantum behavior of such immense measurement devices as kilometer-long interferometers starts to matter. The time when their sensitivity will be mainly limited by the quantum noise of light is around the corner, and finding ways to reduce it will become a necessity. Therefore, the primary goal we pursued in this review was to familiarize a broad spectrum of readers with the theory of quantum measurements in the very form it finds application in the area of gravitational-wave detection. We focus on how quantum noise arises in gravitational-wave interferometers and what limitations it imposes on the achievable sensitivity. We start from the very basic concepts and gradually advance to the general linear quantum measurement theory and its application to the calculation of quantum noise in the contemporary and planned interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation of the first and second generation. Special attention is paid to the concept of the Standard Quantum Limit and the methods of its surmounting.
Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger.
Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Arain, M A; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C J; Berger, B K; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Birnholtz, O; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Calderón Bustillo, J; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Casanueva Diaz, J; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Cerboni Baiardi, L; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dal Canton, T; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Da Silva Costa, C F; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Daveloza, H P; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R T; De Rosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dojcinoski, G; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H-B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fong, H; Fournier, J-D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gatto, A; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Gendre, B; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Gleason, J R; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gonzalez Castro, J M; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C-J; Haughian, K; Healy, J; Heefner, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heinzel, G; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Hofman, D; Hollitt, S E; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Idrisy, A; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J-M; Isi, M; Islas, G; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M B; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Johnson-McDaniel, N K; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; Haris, K; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karki, S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Keppel, D G; Key, J S; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, C; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y-M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Kokeyama, K; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Koranda, S; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Kwee, P; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B M; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; London, L T; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; Lousto, C O; Lovelace, G; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Luo, J; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magaña-Sandoval, F; Magee, R M; Mageswaran, M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Matichard, F; Matone, L; 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2016-02-12
On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of 1.0×10(-21). It matches the waveform predicted by general relativity for the inspiral and merger of a pair of black holes and the ringdown of the resulting single black hole. The signal was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203,000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1σ. The source lies at a luminosity distance of 410(-180)(+160) Mpc corresponding to a redshift z=0.09(-0.04)(+0.03). In the source frame, the initial black hole masses are 36(-4)(+5)M⊙ and 29(-4)(+4)M⊙, and the final black hole mass is 62(-4)(+4)M⊙, with 3.0(-0.5)(+0.5)M⊙c(2) radiated in gravitational waves. All uncertainties define 90% credible intervals. These observations demonstrate the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems. This is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and the first observation of a binary black hole merger. PMID:26918975
Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
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D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J. H.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramet, C. R.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, G. H.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. 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J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Waldman, S. J.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, H.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wiesner, K.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkelmann, L.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wiseman, A. G.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration
2016-02-01
On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of 1.0 ×10-21. It matches the waveform predicted by general relativity for the inspiral and merger of a pair of black holes and the ringdown of the resulting single black hole. The signal was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203 000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1 σ . The source lies at a luminosity distance of 41 0-180+160 Mpc corresponding to a redshift z =0.0 9-0.04+0.03 . In the source frame, the initial black hole masses are 3 6-4+5M⊙ and 2 9-4+4M⊙ , and the final black hole mass is 6 2-4+4M⊙ , with 3. 0-0.5+0.5M⊙ c2 radiated in gravitational waves. All uncertainties define 90% credible intervals. These observations demonstrate the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems. This is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and the first observation of a binary black hole merger.
Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger.
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Shaffer, T; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shao, Z; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stevenson, S P; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepańczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tápai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Töyrä, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifirò, D; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Tuyenbayev, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; van den Brand, J F J; Van Den Broeck, C; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J-Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Waldman, S J; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, H; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L-W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Weßels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wiesner, K; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, L; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkelmann, L; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yap, M J; Yu, H; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J-P; Zevin, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J
2016-02-12
On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of 1.0×10(-21). It matches the waveform predicted by general relativity for the inspiral and merger of a pair of black holes and the ringdown of the resulting single black hole. The signal was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203,000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1σ. The source lies at a luminosity distance of 410(-180)(+160) Mpc corresponding to a redshift z=0.09(-0.04)(+0.03). In the source frame, the initial black hole masses are 36(-4)(+5)M⊙ and 29(-4)(+4)M⊙, and the final black hole mass is 62(-4)(+4)M⊙, with 3.0(-0.5)(+0.5)M⊙c(2) radiated in gravitational waves. All uncertainties define 90% credible intervals. These observations demonstrate the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems. This is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and the first observation of a binary black hole merger.
Gravitational waves from a very strong electroweak phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leitao, Leonardo; Mégevand, Ariel
2016-05-01
We investigate the production of a stochastic background of gravitational waves in the electroweak phase transition. We consider extensions of the Standard Model which can give very strongly first-order phase transitions, such that the transition fronts either propagate as detonations or run away. To compute the bubble wall velocity, we estimate the friction with the plasma and take into account the hydrodynamics. We track the development of the phase transition up to the percolation time, and we calculate the gravitational wave spectrum generated by bubble collisions, magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, and sound waves. For the kinds of models we consider, we find parameter regions for which the gravitational waves are potentially observable at the planned space-based interferometer eLISA. In such cases, the signal from sound waves is generally dominant, while that from bubble collisions is the least significant of them. Since the sound waves and turbulence mechanisms are diminished for runaway walls, the models with the best prospects of detection at eLISA are those which do not have such solutions. In particular, we find that heavy extra bosons provide stronger gravitational wave signals than tree-level terms.
The Scientific Potential of Space-Based Gravitational Wave Detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gair, Jonathan R.
The millihertz gravitational wave band can only be accessed with a space-based interferometer, but it is one of the richest in potential sources. Observations in this band have amazing scientific potential. The mergers between massive black holes with mass in the range 104-107M_{⊙}, which are expected to occur following the mergers of their host galaxies, produce strong millihertz gravitational radiation. Observations of these systems will trace the hierarchical assembly of structure in the Universe in a mass range that is very difficult to probe electromagnetically. Stellar mass compact objects falling into such black holes in the centres of galaxies generate detectable gravitational radiation for several years prior to the final plunge and merger with the central black hole. Measurements of these systems offer an unprecedented opportunity to probe the predictions of general relativity in the strong-field and dynamical regime. Millihertz gravitational waves are also generated by millions of ultra-compact binaries in the Milky Way, providing a new way to probe galactic stellar populations. ESA has recognised this great scientific potential by selecting The Gravitational Universe as its theme for the L3 large satellite mission, scheduled for launch in ˜ 2034. In this article we will review the likely sources for millihertz gravitational wave detectors and describe the wide applications that observations of these sources could have for astrophysics, cosmology and fundamental physics.
PREFACE: 8th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marka, Zsuzsa; Marka, Szabolcs
2010-04-01
(The attached PDF contains select pictures from the Amaldi8 Conference) At Amaldi7 in Sydney in 2007 the Gravitational Wave International Committee (GWIC), which oversees the Amaldi meetings, decided to hold the 8th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves at Columbia University in the City of New York. With this decision, Amaldi returned to North America after a decade. The previous two years have seen many advances in the field of gravitational wave detection. By the summer of 2009 the km-scale ground based interferometric detectors in the US and Europe were preparing for a second long-term scientific run as a worldwide detector network. The advanced or second generation detectors had well-developed plans and were ready for the production phase or started construction. The European-American space mission, LISA Pathfinder, was progressing towards deployment in the foreseeable future and it is expected to pave the ground towards gravitational wave detection in the milliHertz regime with LISA. Plans were developed for an additional gravitational wave detector in Australia and in Japan (in this case underground) to extend the worldwide network of detectors for the advanced detector era. Japanese colleagues also presented plans for a space mission, DECIGO, that would bridge the gap between the LISA and ground-based interferometer frequency range. Compared to previous Amaldi meetings, Amaldi8 had new elements representing emerging trends in the field. For example, with the inclusion of pulsar timing collaborations to the GWIC, gravitational wave detection using pulsar timing arrays was recognized as one of the prominent directions in the field and was represented at Amaldi8 as a separate session. By 2009, searches for gravitational waves based on external triggers received from electromagnetic observations were already producing significant scientific results and plans existed for pointing telescopes by utilizing gravitational wave trigger events. Such
Gravitational Wave Astrophysics: Opening the New Frontier
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2011-01-01
A new era in time-domain astronomy will begin when the gravitational wave window onto the universe opens in approx. 5 years, as ground-based detectors make the first detections in the high-frequency regime. Since the universe is nearly transparent to gravitational waves, these signals carry direct information about their sources - such as masses, spins, luminosity distances, and orbital parameters through dense, obscured regions across cosmic time. This talk will explore gravitational waves as cosmic messengers, highlighting key sources and opportunities for multimessenger astronomy across the gravitational wave spectrum.
Gravitational Wave Astrophysics: Opening the New Frontier
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
A new era in astronomy will begin when the gravitational wave window onto the universe opens in approx. 5 years, as ground-based detectors make the first detections in the high-frequency regime. Since the universe is nearly transparent to gravitational waves, these signals carry direct information about their sources - such as masses, spins, luminosity distances, and orbital parameters - through dense, obscured regions across cosmic time. This talk will explore gravitational waves as cosmic messengers, highlighting key sources and opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy across the gravitational wave spectrum.
Gravitational Wave Astrophysics: Opening the New Frontier
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2011-01-01
A new era in astronomy will begin when the gravitational wave window onto the universe opens in approx. 5 years) as ground-based detectors make the first detections in the high-frequency regime. Since the universe is nearly transparent to gravitational waves) these signals carry direct information about their sources - such as masses) spins) luminosity distances) and orbital parameters - through dense) obscured regions across cosmic time. This talk will explore gravitational waves as cosmic messengers) highlighting key sources and opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy across the gravitational wave spectrum.
Discriminating between a stochastic gravitational wave background and instrument noise
Adams, Matthew R.; Cornish, Neil J.
2010-07-15
The detection of a stochastic background of gravitational waves could significantly impact our understanding of the physical processes that shaped the early Universe. The challenge lies in separating the cosmological signal from other stochastic processes such as instrument noise and astrophysical foregrounds. One approach is to build two or more detectors and cross correlate their output, thereby enhancing the common gravitational wave signal relative to the uncorrelated instrument noise. When only one detector is available, as will likely be the case with the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), alternative analysis techniques must be developed. Here we show that models of the noise and signal transfer functions can be used to tease apart the gravitational and instrument noise contributions. We discuss the role of gravitational wave insensitive ''null channels'' formed from particular combinations of the time delay interferometry, and derive a new combination that maintains this insensitivity for unequal arm-length detectors. We show that, in the absence of astrophysical foregrounds, LISA could detect signals with energy densities as low as {Omega}{sub gw}=6x10{sup -13} with just one month of data. We describe an end-to-end Bayesian analysis pipeline that is able to search for, characterize and assign confidence levels for the detection of a stochastic gravitational wave background, and demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach using simulated data from the third round of Mock LISA Data Challenges.
The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array and detection of gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manchester, R.
Gravitational waves are an important prediction of Einstein s general theory of relativity Evidence for their existence has come from observations of orbit decay in double-neutron-star binary systems but up to now despite huge efforts there has been no direct detection of these waves In collaboration with groups from the Swinburne University of Technology Melbourne and the University of Texas Brownsville we have embarked on a major project to establish the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array PPTA with the principal goal of making a direct detection of gravitational waves of astronomical origin The project involves making precision timing observations of 20 millisecond pulsars at intervals of 2 -- 3 weeks using the Parkes 64-m radio telescope Observations are made at three radio frequencies 685 1400 and 3100 MHz to allow correction for interstellar propagation effects The PPTA is most sensitive to gravitational waves with frequencies in the nanoHertz range and hence is complementary to ground- and space-based laser interferometer systems Simulations suggest that if timing precisions of order 100 nanoseconds can be reached for most of the observed sample over a 5-year data span the stochastic background of gravitational waves from super-massive binary black holes in the cores of galaxies should be detectable Currently we have achieved this level of precision for 3 or 4 pulsars and sub-microsecond precision for a further 8 or 9 pulsars Improved hardware and software systems under development will hopefully allow us to reach our goal The PPTA
Error Sources for Gravitational Wave Sensors using Atom Interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bender, Peter L.
2011-04-01
Proposals were made in 2008 for using two atom interferometers with laser links between them as gravitational wave sensors (S. Dimopoulos et al., PRD 78, 122002 (2008)). However, the importance of fluctuations in the laser wavefront aberrations over periods of seconds to minutes was overlooked in these proposals. For the AGIS-Sat 3 proposal, the total path length would be 10,000 km, and the laser wavefront aberration fluctuations would have to be attenuated to a level of 2 × 10-9 wavelengths in order to achieve the quoted gravitational wave sensitivity. For the AGIS-Sat 2 proposal, the requirement would be a factor 10 less severe. In addition, the atom cloud temperature fluctuations from cloud to cloud would have to be less than 0.2 pK and 2 pK for the two proposed missions. More recently, a proposal for a gravitational wave mission called AGIS-LEO at 1000 km altitude in Earth orbit has been made (J. M. Hogan et al., arXiv:1009.2702v1, 14 Sept. 2010). For this mission, the atom interferometer separation would be 30 km, and the wavefront aberration jitter would need to be reduced to 2 × 10-8 wavelengths. Some steps toward mitigation of the wavefront aberration jitter problem are mentioned, including possible use of an extra initial laser propagation path and a mode-scrubbing cavity. However, the requirements on such filtering systems appear to be severe.
Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, John
2007-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GE0600, as well as the space-based interferometer LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, data analysis, and astrophysics.
Gravitational-Wave Cosmology across 29 Decades in Frequency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lasky, Paul D.; Mingarelli, Chiara M. F.; Smith, Tristan L.; Giblin, John T.; Thrane, Eric; Reardon, Daniel J.; Caldwell, Robert; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, N. D. Ramesh; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Dai, Shi; Dempsey, James; Hobbs, George; Kerr, Matthew; Levin, Yuri; Manchester, Richard N.; Osłowski, Stefan; Ravi, Vikram; Rosado, Pablo A.; Shannon, Ryan M.; Spiewak, Renée; van Straten, Willem; Toomey, Lawrence; Wang, Jingbo; Wen, Linqing; You, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Xingjiang
2016-01-01
Quantum fluctuations of the gravitational field in the early Universe, amplified by inflation, produce a primordial gravitational-wave background across a broad frequency band. We derive constraints on the spectrum of this gravitational radiation, and hence on theories of the early Universe, by combining experiments that cover 29 orders of magnitude in frequency. These include Planck observations of cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization power spectra and lensing, together with baryon acoustic oscillations and big bang nucleosynthesis measurements, as well as new pulsar timing array and ground-based interferometer limits. While individual experiments constrain the gravitational-wave energy density in specific frequency bands, the combination of experiments allows us to constrain cosmological parameters, including the inflationary spectral index nt and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r . Results from individual experiments include the most stringent nanohertz limit of the primordial background to date from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array, ΩGW(f )<2.3 ×10-10 . Observations of the cosmic microwave background alone limit the gravitational-wave spectral index at 95% confidence to nt≲5 for a tensor-to-scalar ratio of r =0.11 . However, the combination of all the above experiments limits nt<0.36 . Future Advanced LIGO observations are expected to further constrain nt<0.34 by 2020. When cosmic microwave background experiments detect a nonzero r , our results will imply even more stringent constraints on nt and, hence, theories of the early Universe.
Gravitational waves from fragmentation of a primordial scalar condensate into Q balls.
Kusenko, Alexander; Mazumdar, Anupam
2008-11-21
A generic consequence of supersymmetry is the formation of a scalar condensate along the flat directions of the potential at the end of cosmological inflation. This condensate is usually unstable, and it can fragment into nontopological solitons, Q balls. The gravitational waves produced by the fragmentation can be detected by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, and Big Bang Observer, which can open an important window to the early Universe and the physics at some very high energy scales.
Gravitational waves from fragmentation of a primordial scalar condensate into Q balls.
Kusenko, Alexander; Mazumdar, Anupam
2008-11-21
A generic consequence of supersymmetry is the formation of a scalar condensate along the flat directions of the potential at the end of cosmological inflation. This condensate is usually unstable, and it can fragment into nontopological solitons, Q balls. The gravitational waves produced by the fragmentation can be detected by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, and Big Bang Observer, which can open an important window to the early Universe and the physics at some very high energy scales. PMID:19113402
Optical frequency-modulated continuous-wave interferometers.
Zheng, Jesse
2006-04-20
I discuss optical frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) interferometers, including their principles, characteristics, specific requirements, procedure for their construction, optical configurations, primary applications, optical sources, resolution, measurement range, and stability. PMID:16633422
Beyond concordance cosmology with magnification of gravitational-wave standard sirens.
Camera, Stefano; Nishizawa, Atsushi
2013-04-12
We show how future gravitational-wave detectors would be able to discriminate between the concordance Λ cold dark matter cosmological model and up-to-date competing alternatives, e.g., dynamical dark energy (DE) models or modified gravity (MG) theories. Our method consists of using the weak-lensing magnification effect that affects a standard-siren signal because of its traveling through the Universe's large scale structure. As a demonstration, we present constraints on DE and MG from proposed gravitational-wave detectors, namely Einstein Telescope and DECI-Hertz Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and Big-Bang Observer. PMID:25167243
Beyond concordance cosmology with magnification of gravitational-wave standard sirens.
Camera, Stefano; Nishizawa, Atsushi
2013-04-12
We show how future gravitational-wave detectors would be able to discriminate between the concordance Λ cold dark matter cosmological model and up-to-date competing alternatives, e.g., dynamical dark energy (DE) models or modified gravity (MG) theories. Our method consists of using the weak-lensing magnification effect that affects a standard-siren signal because of its traveling through the Universe's large scale structure. As a demonstration, we present constraints on DE and MG from proposed gravitational-wave detectors, namely Einstein Telescope and DECI-Hertz Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and Big-Bang Observer.
Beyond Concordance Cosmology with Magnification of Gravitational-Wave Standard Sirens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camera, Stefano; Nishizawa, Atsushi
2013-04-01
We show how future gravitational-wave detectors would be able to discriminate between the concordance Λ cold dark matter cosmological model and up-to-date competing alternatives, e.g., dynamical dark energy (DE) models or modified gravity (MG) theories. Our method consists of using the weak-lensing magnification effect that affects a standard-siren signal because of its traveling through the Universe’s large scale structure. As a demonstration, we present constraints on DE and MG from proposed gravitational-wave detectors, namely Einstein Telescope and DECI-Hertz Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and Big-Bang Observer.
Gravitaton Wave and Gravitational-Photon Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khasanov, Kholmurad
2013-06-01
Gravitation waves and gravitational-photon interaction with high energy photons emission is found experimentally. Super-compressibility phenomenon was studied. Spectral investigations of supersonic jets and incandescent nichrome thread and wolfram spiral were studied. The shifting of the emission spectrum was detected depending on vector of gravity. The increasing frequency of light emitted against gravity vector is measured. Uneven along the spectrum character of intensity increasing is found. Generation of short-wavelength component of the spectrum is observed in case of more power of heating. The measurements show that presented interactions have resonance nature. Our experiments demonstrate the existence resonance nature. Our experiments demonstrate the gravitation wave and generation and existence of gravitational-photon interactions. From left to right: Fig. 1-2. Visualization of the gravitation wave. Fig. 3-5. Gravitational-photon interaction in HF field.
Phasing of gravitational waves from inspiralling eccentric binaries
Damour, Thibault; Gopakumar, Achamveedu; Iyer, Bala R.
2004-09-15
We provide a method for analytically constructing high-accuracy templates for the gravitational-wave signals emitted by compact binaries moving in inspiralling eccentric orbits. In contrast to the simpler problem of modeling the gravitational-wave signals emitted by inspiralling circular orbits, which contain only two different time scales, namely, those associated with the orbital motion and the radiation reaction, the case of inspiralling eccentric orbits involves three different time scales: orbital period, periastron precession, and radiation-reaction time scales. By using an improved 'method of variation of constants', we show how to combine these three time scales, without making the usual approximation of treating the radiative time scale as an adiabatic process. We explicitly implement our method at the 2.5PN post-Newtonian accuracy. Our final results can be viewed as computing new 'postadiabatic' short-period contributions to the orbital phasing or, equivalently, new short-period contributions to the gravitational-wave polarizations, h{sub +,x}, that should be explicitly added to the 'post-Newtonian' expansion for h{sub +,x}, if one treats radiative effects on the orbital phasing of the latter in the usual adiabatic approximation. Our results should be of importance both for the LIGO/VIRGO/GEO network of ground based interferometric gravitational-wave detectors (especially if Kozai oscillations turn out to be significant in globular cluster triplets) and for the future space-based interferometer LISA.
Implementation of barycentric resampling for continuous wave searches in gravitational wave data
Patel, Pinkesh; Dupuis, Rejean; Betzwieser, Joseph; Siemens, Xavier
2010-04-15
We describe an efficient implementation of a coherent statistic for searches of continuous gravitational wave from neutron stars. The algorithm works by transforming the data taken by a gravitational wave detector from a moving Earth bound frame to one that sits at the Solar System barycenter. Many practical difficulties arise in the implementation of this algorithm, some of which have not been discussed previously. These difficulties include constraints of small computer memory, discreteness of the data, losses due to interpolation, and gaps in real data. This implementation is considerably more efficient than previous implementations of these kinds of searches on Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave (LIGO) detector data. The speed-up factors range from 10, when applied to Einstein-Home, to about 2000 for targeted searches which integrate over months of data.
Special relativity and interferometers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, D.; Kim, Y. S.
1988-01-01
A new generation of gravitational wave detectors is expected to be based on interferometers. Yurke et al. (1986) introduced a class of interferometers characterized by SU(1,1) which can in principle achieve a phase sensitivity approaching 1/N, where N is thte total number of photons entering the interferometer. It is shown here that the SU(1,1) interferometer can serve as an analog computer for Wigner's little group of the Poincare\\'| group.
Breaking strain of neutron star crust and gravitational waves.
Horowitz, C J; Kadau, Kai
2009-05-15
Mountains on rapidly rotating neutron stars efficiently radiate gravitational waves. The maximum possible size of these mountains depends on the breaking strain of the neutron star crust. With multimillion ion molecular dynamics simulations of Coulomb solids representing the crust, we show that the breaking strain of pure single crystals is very large and that impurities, defects, and grain boundaries only modestly reduce the breaking strain to around 0.1. Because of the collective behavior of the ions during failure found in our simulations, the neutron star crust is likely very strong and can support mountains large enough so that their gravitational wave radiation could limit the spin periods of some stars and might be detectable in large-scale interferometers. Furthermore, our microscopic modeling of neutron star crust material can help analyze mechanisms relevant in magnetar giant flares and microflares.
Balanced homodyne readout for quantum limited gravitational wave detectors.
Fritschel, Peter; Evans, Matthew; Frolov, Valery
2014-02-24
Balanced homodyne detection is typically used to measure quantum-noise-limited optical beams, including squeezed states of light, at audio-band frequencies. Current designs of advanced gravitational wave interferometers use some type of homodyne readout for signal detection, in part because of its compatibility with the use of squeezed light. The readout scheme used in Advanced LIGO, called DC readout, is however not a balanced detection scheme. Instead, the local oscillator field, generated from a dark fringe offset, co-propagates with the signal field at the anti-symmetric output of the beam splitter. This article examines the alternative of a true balanced homodyne detection for the readout of gravitational wave detectors such as Advanced LIGO. Several practical advantages of the balanced detection scheme are described. PMID:24663746
Double optical spring enhancement for gravitational-wave detectors
Rehbein, Henning; Mueller-Ebhardt, Helge; Schnabel, Roman; Danzmann, Karsten; Somiya, Kentaro; Chen Yanbei; Danilishin, Stefan L.
2008-09-15
Currently planned second-generation gravitational-wave laser interferometers such as Advanced LIGO exploit the extensively investigated signal-recycling technique. Candidate Advanced LIGO configurations are usually designed to have two resonances within the detection band, around which the sensitivity is enhanced: a stable optical resonance and an unstable optomechanical resonance--which is upshifted from the pendulum frequency due to the so-called optical-spring effect. As an alternative to a feedback control system, we propose an all-optical stabilization scheme, in which a second optical spring is employed, and the test mass is trapped by a stable ponderomotive potential well induced by two carrier light fields whose detunings have opposite signs. The double optical spring also brings additional flexibility in reshaping the noise spectral density and optimizing toward specific gravitational-wave sources. The presented scheme can be extended easily to a multi-optical-spring system that allows further optimization.
Optics in a nonlinear gravitational plane wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harte, Abraham I.
2015-09-01
Gravitational waves can act like gravitational lenses, affecting the observed positions, brightnesses, and redshifts of distant objects. Exact expressions for such effects are derived here in general relativity, allowing for arbitrarily-moving sources and observers in the presence of plane-symmetric gravitational waves. At least for freely falling sources and observers, it is shown that the commonly-used predictions of linear perturbation theory can be generically overshadowed by nonlinear effects; even for very weak gravitational waves, higher-order perturbative corrections involve secularly-growing terms which cannot necessarily be neglected when considering observations of sufficiently distant sources. Even on more moderate scales where linear effects remain at least marginally dominant, nonlinear corrections are qualitatively different from their linear counterparts. There is a sense in which they can, for example, mimic the existence of a third type of gravitational wave polarization.
Using waveform complexity in the search for transient gravitational wave events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Millhouse, Margaret; Littenberg, Tyson; Cornish, Neil; Kanner, Jonah; LIGO Collaboration
2016-03-01
Searches for short, unmodeled gravitational waves using ground based interferometers are impacted by transient noise artifacts, or ``glitches'', which can be difficult to distinguish from gravitational waves of astrophysical origin. The BayesWave algorithm presents a novel method of distinguishing glitches from short duration astrophysical signals by using waveform complexity to rank candidate events. In addition to identifying signals and glitches, BayesWave also provides robust waveform reconstruction with minimal assumptions. I will showcase the algorithm's glitch rejection capabilities, and discuss the performance of BayesWave during Advanced LIGO's first observational run.
BOOK REVIEW: Gravitational Waves, Volume 1: Theory and Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poisson, Eric
2008-10-01
A superficial introduction to gravitational waves can be found in most textbooks on general relativity, but typically, the treatment hardly does justice to a field that has grown tremendously, both in its theoretical and experimental aspects, in the course of the last twenty years. Other than the technical literature, few other sources have been available to the interested reader; exceptions include edited volumes such as [1] and [2], Weber's little book [3] which happily is still in print, and Peter Saulson's text [4] which appears, unfortunately, to be out of print. In addition to these technical references, the story of gravitational waves was famously told by a sociologist of scientific knowledge [5] (focusing mostly on the experimental aspects) and a historian of science [6] (focusing mostly on the theoretical aspects). The book Gravitational Waves, Volume 1, by Michele Maggiore, is a welcome point of departure. This is, as far as I know, the first comprehensive textbook on gravitational waves. It describes the theoretical foundations of the subject, the known (and anticipated) sources, and the principles of detection by resonant masses and laser interferometers. This book is a major accomplishment, and with the promised volume 2 on astrophysical and cosmological aspects of gravitational waves, the community of all scientists interested in this topic will be well served. Part I of the book is devoted to the theoretical aspects of gravitational waves. In chapter 1 the waves are introduced in usual relativist's fashion, in the context of an approximation to general relativity in which they are treated as a small perturbation of the Minkowski metric of flat spacetime. This is an adequate foundation to study how the waves propagate, and how they interact with freely moving masses making up a detector. The waves are presented in the usual traceless-transverse gauge, but the detection aspects are also worked out in the detector's proper rest frame; this dual
Microwave background anisotropy induced by gravitational waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Linder, Eric V.
1988-01-01
A cosmological background of gravitational waves induces redshift perturbations in light transversing it. Calculations of this Sachs-Wolfe effect on the microwave background are presented in an Omega = 1 Friedmann universe as a function of angular scale and gravitational wave spectrum. Blurriness of the last-scattering surface can cause nonnegligible dilution of the anisotropy for wavelengths less than about 100 Mpc. The limit implied for the energy density of the gravitational waves is given. A difficulty in associating a linear scale with an angular anisotropy, due to the clumpiness of the universe, is also pointed out.
Binary Black Holes and Gravitational Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2007-01-01
The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy, more than the combined light from all the stars in the visible universe. This energy is emitted in the form of gravitational waves, and observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors such as LIGO and LISA requires that we know the pattern or fingerprint of the radiation emitted. Since black hole mergers take place in regions of extreme gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these wave patterns.
Maximum gravitational-wave energy emissible in magnetar flares
Corsi, Alessandra; Owen, Benjamin J.
2011-05-15
Recent searches of gravitational-wave data raise the question of what maximum gravitational-wave energies could be emitted during gamma-ray flares of highly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars). The highest energies ({approx}10{sup 49} erg) predicted so far come from a model [K. Ioka, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327, 639 (2001), http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001MNRAS.327..639I] in which the internal magnetic field of a magnetar experiences a global reconfiguration, changing the hydromagnetic equilibrium structure of the star and tapping the gravitational potential energy without changing the magnetic potential energy. The largest energies in this model assume very special conditions, including a large change in moment of inertia (which was observed in at most one flare), a very high internal magnetic field, and a very soft equation of state. Here we show that energies of 10{sup 48}-10{sup 49} erg are possible under more generic conditions by tapping the magnetic energy, and we note that similar energies may also be available through cracking of exotic solid cores. Current observational limits on gravitational waves from magnetar fundamental modes are just reaching these energies and will beat them in the era of advanced interferometers.
Periodic gravitational waves from small cosmic string loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubath, Florian; Rocha, Jorge V.
2007-07-01
We consider a population of small, high-velocity cosmic string loops. We assume the typical length of these loops is determined by the gravitational radiation scale and use the results of Polchinski and Rocha which pointed out their highly relativistic nature. A study of the gravitational wave emission from such a population is carried out. The large Lorentz boost involved causes the lowest harmonics of the loops to fall within the frequency band of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory detector. Because of this feature the gravitational waves emitted by such loops can be detected in a periodic search rather than in burst or stochastic analysis. It is shown that, for interesting values of the string tension (10-10≲Gμ≲10-8), the detector can observe loops at reasonably high redshifts and that detection is, in principle, possible. We compute the number of expected observations produced by such a process. For a 10 h search we find that this number is of order O(10-4). This is a consequence of the low effective number density of the loops traveling along the line of sight. However, small probabilities of reconnection and longer observation times can improve the result.
Laser Interferometry for Gravitational Wave Observation: LISA and LISA Pathfinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guzman, Felipe
2010-01-01
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a planned NASA-ESA gravitational wave observatory in the frequency range of 0.1mHz-100mHz. This observation band is inaccessible to ground-based detectors due to the large ground motions of the Earth. Gravitational wave sources for LISA include galactic binaries, mergers of supermasive black-hole binaries, extreme-mass-ratio inspirals, and possibly from as yet unimagined sources. LISA is a constellation of three spacecraft separated by 5 million km in an equilateral triangle, whose center follows the Earth in a heliocentric orbit with an orbital phase offset oF 20 degrees. Challenging technology is required to ensure pure geodetic trajectories of the six onboard test masses, whose distance fluctuations will be measured by interspacecraft laser interferometers with picometer accuracy. LISA Pathfinder is an ESA-launched technology demonstration mission of key LISA subsystems such us spacecraft control with micro-newton thrusters, test mass drag-free control, and precision laser interferometry between free-flying test masses. Ground testing of flight hardware of the Gravitational Reference Sensor and Optical Metrology subsystems of LISA Pathfinder is currently ongoing. An introduction to laser interferometric gravitational wave detection, ground-based observatories, and a detailed description of the two missions together with an overview of current investigations conducted by the community will bc discussed. The current status in development and implementation of LISA Pathfinder pre-flight systems and latest results of the ongoing ground testing efforts will also be presented
Noncontact detection of ultrasonic waves using fiber optic Sagnac interferometer.
Jang, Tae Seong; Lee, Seung Seok; Kwon, Il Bum; Lee, Wang Joo; Lee, Jung Ju
2002-06-01
This paper describes a fiber optic sensor suitable for noncontact detection of ultrasonic waves. This sensor is based on the fiber optic Sagnac interferometer, which has a path-matched configuration and does not require active stabilization. Quadrature phase bias between two interfering laser beams in the Sagnac loop is applied by controlling the birefringence using a fiber polarization controller. A stable quadrature phase bias can be confirmed by observing the interferometer output according to the change of phase bias. Additional signal processing is not needed for the detection of ultrasonic waves using the Sagnac interferometer. Ultrasonic oscillations produced by conventional ultrasonic piezoelectric transducers were successfully detected, and the performance of this interferometer was investigated by a power spectrum analysis of the output signal. Based on the validation of the fiber optic Sagnac interferometer, noncontact detection of laser-generated surface waves was performed. The configured Sagnac interferometer is very effective for the detection of small displacement with high frequency, such as ultrasonic waves used in conventional nondestructive testing (NDT).
Hunting for dark particles with gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giudice, Gian F.; McCullough, Matthew; Urbano, Alfredo
2016-10-01
The LIGO observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger has begun a new era in fundamental physics. If new dark sector particles, be they bosons or fermions, can coalesce into exotic compact objects (ECOs) of astronomical size, then the first evidence for such objects, and their underlying microphysical description, may arise in gravitational wave observations. In this work we study how the macroscopic properties of ECOs are related to their microscopic properties, such as dark particle mass and couplings. We then demonstrate the smoking gun exotic signatures that would provide observational evidence for ECOs, and hence new particles, in terrestrial gravitational wave observatories. Finally, we discuss how gravitational waves can test a core concept in general relativity: Hawking's area theorem.
Building a Galactic Scale Gravitational Wave Observatory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McLaughlin, Maura
2016-03-01
Pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars with phenomenal rotational stability that can be used as celestial clocks in a variety of fundamental physics experiences. One of these experiments involves using a pulsar timing array of precisely timed millisecond pulsars to detect perturbations due to gravitational waves. The low frequency gravitational waves detectable through pulsar timing will most likely result from an ensemble of supermassive black hole binaries. I will introduce the efforts of the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav), a collaboration that monitors over 50 millisecond pulsars with the Green Bank Telescope and the Arecibo Observatory, with a focus on our observation and data analysis methods. I will also describe how NANOGrav has joined international partners through the International Pulsar Timing Array to form a low-frequency gravitational wave detector of unprecedented sensitivity.
Gravitational Waves and Time-Domain Astronomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Centrella, Joan; Nissanke, Samaya; Williams, Roy
2012-04-01
The gravitational-wave window onto the universe will open in roughly five years, when Advanced LIGO and Virgo achieve the first detections of high-frequency gravitational waves, most likely coming from compact binary mergers. Electromagnetic follow-up of these triggers, using radio, optical, and high energy telescopes, promises exciting opportunities in multi-messenger time-domain astronomy. In the decade, space-based observations of low-frequency gravitational waves from massive black hole mergers, and their electromagnetic counterparts, will open up further vistas for discovery. This two-part workshop featured brief presentations and stimulating discussions on the challenges and opportunities presented by gravitational-wave astronomy. Highlights from the workshop, with the emphasis on strategies for electromagnetic follow-up, are presented in this report.
Gravitational Waves and Time Domain Astronomy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan; Nissanke, Samaya; Williams, Roy
2012-01-01
The gravitational wave window onto the universe will open in roughly five years, when Advanced LIGO and Virgo achieve the first detections of high frequency gravitational waves, most likely coming from compact binary mergers. Electromagnetic follow-up of these triggers, using radio, optical, and high energy telescopes, promises exciting opportunities in multi-messenger time domain astronomy. In the decade, space-based observations of low frequency gravitational waves from massive black hole mergers, and their electromagnetic counterparts, will open up further vistas for discovery. This two-part workshop featured brief presentations and stimulating discussions on the challenges and opportunities presented by gravitational wave astronomy. Highlights from the workshop, with the emphasis on strategies for electromagnetic follow-up, are presented in this report.
Gravitational Waves:. from the Past to the Future of the Global Network of Detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ricci, Fulvio
2011-10-01
The global network of gravitational wav detectors is a reality: since May, 2007 the LIGO Scientific community and the Virgo collaboration started to analysis in common all the data produced by the gravitational wave interferometers running in Europe and in USA. Here we review some of the recent results obtained by the two collaboration and we discuss the impact of the present and future observation for fundamental physics and astrophysics.
The pregalactic cosmic gravitational wave background
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matzner, Richard A.
1989-01-01
An outline is given that estimates the expected gravitational wave background, based on plausible pregalactic sources. Some cosmologically significant limits can be put on incoherent gravitational wave background arising from pregalactic cosmic evolution. The spectral region of cosmically generated and cosmically limited radiation is, at long periods, P greater than 1 year, in contrast to more recent cosmological sources, which have P approx. 10 to 10(exp -3).
Backscatter tolerant squeezed light source for advanced gravitational-wave detectors.
Chua, Sheon S Y; Stefszky, Michael S; Mow-Lowry, Conor M; Buchler, Ben C; Dwyer, Sheila; Shaddock, Daniel A; Lam, Ping Koy; McClelland, David E
2011-12-01
We report on the performance of a dual-wavelength resonant, traveling-wave optical parametric oscillator to generate squeezed light for application in advanced gravitational-wave interferometers. Shot noise suppression of 8.6±0.8 dB was measured across the detection band of interest to Advanced LIGO, and controlled squeezing measured over 5900 s. Our results also demonstrate that the traveling-wave design has excellent intracavity backscattered light suppression of 47 dB and incident backscattered light suppression of 41 dB, which is a crucial design issue for application in advanced interferometers. PMID:22139282
Gravitational wave asteroseismology with protoneutron stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotani, Hajime; Takiwaki, Tomoya
2016-08-01
We examine the time evolution of the frequencies of the gravitational wave after the bounce within the framework of relativistic linear perturbation theory using the results of one-dimensional numerical simulations of core-collapse supernovae. Protoneutron star models are constructed in such a way that the mass and the radius of the protoneutron star become equivalent to the results obtained from the numerical simulations. Then we find that the frequencies of gravitational waves radiating from protoneutron stars strongly depend on the mass and the radius of protoneutron stars, but almost independently of the profiles of the electron fraction and the entropy per baryon inside the star. Additionally, we find that the frequencies of gravitational waves can be characterized by the square root of the average density of the protoneutron star irrespective of the progenitor models, which are completely different from the empirical formula for cold neutron stars. The dependence of the spectra on the mass and the radius is different from that of the g -mode: the oscillations around the surface of protoneutron stars due to the convection and the standing accretion-shock instability. Careful observation of these modes of gravitational waves can determine the evolution of the mass and the radius of protoneutron stars after core bounce. Furthermore, the expected frequencies of gravitational waves are around a few hundred hertz in the early stages after bounce, which must be a good candidate for the ground-based gravitational wave detectors.
Time Evolution of Pure Gravitational Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyama, S. M.
1981-03-01
Numerical solutions to the Einstein equations in the case of pure gravitational waves are given. The system is assumed to be axially symmetric and non-rotating. The time symmetric initial data and the conformally flat initial data are obtained by solving the constraint equations at t=0. The time evolution of these initial data depends strongly on the initial amplitude of the gravitational waves. In the case of the low initial amplitude, waves only disperse to null infinity. By comparing the initial gravitational energy with the total energy loss through an r=constant surface, it is concluded that the Newman-Penrose method and the Gibbon-Hawking method are the most desirable for measuring the energy flux of gravitational radiation numerically. In the case that the initial ratio of the spatial extent of the gravitational waves to the Schwarzschild radius (M/2) is smaller than about 300, the waves collapse by themselves, leading to formation of a black hole. The analytic solutions of the linearized Einstein equations for the pure gravitational waves are also shown.
Testing Modified Gravity with Gravitational-Wave Observations from Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sopuerta, Carlos F.; Yunes, Nicolas
The inspiral of stellar compact objects into massive black holes sitting at galactic centers, usually known as extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs), is one of the most important sources of gravitational radiation for the future Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), an ESA-NASA mission. It is expected that LISA will determine the physical parameters of these sources with a high precision. These precise measurements open the possibility of making robust tests of the existence of black holes, of their geometry, and even of the gravitational interaction. In relation to this, intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals (IMRIs) are also of interest to advance ground-based gravitational-wave observatories. In this talk, we discuss how modifications to the gravitational interaction can affect the signals emitted by EMRIs and the detectability of these modifications by LISA. To that end, we present results from an study of a particular modification of General Relativity (GR): Chern-Simons modified gravity, a theory that emerges in different quantum gravitational approaches and where spinning black holes have a geometry different from the Kerr geometry predicted by GR. References: C. F. Sopuerta and N. Yunes "Extreme and Intermediate-Mass Ratio Inspirals in Dynamical Chern-Simons Modified Gravity" Physical Review D80, 064006 (2009). e-Print: arXiv:0904.4501 [gr-qc
Black Hole Coalescence: The Gravitational Wave Driven Phase
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schnittman, Jeremy D.
2011-01-01
When two supermassive black holes (SMBHS) approach within 1-10 mpc, gravitational wave (GW) losses begin to dominate the evolution of the binary, pushing the system to merge in a relatively small time. During this final inspiral regime, the system will emit copious energy in GWs, which should be directly detectable by pulsar timing arrays and space-based interferometers. At the same time, any gas or stars in the immediate vicinity of the merging 5MBHs can get heated and produce bright electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to the GW signals. We present here a number of possible mechanisms by which simultaneous EM and GW signals will yield valuable new information about galaxy evolution, accretion disk dynamics, and fundamental physics in the most extreme gravitational fields.
Low-frequency terrestrial gravitational-wave detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harms, Jan; Slagmolen, Bram J. J.; Adhikari, Rana X.; Miller, M. Coleman; Evans, Matthew; Chen, Yanbei; Müller, Holger; Ando, Masaki
2013-12-01
Direct detection of gravitational radiation in the audio band is being pursued with a network of kilometer-scale interferometers (LIGO, Virgo, KAGRA). Several space missions (LISA, DECIGO, BBO) have been proposed to search for sub-hertz radiation from massive astrophysical sources. Here we examine the potential sensitivity of three ground-based detector concepts aimed at radiation in the 0.1-10 Hz band. We describe the plethora of potential astrophysical sources in this band and make estimates for their event rates and thereby, the sensitivity requirements for these detectors. The scientific payoff from measuring astrophysical gravitational waves in this frequency band is great. Although we find no fundamental limits to the detector sensitivity in this band, the remaining technical limits will be extremely challenging to overcome.
The terrestrial gravitational wave environment from known sources
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Webbink, Ronald F.
1993-01-01
The objective of this project was to produce a gravitational wave spectral line list of all known binary stars producing expected strain amplitudes at Earth in excess of h = 10 (exp -21), or gravitational wave fluxes in excess of F = 10 (exp -12) erg cm(exp -2) s(exp -1). These strain and flux limits lie above the anticipated detection thresholds for space-borne laser interferometers capable of detecting gravitational radiation in the 10 micron Hz to 1 Hz frequency range. The source list was intended to provide frequency (including each harmonic), amplitude and phase (for each polarization and harmonic), and celestial coordinates for each system, lacking only the orientation of the principal polarization axis with respect to the pole of the coordinate system, and the sign of the source phase and frequency (or, equivalently, of the sense of rotation of the strain tensor with time) from providing a complete source description. Such a spectral line list would lay essential groundwork for high-sensitivity, low-frequency searches for gravitational radiation.
Gravitational wave astrophysics with compact binary systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Addison, Eric
2014-10-01
Gravitational waves are ripples in the fabric of spacetime that convey information about changing gravitational fields. Large-scale detection projects are currently in operation, and more advanced detectors are being designed and built. Though we have yet to make a direct detection of a gravitational wave signal, upgrades to current detectors are expected to bring the first detections within the next year or two. Gravitational waves will bring us information about astrophysical phenomena that is complementary to the information gained from photon-based observations (e.g., telescopes and radio receivers). One of the primary sources of gravitational waves are binary systems: two massive objects that orbit around each other due to their mutual gravitational attraction. These systems can have very predictable gravitational wave signatures due to their repetitive motions, making them ideal gravitational wave sources. In this dissertation, I present two research projects pertaining to gravitational wave astrophysics and compact binary systems. In the first, I explore interactions between compact binary systems near the center of our galaxy with the supermassive black hole that resides there. I am interested in the final state of the binary as a result of the interaction, ranging from small perturbations to the orbit up to total disruption. In the case of disruption, I characterize the new orbits formed between the binary components and the central black hole, known as extreme mass ratio inspirals. For binaries that survive the encounter, I examine the changes they experience, and find on average, they will merge together as a result of gravitational wave emission faster than before the encounter. In the second project, I propose a new method of measuring the radius of the swirling disc of gas and dust that encircles some stars in compact binary systems, known as the accretion disc. This method relies on the use of coupled electromagnetic and gravitational wave
Strong gravitational lensing of gravitational waves in Einstein Telescope
Piórkowska, Aleksandra; Biesiada, Marek; Zhu, Zong-Hong E-mail: marek.biesiada@us.edu.pl
2013-10-01
Gravitational wave experiments have entered a new stage which gets us closer to the opening a new observational window on the Universe. In particular, the Einstein Telescope (ET) is designed to have a fantastic sensitivity that will provide with tens or hundreds of thousand NS-NS inspiral events per year up to the redshift z = 2. Some of such events should be gravitationally lensed by intervening galaxies. We explore the prospects of observing gravitationally lensed inspiral NS-NS events in the Einstein telescope. Being conservative we consider the lens population of elliptical galaxies. It turns out that depending on the local insipral rate ET should detect from one per decade detection in the pessimistic case to a tens of detections per year for the most optimistic case. The detection of gravitationally lensed source in gravitational wave detectors would be an invaluable source of information concerning cosmography, complementary to standard ones (like supernovae or BAO) independent of the local cosmic distance ladder calibrations.
Atomic Gravitational Wave Interferometric Sensors (AGIS) in Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugarbaker, Alex; Hogan, Jason; Johnson, David; Dickerson, Susannah; Kovachy, Tim; Chiow, Sheng-Wey; Kasevich, Mark
2012-06-01
Atom interferometers have the potential to make sensitive gravitational wave detectors, which would reinforce our fundamental understanding of gravity and provide a new means of observing the universe. We focus here on the AGIS-LEO proposal [1]. Gravitational waves can be observed by comparing a pair of atom interferometers separated over an extended baseline. The mission would offer a strain sensitivity that would provide access to a rich scientific region with substantial discovery potential. This band is not currently addressed with the LIGO or LISA instruments. We analyze systematic backgrounds that are relevant to the mission and discuss how they can be mitigated at the required levels. Some of these effects do not appear to have been considered previously in the context of atom interferometry, and we therefore expect that our analysis will be broadly relevant to atom interferometric precision measurements. Many of the techniques relevant to an AGIS mission can be investigated in the Stanford 10-m drop tower.[4pt] [1] J.M. Hogan, et al., Gen. Rel. Grav. 43, 1953-2009 (2011).
Searches for Continuous Gravitational Waves from Nine Young Supernova Remnants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J. S.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barclay, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bauer, Th. S.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Benacquista, M.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, Sukanta; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchman, S.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C.; Colombini, M.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Cutler, C.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dartez, L.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fuentes-Tapia, S.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. Á.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Gossler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M.; Heinzel, G.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; Jang, H.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Keiser, G. M.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N. G.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Lazzaro, C.; Le, J.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña na-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R.; Mageswaran, M.; Maglione, C.; Mailand, K.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McLin, K.; McWilliams, S.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moore, B.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nagy, M. F.; Nardecchia, I.; Nash, T.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, I.; Neri, M.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A. H.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, R.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C.; Pai, A.; Pai, S.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patrick, Z.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J.; Poggiani, R.; Post, A.; Poteomkin, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E.; Quiroga, G.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Reula, O.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sannibale, V.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Sawadsky, A.; Scheuer, J.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Staley, A.; Stebbins, J.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B.; Szczepanczyk, M.; Szeifert, G.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Tellez, G.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Tse, M.; Tshilumba, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van den Broeck, C.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vincent-Finley, R.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Xie, S.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, Q.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S.; Zweizig, J.
2015-11-01
We describe directed searches for continuous gravitational waves (GWs) in data from the sixth Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) science data run. The targets were nine young supernova remnants not associated with pulsars; eight of the remnants are associated with non-pulsing suspected neutron stars. One target's parameters are uncertain enough to warrant two searches, for a total of 10. Each search covered a broad band of frequencies and first and second frequency derivatives for a fixed sky direction. The searches coherently integrated data from the two LIGO interferometers over time spans from 5.3-25.3 days using the matched-filtering {F}-statistic. We found no evidence of GW signals. We set 95% confidence upper limits as strong (low) as 4 × 10-25 on intrinsic strain, 2 × 10-7 on fiducial ellipticity, and 4 × 10-5 on r-mode amplitude. These beat the indirect limits from energy conservation and are within the range of theoretical predictions for neutron-star ellipticities and r-mode amplitudes.
Searches for Continuous Gravitational Waves from Nine Young Supernova Remnants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J. S.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barclay, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bauer, Th. S.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Benacquista, M.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, Sukanta; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchman, S.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C.; Colombini, M.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Cutler, C.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D’Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dartez, L.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fuentes-Tapia, S.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. Á.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Gossler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M.; Heinzel, G.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.
2015-11-01
We describe directed searches for continuous gravitational waves (GWs) in data from the sixth Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) science data run. The targets were nine young supernova remnants not associated with pulsars; eight of the remnants are associated with non-pulsing suspected neutron stars. One target's parameters are uncertain enough to warrant two searches, for a total of 10. Each search covered a broad band of frequencies and first and second frequency derivatives for a fixed sky direction. The searches coherently integrated data from the two LIGO interferometers over time spans from 5.3–25.3 days using the matched-filtering {F}-statistic. We found no evidence of GW signals. We set 95% confidence upper limits as strong (low) as 4 × 10‑25 on intrinsic strain, 2 × 10‑7 on fiducial ellipticity, and 4 × 10‑5 on r-mode amplitude. These beat the indirect limits from energy conservation and are within the range of theoretical predictions for neutron-star ellipticities and r-mode amplitudes.
Hearing the echoes of electroweak baryogenesis with gravitational wave detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Fa Peng; Wan, Youping; Wang, Dong-Gang; Cai, Yi-Fu; Zhang, Xinmin
2016-08-01
We report on the first joint analysis of observational signatures from the electroweak baryogenesis in both gravitational wave (GW) detectors and particle colliders. With an effective extension of the Higgs sector in terms of the dimension-six operators, we derive a strong first-order phase transition associated with a sizable CP violation to realize a successful electroweak baryogenesis. We calculate the GW spectrum resulting from the bubble nucleation, plasma transportation, and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence of this process that occurred after the big bang and find that it yields GW signals testable with the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, Deci-hertz Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory, and Big Bang Observer. We further identify collider signals from the same mechanism that are observable at the planning Circular Electron Positron Collider. Our analysis bridges astrophysics and cosmology with particle physics by providing significant motivation for searches for GW events peaking at the (1 0-4,1 ) Hz range, which are associated with signals at colliders, and highlights the possibility of an interdisciplinary observational window into baryogenesis. The technique applied in analyzing early Universe phase transitions may enlighten the study of phase transitions in applied science.
Gravitational Waves from a Dark Phase Transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwaller, Pedro
2015-10-01
In this work, we show that a large class of models with a composite dark sector undergo a strong first order phase transition in the early Universe, which could lead to a detectable gravitational wave signal. We summarize the basic conditions for a strong first order phase transition for SU (N ) dark sectors with nf flavors, calculate the gravitational wave spectrum and show that, depending on the dark confinement scale, it can be detected at eLISA or in pulsar timing array experiments. The gravitational wave signal provides a unique test of the gravitational interactions of a dark sector, and we discuss the complementarity with conventional searches for new dark sectors. The discussion includes the twin Higgs and strongly interacting massive particle models as well as symmetric and asymmetric composite dark matter scenarios.
Gravitational Waves from a Dark Phase Transition.
Schwaller, Pedro
2015-10-30
In this work, we show that a large class of models with a composite dark sector undergo a strong first order phase transition in the early Universe, which could lead to a detectable gravitational wave signal. We summarize the basic conditions for a strong first order phase transition for SU(N) dark sectors with n_{f} flavors, calculate the gravitational wave spectrum and show that, depending on the dark confinement scale, it can be detected at eLISA or in pulsar timing array experiments. The gravitational wave signal provides a unique test of the gravitational interactions of a dark sector, and we discuss the complementarity with conventional searches for new dark sectors. The discussion includes the twin Higgs and strongly interacting massive particle models as well as symmetric and asymmetric composite dark matter scenarios. PMID:26565451
Dissipation of modified entropic gravitational energy through gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Matos, Clovis Jacinto
2012-01-01
The phenomenological nature of a new gravitational type interaction between two different bodies derived from Verlinde's entropic approach to gravitation in combination with Sorkin's definition of Universe's quantum information content, is investigated. Assuming that the energy stored in this entropic gravitational field is dissipated under the form of gravitational waves and that the Heisenberg principle holds for this system, one calculates a possible value for an absolute minimum time scale in nature tau=15/16 Λ^{1/2}hbar G/c4˜9.27×10^{-105} seconds, which is much smaller than the Planck time t P =( ħG/ c 5)1/2˜5.38×10-44 seconds. This appears together with an absolute possible maximum value for Newtonian gravitational forces generated by matter Fg=32/30c7/Λ hbar G2˜ 3.84× 10^{165} Newtons, which is much higher than the gravitational field between two Planck masses separated by the Planck length F gP = c 4/ G˜1.21×1044 Newtons.
Probing cosmic superstrings with gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sousa, L.; Avelino, P. P.
2016-09-01
We compute the stochastic gravitational wave background generated by cosmic superstrings using a semianalytical velocity-dependent model to describe their dynamics. We show that heavier string types may leave distinctive signatures on the stochastic gravitational wave background spectrum within the reach of present and upcoming gravitational wave detectors. We examine the physically motivated scenario in which the physical size of loops is determined by the gravitational backreaction scale and use NANOGrav data to derive a conservative constraint of G μF<3.2 ×10-9 on the tension of fundamental strings. We demonstrate that approximating the gravitational wave spectrum generated by cosmic superstring networks using the spectrum generated by ordinary cosmic strings with reduced intercommuting probability (which is often done in the literature) leads, in general, to weaker observational constraints on G μF. We show that the inclusion of heavier string types is required for a more accurate characterization of the region of the (gs,G μF) parameter space that may be probed using direct gravitational wave detectors. In particular, we consider the observational constraints that result from NANOGrav data and show that heavier strings generate a secondary exclusion region of parameter space.
Entropic framework for wave-particle duality in multipath interferometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coles, Patrick J.
2016-06-01
An interferometer—no matter how clever the design—cannot reveal both the wave and the particle behavior of a quantum system. This fundamental idea has been captured by inequalities, so-called wave-particle duality relations (WPDRs), that upper bound the sum of the fringe visibility (wave behavior) and path distinguishability (particle behavior). Another fundamental idea is Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, stating that some pairs of observables cannot be known simultaneously. Recent work has unified these two principles for two-path interferometers. Here we extend this unification to n -path interferometers, showing that WPDRs correspond to a modern formulation of the uncertainty principle stated in terms of entropies. Furthermore, our unification provides a framework for solving an outstanding problem of how to formulate universally valid WPDRs for interferometers with more than two paths, and we employ this framework to derive some novel WPDRs.
Possible Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Mission Concept
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Livas, Jeffrey C.
2015-01-01
The existence of gravitational waves was established by the discovery of the Binary Pulsar PSR 1913+16 by Hulse and Taylor in 1974, for which they were awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize. However, it is the exploitation of these gravitational waves for the extraction of the astrophysical parameters of the sources that will open the first new astronomical window since the development of gamma ray telescopes in the 1970's and enable a new era of discovery and understanding of the Universe. Direct detection is expected in at least two frequency bands from the ground before the end of the decade with Advanced LIGO and Pulsar Timing Arrays. However, many of the most exciting sources will be continuously observable in the band from 0.1-100 mHz, accessible only from space due to seismic noise and gravity gradients in that band that disturb ground-based observatories. This poster will discuss a possible mission concept, Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory (SGO-Mid) developed from the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) reference mission but updated to reduce risk and cost.
How to test gravitation theories by means of gravitational-wave measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thorne, K. S.
1974-01-01
Gravitational-wave experiments are a potentially powerful tool for testing gravitation theories. Most theories in the literature predict rather different polarization properties for gravitational waves than are predicted by general relativity; and many theories predict anomalies in the propagation speeds of gravitational waves.
Dual differential interferometer for measurements of broadband surface acoustic waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turner, T. M.; Claus, R. O.
1981-01-01
A simple duel interferometer which uses two pairs of orthogonally polarized optical beams to measure both the amplitude and direction of propagation of broadband ultrasonic surface waves is described. Each pair of focused laser probe beams is used in a separate wideband differential interferometer to independently detect the component of surface wave motion along one direction on the surface. By combining the two output signals corresponding to both components, the two dimensional surface profile and its variation as a function of time is determined.
A Brief History of Gravitational Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cervantes-Cota, Jorge; Galindo-Uribarri, Salvador; Smoot, George
2016-09-01
This review describes the discovery of gravitational waves. We recount the journey of predicting and finding those waves, since its beginning in the early twentieth century, their prediction by Einstein in 1916, theoretical and experimental blunders, efforts towards their detection, and finally the subsequent successful discovery.
Gravitational waves in fourth order gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capozziello, S.; Stabile, A.
2015-08-01
In the post-Minkowskian limit approximation, we study gravitational wave solutions for general fourth-order theories of gravity. Specifically, we consider a Lagrangian with a generic function of curvature invariants . It is well known that when dealing with General Relativity such an approach provides massless spin-two waves as propagating degree of freedom of the gravitational field while this theory implies other additional propagating modes in the gravity spectra. We show that, in general, fourth order gravity, besides the standard massless graviton is characterized by two further massive modes with a finite-distance interaction. We find out the most general gravitational wave solutions in terms of Green functions in vacuum and in presence of matter sources. If an electromagnetic source is chosen, only the modes induced by are present, otherwise, for any gravity model, we have the complete analogy with tensor modes of General Relativity. Polarizations and helicity states are classified in the hypothesis of plane wave.
Chirplet Clustering Algorithm for Black Hole Coalescence Signatures in Gravitational Wave Detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nemtzow, Zachary; Chassande-Mottin, Eric; Mohapatra, Satyanarayan R. P.; Cadonati, Laura
2012-03-01
Within this decade, gravitational waves will become new astrophysical messengers with which we can learn about our universe. Gravitational wave emission from the coalescence of massive bodies is projected to be a promising source for the next generation of gravitational wave detectors: advanced LIGO and advanced Virgo. We describe a method for the detection of binary black hole coalescences using a chirplet template bank, Chirplet Omega. By appropriately clustering the linearly variant frequency sin-Gaussian pixels the algorithm uses to decompose the data, the signal to noise ratio SNR of events extended in time can be significantly increased. We present such a clustering method and discuss its impacts on performance and detectability of binary black hole coalescences in ground based gravitational wave interferometers.
LISA in the gravitational wave decade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conklin, John; Cornish, Neil
2015-04-01
With the expected direct detection of gravitational waves in the second half of this decade by Advanced LIGO and pulsar timing arrays, and with the launch of LISA Pathfinder in the summer of this year, this can arguably be called the decade of gravitational waves. Low frequency gravitational waves in the mHz range, which can only be observed from space, provide the richest science and complement high frequency observatories on the ground. A space-based observatory will improve our understanding of the formation and growth of massive black holes, create a census of compact binary systems in the Milky Way, test general relativity in extreme conditions, and enable searches for new physics. LISA, by far the most mature concept for detecting gravitational waves from space, has consistently ranked among the nation's top priority large science missions. In 2013, ESA selected the science theme ``The Gravitational Universe'' for its third large mission, L3, under the Cosmic Visions Program, with a planned launch date of 2034. Recently, NASA has decided to join with ESA on the L3 mission as a junior partner. Both agencies formed a committee to advise them on the scientific and technological approaches for a space based gravitational wave observatory. The leading mission design, Evolved LISA or eLISA, is a slightly de-scoped version of the earlier LISA design. This talk will describe activities of the Gravitational Wave Science Interest Group (GWSIG) under the Physics of the Cosmos Program Analysis Group (PhysPAG), focusing on LISA technology development in both the U.S. and Europe, including the LISA Pathfinder mission.
Limitations of Atom Interferometry for Gravitational Wave Observations in Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bender, Peter L.
2012-01-01
Two main papers have proposed Atomic Gravitational wave Interferometric Sensors (AGIS) in space [1,2]. A Comment on [1] pointed out the strong sensitivity of the proposed AGIS missions to fluctuations in the wavefront aberrations in the laser beams [3]. A Reply to the Comment stated that a high-finesse optical mode-cleaner cavity could be placed after the laser to remove the wavefront aberration fluctuations [4]. However, the proposed AGIS missions require that one of the two laser beams sent in opposite directions between the two atom interferometers at the ends of the path be modulated over quite large frequency ranges on millisecond timescales. This is partly in order to provide large momentum transfer beam splitters and mirrors to separate and recombine different parts of the wave function for the ultra-cold atoms in the atom interferometers. However, since many atom clouds are in the interferometers simultaneously, frequency shifts also are required in order to address the different clouds separately. If a high-finesse mode-cleaner cavity is used for that beam also, varying the transmission frequency of that cavity rapidly enough appears to place a major additional design constraint on the proposed AGIS missions. The extent of this constraint will be discussed briefly in this talk, along with other aspects of the proposed missions. [1] S. Dimopoulos et al., Phys. Rev. D 78, 122002 (2008) [2] J. M. Hogan et al., Gen. Relativ. & Gravitation 43, 1953-2009 (2011) [3] P. L. Bender, Phys. Rev. D 84, 028101 (2011) [4] S. Dimopoulos et al., Phys. Rev. D 84, 028102 (2011)
Binary Black Holes and Gravitational Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2007-01-01
The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy, more than the combined light from all the stars in the visible universe. This energy is emitted in the form of gravitational waves, and observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors such as LIGO and LISA requires that we know the pattern or fingerprint of the radiation emitted. Since black hole mergers take place in regions of extreme gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these wave patterns. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these wave patterns. However, their computer codes have been plagued by problems that caused them to crash. This situation has changed dramatically in the past 2 years, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This discussion examines these gravitational patterns, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. The focus is on recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by the space-based gravitational wave detector LISA.
Realization of a micrometre-scale spin-wave interferometer
Rousseau, O.; Rana, B.; Anami, R.; Yamada, M.; Miura, K.; Ogawa, S.; Otani, Y.
2015-01-01
The recent development of spin dynamics opens perspectives for various applications based on spin waves, including logic devices. The first important step in the realization of spin-wave-based logics is the manipulation of spin-wave interference. Here, we present the experimental realization of a micrometre-scale spin-wave interferometer consisting of two parallel spin-wave waveguides. The spin waves propagate through the waveguides and the superposition or interference of the electrical signals corresponding to the spin waves is measured. A direct current flowing through a metal wire underneath one of the spin-wave waveguides affects the propagation properties of the corresponding spin wave. The signal of constructive or destructive interference depends on the magnitude and direction of the applied direct current. Thus, the present work demonstrates a unique manipulation of spin-wave interference. PMID:25975283
Realization of a micrometre-scale spin-wave interferometer.
Rousseau, O; Rana, B; Anami, R; Yamada, M; Miura, K; Ogawa, S; Otani, Y
2015-01-01
The recent development of spin dynamics opens perspectives for various applications based on spin waves, including logic devices. The first important step in the realization of spin-wave-based logics is the manipulation of spin-wave interference. Here, we present the experimental realization of a micrometre-scale spin-wave interferometer consisting of two parallel spin-wave waveguides. The spin waves propagate through the waveguides and the superposition or interference of the electrical signals corresponding to the spin waves is measured. A direct current flowing through a metal wire underneath one of the spin-wave waveguides affects the propagation properties of the corresponding spin wave. The signal of constructive or destructive interference depends on the magnitude and direction of the applied direct current. Thus, the present work demonstrates a unique manipulation of spin-wave interference.
Proposed Atom Interferometry Gravitational Wave Measurements Over a Single Baseline
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bender, Peter L.
2013-04-01
A recent paper by Graham et al. [1] proposed gravitational wave measurements using an atom interferometer at each end of a single baseline between two spacecraft. The suggested approach makes use of extremely narrow linewidth single photon transitions, such as the 698 nm clock transition in Sr-87. A case discussed has a L = 500 km baseline length between spacecraft, N = 300 large momentum transfer beamsplitters, and a total measurement time of 100 s. The authors point out that many sources of errors in measuring GW signals cancel because they are nearly the same for both parts of the split atom wave functions and/or for both interferometers. Thus a much reduced sensitivity to laser frequency noise is reported. However, it seems that the requirements on this kind of mission are still very demanding. For example, large differences in phase between the 2 parts of the wave function for each interferometer are expected due to jitter in the timing of the laser pulses. This makes it more difficult to determine the sign of the desired GW signals. And, if the atom cloud temperature of 100 pK and the Rabi frequency of 500 Hz considered in previous papers are assumed, the fraction of the atoms contributing to the final signal would be small. This is because of the total of 2,400 successful state transitions required for each half of the wave function if N = 300 LMT beamsplitters are used. [1] P. W. Graham, J. M. Hogan, M. A. Kasevich, and S. Rajendran, arXiv:1206.0818v1 [gr-qc] 5 Jun 2012.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, K. N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Pereira, R.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H. J.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stiles, D.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; Archibald, A. M.; Banaszak, S.; Berndsen, A.; Boyles, J.; Cardoso, R. F.; Chawla, P.; Cherry, A.; Dartez, L. P.; Day, D.; Epstein, C. R.; Ford, A. J.; Flanigan, J.; Garcia, A.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hinojosa, J.; Jenet, F. A.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Keane, E. F.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kramer, M.; Leake, S.; Lorimer, D.; Lunsford, G.; Lynch, R. S.; Martinez, J. G.; Mata, A.; McLaughlin, M. A.; McPhee, C. A.; Penucci, T.; Ransom, S.; Roberts, M. S. E.; Rohr, M. D. W.; Stairs, I. H.; Stovall, K.; van Leeuwen, J.; Walker, A. N.; Wells, B. L.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration
2016-06-01
We present an archival search for transient gravitational-wave bursts in coincidence with 27 single-pulse triggers from Green Bank Telescope pulsar surveys, using the LIGO, Virgo, and GEO interferometer network. We also discuss a check for gravitational-wave signals in coincidence with Parkes fast radio bursts using similar methods. Data analyzed in these searches were collected between 2007 and 2013. Possible sources of emission of both short-duration radio signals and transient gravitational-wave emission include starquakes on neutron stars, binary coalescence of neutron stars, and cosmic string cusps. While no evidence for gravitational-wave emission in coincidence with these radio transients was found, the current analysis serves as a prototype for similar future searches using more sensitive second-generation interferometers.
Studies on the high-energy follow-up of gravitational wave transient events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Razzano, Massimiliano; Patricelli, Barbara; Cella, Giancarlo; Fidecaro, Francesco; Pian, Elena; Stamerra, Antonio; Branchesi, Marica
2016-05-01
Second-generation gravitational wave interferometers, such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo, will soon reach sensitivities sufficient to first detect gravitational waves and open a new era in the multi-messenger investigations of the cosmos. The most violent and energetic astrophysical phenomena, including the mergers of compact objects or the core collapse of massive stars, are promising sources of gravitational waves, and are thought to be connected with transient phenomena such as Gamma Ray Bursts and supernovae. Combined observations of gravitational and electromagnetic signals from these events will thus provide a unique opportunity to unveil their progenitors and study the physics of compact objects. In particular, gamma-ray ground-based and space observatories such as Fermi or the Air Cherenkov Telescopes will be crucial to observe the high-energy electromagnetic counterparts of transient gravitational wave signals and provide a robust identification based on a precise sky localization. We will report on our studies of possible joint observation strategies carried on by gravitational interferometers and gamma-ray telescopes, with particular attention to the high-energy follow-up of Gamma Ray Bursts.
General-relativistic astrophysics. [gravitational wave astronomy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thorne, K. S.
1978-01-01
The overall relevance of general relativity to astrophysics is considered, and some of the knowledge about the ways in which general relativity should influence astrophysical systems is reviewed. Attention is focused primarily on finite-sized astrophysical systems, such as stars, globular clusters, galactic nuclei, and primordial black holes. Stages in the evolution of such systems and tools for studying the effects of relativistic gravity in these systems are examined. Gravitational-wave astronomy is discussed in detail, with emphasis placed on estimates of the strongest gravitational waves that bathe earth, present obstacles and future prospects for detection of the predicted waves, the theory of small perturbations of relativistic stars and black holes, and the gravitational waves such objects generate. Characteristics of waves produced by black-hole events in general, pregalactic black-hole events, black-hole events in galactic nuclei and quasars, black-hole events in globular clusters, the collapse of normal stars to form black holes or neutron stars, and corequakes in neutron stars are analyzed. The state of the art in gravitational-wave detection and characteristics of various types of detector are described.
Demonstration of a robust magnonic spin wave interferometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanazawa, Naoki; Goto, Taichi; Sekiguchi, Koji; Granovsky, Alexander B.; Ross, Caroline A.; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yuichi; Inoue, Mitsuteru
2016-07-01
Magnonics is an emerging field dealing with ultralow power consumption logic circuits, in which the flow of spin waves, rather than electric charges, transmits and processes information. Waves, including spin waves, excel at encoding information via their phase using interference. This enables a number of inputs to be processed in one device, which offers the promise of multi-input multi-output logic gates. To realize such an integrated device, it is essential to demonstrate spin wave interferometers using spatially isotropic spin waves with high operational stability. However, spin wave reflection at the waveguide edge has previously limited the stability of interfering waves, precluding the use of isotropic spin waves, i.e., forward volume waves. Here, a spin wave absorber is demonstrated comprising a yttrium iron garnet waveguide partially covered by gold. This device is shown experimentally to be a robust spin wave interferometer using the forward volume mode, with a large ON/OFF isolation value of 13.7 dB even in magnetic fields over 30 Oe.
Demonstration of a robust magnonic spin wave interferometer.
Kanazawa, Naoki; Goto, Taichi; Sekiguchi, Koji; Granovsky, Alexander B; Ross, Caroline A; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yuichi; Inoue, Mitsuteru
2016-01-01
Magnonics is an emerging field dealing with ultralow power consumption logic circuits, in which the flow of spin waves, rather than electric charges, transmits and processes information. Waves, including spin waves, excel at encoding information via their phase using interference. This enables a number of inputs to be processed in one device, which offers the promise of multi-input multi-output logic gates. To realize such an integrated device, it is essential to demonstrate spin wave interferometers using spatially isotropic spin waves with high operational stability. However, spin wave reflection at the waveguide edge has previously limited the stability of interfering waves, precluding the use of isotropic spin waves, i.e., forward volume waves. Here, a spin wave absorber is demonstrated comprising a yttrium iron garnet waveguide partially covered by gold. This device is shown experimentally to be a robust spin wave interferometer using the forward volume mode, with a large ON/OFF isolation value of 13.7 dB even in magnetic fields over 30 Oe. PMID:27443989
Demonstration of a robust magnonic spin wave interferometer
Kanazawa, Naoki; Goto, Taichi; Sekiguchi, Koji; Granovsky, Alexander B.; Ross, Caroline A.; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yuichi; Inoue, Mitsuteru
2016-01-01
Magnonics is an emerging field dealing with ultralow power consumption logic circuits, in which the flow of spin waves, rather than electric charges, transmits and processes information. Waves, including spin waves, excel at encoding information via their phase using interference. This enables a number of inputs to be processed in one device, which offers the promise of multi-input multi-output logic gates. To realize such an integrated device, it is essential to demonstrate spin wave interferometers using spatially isotropic spin waves with high operational stability. However, spin wave reflection at the waveguide edge has previously limited the stability of interfering waves, precluding the use of isotropic spin waves, i.e., forward volume waves. Here, a spin wave absorber is demonstrated comprising a yttrium iron garnet waveguide partially covered by gold. This device is shown experimentally to be a robust spin wave interferometer using the forward volume mode, with a large ON/OFF isolation value of 13.7 dB even in magnetic fields over 30 Oe. PMID:27443989
Demonstration of a robust magnonic spin wave interferometer.
Kanazawa, Naoki; Goto, Taichi; Sekiguchi, Koji; Granovsky, Alexander B; Ross, Caroline A; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yuichi; Inoue, Mitsuteru
2016-01-01
Magnonics is an emerging field dealing with ultralow power consumption logic circuits, in which the flow of spin waves, rather than electric charges, transmits and processes information. Waves, including spin waves, excel at encoding information via their phase using interference. This enables a number of inputs to be processed in one device, which offers the promise of multi-input multi-output logic gates. To realize such an integrated device, it is essential to demonstrate spin wave interferometers using spatially isotropic spin waves with high operational stability. However, spin wave reflection at the waveguide edge has previously limited the stability of interfering waves, precluding the use of isotropic spin waves, i.e., forward volume waves. Here, a spin wave absorber is demonstrated comprising a yttrium iron garnet waveguide partially covered by gold. This device is shown experimentally to be a robust spin wave interferometer using the forward volume mode, with a large ON/OFF isolation value of 13.7 dB even in magnetic fields over 30 Oe.
Gravitational Waves and Multi-Messenger Astronomy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan M.
2010-01-01
Gravitational waves are produced by a wide variety of sources throughout the cosmos, including the mergers of black hole and neutron star binaries/compact objects spiraling into central black holes in galactic nuclei, close compact binaries/and phase transitions and quantum fluctuations in the early universe. Observing these signals can bring new, and often very precise, information about their sources across vast stretches of cosmic time. In this talk we will focus on thee opening of this gravitational-wave window on the universe, highlighting new opportunities for discovery and multi-messenger astronomy.
Gravitational wave bursts from cosmic strings
Damour; Vilenkin
2000-10-30
Cusps of cosmic strings emit strong beams of high-frequency gravitational waves (GW). As a consequence of these beams, the stochastic ensemble of gravitational waves generated by a cosmological network of oscillating loops is strongly non-Gaussian, and includes occasional sharp bursts that stand above the rms GW background. These bursts might be detectable by the planned GW detectors LIGO/VIRGO and LISA for string tensions as small as G&mgr; approximately 10(-13). The GW bursts discussed here might be accompanied by gamma ray bursts. PMID:11041921
PREFACE: 8th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marka, Zsuzsa; Marka, Szabolcs
2010-04-01
(The attached PDF contains select pictures from the Amaldi8 Conference) At Amaldi7 in Sydney in 2007 the Gravitational Wave International Committee (GWIC), which oversees the Amaldi meetings, decided to hold the 8th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves at Columbia University in the City of New York. With this decision, Amaldi returned to North America after a decade. The previous two years have seen many advances in the field of gravitational wave detection. By the summer of 2009 the km-scale ground based interferometric detectors in the US and Europe were preparing for a second long-term scientific run as a worldwide detector network. The advanced or second generation detectors had well-developed plans and were ready for the production phase or started construction. The European-American space mission, LISA Pathfinder, was progressing towards deployment in the foreseeable future and it is expected to pave the ground towards gravitational wave detection in the milliHertz regime with LISA. Plans were developed for an additional gravitational wave detector in Australia and in Japan (in this case underground) to extend the worldwide network of detectors for the advanced detector era. Japanese colleagues also presented plans for a space mission, DECIGO, that would bridge the gap between the LISA and ground-based interferometer frequency range. Compared to previous Amaldi meetings, Amaldi8 had new elements representing emerging trends in the field. For example, with the inclusion of pulsar timing collaborations to the GWIC, gravitational wave detection using pulsar timing arrays was recognized as one of the prominent directions in the field and was represented at Amaldi8 as a separate session. By 2009, searches for gravitational waves based on external triggers received from electromagnetic observations were already producing significant scientific results and plans existed for pointing telescopes by utilizing gravitational wave trigger events. Such
The New Science of Gravitational Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hogan, C. J.
2008-08-01
A brief survey is presented of new science that will emerge during the decades ahead from direct detection of gravitational radiation. Interferometers on earth and in space will probe the universe in an entirely new way by directly sensing motions of distant matter over a range of more than a million in frequency. The most powerful sources of gravitational (or indeed any form of) energy in the universe are inspiraling and merging binary black holes; with Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) data, they will become the most distant, most completely and precisely modeled, and most accurately measured systems in astronomy outside the solar system. Other sources range from already known and named nearby Galactic binary stars, to compact objects being swallowed by massive black holes, to possible effects of new physics: phase transitions and superstrings from the early universe, or holographic noise from quantum fluctuations of local spacetime. Parts of this survey are based on text prepared by the author for the executive summary of LISA science in the LISA mission's report to the NRC's Beyond Einstein Program Assessment Committee tep{hogan:LISAscience}, where more extensive references can be found. Other reviews and summaries can be found in tet{hogan:flan}, tet{hogan:amsci}, tet{hogan:hughes03}, tet{hogan:hughes06}, tet{ hogan:LISA6}, tet{hogan:thorne}, and tet{hogan:schutz}.
A joint search for gravitational wave bursts with AURIGA and LIGO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baggio, L.; Bignotto, M.; Bonaldi, M.; Cerdonio, M.; De Rosa, M.; Falferi, P.; Fattori, S.; Fortini, P.; Giusfredi, G.; Inguscio, M.; Liguori, N.; Longo, S.; Marin, F.; Mezzena, R.; Mion, A.; Ortolan, A.; Poggi, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Re, V.; Salemi, F.; Soranzo, G.; Taffarello, L.; Vedovato, G.; Vinante, A.; Vitale, S.; Zendri, J. P.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Agresti, J.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arain, M.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Ashley, M.; Aston, S.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Ballmer, S.; Bantilan, H.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barton, M. A.; Bayer, K.; Belczynski, K.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhawal, B.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Biswas, R.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A.; Brown, D. A.; Bullington, A.; Bunkowski, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burmeister, O.; Busby, D.; Butler, W. E.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Cantley, C. A.; Cao, J.; Cardenas, L.; Carter, K.; Casey, M. M.; Castaldi, G.; Cepeda, C.; Chalkley, E.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chiadini, F.; Chin, D.; Chin, E.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Clark, J.; Cochrane, P.; Cokelaer, T.; Colacino, C. N.; Coldwell, R.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T.; Coward, D.; Coyne, D.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Croce, R. P.; Crooks, D. R. M.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Dalrymple, J.; D'Ambrosio, E.; Danzmann, K.; Davies, G.; DeBra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Degree, M.; Demma, T.; Dergachev, V.; Desai, S.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Dickson, J.; Di Credico, A.; Diederichs, G.; Dietz, A.; Doomes, E. E.; Drever, R. W. P.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dupuis, R. J.; Dwyer, J. G.; Ehrens, P.; Espinoza, E.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Fazi, D.; Fejer, M. M.; Finn, L. S.; Fiumara, V.; Fotopoulos, N.; Franzen, A.; Franzen, K. Y.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fyffe, M.; Galdi, V.; Ganezer, K. S.; Garofoli, J.; Gholami, I.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Goda, K.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gossler, S.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, M.; Greenhalgh, J.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hammer, D.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G.; Harstad, E.; Hayler, T.; Heefner, J.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hosken, D.; Hough, J.; Howell, E.; Hoyland, D.; Huttner, S. H.; Ingram, D.; Innerhofer, E.; Ito, M.; Itoh, Y.; Ivanov, A.; Jackrel, D.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kasprzyk, D.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalili, F. Ya; Kim, C.; King, P.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R. K.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lazzarini, A.; Lee, B.; Lei, M.; Leiner, J.; Leonhardt, V.; Leonor, I.; Libbrecht, K.; Lindquist, P.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Longo, M.; Lormand, M.; Lubiński, M.; Lück, H.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Malec, M.; Mandic, V.; Marano, S.; Márka, S.; Markowitz, J.; Maros, E.; Martin, I.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Matone, L.; Matta, V.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McHugh, M.; McKenzie, K.; McNabb, J. W. C.; McWilliams, S.; Meier, T.; Melissinos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C. J.; Meyers, D.; Mikhailov, E.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Mohanty, S.; Moreno, G.; Mossavi, K.; Lowry, C. Mow; Moylan, A.; Mudge, D.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murray, P.; Myers, E.; Myers, J.; Nash, T.; Newton, G.; Nishizawa, A.; Nocera, F.; Numata, K.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pan, Y.; Papa, M. A.; Parameshwaraiah, V.; Parameswariah, C.; Patel, P.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H.; Plissi, M. V.; Postiglione, F.; Prix, R.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F.; Rabeling, D.; Radkins, H.; Rahkola, R.; Rainer, N.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramsunder, M.; Rawlins, K.; Ray-Majumder, S.; Regimbau, T.; Rehbein, H.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ribichini, L.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Rivera, B.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinson, C.; Robinson, E. L.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, A.; Rogan, A. M.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J.; Route, R.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruet, L.; Russell, P.; Ryan, K.; Sakata, S.; Samidi, M.; Sancho de la Jordana, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, G. H.; Sannibale, V.; Saraf, S.; Sarin, P.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Sato, S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Savov, P.; Sazonov, A.; Schediwy, S.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, S. M.; Searle, A. C.; Sears, B.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sibley, A.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Sinha, S.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Somiya, K.; Strain, K. A.; Strom, D. M.; Stuver, A.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, K.-X.; Sung, M.; Sutton, P. J.; Takahashi, H.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarallo, M.; Taylor, R.; Taylor, R.; Thacker, J.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thüring, A.; Tinto, M.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C.; Traylor, G.; Trias, M.; Tyler, W.; Ugolini, D.; Ungarelli, C.; Urbanek, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vallisneri, M.; Van Den Broeck, C.; van Putten, M.; Varvella, M.; Vass, S.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.; Villar, A.; Vorvick, C.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Waldman, S. J.; Wallace, L.; Ward, H.; Ward, R.; Watts, K.; Webber, D.; Weidner, A.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A.; Weiss, R.; Wen, S.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitbeck, D. M.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Wiley, S.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Willke, B.; Wilmut, I.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wise, S.; Wiseman, A. G.; Woan, G.; Woods, D.; Wooley, R.; Worden, J.; Wu, W.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yan, Z.; Yoshida, S.; Yunes, N.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, C.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M.; zur Mühlen, H.; Zweizig, J.
2008-05-01
The first simultaneous operation of the AURIGA detectorhttp://www.auriga.lnl.infn.it and the LIGO observatoryhttp://www.ligo.org was an opportunity to explore real data, joint analysis methods between two very different types of gravitational wave detectors: resonant bars and interferometers. This paper describes a coincident gravitational wave burst search, where data from the LIGO interferometers are cross-correlated at the time of AURIGA candidate events to identify coincident transients. The analysis pipeline is tuned with two thresholds, on the signal-to-noise ratio of AURIGA candidate events and on the significance of the cross-correlation test in LIGO. The false alarm rate is estimated by introducing time shifts between data sets and the network detection efficiency is measured by adding simulated gravitational wave signals to the detector output. The simulated waveforms have a significant fraction of power in the narrower AURIGA band. In the absence of a detection, we discuss how to set an upper limit on the rate of gravitational waves and to interpret it according to different source models. Due to the short amount of analyzed data and to the high rate of non-Gaussian transients in the detectors' noise at the time, the relevance of this study is methodological: this was the first joint search for gravitational wave bursts among detectors with such different spectral sensitivity and the first opportunity for the resonant and interferometric communities to unify languages and techniques in the pursuit of their common goal.
Engaging the public in the nascent era of gravitational-wave astronomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendry, Martin A.
2015-08-01
Within the next few years a global network of ground-based laser interferometers will become fully operational. These ultra-sensitive instruments are confidently expected to directly detect gravitational waves from astrophysical sources before the end of the decade. In anticipation of opening this entirely new window on the Universe, the LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory) Scientific Collaboration has recently developed a substantive program of education and public outreach activities that includes exhibitions, documentary films, social media and interactive games - as well as more traditional modes of science communication such as schools and public lectures.As the gravitational wave 'detection era' unfolds over the next decade, it will present exciting challenges for future public engagement by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and by other gravitational-wave astronomy collaborations around the world. Perhaps the most interesting opportunities will be in the area of citizen science, building upon the infrastructure already being developed through e.g. the LIGO Open Science Center (see arXiv:1410.4839) and the remarkable success of the Einstein@Home project (www.einsteinathome.org).In this presentation I will give an overview of the LSC education and public outreach program, highlighting its goals, major successes and future strategy - particularly in relation to the release of future LIGO and other gravitational wave datasets to the scientific community and to the public, and the opportunities this will present for directly engaging citizen scientists in this exciting new field of observational astronomy.
Gravitational waves in ghost free bimetric gravity
Mohseni, Morteza
2012-11-01
We obtain a set of exact gravitational wave solutions for the ghost free bimetric theory of gravity. With a flat reference metric, the theory admits the vacuum Brinkmann plane wave solution for suitable choices of the coefficients of different terms in the interaction potential. An exact gravitational wave solution corresponding to a massive scalar mode is also admitted for arbitrary choice of the coefficients with the reference metric being proportional to the spacetime metric. The proportionality factor and the speed of the wave are calculated in terms of the parameters of the theory. We also show that a F(R) extension of the theory admits similar solutions but in general is plagued with ghost instabilities.
Compact dark matter objects, asteroseismology, and gravitational waves radiated by sun
Pokrovsky, Yu. E.
2015-12-15
The solar surface oscillations observed by Crimean Astrophysical Observatory and Solar Helioseismic Observatory are considered to be excited by a small fraction of Dark Matter in form of Compact Dark Matter Objects (CDMO) in the solar structure. Gravitational Waves (GW) radiated by these CDMO are predicted to be the strongest at the Earth and are easily detectable by European Laser Interferometer Space Antenna or by Gravitational-Wave Observatory “Dulkyn” which can solve two the most challenging tasks in the modern physics: direct detection of GW and DM.
Astronomy's New Messengers: A traveling exhibit on gravitational-wave physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cavaglià, Marco; Hendry, Martin; Márka, Szabolcs; Reitze, David H.; Riles, Keith
2010-01-01
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory exhibit Astronomy's New Messengers: Listening to the Universe with Gravitational Waves is traveling to colleges, universities, museums and other public institutions throughout the United States. Astronomy's New Messengers primarily communicates with an adolescent and young adult audience, potentially inspiring them into the field of science. Acknowledging that this audience is traditionally a difficult one to attract, the exhibit publicly announces itself in a charismatic fashion to reach its principal goals of broadening the community of people interested in science and encouraging interest in science among young people.
Compact dark matter objects, asteroseismology, and gravitational waves radiated by sun
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pokrovsky, Yu. E.
2015-12-01
The solar surface oscillations observed by Crimean Astrophysical Observatory and Solar Helioseismic Observatory are considered to be excited by a small fraction of Dark Matter in form of Compact Dark Matter Objects (CDMO) in the solar structure. Gravitational Waves (GW) radiated by these CDMO are predicted to be the strongest at the Earth and are easily detectable by European Laser Interferometer Space Antenna or by Gravitational-Wave Observatory "Dulkyn" which can solve two the most challenging tasks in the modern physics: direct detection of GW and DM.
Stabilized high-power laser system for the gravitational wave detector advanced LIGO.
Kwee, P; Bogan, C; Danzmann, K; Frede, M; Kim, H; King, P; Pöld, J; Puncken, O; Savage, R L; Seifert, F; Wessels, P; Winkelmann, L; Willke, B
2012-05-01
An ultra-stable, high-power cw Nd:YAG laser system, developed for the ground-based gravitational wave detector Advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory), was comprehensively characterized. Laser power, frequency, beam pointing and beam quality were simultaneously stabilized using different active and passive schemes. The output beam, the performance of the stabilization, and the cross-coupling between different stabilization feedback control loops were characterized and found to fulfill most design requirements. The employed stabilization schemes and the achieved performance are of relevance to many high-precision optical experiments.
Space Based Gravitational Wave Observatories (SGOs)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Livas, Jeff
2014-01-01
Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatories (SGOs) will enable the systematic study of the frequency band from 0.0001 - 1 Hz of gravitational waves, where a rich array of astrophysical sources is expected. ESA has selected The Gravitational Universe as the science theme for the L3 mission opportunity with a nominal launch date in 2034. This will be at a minimum 15 years after ground-based detectors and pulsar timing arrays announce their first detections and at least 18 years after the LISA Pathfinder Mission will have demonstrated key technologies in a dedicated space mission. It is therefore important to develop mission concepts that can take advantage of the momentum in the field and the investment in both technology development and a precision measurement community on a more near-term timescale than the L3 opportunity. This talk will discuss a mission concept based on the LISA baseline that resulted from a recent mission architecture study.
The generation of gravitational waves. IV - Bremsstrahlung
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kovacs, S. J., Jr.; Thorne, K. S.
1978-01-01
Previously derived waveforms for gravitational bremsstrahlung are discussed along with their spectra and their limiting structure at high and low relative velocities. Waveforms and spectra are presented for a low-velocity bremsstrahlung encounter, and waveforms are given for encounters of arbitrary relative velocity. Limiting forms for the gravitational-wave amplitudes in the 'forward', 'intermediate', and 'backward' regions are derived in the high-velocity limit. The energy spectra seen by observers in the three regions are computed for arbitrary and high velocities. Simpler methods for analyzing special cases of the bremsstrahlung problem are examined, and the results of those methods are compared with the present results. Those methods include the quadrupole-moment and post-Newtonian formalisms, linear perturbations of the Schwarzschild metric, the method of colliding plane waves, the method of virtual quanta, and the zero-frequency limit. Classical gravitational bremsstrahlung is then compared with classical electromagnetic bremsstrahlung.
Bayesian analysis on gravitational waves and exoplanets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Xihao
Attempts to detect gravitational waves using a pulsar timing array (PTA), i.e., a collection of pulsars in our Galaxy, have become more organized over the last several years. PTAs act to detect gravitational waves generated from very distant sources by observing the small and correlated effect the waves have on pulse arrival times at the Earth. In this thesis, I present advanced Bayesian analysis methods that can be used to search for gravitational waves in pulsar timing data. These methods were also applied to analyze a set of radial velocity (RV) data collected by the Hobby- Eberly Telescope on observing a K0 giant star. They confirmed the presence of two Jupiter mass planets around a K0 giant star and also characterized the stellar p-mode oscillation. The first part of the thesis investigates the effect of wavefront curvature on a pulsar's response to a gravitational wave. In it we show that we can assume the gravitational wave phasefront is planar across the array only if the source luminosity distance " 2piL2/lambda, where L is the pulsar distance to the Earth (˜ kpc) and lambda is the radiation wavelength (˜ pc) in the PTA waveband. Correspondingly, for a point gravitational wave source closer than ˜ 100 Mpc, we should take into account the effect of wavefront curvature across the pulsar-Earth line of sight, which depends on the luminosity distance to the source, when evaluating the pulsar timing response. As a consequence, if a PTA can detect a gravitational wave from a source closer than ˜ 100 Mpc, the effects of wavefront curvature on the response allows us to determine the source luminosity distance. The second and third parts of the thesis propose a new analysis method based on Bayesian nonparametric regression to search for gravitational wave bursts and a gravitational wave background in PTA data. Unlike the conventional Bayesian analysis that introduces a signal model with a fixed number of parameters, Bayesian nonparametric regression sets
Quantum nondemolition measurements. [by gravitational wave antennas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Braginskii, V. B.; Vorontsov, Iu. I.; Thorne, K. S.
1980-01-01
The article describes new electronic techniques required for quantum nondemolition measurements and the theory underlying them. Consideration is given to resonant-bar gravitational-wave antennas. Position measurements are discussed along with energy measurements and back-action-evading measurements. Thermal noise in oscillators and amplifiers is outlined. Prospects for stroboscopic measurements are emphasized.
Chiral primordial gravitational waves from a Lifshitz point.
Takahashi, Tomohiro; Soda, Jiro
2009-06-12
We study primordial gravitational waves produced during inflation in quantum gravity at a Lifshitz point proposed by Horava. Assuming power-counting renormalizability, foliation-preserving diffeomorphism invariance, and the condition of detailed balance, we show that primordial gravitational waves are circularly polarized due to parity violation. The chirality of primordial gravitational waves is a quite robust prediction of quantum gravity at a Lifshitz point which can be tested through observations of cosmic microwave background radiation and stochastic gravitational waves.
Can JWST Follow Up on Gravitational-Wave Detections?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2016-02-01
Bitten by the gravitational-wave bug? While we await Thursdays press conference, heres some food for thought: if LIGO were able to detect gravitational waves from compact-object mergers, how could we follow up on the detections? A new study investigates whether the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be able to observe electromagnetic signatures of some compact-object mergers.Hunting for MergersStudying compact-object mergers (mergers of black holes and neutron stars) can help us understand a wealth of subjects, like high-energy physics, how matter behaves at nuclear densities, how stars evolve, and how heavy elements in the universe were created.The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) is searching for the signature ripples in spacetime identifying these mergers, but gravitational waves are squirrelly: LIGO will only be able to localize wave sources to tens of square degrees. If we want to find out more about any mergers LIGO discovers in gravitational waves, well need a follow-up search for electromagnetic counterparts with other observatories.The Kilonova KeyOne possible electromagnetic counterpart is kilonovae, explosions that can be produced during a merger of a binary neutron star or a neutron starblack hole system. If the neutron star is disrupted during the merger, some of the hot mass is flung outward and shines brightly by radioactive decay.Kilonovae are especially promising as electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves for three reasons:They emit isotropically, so the number of observable mergers isnt limited by relativistic beaming.They shine for a week, giving follow-up observatories time to search for them.The source location can beeasily recovered.The only problem? We dont currently have any sensitive survey instruments in the near-infrared band (where kilonova emission peaks) that can provide coverage over tens of square degrees. Luckily, we will soon have just the thing: JWST, launching in 2018!JWSTs
A Coincident Search for Radio and Gravitational Waves from Binary Neutron Star Mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardena, Brett
2011-05-01
The merger of neutron star-neutron star binary pairs may be accompanied by the prompt emission of a coherent low-frequency radio pulse. This radio transient is produced as synchrotron radiation caused by the spin and rotation of the surface charge density of a pulsar through the magnetosphere of a larger neutron star, usually referred to as a Magnetar . This type of merger event would also result in the release of a gravitational coalescence wave-form. We will discuss a coincident radio transient and gravitational wave search. This search is being conducted by two radio telescope arrays: The Long Wave Array (LWA) and the Eight-meter-wavelength Transient Array (ETA) in coordination with the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). We will outline this ongoing coincident search and discuss some preliminary results.
Gravitational waves generated by laser accelerated relativistic ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gelfer, Evgeny G.; Kadlecová, Hedvika; Klimo, Ondřej; Weber, Stefan; Korn, Georg
2016-09-01
The generation of gravitational waves by laser accelerated relativistic ions is investigated. The piston and light sail models of laser plasma acceleration are considered, and analytical expressions for space-time metric perturbation are derived. For both models, the dependence of gravitational wave amplitude on the laser and plasma parameters as well as gravitational wave spectrum and angular distribution is examined.
Porting Gravitational Wave Signal Extraction to Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Thompson, David E.; Redmon, Jeffery
2009-01-01
Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a planned NASA-ESA mission to be launched around 2012. The Gravitational Wave detection is fundamentally the determination of frequency, source parameters, and waveform amplitude derived in a specific order from the interferometric time-series of the rotating LISA spacecrafts. The LISA Science Team has developed a Mock LISA Data Challenge intended to promote the testing of complicated nested search algorithms to detect the 100-1 millihertz frequency signals at amplitudes of 10E-21. However, it has become clear that, sequential search of the parameters is very time consuming and ultra-sensitive; hence, a new strategy has been developed. Parallelization of existing sequential search algorithms of Gravitational Wave signal identification consists of decomposing sequential search loops, beginning with outermost loops and working inward. In this process, the main challenge is to detect interdependencies among loops and partitioning the loops so as to preserve concurrency. Existing parallel programs are based upon either shared memory or distributed memory paradigms. In PVM, master and node programs are used to execute parallelization and process spawning. The PVM can handle process management and process addressing schemes using a virtual machine configuration. The task scheduling and the messaging and signaling can be implemented efficiently for the LISA Gravitational Wave search process using a master and 6 nodes. This approach is accomplished using a server that is available at NASA Ames Research Center, and has been dedicated to the LISA Data Challenge Competition. Historically, gravitational wave and source identification parameters have taken around 7 days in this dedicated single thread Linux based server. Using PVM approach, the parameter extraction problem can be reduced to within a day. The low frequency computation and a proxy signal-to-noise ratio are calculated in separate nodes that are controlled by the master
Testing gravity with gravitational wave source counts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calabrese, Erminia; Battaglia, Nicholas; Spergel, David N.
2016-08-01
We show that the gravitational wave source counts distribution can test how gravitational radiation propagates on cosmological scales. This test does not require obtaining redshifts for the sources. If the signal-to-noise ratio (ρ) from a gravitational wave source is proportional to the strain then it falls as {R}-1, thus we expect the source counts to follow {{d}}{N}/{{d}}ρ \\propto {ρ }-4. However, if gravitational waves decay as they propagate or propagate into other dimensions, then there can be deviations from this generic prediction. We consider the possibility that the strain falls as {R}-γ , where γ =1 recovers the expected predictions in a Euclidean uniformly-filled Universe, and forecast the sensitivity of future observations to deviations from standard General Relativity. We first consider the case of few objects, seven sources, with a signal-to-noise from 8 to 24, and impose a lower limit on γ, finding γ \\gt 0.33 at 95% confidence level. The distribution of our simulated sample is very consistent with the distribution of the trigger events reported by Advanced LIGO. Future measurements will improve these constraints: with 100 events, we estimate that γ can be measured with an uncertainty of 15%. We generalize the formalism to account for a range of chirp masses and the possibility that the signal falls as {exp}(-R/{R}0)/{R}γ .
Standing gravitational waves from domain walls
Gogberashvili, Merab; Myrzakul, Shynaray; Singleton, Douglas
2009-07-15
We construct a plane symmetric, standing gravitational wave for a domain wall plus a massless scalar field. The scalar field can be associated with a fluid which has the properties of 'stiff' matter, i.e., matter in which the speed of sound equals the speed of light. Although domain walls are observationally ruled out in the present era, the solution has interesting features which might shed light on the character of exact nonlinear wave solutions to Einstein's equations. Additionally this solution may act as a template for higher dimensional 'brane-world' model standing waves.
Search for gravitational waves associated with the August 2006 timing glitch of the Vela pulsar
Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Anderson, S. B.; Araya, M.; Aso, Y.; Ballmer, S.; Betzwieser, J.; Billingsley, G.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Bork, R.; Brooks, A. F.; Cannon, K. C.; Cardenas, L.; Cepeda, C.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chatterji, S.
2011-02-15
The physical mechanisms responsible for pulsar timing glitches are thought to excite quasinormal mode oscillations in their parent neutron star that couple to gravitational-wave emission. In August 2006, a timing glitch was observed in the radio emission of PSR B0833-45, the Vela pulsar. At the time of the glitch, the two colocated Hanford gravitational-wave detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave observatory (LIGO) were operational and taking data as part of the fifth LIGO science run (S5). We present the first direct search for the gravitational-wave emission associated with oscillations of the fundamental quadrupole mode excited by a pulsar timing glitch. No gravitational-wave detection candidate was found. We place Bayesian 90% confidence upper limits of 6.3x10{sup -21} to 1.4x10{sup -20} on the peak intrinsic strain amplitude of gravitational-wave ring-down signals, depending on which spherical harmonic mode is excited. The corresponding range of energy upper limits is 5.0x10{sup 44} to 1.3x10{sup 45} erg.
Search for Gravitational Waves Associated with the August 2006 Timing Glitch of the Vela Pulsar
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Stroeer, A.
2011-01-01
The physical mechanisms responsible for pulsar timing glitches are thought to excite quasinormal mode oscillations in their parent neutron star that couple to gravitational-wave emission, In August 2006, a timing glitch was observed in the radio emission of PSR B0833-45, the Vela pulsar. At the time of the glitch, the two colocated Hanford gravitational-wave detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave observatory (LIGO) were operational and taking data as part of the fifth LIGO science run (S5). We present the first direct search for the gravitational-wave emission associated with oscillations of the fundamental quadrupole mode excited by a pulsar timing glitch. No gravitational-wave detection candidate was found. We place Bayesian 90% confidence upper limits of 6,3 x 10(exp -21) to 1.4 x 10(exp -20) on the peak: intrinsic strain amplitude of gravitational-wave ring-down signals, depending on which spherical harmonic mode is excited. The corresponding range of energy upper limits is 5.0 x 10(exp 44) to 1.3 x 10(exp 45) erg.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pizzella, G.
2016-10-01
A history of the experiments for the search of gravitational waves, with emphasis on the experiments made by the Rome group, is given. The search for gravitational waves was initiated by the brilliant scientific acumen of Joseph Weber. In this paper we start from the early times of the resonant detectors at room temperature and continue with the cryogenic resonant detectors: STANFORD, ALLEGRO, AURIGA, EXPLORER, NAUTILUS and NIOBE. These cryogenic detectors reached a sensitivity able to observe gravitational waves generated by the conversion of about 0.001 solar masses in the Galaxy. This was an improvement by a factor of a few thousand in energy with respect to the early room temperature experiments. No clear signals due to gravitational waves have been observed with this technique. This research, that has lasted four decades, has paved the way to the more sensitive detectors for gravitational waves, the long-arm laser interferometers, which announced, on February 12th 2016, the first observation of gravitational waves.
First Search for Gravitational Waves from the Youngest Known Neutron Star
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M.; Aronsson, M.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S.; Atkinson, D. E.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballmer, S.; Barker, D.; Barnum, S.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barsotti, L.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Behnke, B.; Benacquista, M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biswas, R.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bondarescu, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, S.; Boyle, M.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Bridges, D. O.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Buonanno, A.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Burmeister, O.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cepeda, C.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chalkley, E.; Charlton, P.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Christensen, N.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Clark, D.; Clark, J.; Clayton, J. H.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Costa, C. A.; Coward, D.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Culter, R. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Dahl, K.; Danilishin, S. L.; Dannenberg, R.; Danzmann, K.; Das, K.; Daudert, B.; Davies, G.; Davis, A.; Daw, E. J.; Dayanga, T.; DeBra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Devanka, P.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Palma, I.; Díaz, M.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doomes, E. E.; Dorsher, S.; Douglas, E. S. D.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Dueck, J.; Dumas, J.-C.; Eberle, T.; Edgar, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Engel, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Farr, B. F.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Finn, L. S.; Flanigan, M.; Flasch, K.; Foley, S.; Forrest, C.; Forsi, E.; Fotopoulos, N.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Friedrich, D.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Garofoli, J. A.; Gholami, I.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Gill, C.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Graef, C.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hall, P.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Heefner, J.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E.; Hoyland, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kanner, J.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, H.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R.; Koranda, S.; Kozak, D.; Krause, T.; Kringel, V.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Krishnan, B.; Kuehn, G.; Kullman, J.; Kumar, R.; Kwee, P.; Landry, M.; Lang, M.; Lantz, B.; Lastzka, N.; Lazzarini, A.; Leaci, P.; Leong, J.; Leonor, I.; Li, J.; Lin, H.; Lindquist, P. E.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lodhia, D.; Lormand, M.; Lu, P.; Luan, J.; Lubiński, M.; Lucianetti, A.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Mak, C.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Matzner, R. A.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIvor, G.; McKechan, D. J. A.; Meadors, G.; Mehmet, M.; Meier, T.; Melatos, A.; Melissinos, A. C.; Mendell, G.; Menéndez, D. F.; Mercer, R. A.; Merill, L.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyer, M. S.; Miao, H.; Miller, J.; Mino, Y.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morioka, T.; Mors, K.; Mossavi, K.; MowLowry, C.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murray, P. G.; Nash, T.; Nawrodt, R.; Nelson, J.; Newton, G.; Nishizawa, A.; Nolting, D.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Ogin, G. H.; Oldenburg, R. G.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Page, A.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Papa, M. A.; Pareja, M.; Patel, P.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Penn, S.; Peralta, C.; Perreca, A.; Pickenpack, M.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H. J.; Plissi, M. V.; Postiglione, F.; Predoi, V.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Prix, R.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F. J.; Radke, T.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rankins, B.; Raymond, V.; Reed, C. M.; Reed, T.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Roberts, P.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinson, C.; Robinson, E. L.; Roddy, S.; Röver, C.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J. H.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ryan, K.; Sakata, S.; Sakosky, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sancho de la Jordana, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sannibale, V.; Santamaría, L.; Santostasi, G.; Saraf, S.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Sato, S.; Satterthwaite, M.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R.; Schulz, B.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Searle, A. C.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sibley, A.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Singer, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Skelton, G.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, N. D.; Somiya, K.; Sorazu, B.; Speirits, F. C.; Stein, A. J.; Stein, L. C.; Steinlechner, S.; Steplewski, S.; Stochino, A.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Strigin, S.; Stroeer, A.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sung, M.; Susmithan, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taylor, J. R.; Taylor, R.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Thüring, A.; Titsler, C.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C. I.; Traylor, G.; Trias, M.; Tseng, K.; Ugolini, D.; Urbanek, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vaishnav, B.; Vallisneri, M.; Van Den Broeck, C.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Veltkamp, C.; Villar, A.; Vorvick, C.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Waldman, S. J.; Wallace, L.; Wanner, A.; Ward, R. L.; Wei, P.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wen, S.; Wessels, P.; West, M.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Willke, B.; Winkelmann, L.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wiseman, A. G.; Woan, G.; Wooley, R.; Worden, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Yeaton-Massey, D.; Yoshida, S.; Yu, P. P.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration
2010-10-01
We present a search for periodic gravitational waves from the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. The search coherently analyzes data in a 12 day interval taken from the fifth science run of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory. It searches gravitational-wave frequencies from 100 to 300 Hz and covers a wide range of first and second frequency derivatives appropriate for the age of the remnant and for different spin-down mechanisms. No gravitational-wave signal was detected. Within the range of search frequencies, we set 95% confidence upper limits of (0.7-1.2) × 10-24 on the intrinsic gravitational-wave strain, (0.4-4) × 10-4 on the equatorial ellipticity of the neutron star, and 0.005-0.14 on the amplitude of r-mode oscillations of the neutron star. These direct upper limits beat indirect limits derived from energy conservation and enter the range of theoretical predictions involving crystalline exotic matter or runaway r-modes. This paper is also the first gravitational-wave search to present upper limits on the r-mode amplitude.
Gras, S.; Blair, D. G.; Ju, L.
2010-02-15
To reduce the thermal noise in the future generation of gravitational wave detectors, flat-top beams have been proposed to replace conventional Gaussian beams, so as to obtain better averaging over the Brownian motion of the test masses. Here, we present a detailed investigation of the unwanted opto-acoustic interactions in such interferometers, which can lead to the phenomenon of parametric instability. Our results show that the increased overlap of the Mesa beams with the test masses leads to approximately 3 times as many unstable modes in comparison to a similar interferometer with Gaussian beams.
Calibration of the LIGO gravitational wave detectors in the fifth science run
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M.; Aronsson, M.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S.; Atkinson, D. E.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballmer, S.; Barker, D.; Barnum, S.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barsotti, L.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Behnke, B.; Benacquista, M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biswas, R.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bondarescu, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, S.; Boyle, M.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Bridges, D. O.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Buonanno, A.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Burmeister, O.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cain, J.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cepeda, C.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chalkley, E.; Charlton, P.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Christensen, N.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Clark, D.; Clark, J.; Clayton, J. H.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Costa, C. A.; Coward, D. M.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Culter, R. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Dahl, K.; Danilishin, S. L.; Dannenberg, R.; Danzmann, K.; Das, K.; Daudert, B.; Davies, G.; Davis, A.; Daw, E. J.; Dayanga, T.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Dergachev, V.; Derosa, R.; Desalvo, R.; Devanka, P.; Dhurandhar, S.; di Palma, I.; Díaz, M.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doomes, E. E.; Dorsher, S.; Douglas, E. S. D.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Dueck, J.; Dumas, J.-C.; Eberle, T.; Edgar, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Engel, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Farr, B. F.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Finn, L. S.; Flanigan, M.; Flasch, K.; Foley, S.; Forrest, C.; Forsi, E.; Fotopoulos, N.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Friedrich, D.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Garofoli, J. A.; Gholami, I.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Gill, C.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Graef, C.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hall, P.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Hayler, T.; Heefner, J.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hoyland, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kanner, J. B.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, H.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R.; Koranda, S.; Kozak, D.; Krause, T.; Kringel, V.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Krishnan, B.; Kuehn, G.; Kullman, J.; Kumar, R.; Kwee, P.; Landry, M.; Lang, M.; Lantz, B.; Lastzka, N.; Lazzarini, A.; Leaci, P.; Leong, J.; Leonor, I.; Li, J.; Lin, H.; Lindquist, P. E.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lodhia, D.; Lormand, M.; Lu, P.; Luan, J.; Lubinski, M.; Lucianetti, A.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Mak, C.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Matzner, R. A.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIvor, G.; McKechan, D. J. A.; Meadors, G.; Mehmet, M.; Meier, T.; Melatos, A.; Melissinos, A. C.; Mendell, G.; Menéndez, D. F.; Mercer, R. A.; Merill, L.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyer, M. S.; Miao, H.; Miller, J.; Mino, Y.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morioka, T.; Mors, K.; Mossavi, K.; Mowlowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murray, P. G.; Nash, T.; Nawrodt, R.; Nelson, J.; Newton, G.; Nishizawa, A.; Nolting, D.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Ogin, G. H.; Oldenburg, R. G.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Page, A.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Papa, M. A.; Pareja, M.; Patel, P.; Pathak, D.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Penn, S.; Peralta, C.; Perreca, A.; Pickenpack, M.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H. J.; Plissi, M. V.; Postiglione, F.; Predoi, V.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Prix, R.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F. J.; Radke, T.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rankins, B.; Raymond, V.; Reed, C. M.; Reed, T.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Roberts, P.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinson, C.; Robinson, E. L.; Roddy, S.; Röver, C.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J. H.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ryan, K.; Sakata, S.; Sakosky, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sancho de La Jordana, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sannibale, V.; Santamaría, L.; Santostasi, G.; Saraf, S.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Sato, S.; Satterthwaite, M.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schulz, B.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Searle, A. C.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sibley, A.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Singer, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Skelton, G.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, N. D.; Somiya, K.; Sorazu, B.; Speirits, F. C.; Stein, A. J.; Stein, L. C.; Steinlechner, S.; Steplewski, S.; Stochino, A.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Strigin, S.; Stroeer, A.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sung, M.; Susmithan, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Szokoly, G. P.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taylor, J. R.; Taylor, R.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Thüring, A.; Titsler, C.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C. I.; Traylor, G.; Trias, M.; Tseng, K.; Turner, L.; Ugolini, D.; Urbanek, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vaishnav, B.; Vallisneri, M.; van den Broeck, C.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Veltkamp, C.; Villar, A. E.; Vorvick, C.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Waldman, S. J.; Wallace, L.; Wanner, A.; Ward, R. L.; Wei, P.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wen, S.; Wessels, P.; West, M.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Willke, B.; Winkelmann, L.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wiseman, A. G.; Woan, G.; Wooley, R.; Worden, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Yeaton-Massey, D.; Yoshida, S.; Yu, P. P.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration
2010-12-01
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) is a network of three detectors built to detect local perturbations in the space-time metric from astrophysical sources. These detectors, two in Hanford, WA and one in Livingston, LA, are power-recycled Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometers. In their fifth science run (S5), between November 2005 and October 2007, these detectors accumulated one year of triple coincident data while operating at their designed sensitivity. In this paper, we describe the calibration of the instruments in the S5 data set, including measurement techniques and uncertainty estimation.
Gravitational waves from the remnants of the first stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartwig, Tilman; Volonteri, Marta; Bromm, Volker; Klessen, Ralf S.; Barausse, Enrico; Magg, Mattis; Stacy, Athena
2016-07-01
Gravitational waves (GWs) provide a revolutionary tool to investigate yet unobserved astrophysical objects. Especially the first stars, which are believed to be more massive than present-day stars, might be indirectly observable via the merger of their compact remnants. We develop a self-consistent, cosmologically representative, semi-analytical model to simulate the formation of the first stars. By extrapolating binary stellar-evolution models at 10 per cent solar metallicity to metal-free stars, we track the individual systems until the coalescence of the compact remnants. We estimate the contribution of primordial stars to the merger rate density and to the detection rate of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (aLIGO). Owing to their higher masses, the remnants of primordial stars produce strong GW signals, even if their contribution in number is relatively small. We find a probability of ≳1 per cent that the current detection GW150914 is of primordial origin. We estimate that aLIGO will detect roughly 1 primordial BH-BH merger per year for the final design sensitivity, although this rate depends sensitively on the primordial initial mass function (IMF). Turning this around, the detection of black hole mergers with a total binary mass of ˜ 300 M⊙ would enable us to constrain the primordial IMF.
Fermi GBM Counterparts to LIGO Gravitational-Wave Candidates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Connaughton, Valerie; Blackburn, Lindy; Briggs, Michael Stephen; Burns, Eric; Camp, Jordan; Dal Canton, Tito; Christensen, Nelson; Goldstein, Adam; Jenke, Peter; Littenberg, Tyson; Racusin, Judith L.; Shawhan, Peter S.; Singer, Leo; Veitch, John; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Zhang, Binbin
2016-01-01
As the advanced configuration of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) begins operations, we eagerly anticipate the detection of gravitational waves (GW) with LIGO in coincidence with a gamma-ray signal from the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). The most likely source is a short Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) arising from the merger of two compact objects. With its broad sky coverage, GBM triggers and localizes more short GRBs than other active space missions, ~45 each year, with an estimate of <1-5 within the LIGO detection horizon. Combining GBM and LIGO localization uncertainty regions may provide a smaller target to look for the GW host. A joint GBM-LIGO detection increases the confidence in the GW detection and helps characterize the parameters of the merger. Offline searches for weak GRBs that fail to trigger onboard Fermi indicate that additional short GRBs can be detected in the GBM data. I will discuss the implementation and expected benefits of joint searches to detect and localize GW candidates. I will also explore how the non-detection in the GBM data of a signal consistent with GW candidates in the LIGO data can affect follow-up strategies for counterpart searches by other observers.
Fermi GBM Counterparts to LIGO Gravitational-Wave Candidates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burns, Eric; Blackburn, Lindy; Briggs, Michael Stephen; Camp, Jordan; Christensen, Nelson; Connaughton, Valerie; Goldstein, Adam; Littenberg, Tyson; Racusin, Judith L.; Shawhan, Peter S.; Pound Singer, Leo; Veitch, John; Zhang, Binbin
2016-04-01
As the advanced configuration of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory has begun operations, we eagerly anticipate the detection of gravitational waves (GW) with LIGO in coincidence with a gamma-ray signal from the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). The most likely source is a short Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) arising from the merger of two compact objects. With its broad sky coverage, GBM triggers and localizes more short GRBs than other active space missions, ~40 each year. Combining GBM and LIGO localization uncertainty regions may provide a smaller target to look for the GW host. A joint GBM-LIGO detection increases the confidence in the GW detection and helps characterize the parameters of the merger. Offline searches for weak GRBs that fail to trigger onboard Fermi indicate that additional short GRBs can be detected in the GBM data. I will discuss the implementation and expected benefits of joint searches to detect and localize GW candidates. I will also explore how the non-detection in the GBM data of a signal consistent with GW candidates in the LIGO data can affect follow-up strategies for counterpart searches by other observers.
Difficult Requirements for a Gravitational Wave Mission using Atom Interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bender, Peter L.
2014-03-01
A PRL paper by Graham, Hogan, Kasevich, and Rajendran in April, 2013 suggested gravitational wave observations in space using single photon transitions on highly forbidden optical lines for atom interferometry measurements. The main example given was based on use of the 698 nm optical clock transition in Sr-87, a 1000 km baseline, and large momentum transfer laser pulse sequences producing 2400 state transitions for a given atom over a 100 s observation period. A specific scenario for such a mission is needed in order to permit evaluation of the requirements. As a stop-gap, a laser power of 30 W, square laser pulses, 1 m diam. transmitting telescopes, and operation of 4 concurrent pairs of atom interferometers are being assumed. Based on these assumptions, the atom cloud temperature requirement would be below 0.1 pK, and the number of atoms required per cloud would be extremely high. Such a mission would be much more complex than a laser interferometry mission with better overall sensitivity, such as the extensively studied LISA mission or the recently proposed evolved-LISA (eLISA) mission. A LISA Pathfinder mission is scheduled for launch in 2015, funded mainly by ESA . A gravitational wave observation theme is being considered by ESA as part of their Cosmic Vision Programme.
Gravitational-wave cosmology across 29 decades in frequency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mingarelli, Chiara; Lasky, Paul; Smith, Tristan; Giblin, John T.; Thrane, Eric; Reardon, Daniel; Caldwell, Robert; Parkes Pulsar Timing Array Collaboration
2016-03-01
We derive constraints on the spectrum of the primordial gravitational wave background, and hence on theories of the early Universe, by combining experiments that cover 29 orders of magnitude in frequency. These include Planck observations of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization power spectra and lensing, together with baryon acoustic oscillations and big bang nucleosynthesis measurements, and new pulsar timing array and ground-based interferometer limits. The combination of experiments allows us to constrain cosmological parameters, including the inflationary spectral index, nt, and the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r. Results from individual experiments include a stringent nanohertz limit of the primordial background from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array, Ω(f) < 2 . 3 ×10-10 . Observations of the CMB alone limit the gravitational-wave spectral index at 95% confidence to nt <~ 5 for a tensor-to-scalar ratio of r = 0 . 11 . However, the combination of all the above experiments limits nt < 0 . 36 . Future Advanced LIGO observations are expected to further constrain nt < 0 . 34 by 2020. When CMB experiments detect a non-zero r, our results will imply even more stringent constraints on nt and hence theories of the early Universe. Mingarelli is the 2nd author on the submitted manuscript.
Possible Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Mission Concept
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Livas, Jeffrey C.
2015-01-01
The existence of gravitational waves was established by the discovery of the Binary Pulsar PSR 1913+16 by Hulse and Taylor in 1974, for which they were awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize. However, it is the exploitation of these gravitational waves for the extraction of the astrophysical parameters of the sources that will open the first new astronomical window since the development of gamma ray telescopes in the 1970's and enable a new era of discovery and understanding of the Universe. Direct detection is expected in at least two frequency bands from the ground before the end of the decade with Advanced LIGO and Pulsar Timing Arrays. However, many of the most exciting sources will be continuously observable in the band from 0.1-100 mHz, accessible only from space due to seismic noise and gravity gradients in that band that disturb groundbased observatories. This talk will discuss a possible mission concept developed from the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) reference mission but updated to reduce risk and cost.
Addressing key challenges in space gravitational wave astronomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cornish, Neil
A space based gravitational wave detector will open up the source-rich low frequency portion of the spectrum that can not be accessed from the ground, making possible some very exciting scientific studies. The rich data set collected by such an instrument will be unlike anything encountered by ground based (Laser interferometers or Pulsar timing) gravitational wave observatories, and it will take unique data analysis techniques to realize the full potential of the mission. At present, no techniques exist to exploit the discovery space opened by such a mission. Discovery potential is one of the main selling points for a mission in a new waveband. Our goal is to address this, and other key outstanding issues, by (i) Developing techniques for detecting un-modeled and un-expected signals (ii) Producing improved waveform models for spinning black hole binaries and use them to assess trade-offs in the mission design (iii) Develop robust techniques to identify possible departures from the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity and (iv) explore the constraints that can be placed on astrophysical and modified gravity models by observing multiple systems.
Astrophysics to z approx. 10 with Gravitational Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stebbins, Robin; Hughes, Scott; Lang, Ryan
2007-01-01
The most useful characterization of a gravitational wave detector's performance is the accuracy with which astrophysical parameters of potential gravitational wave sources can be estimated. One of the most important source types for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is inspiraling binaries of black holes. LISA can measure mass and spin to better than 1% for a wide range of masses, even out to high redshifts. The most difficult parameter to estimate accurately is almost always luminosity distance. Nonetheless, LISA can measure luminosity distance of intermediate-mass black hole binary systems (total mass approx.10(exp 4) solar mass) out to z approx.10 with distance accuracies approaching 25% in many cases. With this performance, LISA will be able to follow the merger history of black holes from the earliest mergers of proto-galaxies to the present. LISA's performance as a function of mass from 1 to 10(exp 7) solar mass and of redshift out to z approx. 30 will be described. The re-formulation of LISA's science requirements based on an instrument sensitivity model and parameter estimation will be described.
Possible Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Mission Concept
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Livas, Jeffrey C.
2015-08-01
The existence of gravitational waves was established by the discovery of the Binary Pulsar PSR 1913+16 by Hulse and Taylor in 1974, for which they were awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize. However, it is the exploitation of these gravitational waves for the extraction of the astrophysical parameters of the sources that will open the first new astronomical window since the development of gamma ray telescopes in the 1970’s and enable a new era of discovery and understanding of the Universe. Direct detection is expected in at least two frequency bands from the ground before the end of the decade with Advanced LIGO and Pulsar Timing Arrays. However, many of the most exciting sources will be continuously observable in the band from 0.1-100 mHz, accessible only from space due to seismic noise and gravity gradients in that band that disturb ground-based observatories. This talk will discuss a possible mission concept developed from the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) reference mission but updated to reduce risk and cost.
Gravitational waves: Perspectives of detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerdonio, Massimo
2015-01-01
With Giovanni Losurdo, the PI of Advanced Virgo, we recently dwelled on this subject in an invited review paper [#!ncc10890bib1!#]. Here I first give a short introduction by answering in brief to a few basic and relevant questions, which I was often asked by colleagues not specifically working on gravitation. Then I highlight the main considerations discussed in [#!ncc10890bib1!#], in a sort of guide for the reader, where more details and an extensive reference list can be found. For more complete info, I call the attention to a number of beautiful pictures, kindly provided by my colleagues, which I put on the IFAE website, but are not given here nor in [#!ncc10890bib1!#]. After publication of [#!ncc10890bib1!#], a few relevant developments occurred, especially in the long-term planning of experiments, on which I report here. To update the references would have resulted in adding some sort of ten percent more than those in [#!ncc10890bib1!#], so I have added only a few, which I rate most recent and particularly relevant to the relative issue.
FIRST SEARCHES FOR OPTICAL COUNTERPARTS TO GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE CANDIDATE EVENTS
Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M. R.; Adhikari, R. X.; Ajith, P.; Abbott, T.; Accadia, T.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Affeldt, C.; Allen, B.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Allocca, A.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Collaboration: LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration; and others
2014-03-01
During the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory and Virgo joint science runs in 2009-2010, gravitational wave (GW) data from three interferometer detectors were analyzed within minutes to select GW candidate events and infer their apparent sky positions. Target coordinates were transmitted to several telescopes for follow-up observations aimed at the detection of an associated optical transient. Images were obtained for eight such GW candidates. We present the methods used to analyze the image data as well as the transient search results. No optical transient was identified with a convincing association with any of these candidates, and none of the GW triggers showed strong evidence for being astrophysical in nature. We compare the sensitivities of these observations to several model light curves from possible sources of interest, and discuss prospects for future joint GW-optical observations of this type.
Constraining Modified Theories of Gravity with Gravitational-Wave Stochastic Backgrounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maselli, Andrea; Marassi, Stefania; Ferrari, Valeria; Kokkotas, Kostas; Schneider, Raffaella
2016-08-01
The direct discovery of gravitational waves has finally opened a new observational window on our Universe, suggesting that the population of coalescing binary black holes is larger than previously expected. These sources produce an unresolved background of gravitational waves, potentially observable by ground-based interferometers. In this Letter we investigate how modified theories of gravity, modeled using the parametrized post-Einsteinian formalism, affect the expected signal, and analyze the detectability of the resulting stochastic background by current and future ground-based interferometers. We find the constraints that Advanced LIGO would be able to set on modified theories, showing that they may significantly improve the current bounds obtained from astrophysical observations of binary pulsars.
Constraining Modified Theories of Gravity with Gravitational-Wave Stochastic Backgrounds.
Maselli, Andrea; Marassi, Stefania; Ferrari, Valeria; Kokkotas, Kostas; Schneider, Raffaella
2016-08-26
The direct discovery of gravitational waves has finally opened a new observational window on our Universe, suggesting that the population of coalescing binary black holes is larger than previously expected. These sources produce an unresolved background of gravitational waves, potentially observable by ground-based interferometers. In this Letter we investigate how modified theories of gravity, modeled using the parametrized post-Einsteinian formalism, affect the expected signal, and analyze the detectability of the resulting stochastic background by current and future ground-based interferometers. We find the constraints that Advanced LIGO would be able to set on modified theories, showing that they may significantly improve the current bounds obtained from astrophysical observations of binary pulsars. PMID:27610838
First Searches for Optical Counterparts to Gravitational-wave Candidate Events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, R. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Austin, L.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barker, D.; Barnum, S. H.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bebronne, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Belopolski, I.; Bergmann, G.; Berliner, J. M.; Bertolini, A.; Bessis, D.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhadbhade, T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogan, C.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bowers, J.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brannen, C. A.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brückner, F.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Castiglia, A.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Del Pozzo, W.; Deleeuw, E.; Deléglise, S.; Denker, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Dmitry, K.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Endrőczi, G.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, K.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farr, B.; Farr, W.; Favata, M.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R.; Flaminio, R.; Foley, E.; Foley, S.; Forsi, E.; Forte, L. A.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garcia, J.; Garufi, F.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gil-Casanova, S.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Griffo, C.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hall, B.; Hall, E.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hartman, M. T.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hong, T.; Hooper, S.; Horrom, T.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y.; Hua, Z.; Huang, V.; Huerta, E. A.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Iafrate, J.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.
2014-03-01
During the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory and Virgo joint science runs in 2009-2010, gravitational wave (GW) data from three interferometer detectors were analyzed within minutes to select GW candidate events and infer their apparent sky positions. Target coordinates were transmitted to several telescopes for follow-up observations aimed at the detection of an associated optical transient. Images were obtained for eight such GW candidates. We present the methods used to analyze the image data as well as the transient search results. No optical transient was identified with a convincing association with any of these candidates, and none of the GW triggers showed strong evidence for being astrophysical in nature. We compare the sensitivities of these observations to several model light curves from possible sources of interest, and discuss prospects for future joint GW-optical observations of this type.
First Searches for Optical Counterparts to Gravitational-Wave Candidate Events
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amador Ceron, E.; Blackburn, L.; Camp, J. B.; Gehrels, N.; Graff, P. B.; Kanner, J. B.; Cenko, S. B.
2014-01-01
During the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory and Virgo joint science runs in 2009-2010, gravitational wave (GW) data from three interferometer detectors were analyzed within minutes to select GW candidate events and infer their apparent sky positions. Target coordinates were transmitted to several telescopes for follow-up observations aimed at the detection of an associated optical transient. Images were obtained for eight such GW candidates. We present the methods used to analyze the image data as well as the transient search results. No optical transient was identified with a convincing association with any of these candidates, and none of the GW triggers showed strong evidence for being astrophysical in nature. We compare the sensitivities of these observations to several model light curves from possible sources of interest, and discuss prospects for future joint GW-optical observations of this type.
Optimizing the regimes of the Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detector for multiple source types
Kondrashov, I. S.; Simakov, D. A.; Khalili, F. Ya.; Danilishin, S. L.
2008-09-15
We developed algorithms which allow us to find regimes of the signal-recycled Fabry-Perot-Michelson interferometer [for example, the Advanced Laser Interferometric Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO)], optimized concurrently for two (binary inspirals + bursts) and three (binary inspirals + bursts + millisecond pulsars) types of gravitational wave sources. We show that there exists a relatively large area in the interferometer parameters space where the detector sensitivity to the first two kinds of sources differs only by a few percent from the maximal ones for each kind of source. In particular, there exists a specific regime where this difference is {approx_equal}0.5% for both of them. Furthermore, we show that even more multipurpose regimes are also possible that provide significant sensitivity gain for millisecond pulsars with only minor sensitivity degradation for binary inspirals and bursts.
Constraining Modified Theories of Gravity with Gravitational-Wave Stochastic Backgrounds.
Maselli, Andrea; Marassi, Stefania; Ferrari, Valeria; Kokkotas, Kostas; Schneider, Raffaella
2016-08-26
The direct discovery of gravitational waves has finally opened a new observational window on our Universe, suggesting that the population of coalescing binary black holes is larger than previously expected. These sources produce an unresolved background of gravitational waves, potentially observable by ground-based interferometers. In this Letter we investigate how modified theories of gravity, modeled using the parametrized post-Einsteinian formalism, affect the expected signal, and analyze the detectability of the resulting stochastic background by current and future ground-based interferometers. We find the constraints that Advanced LIGO would be able to set on modified theories, showing that they may significantly improve the current bounds obtained from astrophysical observations of binary pulsars.
Gravitational wave searches using the DSN (Deep Space Network)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nelson, S. J.; Armstrong, J. W.
1988-01-01
The Deep Space Network Doppler spacecraft link is currently the only method available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the 0.01 to 0.001 Hz frequency range. The DSN's role in the worldwide search for gravitational waves is described by first summarizing from the literature current theoretical estimates of gravitational wave strengths and time scales from various astrophysical sources. Current and future detection schemes for ground based and space based detectors are then discussed. Past, present, and future planned or proposed gravitational wave experiments using DSN Doppler tracking are described. Lastly, some major technical challenges to improve gravitational wave sensitivities using the DSN are discussed.
Pseudospectral method for gravitational wave collapse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hilditch, David; Weyhausen, Andreas; Brügmann, Bernd
2016-03-01
We present a new pseudospectral code, bamps, for numerical relativity written with the evolution of collapsing gravitational waves in mind. We employ the first-order generalized harmonic gauge formulation. The relevant theory is reviewed, and the numerical method is critically examined and specialized for the task at hand. In particular, we investigate formulation parameters—gauge- and constraint-preserving boundary conditions well suited to nonvanishing gauge source functions. Different types of axisymmetric twist-free moment-of-time-symmetry gravitational wave initial data are discussed. A treatment of the axisymmetric apparent horizon condition is presented with careful attention to regularity on axis. Our apparent horizon finder is then evaluated in a number of test cases. Moving on to evolutions, we investigate modifications to the generalized harmonic gauge constraint damping scheme to improve conservation in the strong-field regime. We demonstrate strong-scaling of our pseudospectral penalty code. We employ the Cartoon method to efficiently evolve axisymmetric data in our 3 +1 -dimensional code. We perform test evolutions of the Schwarzschild spacetime perturbed by gravitational waves and by gauge pulses, both to demonstrate the use of our black-hole excision scheme and for comparison with earlier results. Finally, numerical evolutions of supercritical Brill waves are presented to demonstrate durability of the excision scheme for the dynamical formation of a black hole.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lovelace, Geoffrey; Simulating eXtreme Collaboration; LIGO Scientific Collaboration
2016-03-01
The Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (Advanced LIGO) began searching for gravitational waves in September 2015, with three times the sensitivity of the initial LIGO experiment. Merging black holes are among the most promising sources of gravitational waves for Advanced LIGO, but near the time of merger, the emitted waves can only be computed using numerical relativity. In this talk, I will present new numerical-relativity simulations of merging black holes, made using the Spectral Einstein Code [black-holes.org/SpEC.html], including cases with black-hole spins that are nearly as fast as possible. I will discuss how such simulations will be able to rapidly follow up gravitational-wave observations, improving our understanding of the waves' sources.
Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Constraints on Binary Synthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalogera, V.
2004-12-01
In the coming decade gravitational-wave astronomy is expected to develop as a new field of astronomical research and exploration of the cosmos. In this talk I summarize the outcome of a recent workshop ``Imagining the Future: Gravitational Wave Astronomy" and discuss a specific example of how gravitational-wave observations could be used in the future to improve our understanding of binary evolution and compact objects. This work is partially supported by NSF Gravitational Physics Program and a NASA ATP awards.
Multi-messenger astronomy: gravitational waves, neutrinos, photons, and cosmic rays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Branchesi, Marica
2016-05-01
In the next decade, multi-messenger astronomy will probe the rich physics of transient phenomena in the sky, such as the mergers of neutron stars and/or black holes, gamma-ray bursts, and core-collapse supernovae. The first observations of gravitational waves from the inspiral and merger of a binary black-hole system by the advanced LIGO interferometers marked the onset of gravitational-wave astronomy. The advanced detectors, LIGO and Virgo, observing together with space and ground-based electromagnetic telescopes, and neutrinos and cosmic-ray detectors will offer the great opportunity to explore the Universe through all its messengers. The paper provides a review of the astrophysical sources expected to emit transient multi-messenger signals and the multi-messenger obervational startegies and analysis. Challenges and perspectives of the multi-messenger astronomy are presented highlighting gravitational waves as new messenger.
CMB μ distortion from primordial gravitational waves
Ota, Atsuhisa; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Takahashi, Tomo; Tashiro, Hiroyuki E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp E-mail: gucci@phys.titech.ac.jp
2014-10-01
We propose a new mechanism of generating the μ distortion in cosmic microwave background (CMB) originated from primordial gravitational waves. Such μ distortion is generated by the damping of the temperature anisotropies through the Thomson scattering, even on scales larger than that of Silk damping. This mechanism is in sharp contrast with that from the primordial curvature (scalar) perturbations, in which the temperature anisotropies mainly decay by Silk damping effects. We estimate the size of the μ distortion from the new mechanism, which can be used to constrain the amplitude of primordial gravitational waves on smaller scales independently from the CMB anisotropies, giving more wide-range constraint on their spectral index by combining the amplitude from the CMB anisotropies.
Gravitational wave memory in an expanding universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tolish, Alexander; Wald, Robert
2016-03-01
We investigate the gravitational wave memory effect in an expanding FLRW spacetime. We find that if the gravitational field is decomposed into gauge-invariant scalar, vector, and tensor modes after the fashion of Bardeen, only the tensor mode gives rise to memory, and this memory can be calculated using the retarded Green's function associated with the tensor wave equation. If locally similar radiation source events occur on flat and FLRW backgrounds, we find that the resulting memories will differ only by a redshift factor, and we explore whether or not this factor depends on the expansion history of the FLRW universe. We compare our results to related work by Bieri, Garfinkle, and Yau.
Listening to the Universe with gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sathyaprakash, B. S.
2016-07-01
The discovery of gravitational waves by the twin LIGO detectors in September 2015 has opened a new window for observational astronomy. The coming years will witness the emergence of other detectors such as Advanced Virgo, KAGRA and LIGO-India. The worldwide network of these detectors will not only observe binary black holes, which we now know will be the dominant sources, but other sources such as binary neutron stars, neutron star-black hole binaries, supernovae, stochastic backgrounds and unknown sources that we do not know yet. In my talk I will describe how gravitational wave observations will help us gain deeper insights into fundamental physics, astrophysics and cosmology in the coming years and decades.
Gravitational Waves from Core Collapse Supernovae
Yakunin, Konstantin; Marronetti, Pedro; Mezzacappa, Anthony; Bruenn, S. W.; Lee, Ching-Tsai; Chertkow, Merek A; Hix, William Raphael; Blondin, J. M.; Lentz, Eric J; Messer, Bronson; Yoshida, S.
2010-01-01
We present the gravitational wave signatures for a suite of axisymmetric core collapse supernova models with progenitor masses between 12 and 25 M{sub odot}. These models are distinguished by the fact that they explode and contain essential physics (in particular, multi-frequency neutrino transport and general relativity) needed for a more realistic description. Thus, we are able to compute complete waveforms (i.e. through explosion) based on non-parameterized, first-principles models. This is essential if the waveform amplitudes and time scales are to be computed more precisely. Fourier decomposition shows that the gravitational wave signals we predict should be observable by AdvLIGO across the range of progenitors considered here. The fundamental limitation of these models is in their imposition of axisymmetry. Further progress will require counterpart three-dimensional models.
Interferometric Techniques for Gravitational Wave Detection in Space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stebbins, Robin T; Bender, Peter L.
2000-01-01
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission will detect gravitational waves from galactic and extragalactic sources, most importantly those involving supermassive black holes. The primary goal of this project is to investigate stability and robustness issues associated with LISA interferometry. We specifically propose to study systematic errors arising from: optical misalignments, optical surface errors, thermal effects and pointing tolerances. This report covers the first fiscal year of the grant, from January 1st to December 31st 1999. We have employed an optical modeling tool to evaluate the effect of misplaced and misaligned optical components. Preliminary results seem to indicate that positional tolerances of one micron and angular tolerances of 0.6 millirad produce no significant effect on the achievable contrast of the interference pattern. This report also outlines research plans for the second fiscal year of the grant, from January 1st to December 31st 2000. Since the work under NAG5-6880 has gone more rapidly than projected, our test bed interferometer is operational, and can be used for measurements of effects that cause beam motion. Hence, we will design, build and characterize a sensor for measuring beam motion, and then install it. We are also planning a differential wavefront sensor based on a quadrant photodiode as a first generation sensor.
Testing Gravitational Physics with Space-based Gravitational-wave Observations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John G.
2011-01-01
Gravitational wave observations provide exceptional and unique opportunities for precision tests of gravitational physics, as predicted by general relativity (GR). Space-based gravitational wave measurements, with high signal-to-noise ratios and large numbers of observed events may provide the best-suited gravitational-wave observations for testing GR with unprecedented precision. These observations will be especially useful in testing the properties of gravitational waves and strong-field aspects of the theory which are less relevant in other observations. We review the proposed GR test based on observations of massive black hole mergers, extreme mass ratio inspirals, and galactic binary systems.
Kinks, extra dimensions, and gravitational waves
O'Callaghan, Eimear; Gregory, Ruth
2011-03-01
We investigate in detail the gravitational wave signal from kinks on cosmic (super)strings, including the kinematical effects from the internal extra dimensions. We find that the signal is suppressed, however, the effect is less significant that that for cusps. Combined with the greater incidence of kinks on (super)strings, it is likely that the kink signal offers the better chance for detection of cosmic (super)strings.
Relic gravitational waves and extended inflation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turner, Michael S.; Wilczek, Frank
1990-01-01
In extended inflation, a new version of inflation where the transition from an inflationary to a radiation-dominated universe is accomplished by bubble nucleation, bubble collisions supply a potent - and potentially detectable - source of gravitational waves. The energy density in relic gravitons from bubble collisions is expected to be about 0.00005 of closure density. Their characteristic wavelength depends on the reheating temperature. If black holes are produced by bubble collisions, they will evaporate, producing shorter-wavelength gravitons.
Detectability of bigravity with graviton oscillations using gravitational wave observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narikawa, Tatsuya; Ueno, Koh; Tagoshi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Takahiro; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Nakamura, Takashi
2015-03-01
The gravitational waveforms in the ghost-free bigravity theory exhibit deviations from those in general relativity. The main difference is caused by graviton oscillations in the bigravity theory. We investigate the prospects for the detection of the corrections to gravitational waveforms from coalescing compact binaries due to graviton oscillations and for constraining bigravity parameters with the gravitational wave observations. We consider the bigravity model discussed by the De Felice-Nakamura-Tanaka subset of the bigravity model, and the phenomenological model in which the bigravity parameters are treated as independent variables. In both models, the bigravity waveform shows strong amplitude modulation, and there can be a characteristic frequency of the largest peak of the amplitude, which depends on the bigravity parameters. We show that there is a detectable region of the bigravity parameters for the advanced ground-based laser interferometers, such as Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo, and KAGRA. This region corresponds to the effective graviton mass of μ ≳10-17 cm-1 for c ˜ -1 ≳10-19 in the phenomenological model, while μ ≳10-16.5 cm-1 for κ ξc2≳100.5 in the De Felice-Nakamura-Tanaka subset of the bigravity model, respectively, where c ˜ is the propagation speed of the massive graviton and κ ξc2 corresponds to the corrections to the gravitational constant in general relativity. These regions are not excluded by existing solar system tests. We also show that, in the case of 1.4 -1.4 M⊙ binaries at the distance of 200 Mpc, log μ2 is determined with an accuracy of O (0.1 )% at the 1 σ level for a fiducial model with μ2=1 0-33 cm-2 in the case of the phenomenological model.
Separating gravitational wave signals from instrument artifacts
Littenberg, Tyson B.; Cornish, Neil J.
2010-11-15
Central to the gravitational wave detection problem is the challenge of separating features in the data produced by astrophysical sources from features produced by the detector. Matched filtering provides an optimal solution for Gaussian noise, but in practice, transient noise excursions or ''glitches'' complicate the analysis. Detector diagnostics and coincidence tests can be used to veto many glitches which may otherwise be misinterpreted as gravitational wave signals. The glitches that remain can lead to long tails in the matched filter search statistics and drive up the detection threshold. Here we describe a Bayesian approach that incorporates a more realistic model for the instrument noise allowing for fluctuating noise levels that vary independently across frequency bands, and deterministic glitch fitting using wavelets as glitch templates, the number of which is determined by a transdimensional Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. We demonstrate the method's effectiveness on simulated data containing low amplitude gravitational wave signals from inspiraling binary black-hole systems, and simulated nonstationary and non-Gaussian noise comprised of a Gaussian component with the standard LIGO/Virgo spectrum, and injected glitches of various amplitude, prevalence, and variety. Glitch fitting allows us to detect significantly weaker signals than standard techniques.
Gravitational waves from the big bounce
Mielczarek, Jakub
2008-11-15
In this paper we investigate gravitational wave production during the big bounce phase, inspired by loop quantum cosmology. We consider the influence of the holonomy corrections to the equation for tensor modes. We show that they act like additional effective graviton mass, suppressing gravitational wave creation. However, such effects can be treated perturbatively. We investigate a simplified model without holonomy corrections to the equation for modes and find its exact analytical solution. Assuming the form for matter {rho}{proportional_to}a{sup -2} we calculate the full spectrum of the gravitational waves from the big bounce phase. The spectrum obtained decreases to zero for the low energy modes. On the basis of this observation we infer that this effect can lead to low cosmic microwave background (CMB) multipole suppression and gives a potential way for testing loop quantum cosmology models. We also consider a scenario with a post-bounce inflationary phase. The power spectrum obtained gives a qualitative explanation of the CMB spectra, including low multipole suppression.
Astrophysical calibration of gravitational-wave detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pitkin, M.; Messenger, C.; Wright, L.
2016-03-01
We investigate a method to assess the validity of gravitational-wave detector calibration through the use of gamma-ray bursts as standard sirens. Such signals, as measured via gravitational-wave observations, provide an estimated luminosity distance that is subject to uncertainties in the calibration of the data. If a host galaxy is identified for a given source then its redshift can be combined with current knowledge of the cosmological parameters yielding the true luminosity distance. This will then allow a direct comparison with the estimated value and can validate the accuracy of the original calibration. We use simulations of individual detectable gravitational-wave signals from binary neutron star (BNS) or neutron star-black hole systems, which we assume to be found in coincidence with short gamma-ray bursts, to estimate any discrepancy in the overall scaling of the calibration for detectors in the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo network. We find that the amplitude scaling of the calibration for the LIGO instruments could on average be confirmed to within ˜10 % for a BNS source within 100 Mpc. This result is largely independent of the current detector calibration method and gives an uncertainty that is competitive with that expected in the current calibration procedure. Confirmation of the calibration accuracy to within ˜20 % can be found with BNS sources out to ˜500 Mpc .
Separating Gravitational Wave Signals from Instrument Artifacts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Littenberg, Tyson B.; Cornish, Neil J.
2010-01-01
Central to the gravitational wave detection problem is the challenge of separating features in the data produced by astrophysical sources from features produced by the detector. Matched filtering provides an optimal solution for Gaussian noise, but in practice, transient noise excursions or "glitches" complicate the analysis. Detector diagnostics and coincidence tests can be used to veto many glitches which may otherwise be misinterpreted as gravitational wave signals. The glitches that remain can lead to long tails in the matched filter search statistics and drive up the detection threshold. Here we describe a Bayesian approach that incorporates a more realistic model for the instrument noise allowing for fluctuating noise levels that vary independently across frequency bands, and deterministic "glitch fitting" using wavelets as "glitch templates", the number of which is determined by a trans-dimensional Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. We demonstrate the method's effectiveness on simulated data containing low amplitude gravitational wave signals from inspiraling binary black hole systems, and simulated non-stationary and non-Gaussian noise comprised of a Gaussian component with the standard LIGO/Virgo spectrum, and injected glitches of various amplitude, prevalence, and variety. Glitch fitting allows us to detect significantly weaker signals than standard techniques.
Probing the size of extra dimensions with gravitational wave astronomy
Yagi, Kent; Tanahashi, Norihiro; Tanaka, Takahiro
2011-04-15
In the Randall-Sundrum II braneworld model, it has been conjectured, according to the AdS/CFT correspondence, that a brane-localized black hole (BH) larger than the bulk AdS curvature scale l cannot be static, and it is dual to a four-dimensional BH emitting Hawking radiation through some quantum fields. In this scenario, the number of the quantum field species is so large that this radiation changes the orbital evolution of a BH binary. We derived the correction to the gravitational waveform phase due to this effect and estimated the upper bounds on l by performing Fisher analyses. We found that the Deci-Hertz Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory and the Big Bang Observatory (DECIGO/BBO) can give a stronger constraint than the current tabletop result by detecting gravitational waves from small mass BH/BH and BH/neutron star (NS) binaries. Furthermore, DECIGO/BBO is expected to detect 10{sup 5} BH/NS binaries per year. Taking this advantage, we find that DECIGO/BBO can actually measure l down to l=0.33 {mu}m for a 5 yr observation if we know that binaries are circular a priori. This is about 40 times smaller than the upper bound obtained from the tabletop experiment. On the other hand, when we take eccentricities into binary parameters, the detection limit weakens to l=1.5 {mu}m due to strong degeneracies between l and eccentricities. We also derived the upper bound on l from the expected detection number of extreme mass ratio inspirals with LISA and BH/NS binaries with DECIGO/BBO, extending the discussion made recently by McWilliams [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 141601 (2010)]. We found that these less robust constraints are weaker than the ones from phase differences.
Binary Black Hole Late Inspiral: Simulations for Gravitational Wave Observations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John G.; vanMeter, James R.; Centrella, Joan; Choi, Dae-Il; Kelly, Bernard J.; Koppitz, Michael
2006-01-01
Coalescing binary black hole mergers are expected to be the strongest gravitational wave sources for ground-based interferometers, such as the LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the spacebased interferometer LISA. Until recently it has been impossible to reliably derive the predictions of General Relativity for the final merger stage, which takes place in the strong-field regime. Recent progress in numerical relativity simulations is, however, revolutionizing our understanding of these systems. We examine here the specific case of merging equal-mass Schwarzschild black holes in detail, presenting new simulations in which the black holes start in the late inspiral stage on orbits with very low eccentricity and evolve for approximately 1200M through approximately 7 orbits before merging. We study the accuracy and consistency of our simulations and the resulting gravitational waveforms, which encompass approximately 14 cycles before merger, and highlight the importance of using frequency (rather than time) to set the physical reference when comparing models. Matching our results to PN calculations for the earlier parts of the inspiral provides a combined waveform with less than half a cycle of accumulated phase error through the entire coalescence. Using this waveform, we calculate signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for iLIGO, adLIGO, and LISA, highlighting the contributions from the late-inspiral and merger-ringdown parts of the waveform which can now be simulated numerically. Contour plots of SNR as a function of z and M show that adLIGO can achieve SNR 2 10 for some IMBBHs out to z approximately equals 1, and that LISA can see MBBHs in the range 3 x 10(exp 4) approximately < M/Mo approximately < 10(exp 7) at SNR > 100 out to the earliest epochs of structure formation at z > 15.
Underground and airborne matter-wave inertial sensors: towards fundamental tests of gravitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouyer, Philippe
2012-07-01
Matter-wave inertial sensing relies on the capability of manipulating the coherent wave nature of matter to build an interferometer and accurately measure a phase difference. Since the massive particle associated to the matter wave senses inertial effects, the interferometer represents an accurate inertial probe. Atom interferometers have benefited from the outstanding developments of laser-cooling techniques and reached accuracies comparable to those of inertial sensors based on optical interferometry. Thanks to their long term stability, they offer a breakthrough advance in accelerometry, gyroscopy and gravimetry, for applications to inertial guidance, geoid determinations, geophysics and metrology. They are also excellent candidates for laboratory-based tests of general relativity that could compete with the current tests using astronomical or macroscopic bodies. For example, they may provide new answers to the question of whether the free fall acceleration of a particle is universal, i.e. independent of its internal composition and quantum properties. We report here the first operation of an airborne quantum inertial sensor. We highlight their promising applications to inertial navigation and Earth observation. We also describe the improvement of the quantum sensor sensitivity in weightlessness, and discuss the possibility to conduct airborne or spaceborne tests of the Universality of Free Fall with quantum objects. We finally describe a matter-wave laser based interferometric gravitational antenna (MIGA). This infrastructure will allow for measuring with unprecedented resolution variations of the Earths gravity and of the strain of space-time allowing for enhancing the capabilities of existing and future gravitational wave detectors.
Relic gravitational waves and extended inflation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turner, Michael S.; Wilczek, Frank
1990-01-01
In extended inflation, a new version of inflation where the transition from the false-vacuum phase to a radiation-dominated Universe is accomplished by bubble nucleation and percolation, bubble collisions supply a potent-and potentially detectable-source of gravitational waves. The present energy density in relic gravity waves from bubble collisions is expected to be about 10(exp -5) of closure density-many orders of magnitude greater than that of the gravity waves produced by quantum fluctuations. Their characteristic wavelength depends upon the reheating temperature T(sub RH): lambda is approximately 10(exp 4) cm (10(exp 14) GeV/T(sub RH)). If large numbers of black holes are produced, a not implausible outcome, they will evaporate producing comparable amounts of shorter wavelength waves, lambda is approximately 10(exp -6) cm (T(sub RH)/10(exp 14) GeV).
The Quest for B Modes from Inflationary Gravitational Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamionkowski, Marc; Kovetz, Ely D.
2016-09-01
The search for the curl component (B mode) in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization induced by inflationary gravitational waves is described. The canonical single-field slow-roll model of inflation is presented, and we explain the quantum production of primordial density perturbations and gravitational waves. It is shown how these gravitational waves then give rise to polarization in the CMB. We then describe the geometric decomposition of the CMB polarization pattern into a curl-free component (E mode) and curl component (B mode) and show explicitly that gravitational waves induce B modes. We discuss the B modes induced by gravitational lensing and by Galactic foregrounds and show how both are distinguished from those induced by inflationary gravitational waves. Issues involved in the experimental pursuit of these B modes are described, and we summarize some of the strategies being pursued. We close with a brief discussion of some other avenues toward detecting/characterizing the inflationary gravitational-wave background.
A thermal beam calcium matter-wave interferometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birrell, Jeremiah; Christensen, Dan; Erickson, Christopher; Paul, Justin; Tang, Rebecca; Durfee, Dallin
2006-10-01
We report on progress toward a calcium-beam atom interferometer. The design uses a novel alignment scheme using precision prisms which will cause first-order Doppler shifts to cancel out to high accuracy. The device will utilize a thermal beam of atoms for simplicity and high signals. The atom waves will be split and recombined using a single-photon transition at a wavelength of 657 nm. We are currently working to improve the linewidth of the 657 nm laser and constructing a 423 nm blue laser to transversely cool the atoms and to detect the output of the interferometer. We are also characterizing a thermal Ca beam using laser absorption and working on precise control of the temperature and flux of the beam.
Gravitational wave detection with the solar probe: I. Motivation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thorne, K. S.
1978-01-01
Questions are posed and answered through discussion of gravitational wave detection with the Solar Probe. Discussed are: (1) what a gravitational wave is; (2) why wave detection is important; (3) what astrophysical information might be learned from these waves; (4) status of attempts to detect these waves; (5) why the Solar Probe is a special mission for detecting these waves; (6) how the Solar Probe's expected sensitivity compares with the strength of predicted gravitational waves; and (7) what gravity wave searchers will do after the Solar Probe.
Architectures for a Space-based Gravitational-Wave Observatory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stebbins, Robin
2015-04-01
The European Space Agency (ESA) selected the science theme, the ``Gravitational Universe,'' for the third large mission opportunity, known as L3, under its Cosmic Vision Programme. The planned launch date is 2034. ESA is considering a 20% participation by an international partner, and NASA's Astrophysics Division has begun negotiating a NASA role. We have studied the design consequences of a NASA contribution, evaluated the science benefits and identified the technology requirements for hardware that could be delivered by NASA. The European community proposed a strawman mission concept, called eLISA, having two measurement arms, derived from the well studied LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) concept. The US community is promoting a mission concept known as SGO Mid (Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory Mid-sized), a three arm LISA-like concept. If NASA were to partner with ESA, the eLISA concept could be transformed to SGO Mid by the addition of a third arm, thereby augmenting science, reducing risk and reducing non-recurring engineering costs. The characteristics of the mission concepts and the relative science performance of eLISA, SGO Mid and LISA are described.
Seismic Attenuation Technology for the Advanced Virgo Gravitational Wave Detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beker, M. G.; Blom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Bulten, H. J.; Hennes, E.; Rabeling, D. S.
The current interferometric gravitational wave detectors are being upgraded to what are termed 'second generation' devices. Sensitivities will be increased by an order of magnitude and these new instruments are expected to uncover the field of gravitational astronomy. A main challenge in this endeavor is the mitigation of noise induced by seismic motion. Detailed studies with Virgo show that seismic noise can be reinjected into the dark fringe signal. For example, laser beam jitter and backscattered light limit the sensitivity of the interferometer. Here, we focus on seismic attenuators based on compact inverted pendulums in combination with geometric anti-prings to obtain 40 dB of attenuation above 4 Hz in six degrees of freedom. Low frequency resonances (< 0.5 Hz) are damped by using a control system based on input from LVDTs and geophones. Such systems are under development for the seismic attenuation of optical benches operated both in air and vacuum. The design and realization of the seismic attenuation system for the Virgo external injection bench, including its control scheme, will be discussed and stand-alone performance presented.
Gravitational waves from the electroweak phase transition
Leitao, Leonardo; Mégevand, Ariel; Sánchez, Alejandro D. E-mail: megevand@mdp.edu.ar
2012-10-01
We study the generation of gravitational waves in the electroweak phase transition. We consider a few extensions of the Standard Model, namely, the addition of scalar singlets, the minimal supersymmetric extension, and the addition of TeV fermions. For each model we consider the complete dynamics of the phase transition. In particular, we estimate the friction force acting on bubble walls, and we take into account the fact that they can propagate either as detonations or as deflagrations preceded by shock fronts, or they can run away. We compute the peak frequency and peak intensity of the gravitational radiation generated by bubble collisions and turbulence. We discuss the detectability by proposed spaceborne detectors. For the models we considered, runaway walls require significant fine tuning of the parameters, and the gravitational wave signal from bubble collisions is generally much weaker than that from turbulence. Although the predicted signal is in most cases rather low for the sensitivity of LISA, models with strongly coupled extra scalars reach this sensitivity for frequencies f ∼ 10{sup −4} Hz, and give intensities as high as h{sup 2}Ω{sub GW} ∼ 10{sup −8}.
An upper limit on the stochastic gravitational-wave background of cosmological origin.
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2009-08-20
A stochastic background of gravitational waves is expected to arise from a superposition of a large number of unresolved gravitational-wave sources of astrophysical and cosmological origin. It should carry unique signatures from the earliest epochs in the evolution of the Universe, inaccessible to standard astrophysical observations. Direct measurements of the amplitude of this background are therefore of fundamental importance for understanding the evolution of the Universe when it was younger than one minute. Here we report limits on the amplitude of the stochastic gravitational-wave background using the data from a two-year science run of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). Our result constrains the energy density of the stochastic gravitational-wave background normalized by the critical energy density of the Universe, in the frequency band around 100 Hz, to be <6.9 x 10(-6) at 95% confidence. The data rule out models of early Universe evolution with relatively large equation-of-state parameter, as well as cosmic (super)string models with relatively small string tension that are favoured in some string theory models. This search for the stochastic background improves on the indirect limits from Big Bang nucleosynthesis and cosmic microwave background at 100 Hz.
Radio Follow-up of Gravitational-wave Triggers during Advanced LIGO O1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palliyaguru, N. T.; Corsi, A.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Cenko, S. B.; Frail, D. A.; Perley, D. A.; Mishra, N.; Singer, L. P.; Gal-Yam, A.; Nugent, P. E.; Surace, J. A.
2016-10-01
We present radio follow-up observations carried out with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array during the first observing run (O1) of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). A total of three gravitational-wave triggers were followed-up during the ≈ 4 months of O1, from 2015 September to 2016 January. Two of these triggers, GW150914 and GW151226, are binary black hole (BH) merger events of high significance. A third trigger, G194575, was subsequently declared as an event of no interest (i.e., a false alarm). Our observations targeted selected optical transients identified by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory in the Advanced LIGO error regions of the three triggers, and a limited region of the gravitational-wave localization area of G194575 not accessible to optical telescopes due to Sun constraints, where a possible high-energy transient was identified. No plausible radio counterparts to GW150914 and GW151226 were found, in agreement with expectations for binary BH mergers. We show that combining optical and radio observations is key to identifying contaminating radio sources that may be found in the follow-up of gravitational-wave triggers, such as emission associated with star formation and active galactic nuclei. We discuss our results in the context of the theoretical predictions for radio counterparts to gravitational-wave transients, and describe our future plans for the radio follow-up of Advanced LIGO (and Virgo) triggers.
An information-theoretic approach to the gravitational-wave burst detection problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katsavounidis, E.; Lynch, R.; Vitale, S.; Essick, R.; Robinet, F.
2016-03-01
The advanced era of gravitational-wave astronomy, with data collected in part by the LIGO gravitational-wave interferometers, has begun as of fall 2015. One potential type of detectable gravitational waves is short-duration gravitational-wave bursts, whose waveforms can be difficult to predict. We present the framework for a new detection algorithm - called oLIB - that can be used in relatively low-latency to turn calibrated strain data into a detection significance statement. This pipeline consists of 1) a sine-Gaussian matched-filter trigger generator based on the Q-transform - known as Omicron -, 2) incoherent down-selection of these triggers to the most signal-like set, and 3) a fully coherent analysis of this signal-like set using the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Bayesian evidence calculator LALInferenceBurst (LIB). We optimally extract this information by using a likelihood-ratio test (LRT) to map these search statistics into a significance statement. Using representative archival LIGO data, we show that the algorithm can detect gravitational-wave burst events of realistic strength in realistic instrumental noise with good detection efficiencies across different burst waveform morphologies. With support from the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-0757058.
An upper limit on the stochastic gravitational-wave background of cosmological origin.
Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Acernese, F; Adhikari, R; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allen, G; Alshourbagy, M; Amin, R S; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Antonucci, F; Aoudia, S; Arain, M A; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Armor, P; Arun, K G; Aso, Y; Aston, S; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barriga, P; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Bauer, Th S; Behnke, B; Beker, M; Benacquista, M; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bigotta, S; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birindelli, S; Biswas, R; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Boccara, C; Bodiya, T P; Bogue, L; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brand, J F J van den; Brau, J E; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Van Den Broeck, C; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brummit, A; Brunet, G; Bullington, A; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burmeister, O; Buskulic, D; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campagna, E; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K C; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Carbognani, F; Cardenas, L; Caride, S; Castaldi, G; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chalermsongsak, T; Chalkley, E; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Christensen, N; Chung, C T Y; Clark, D; Clark, J; Clayton, J H; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cokelaer, T; Colacino, C N; Colas, J; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R C; Corda, C; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Coulon, J-P; Coward, D; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Culter, R M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dari, A; Dattilo, V; Daudert, B; Davier, M; Davies, G; Daw, E J; Day, R; De Rosa, R; Debra, D; Degallaix, J; Del Prete, M; Dergachev, V; Desai, S; Desalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Paolo Emilio, M; Di Virgilio, A; Díaz, M; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doomes, E E; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Dueck, J; Duke, I; Dumas, J-C; Dwyer, J G; Echols, C; Edgar, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Ely, G; Espinoza, E; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Faltas, Y; Fan, Y; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Flaminio, R; Flasch, K; Foley, S; Forrest, C; Fotopoulos, N; Fournier, J-D; Franc, J; Franzen, A; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Galdi, V; Gammaitoni, L; Garofoli, J A; Garufi, F; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gholami, I; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Goda, K; Goetz, E; Goggin, L M; González, G; Gorodetsky, M L; Gobler, S; Gouaty, R; Granata, M; Granata, V; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Gray, M; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Greverie, C; Grimaldi, F; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guenther, M; Guidi, G; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hage, B; Hallam, J M; Hammer, D; Hammond, G D; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Heefner, J; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hirose, E; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Hoyland, D; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Huttner, S H; Ingram, D R; Isogai, T; Ito, M; Ivanov, A; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Sancho de la Jordana, L; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kanner, J; Kasprzyk, D; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khan, R; Khazanov, E; King, P; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Kopparapu, R; Koranda, S; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Kumar, R; Kwee, P; La Penna, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Laval, M; Lazzarini, A; Lei, H; Lei, M; Leindecker, N; Leonor, I; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Li, C; Lin, H; Lindquist, P E; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Lodhia, D; Longo, M; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lu, P; Lubinski, M; Lucianetti, A; Lück, H; Machenschalk, B; Macinnis, M; Mackowski, J-M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Markowitz, J; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McHugh, M; McIntyre, G; McKechan, D J A; McKenzie, K; Mehmet, M; Melatos, A; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Menéndez, D F; Menzinger, F; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyer, M S; Michel, C; Milano, L; Miller, J; Minelli, J; Minenkov, Y; Mino, Y; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Moe, B; Mohan, M; Mohanty, S D; Mohapatra, S R P; Moreau, J; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Morgia, A; Morioka, T; Mors, K; Mosca, S; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mowlowry, C; Mueller, G; Muhammad, D; Mühlen, H Zur; Mukherjee, S; Mukhopadhyay, H; Mullavey, A; Müller-Ebhardt, H; Munch, J; Murray, P G; Myers, E; Myers, J; Nash, T; Nelson, J; Neri, I; Newton, G; Nishizawa, A; Nocera, F; Numata, K; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Ogin, G H; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pagliaroli, G; Palomba, C; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Paoletti, F; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Pardi, S; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patel, P; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Persichetti, G; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Pletsch, H J; Plissi, M V; Poggiani, R; Postiglione, F; Principe, M; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Punken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Putten, S van der; Quetschke, V; Raab, F J; Rabaste, O; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raics, Z; Rainer, N; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Reed, C M; Reed, T; Regimbau, T; Rehbein, H; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ricci, F; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Roberts, P; Robertson, N A; 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Tarabrin, S P; Taylor, J R; Taylor, R; Terenzi, R; Thacker, J; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thüring, A; Tokmakov, K V; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Tournefier, E; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trias, M; Trummer, J; Ugolini, D; Ulmen, J; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Vallisneri, M; Vass, S; Vaulin, R; Vavoulidis, M; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; van Veggel, A A; Veitch, J; Veitch, P; Veltkamp, C; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Villar, A; Vinet, J-Y; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Waldman, S J; Wallace, L; Ward, H; Ward, R L; Was, M; Weidner, A; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Wen, S; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, H R; Williams, L; Willke, B; Wilmut, I; Winkelmann, L; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Woan, G; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Wu, W; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yan, Z; Yoshida, S; Yvert, M; Zanolin, M; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zotov, N; Zucker, M E; Zweizig, J
2009-08-20
A stochastic background of gravitational waves is expected to arise from a superposition of a large number of unresolved gravitational-wave sources of astrophysical and cosmological origin. It should carry unique signatures from the earliest epochs in the evolution of the Universe, inaccessible to standard astrophysical observations. Direct measurements of the amplitude of this background are therefore of fundamental importance for understanding the evolution of the Universe when it was younger than one minute. Here we report limits on the amplitude of the stochastic gravitational-wave background using the data from a two-year science run of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). Our result constrains the energy density of the stochastic gravitational-wave background normalized by the critical energy density of the Universe, in the frequency band around 100 Hz, to be <6.9 x 10(-6) at 95% confidence. The data rule out models of early Universe evolution with relatively large equation-of-state parameter, as well as cosmic (super)string models with relatively small string tension that are favoured in some string theory models. This search for the stochastic background improves on the indirect limits from Big Bang nucleosynthesis and cosmic microwave background at 100 Hz. PMID:19693079
Modulation of a chirp gravitational wave from a compact binary due to gravitational lensing
Yamamoto, Kazuhiro
2005-05-15
A possible wave effect in the gravitational lensing phenomenon is discussed. We consider the interference of two coherent gravitational waves of slightly different frequencies from a compact binary, due to the gravitational lensing by a galaxy halo. This system shows the modulation of the wave amplitude. The lensing probability of such the phenomenon is of order 10{sup -5} for a high-z source, but it may be advantageous to the observation due to the magnification of the amplitude.
Doppler-cancelled response to VLF gravitational waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Caporali, A.
1981-01-01
The interaction of long periodic gravitational waves with a three link microwave system known as the Doppler Cancelling System is discussed. This system, which was developed for a gravitational redshift experiment, uses one-way and two-way Doppler informatin to construct the beat signal of two reference oscillators moving with respect to each other. The geometric optics approximation is used to derive the frequency shift produced on a light signal propagating in a gravitational wave space-time. The signature left on the Doppler-cancelled beat by burst and continuous gravitational waves is analyzed. A comparison is made between the response to gravitational waves of the Doppler Cancelling System and that of a Doppler tracking system which employs two-way, round-trip radio waves. A three-fold repetition of the gravitational wave form is found to be a common feature of the response functions of both systems. These two functions otherwise exhibit interesting differences.
Gravitational waves from a curvaton model with blue spectrum
Kawasaki, Masahiro; Kitajima, Naoya; Yokoyama, Shuichiro E-mail: nk610@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp
2013-08-01
We investigate the gravitational wave background induced by the first order scalar perturbations in the curvaton models. We consider the quadratic and axion-like curvaton potential which can generate the blue-tilted power spectrum of curvature perturbations on small scales and derive the maximal amount of gravitational wave background today. We find the power spectrum of the induced gravitational wave background has a characteristic peak at the frequency corresponding to the scale reentering the horizon at the curvaton decay, in the case where the curvaton does not dominate the energy density of the Universe. We also find the enhancement of the amount of the gravitational waves in the case where the curvaton dominates the energy density of the Universe. Such induced gravitational waves would be detectable by the future space-based gravitational wave detectors or pulsar timing observations.
An heuristic introduction to gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sandberg, Vernon D.
1983-03-01
We describe in physical terms the phenomenon of gravitational waves. The philosophy of William Gilbert is used.1 ``Since in the discovery of secret things and in the investigation of hidden causes, stronger reasons are obtained from sure experiments and demonstrated arguments than from probable conjectures and the opinions of philosophical speculators of the common sort; therefore to the end that the noble substance of that great loadstone, our common mother (the earth), still quite unknown, and also the forces extraordinary and exalted of this globe may the better be understood...''
Gravitational waves from neutron-star mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Read, Jocelyn; Cullen, Torrey; Flynn, Eric; Lockett-Ruiz, Veronica; Park, Conner; Vong, Susan
2016-03-01
The inspiral and merger of binary neutron stars is expected to provide many signals for Advanced LIGO at design sensitivity. The waveform models currently used to search for and parameterize these signals ignore effects near the merger: as the stars coalesce, the gravitational waves depend additionally on the properties of matter in the core of the stars. In this talk, I will discuss potential systematic error from neglecting these features and present phenomenological waveform models currently being developed to capture the dynamics of merging neutron stars.
Gravitational waves from self-ordering scalar fields
Fenu, Elisa; Durrer, Ruth; Figueroa, Daniel G.; García-Bellido, Juan E-mail: daniel.figueroa@uam.es E-mail: juan.garciabellido@uam.es
2009-10-01
Gravitational waves were copiously produced in the early Universe whenever the processes taking place were sufficiently violent. The spectra of several of these gravitational wave backgrounds on subhorizon scales have been extensively studied in the literature. In this paper we analyze the shape and amplitude of the gravitational wave spectrum on scales which are superhorizon at the time of production. Such gravitational waves are expected from the self ordering of randomly oriented scalar fields which can be present during a thermal phase transition or during preheating after hybrid inflation. We find that, if the gravitational wave source acts only during a small fraction of the Hubble time, the gravitational wave spectrum at frequencies lower than the expansion rate at the time of production behaves as Ω{sub GW}(f) ∝ f{sup 3} with an amplitude much too small to be observable by gravitational wave observatories like LIGO, LISA or BBO. On the other hand, if the source is active for a much longer time, until a given mode which is initially superhorizon (kη{sub *} << 1), enters the horizon, for kη ∼> 1, we find that the gravitational wave energy density is frequency independent, i.e. scale invariant. Moreover, its amplitude for a GUT scale scenario turns out to be within the range and sensitivity of BBO and marginally detectable by LIGO and LISA. This new gravitational wave background can compete with the one generated during inflation, and distinguishing both may require extra information.
Deterministic spin-wave interferometer based on the Rydberg blockade
Wei Ran; Deng Youjin; Pan Jianwei; Zhao Bo; Chen Yuao
2011-06-15
The spin-wave (SW) N-particle path-entangled |N,0>+|0,N> (NOON) state is an N-particle Fock state with two atomic spin-wave modes maximally entangled. Attributed to the property that the phase is sensitive to collective atomic motion, the SW NOON state can be utilized as an atomic interferometer and has promising application in quantum enhanced measurement. In this paper we propose an efficient protocol to deterministically produce the atomic SW NOON state by employing the Rydberg blockade. Possible errors in practical manipulations are analyzed. A feasible experimental scheme is suggested. Our scheme is far more efficient than the recent experimentally demonstrated one, which only creates a heralded second-order SW NOON state.
Topics in the Detection of Gravitational Waves from Compact Binary Inspirals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kapadia, Shasvath Jagat
Orbiting compact binaries - such as binary black holes, binary neutron stars and neutron star-black hole binaries - are among the most promising sources of gravitational waves observable by ground-based interferometric detectors. Despite numerous sophisticated engineering techniques, the gravitational wave signals will be buried deep within noise generated by various instrumental and environmental processes, and need to be extracted via a signal processing technique referred to as matched filtering. Matched filtering requires large banks of signal templates that are faithful representations of the true gravitational waveforms produced by astrophysical binaries. The accurate and efficient production of templates is thus crucial to the success of signal processing and data analysis. To that end, the dissertation presents a numerical technique that calibrates existing analytical (Post-Newtonian) waveforms, which are relatively inexpensive, to more accurate fiducial waveforms that are computationally expensive to generate. The resulting waveform family is significantly more accurate than the analytical waveforms, without incurring additional computational costs of production. Certain kinds of transient background noise artefacts, called "glitches'', can masquerade as gravitational wave signals for short durations and throw-off the matched-filter algorithm. Identifying glitches from true gravitational wave signals is a highly non-trivial exercise in data analysis which has been attempted with varying degrees of success. We present here a machine-learning based approach that exploits the various attributes of glitches and signals within detector data to provide a classification scheme that is a significant improvement over previous methods. The dissertation concludes by investigating the possibility of detecting a non-linear DC imprint, called the Christodoulou memory, produced in the arms of ground-based interferometers by the recently detected gravitational waves. The
Astrophysical Model Selection in Gravitational Wave Astronomy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, Matthew R.; Cornish, Neil J.; Littenberg, Tyson B.
2012-01-01
Theoretical studies in gravitational wave astronomy have mostly focused on the information that can be extracted from individual detections, such as the mass of a binary system and its location in space. Here we consider how the information from multiple detections can be used to constrain astrophysical population models. This seemingly simple problem is made challenging by the high dimensionality and high degree of correlation in the parameter spaces that describe the signals, and by the complexity of the astrophysical models, which can also depend on a large number of parameters, some of which might not be directly constrained by the observations. We present a method for constraining population models using a hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach which simultaneously infers the source parameters and population model and provides the joint probability distributions for both. We illustrate this approach by considering the constraints that can be placed on population models for galactic white dwarf binaries using a future space-based gravitational wave detector. We find that a mission that is able to resolve approximately 5000 of the shortest period binaries will be able to constrain the population model parameters, including the chirp mass distribution and a characteristic galaxy disk radius to within a few percent. This compares favorably to existing bounds, where electromagnetic observations of stars in the galaxy constrain disk radii to within 20%.
Transformations of asymptotic gravitational-wave data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyle, Michael
2016-04-01
Gravitational-wave data is gauge dependent. While we can restrict the class of gauges in which such data may be expressed, there will still be an infinite-dimensional group of transformations allowed while remaining in this class, and almost as many different—though physically equivalent—waveforms as there are transformations. This paper presents a method for calculating the effects of the most important transformation group, the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) group, consisting of rotations, boosts, and supertranslations (which include time and space translations as special cases). To a reasonable approximation, these transformations result in simple coupling between the modes in a spin-weighted spherical-harmonic decomposition of the waveform. It is shown that waveforms from simulated compact binaries in the publicly available SXS waveform catalog contain unmodeled effects due to displacement and drift of the center of mass, accounting for mode mixing at typical levels of 1%. However, these effects can be mitigated by measuring the average motion of the system's center of mass for a portion of the inspiral, and applying the opposite transformation to the waveform data. More generally, controlling the BMS transformations will be necessary to eliminate the gauge ambiguity inherent in gravitational-wave data for both numerical and analytical waveforms. Open-source code implementing BMS transformations of waveforms is supplied along with this paper in the supplemental materials.
Modeling the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna Optics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waluschka, Eugene; Pedersen, Tracy R.; McNamara, paul
2005-01-01
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), shown below, will detect gravitational waves produced by objects such as binary black holes or objects falling into black holes (extreme mass ratio inspirals) over a frequency range of l0(exp -4) to 0.1 Hz. Within the conceptual frame work of Newtonian physics, a gravitational wave produces a strain, (Delta)l/l, with magnitudes of the order of Earth based gravitational wave detectors, such as the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) project, use Michelson interferometers with arm lengths l = 4 km to detect these strains. Earth induced seismic noise limits ground-based instruments detecting gravitational waves with frequencies lower than approx. 1 Hz.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salcido, Jaime; Bower, Richard G.; Theuns, Tom; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop; Regan, John
2016-08-01
We estimate the expected event rate of gravitational wave signals from mergers of supermassive black holes that could be resolved by a space-based interferometer, such as the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), utilising the reference cosmological hydrodynamical simulation from the EAGLE suite. These simulations assume a ΛCDM cosmogony with state-of-the-art subgrid models for radiative cooling, star formation, stellar mass loss, and feedback from stars and accreting black holes. They have been shown to reproduce the observed galaxy population with unprecedented fidelity. We combine the merger rates of supermassive black holes in EAGLE with the latest phenomenological waveform models to calculate the gravitational waves signals from the intrinsic parameters of the merging black holes. The EAGLE models predict ˜2 detections per year by a gravitational wave detector such as eLISA. We find that these signals are largely dominated by mergers between seed mass black holes merging at redshifts between z ˜ 2 and z ˜ 1. In order to investigate the dependence on the assumed black hole seed mass, we introduce an additional model with a black hole seed mass an order of magnitude smaller than in our reference model. We also consider a variation of the reference model where a prescription for the expected delays in the black hole merger timescale has been included after their host galaxies merge. We find that the merger rate is similar in all models, but that the initial black hole seed mass could be distinguished through their detected gravitational waveforms. Hence, the characteristic gravitational wave signals detected by eLISA will provide profound insight into the origin of supermassive black holes and the initial mass distribution of black hole seeds.
Gravitational waves from core-collapse supernovae and their related compact objects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotake, K.; Suwa, Y.; Yasutake, N.
Core-collapse supernovae have been supposed to be one of the most plausible sources of gravitational waves. Based on a series of our magnetohydrodynamic core-collapse simulations, we find that the gravitational amplitudes at core bounce can be within the detection limits for the currently running laser-interferometers for a galactic supernova if the central core rotates sufficiently rapidly. This is regardless of the difference of the realistic equations of state and the possible occurrence of the QCD phase transition near core bounce. Even if the core rotates slowly, we point out that the gravitational waves generated from anisotropic neutrino radiation in the postbounce phase due to the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) could be within the detection limits of the detectors in the next generation such as LCGT and the advanced LIGO for the galactic source. Since the waveforms significantly depend on the exploding scenarios, our results suggest that we can obtain the information about the long-veiled explosion mechanism from the gravitational wave signals. Furthermore we discuss the gravitational wave background (GWB) from the explosions of Pop III stars and show that the GWB from Pop III, depending on their formation rates, can be large enough to be within the detection limits of future planned interferometers such as DECIGO and BBO in the frequency interval of ~0.1-1 Hz. This means that the detections of GW background from Pop III stars can be an important tool to supply the information about the star formation history in the early universe.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salcido, Jaime; Bower, Richard G.; Theuns, Tom; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop; Regan, John
2016-08-01
We estimate the expected event rate of gravitational wave signals from mergers of supermassive black holes that could be resolved by a space-based interferometer, such as the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), utilizing the reference cosmological hydrodynamical simulation from the EAGLE suite. These simulations assume a Lambda cold dark matter cosmogony with state-of-the-art subgrid models for radiative cooling, star formation, stellar mass loss, and feedback from stars and accreting black holes. They have been shown to reproduce the observed galaxy population with unprecedented fidelity. We combine the merger rates of supermassive black holes in EAGLE with the latest phenomenological waveform models to calculate the gravitational waves signals from the intrinsic parameters of the merging black holes. The EAGLE models predict ˜2 detections per year by a gravitational wave detector such as eLISA. We find that these signals are largely dominated by mergers between seed mass black holes merging at redshifts between z ˜ 2 and z ˜ 1. In order to investigate the dependence on the assumed black hole seed mass, we introduce an additional model with a black hole seed mass an order of magnitude smaller than in our reference model. We also consider a variation of the reference model where a prescription for the expected delays in the black hole merger time-scale has been included after their host galaxies merge. We find that the merger rate is similar in all models, but that the initial black hole seed mass could be distinguished through their detected gravitational waveforms. Hence, the characteristic gravitational wave signals detected by eLISA will provide profound insight into the origin of supermassive black holes and the initial mass distribution of black hole seeds.
Sensitivity of the Advanced LIGO detectors at the beginning of gravitational wave astronomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martynov, D. V.; Hall, E. D.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R. X.; Anderson, R. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Arai, K.; Arain, M. A.; Aston, S. M.; Austin, L.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barbet, M.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Batch, J. C.; Bell, A. S.; Belopolski, I.; Bergman, J.; Betzwieser, J.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Biwer, C.; Black, E.; Blair, C. D.; Bogan, C.; Bork, R.; Bridges, D. O.; Brooks, A. F.; Celerier, C.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Cook, D.; Countryman, S. T.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Damjanic, M.; Dannenberg, R.; Danzmann, K.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Daw, E. J.; DeBra, D.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Driggers, J. C.; Dwyer, S. E.; Effler, A.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fair, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Foley, S.; Frede, M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Galdi, V.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Gleason, J. R.; Goetz, R.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Grote, H.; Guido, C. J.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harry, G. M.; Heefner, J.; Heintze, M. C.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Hoak, D.; Hough, J.; Ivanov, A.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jones, R.; Kandhasamy, S.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kells, W.; Kijbunchoo, N.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kokeyama, K.; Korth, W. Z.; Kuehn, G.; Kwee, P.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Le Roux, A.; Levine, B. M.; Lewis, J. B.; Lhuillier, V.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lormand, M.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lundgren, A. P.; MacDonald, T.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; Merilh, E. L.; Meyer, M. S.; Meyers, P. M.; Miller, J.; Mittleman, R.; Moreno, G.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; O'Dell, J.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Osthelder, C.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Palamos, J. R.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Patrick, Z.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Phelps, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I.; Poeld, J.; Principe, M.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Raab, F. J.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Ramet, C. R.; Reed, C. M.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Robertson, N. A.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romie, J. H.; Rowan, S.; Ryan, K.; Sadecki, T.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sannibale, V.; Savage, R. L.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schultz, B.; Schwinberg, P.; Sellers, D.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sigg, D.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Sorazu, B.; Staley, A.; Stein, A. J.; Stochino, A.; Strain, K. A.; Taylor, R.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Torrie, C. I.; Traylor, G.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vargas, M.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Vo, T.; Vorvick, C.; Waldman, S. J.; Walker, M.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Weaver, B.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Weßels, P.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Willke, B.; Winkelmann, L.; Wipf, C. C.; Worden, J.; Wu, G.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Zhang, L.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.
2016-06-01
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) consists of two widely separated 4 km laser interferometers designed to detect gravitational waves from distant astrophysical sources in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 10 kHz. The first observation run of the Advanced LIGO detectors started in September 2015 and ended in January 2016. A strain sensitivity of better than 10-23/√{Hz } was achieved around 100 Hz. Understanding both the fundamental and the technical noise sources was critical for increasing the astrophysical strain sensitivity. The average distance at which coalescing binary black hole systems with individual masses of 30 M⊙ could be detected above a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 8 was 1.3 Gpc, and the range for binary neutron star inspirals was about 75 Mpc. With respect to the initial detectors, the observable volume of the Universe increased by a factor 69 and 43, respectively. These improvements helped Advanced LIGO to detect the gravitational wave signal from the binary black hole coalescence, known as GW150914.
Detecting high-frequency gravitational waves with optically levitated sensors.
Arvanitaki, Asimina; Geraci, Andrew A
2013-02-15
We propose a tunable resonant sensor to detect gravitational waves in the frequency range of 50-300 kHz using optically trapped and cooled dielectric microspheres or microdisks. The technique we describe can exceed the sensitivity of laser-based gravitational wave observatories in this frequency range, using an instrument of only a few percent of their size. Such a device extends the search volume for gravitational wave sources above 100 kHz by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude, and could detect monochromatic gravitational radiation from the annihilation of QCD axions in the cloud they form around stellar mass black holes within our galaxy due to the superradiance effect.
Optimizing Vetoes for Gravitational-wave Transient Searches
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Essick, R.; Blackburn, Lindy L.; Katsavounidis, E.
2014-01-01
Interferometric gravitational-wave detectors like LIGO, GEO600 and Virgo record a surplus of information above and beyond possible gravitational-wave events. These auxiliary channels capture information about the state of the detector and its surroundings which can be used to infer potential terrestrial noise sources of some gravitational-wave-like events. We present an algorithm addressing the ordering (or equivalently optimizing) of such information from auxiliary systems in gravitational-wave detectors to establish veto conditions in searches for gravitational-wave transients. The procedure was used to identify vetoes for searches for unmodelled transients by the LIGO and Virgo collaborations during their science runs from 2005 through 2007. In this work we present the details of the algorithm; we also use a limited amount of data from LIGO's past runs in order to examine the method, compare it with other methods, and identify its potential to characterize the instruments themselves. We examine the dependence of Receiver Operating Characteristic curves on the various parameters of the veto method and the implementation on real data. We find that the method robustly determines important auxiliary channels, ordering them by the apparent strength of their correlations to the gravitational-wave channel. This list can substantially reduce the background of noise events in the gravitational-wave data. In this way it can identify the source of glitches in the detector as well as assist in establishing confidence in the detection of gravitational-wave transients.
Gravitational-wave detection using redshifted 21-cm observations
Bharadwaj, Somnath; Guha Sarkar, Tapomoy
2009-06-15
A gravitational-wave traversing the line of sight to a distant source produces a frequency shift which contributes to redshift space distortion. As a consequence, gravitational waves are imprinted as density fluctuations in redshift space. The gravitational-wave contribution to the redshift space power spectrum has a different {mu} dependence as compared to the dominant contribution from peculiar velocities. This, in principle, allows the two signals to be separated. The prospect of a detection is most favorable at the highest observable redshift z. Observations of redshifted 21-cm radiation from neutral hydrogen hold the possibility of probing very high redshifts. We consider the possibility of detecting primordial gravitational waves using the redshift space neutral hydrogen power spectrum. However, we find that the gravitational-wave signal, though present, will not be detectable on superhorizon scales because of cosmic variance and on subhorizon scales where the signal is highly suppressed.
Directed search for continuous gravitational waves from the Galactic center
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, R. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Austin, L.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barker, D.; Barnum, S. H.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bebronne, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Belopolski, I.; Bergmann, G.; Berliner, J. M.; Bertolini, A.; Bessis, D.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhadbhade, T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogan, C.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bowers, J.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brannen, C. A.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brückner, F.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Castiglia, A.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Del Pozzo, W.; Deleeuw, E.; Deléglise, S.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Dmitry, K.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Endrőczi, G.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, K.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farr, B.; Farr, W.; Favata, M.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R.; Flaminio, R.; Foley, E.; Foley, S.; Forsi, E.; Forte, L. A.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garcia, J.; Garufi, F.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gil-Casanova, S.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Griffo, C.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hall, B.; Hall, E.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hartman, M. T.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hong, T.; Hooper, S.; Horrom, T.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y.; Hua, Z.; Huang, V.; Huerta, E. A.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Iafrate, J.; Ingram, D. R.
2013-11-01
We present the results of a directed search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown, isolated neutron stars in the Galactic center region, performed on two years of data from LIGO’s fifth science run from two LIGO detectors. The search uses a semicoherent approach, analyzing coherently 630 segments, each spanning 11.5 hours, and then incoherently combining the results of the single segments. It covers gravitational wave frequencies in a range from 78 to 496 Hz and a frequency-dependent range of first-order spindown values down to -7.86×10-8Hz/s at the highest frequency. No gravitational waves were detected. The 90% confidence upper limits on the gravitational wave amplitude of sources at the Galactic center are ˜3.35×10-25 for frequencies near 150 Hz. These upper limits are the most constraining to date for a large-parameter-space search for continuous gravitational wave signals.
Generalized F-statistic: Multiple detectors and multiple gravitational wave pulsars
Cutler, Curt; Schutz, Bernard F.
2005-09-15
The F-statistic, derived by Jaranowski, Krolak and Schutz (1998), is the optimal (frequentist) statistic for the detection of nearly periodic gravitational waves from known neutron stars, in the presence of stationary, Gaussian detector noise. The F-statistic was originally derived for the case of a single detector, whose noise spectral density was assumed constant in time, and for a single known neutron star. Here we show how the F-statistic can be straightforwardly generalized to the cases of (1) a network of detectors with time-varying noise curves, and (2) a collection of known sources (e.g., all known millisecond pulsars within some fixed distance). Fortunately, all the important ingredients that go into our generalized F-statistics are already calculated in the single-source/single-detector searches that are currently implemented, e.g., in the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory software library, so implementation of optimal multidetector, multisource searches should require negligible additional cost in computational power or software development. This paper also includes an analysis of the likely efficacy of a collection-type search, and derives criteria for deciding which candidate sources should be included in a collection, if one is trying to maximize the detectability of the whole. In particular we show that for sources distributed uniformly in a thin disk, the strongest source in the collection should have signal-to-noise-squared {approx}5 times larger than weakest source, for an optimized collection. We show that gravitational waves from collection of the few brightest (in gravitational waves) neutron stars could perhaps be detected before the single brightest source, but that this is far from guaranteed. Once gravitational waves from the few brightest neutron stars have been discovered, grouping more distant (individually undetectable) pulsars into collections, and then searching for those collections, should be an effective way of
Generalized F-statistic: Multiple detectors and multiple gravitational wave pulsars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cutler, Curt; Schutz, Bernard F.
2005-09-01
The F-statistic, derived by Jaranowski, Krolak and Schutz (1998), is the optimal (frequentist) statistic for the detection of nearly periodic gravitational waves from known neutron stars, in the presence of stationary, Gaussian detector noise. The F-statistic was originally derived for the case of a single detector, whose noise spectral density was assumed constant in time, and for a single known neutron star. Here we show how the F-statistic can be straightforwardly generalized to the cases of (1) a network of detectors with time-varying noise curves, and (2) a collection of known sources (e.g., all known millisecond pulsars within some fixed distance). Fortunately, all the important ingredients that go into our generalized F-statistics are already calculated in the single-source/single-detector searches that are currently implemented, e.g., in the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory software library, so implementation of optimal multidetector, multisource searches should require negligible additional cost in computational power or software development. This paper also includes an analysis of the likely efficacy of a collection-type search, and derives criteria for deciding which candidate sources should be included in a collection, if one is trying to maximize the detectability of the whole. In particular we show that for sources distributed uniformly in a thin disk, the strongest source in the collection should have signal-to-noise-squared ˜5 times larger than weakest source, for an optimized collection. We show that gravitational waves from collection of the few brightest (in gravitational waves) neutron stars could perhaps be detected before the single brightest source, but that this is far from guaranteed. Once gravitational waves from the few brightest neutron stars have been discovered, grouping more distant (individually undetectable) pulsars into collections, and then searching for those collections, should be an effective way of
DETECTING GRAVITATIONAL WAVE MEMORY WITH PULSAR TIMING
Cordes, J. M.; Jenet, F. A. E-mail: merlyn@phys.utb.edu
2012-06-10
We compare the detectability of gravitational bursts passing through the solar system with those passing near each millisecond pulsar in an N-pulsar timing array. The sensitivity to Earth-passing bursts can exploit the correlation expected in pulse arrival times while pulsar-passing bursts, though uncorrelated between objects, provide an N-fold increase in overall time baseline that can compensate for the lower sensitivity. Bursts with memory from mergers of supermassive black holes produce step functions in apparent spin frequency that are the easiest to detect in pulsar timing. We show that the burst rate and amplitude distribution, while strongly dependent on inadequately known cosmological evolution, may favor detection in the pulsar terms rather than the Earth timing perturbations. Any contamination of timing data by red spin noise makes burst detection more difficult because both signals grow with the length of the time data span T. Furthermore, the different bursts that could appear in one or more data sets of length T Almost-Equal-To 10 yr also affect the detectability of the gravitational wave stochastic background that, like spin noise, has a red power spectrum. A burst with memory is a worthwhile target in the timing of multiple pulsars in a globular cluster because it should produce a correlated signal with a time delay of less than about 10 years in some cases.
Using Gravitational-Wave Standard Sirens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holz, Daniel E.; Hughes, Scott A.
2005-08-01
Gravitational waves (GWs) from supermassive binary black hole (BBH) in-spirals are potentially powerful standard sirens (the GW analog to standard candles; see work of B. Schutz). Because these systems are well modeled, the space-based GW observatory LISA will be able to measure the luminosity distance (but not the redshift) to some distant massive BBH systems with 1%-10% accuracy. This accuracy is largely limited by pointing error: GW sources are generally poorly localized on the sky. Localizing the binary independently (e.g., through association with an electromagnetic counterpart) greatly reduces this positional error. An electromagnetic counterpart may also allow determination of the event's redshift. In this case, BBH coalescence would constitute an extremely precise (better than 1%) standard candle visible to high redshift. In practice, gravitational lensing degrades this precision, although the candle remains precise enough to provide useful information about the distance-redshift relation. Even if very rare, these GW standard sirens would complement, and increase confidence in, other standard candles.
The Mario Schenberg Gravitational Wave Antenna
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliveira, Nei F.; Aguiar, Odylio D.
2016-10-01
This article is an account of the work done in the Mario Schenberg gravitational wave antenna up to date, focusing mainly in the participation of the Laboratório de Estado Sólido e Baixas Temperaturas (LESBT) do Instituto de Física da Universidade de S. Paulo. The text starts with an introduction describing the problem, the Brazilian project, and the participant institutions. This is followed by a description of the construction of the infrastructure, initial tests, and final basic assembly at the LESBT. Results are presented for the thermal and mechanical behaviors of the cryogenic system and for the development of active transducers in its various stages, culminating with the last version in which the project sensitivity of ˜4 × 10-20 Hz-1/2 was attained.
Constraining the braneworld with gravitational wave observations.
McWilliams, Sean T
2010-04-01
Some braneworld models may have observable consequences that, if detected, would validate a requisite element of string theory. In the infinite Randall-Sundrum model (RS2), the AdS radius of curvature, l, of the extra dimension supports a single bound state of the massless graviton on the brane, thereby reproducing Newtonian gravity in the weak-field limit. However, using the AdS/CFT correspondence, it has been suggested that one possible consequence of RS2 is an enormous increase in Hawking radiation emitted by black holes. We utilize this possibility to derive two novel methods for constraining l via gravitational wave measurements. We show that the EMRI event rate detected by LISA can constrain l at the approximately 1 microm level for optimal cases, while the observation of a single galactic black hole binary with LISA results in an optimal constraint of l < or = 5 microm. PMID:20481929
Optimal directed searches for continuous gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ming, Jing; Krishnan, Badri; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Aulbert, Carsten; Fehrmann, Henning
2016-03-01
Wide parameter space searches for long-lived continuous gravitational wave signals are computationally limited. It is therefore critically important that the available computational resources are used rationally. In this paper we consider directed searches, i.e., targets for which the sky position is known accurately but the frequency and spin-down parameters are completely unknown. Given a list of such potential astrophysical targets, we therefore need to prioritize. On which target(s) should we spend scarce computing resources? What parameter space region in frequency and spin-down should we search through? Finally, what is the optimal search setup that we should use? In this paper we present a general framework that allows us to solve all three of these problems. This framework is based on maximizing the probability of making a detection subject to a constraint on the maximum available computational cost. We illustrate the method for a simplified problem.
Interaction of gravitational waves with magnetic and electric fields
Barrabes, C.; Hogan, P. A.
2010-03-15
The existence of large-scale magnetic fields in the universe has led to the observation that if gravitational waves propagating in a cosmological environment encounter even a small magnetic field then electromagnetic radiation is produced. To study this phenomenon in more detail we take it out of the cosmological context and at the same time simplify the gravitational radiation to impulsive waves. Specifically, to illustrate our findings, we describe the following three physical situations: (1) a cylindrical impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with a magnetic field, (2) an axially symmetric impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with an electric field and (3) a 'spherical' impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with a small magnetic field. In cases (1) and (3) electromagnetic radiation is produced behind the gravitational wave. In case (2) no electromagnetic radiation appears after the wave unless a current is established behind the wave breaking the Maxwell vacuum. In all three cases the presence of the magnetic or electric fields results in a modification of the amplitude of the incoming gravitational wave which is explicitly calculated using the Einstein-Maxwell vacuum field equations.
Triplets of supermassive black holes: astrophysics, gravitational waves and detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Sesana, Alberto; Hoffman, Loren; Benacquista, Matthew; Eichhorn, Christoph; Makino, Junichiro; Spurzem, Rainer
2010-03-01
Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) found in the centres of many galaxies are understood to play a fundamental, active role in the cosmological structure formation process. In hierarchical formation scenarios, SMBHs are expected to form binaries following the merger of their host galaxies. If these binaries do not coalesce before the merger with a third galaxy, the formation of a black hole triple system is possible. Numerical simulations of the dynamics of triples within galaxy cores exhibit phases of very high eccentricity (as high as e ~ 0.99). During these phases, intense bursts of gravitational radiation can be emitted at orbital periapsis, which produces a gravitational wave signal at frequencies substantially higher than the orbital frequency. The likelihood of detection of these bursts with pulsar timing and the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is estimated using several population models of SMBHs with masses >rsim 107 Msolar. Assuming that 10 per cent or more of binaries are in triple systems, we find that up to a few dozen of these bursts will produce residuals >1 ns, within the sensitivity range of forthcoming pulsar timing arrays. However, most of such bursts will be washed out in the underlying confusion noise produced by all the other `standard' SMBH binaries emitting in the same frequency window. A detailed data analysis study would be required to assess resolvability of such sources. Implementing a basic resolvability criterion, we find that the chance of catching a resolvable burst at a 1 ns precision level is 2-50 per cent, depending on the adopted SMBH evolution model. On the other hand, the probability of detecting bursts produced by massive binaries (masses >~107Msolar) with LISA is negligible.
Gravitational Waves from Fallback Accretion onto Neutron Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piro, Anthony L.; Thrane, Eric
2012-12-01
Massive stars generally end their lives as neutron stars (NSs) or black holes (BHs), with NS formation typically occurring at the low-mass end and collapse to a BH more likely at the high-mass end. In an intermediate regime, with a mass range that depends on the uncertain details of rotation and mass loss during the star's life, an NS is initially formed, which then experiences fallback accretion and collapse to a BH. The electromagnetic consequence of such an event is not clear. Depending on the progenitor's structure, possibilities range from a long gamma-ray burst to a Type II supernova (which may or may not be jet powered) to a collapse with a weak electromagnetic signature. Gravitational waves (GWs) provide the exciting opportunity to peer through the envelope of a dying massive star and directly probe what is occurring inside. We explore whether fallback onto young NSs can be detected by ground-based interferometers. When the incoming material has sufficient angular momentum to form a disk, the accretion spins up the NS sufficiently to produce non-axisymmetric instabilities and gravitational radiation at frequencies of ~700-2400 Hz for ~30-3000 s until collapse to a BH occurs. Using a realistic excess cross-power search algorithm, we show that such events are detectable by Advanced LIGO out to ≈17 Mpc. From the rate of nearby core-collapse supernovae in the past five years, we estimate that there will be ~1-2 events each year that are worth checking for fallback GWs. The observation of these unique GW signatures coincident with electromagnetic detections would identify the transient events that are associated with this channel of BH formation, while providing information about the protoneutron star progenitor.
Precision Ephemerides for Gravitational Wave Searches. II. Cyg X-2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Premachandra, Sammanani S.; Galloway, Duncan K.; Casares, Jorge; Steeghs, Danny T.; Marsh, Thomas R.
2016-06-01
Accreting neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries are candidate high-frequency persistent gravitational wave sources. These may be detectable with next-generation interferometers such as Advanced LIGO/VIRGO within this decade. However, the search sensitivity is expected to be limited principally by the uncertainty in the binary system parameters. We combine new optical spectroscopy of Cyg X-2 obtained with the Liverpool Telescope with available historical radial velocity data, which gives us improved orbital parameter uncertainties based on a 44 year baseline. We obtained an improvement of a factor of 2.6 in the orbital period precision and a factor of 2 in the epoch of inferior conjunction T 0. The updated orbital parameters imply a mass function of 0.65 ± 0.01 M ⊙, leading to a primary mass (M 1) of 1.67 ± 0.22 M ⊙ (for i = 62.{}^\\circ 5+/- 4^\\circ ). In addition, we estimate the likely orbital parameter precision through to the expected Advanced LIGO and VIRGO detector observing period and quantify the corresponding improvement in sensitivity via the required number of templates.
Prospects for Multiband Gravitational-Wave Astronomy after GW150914.
Sesana, Alberto
2016-06-10
The black hole binary (BHB) coalescence rates inferred from the Advanced LIGO detection of GW150914 imply an unexpectedly loud gravitational-wave (GW) sky at millihertz frequencies accessible to the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), with several outstanding consequences. First, up to thousands of BHBs will be individually resolvable by eLISA; second, millions of nonresolvable BHBs will build a confusion noise detectable with a signal-to-noise ratio of a few to hundreds; third-and perhaps most importantly-up to hundreds of BHBs individually resolvable by eLISA will coalesce in the Advanced LIGO band within 10 y. eLISA observations will tell Advanced LIGO and all electromagnetic probes weeks in advance when and where these BHB coalescences will occur, with uncertainties of <10 s and <1 deg^{2}. This will allow the prepointing of telescopes to realize coincident GW and multiwavelength electromagnetic observations of BHB mergers. Time coincidence is critical, because a prompt emission associated to a BHB merger will likely have a duration comparable to the dynamical time scale of the systems and is possible only with low-frequency GW alerts.
Prospects for Multiband Gravitational-Wave Astronomy after GW150914
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sesana, Alberto
2016-06-01
The black hole binary (BHB) coalescence rates inferred from the Advanced LIGO detection of GW150914 imply an unexpectedly loud gravitational-wave (GW) sky at millihertz frequencies accessible to the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), with several outstanding consequences. First, up to thousands of BHBs will be individually resolvable by eLISA; second, millions of nonresolvable BHBs will build a confusion noise detectable with a signal-to-noise ratio of a few to hundreds; third—and perhaps most importantly—up to hundreds of BHBs individually resolvable by eLISA will coalesce in the Advanced LIGO band within 10 y. eLISA observations will tell Advanced LIGO and all electromagnetic probes weeks in advance when and where these BHB coalescences will occur, with uncertainties of <10 s and <1 deg2 . This will allow the prepointing of telescopes to realize coincident GW and multiwavelength electromagnetic observations of BHB mergers. Time coincidence is critical, because a prompt emission associated to a BHB merger will likely have a duration comparable to the dynamical time scale of the systems and is possible only with low-frequency GW alerts.
Prospects for Multiband Gravitational-Wave Astronomy after GW150914.
Sesana, Alberto
2016-06-10
The black hole binary (BHB) coalescence rates inferred from the Advanced LIGO detection of GW150914 imply an unexpectedly loud gravitational-wave (GW) sky at millihertz frequencies accessible to the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), with several outstanding consequences. First, up to thousands of BHBs will be individually resolvable by eLISA; second, millions of nonresolvable BHBs will build a confusion noise detectable with a signal-to-noise ratio of a few to hundreds; third-and perhaps most importantly-up to hundreds of BHBs individually resolvable by eLISA will coalesce in the Advanced LIGO band within 10 y. eLISA observations will tell Advanced LIGO and all electromagnetic probes weeks in advance when and where these BHB coalescences will occur, with uncertainties of <10 s and <1 deg^{2}. This will allow the prepointing of telescopes to realize coincident GW and multiwavelength electromagnetic observations of BHB mergers. Time coincidence is critical, because a prompt emission associated to a BHB merger will likely have a duration comparable to the dynamical time scale of the systems and is possible only with low-frequency GW alerts. PMID:27341222
The black hole symphony: probing new physics using gravitational waves.
Gair, Jonathan R
2008-12-13
The next decade will very likely see the birth of a new field of astronomy as we become able to directly detect gravitational waves (GWs) for the first time. The existence of GWs is one of the key predictions of Einstein's theory of general relativity, but they have eluded direct detection for the last century. This will change thanks to a new generation of laser interferometers that are already in operation or which are planned for the near future. GW observations will allow us to probe some of the most exotic and energetic events in the Universe, the mergers of black holes. We will obtain information about the systems to a precision unprecedented in astronomy, and this will revolutionize our understanding of compact astrophysical systems. Moreover, if any of the assumptions of relativity theory are incorrect, this will lead to subtle, but potentially detectable, differences in the emitted GWs. Our observations will thus provide very precise verifications of the theory in an as yet untested regime. In this paper, I will discuss what GW observations could tell us about known and (potentially) unknown physics. PMID:18812300
The black hole symphony: probing new physics using gravitational waves.
Gair, Jonathan R
2008-12-13
The next decade will very likely see the birth of a new field of astronomy as we become able to directly detect gravitational waves (GWs) for the first time. The existence of GWs is one of the key predictions of Einstein's theory of general relativity, but they have eluded direct detection for the last century. This will change thanks to a new generation of laser interferometers that are already in operation or which are planned for the near future. GW observations will allow us to probe some of the most exotic and energetic events in the Universe, the mergers of black holes. We will obtain information about the systems to a precision unprecedented in astronomy, and this will revolutionize our understanding of compact astrophysical systems. Moreover, if any of the assumptions of relativity theory are incorrect, this will lead to subtle, but potentially detectable, differences in the emitted GWs. Our observations will thus provide very precise verifications of the theory in an as yet untested regime. In this paper, I will discuss what GW observations could tell us about known and (potentially) unknown physics.
Low-frequency terrestrial tensor gravitational-wave detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paik, Ho Jung; Griggs, Cornelius E.; Vol Moody, M.; Venkateswara, Krishna; Lee, Hyung Mok; Nielsen, Alex B.; Majorana, Ettore; Harms, Jan
2016-04-01
Terrestrial gravitational-wave (GW) detectors are mostly based on Michelson-type laser interferometers with arm lengths of a few km and signal bandwidths of tens of Hz to a few kHz. Many conceivable sources would emit GWs below 10 Hz. A low-frequency tensor GW detector can be constructed by combining six magnetically levitated superconducting test masses. Seismic noise and Newtonian gravity noise are serious obstacles in constructing terrestrial GW detectors at such low frequencies. By using the transverse nature of GWs, a full tensor detector, which can in principle distinguish GWs from near-field Newtonian gravity, can be constructed. Such a tensor detector is sensitive to GWs coming from any direction with any polarization; thus a single antenna is capable of resolving the source direction and polarization. We present a design concept of a tensor GW detector that could reach a strain sensitivity of 10-19-10-20 Hz-1/2 at 0.2-10 Hz, compute its intrinsic detector noise, and discuss procedures of mitigating the seismic and Newtonian noise.
No evidence for the blue-tilted power spectrum of relic gravitational waves
Huang, Qing-Guo; Wang, Sai E-mail: wangsai@itp.ac.cn
2015-06-01
In this paper, we constrain the tilt of the power spectrum of relic gravitational waves by combining the data from BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck (BKP) and the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Waves Observatory (LIGO). Supposing the linearly uniform priors for both the tensor-to-scalar ratio r and the tensor tilt n{sub t}, we find n{sub t}=0.66{sup +1.83}{sub −1.44} at the 68% confidence level from the data of BKP B-modes. By further adding the LIGO upper limit on the intensity of stochastic gravitational-wave background, the constraint becomes n{sub t}=−0.76{sup +1.37}{sub −0.52} at the 68% confidence level by assuming that the tensor amplitude has the similar order of the upper bounds from current CMB experiments. We find that there is no evidence for a blue-tilted power spectrum of relic gravitational waves and either sign of the index of tensor power spectrum is compatible with the current data.
The PyCBC search for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Usman, Samantha A.; Nitz, Alexander H.; Harry, Ian W.; Biwer, Christopher M.; Brown, Duncan A.; Cabero, Miriam; Capano, Collin D.; Dal Canton, Tito; Dent, Thomas; Fairhurst, Stephen; Kehl, Marcel S.; Keppel, Drew; Krishnan, Badri; Lenon, Amber; Lundgren, Andrew; Nielsen, Alex B.; Pekowsky, Larne P.; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Saulson, Peter R.; West, Matthew; Willis, Joshua L.
2016-11-01
We describe the PyCBC search for gravitational waves from compact-object binary coalescences in advanced gravitational-wave detector data. The search was used in the first Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) observing run and unambiguously identified two black hole binary mergers, GW150914 and GW151226. At its core, the PyCBC search performs a matched-filter search for binary merger signals using a bank of gravitational-wave template waveforms. We provide a complete description of the search pipeline including the steps used to mitigate the effects of noise transients in the data, identify candidate events and measure their statistical significance. The analysis is able to measure false-alarm rates as low as one per million years, required for confident detection of signals. Using data from initial LIGO's sixth science run, we show that the new analysis reduces the background noise in the search, giving a 30 % increase in sensitive volume for binary neutron star systems over previous searches.
Demorest, P. B.; Ransom, S.; Ferdman, R. D.; Kaspi, V. M.; Gonzalez, M. E.; Stairs, I. H.; Nice, D.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Brazier, A.; Cordes, J. M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Lazio, J.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Ellis, J.; Giampanis, S.; Finn, L. S.; Freire, P.; Jenet, F.; Lommen, A. N.; McLaughlin, M.; and others
2013-01-10
We present an analysis of high-precision pulsar timing data taken as part of the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) project. We have observed 17 pulsars for a span of roughly five years using the Green Bank and Arecibo radio telescopes. We analyze these data using standard pulsar timing models, with the addition of time-variable dispersion measure and frequency-variable pulse shape terms. Sub-microsecond timing residuals are obtained in nearly all cases, and the best rms timing residuals in this set are {approx}30-50 ns. We present methods for analyzing post-fit timing residuals for the presence of a gravitational wave signal with a specified spectral shape. These optimally take into account the timing fluctuation power removed by the model fit, and can be applied to either data from a single pulsar, or to a set of pulsars to detect a correlated signal. We apply these methods to our data set to set an upper limit on the strength of the nHz-frequency stochastic supermassive black hole gravitational wave background of h{sub c} (1 yr{sup -1}) < 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} (95%). This result is dominated by the timing of the two best pulsars in the set, PSRs J1713+0747 and J1909-3744.
Gravitational waves from double hybrid inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazarides, G.; Panagiotakopoulos, C.
2015-12-01
We present a two-stage hybrid inflationary scenario in nonminimal supergravity which can predict values of the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the order of a few ×10-2 . For the parameters considered, the underlying supersymmetric particle physics model possesses two inflationary paths, the trivial and the semishifted one. The trivial path is stabilized by supergravity corrections and supports a first stage of inflation with a limited number of e-foldings. The tensor-to-scalar ratio can become appreciable while the value of the scalar spectral index remains acceptable as a result of the competition between the relatively mild supergravity corrections and the strong radiative corrections to the inflationary potential. The additional number of e-foldings required for solving the puzzles of hot big bang cosmology are generated by a second stage of inflation taking place along the semishifted path. This is possible only because the semishifted path is almost perpendicular to the trivial one, and thus not affected by the strong radiative corrections along the trivial path, and also because the supergravity effects remain mild. The requirement that the running of the scalar spectral index remain acceptable limits the possible values of the tensor-to-scalar ratio not to exceed about 5 ×10-2 . Our model predicts the formation of an unstable string-monopole network, which may lead to detectable gravity wave signatures in future space-based laser interferometer observations.
Searching for gravitational waves from neutron stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Idrisy, Ashikuzzaman
In this dissertation we discuss gravitational waves (GWs) and their neutron star (NS) sources. We begin with a general discussion of the motivation for searching for GWs and the indirect experimental evidence of their existence. Then we discuss the various mechanisms through which NS can emit GWs, paying special attention the r-mode oscillations. Finally we end with discussion of GW detection. In Chapter 2 we describe research into the frequencies of r-mode oscillations. Knowing these frequencies can be useful for guiding and interpreting gravitational wave and electromagnetic observations. The frequencies of slowly rotating, barotropic, and non-magnetic Newtonian stars are well known, but subject to various corrections. After making simple estimates of the relative strengths of these corrections we conclude that relativistic corrections are the most important. For this reason we extend the formalism of K. H. Lockitch, J. L. Friedman, and N. Andersson [Phys. Rev. D 68, 124010 (2003)], who consider relativistic polytropes, to the case of realistic equations of state. This formulation results in perturbation equations which are solved using a spectral method. We find that for realistic equations of state the r-mode frequency ranges from 1.39--1.57 times the spin frequency of the star when the relativistic compactness parameter (M/R) is varied over the astrophysically motivated interval 0.110--0.310. Following a successful r-mode detection our results can help constrain the high density equation of state. In Chapter 3 we present a technical introduction to the data analysis tools used in GW searches. Starting from the plane-wave solutions derived in Chapter 1 we develop the F-statistic used in the matched filtering technique. This technique relies on coherently integrating the GW detector's data stream with a theoretically modeled wave signal. The statistic is used to test the null hypothesis that the data contains no signal. In this chapter we also discuss how to
Nonlinear optical SU(1,1) interferometer using four-wave mixing in Rb
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Prasoon; Anderson, Brian; Horrom, Travis; Lett, Paul; Nonlinear Optics Group, Joint Quantum Institute Team
2016-05-01
Quantum-enhanced precision measurements have emerged as one of the most useful applications of quantum optics. By replacing the beamsplitters in a traditional Mach-Zender interferometer with parametric amplifiers, one can create a nonlinear SU(1,1) interferometer. Nonclassical correlations in the interior state of the interferometer allow for Heisenberg-limited sensitivity of this device, an improvement over classical interferometers. The optical SU(1,1) interferometer can be experimentally realized using four-wave mixing in hot rubidium vapor to generate twin beams, and then recombining these beams in a second four-wave mixing process after a phase shift. We investigate the properties of this interferometer both theoretically and experimentally and examine how the sensitivity depends on detection method.
Audio-Band Frequency-Dependent Squeezing for Gravitational-Wave Detectors.
Oelker, Eric; Isogai, Tomoki; Miller, John; Tse, Maggie; Barsotti, Lisa; Mavalvala, Nergis; Evans, Matthew
2016-01-29
Quantum vacuum fluctuations impose strict limits on precision displacement measurements, those of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors among them. Introducing squeezed states into an interferometer's readout port can improve the sensitivity of the instrument, leading to richer astrophysical observations. However, optomechanical interactions dictate that the vacuum's squeezed quadrature must rotate by 90° around 50 Hz. Here we use a 2-m-long, high-finesse optical resonator to produce frequency-dependent rotation around 1.2 kHz. This demonstration of audio-band frequency-dependent squeezing uses technology and methods that are scalable to the required rotation frequency and validates previously developed theoretical models, heralding application of the technique in future gravitational-wave detectors. PMID:26871318
Audio-Band Frequency-Dependent Squeezing for Gravitational-Wave Detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oelker, Eric; Isogai, Tomoki; Miller, John; Tse, Maggie; Barsotti, Lisa; Mavalvala, Nergis; Evans, Matthew
2016-01-01
Quantum vacuum fluctuations impose strict limits on precision displacement measurements, those of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors among them. Introducing squeezed states into an interferometer's readout port can improve the sensitivity of the instrument, leading to richer astrophysical observations. However, optomechanical interactions dictate that the vacuum's squeezed quadrature must rotate by 90° around 50 Hz. Here we use a 2-m-long, high-finesse optical resonator to produce frequency-dependent rotation around 1.2 kHz. This demonstration of audio-band frequency-dependent squeezing uses technology and methods that are scalable to the required rotation frequency and validates previously developed theoretical models, heralding application of the technique in future gravitational-wave detectors.
Swift follow-up of the gravitational wave source GW150914
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, P. A.; Kennea, J. A.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Beardmore, A. P.; Burrows, D. N.; Campana, S.; Cenko, S. B.; Gehrels, N.; Giommi, P.; Gronwall, C.; Marshall, F. E.; Malesani, D.; Markwardt, C. B.; Mingo, B.; Nousek, J. A.; O'Brien, P. T.; Osborne, J. P.; Pagani, C.; Page, K. L.; Palmer, D. M.; Perri, M.; Racusin, J. L.; Siegel, M. H.; Sbarufatti, B.; Tagliaferri, G.
2016-07-01
The Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (ALIGO) observatory recently reported the first direct detection of gravitational waves (GW) which triggered ALIGO on 2015 September 14. We report on observations taken with the Swift satellite two days after the trigger. No new X-ray, optical, UV or hard X-ray sources were detected in our observations, which were focused on nearby galaxies in the GW error region and covered 4.7 deg2 (˜2 per cent of the probability in the rapidly available GW error region; 0.3 per cent of the probability from the final GW error region, which was produced several months after the trigger). We describe the rapid Swift response and automated analysis of the X-ray telescope and UV/Optical telescope data, and note the importance to electromagnetic follow-up of early notification of the progenitor details inferred from GW analysis.
Classifying glitches and improving data quality of Advanced LIGO gravitational-wave searches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cavaglia, Marco; Powell, Jade; Trifiro, Daniele; Heng, Ik Siong; LIGO Collaboration
2016-03-01
Noise of non-astrophysical origin contaminates science data taken by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (aLIGO) and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors. Characterization of instrumental and environmental noise transients has proven critical in identifying false positives in the first aLIGO observing run O1. In this talk, we present three algorithms designed for the automatic classification of non-astrophysical transients in advanced detectors. Principal Component Analysis for Transients (PCAT) and an adaptation of LALInference Burst (LIB) are based on Principal Component Analysis. The third algorithm is a combination of a glitch finder called Wavelet Detection Filter (WDF) and machine learning techniques for classification. PCAT was used in O1 and earlier engineering runs to identify and characterize observed noise transients in aLIGO data. LIB and WDF are expected to join the quest in the upcoming aLIGO-Advanced Virgo observing run O2. NSF PHY-1404139.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John; Thorpe, Ira
2012-01-01
Thoroughly studied classic space-based gravitational-wave missions concepts such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) are based on laser-interferometry techniques. Ongoing developments in atom-interferometry techniques have spurred recently proposed alternative mission concepts. These different approaches can be understood on a common footing. We present an comparative analysis of how each type of instrument responds to some of the noise sources which may limiting gravitational-wave mission concepts. Sensitivity to laser frequency instability is essentially the same for either approach. Spacecraft acceleration reference stability sensitivities are different, allowing smaller spacecraft separations in the atom interferometry approach, but acceleration noise requirements are nonetheless similar. Each approach has distinct additional measurement noise issues.
Polnarev, A. G.; Baskaran, D.
2008-06-15
In the current work we investigate the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the field of gravitational waves. Starting with the simple case of an electromagnetic wave traveling in the field of a plane monochromatic gravitational wave, we introduce the concept of the surfing effect and analyze its physical consequences. We then generalize these results to an arbitrary gravitational wave field. We show that, due to the transverse nature of gravitational waves, the surfing effect leads to significant observable consequences only if the velocity of gravitational waves deviates from the speed of light. This fact can help to place an upper limit on the deviation of gravitational wave velocity from the speed of light. The microarcsecond resolution promised by the upcoming precision interferometry experiments allow one to place stringent upper limits on {epsilon}=(v{sub gw}-c)/c as a function of the energy density parameter for gravitational waves {omega}{sub gw}. For {omega}{sub gw}{approx_equal}10{sup -10} this limit amounts to {epsilon} < or approx. 2{center_dot}10{sup -2}.
NASA Sees Orbiting Stars Flooding Space with Gravitational Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2005-05-01
A scientist using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found evidence that two white dwarf stars are orbiting each other in a death grip, destined to merge. The data indicate that gravitational waves are carrying energy away from the star system at a prodigious rate - making it a prime candidate for future missions designed to directly detect these subtle ripples in space-time. Einstein's General Theory of Relativity predicts that a binary star system should emit gravitational waves, which rush away at the speed of light and cause the stars to move closer together. The orbital period of this system, known as RX J0806.3+1527, or J0806, is decreasing by 1.2 milliseconds every year, a rate consistent with theory. Animation of White Dwarfs Animation of White Dwarfs The white dwarf pair in J0806 might have the smallest orbit of any known binary system with the stars only about 50,000 miles apart, a fifth of the distance from the Earth to the Moon. As the stars swirl closer together, traveling in excess of a million miles per hour, the production of gravitational waves increases. "If confirmed, J0806 could be one of the brightest sources of gravitational waves in our Galaxy," said Tod Strohmayer of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center of Greenbelt, Md., who presents his results today at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Minneapolis, Minn. "It could be among the first to be detected directly with an upcoming space mission called LISA, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna." White dwarfs are remnants of stars like our Sun that have used up all their fuel. Along with neutron stars and black holes, white dwarfs are called compact objects because they pack a lot of mass into a small volume. The white dwarfs in the J0806 system each have an estimated mass half that of the Sun, yet are only about the size of Earth. Chandra Light Curve of RX J0806.3+1527 Chandra Light Curve of RX J0806.3+1527 Optical and X-ray observations of J0806 show periodic variations with a
Squeezed light for the interferometric detection of high-frequency gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schnabel, R.; Harms, J.; Strain, K. A.; Danzmann, K.
2004-03-01
The quantum noise of the light field is a fundamental noise source in interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. Injected squeezed light is capable of reducing the quantum noise contribution to the detector noise floor to values that surpass the so-called standard quantum limit (SQL). In particular, squeezed light is useful for the detection of gravitational waves at high frequencies where interferometers are typically shot-noise limited, although the SQL might not be beaten in this case. We theoretically analyse the quantum noise of the signal-recycled laser interferometric gravitational-wave detector GEO 600 with additional input and output optics, namely frequency-dependent squeezing of the vacuum state of light entering the dark port and frequency-dependent homodyne detection. We focus on the frequency range between 1 kHz and 10 kHz, where, although signal recycled, the detector is still shot-noise limited. It is found that the GEO 600 detector with present design parameters will benefit from frequency-dependent squeezed light. Assuming a squeezing strength of -6 dB in quantum noise variance, the interferometer will become thermal noise limited up to 4 kHz without further reduction of bandwidth. At higher frequencies the linear noise spectral density of GEO 600 will still be dominated by shot noise and improved by a factor of 106dB/20dB ap 2 according to the squeezing strength assumed. The interferometer might reach a strain sensitivity of 6 × 10-23 above 1 kHz (tunable) with a bandwidth of around 350 Hz. We propose a scheme to implement the desired frequency-dependent squeezing by introducing an additional optical component into GEO 600's signal-recycling cavity.
Generation of Gravitational Waves with Nuclear Reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fontana, Giorgio; Baker, Robert M. L.
2006-01-01
The problem of efficient generation of High Frequency Gravitational Waves (HFGWs) and pulses of Gravitational Radiation might find a reasonably simple solution by employing nuclear matter, especially isomers. A fissioning isomer not only rotates at extremely high frequency (~ 3.03×1024 s-1), but is also highly deformed in the first stages of fission (the nucleus is rotating and made asymmetric ``before'' fission). Thus one achieves significant impulsive forces (e.g., 3.67×108 N) acting over extremely short time spans (e.g., 3.3×10-22 s). Alternatively, a pulsed particle beam, which could include antimatter, could trigger nuclear reactions and build up a coherent GW as the particles move through a target mass. The usual difficulty with HFGWs generated by nuclear reactions is the small dimensions of their nuclear-reaction volumes, that is, the small moment of inertia and submicroscopic radii of gyration (e.g., 10-16 m) of the nuclear-mass system. Such a difficulty is overcome by utilizing clusters of nuclear material, whose nuclear reactions are in synchronization (through the use of a computer controlled logic system) and are at a large distance apart, e.g., meters, kilometers, etc. The effective radius of gyration of the overall nuclear mass system is enormous and if the quadrupole formalism holds even approximately, then significant HFGW is generated, for example up to 8.5×1010 W to 1.64×1025 W bursts for the transient asymmetrical spinning nucleus case. In this preliminary analysis, possible conceptual designs of reactors suitable for the generation of HFGWs are discussed as well as applications to space technology. In an optimized dual-beam design, GW amplitudes on the order of A ~ 0.005 are theoretically achieved in the laboratory, which might have interesting general-relativity and nuclear-physics consequences.
Gravitational waves from spinning eccentric binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Csizmadia, Péter; Debreczeni, Gergely; Rácz, István; Vasúth, Mátyás
2012-12-01
This paper is to introduce a new software called CBwaves which provides a fast and accurate computational tool to determine the gravitational waveforms yielded by generic spinning binaries of neutron stars and/or black holes on eccentric orbits. This is done within the post-Newtonian (PN) framework by integrating the equations of motion and the spin precession equations, while the radiation field is determined by a simultaneous evaluation of the analytic waveforms. In applying CBwaves various physically interesting scenarios have been investigated. In particular, we have studied the appropriateness of the adiabatic approximation, and justified that the energy balance relation is indeed insensitive to the specific form of the applied radiation reaction term. By studying eccentric binary systems, it is demonstrated that circular template banks are very ineffective in identifying binaries even if they possess tiny residual orbital eccentricity, thus confirming a similar result obtained by Brown and Zimmerman (2010 Phys. Rev. D 81 024007). In addition, by investigating the validity of the energy balance relation we show that, contrary to the general expectations, the PN approximation should not be applied once the PN parameter gets beyond the critical value ˜0.08 - 0.1. Finally, by studying the early phase of the gravitational waves emitted by strongly eccentric binary systems—which could be formed e.g. in various many-body interactions in the galactic halo—we have found that they possess very specific characteristics which may be used to identify these type of binary systems. This paper is dedicated to the memory of our colleague and friend Péter Csizmadia a young physicist, computer expert and one of the best Hungarian mountaineers who disappeared in China’s Sichuan near the Ren Zhong Feng peak of the Himalayas on 23 Oct. 2009. We started to develop CBwaves jointly with Péter a couple of months before he left for China.
Progress and Prospects toward a Space-based Gravitational-Wave Observatory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John
2012-01-01
Over the last few years there has been much activity in the effort to produce a space-based gravitational-wave observatory. These efforts have enriched the understanding of the scientific capabilities of such an observatory leading to broad recognition of its value as an astronomical instrument. At the same time, rapidly developing events in the US and Europe have lead to a more complicated outlook than the baseline Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) project plan of a few years ago. I will discuss recent progress and developments resulting from the European eLISA study and the SGO study in the US and prospects looking forward.
Optical isolation in the LIGO gravitational wave laser detector in transient states
Soloviev, A A; Khazanov, Efim A
2012-04-30
This paper presents a numerical analysis of the degree of optical isolation of the laser source by the Faraday isolator in transient states of the laser interferometer gravitational wave observatory (LIGO) detector. This system may be in transient states where the power of the light reflected from the detector to the laser source can exceed many times the power of the source. The present results can be used to analyse the need for installing an additional active mechanical isolation of the source and to evaluate its response time.
Mullavey, Adam J; Slagmolen, Bram J J; Miller, John; Evans, Matthew; Fritschel, Peter; Sigg, Daniel; Waldman, Sam J; Shaddock, Daniel A; McClelland, David E
2012-01-01
Residual motion of the arm cavity mirrors is expected to prove one of the principal impediments to systematic lock acquisition in advanced gravitational-wave interferometers. We present a technique which overcomes this problem by employing auxiliary lasers at twice the fundamental measurement frequency to pre-stabilise the arm cavities' lengths. Applying this approach, we reduce the apparent length noise of a 1.3 m long, independently suspended Fabry-Perot cavity to 30 pm rms and successfully transfer longitudinal control of the system from the auxiliary laser to the measurement laser.
Galaxy Strategy for Ligo-Virgo Gravitational Wave Counterpart Searches
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.; Kanner, Jonah; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Nissanke, Samaya; Singer, Leo P.
2016-01-01
In this work we continue a line of inquiry begun in Kanner et al. which detailed a strategy for utilizing telescopes with narrow fields of view, such as the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT), to localize gravity wave (GW) triggers from LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) / Virgo. If one considers the brightest galaxies that produce 50 percent of the light, then the number of galaxies inside typical GW error boxes will be several tens. We have found that this result applies both in the early years of Advanced LIGO when the range is small and the error boxes large, and in the later years when the error boxes will be small and the range large. This strategy has the beneficial property of reducing the number of telescope pointings by a factor 10 to 100 compared with tiling the entire error box. Additional galaxy count reduction will come from a GW rapid distance estimate which will restrict the radial slice in search volume. Combining the bright galaxy strategy with a convolution based on anticipated GW localizations, we find that the searches can be restricted to about 18 plus or minus 5 galaxies for 2015, about 23 plus or minus 4 for 2017, and about 11 plus or minus for 2020. This assumes a distance localization at the putative neutron star-neutron star (NS-NS) merger range mu for each target year, and these totals are integrated out to the range. Integrating out to the horizon would roughly double the totals. For localizations with r (rotation) greatly less than mu the totals would decrease. The galaxy strategy we present in this work will enable numerous sensitive optical and X-ray telescopes with small fields of view to participate meaningfully in searches wherein the prospects for rapidly fading afterglow place a premium on a fast response time.
Earth-orbiting resonant-mass gravitational wave detectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paik, Ho Jung
1989-01-01
Earth-based gravitational wave detectors suffer from the need to support the large antenna masses against the earth's gravity without transmitting a significant amount of seismic noise. Passive vibration isolation is difficult to achieve below 1 Hz on the earth. Vibration-free space environment thus gives an opportunity to extend the frequency window of gravitational wave detection to ultralow frequencies. The weightless condition of a space laboratory also enables construction of a highly symmetric multimode antenna which is capable of resolving the direction of the source and the polarization of the incoming wave without resorting to multiantenna coincidence. Two types of earth-orbiting resonant-mass gravitational wave detectors are considered. One is a skyhook gravitational wave detector, proposed by Braginsky and Thorne (1985). The other is a spherical detector, proposed by Forward (1971) and analyzed by Wagoner and Paik (1976).
Composite gravitational-wave detection of compact binary coalescence
Cannon, Kipp; Hanna, Chad; Keppel, Drew; Searle, Antony C.
2011-04-15
The detection of gravitational waves from compact binaries relies on a computationally burdensome processing of gravitational-wave detector data. The parameter space of compact-binary-coalescence gravitational waves is large and optimal detection strategies often require nearly redundant calculations. Previously, it has been shown that singular value decomposition of search filters removes redundancy. Here we will demonstrate the use of singular value decomposition for a composite detection statistic. This can greatly improve the prospects for a computationally feasible rapid detection scheme across a large compact binary parameter space.
Observable induced gravitational waves from an early matter phase
Alabidi, Laila; Sasaki, Misao; Kohri, Kazunori; Sendouda, Yuuiti E-mail: kohri@post.kek.jp E-mail: sendouda@cc.hirosaki-u.ac.jp
2013-05-01
Assuming that inflation is succeeded by a phase of matter domination, which corresponds to a low temperature of reheating T{sub r} < 10{sup 9}GeV, we evaluate the spectra of gravitational waves induced in the post-inflationary universe. We work with models of hilltop-inflation with an enhanced primordial scalar spectrum on small scales, which can potentially lead to the formation of primordial black holes. We find that a lower reheat temperature leads to the production of gravitational waves with energy densities within the ranges of both space and earth based gravitational wave detectors.
Gravitational waves from kinks on infinite cosmic strings
Kawasaki, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Koichi; Nakayama, Kazunori
2010-05-15
Gravitational waves emitted by kinks on infinite strings are investigated using detailed estimations of the kink distribution on infinite strings. We find that gravitational waves from kinks can be detected by future pulsar timing experiments such as SKA for an appropriate value of the string tension, if the typical size of string loops is much smaller than the horizon at their formation. Moreover, the gravitational wave spectrum depends on the thermal history of the Universe and hence it can be used as a probe into the early evolution of the Universe.
GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, H.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnson-McDaniel, N. K.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; Boyle, M.; Hemberger, D.; Kidder, L. E.; Lovelace, G.; Ossokine, S.; Scheel, M.; Szilagyi, B.; Teukolsky, S.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration
2016-06-01
We report the observation of a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The signal, GW151226, was observed by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) on December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC. The signal was initially identified within 70 s by an online matched-filter search targeting binary coalescences. Subsequent off-line analyses recovered GW151226 with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a significance greater than 5 σ . The signal persisted in the LIGO frequency band for approximately 1 s, increasing in frequency and amplitude over about 55 cycles from 35 to 450 Hz, and reached a peak gravitational strain of 3. 4-0.9+0.7×10-22 . The inferred source-frame initial black hole masses are 14.2-3.7+8.3 M⊙ and 7. 5-2.3+2.3 M⊙, and the final black hole mass is 20.8-1.7+6.1 M⊙. We find that at least one of the component black holes has spin greater than 0.2. This source is located at a luminosity distance of 44 0-190+180 Mpc corresponding to a redshift of 0.0 9-0.04+0.03. All uncertainties define a 90% credible interval. This second gravitational-wave observation provides improved constraints on stellar populations and on deviations from general relativity.
Improvement of the GEO600 gravitational wave detector using squeezed states of light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dooley, Katherine; LIGO Scientific Collaboration
2015-04-01
During the last 3 years, the GEO600 laser interferometer gravitational wave (GW) observatory, located near Hannover, Germany, has conducted the first long-term study of the permanent integration of a squeezed light source to such a detector. Squeezed vacuum states, which are generated using quantum optics, are injected into the output port of the laser interferometer, where they join the GW signal and improve the shot-noise-limited signal-to-noise ratio. An improvement up to a factor 1.5 above 800 Hz has been achieved at GEO600, as well as a squeezing application duty cycle of about 90 % . New control loops have also been developed to ensure long-term stability of the integration of the squeezed light source to the GW detector. I will describe the squeezing experiment at GEO600 and report on the lessons learned for integration of a squeezed light source to future GW detectors, such as Advanced LIGO.
Three-point statistics of cosmological stochastic gravitational waves
Adshead, Peter; Lim, Eugene A.
2010-07-15
We consider the three-point function (i.e. the bispectrum or non-Gaussianity) for stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves. We estimate the amplitude of this signal for the primordial inflationary background, gravitational waves generated during preheating, and for gravitational waves produced by self-ordering scalar fields following a global phase transition. To assess detectability, we describe how to extract the three-point signal from an idealized interferometric experiment and compute the signal to noise ratio as a function of integration time. The three-point signal for the stochastic gravitational wave background generated by inflation is unsurprisingly tiny. For gravitational radiation generated by purely causal, classical mechanisms we find that, no matter how nonlinear the process is, the three-point correlations produced vanish in direct detection experiments. On the other hand, we show that in scenarios where the B-mode of the cosmic microwave background is sourced by gravitational waves generated by a global phase transition, a strong three-point signal among the polarization modes is also produced. This may provide another method of distinguishing inflationary B-modes. To carry out this computation, we have developed a diagrammatic approach to the calculation of stochastic gravitational waves sourced by scalar fluids, which has applications beyond the present scenario.
Finite mirror effects in advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors
Lundgren, Andrew P.; Bondarescu, Ruxandra; Tsang, David; Bondarescu, Mihai
2008-02-15
Thermal noise is expected to be the dominant source of noise in the most sensitive frequency band of second-generation, ground-based gravitational-wave detectors. Reshaping the beam to a flatter, wider profile which probes more of the mirror surface reduces this noise. The 'Mesa' beam shape has been proposed for this purpose and was subsequently generalized to a family of hyperboloidal beams with two parameters: twist angle {alpha} and beam width D. Varying {alpha} allows a continuous transition from the nearly flat ({alpha}=0) to the nearly concentric ({alpha}={pi}) Mesa beam configurations. We analytically prove that in the limit D{yields}{infinity} hyperboloidal beams become Gaussians. The ideal beam choice for reducing thermal noise is the widest possible beam that satisfies the Advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory) diffraction loss design constraint of 1 part per million (ppm) per bounce for a mirror radius of 17 cm. In the past the diffraction loss has often been calculated using the clipping approximation that, in general, underestimates the diffraction loss. We develop a code using pseudospectral methods to compute the diffraction loss directly from the propagator. We find that the diffraction loss is not a strictly monotonic function of beam width, but has local minima that occur due to finite mirror effects and leads to natural choices of D. For an {alpha}={pi} Mesa beam a local minimum occurs at D=10.67 cm and leads to a diffraction loss of 1.4 ppm. We then compute the thermal noise for the entire hyperboloidal family. We find that if one requires a diffraction loss of strictly 1 ppm, the {alpha}=0.91{pi} hyperboloidal beam is optimal, leading to the coating thermal noise (the dominant source of noise for fused-silica mirrors) being lower by about 10% than for a Mesa beam while other types of thermal noise decrease as well. We then develop an iterative process that reconstructs the mirror to specifically account for finite
Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Ageev, A.; Allen, B.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S.B.; Anderson, W.G.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Ashley, M.; Asiri, F.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Balasubramanian, R.; Ballmer, S.; Barish, B.C.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barnes, M.; /Potsdam, Max Planck Inst. /Hannover, Max Planck Inst. Grav. /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /Caltech /Cal State, Dominguez Hills /Caltech /Cardiff U. /Carleton Coll. /Fermilab /Hobart - William Smith Coll. /IUCAA, Pune /LIGO Lab., Caltech /MIT, MKI /LIGO Hanford Observ. /LIGO Livingston Obs. /Louisiana State U. /Louisiana Tech. U. /Loyola U., New Orleans /Munich, Max Planck Inst. Quantenopt. /Moscow State U. /NASA, Goddard
2005-01-01
We have performed a search for bursts of gravitational waves associated with the very bright Gamma Ray Burst GRB030329, using the two detectors at the LIGO Hanford Observatory. Our search covered the most sensitive frequency range of the LIGO detectors (approximately 80-2048 Hz), and we specifically targeted signals shorter than {approx_equal}150 ms. Our search algorithm looks for excess correlated power between the two interferometers and thus makes minimal assumptions about the gravitational waveform. We observed no candidates with gravitational wave signal strength larger than a pre-determined threshold. We report frequency dependent upper limits on the strength of the gravitational waves associated with GRB030329. Near the most sensitive frequency region, around {approx_equal}250 Hz, our root-sum-square (RSS) gravitational wave strain sensitivity for optimally polarized bursts was better than h{sub RSS} {approx_equal} 6 x 10{sup -21} Hz{sup -1/2}. Our result is comparable to the best published results searching for association between gravitational waves and GRBs.
Numerical Relativity, Black Hole Mergers, and Gravitational Waves: Part III
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
This series of 3 lectures will present recent developments in numerical relativity, and their applications to simulating black hole mergers and computing the resulting gravitational waveforms. In this third and final lecture, we present applications of the results of numerical relativity simulations to gravitational wave detection and astrophysics.
Numerical Relativity, Black Hole Mergers, and Gravitational Waves: Part I
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
This series of 3 lectures will present recent developments in numerical relativity, and their applications to simulating black hole mergers and computing the resulting gravitational waveforms. In this first lecture, we introduce the basic ideas of numerical relativity, highlighting the challenges that arise in simulating gravitational wave sources on a computer.
Theoretical implications of detecting gravitational waves
Geshnizjani, Ghazal; Kinney, William H. E-mail: whkinney@buffalo.edu
2015-08-01
This paper is the third in a series of theorems which state how cosmological observations can provide evidence for an early phase of acceleration in the universe. It was demonstrated in [1,2], that the observed power spectrum for scalar perturbations forces all possible alternative theories of inflation to theories other than General Relativity. It was shown that generically, without a phase of accelerated expansion, these alternatives have to break at least one of the following tenets of classical general relativity: the Null Energy Condition (NEC), subluminal signal propagation, or sub-Planckian energy densities. In this paper we prove how detection of primordial gravitational waves at large scales can provide independent evidence to support a phase of accelerated expansion. This proof does not rely on the spectral index for tensor modes but relies on validity of quantum field theory in curved space time and tensor modes being sourced from adiabatic vacuum fluctuations. Our approach, like in the case of scalars, is proof by contradiction: we investigate the possibility of a detectable tensor signal sourced by vacuum fluctuations in a non-accelerating, sub-Planckian universe using cosmological perturbation theory and derive contradictory limits on cosmological dynamics. The contradiction implies that one or more of our axioms for early universe must have been broken. The bound from tensor perturbations is not only independent of, but also stronger than the one obtained from scalar power spectrum.
Gravitational wave damping of neutron star wobble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cutler, Curt; Jones, David Ian
2001-01-01
We calculate the effect of gravitational wave (GW) back reaction on realistic neutron stars (NS's) undergoing torque-free precession. By ``realistic'' we mean that the NS is treated as a mostly fluid body with an elastic crust, as opposed to a rigid body. We find that GW's damp NS wobble on a time scale τθ~2×105 yr [10- 7/(ΔId/I0)]2(kHz/ νs)4, where νs is the spin frequency and ΔId is the piece of the NS's inertia tensor that ``follows'' the crust's principal axis (as opposed to its spin axis). We give two different derivations of this result: one based solely on energy and angular momentum balance, and another obtained by adding the Burke-Thorne radiation reaction force to the Newtonian equations of motion. This problem was treated long ago by Bertotti and Anile, but their claimed result is wrong. When we convert from their notation to ours, we find that their τθ is too short by a factor of ~105 for the typical cases of interest and even has the wrong sign for ΔId negative. We show where their calculation went astray.
Measuring the speed of cosmological gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raveri, Marco; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Silvestri, Alessandra; Zhou, Shuang-Yong
2015-03-01
In general relativity gravitational waves propagate at the speed of light; however, in alternative theories of gravity that might not be the case. We investigate the effects of a modified speed of gravity, cT2, on the B modes of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy in polarization. We find that a departure from the light speed value would leave a characteristic imprint on the BB spectrum part induced by tensors, manifesting as a shift in the angular scale of its peaks which allows us to constrain cT without any significant degeneracy with other cosmological parameters. We derive constraints from current data and forecast the accuracy with which cT will be measured by the next generation CMB satellites. In the former case, using the available Planck and BICEP2 data sets, we obtain cT2=1.30 ±0.79 and cT2<2.85 at 95% C.L. by assuming a power law primordial tensor power spectrum and cT2<2.33 at 95% C.L. if the running of the spectral index is allowed. More interestingly, in the latter case we find future CMB satellites capable of constraining cT2 at percent level, comparable with bounds from binary pulsar measurements, largely due to the absence of degeneracy with other cosmological parameters.
Gravitational wave astrophysics, data analysis and multimessenger astronomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Hyung Mok; Le Bigot, Eric-Olivier; Du, ZhiHui; Lin, ZhangXi; Guo, XiangYu; Wen, LinQing; Phukon, Khun Sang; Pandey, Vihan; Bose, Sukanta; Fan, Xi-Long; Hendry, Martin
2015-12-01
This paper reviews gravitational wave sources and their detection. One of the most exciting potential sources of gravitational waves are coalescing binary black hole systems. They can occur on all mass scales and be formed in numerous ways, many of which are not understood. They are generally invisible in electromagnetic waves, and they provide opportunities for deep investigation of Einstein's general theory of relativity. Sect. 1 of this paper considers ways that binary black holes can be created in the universe, and includes the prediction that binary black hole coalescence events are likely to be the first gravitational wave sources to be detected. The next parts of this paper address the detection of chirp waveforms from coalescence events in noisy data. Such analysis is computationally intensive. Sect. 2 reviews a new and powerful method of signal detection based on the GPUimplemented summed parallel infinite impulse response filters. Such filters are intrinsically real time alorithms, that can be used to rapidly detect and localise signals. Sect. 3 of the paper reviews the use of GPU processors for rapid searching for gravitational wave bursts that can arise from black hole births and coalescences. In sect. 4 the use of GPU processors to enable fast efficient statistical significance testing of gravitational wave event candidates is reviewed. Sect. 5 of this paper addresses the method of multimessenger astronomy where the discovery of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave events can be used to identify sources, understand their nature and obtain much greater science outcomes from each identified event.
Enabling high confidence detections of gravitational-wave bursts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Littenberg, Tyson B.; Kanner, Jonah B.; Cornish, Neil J.; Millhouse, Margaret
2016-08-01
Extracting astrophysical information from gravitational-wave detections is a well-posed problem and thoroughly studied when detailed models for the waveforms are available. However, one motivation for the field of gravitational-wave astronomy is the potential for new discoveries. Recognizing and characterizing unanticipated signals requires data analysis techniques which do not depend on theoretical predictions for the gravitational waveform. Past searches for short-duration unmodeled gravitational-wave signals have been hampered by transient noise artifacts, or "glitches," in the detectors. We have put forth the BayesWave algorithm to differentiate between generic gravitational-wave transients and glitches, and to provide robust waveform reconstruction and characterization of the astrophysical signals. Here we study BayesWave's capabilities for rejecting glitches while assigning high confidence to detection candidates through analytic approximations to the Bayesian evidence. Analytic results are tested with numerical experiments by adding simulated gravitational-wave transient signals to LIGO data collected between 2009 and 2010 and found to be in good agreement.
Quantum-state preparation and macroscopic entanglement in gravitational-wave detectors
Mueller-Ebhardt, Helge; Rehbein, Henning; Schnabel, Roman; Danzmann, Karsten; Li Chao; Mino, Yasushi; Chen Yanbei
2009-10-15
Long-baseline laser-interferometer gravitational-wave (GW) detectors are operating at a factor of {approx}10 (in amplitude) above the standard quantum limit (SQL) within a broad frequency band (in the sense that {delta}f{approx}f). Such a low-noise budget has already allowed the creation of a controlled 2.7 kg macroscopic oscillator with an effective eigenfrequency of 150 Hz and an occupation number of {approx}200. This result, along with the prospect for further improvements, heralds the possibility of experimentally probing macroscopic quantum mechanics (MQM) - quantum mechanical behavior of objects in the realm of everyday experience - using GW detectors. In this paper, we provide the mathematical foundation for the first step of a MQM experiment: the preparation of a macroscopic test mass into a nearly minimum-Heisenberg-limited Gaussian quantum state, which is possible if the interferometer's classical noise beats the SQL in a broad frequency band. Our formalism, based on Wiener filtering, allows a straightforward conversion from the noise budget of a laser interferometer, in terms of noise spectra, into the strategy for quantum-state preparation and the quality of the prepared state. Using this formalism, we consider how Gaussian entanglement can be built among two macroscopic test masses and the performance of the planned Advanced LIGO interferometers in quantum-state preparation.
The Science of Gravitational Waves with Space Observatories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thorpe, James Ira
2013-01-01
After decades of effort, direct detection of gravitational waves from astrophysical sources is on the horizon. Aside from teaching us about gravity itself, gravitational waves hold immense promise as a tool for general astrophysics. In this talk I will provide an overview of the science enabled by a space-based gravitational wave observatory sensitive in the milli-Hertz frequency band including the nature and evolution of massive black holes and their host galaxies, the demographics of stellar remnant compact objects in the Milky Way, and the behavior of gravity in the strong-field regime. I will also summarize the current status of efforts in the US and Europe to implement a space-based gravitational wave observatory.
Visualization of Merging Black Holes and Gravitational Waves
This visualization shows gravitational waves emitted by two black holes of nearly equal mass as they spiral together and merge. Orange ripples represent distortions of space-time caused by the rapi...
Gravitational-Wave Detectors: First, Second, and Third Generation
Mandic, Vuk
2011-11-02
Gravitational waves are predicted by the general theory of relativity to be produced by accelerating mass systems with quadrupole (or higher) moment. The amplitude of gravitational waves is expected to be very small, so the best chance of their direct detection lies with some of the most energetic events in the universe, such as mergers of two neutron stars or black holes, supernova explosions, or the Big Bang itself. Over the past decade several detectors have been built to search for such gravitational-wave sources. This talk will review the current status of these detectors, as well as some of their most recent results, and will cover plans and expectations for the future generations of gravitational wave detectors.
Two Timescale Approximation Applied to Gravitational Waves from Eccentric EMRIs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moxon, Jordan; Flanagan, Eanna; Hinderer, Tanja; Pound, Adam
2016-03-01
Gravitational-wave driven inspirals of compact objects into massive black holes (Extreme Mass Ratio Inspirals - EMRIs) form an interesting, long-lived signal for future space-based gravitational wave detectors. Accurate signal predictions will be necessary to take full advantage of matched filtering techniques, motivating the development of a calculational technique for deriving the gravitational wave signal to good approximation throughout the inspiral. We report on recent work on developing the two-timescale technique with the goal of predicting waveforms from eccentric equatorial systems to subleading (post-adiabatic) order in the phase, building on recent work by Pound in the scalar case. The computation requires us to understand the dissipative component of the second-order self force. It also demands careful consideration of how the two timescale (near-zone) approximation should match with the post-Minkowski approximation of the gravitational waves at great distances.
Black Hole Kicks as New Gravitational Wave Observables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerosa, Davide; Moore, Christopher J.
2016-07-01
Generic black hole binaries radiate gravitational waves anisotropically, imparting a recoil, or kick, velocity to the merger remnant. If a component of the kick along the line of sight is present, gravitational waves emitted during the final orbits and merger will be gradually Doppler shifted as the kick builds up. We develop a simple prescription to capture this effect in existing waveform models, showing that future gravitational wave experiments will be able to perform direct measurements, not only of the black hole kick velocity, but also of its accumulation profile. In particular, the eLISA space mission will measure supermassive black hole kick velocities as low as ˜500 km s-1 , which are expected to be a common outcome of black hole binary coalescence following galaxy mergers. Black hole kicks thus constitute a promising new observable in the growing field of gravitational wave astronomy.
Black Hole Kicks as New Gravitational Wave Observables.
Gerosa, Davide; Moore, Christopher J
2016-07-01
Generic black hole binaries radiate gravitational waves anisotropically, imparting a recoil, or kick, velocity to the merger remnant. If a component of the kick along the line of sight is present, gravitational waves emitted during the final orbits and merger will be gradually Doppler shifted as the kick builds up. We develop a simple prescription to capture this effect in existing waveform models, showing that future gravitational wave experiments will be able to perform direct measurements, not only of the black hole kick velocity, but also of its accumulation profile. In particular, the eLISA space mission will measure supermassive black hole kick velocities as low as ∼500 km s^{-1}, which are expected to be a common outcome of black hole binary coalescence following galaxy mergers. Black hole kicks thus constitute a promising new observable in the growing field of gravitational wave astronomy. PMID:27419556
Gravitational Waves from Magnetized Binary Neutron Star Mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giacomazzo, Bruno; Rezzolla, Luciano; Baiotti, Luca
2010-02-01
Binary neutron stars are among the most important sources of gravitational waves which are expected to be detected by the current or next generation of gravitational wave detectors, such as LIGO and Virgo, and they are also thought to be at the origin of very important astrophysical phenomena, such as short gamma-ray bursts. In order to describe the dynamics of these events one needs to solve the full set of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics equations through the use of parallel numerical codes. I will report on some recent results obtained with the use of the fully general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code Whisky in simulating binary neutron stars which inspiral and merge forming an hypermassive neutron star which eventually collapses to form a black hole surrounded by a torus. I will in particular describe how the magnetic fields can affect the dynamics and consequently the gravitational waves emitted by these systems and discuss about their detectability by current and future gravitational-wave detectors. )
Black Hole Kicks as New Gravitational Wave Observables.
Gerosa, Davide; Moore, Christopher J
2016-07-01
Generic black hole binaries radiate gravitational waves anisotropically, imparting a recoil, or kick, velocity to the merger remnant. If a component of the kick along the line of sight is present, gravitational waves emitted during the final orbits and merger will be gradually Doppler shifted as the kick builds up. We develop a simple prescription to capture this effect in existing waveform models, showing that future gravitational wave experiments will be able to perform direct measurements, not only of the black hole kick velocity, but also of its accumulation profile. In particular, the eLISA space mission will measure supermassive black hole kick velocities as low as ∼500 km s^{-1}, which are expected to be a common outcome of black hole binary coalescence following galaxy mergers. Black hole kicks thus constitute a promising new observable in the growing field of gravitational wave astronomy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antonucci, F.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M.; Aronsson, M.; Arun, K. G.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D. E.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballardin, G.; Ballinger, T.; Ballmer, S.; Barker, D.; Barnum, S.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Behnke, B.; Beker, M. G.; Belletoile, A.; Benacquista, M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bigotta, S.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birindelli, S.; Biswas, R.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Blom, M.; Boccara, C.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bondarescu, R.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Boyle, M.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Budzyński, R.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burguet–Castell, J.; Burmeister, O.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cain, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campagna, E.; Campsie, P.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K. C.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C.; Carbognani, F.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chalkley, E.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Christensen, N.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Clark, D.; Clark, J.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coulon, J.-P.; Coward, D.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Culter, R. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dahl, K.; Danilishin, S. L.; Dannenberg, R.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Das, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Davier, M.; Davies, G.; Davis, A.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; de Rosa, R.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Del Prete, M.; Dergachev, V.; Derosa, R.; Desalvo, R.; Devanka, P.; Dhurandhar, S.; di Fiore, L.; di Lieto, A.; di Palma, I.; di Paolo Emilio, M.; di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doomes, E. E.; Dorsher, S.; Douglas, E. S. D.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Dueck, J.; Dumas, J.-C.; Eberle, T.; Edgar, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Ely, G.; Engel, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Farr, B. F.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Flanigan, M.; Flasch, K.; Foley, S.; Forrest, C.; Forsi, E.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Friedrich, D.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garofoli, J. A.; Garufi, F.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, C.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Greverie, C.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hall, P.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Hayau, J.-F.; Hayler, T.; Heefner, J.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E.; Hoyland, D.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh–Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Jaranowski, P.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kanner, J.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, H.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R.; Koranda, S.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D.; Krause, T.; Kringel, V.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kullman, J.; Kumar, R.; Kwee, P.; Landry, M.; Lang, M.; Lantz, B.; Lastzka, N.; Lazzarini, A.; Leaci, P.; Leong, J.; Leonor, I.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Li, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Lin, H.; Lindquist, P. E.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lodhia, D.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lu, P.; Luan, J.; Lubiński, M.; Lucianetti, A.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Majorana, E.; Mak, C.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Maros, E.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Matzner, R. A.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIvor, G.; McKechan, D. J. A.; Meadors, G.; Mehmet, M.; Meier, T.; Melatos, A.; Melissinos, A. C.; Mendell, G.; Menéndez, D. F.; Mercer, R. A.; Merill, L.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyer, M. S.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Minenkov, Y.; Mino, Y.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Mohan, M.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moraru, D.; Moreau, J.; Moreno, G.; Morgado, N.; Morgia, A.; Mors, K.; Mosca, S.; Moscatelli, V.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mowlowry, C.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murray, P. G.; Nash, T.; Nawrodt, R.; Nelson, J.; Neri, I.; Newton, G.; Nishida, E.; Nishizawa, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Ogin, G. H.; Oldenburg, R. G.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Page, A.; Pagliaroli, G.; Palladino, L.; Palomba, C.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Paoletti, F.; Papa, M. A.; Pardi, S.; Pareja, M.; Parisi, M.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patel, P.; Pathak, D.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Penn, S.; Peralta, C.; Perreca, A.; Persichetti, G.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pietka, M.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H. J.; Plissi, M. V.; Poggiani, R.; Postiglione, F.; Prato, M.; Predoi, V.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radke, T.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rankins, B.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Re, V.; Reed, C. M.; Reed, T.; Regimbau, T.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ricci, F.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Roberts, P.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinet, F.; Robinson, C.; Robinson, E. L.; Rocchi, A.; Roddy, S.; Röver, C.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sakata, S.; Sakosky, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sancho de La Jordana, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sannibale, V.; Santamaría, L.; Santostasi, G.; Saraf, S.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Sato, S.; Satterthwaite, M.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R.; Schulz, B.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Searle, A. C.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sibley, A.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Singer, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Skelton, G.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, N. D.; Somiya, K.; Sorazu, B.; Speirits, F. C.; Sperandio, L.; Stein, A. J.; Stein, L. C.; Steinlechner, S.; Steplewski, S.; Stochino, A.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Strigin, S.; Stroeer, A.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sung, M.; Susmithan, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taylor, J. R.; Taylor, R.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Thüring, A.; Titsler, C.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C. I.; Tournefier, E.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trias, M.; Trummer, J.; Tseng, K.; Turner, L.; Ugolini, D.; Urbanek, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vaishnav, B.; Vajente, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van den Broeck, C.; van der Putten, S.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vaulin, R.; Vavoulidis, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Veltkamp, C.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Villar, A.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Waldman, S. J.; Wallace, L.; Wanner, A.; Ward, R. L.; Was, M.; Wei, P.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wen, S.; Wessels, P.; West, M.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Willke, B.; Winkelmann, L.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wiseman, A. G.; Woan, G.; Wooley, R.; Worden, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Yeaton-Massey, D.; Yoshida, S.; Yu, P. P.; Yvert, M.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.
2010-11-01
We report the results of the first search for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence using data from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and Virgo detectors. Five months of data were collected during the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory’s S5 and Virgo’s VSR1 science runs. The search focused on signals from binary mergers with a total mass between 2 and 35M⊙. No gravitational waves are identified. The cumulative 90%-confidence upper limits on the rate of compact binary coalescence are calculated for nonspinning binary neutron stars, black hole-neutron star systems, and binary black holes to be 8.7×10-3yr-1L10-1, 2.2×10-3yr-1L10-1, and 4.4×10-4yr-1L10-1, respectively, where L10 is 1010 times the blue solar luminosity. These upper limits are compared with astrophysical expectations.
Gravitational waves from global second order phase transitions
Jr, John T. Giblin; Price, Larry R.; Siemens, Xavier; Vlcek, Brian E-mail: larryp@caltech.edu E-mail: bvlcek@uwm.edu
2012-11-01
Global second-order phase transitions are expected to produce scale-invariant gravitational wave spectra. In this manuscript we explore the dynamics of a symmetry-breaking phase transition using lattice simulations. We explicitly calculate the stochastic gravitational wave background produced during the transition and subsequent self-ordering phase. We comment on this signal as it compares to the scale-invariant spectrum produced during inflation.
Anisotropies in the gravitational-wave stochastic background
Ölmez, S.; Mandic, V.; Siemens, X. E-mail: mandic@physics.umn.edu
2012-07-01
We consider anisotropies in the stochastic background of gravitational-waves (SBGW) arising from random fluctuations in the number of gravitational-wave sources. We first develop the general formalism which can be applied to different cosmological or astrophysical scenarios. We then apply this formalism to calculate the anisotropies of SBGW associated with the fluctuations in the number of cosmic string loops, considering both cosmic string cusps and kinks. We calculate the anisotropies as a function of angle and frequency.
Inflationary gravitational waves and the evolution of the early universe
Jinno, Ryusuke; Moroi, Takeo; Nakayama, Kazunori E-mail: moroi@hep-th.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp
2014-01-01
We study the effects of various phenomena which may have happened in the early universe on the spectrum of inflationary gravitational waves. The phenomena include phase transitions, entropy productions from non-relativistic matter, the production of dark radiation, and decoupling of dark matter/radiation from thermal bath. These events can create several characteristic signatures in the inflationary gravitational wave spectrum, which may be direct probes of the history of the early universe and the nature of high-energy physics.
Gravitational Wave Science: Challenges for Numerical Relativistic Astrophysics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cenrella, Joan
2005-01-01
Gravitational wave detectors on earth and in space will open up a new observational window on the universe. The new information about astrophysics and fundamental physics these observations will bring is expected to pose exciting challenges. This talk will provide an overview of this emerging area of gravitational wave science, with a focus on the challenges it will bring for numerical relativistic astrophysics and a look at some recent results.
Effect of extra dimensions on gravitational waves from cosmic strings.
O'Callaghan, Eimear; Chadburn, Sarah; Geshnizjani, Ghazal; Gregory, Ruth; Zavala, Ivonne
2010-08-20
We show how the motion of cosmic superstrings in extra dimensions can modify the gravitational wave signal from cusps. Additional dimensions both round off cusps, as well as reducing the probability of their formation, and thus give a significant dimension dependent damping of the gravitational waves. We look at the implication of this effect for LIGO and LISA, as well as commenting on more general frequency bands. PMID:20868089
Non-contact measurements of ultrasonic waves on paper webs using a photorefractive interferometer
Brodeur, Pierre H.; Lafond, Emmanuel F.
2000-01-01
An apparatus and method for non-contact measurement of ultrasonic waves on moving paper webs employs a photorefractive interferometer. The photorefractive interferometer employs an optical head in which the incident beam and reflected beam are coaxial, thus enabling detection of both in-plane and out-of-plane waves with a single apparatus. The incident beam and reference beams are focused into a line enabling greater power to be used without damaging the paper.
Electromagnetic follow-up of gravitational wave candidates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nuttall, L. K.
Observations of astrophysical systems in different wavelengths can reveal insights in to systems which are not available from a single wavelength. The same can be expected from multi-channel observations of systems which also produce gravitational waves (GWs). The most likely source of strong, detectable GWs, which will also produce an electromagnetic (EM) signature, is the merger of compact objects containing neutron stars (NS) and black holes (BH), namely NS-NS and NS-BH systems. The focus of this thesis is to summarise current and past efforts to detect an EM counterpart of a GW event, with emphasis on compact merger sources. To begin, the formulation of GWs in general relativity is brie y discussed, as well as the main classes of GW sources. The global networks of GW interferometers in the recent past and near future are described, together with brief explanations of operational principles and the main challenges GW detectors face to make a confident detection. Current literature is reviewed to give a brief summary of the most promising sources which produce both GW and EM signals. Emphasis is given to gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), their afterglows, and kilonovae. In addition a brief description of GW searches triggered by an external source (such as a GRB) is given. A new form of search is then discussed in which GW events are used to point conventional EM telescopes, with emphasis on rapidly slewing, wide field of view optical telescopes. The main challenge in this form of search is that timing information from a network of GW interferometers yields large error regions for the source sky direction making it diffcult to locate an EM transient. Therefore a new statistic is presented in which galaxies (taken from a galaxy catalogue) within this search region are ranked. The probability of identifying the host galaxy of a GW signal from NS-NS and NS-BH systems is investigated and results presented for past and future GW detector configurations. The ROTSE-III telescope
Kopeikin, Sergei M.; Makarov, Valeri V.
2007-03-15
General-relativistic deflection of light by mass, dipole, and quadrupole moments of the gravitational field of a moving massive planet in the solar system is derived in the approximation of the linearized Einstein equations. All terms of order 1 {mu}as are taken into account, parametrized, and classified in accordance with their physical origin. The monopolar light-ray deflection, modulated by the radial Doppler effect, is associated with the total mass and radial velocity of the gravitating body. It displaces the apparent positions of stars in the sky plane radially away from the origin of the celestial coordinates associated with the planet. The dipolar deflection of light is due to a translational mismatch of the center of mass of the planet and the origin of the planetary coordinates caused by the inaccuracy of planetary ephemeris. It can also originate from the difference between the null cone for light and that for gravity that is not allowed in general relativity but can exist in some of the alternative theories of gravity. The dipolar gravity field pulls the apparent position of a star in the plane of the sky in both radial and orthoradial directions with respect to the origin of the coordinates. The quadrupolar deflection of light is caused by the physical oblateness, J{sub 2}, of the planet, but in any practical experiment it will have an admixture of the translation-dependent quadrupole due to inaccuracy of planetary ephemeris. This leads to a bias in the estimated value of J{sub 2} that should be minimized by applying an iterative data reduction method designed to disentangle the different multipole moments and to fit out the translation-dependent dipolar and quadrupolar components of light deflection. The method of microarcsecond interferometric astrometry has the potential of greatly improving the planetary ephemerides, getting unbiased measurements of planetary quadrupoles, and of thoroughly testing the null-cone structure of the gravitational field
Propagation effect of gravitational wave on detector response
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Zhe; Huang, Chao-Guang; Zhao, Zhi-Chao
2016-10-01
The response of a detector to gravitational wave is a function of frequency. When the time a photon moving around in the Fabry-Perot cavities is the same order of the period of a gravitational wave, the phase-difference due to the gravitational wave should be an integral along the path. We present a formula description for detector response to gravitational wave with varied frequencies. The LIGO data for GW150914 and GW 151226 are reexamined in this framework. For GW150924, the traveling time of a photon in the LIGO detector is just a bit larger than a half period of the highest frequency of gravitational wave and the similar result is obtained with LIGO and Virgo collaborations. However, we are not always so luck. In the case of GW151226, the time of a photon traveling in the detector is larger than the period of the highest frequency of gravitational wave and the announced signal cannot match well the template with the initial black hole masses 14.2M$_\\odot$ and 7.5M$_\\odot$.
Response of a Doppler canceling system to plane gravitational waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Caporali, A.
1982-01-01
This paper discusses the interaction of long periodic gravitational waves with a three-link microwave system known as the Doppler canceling system. This system, which was developed for a gravitational red-shift experiment, uses one-way and two-way Doppler information to construct the beat signal of two reference oscillators moving with respect to each other. The geometric-optics approximation is used to derive the frequency shift produced on a light signal propagating in a gravitational-wave space-time. The signature left on the Doppler-cancelled beat by bursts and continuous gravitational waves is analyzed. A comparison is made between the response to gravitational waves of the Doppler canceling system and that of a (NASA) Doppler tracking system which employs two-way, round-trip radio waves. A threefold repetition of the gravitational wave form is found to be a common feature of the response functions of both systems. These two functions otherwise exhibit interesting differences.
Gravitational waves from deflagration bubbles in first-order phase transitions
Megevand, Ariel
2008-10-15
The walls of bubbles in a first-order phase transition can propagate either as detonations, with a velocity larger than the speed of sound, or deflagrations, which are subsonic. We calculate the gravitational radiation that is produced by turbulence during a phase transition which develops via deflagration bubbles. We take into account the fact that a deflagration wall is preceded by a shock front which distributes the latent heat throughout space and influences other bubbles. We show that turbulence can induce peak values of {omega}{sub GW} as high as {approx}10{sup -9}. We discuss the possibility of detecting at LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antennae) gravitational waves produced in the electroweak phase transition with wall velocities v{sub w} < or approx. 10{sup -1}, which favor electroweak baryogenesis.
Maxwellian theory of gravitational waves and their mechanical properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnett, Stephen M.
2014-02-01
We present a theory in Maxwellian form for gravitational waves in a flat background. This requires us to identify the gravitational analogues of the electric and magnetic fields for light. An important novelty, however, is that our analogues are not vector fields but rather rank-two tensor fields; in place of a three-component vector at each point in space, as in electromagnetism, our fields are three by three symmetric matrices at each point. The resulting Maxwell-like equations lead directly to a Poynting theorem for the local energy density associated with a gravitational wave and to associated local properties including densities of momentum and angular momentum.
Lepton asymmetry in the primordial gravitational wave spectrum
Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Yokoyama, Jun'Ichi
2007-04-15
Effects of neutrino free streaming are evaluated on the primordial spectrum of gravitational radiation taking both neutrino chemical potential and masses into account. The former or the lepton asymmetry induces two competitive effects, namely, to increase anisotropic stress, which damps the gravitational wave more, and to delay the matter-radiation equality time, which reduces the damping. The latter effect is more prominent and a large lepton asymmetry would reduce the damping. We may thereby be able to measure the magnitude of lepton asymmetry from the primordial gravitational wave spectrum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viceré, Andrea; Yvert, Michel
2016-08-01
Rotating, non-axisymmetric neutron stars are expected to emit continuous gravitational waves at a nearly stable frequency. Nowadays about 2500 pulsars have been detected, thanks to their beamed electromagnetic emission, and many more of these objects should exist, whose electromagnetic beam does not include Earth and cannot be detected. The gravitational emission is not beamed, and could be accessible to gravitational observatories, even though no detection as been claimed yet. About half of the pulsars predicted to possibly emit gravitational waves in the frequency range accessible to ground-based interferometers belongs to binary systems; this is an additional complication, because the frequencies of these pulsars are Doppler-shifted due to their orbital motion, and an optimal detection strategy would require a computing power far beyond the present capabilities. We present here an approach which allows searching all-sky for such sources, over a broad range of frequencies, orbital periods and binary system eccentricities, reaching sensitivities potentially good enough to provide candidates for more sophisticated hierarchical detection methods. We test this new technique using real data taken during the first science run of Virgo, and estimating the sensitivity to a set of simulated pulsar signals.
Reconstructing the massive black hole cosmic history through gravitational waves
Sesana, Alberto; Gair, Jonathan; Berti, Emanuele; Volonteri, Marta
2011-02-15
The massive black holes we observe in galaxies today are the natural end-product of a complex evolutionary path, in which black holes seeded in proto-galaxies at high redshift grow through cosmic history via a sequence of mergers and accretion episodes. Electromagnetic observations probe a small subset of the population of massive black holes (namely, those that are active or those that are very close to us), but planned space-based gravitational wave observatories such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) can measure the parameters of 'electromagnetically invisible' massive black holes out to high redshift. In this paper we introduce a Bayesian framework to analyze the information that can be gathered from a set of such measurements. Our goal is to connect a set of massive black hole binary merger observations to the underlying model of massive black hole formation. In other words, given a set of observed massive black hole coalescences, we assess what information can be extracted about the underlying massive black hole population model. For concreteness we consider ten specific models of massive black hole formation, chosen to probe four important (and largely unconstrained) aspects of the input physics used in structure formation simulations: seed formation, metallicity ''feedback'', accretion efficiency and accretion geometry. For the first time we allow for the possibility of 'model mixing', by drawing the observed population from some combination of the 'pure' models that have been simulated. A Bayesian analysis allows us to recover a posterior probability distribution for the ''mixing parameters'' that characterize the fractions of each model represented in the observed distribution. Our work shows that LISA has enormous potential to probe the underlying physics of structure formation.
Stochastic gravitational wave background from light cosmic strings
DePies, Matthew R.; Hogan, Craig J.
2007-06-15
Spectra of the stochastic gravitational wave backgrounds from cosmic strings are calculated and compared with present and future experimental limits. Motivated by theoretical expectations of light cosmic strings in superstring cosmology, improvements in experimental sensitivity, and recent demonstrations of large, stable loop formation from a primordial network, this study explores a new range of string parameters with masses lighter than previously investigated. A standard 'one-scale' model for string loop formation is assumed. Background spectra are calculated numerically for dimensionless string tensions G{mu}/c{sup 2} between 10{sup -7} and 10{sup -18}, and initial loop sizes as a fraction of the Hubble radius {alpha} from 0.1 to 10{sup -6}. The spectra show a low frequency power-law tail, a broad spectral peak due to loops decaying at the present epoch (including frequencies higher than their fundamental mode, and radiation associated with cusps), and a flat (constant energy density) spectrum at high frequencies due to radiation from loops that decayed during the radiation-dominated era. The string spectrum is distinctive and unlike any other known source. The peak of the spectrum for light strings appears at high frequencies, significantly affecting predicted signals. The spectra of the cosmic string backgrounds are compared with current millisecond pulsar limits and Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) sensitivity curves. For models with large stable loops ({alpha}=0.1), current pulsar-timing limits exclude G{mu}/c{sup 2}>10{sup -9}, a much tighter limit on string tension than achievable with other techniques, and within the range of current models based on brane inflation. LISA may detect a background from strings as light as G{mu}/c{sup 2}{approx_equal}10{sup -16}, corresponding to field theory strings formed at roughly 10{sup 11} GeV.
Probing Strong-field General Relativity with Gravitational Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pretorius, Frans
We are on the verge of a new era in astrophysics as a world-wide effort to observe the universe with gravitational waves takes hold---ground based laser interferometers (Hz to kHz), pulsar timing (micro to nano Hz), measurements of polarization of the cosmic microwave background (sub-nano Hz), and the planned NASA/ESA mission LISA (.1 mHz to .1 Hz). This project will study the theoretical nature of gravitational waves (GWs) emitted by two sources in the LISA band, namely supermassive-black-hole (SMBH) binary mergers, and extreme-mass-ratio-inspirals (EMRI's)---the merger of a stellar mass black hole, neutron star, or white dwarf with a SMBH. The primary goal will be to ascertain how well LISA, by observing these sources, could answer the following related questions about the fundamental nature of strong-field gravity: Does Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) describe the geometry of black holes in the universe? What constraints can GW observations of SMBH mergers and EMRIs place on alternative theories of gravity? If there are deviations from GR, are there statistics that could give indications of a deviation if sources are detected using a search strategy based solely on GR waveforms? The primary reasons for focusing on LISA sources to answer these questions are (a) binary SMBH mergers could be detected by LISA with exquisitely high signal-to- noise, allowing enough parameters of the system to be accurately extracted to perform consistency checks of the underlying theory, (b) EMRIs will spend numerous orbits close to the central black hole, and thus will be quite sensitive to even small near-horizon deviations from GR. One approach to develop the requisite knowledge and tools to answer these questions is to study a concrete, theoretically viable alternative to GR. We will focus on the dynamical variant of Chern-Simons modified gravity (CSMG), which is interesting for several reasons, chief among which are (1) that CSMG generically arises in both string
CMB statistical anisotropy from noncommutative gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiraishi, Maresuke; Mota, David F.; Ricciardone, Angelo; Arroja, Frederico
2014-07-01
Primordial statistical anisotropy is a key indicator to investigate early Universe models and has been probed by the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. In this paper, we examine tensor-mode CMB fluctuations generated from anisotropic gravitational waves, parametrised by Ph(k) = Ph(0)(k) [ 1 + ∑LM fL(k) gLM YLM (hat k)], where Ph(0)(k) is the usual scale-invariant power spectrum. Such anisotropic tensor fluctuations may arise from an inflationary model with noncommutativity of fields. It is verified that in this model, an isotropic component and a quadrupole asymmetry with f0(k) = f2(k) propto k-2 are created and hence highly red-tilted off-diagonal components arise in the CMB power spectra, namely l2 = l1 ± 2 in TT, TE, EE and BB, and l2 = l1 ± 1 in TB and EB. We find that B-mode polarisation is more sensitive to such signals than temperature and E-mode polarisation due to the smallness of large-scale cosmic variance and we can potentially measure g00 = 30 and g2M = 58 at 68% CL in a cosmic-variance-limited experiment. Such a level of signal may be measured in a PRISM like experiment, while the instrumental noise contaminates it in the Planck experiment. These results imply that it is impossible to measure the noncommutative parameter if it is small enough for the perturbative treatment to be valid. Our formalism and methodology for dealing with the CMB tensor statistical anisotropy are general and straightforwardly applicable to other early Universe models.
Gravitational waves from Q-ball formation
Chiba, Takeshi; Kamada, Kohei; Yamaguchi, Masahide
2010-04-15
We study the detectability of the gravitational waves (GWs) from the Q-ball formation associated with the Affleck-Dine (AD) mechanism, taking into account both the dilution effects due to Q-ball domination and to finite temperature. The AD mechanism predicts the formation of nontopological solitons, Q-balls, from which GWs are generated. Q-balls with large conserved charge Q can produce a large amount of GWs. On the other hand, the decay rate of such Q-balls is so small that they may dominate the energy density of the Universe, which implies that GWs are significantly diluted and that their frequencies are redshifted during the Q-ball dominated era. Thus, the detectability of the GWs associated with the formation of Q-balls is determined by these two competing effects. We find that there is a finite but small parameter region where such GWs may be detected by future detectors such as DECIGO or BBO, only in the case when the thermal logarithmic potential dominates the potential of the AD field. Otherwise GWs from Q-balls would not be detectable even by these futuristic detectors: {Omega}{sub GW}{sup 0}<10{sup -21}. Unfortunately, for such parameter region the present baryon asymmetry of the Universe can hardly be explained unless one fine-tunes A-terms in the potential. However the detection of such a GW background may give us an information about the early Universe, for example, it may suggest that the flat directions with B-L=0 are favored.
Phase control of squeezed vacuum states of light in gravitational wave detectors.
Dooley, K L; Schreiber, E; Vahlbruch, H; Affeldt, C; Leong, J R; Wittel, H; Grote, H
2015-04-01
Quantum noise will be the dominant noise source for the advanced laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors currently under construction. Squeezing-enhanced laser interferometers have been recently demonstrated as a viable technique to reduce quantum noise. We propose two new methods of generating an error signal for matching the longitudinal phase of squeezed vacuum states of light to the phase of the laser interferometer output field. Both provide a superior signal to the one used in previous demonstrations of squeezing applied to a gravitational-wave detector. We demonstrate that the new signals are less sensitive to misalignments and higher order modes, and result in an improved stability of the squeezing level. The new signals also offer the potential of reducing the overall rms phase noise and optical losses, each of which would contribute to achieving a higher level of squeezing. The new error signals are a pivotal development towards realizing the goal of 6 dB and more of squeezing in advanced detectors and beyond. PMID:25968662
Pulsar timing arrays: the promise of gravitational wave detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lommen, Andrea N.
2015-12-01
We describe the history, methods, tools, and challenges of using pulsars to detect gravitational waves. Pulsars act as celestial clocks detecting gravitational perturbations in space-time at wavelengths of light-years. The field is poised to make its first detection of nanohertz gravitational waves in the next 10 years. Controversies remain over how far we can reduce the noise in the pulsars, how many pulsars should be in the array, what kind of source we will detect first, and how we can best accommodate our large bandwidth systems. We conclude by considering the important question of how to plan for a post-detection era, beyond the first detection of gravitational waves.
Pulsar timing arrays: the promise of gravitational wave detection.
Lommen, Andrea N
2015-12-01
We describe the history, methods, tools, and challenges of using pulsars to detect gravitational waves. Pulsars act as celestial clocks detecting gravitational perturbations in space-time at wavelengths of light-years. The field is poised to make its first detection of nanohertz gravitational waves in the next 10 years. Controversies remain over how far we can reduce the noise in the pulsars, how many pulsars should be in the array, what kind of source we will detect first, and how we can best accommodate our large bandwidth systems. We conclude by considering the important question of how to plan for a post-detection era, beyond the first detection of gravitational waves.
Pulsar timing arrays: the promise of gravitational wave detection.
Lommen, Andrea N
2015-12-01
We describe the history, methods, tools, and challenges of using pulsars to detect gravitational waves. Pulsars act as celestial clocks detecting gravitational perturbations in space-time at wavelengths of light-years. The field is poised to make its first detection of nanohertz gravitational waves in the next 10 years. Controversies remain over how far we can reduce the noise in the pulsars, how many pulsars should be in the array, what kind of source we will detect first, and how we can best accommodate our large bandwidth systems. We conclude by considering the important question of how to plan for a post-detection era, beyond the first detection of gravitational waves. PMID:26564968
Newtorites in bar detectors of gravitational wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ronga, F.;
2016-05-01
The detection of particles with only gravitational interactions (Newtorites) in gravitational bar detectors was studied in 1984 by Bernard, De Rujula and Lautrup. The negative results of dark matter searches suggest to look to exotic possibilities like Newtorites. The limits obtained with the Nautilus bar detector will be presented and the possible improvements will be discussed. Since the gravitational coupling is very weak, the possible limits are very far from what is needed for dark matter, but for large masses are the best limits obtained on the Earth. An update of limits for MACRO particles will be given.
Synthetic streams in a gravitational wave inspiral search with a multidetector network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haris, K.; Pai, Archana
2014-07-01
A gravitational wave inspiral search with a global network of interferometers when carried in a phase coherent fashion mimics a search with two effective synthetic data streams. The streams are constructed by the linear combination of the overwhitened data from individual detectors. We demonstrate here that the two synthetic data streams pertaining to the two polarizations of the gravitational wave can be derived prior to the maximum-likelihood analysis in a most natural way using the technique of singular-value decomposition applied to the network signal-to-noise ratio vector. The singular-value technique combined with the matched filtering in network plus spectral space enables the construction of the synthetic streams. We further show that the network log likelihood ratio is then the sum of the log-likelihood ratios of these synthetic streams. In this formalism, the four extrinsic parameters of the nonspinning inspiral signal, namely, amplitude, initial phase, binary inclination, and the polarization {A0,ϕa,ɛ ,Ψ}, are mapped to the two amplitudes and two phases, namely, {ρL,ρR,ΦL,ΦR}. We show that the maximization over the new extrinsic parameters is a straightforward exercise closely linked to the single detector approach in the literature. Toward the end, we connect all the previous works related to the multidetector gravitational wave inspiral search and present in the same notation.
WHEN CAN GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE OBSERVATIONS DISTINGUISH BETWEEN BLACK HOLES AND NEUTRON STARS?
Hannam, Mark; Fairhurst, Stephen; Brown, Duncan A.; Fryer, Chris L.; Harry, Ian W.
2013-03-20
Gravitational-wave observations of compact binaries have the potential to uncover the distribution of masses and spins of black holes and neutron stars in the universe. The binary components' physical parameters can be inferred from their effect on the phasing of the gravitational-wave signal, but a partial degeneracy between the components' mass ratio and their spins limits our ability to measure the individual component masses. At the typical signal amplitudes expected by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (signal-to-noise ratios between 10 and 20), we show that it will in many cases be difficult to distinguish whether the components are neutron stars or black holes. We identify when the masses of the binary components could be unambiguously measured outside the range of current observations: a system with a chirp mass M {<=} 0.871 M{sub Sun} would unambiguously contain the smallest-mass neutron star observed, and a system with M {>=} 2.786 M{sub Sun} must contain a black hole. However, additional information would be needed to distinguish between a binary containing two 1.35 M{sub Sun} neutron stars and an exotic neutron-star-black-hole binary. We also identify those configurations that could be unambiguously identified as black hole binaries, and show how the observation of an electromagnetic counterpart to a neutron-star-black-hole binary could be used to constrain the black hole spin.
Gravitational waves from phase transitions at the electroweak scale and beyond
Grojean, Christophe; Servant, Geraldine
2007-02-15
If there was a first-order phase transition in the early universe, there should be an associated stochastic background of gravitational waves. In this paper, we point out that the characteristic frequency of the spectrum due to phase transitions which took place in the temperature range 100 GeV-10{sup 7} GeV is precisely in the window that will be probed by the second generation of space-based interferometers such as the big bang observer (BBO). Taking into account the astrophysical foreground, we determine the type of phase transitions which could be detected either at LISA, LIGO or BBO, in terms of the amount of supercooling and the duration of the phase transition that are needed. Those two quantities can be calculated for any given effective scalar potential describing the phase transition. In particular, the new models of electroweak symmetry-breaking which have been proposed in the last few years typically have a different Higgs potential from the standard model. They could lead to a gravitational wave signature in the milli-Hertz frequency, which is precisely the peak sensitivity of LISA. We also show that the signal coming from phase transitions taking place at T{approx}1-100 TeV could entirely screen the relic gravitational wave signal expected from standard inflationary models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babak, S.; Balasubramanian, R.; Churches, D.; Cokelaer, T.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.
2006-09-01
Gravitational waves from coalescing compact binaries are searched for using the matched filtering technique. As the model waveform depends on a number of parameters, it is necessary to filter the data through a template bank covering the astrophysically interesting region of the parameter space. The choice of templates is defined by the maximum allowed drop in signal-to-noise ratio due to the discreteness of the template bank. In this paper we describe the template-bank algorithm that was used in the analysis of data from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) and GEO 600 detectors to search for signals from binaries consisting of non-spinning compact objects. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the efficiency of the bank and show that its performance is satisfactory for the design sensitivity curves of ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors GEO 600, initial LIGO, advanced LIGO and Virgo. The bank is efficient in searching for various compact binaries such as binary primordial black holes, binary neutron stars, binary black holes, as well as a mixed binary consisting of a non-spinning black hole and a neutron star.
Essick, Reed; Vitale, Salvatore; Katsavounidis, Erik; Vedovato, Gabriele; Klimenko, Sergey
2015-02-20
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo advanced ground-based gravitational-wave detectors will begin collecting science data in 2015. With first detections expected to follow, it is important to quantify how well generic gravitational-wave transients can be localized on the sky. This is crucial for correctly identifying electromagnetic counterparts as well as understanding gravitational-wave physics and source populations. We present a study of sky localization capabilities for two search and parameter estimation algorithms: coherent WaveBurst, a constrained likelihood algorithm operating in close to real-time, and LALInferenceBurst, a Markov chain Monte Carlo parameter estimation algorithm developed to recover generic transient signals with latency of a few hours. Furthermore, we focus on the first few years of the advanced detector era, when we expect to only have two (2015) and later three (2016) operational detectors, all below design sensitivity. These detector configurations can produce significantly different sky localizations, which we quantify in detail. We observe a clear improvement in localization of the average detected signal when progressing from two-detector to three-detector networks, as expected. Although localization depends on the waveform morphology, approximately 50% of detected signals would be imaged after observing 100-200 deg{sup 2} in 2015 and 60-110 deg{sup 2} in 2016, although knowledge of the waveform can reduce this to as little as 22 deg{sup 2}. This is the first comprehensive study on sky localization capabilities for generic transients of the early network of advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors, including the early LIGO-only two-detector configuration.
X, Gamma-Rays, and Gravitational Waves Emission in a Short Gamma-Ray Burst
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliveira, F. G.; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, R.
The recent progress in the understanding the physical nature of neutron stars (NSs) and the first observational evidence of a genuinely short gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 090227B, allow to give an estimate of the gravitational waves versus the X and gamma-rays emission in a short GRB. NS binaries represent good candidates for the detection of gravitational waves emitted during the spiraling-in and final merging phase of the system that leads to the short GRB emission. The data analysis of the GRB 090227B by Muccino et al. (2013) have been shown to be consistent with a NS binary progenitor with masses M1 = M2 = 1.34 M_{⊙}, radii R1 = R2 = 12.2 km, and a crust thickness Δ r ≈ 0. 47 km, obtained from the new mass-radius relation by Belvedere et al. (2012) of NSs fulfilling global charge neutrality. Muccino et al. (2013) estimated that GRB 090227B is located at redshift z ≈ 1. 6, corresponding to a luminosity distance d L ≈ 12. 2 Gpc. We assess the detectability of this source by the Advanced LIGO interferometer computing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) averaged over all polarizations and possible positions of the source with respect to the interferometer. We simulate the dynamics of the binary up to the contact point using the effective one-body formalism (EOB) in the fourth post-Newtonian approximation. We find that the gravitational waves signal would have been produced an SNR = 0.32 for a redshift z = 1. 61. We find that, instead, this GRB would have been detected with an SNR = 8 if it would have been located at a redshift z ≈ 0. 05, or d L ≈ 200 Mpc.
Squeezed states in the theory of primordial gravitational waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grishchuk, Leonid P.
1992-01-01
It is shown that squeezed states of primordial gravitational waves are inevitably produced in the course of cosmological evolution. The theory of squeezed gravitons is very similar to the theory of squeezed light. Squeezed parameters and statistical properties of the expected relic gravity-wave radiation are described.
Clustering correlations and limits on cosmological gravitational waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Linder, Eric V.
1988-01-01
A cosmological background of gravitational waves induces angular deviations in the propagation of light traversing it. All observed astrophysical sources might therefore have varying apparent positions, with the time dependence set by the wave period. Wavelengths greater than a kiloparsec are examined, so the positions are frozen but in general correlated. Comparison with observed galaxy-galaxy n-point correlation functions provide a spectrum-independent limit on the energy density of gravitational waves with wavelengths between a few tens of kiloparsecs and a few hundred megaparsecs of Omega(GW) less than 0.001.
Accumulative coupling between magnetized tenuous plasma and gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Fan
2016-07-01
We explicitly compute the plasma wave (PW) induced by a plane gravitational wave (GW) traveling through a region of strongly magnetized plasma, governed by force-free electrodynamics. The PW comoves with the GW and absorbs its energy to grow over time, creating an essentially force-free counterpart to the inverse-Gertsenshtein effect. The time-averaged Poynting flux of the induced PW is comparable to the vacuum case, but the associated current may offer a more sensitive alternative to photodetection when designing experiments for detecting/constraining high-frequency gravitational waves. Aside from the exact solutions, we also offer an analysis of the general properties of the GW to PW conversion process, which should find use when evaluating electromagnetic counterparts to astrophysical gravitational waves that are generated directly by the latter as a second-order phenomenon.
CMB statistical anisotropy from noncommutative gravitational waves
Shiraishi, Maresuke; Ricciardone, Angelo; Mota, David F.; Arroja, Frederico E-mail: d.f.mota@astro.uio.no E-mail: arroja@pd.infn.it
2014-07-01
Primordial statistical anisotropy is a key indicator to investigate early Universe models and has been probed by the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. In this paper, we examine tensor-mode CMB fluctuations generated from anisotropic gravitational waves, parametrised by P{sub h}(k) = P{sub h}{sup (0)}(k) [ 1 + ∑{sub LM} f{sub L}(k) g{sub LM} Y{sub LM} ( k-circumflex )], where P{sub h}{sup (0)}(k) is the usual scale-invariant power spectrum. Such anisotropic tensor fluctuations may arise from an inflationary model with noncommutativity of fields. It is verified that in this model, an isotropic component and a quadrupole asymmetry with f{sub 0}(k) = f{sub 2}(k) ∝ k{sup -2} are created and hence highly red-tilted off-diagonal components arise in the CMB power spectra, namely ℓ{sub 2} = ℓ{sub 1} ± 2 in TT, TE, EE and BB, and ℓ{sub 2} = ℓ{sub 1} ± 1 in TB and EB. We find that B-mode polarisation is more sensitive to such signals than temperature and E-mode polarisation due to the smallness of large-scale cosmic variance and we can potentially measure g{sub 00} = 30 and g{sub 2M} = 58 at 68% CL in a cosmic-variance-limited experiment. Such a level of signal may be measured in a PRISM like experiment, while the instrumental noise contaminates it in the Planck experiment. These results imply that it is impossible to measure the noncommutative parameter if it is small enough for the perturbative treatment to be valid. Our formalism and methodology for dealing with the CMB tensor statistical anisotropy are general and straightforwardly applicable to other early Universe models.
Simon, Joseph; Polin, Abigail; Lommen, Andrea; Christy, B; Stappers, Ben; Finn, Lee Samuel; Jenet, F. A.
2014-03-20
The steadily improving sensitivity of pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) suggests that gravitational waves (GWs) from supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) systems in the nearby universe will be detectable sometime during the next decade. Currently, PTAs assume an equal probability of detection from every sky position, but as evidence grows for a non-isotropic distribution of sources, is there a most likely sky position for a detectable single source of GWs? In this paper, a collection of Galactic catalogs is used to calculate various metrics related to the detectability of a single GW source resolvable above a GW background, assuming that every galaxy has the same probability of containing an SMBHB. Our analyses of these data reveal small probabilities that one of these sources is currently in the PTA band, but as sensitivity is improved regions of consistent probability density are found in predictable locations, specifically around local galaxy clusters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bender, Peter L.
2015-08-01
1. In 2013 a suggestion was made by Graham et al. [1] [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 171102 (2013)] of possible GW observations over 10^3 km baselines using strongly forbidden single photon transitions in atoms such as Sr-87. A comparison of the requirements for such a mission with those for laser interferometer missions such as LISA or eLISA with roughly 10^6 km baselines was published in 2014 [Bender, Phys. Rev. D 89, 062004 (2014)]. The comparison will be somewhat updated in this talk.2. Recently, a possible method for gravitational wave observations with atom interferometry over million km scale baselines has been suggested by Hogan and Kasevich [arXiv:1501.06797v1 (2015)]. As an example, they consider observations similar to those discussed in [1], but over a 2*10^6 km baseline. The atomic transitions in the two spacecraft would be driven by separate lasers that are phase locked using 1 W laser power and 30 cm diam. telescopes. Total observation times for individual clouds of 80 to 320 s are assumed, along with 50 concurrent interferometers and a 60 Hz Rabi frequency for the laser pulses.3. After the flight of the LISA Pathfinder mission later this year, it is expected that more intensive work will start on a laser interferometer gravitational wave mission. Probably the most important objective will be the observation of GW signals from the mergers at high redshifts of massive black holes with masses in the range from perhaps 10^4 to 10^7 M_sun. Such signals would give new constraints on the mechanisms for the formation of intermediate mass and larger black holes at early times, and probably contribute to understanding the observed close correlation between the growth of galaxies and of the massive black holes at their centers.
Effects of finite-time singularities on gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleidis, K.; Oikonomou, V. K.
2016-10-01
We analyze the impact of finite-time singularities on gravitational waves, in the context of F(R) gravity. We investigate which singularities are allowed to occur during the inflationary era, when gravitational waves are considered, and we discuss the quantitative implications of each allowed singularity. As we show, only a pressure singularity, the so-called Type II and also a Type IV singularity are allowed to occur during the inflationary era. In the case of a Type II, the resulting amplitude of the gravitational wave is zero or almost zero, hence this pressure singularity has a significant impact on the primordial gravitational waves. The case of a Type IV singularity is more interesting since as we show, the singularity has no effect on the amplitude of the gravitational waves. Therefore, this result combined with the fact that the Type IV singularity affects only the dynamics of inflation, leads to the conclusion that the Universe passes smoothly through a Type IV singularity.
Gravitational waves in viable f(R) models
Yang, Louis; Lee, Chung-Chi; Geng, Chao-Qiang E-mail: geng@phys.nthu.edu.tw
2011-08-01
We study gravitational waves in viable f(R) theories under a non-zero background curvature. In general, an f(R) theory contains an extra scalar degree of freedom corresponding to a massive scalar mode of gravitational wave. For viable f(R) models, since there always exits a de-Sitter point where the background curvature in vacuum is non-zero, the mass squared of the scalar mode of gravitational wave is about the de-Sitter point curvature R{sub d} ∼ 10{sup −66}eV{sup 2}. We illustrate our results in two types of viable f(R) models: the exponential gravity and Starobinsky models. In both cases, the mass will be in the order of 10{sup −33}eV when it propagates in vacuum. However, in the presence of matter density in galaxy, the scalar mode can be heavy. Explicitly, in the exponential gravity model, the mass becomes almost infinity, implying the disappearance of the scalar mode of gravitational wave, while the Starobinsky model gives the lowest mass around 10{sup −24}eV, corresponding to the lowest frequency of 10{sup −9} Hz, which may be detected by the current and future gravitational wave probes, such as LISA and ASTROD-GW.
Liquid-Crystal Point-Diffraction Interferometer for Wave-Front Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mercer, Carolyn R.; Creath, Katherine
1996-01-01
A new instrument, the liquid-crystal point-diffraction interferometer (LCPDI), is developed for the measurement of phase objects. This instrument maintains the compact, robust design of Linnik's point-diffraction interferometer and adds to it a phase-stepping capability for quantitative interferogram analysis. The result is a compact, simple to align, environmentally insensitive interferometer capable of accurately measuring optical wave fronts with very high data density and with automated data reduction. We describe the theory and design of the LCPDI. A focus shift was measured with the LCPDI, and the results are compared with theoretical results,
The generation of gravitational waves. III - Derivation of bremsstrahlung formulae
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kovacs, S. J.; Thorne, K. S.
1977-01-01
Formulas are derived describing the gravitational waves produced by a stellar encounter of the following type. The two stars have stationary (i.e., nonpulsating) nearly Newtonian structures with arbitrary relative masses; they fly past each other with an arbitrary relative velocity; and their impact parameter is sufficiently large that they gravitationally deflect each other through an angle that is small as compared with 90 deg.
Modulation instability of wave packets in a Gires-Tournois interferometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zolotovskii, I. O.; Lapin, V. A.; Sementsov, D. I.
2016-07-01
We study the specific features of the perturbation dynamics of a wave packet in a Gires-Tournois interferometer. We obtain a dispersion relationship that relates the perturbation parameters to the parameters of the structure and pump wave, the analytical expressions for the gain increment of a harmonic perturbation and other important characteristics that determine the dynamics of the modulation instability of the reflected wave. Based on numerical simulation, we plot the dependences of the dispersion and nonlinearity parameters and the gain increment on the spacing between the interferometer mirrors, the angle of incidence of the radiation onto the mirrors, and the radiation intensity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biswas, Rahul; Blackburn, Lindy; Cao, Junwei; Essick, Reed; Hodge, Kari Alison; Katsavounidis, Erotokritos; Kim, Kyungmin; Kim, Young-Min; Le Bigot, Eric-Olivier; Lee, Chang-Hwan; Oh, John J.; Oh, Sang Hoon; Son, Edwin J.; Tao, Ye; Vaulin, Ruslan; Wang, Xiaoge
2013-09-01
The sensitivity of searches for astrophysical transients in data from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) is generally limited by the presence of transient, non-Gaussian noise artifacts, which occur at a high enough rate such that accidental coincidence across multiple detectors is non-negligible. These “glitches” can easily be mistaken for transient gravitational-wave signals, and their robust identification and removal will help any search for astrophysical gravitational waves. We apply machine-learning algorithms (MLAs) to the problem, using data from auxiliary channels within the LIGO detectors that monitor degrees of freedom unaffected by astrophysical signals. Noise sources may produce artifacts in these auxiliary channels as well as the gravitational-wave channel. The number of auxiliary-channel parameters describing these disturbances may also be extremely large; high dimensionality is an area where MLAs are particularly well suited. We demonstrate the feasibility and applicability of three different MLAs: artificial neural networks, support vector machines, and random forests. These classifiers identify and remove a substantial fraction of the glitches present in two different data sets: four weeks of LIGO’s fourth science run and one week of LIGO’s sixth science run. We observe that all three algorithms agree on which events are glitches to within 10% for the sixth-science-run data, and support this by showing that the different optimization criteria used by each classifier generate the same decision surface, based on a likelihood-ratio statistic. Furthermore, we find that all classifiers obtain similar performance to the benchmark algorithm, the ordered veto list, which is optimized to detect pairwise correlations between transients in LIGO auxiliary channels and glitches in the gravitational-wave data. This suggests that most of the useful information currently extracted from the auxiliary channels is already described
Observational upper limits on the gravitational wave production of core collapse supernovae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Xing-Jiang; Howell, E.; Blair, D.
2010-11-01
The upper limit on the energy density of a stochastic gravitational wave (GW) background obtained from the 2-yr science run (S5) of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) is used to constrain the average GW production of core collapse supernovae (ccSNe). We assume that the ccSNe rate tracks the star formation history of the Universe and show that the stochastic background energy density depends only weakly on the assumed average source spectrum. Using the ccSNe rate for z <= 10, we scale the generic source spectrum to obtain an observation-based upper limit on the average GW emission. We show that the mean energy emitted in GWs can be constrained within < (0.49-1.98)Msolarc2 depending on the average source spectrum. While these results are higher than the total available gravitational energy in a core collapse event, second- and third-generation GW detectors will enable tighter constraints to be set on the GW emission from such systems.
Studying inflation with future space-based gravitational wave detectors
Jinno, Ryusuke; Moroi, Takeo; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: moroi@phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp
2014-12-01
Motivated by recent progress in our understanding of the B-mode polarization of cosmic microwave background (CMB), which provides important information about the inflationary gravitational waves (IGWs), we study the possibility to acquire information about the early universe using future space-based gravitational wave (GW) detectors. We perform a detailed statistical analysis to estimate how well we can determine the reheating temperature after inflation as well as the amplitude, the tensor spectral index, and the running of the inflationary gravitational waves. We discuss how the accuracies depend on noise parameters of the detector and the minimum frequency available in the analysis. Implication of such a study on the test of inflation models is also discussed.
GRAVITATIONAL WAVES OF JET PRECESSION IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS
Sun Mouyuan; Liu Tong; Gu Weimin; Lu Jufu
2012-06-10
The physical nature of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is believed to involve an ultra-relativistic jet. The observed complex structure of light curves motivates the idea of jet precession. In this work, we study the gravitational waves of jet precession based on neutrino-dominated accretion disks around black holes, which may account for the central engine of GRBs. In our model, the jet and the inner part of the disk may precess along with the black hole, which is driven by the outer part of the disk. Gravitational waves are therefore expected to be significant from this black-hole-inner-disk precession system. By comparing our numerical results with the sensitivity of some detectors, we find that it is possible for DECIGO and BBO to detect such gravitational waves, particularly for GRBs in the Local Group.
Detecting stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves with pulsar timing arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siemens, Xavier
2016-03-01
For the past decade the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) has been using the Green Bank Telescope and the Arecibo Observatory to monitor millisecond pulsars. NANOGrav, along with two other international collaborations, the European Pulsar Timing Array and the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array in Australia, form a consortium of consortia: the International Pulsar Timing Array (IPTA). The goal of the IPTA is to directly detect low-frequency gravitational waves which cause small changes to the times of arrival of radio pulses from millisecond pulsars. In this talk I will discuss the work of NANOGrav and the IPTA, as well as our sensitivity to stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves. I will show that a detection of the background produced by supermassive black hole binaries is possible by the end of the decade. Supported by the NANOGrav Physics Frontiers Center.
Stochastic gravitational wave background from cold dark matter halos
Carbone, Carmelita; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Matarrese, Sabino
2006-03-15
The current knowledge of cosmological structure formation suggests that Cold Dark Matter (CDM) halos possess a nonspherical density profile, implying that cosmic structures can be potential sources of gravitational waves via power transfer from scalar perturbations to tensor metric modes in the nonlinear regime. By means of a previously developed mathematical formalism and a triaxial collapse model, we numerically estimate the stochastic gravitational-wave background generated by CDM halos during the fully nonlinear stage of their evolution. Our results suggest that the energy density associated with this background is comparable to that produced by primordial tensor modes at frequencies {nu}{approx_equal}10{sup -18}-10{sup -17} Hz if the energy scale of inflation is V{sup 1/4}{approx_equal}1-2x10{sup 15} GeV, and that these gravitational waves could give rise to several cosmological effects, including secondary CMB anisotropy and polarization.
Massive gravitons as dark matter and gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aoki, Katsuki; Mukohyama, Shinji
2016-07-01
We consider the possibility that the massive graviton is a viable candidate for dark matter in the context of bimetric gravity. We first derive the energy-momentum tensor of the massive graviton and show that it indeed behaves as that of dark matter fluid. We then discuss a production mechanism and the present abundance of massive gravitons as dark matter. Since the metric to which ordinary matter fields couple is a linear combination of the two mass eigenstates of bigravity, production of massive gravitons, i.e., the dark matter particles, is inevitably accompanied by generation of massless gravitons, i.e., the gravitational waves. Therefore, in this scenario some information about dark matter in our Universe is encoded in gravitational waves. For instance, if LIGO detects gravitational waves generated by the preheating after inflation, then the massive graviton with the mass of ˜0.01 GeV is a candidate for dark matter.
Detectability of Gravitational Waves from High-Redshift Binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosado, Pablo A.; Lasky, Paul D.; Thrane, Eric; Zhu, Xingjiang; Mandel, Ilya; Sesana, Alberto
2016-03-01
Recent nondetection of gravitational-wave backgrounds from pulsar timing arrays casts further uncertainty on the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries. We study the capabilities of current gravitational-wave observatories to detect individual binaries and demonstrate that, contrary to conventional wisdom, some are, in principle, detectable throughout the Universe. In particular, a binary with rest-frame mass ≳1010M⊙ can be detected by current timing arrays at arbitrarily high redshifts. The same claim will apply for less massive binaries with more sensitive future arrays. As a consequence, future searches for nanohertz gravitational waves could be expanded to target evolving high-redshift binaries. We calculate the maximum distance at which binaries can be observed with pulsar timing arrays and other detectors, properly accounting for redshift and using realistic binary waveforms.
Detectability of Gravitational Waves from High-Redshift Binaries.
Rosado, Pablo A; Lasky, Paul D; Thrane, Eric; Zhu, Xingjiang; Mandel, Ilya; Sesana, Alberto
2016-03-11
Recent nondetection of gravitational-wave backgrounds from pulsar timing arrays casts further uncertainty on the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries. We study the capabilities of current gravitational-wave observatories to detect individual binaries and demonstrate that, contrary to conventional wisdom, some are, in principle, detectable throughout the Universe. In particular, a binary with rest-frame mass ≳10^{10}M_{⊙} can be detected by current timing arrays at arbitrarily high redshifts. The same claim will apply for less massive binaries with more sensitive future arrays. As a consequence, future searches for nanohertz gravitational waves could be expanded to target evolving high-redshift binaries. We calculate the maximum distance at which binaries can be observed with pulsar timing arrays and other detectors, properly accounting for redshift and using realistic binary waveforms. PMID:27015470
LISA — An ESA cornerstone mission for the detection and observation of gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danzmann, K.; LISA Science Team
2003-10-01
The primary objective of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is to detect and observe gravitational waves from massive black holes, galactive binary stars, and violent events in the Universe in a frequency range from 10 -4 to 10 -1 Hz which is totally inaccessible to ground based experiments. It uses highly stabilised laser light (Nd: YAG, λ = 1.064 μm) in a Michelson-type interferometer arrangement. A cluster of six spacecraft with two at each vertex of an equilateral triangle is placed in an Earth-like orbit at a distance of 1 AU from the Sun, and 20° behind the Earth. Three subsets of four adjacent spacecraft each form an interferometer comprising a central station, consisting of two relatively adjacent spacecraft (200 km apart), and two spacecraft placed at a distance of 5 × 10 6 km from the centre to form arms which make an angle of 60° with each other. Each spacecraft is equipped with a laser. A descoped LISA with only four spacecraft has undergone an ESA assessment study in the M3 cycle, and the full 6-spacecraft LISA mission has now been selected as a cornerstone mission in the ESA Horizons 2000 programme. The LISA Assessment Report is available as ESA document SCI(94)6, May 1994. Detailed information on the LISA cornerstone mission is contained in the LISA Pre-Phase A Report, available as MPQ Report MPQ 208 (1996) from the Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik.
Quantum-state preparation and macroscopic entanglement in gravitational-wave detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller-Ebhardt, Helge; Rehbein, Henning; Li, Chao; Mino, Yasushi; Somiya, Kentaro; Schnabel, Roman; Danzmann, Karsten; Chen, Yanbei
2009-10-01
Long-baseline laser-interferometer gravitational-wave (GW) detectors are operating at a factor of ˜10 (in amplitude) above the standard quantum limit (SQL) within a broad frequency band (in the sense that Δf˜f ). Such a low-noise budget has already allowed the creation of a controlled 2.7 kg macroscopic oscillator with an effective eigenfrequency of 150 Hz and an occupation number of ˜200 . This result, along with the prospect for further improvements, heralds the possibility of experimentally probing macroscopic quantum mechanics (MQM)—quantum mechanical behavior of objects in the realm of everyday experience—using GW detectors. In this paper, we provide the mathematical foundation for the first step of a MQM experiment: the preparation of a macroscopic test mass into a nearly minimum-Heisenberg-limited Gaussian quantum state, which is possible if the interferometer’s classical noise beats the SQL in a broad frequency band. Our formalism, based on Wiener filtering, allows a straightforward conversion from the noise budget of a laser interferometer, in terms of noise spectra, into the strategy for quantum-state preparation and the quality of the prepared state. Using this formalism, we consider how Gaussian entanglement can be built among two macroscopic test masses and the performance of the planned Advanced LIGO interferometers in quantum-state preparation.
Aspects of suspension design for the development of advanced gravitational wave detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Rahul
The Institute for Gravitational Research in the University of Glasgow in collaboration with the Albert Einstein Institute in Hannover, Golm and the University of Cardiff has been actively involved in the research for the development of instruments and data analysis techniques to detect gravitational waves. This includes construction of a long ground based interferometer in Germany called GEO 600 (upgraded to GEO-HF) having an arm length 600 m and strong involvement in the larger detectors of the LIGO (Laser interferometer gravitational wave observatory) project in USA having arm lengths of 4 km (Operated by MIT, Boston and CALTECH, Pasadena). An upgrade to LIGO called Advanced LIGO (aLIGO) is currently under construction with significant input from the University of Glasgow. Thermal noise is one of the most significant noise sources affecting the sensitivity of the detector at a range of frequencies. Thermal noise arises due to the random fluctuations of atoms and molecules in the materials of the test mass mirrors and suspension elements, and is related to mechanical loss in these materials. The work presented in chapter 3 of this thesis is devoted to the analysis of aspects of mechanical loss and thermal noise in the final stages of the GEO suspension. The work in chapter 4 focuses on the theory of photoelasticty and birefringence techniques. A study of mechanical and thermal stress induced in fused silica has been discussed in chapter 5 of this thesis. To understand the working of photoelastic techniques learned in chapter 4, a study of mechanical stress was undertaken by applying a load on the sample to induce temporary birefringence. A study of thermal stress in fused silica welds has also been presented in chapter 5.
Cylindrical gravitational waves in expanding universes: Models for waves from compact sources
Gowdy, Robert H.; Edmonds, B. Douglas
2007-04-15
New boundary conditions are imposed on the familiar cylindrical gravitational wave vacuum spacetimes. The new spacetime family represents cylindrical waves in a flat expanding (Kasner) universe. Space sections are flat and nonconical where the waves have not reached and wave amplitudes fall off more rapidly than they do in Einstein-Rosen solutions, permitting a more regular null inifinity.
Gravitational waves from first-order cosmological phase transitions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kosowsky, Arthur; Turner, Michael S.; Watkins, Richard
1992-01-01
A first-order cosmological phase transition that proceeds through the nucleation and collision of true-vacuum bubbles is a potent source of gravitational radiation. Possibilities for such include first-order inflation, grand-unified-theory-symmetry breaking, and electroweak-symmetry breaking. We have calculated gravity-wave production from the collision of two scalar-field vacuum bubbles, and, using an approximation based upon these results, from the collision of 20 to 30 vacuum bubbles. We present estimates of the relic background of gravitational waves produced by a first-order phase transition.
Parameter estimation on gravitational waves from multiple coalescing binaries
Mandel, Ilya
2010-04-15
Future ground-based and space-borne interferometric gravitational-wave detectors may capture between tens and thousands of binary coalescence events per year. There is a significant and growing body of work on the estimation of astrophysically relevant parameters, such as masses and spins, from the gravitational-wave signature of a single event. This paper introduces a robust Bayesian framework for combining the parameter estimates for multiple events into a parameter distribution of the underlying event population. The framework can be readily deployed as a rapid post-processing tool.
Revisiting the envelope approximation: Gravitational waves from bubble collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weir, David J.
2016-06-01
We study the envelope approximation and its applicability to first-order phase transitions in the early Universe. We demonstrate that the power laws seen in previous studies exist independently of the nucleation rate. We also compare the envelope approximation prediction to results from large-scale phase transition simulations. For phase transitions where the contribution to gravitational waves from scalar fields dominates over that from the coupled plasma of light particles, the envelope approximation is in agreement, giving a power spectrum of the same form and order of magnitude. In all other cases the form and amplitude of the gravitational wave power spectrum is markedly different and new techniques are required.
What can we learn about cosmic structure from gravitational waves?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan M.
2003-01-01
Observations of low frequency gravitational waves by the space-based LISA mission will open a new observational window on the early universe and the emergence of structure. LISA will observe the dynamical coalescence of massive black hole binaries at high redshifts, giving an unprecedented look at the merger history of galaxies and the reionization epoch. LISA will also observe gravitational waves from the collapse of supermassive stars to form black holes, and will map the spacetime in the central regions of galaxy cusps at high precision.
Dynamics and gravitational wave signature of collapsar formation.
Ott, C D; Reisswig, C; Schnetter, E; O'Connor, E; Sperhake, U; Löffler, F; Diener, P; Abdikamalov, E; Hawke, I; Burrows, A
2011-04-22
We perform 3+1 general relativistic simulations of rotating core collapse in the context of the collapsar model for long gamma-ray bursts. We employ a realistic progenitor, rotation based on results of stellar evolution calculations, and a simplified equation of state. Our simulations track self-consistently collapse, bounce, the postbounce phase, black hole formation, and the subsequent early hyperaccretion phase. We extract gravitational waves from the spacetime curvature and identify a unique gravitational wave signature associated with the early phase of collapsar formation. PMID:21599351
Education and public outreach on gravitational-wave astronomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendry, M.; Bradaschia, C.; Audley, H.; Barke, S.; Blair, D. G.; Christensen, N.; Danzmann, K.; Freise, A.; Gerberding, O.; Knispel, B.; Lieser, M.; Mandel, I.; Moore, T.; Stuver, A.; Whiting, B.
2014-08-01
In this paper we summarise the presentations given during the "Education and Public Outreach on Gravitational-Wave Astronomy" parallel session at the GR-20/Amaldi conference, held in Warsaw, July 2013. The talks presented demonstrate the wide range of education and public outreach activities being undertaken in the field of gravitational-wave astronomy—across science festivals, science education centers, junior schools and high schools, colleges and universities, via both face-to-face delivery and (increasingly) the internet and social media.
Preparing for LISA in the Gravitational Wave Era
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larson, Shane
2016-03-01
Before the end of the decade, both LIGO and Pulsar Timing Arrays are expected to make the first detections of gravitational waves, and in all likelihood will have started the compilation of the first gravitational wave catalogs. Both LIGO and Pulsar Timing Arrays observe source populations that radiate in the LISA band at other points in their evolutionary history. In this talk, we'll discuss how early detections of supermassive black hole binaries (by PTAs) and ultra-compact binary mergers (by LIGO) will be important players in understanding the scope of LISA science.
The generation of gravitational waves. II - The postlinear formalism revisited
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crowley, R. J.; Thorne, K. S.
1977-01-01
Two different versions of the Green's function for the scalar wave equation in weakly curved spacetime (one due to DeWitt and DeWitt, the other to Thorne and Kovacs) are compared and contrasted; and their mathematical equivalence is demonstrated. Then the DeWitt-DeWitt Green's function is used to construct several alternative versions of the Thorne-Kovacs postlinear formalism for gravitational-wave generation. Finally it is shown that, in calculations of gravitational bremsstrahlung radiation, some of our versions of the postlinear formalism allow one to treat the interacting bodies as point masses, while others do not.
Gravitational waves from periodic three-body systems.
Dmitrašinović, V; Suvakov, Milovan; Hudomal, Ana
2014-09-01
Three bodies moving in a periodic orbit under the influence of Newtonian gravity ought to emit gravitational waves. We have calculated the gravitational radiation quadrupolar waveforms and the corresponding luminosities for the 13+11 recently discovered three-body periodic orbits in Newtonian gravity. These waves clearly allow one to distinguish between their sources: all 13+11 orbits have different waveforms and their luminosities (evaluated at the same orbit energy and body mass) vary by up to 13 orders of magnitude in the mean, and up to 20 orders of magnitude for the peak values. PMID:25238346
Stochastic template placement algorithm for gravitational wave data analysis
Harry, I. W.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Allen, B.
2009-11-15
This paper presents an algorithm for constructing matched-filter template banks in an arbitrary parameter space. The method places templates at random, then removes those which are 'too close' together. The properties and optimality of stochastic template banks generated in this manner are investigated for some simple models. The effectiveness of these template banks for gravitational wave searches for binary inspiral waveforms is also examined. The properties of a stochastic template bank are then compared to the deterministically placed template banks that are currently used in gravitational wave data analysis.
Gravitational wave bursts from cosmic superstrings with Y-junctions
Binetruy, P.; Bohe, A.; Hertog, T.; Steer, D. A.
2009-12-15
Cosmic superstring loops generically contain strings of different tensions that meet at Y-junctions. These loops evolve nonperiodically in time, and have cusps and kinks that interact with the junctions. We study the effect of junctions on the gravitational wave signal emanating from cosmic string cusps and kinks. We find that earlier results on the strength of individual bursts from cusps and kinks on strings without junctions remain largely unchanged, but junctions give rise to additional contributions to the gravitational wave signal coming from strings expanding at the speed of light at a junction and kinks passing through a junction.
Gravitational waves from periodic three-body systems.
Dmitrašinović, V; Suvakov, Milovan; Hudomal, Ana
2014-09-01
Three bodies moving in a periodic orbit under the influence of Newtonian gravity ought to emit gravitational waves. We have calculated the gravitational radiation quadrupolar waveforms and the corresponding luminosities for the 13+11 recently discovered three-body periodic orbits in Newtonian gravity. These waves clearly allow one to distinguish between their sources: all 13+11 orbits have different waveforms and their luminosities (evaluated at the same orbit energy and body mass) vary by up to 13 orders of magnitude in the mean, and up to 20 orders of magnitude for the peak values.
GRB as a counterpart for Gravitational Wave detection in LCGT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanda, Nobuyuki
2010-10-01
Short Gamma-ray burst (GRB) progenitors are considered as merger of compact star binaries which consist of neutron stars or blackholes. These compact star binaries will radiate a strong gravitational wave in their coalescence, and gravitational wave detectors aim to detect them. We studied the chance probability of coincidence between GRB and GW detection in LCGT detector. Due to omni-directional acceptance of GW detectors, about 75% of GRB events which closer than cosmological redshift z<0.1 are expected to confirm by GW detection.
Growing intermediate-mass black holes with gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gultekin, Kayhan
2006-06-01
We present results of numerical simulations of sequences of binary-single scattering events of black holes in dense stellar environments. The simulations cover a wide range of mass ratios from equal mass objects to 1000:10:10 [Special characters omitted.] and compare purely Newtonian simulations with a relativistic endpoint, simulations in which Newtonian encounters are interspersed with gravitational wave emission from the binary, and simulations that include the effects of gravitational radiation reaction by using equations of motion that include the 2.5-order post-Newtonian force terms, which are the leading-order terms of energy loss from gravitational waves. In all cases, the sequence is terminated when the binary's merger time due to gravitational radiation is less than the arrival time of the next interloper. We also examine the role of gravitational waves during an encounter and show that close approach cross-sections for three 1 [Special characters omitted.] objects are unchanged from the purely Newtonian dynamics except for close approaches smaller than 10-5 times the initial semimajor axis of the binary. We also present cross-sections for mergers resulting from gravitational radiation during three-body encounters for a range of binary semimajor axes and mass ratios including those of interest for intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs). We find that black hole binaries typically merge with a very high eccentricity- --extremely high when gravitational waves are included during the encounter such that when the gravitational waves are detectable by LISA, most of the binaries will have eccentricities e > 0.9 though all will have circularized by the time they are detectable by LIGO. We also investigate the implications for the formation and growth of IMBHs and find that the inclusion of gravitational waves during the encounter results in roughly half as many black holes ejected from the host cluster for each black hole accreted onto the growing IMBH. The
Koenigsdoerffer, Christian; Gopakumar, Achamveedu
2006-06-15
We obtain an efficient description for the dynamics of nonspinning compact binaries moving in inspiralling eccentric orbits to implement the phasing of gravitational waves from such binaries at the 3.5 post-Newtonian (PN) order. Our computation heavily depends on the phasing formalism, presented in [T. Damour, A. Gopakumar, and B. R. Iyer, Phys. Rev. D 70, 064028 (2004)], and the 3PN accurate generalized quasi-Keplerian parametric solution to the conservative dynamics of nonspinning compact binaries moving in eccentric orbits, available in [R.-M. Memmesheimer, A. Gopakumar, and G. Schaefer, Phys. Rev. D 70, 104011 (2004)]. The gravitational-wave (GW) polarizations h{sub +} and h{sub x} with 3.5PN accurate phasing should be useful for the earth-based GW interferometers, current and advanced, if they plan to search for gravitational waves from inspiralling eccentric binaries. Our results will be required to do astrophysics with the proposed space-based GW interferometers like LISA, BBO, and DECIGO.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Königsdörffer, Christian; Gopakumar, Achamveedu
2006-06-01
We obtain an efficient description for the dynamics of nonspinning compact binaries moving in inspiralling eccentric orbits to implement the phasing of gravitational waves from such binaries at the 3.5 post-Newtonian (PN) order. Our computation heavily depends on the phasing formalism, presented in [T. Damour, A. Gopakumar, and B. R. Iyer, Phys. Rev. D 70, 064028 (2004)PRVDAQ0556-282110.1103/PhysRevD.70.064028], and the 3PN accurate generalized quasi-Keplerian parametric solution to the conservative dynamics of nonspinning compact binaries moving in eccentric orbits, available in [R.-M. Memmesheimer, A. Gopakumar, and G. Schäfer, Phys. Rev. D 70, 104011 (2004)PRVDAQ0556-282110.1103/PhysRevD.70.104011]. The gravitational-wave (GW) polarizations h+ and h× with 3.5PN accurate phasing should be useful for the earth-based GW interferometers, current and advanced, if they plan to search for gravitational waves from inspiralling eccentric binaries. Our results will be required to do astrophysics with the proposed space-based GW interferometers like LISA, BBO, and DECIGO.
Gravitational waves from binaries on unbound orbits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majár, János; Forgács, Péter; Vasúth, Mátyás
2010-09-01
A generalized true anomaly-type parametrization, convenient to describe both bound and open orbits of a two-body system in general relativity is introduced. A complete description of the time evolution of both the radial and angular equations of a binary system taking into account the first order post-Newtonian (1PN) corrections is given. The gravitational radiation field emitted by the system is computed in the 1PN approximation including higher multipole moments beyond the standard quadrupole term. The gravitational waveforms in the time domain are explicitly given up to the 1PN order for unbound orbits, but the results are also illustrated on binaries on elliptic orbits with special attention given to the effects of eccentricity.
Gravitational Wave Modelling of Extreme Mass Ratio Inspirals and the Effective-One-Body Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yunes, Nicolás
2009-11-01
Accurate and efficient models to calculate the gravitational wave response of the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna are crucial for the accurate extraction of physical parameters from noisy data, especially for moderate signal-to-noise ratio events. One of the most challenging and interesting sources of such waves are extreme-mass ratio inspirals, where a small compact object winds into a supermassive black hole in a generic orbit. The interest in these sources stems from their ability to accurately map the spacetime around supermassive black holes, thus revealing otherwise inaccessible astrophysical information and allowing for exquisite tests of general relativity. The difficulty in modelling gravitational waves produced in such inspirals is two-fold. First, extreme-mass ratio orbits are generic, including zoom-whirl episodes where the small object pirouettes in the strong gravitational field of the supermassive black hole at large velocities. Second, gravitat! ional waves generated by these sources can contain millions of cycles in the detector's sensitivity band, and thus a small error in the modelling can lead to a large accumulated error in the template after a one-year observation. For these reasons, one must develop sophisticated techniques to approximate these waves as accurately and efficiently as possible. This article focuses on these techniques, explaining the difficulty in the modelling and suggesting possible routes to their resolution. We first set the stage through a brief summary of some of the current models available for constructing approximate extreme-mass ratio inspiral templates. We then introduce in detail a new scheme that combines ingredients from both black hole perturbation theory and the effective-one-body approach. We conclude with comparisons between this new scheme and Teukolsky-based waveforms for quasi-circular inspirals into non-spinning supermassive black holes.
Binary Black Holes, Numerical Relativity, and Gravitational Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2007-01-01
The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy, more than the combined light from all the stars in the visible universe. This energy is emitted in the form of gravitational waves, and observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors such as LISA requires that we know the pattern or fingerprint of the radiation emitted. Since black hole mergers take place in regions of extreme gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these wave patterns. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these wave patterns. However, their computer codes have been plagued by problems that caused them to crash. This situation has changed dramatically in the past 2 years, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for these gravitational wave patterns, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LISA
Cosmic Messengers: Binary Black Holes and Gravitational Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2007-01-01
The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy, more than the combined light from all the stars in the visible universe. This energy is emitted in the form of gravitational waves, and observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors such as LISA requires that we know the pattern or fingerprint of the radiation emitted. Since black hole mergers take place in regions of extreme gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein s equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these wave patterns. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these wave patterns. However, their computer codes have been plagued by problems that caused them to crash. . This situation has changed dramatically in the past 2 years, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for these gravitational wave patterns, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will. be observed by LISA.
GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence.
Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Bejger, M; Bell, A S; Berger, B K; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Birnholtz, O; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Broida, J E; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Brunett, S; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Calderón Bustillo, J; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Casanueva Diaz, J; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Cerboni Baiardi, L; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Cheeseboro, B D; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dal Canton, T; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dasgupta, A; Da Silva Costa, C F; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Devine, R C; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Girolamo, T; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; 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Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Grado, A; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hamilton, H; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C-J; Haughian, K; Healy, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Henry, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hofman, D; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J-M; Isi, M; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jian, L; Jiménez-Forteza, F; 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