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Sample records for gravity die casting

  1. Dimensional control of die castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karve, Aniruddha Ajit

    The demand for net shape die castings, which require little or no machining, is steadily increasing. Stringent customer requirements are forcing die casters to deliver high quality castings in increasingly short lead times. Dimensional conformance to customer specifications is an inherent part of die casting quality. The dimensional attributes of a die casting are essentially dependent upon many factors--the quality of the die and the degree of control over the process variables being the two major sources of dimensional error in die castings. This study focused on investigating the nature and the causes of dimensional error in die castings. The two major components of dimensional error i.e., dimensional variability and die allowance were studied. The major effort of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively study the effects of casting geometry and process variables on die casting dimensional variability and die allowance. This was accomplished by detailed dimensional data collection at production die casting sites. Robust feature characterization schemes were developed to describe complex casting geometry in quantitative terms. Empirical modeling was utilized to quantify the effects of the casting variables on dimensional variability and die allowance for die casting features. A number of casting geometry and process variables were found to affect dimensional variability in die castings. The dimensional variability was evaluated by comparisons with current published dimensional tolerance standards. The casting geometry was found to play a significant role in influencing the die allowance of the features measured. The predictive models developed for dimensional variability and die allowance were evaluated to test their effectiveness. Finally, the relative impact of all the components of dimensional error in die castings was put into perspective, and general guidelines for effective dimensional control in the die casting plant were laid out. The results of

  2. Adhesion Casting In Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.; Cronise, Raymond J.

    1996-01-01

    Adhesion casting in low gravity proposed as technique for making new and improved materials. Advantages of low-gravity adhesion casting, in comparison with adhesion casting in normal Earth gravity, comes from better control over, and greater uniformity of, thicknesses of liquid films that form on and adhere to solid surfaces during casting.

  3. Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

    2004-03-15

    Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting formmore » of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.« less

  4. Die Soldering in Aluminium Die Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Q.; Kenik, E.A.; Viswanathan, S.

    2000-03-15

    Two types of tests, dipping tests and dip-coating tests were carried out on small steel cylinders using pure aluminum and 380 alloy to investigate the mechanism of die soldering during aluminum die casting. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the morphology and composition of the phases formed during soldering. A soldering mechanism is postulated based on experimental observations. A soldering critical temperature is postulated at which iron begins to react with aluminum to form an aluminum-rich liquid phase and solid intermetallic compounds. When the temperature at the die surface is higher than this critical temperature, the aluminum-richmore » phase is liquid and joins the die with the casting during the subsequent solidification. The paper discusses the mechanism of soldering for the case of pure aluminum and 380 alloy casting in a steel mold, the factors that promote soldering, and the strength of the bond formed when soldering occurs. conditions, an aluminum-rich soldering layer may also form over the intermetallic layer. Although a significant amount of research has been conducted on the nature of these intermetallics, little is known about the conditions under which soldering occurs.« less

  5. Microstructure and Properties of Cobalt-and Zinc-Containing Magnetic Magnesium Alloys Processed by High-Pressure Die Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Christian; Demminger, Christian; Maier, Hans Jürgen

    The inherent magnetic properties of lightweight alloys based on magnesium and cobalt offer a novel way in order to measure mechanical loads throughout the entire structural component using the magnetoelastic effect. Because the solubility of cobalt in the magnesium matrix is negligible, the magnetic properties mainly originate from Co-rich precipitates. Thus, the size and distribution of Co-containing phases within the alloy's microstructure wields a major influence on the amplitude of the load-sensitive properties which can be measured by employing the harmonic analysis of eddy-current signals. In this study, Mg-Co-based alloys are produced by several casting methods which allow the application of different cooling rates, e.g. gravity die casting and high-pressure die casting. The differences between the manufactured alloys' micro- and phase structures are compared depending on the applied cooling rate and the superior magnetic and mechanical properties of the high-pressure die cast material are demonstrated.

  6. Microstructures and properties of aluminum die casting alloys

    SciTech Connect

    M. M. Makhlouf; D. Apelian; L. Wang

    1998-10-01

    This document provides descriptions of the microstructure of different aluminum die casting alloys and to relate the various microstructures to the alloy chemistry. It relates the microstructures of the alloys to their main engineering properties such as ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, fatigue life, impact resistance, wear resistance, hardness, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. Finally, it serves as a reference source for aluminum die casting alloys.

  7. Modelling the Cast Component Weight in Hot Chamber Die Casting using Combined Taguchi and Buckingham's π Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rupinder

    2018-02-01

    Hot chamber (HC) die casting process is one of the most widely used commercial processes for the casting of low temperature metals and alloys. This process gives near-net shape product with high dimensional accuracy. However in actual field environment the best settings of input parameters is often conflicting as the shape and size of the casting changes and one have to trade off among various output parameters like hardness, dimensional accuracy, casting defects, microstructure etc. So for online inspection of the cast components properties (without affecting the production line) the weight measurement has been established as one of the cost effective method (as the difference in weight of sound and unsound casting reflects the possible casting defects) in field environment. In the present work at first stage the effect of three input process parameters (namely: pressure at 2nd phase in HC die casting; metal pouring temperature and die opening time) has been studied for optimizing the cast component weight `W' as output parameter in form of macro model based upon Taguchi L9 OA. After this Buckingham's π approach has been applied on Taguchi based macro model for the development of micro model. This study highlights the Taguchi-Buckingham based combined approach as a case study (for conversion of macro model into micro model) by identification of optimum levels of input parameters (based on Taguchi approach) and development of mathematical model (based on Buckingham's π approach). Finally developed mathematical model can be used for predicting W in HC die casting process with more flexibility. The results of study highlights second degree polynomial equation for predicting cast component weight in HC die casting and suggest that pressure at 2nd stage is one of the most contributing factors for controlling the casting defect/weight of casting.

  8. Fatigue of die cast zinc alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Schrems, K.K.; Dogan, O.N.; Goodwin, F.E.

    2006-04-01

    The rotating bending fatigue limit of die cast zinc alloy 2, alloy 3, alloy 5, AcuZinc 5, and ZA-8 were determined as a part of an on-going program by ILZRO into the mechanical properties of die cast zinc. The stress-life (S-N) curves of alloys 3, 5, AcuZinc 5, and ZA-8 were determined previously. This presentation reports the results of the S-N curve for Alloy 2 and the calculated fatigue limits for all five alloys. During the previous stress-life testing, the samples were stopped at 10 million cycles and the fatigue limit for alloy 3, alloy 5, and AcuZinc 5 appearedmore » to be higher and the fatigue limit for ZA-8 appeared to be lower than the values reported in the literature. This was further investigated in alloy 5 and ZA-8 by testing continuous cast bulk alloy 5 and ZA-8.« less

  9. New Lubricant for Pressure Die Casting,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    synthetic acids, finely dispersed graphite preparations, etc. The new lubricants are not inferior in their properties to the well known foreign lubricants antilov, olea , and emtek used in pressure die casting.

  10. Materials processing threshold report: 2. Use of low gravity for cast iron process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankhouser, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Potential applications of a low gravity environment of interest to the commercial producers of cast iron were assessed to determine whether low gravity conditions offer potential opportunities to producers for improving cast iron properties and expanding the use of cast irons. The assessment is limited to the gray and nodular types of iron, however, the findings are applicable to all cast irons. The potential advantages accrued through low gravity experiments with cast irons are described.

  11. The Effect of Alloying Elements on Thermal Conductivity and Casting Characteristic in High Pressure Die Casting of Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Cheol-Woo; Cho, Jae-Ik; Choi, Se-Weon; Kim, Young-Chan; Kang, Chang-Seog

    Recently, demand of aluminum alloys for use in high thermal conductivity application is increases but the most aluminum die casting alloys exhibit very lower thermal properties because of their high concentrations of alloying elements. However, those alloying elements are essential to obtain sufficient fluidity and mechanical strength. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of alloying elements in die casting alloys, Si, Cu, Mg, Fe and Mn, in thermal conductivity, die casting characteristics and mechanical properties and find out the appropriate amount of each alloying element for development of heat sink component. The results showed that Mn had the most deleterious effect in thermal conductivity and Si and Fe contents were important to improve strength and limit casting defects, such as hot tearing and die soldering. The alloy with 0.2 1.0wt%Cu, 0.3 0.6wt%Fe and 1.0 2.0wt%Si showed very good combination of high thermal conductivity and good casting characteristics.

  12. Effect of mold designs on molten metal behaviour in high-pressure die casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, M. D.; Rahman, M. R. A.; Khan, A. A.; Mohamad, M. R.; Suffian, M. S. Z. M.; Yunos, Y. S.; Wong, L. K.; Mohtar, M. Z.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a research study conducted in a local automotive component manufacturer that produces aluminium alloy steering housing local and global markets. This study is to investigate the effect of design modification of mold in die casting as to improve the production rate. Design modification is carried out on the casting shot of the mold. Computer flow simulation was carried out to study the flow of molten metal in the mold with respect to the mold design modification. The design parameters of injection speed, die temperature and clamping force has been included in the study. The result of the simulation showed that modifications of casting shot give significant impact towards the molten flow behaviour in casting process. The capabilities and limitations of die casting process simulation to conduct defect analysis had been optimized. This research will enhance the efficiency of the mass production of the industry of die casting with the understanding of defect analysis, which lies on the modification of the mold design, a way early in its stages of production.

  13. Ageless Aluminum-Cerium-Based Alloys in High-Volume Die Casting for Improved Energy Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromme, Eric T.; Henderson, Hunter B.; Sims, Zachary C.; Kesler, Michael S.; Weiss, David; Ott, Ryan T.; Meng, Fanqiang; Kassoumeh, Sam; Evangelista, James; Begley, Gerald; Rios, Orlando

    2018-06-01

    Strong chemical reactions between Al and Ce lead to the formation of intermetallics with exceptional thermal stability. The rapid formation of intermetallics directly from the liquid phase during solidification of Al-Ce alloys leads to an ultrafine microconstituent structure that effectively strengthens as-cast alloys without further microstructural optimization via thermal processing. Die casting is a high-volume manufacturing technology that accounts for greater than 40% of all cast Al products, whereas Ce is highly overproduced as a waste product of other rare earth element (REE) mining. Reducing heat treatments would stimulate significant improvements in manufacturing energy efficiency, exceeding (megatonnes/year) per large-scale heat-treatment line. In this study, multiple compositions were evaluated with wedge mold castings to test the sensitivity of alloys to the variable solidification rate inherent in high-pressure die casting. Once a suitable composition was determined, it was successfully demonstrated at 800 lbs/h in a 600-ton die caster, after which the as-die cast parts performed similarly to ubiquitous A380 in the same geometry without requiring heat treatment. This work demonstrates the compatibility of Al REE alloys with high-volume die-casting applications with minimal heat treatments.

  14. Ageless Aluminum-Cerium-Based Alloys in High-Volume Die Casting for Improved Energy Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromme, Eric T.; Henderson, Hunter B.; Sims, Zachary C.; Kesler, Michael S.; Weiss, David; Ott, Ryan T.; Meng, Fanqiang; Kassoumeh, Sam; Evangelista, James; Begley, Gerald; Rios, Orlando

    2018-04-01

    Strong chemical reactions between Al and Ce lead to the formation of intermetallics with exceptional thermal stability. The rapid formation of intermetallics directly from the liquid phase during solidification of Al-Ce alloys leads to an ultrafine microconstituent structure that effectively strengthens as-cast alloys without further microstructural optimization via thermal processing. Die casting is a high-volume manufacturing technology that accounts for greater than 40% of all cast Al products, whereas Ce is highly overproduced as a waste product of other rare earth element (REE) mining. Reducing heat treatments would stimulate significant improvements in manufacturing energy efficiency, exceeding (megatonnes/year) per large-scale heat-treatment line. In this study, multiple compositions were evaluated with wedge mold castings to test the sensitivity of alloys to the variable solidification rate inherent in high-pressure die casting. Once a suitable composition was determined, it was successfully demonstrated at 800 lbs/h in a 600-ton die caster, after which the as-die cast parts performed similarly to ubiquitous A380 in the same geometry without requiring heat treatment. This work demonstrates the compatibility of Al REE alloys with high-volume die-casting applications with minimal heat treatments.

  15. Ageless Aluminum-Cerium-Based Alloys in High-Volume Die Casting for Improved Energy Efficiency

    DOE PAGES

    Stromme, Eric T.; Henderson, Hunter B.; Sims, Zachary C.; ...

    2018-04-25

    Strong chemical reactions between Al and Ce lead to the formation of intermetallics with exceptional thermal stability. The rapid formation of intermetallics directly from the liquid phase during solidification of Al-Ce alloys leads to an ultrafine microconstituent structure that effectively strengthens as-cast alloys without further microstructural optimization via thermal processing. Die casting is a high-volume manufacturing technology that accounts for greater than 40% of all cast Al products, whereas Ce is highly overproduced as a waste product of other rare earth element (REE) mining. Reducing heat treatments would stimulate significant improvements in manufacturing energy efficiency, exceeding (megatonnes/year) per large-scale heat-treatmentmore » line. In this study, multiple compositions were evaluated with wedge mold castings to test the sensitivity of alloys to the variable solidification rate inherent in high-pressure die casting. Once a suitable composition was determined, it was successfully demonstrated at 800 lbs/h in a 600-ton die caster, after which the as-die cast parts performed similarly to ubiquitous A380 in the same geometry without requiring heat treatment. Furthermore, this work demonstrates the compatibility of Al REE alloys with high-volume die-casting applications with minimal heat treatments.« less

  16. Ageless Aluminum-Cerium-Based Alloys in High-Volume Die Casting for Improved Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Stromme, Eric T.; Henderson, Hunter B.; Sims, Zachary C.

    Strong chemical reactions between Al and Ce lead to the formation of intermetallics with exceptional thermal stability. The rapid formation of intermetallics directly from the liquid phase during solidification of Al-Ce alloys leads to an ultrafine microconstituent structure that effectively strengthens as-cast alloys without further microstructural optimization via thermal processing. Die casting is a high-volume manufacturing technology that accounts for greater than 40% of all cast Al products, whereas Ce is highly overproduced as a waste product of other rare earth element (REE) mining. Reducing heat treatments would stimulate significant improvements in manufacturing energy efficiency, exceeding (megatonnes/year) per large-scale heat-treatmentmore » line. In this study, multiple compositions were evaluated with wedge mold castings to test the sensitivity of alloys to the variable solidification rate inherent in high-pressure die casting. Once a suitable composition was determined, it was successfully demonstrated at 800 lbs/h in a 600-ton die caster, after which the as-die cast parts performed similarly to ubiquitous A380 in the same geometry without requiring heat treatment. Furthermore, this work demonstrates the compatibility of Al REE alloys with high-volume die-casting applications with minimal heat treatments.« less

  17. Development of Integrated Die Casting Process for Large Thin-Wall Magnesium Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Jon T.; Wang, Gerry; Luo, Alan

    The purpose of this project was to develop a process and product which would utilize magnesium die casting and result in energy savings when compared to the baseline steel product. The specific product chosen was a side door inner panel for a mid-size car. The scope of the project included: re-design of major structural parts of the door, design and build of the tooling required to make the parts, making of parts, assembly of doors, and testing (both physical and simulation) of doors. Additional work was done on alloy development, vacuum die casting, and overcasting, all in order to improvemore » the performance of the doors and reduce cost. The project achieved the following objectives: 1. Demonstrated ability to design a large thin-wall magnesium die casting. 2. Demonstrated ability to manufacture a large thin-wall magnesium die casting in AM60 alloy. 3. Tested via simulations and/or physical tests the mechanical behavior and corrosion behavior of magnesium die castings and/or lightweight experimental automotive side doors which incorporate a large, thin-wall, powder coated, magnesium die casting. Under some load cases, the results revealed cracking of the casting, which can be addressed with re-design and better material models for CAE analysis. No corrosion of the magnesium panel was observed. 4. Using life cycle analysis models, compared the energy consumption and global warming potential of the lightweight door with those of a conventional steel door, both during manufacture and in service. Compared to a steel door, the lightweight door requires more energy to manufacture but less energy during operation (i.e., fuel consumption when driving vehicle). Similarly, compared to a steel door, the lightweight door has higher global warming potential (GWP) during manufacture, but lower GWP during operation. 5. Compared the conventional magnesium die casting process with the “super-vacuum” die casting process. Results achieved with cast tensile bars suggest some

  18. Casting And Solidification Technology (CAST): Directional solidification phenomena in a metal model at reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccay, M. H.

    1988-01-01

    The Casting and Solidification Technology (CAST) experiment will study the phenomena that occur during directional solidification of an alloy, e.g., constitutional supercooling, freckling, and dendrite coarsening. The reduced gravity environment of space will permit the individual phenomena to be examined with minimum complication from buoyancy driven flows.

  19. Development of an Innovative Laser-Assisted Coating Process for Extending Lifetime of Metal Casting Dies. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Madhav Rao Gonvindaraju

    1999-10-18

    Die casting dies used in the metal casting industry fail due to thermal fatigue cracking accompanied by the presence of residual tensile stresses, corrosion, erosion and wear of die surfaces. This phase 1 SBIR Final Report summarize Karta Technologies research involving the development of an innovative laser coating technology for metal casting dies. The process involves depositing complex protective coatings of nanocrystalline powders of TiC followed by a laser shot peening. The results indicate a significant improvement in corrosion and erosion resistance in molten aluminum for H13 die casting die steels. The laser-coated samples also showed improved surface finish, amore » homogeneous and uniform coating mircrostructure. The technology developed in this research can have a significant impact on the casting industry by saving the material costs involved in replacing dies, reducing downtime and improving the quality.« less

  20. Development of materials for the rapid manufacture of die cast tooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardro, Peter Jason

    The focus of this research is to develop a material composition that can be processed by rapid prototyping (RP) in order to produce tooling for the die casting process. Where these rapidly produced tools will be superior to traditional tooling production methods by offering one or more of the following advantages: reduced tooling cost, shortened tooling creation time, reduced man-hours for tool creation, increased tool life, and shortened die casting cycle time. By utilizing RP's additive build process and vast material selection, there was a prospect that die cast tooling may be produced quicker and with superior material properties. To this end, the material properties that influence die life and cycle time were determined, and a list of materials that fulfill these "optimal" properties were highlighted. Physical testing was conducted in order to grade the processability of each of the material systems and to optimize the manufacturing process for the downselected material system. Sample specimens were produced and microscopy techniques were utilized to determine a number of physical properties of the material system. Additionally, a benchmark geometry was selected and die casting dies were produced from traditional tool materials (H13 steel) and techniques (machining) and from the newly developed materials and RP techniques (selective laser sintering (SLS) and laser engineered net shaping (LENS)). Once the tools were created, a die cast alloy was selected and a preset number of parts were shot into each tool. During tool creation, the manufacturing time and cost was closely monitored and an economic model was developed to compare traditional tooling to RP tooling. This model allows one to determine, in the early design stages, when it is advantageous to implement RP tooling and when traditional tooling would be best. The results of the physical testing and economic analysis has shown that RP tooling is able to achieve a number of the research objectives, namely

  1. [Cervical adaptation of complete cast crowns of various metal alloys, with and without die spacers].

    PubMed

    Stephano, C B; Roselino, R F; Roselino, R B; Campos, G M

    1989-01-01

    A metallic replica from a dental preparation for crown was used to make 8 class-IV stone dies. The wax patterns for the casting of the crowns were obtained in two conditions: a) from the stone die with no spacer; and b) from the stone die with an acrylic spacer. Thus, 64 metallic crowns were casted, using 4 different alloys: DURACAST (Cu-Al), NICROCAST (Ni-Cr) and DURABOND (Ni-Cr), and gold. The casted crowns were fitted in the metallic replica and measured as to the cervical discrepance of fitting. The results showed that the use of die spacers decreases the clinical discrepancies of fitting of the casted crowns (in a statistically significant level), no matter the metallic alloy employed.

  2. The Simulation of Magnesium Wheel Low Pressure Die Casting Based on PAM-CAST™

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yinghong; Wang, Yingchun; Li, Dayong; Zeng, Xiaoqin

    2004-06-01

    Magnesium is the lightest metal commonly used in engineering, with various excellent characteristics such as high strength and electromagnetic interference shielding capability. Particularly, the usage of magnesium in automotive industry can meet better the need to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Nowadays, most current magnesium components in automobiles are made by die casting. In this paper, commercial software for die casting, PAM-CAST™, was utilized to simulate the low pressure die casting process of magnesium wheel. Through calculating temperature field and velocity field during filling and solidification stages, the evolution of temperature distribution and liquid fraction was analyzed. Then, the potential defects including the gas entrapments in the middle of the spokes, shrinkages between the rim and the spokes were forecasted. The analytical results revealed that the mold geometry and die casting parameters should be improved in order to get the sound magnesium wheel. The reasons leading to these defects were also analyzed and the solutions to eliminate them were put forward. Furthermore, through reducing the pouring velocity, the air gas entrapments and partial shrinkages were eliminated effectively.

  3. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Development of Surface Engineered Coating Systems for Aluminum Pressure Die Casting Dies: Towards a 'Smart' Die Coating

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John J. Moore; Dr. Jianliang Lin,

    2012-07-31

    The main objective of this research program was to design and develop an optimal coating system that extends die life by minimizing premature die failure. In high-pressure aluminum die-casting, the die, core pins and inserts must withstand severe processing conditions. Many of the dies and tools in the industry are being coated to improve wear-resistance and decrease down-time for maintenance. However, thermal fatigue in metal itself can still be a major problem, especially since it often leads to catastrophic failure (i.e. die breakage) as opposed to a wear-based failure (parts begin to go out of tolerance). Tooling costs remain themore » largest portion of production costs for many of these parts, so the ability prevent catastrophic failures would be transformative for the manufacturing industry.The technology offers energy savings through reduced energy use in the die casting process from several factors, including increased life of the tools and dies, reuse of the dies and die components, reduction/elimination of lubricants, and reduced machine down time, and reduction of Al solder sticking on the die. The use of the optimized die coating system will also reduce environmental wastes and scrap parts. Current (2012) annual energy saving estimates, based on initial dissemination to the casting industry in 2010 and market penetration of 80% by 2020, is 3.1 trillion BTU's/year. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.63 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).« less

  4. The thermal fatigue resistance of H-13 Die Steel for aluminum die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The effects of welding, five selected surface coatings, and stress relieving on the thermal fatigue resistance of H-13 Die Steel for aluminum die casting dies were studied using eleven thermal fatigue specimens. Stress relieving was conducted after each 5,000 cycle interval at 1050 F for three hours. Four thermal fatigue specimens were welded with H-13 or maraging steel welding rods at ambient and elevated temperatures and subsequently, subjected to different post-weld heat treatments. Crack patterns were examined at 5,000, 10,000, and 15,000 cycles. The thermal fatigue resistance is expressed by two crack parameters which are the average maximum crack and the average cracked area. The results indicate that a significant improvement in thermal fatigue resistance over the control was obtained from the stress-relieving treatment. Small improvements were obtained from the H-13 welded specimens and from a salt bath nitrogen and carbon-surface treatment. The other surface treatments and welded specimens either did not affect or had a detrimental influence on the thermal fatigue properties of the H-13 die steel.

  5. Metallographic assessment of Al-12Si high-pressure die casting escalator steps.

    PubMed

    Vander Voort, George Frederic; Suárez-Peña, Beatriz; Asensio-Lozano, Juan

    2014-10-01

    A microstructural characterization study was performed on high-pressure die cast specimens extracted from escalator steps manufactured from an Al-12 wt.% Si alloy designed for structural applications. Black and white, color light optical imaging and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to conduct the microstructural analysis. Most regions in the samples studied contained globular-rosette primary α-Al grains surrounded by an Al-Si eutectic aggregate, while primary dendritic α-Al grains were present in the surface layer. This dendritic microstructure was observed in the regions where the melt did not impinge directly on the die surface during cavity filling. Consequently, microstructures in the surface layer were nonuniform. Utilizing physical metallurgy principles, these results were analyzed in terms of the applied pressure and filling velocity during high-pressure die casting. The effects of these parameters on solidification at different locations of the casting are discussed.

  6. The Relationship between Dendrite Arm Spacing and Cooling Rate of Al-Si Casting Alloys in High Pressure Die Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jae-Ik; Kim, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Young-Chan; Choi, Se-Weon; Kang, Chang-Seog

    The effects of cooling rate on the solidification behavior of Al-8.5%Si-3%Cu and Al-11%Si-3%Cu alloys were studied during high pressure die casting (HPDC). The HPDC experiment was conducted by using the dies with 3 steps for 3 different cooling rates. Because of the high in both melt temperature and pressure, it was difficult to obtain the temperature profile directly from HPDC specimen. Therefore, in this study, cylindrical bar castings with different diameter were poured to acquire the cooling curves at the solidification range of 15°C/s up to 100°C/s and then the microstructures were compared to estimate the cooling rate in HPDC. The solidification characteristics including liquidus/solidus temperature and dendrite arm spacing of each alloy and each cooling rate was analyzed and the results showed strong proportional relationship between dendrite arm spacing and cooling rate in HPDC. The results were also compared with the actual die casting specimens and MAGMA simulation.

  7. High pressure die casting of Fe-based metallic glass.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Parthiban; Szabo, Attila; Borzel, Stefan; Eckert, Jürgen; Stoica, Mihai; Bárdos, András

    2016-10-11

    Soft ferromagnetic Fe-based bulk metallic glass key-shaped specimens with a maximum and minimum width of 25.4 and 5 mm, respectively, were successfully produced using a high pressure die casting (HPDC) method, The influence of die material, alloy temperature and flow rate on the microstructure, thermal stability and soft ferromagnetic properties has been studied. The results suggest that a steel die in which the molten metal flows at low rate and high temperature can be used to produce completely glassy samples. This can be attributed to the laminar filling of the mold and to a lower heat transfer coefficient, which avoids the skin effect in the steel mold. In addition, magnetic measurements reveal that the amorphous structure of the material is maintained throughout the key-shaped samples. Although it is difficult to control the flow and cooling rate of the molten metal in the corners of the key due to different cross sections, this can be overcome by proper tool geometry. The present results confirm that HPDC is a suitable method for the casting of Fe-based bulk glassy alloys even with complex geometries for a broad range of applications.

  8. High pressure die casting of Fe-based metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Parthiban; Szabo, Attila; Borzel, Stefan; Eckert, Jürgen; Stoica, Mihai; Bárdos, András

    2016-10-01

    Soft ferromagnetic Fe-based bulk metallic glass key-shaped specimens with a maximum and minimum width of 25.4 and 5 mm, respectively, were successfully produced using a high pressure die casting (HPDC) method, The influence of die material, alloy temperature and flow rate on the microstructure, thermal stability and soft ferromagnetic properties has been studied. The results suggest that a steel die in which the molten metal flows at low rate and high temperature can be used to produce completely glassy samples. This can be attributed to the laminar filling of the mold and to a lower heat transfer coefficient, which avoids the skin effect in the steel mold. In addition, magnetic measurements reveal that the amorphous structure of the material is maintained throughout the key-shaped samples. Although it is difficult to control the flow and cooling rate of the molten metal in the corners of the key due to different cross sections, this can be overcome by proper tool geometry. The present results confirm that HPDC is a suitable method for the casting of Fe-based bulk glassy alloys even with complex geometries for a broad range of applications.

  9. High pressure die casting of Fe-based metallic glass

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Parthiban; Szabo, Attila; Borzel, Stefan; Eckert, Jürgen; Stoica, Mihai; Bárdos, András

    2016-01-01

    Soft ferromagnetic Fe-based bulk metallic glass key-shaped specimens with a maximum and minimum width of 25.4 and 5 mm, respectively, were successfully produced using a high pressure die casting (HPDC) method, The influence of die material, alloy temperature and flow rate on the microstructure, thermal stability and soft ferromagnetic properties has been studied. The results suggest that a steel die in which the molten metal flows at low rate and high temperature can be used to produce completely glassy samples. This can be attributed to the laminar filling of the mold and to a lower heat transfer coefficient, which avoids the skin effect in the steel mold. In addition, magnetic measurements reveal that the amorphous structure of the material is maintained throughout the key-shaped samples. Although it is difficult to control the flow and cooling rate of the molten metal in the corners of the key due to different cross sections, this can be overcome by proper tool geometry. The present results confirm that HPDC is a suitable method for the casting of Fe-based bulk glassy alloys even with complex geometries for a broad range of applications. PMID:27725780

  10. Evaluating the Tensile Properties of Aluminum Foundry Alloys through Reference Castings-A Review.

    PubMed

    Anilchandra, A R; Arnberg, Lars; Bonollo, Franco; Fiorese, Elena; Timelli, Giulio

    2017-08-30

    The tensile properties of an alloy can be exploited if detrimental defects and imperfections of the casting are minimized and the microstructural characteristics are optimized through several strategies that involve die design, process management and metal treatments. This paper presents an analysis and comparison of the salient characteristics of the reference dies proposed in the literature, both in the field of pressure and gravity die-casting. The specimens produced with these reference dies, called separately poured specimens, are effective tools for the evaluation and comparison of the tensile and physical behaviors of Al-Si casting alloys. Some of the findings of the present paper have been recently developed in the frame of the European StaCast project whose results are complemented here with some more recent outcomes and a comprehensive analysis and discussion.

  11. Limitation of Shrinkage Porosity in Aluminum Rotor Die Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Chan; Choi, Se-Weon; Kim, Cheol-Woo; Cho, Jae-Ik; Lee, Sung-Ho; Kang, Chang-Seog

    Aluminum rotor prone to have many casting defects especially large amount of air and shrinkage porosity, which caused eccentricity, loss and noise during motor operation. Many attempts have been made to develop methods of shrinkage porosity control, but still there are some problems to solve. In this research, the process of vacuum squeeze die casting is proposed for limitation of defects. The 6 pin point gated dies which were in capable of local squeeze at the end ring were used. Influences of filling patterns on HPDC were evaluated and the important process control parameters were high injection speed, squeeze length, venting and process conditions. By using local squeeze and vacuum during filling and solidification, air and shrinkage porosity were significantly reduced and the feeding efficiency at the upper end ring was improved 10%. As a result of controlling the defects, the dynamometer test showed improved motor efficiency by more than 4%.

  12. Deburring die-castings by wet vibratory plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeschbart, H. M.

    1980-02-01

    A wet vibratory procedure for the removal of burrs from die castings is described. In this process synthetic abrasive chips and detergent solutions are agitated with the work in such a way as to produce a spiral circulatory movement. Details of various forms of vibrator basin and shapes of abrasive are illustrated. The automation of deburring is illustrated through the application of vibrators of spiral design in combination with transport and drying devices.

  13. Deburring die-castings by wet vibratory plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeschbart, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    A wet vibratory procedure for the removal of burrs from die castings is described. In this process synthetic abrasive chips and detergent solutions are agitated with the work in such a way as to produce a spiral circulatory movement. Details of various forms of vibrator basin and shapes of abrasive are illustrated. The automation of deburring is illustrated through the application of vibrators of spiral design in combination with transport and drying devices.

  14. Simulation for grinding balls production using sand mold-gravity casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurjaman, F.; Shofi, A.; Herlina, U.; Prilitasari, N. M.; Triapriani, Y.

    2018-01-01

    In this present work, the grinding balls from high chromium white cast iron (ASTM A-532) were produced by using sand mold-gravity casting. The simulation casting process was conducted before making these grinding balls by using SOLIDCast™ version 8.2.0. The gating system design and the pouring temperature of hot metal were investigated clearly to obtain grinding balls with no-defect. The sound casting of grinding balls was resulted by using the proper gating system with the addition of vent air on the top of each grinding ball’s mold. The dimension of vent air was reduced by the increasing of pouring temperature, thus it resulted on the increasing of the yield production of grinding balls.

  15. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Melting Efficiency in Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam

    2012-12-15

    This project addressed multiple aspects of the aluminum melting and handling in die casting operations, with the objective of increasing the energy efficiency while improving the quality of the molten metal. The efficiency of melting has always played an important role in the profitability of aluminum die casting operations. Consequently, die casters need to make careful choices in selecting and operating melting equipment and procedures. The capital cost of new melting equipment with higher efficiency can sometimes be recovered relatively fast when it replaces old melting equipment with lower efficiency. Upgrades designed to improve energy efficiency of existing equipment maymore » be well justified. Energy efficiency is however not the only factor in optimizing melting operations. Melt losses and metal quality are also very important. Selection of melting equipment has to take into consideration the specific conditions at the die casting shop such as availability of floor space, average quantity of metal used as well as the ability to supply more metal during peaks in demand. In all these cases, it is essential to make informed decisions based on the best available data.« less

  16. Modeling of microstructure evolution of magnesium alloy during the high pressure die casting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mengwu; Xiong, Shoumei

    2012-07-01

    Two important microstructure characteristics of high pressure die cast magnesium alloy are the externally solidified crystals (ESCs) and the fully divorced eutectic which form at the filling stage of the shot sleeve and at the last stage of solidification in the die cavity, respectively. Both of them have a significant influence on the mechanical properties and performance of magnesium alloy die castings. In the present paper, a numerical model based on the cellular automaton (CA) method was developed to simulate the microstructure evolution of magnesium alloy during cold-chamber high pressure die casting (HPDC) process. Modeling of dendritic growth of magnesium alloy with six-fold symmetry was achieved by defining a special neighbourhood configuration and calculating of the growth kinetics from complete solution of the transport equations. Special attention was paid to establish a nucleation model considering both of the nucleation of externally solidified crystals in the shot sleeve and the massive nucleation in the die cavity. Meanwhile, simulation of the formation of fully divorced eutectic was also taken into account in the present CA model. Validation was performed and the capability of the present model was addressed by comparing the simulated results with those obtained by experiments.

  17. Marginal adaptation of four inlay casting waxes on stone, titanium, and zirconia dies.

    PubMed

    Michalakis, Konstantinos X; Kapsampeli, Vassiliki; Kitsou, Aikaterini; Kirmanidou, Yvone; Fotiou, Anna; Pissiotis, Argirios L; Calvani, Pasquale Lino; Hirayama, Hiroshi; Kudara, Yukio

    2014-07-01

    Different inlay casting waxes do not produce copings with satisfactory marginal accuracy when used on different die materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the marginal accuracy of 4 inlay casting waxes on stone dies and titanium and zirconia abutments and to correlate the findings with the degree of wetting between the die specimens and the inlay casting waxes. The inlay casting waxes tested were Starwax (Dentaurum), Unterziehwachs (Bredent), SU Esthetic wax (Schuler), and Sculpturing wax (Renfert). The marginal opening of the waxes was measured with a stereomicroscope on high-strength stone dies and on titanium and zirconia abutments. Photographic images were obtained, and the mean marginal opening for each specimen was calculated. A total of 1440 measurements were made. Wetting between die materials and waxes was determined after fabricating stone, titanium, and zirconia rectangular specimens. A calibrated pipette was used to place a drop of molten wax onto each specimen. The contact angle was calculated with software after an image of each specimen had been made with a digital camera. Collected data were subjected to a 2-way analysis of variance (α=.05). Any association between marginal accuracy and wetting of different materials was found by using the Pearson correlation. The wax factor had a statistically significant effect both on the marginal discrepancy (F=158.31, P<.001) and contact angle values (F=68.09, P<.001). A statistically significant effect of the die material factor both on the marginal adaptation (F=503.47, P<.001) and contact angle values (F=585.02, P<.001) was detected. A significant correlation between the marginal accuracy and the contact angle values (Pearson=0.881, P=.01) was also found. Stone dies provided wax copings with the best marginal integrity, followed by titanium and zirconia abutments. Unterziehwachs (Bredent), wax produced the best marginal adaptation on different die materials. A significant correlation was found

  18. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Improved Die Casting Process to Preserve the Life of the Inserts

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam, PI; Xuejun Zhu, Sr. Research Associate

    2012-09-30

    The goal of this project was to study the combined effects of die design, proper internal cooling and efficient die lubricants on die life. The project targeted improvements in die casting insert life by: Optomized Die Design for Reduced Surface Temperature: The life of die casting dies is significantly shorter when the die is exposed to elevated temperature for significant periods of time. Any die operated under conditions leading to surface temperature in excess of 1050oF undergoes structural changes that reduce its strength. Optimized die design can improve die life significantly. This improvement can be accomplished by means of coolingmore » lines, baffles and bubblers in the die. A key objective of the project was to establish criteria for the minimal distance of the cooling lines from the surface. This effort was supported with alloys and machining by BohlerUddeholm, Dunn Steel, HH Stark and Rex Buckeye. In plant testing and evaluation was conducted as in-kind cost share at St. Clair Die Casting. The Uddeholm Dievar steel evaluated in this program showed superior resistance to thermal fatigue resistance. Based on the experimental evidence, cooling lines could be placed as close as 0.5" from the surface. Die Life Extension by Optimized Die Lubrication: The life of die casting dies is affected by additions made to its surface with the proper lubricants. These lubricants will protect the surface from the considerable temperature peaks that occur when the molten melt enters the die. Dies will reach a significantly higher temperature without this lubricant being applied. The amount and type of the lubricant are critical variables in the die casting process. However, these lubricants must not corrode the die surface. This effort was supported with alloys and machining by BohlerUddeholm, Dunn Steel, HH Stark and Rex Buckeye. In plant testing and evaluation was conducted as in-kind cost share at St. Clair Die Casting. Chem- Trend participated in the program

  19. Fatigue properties of die cast zinc alloys for automotive lock applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schrems, Karol K.; Dogan, Omer N.; Goodwin, F.E.

    2004-06-01

    During the 1970’s many automotive lock systems were converted from zinc die casting alloys to engineering plastics for reasons of weight and cost. Recent increases in requirements for precision and security have caused automotive and other lock designers to reconsider zinc alloy die-castings for these applications. To enable this, there is a need for mechanical property data comparable to that of the plastics materials used in these applications. In this work, rotary bending fatigue tests were performed on Alloys 3, 5, ZA-8 and AcuZinc 5 using an R.R. Moore fatigue machine. Testing was performed at 30 Hz and was stoppedmore » at 1x107 cycles. The fatigue limit results were compared to data reported in the literature for higher number of cycles and faster rotations.« less

  20. Fabrication process analysis and experimental verification for aluminum bipolar plates in fuel cells by vacuum die-casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chul Kyu; Kang, Chung Gil

    2011-10-01

    There are various methods for the fabrication of bipolar plates, but these are still limited to machining and stamping processes. High-pressure die casting (HPDC) is an ideal process for the manufacture of bipolar plates This study aims to investigate the formability of bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) fabricated by vacuum HPDC of an Al-Mg alloy (ALDC6). The cavity of the mold consisted of a thin-walled plate (200 mm × 200 mm × 0.8 mm) with a layer of serpentine channel (50 mm × 50 mm). The location and direction of the channel in the final mold design was determined by computational simulation (MAGMA soft). In addition, simulation results for different conditions of plunger stroke control were compared to those from actual die-casting experiments. Under a vacuum pressure of 35 kPa and for injection speeds of 0.3 and 2.5 m s-1 in the low and high speed regions, respectively, the samples had few casting defects. In addition, the hardness was higher and porosity in microstructure was less than those of the samples made under other injection speed conditions. In case of thin-walled plates, vacuum die casting is beneficial in terms of formability compared to conventional die casting.

  1. Development of Thin Section Zinc Die Casting Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, Frank

    2013-10-31

    A new high fluidity zinc high pressure die casting alloy, termed the HF alloy, was developed during laboratory trials and proven in industrial production. The HF alloy permits castings to be achieved with section thicknesses of 0.3 mm or less. Technology transfer activities were conducted to develop usage of the HF high fluidity alloy. These included production of a brochure and a one-hour webinar on the HF alloy. The brochure was then sent to 1,184 product designers in the Interzinc database. There was excellent reception to this mailing, and from this initial contact 5 technology transfer seminars were conducted formore » 81 participants from 30 companies across a wide range of business sectors. Many of the successful applications to date involve high quality surface finishes. Design and manufacturing assistance was given for development of selected applications.« less

  2. Tribological and Wear Performance of Nanocomposite PVD Hard Coatings Deposited on Aluminum Die Casting Tool

    PubMed Central

    Fox-Rabinovich, German; Locks Junior, Edinei; Stolf, Pietro; Matos Martins, Marcelo

    2018-01-01

    In the aluminum die casting process, erosion, corrosion, soldering, and die sticking have a significant influence on tool life and product quality. A number of coatings such as TiN, CrN, and (Cr,Al)N deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) have been employed to act as protective coatings due to their high hardness and chemical stability. In this study, the wear performance of two nanocomposite AlTiN and AlCrN coatings with different structures were evaluated. These coatings were deposited on aluminum die casting mold tool substrates (AISI H13 hot work steel) by PVD using pulsed cathodic arc evaporation, equipped with three lateral arc-rotating cathodes (LARC) and one central rotating cathode (CERC). The research was performed in two stages: in the first stage, the outlined coatings were characterized regarding their chemical composition, morphology, and structure using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Surface morphology and mechanical properties were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nanoindentation. The coating adhesion was studied using Mersedes test and scratch testing. During the second stage, industrial tests were carried out for coated die casting molds. In parallel, tribological tests were also performed in order to determine if a correlation between laboratory and industrial tests can be drawn. All of the results were compared with a benchmark monolayer AlCrN coating. The data obtained show that the best performance was achieved for the AlCrN/Si3N4 nanocomposite coating that displays an optimum combination of hardness, adhesion, soldering behavior, oxidation resistance, and stress state. These characteristics are essential for improving the die mold service life. Therefore, this coating emerges as a novelty to be used to protect aluminum die casting molds. PMID:29495620

  3. Tribological and Wear Performance of Nanocomposite PVD Hard Coatings Deposited on Aluminum Die Casting Tool.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Jose Mario; Fox-Rabinovich, German; Locks Junior, Edinei; Stolf, Pietro; Seid Ahmed, Yassmin; Matos Martins, Marcelo; Bork, Carlos; Veldhuis, Stephen

    2018-02-28

    In the aluminum die casting process, erosion, corrosion, soldering, and die sticking have a significant influence on tool life and product quality. A number of coatings such as TiN, CrN, and (Cr,Al)N deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) have been employed to act as protective coatings due to their high hardness and chemical stability. In this study, the wear performance of two nanocomposite AlTiN and AlCrN coatings with different structures were evaluated. These coatings were deposited on aluminum die casting mold tool substrates (AISI H13 hot work steel) by PVD using pulsed cathodic arc evaporation, equipped with three lateral arc-rotating cathodes (LARC) and one central rotating cathode (CERC). The research was performed in two stages: in the first stage, the outlined coatings were characterized regarding their chemical composition, morphology, and structure using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Surface morphology and mechanical properties were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nanoindentation. The coating adhesion was studied using Mersedes test and scratch testing. During the second stage, industrial tests were carried out for coated die casting molds. In parallel, tribological tests were also performed in order to determine if a correlation between laboratory and industrial tests can be drawn. All of the results were compared with a benchmark monolayer AlCrN coating. The data obtained show that the best performance was achieved for the AlCrN/Si₃N₄ nanocomposite coating that displays an optimum combination of hardness, adhesion, soldering behavior, oxidation resistance, and stress state. These characteristics are essential for improving the die mold service life. Therefore, this coating emerges as a novelty to be used to protect aluminum die casting molds.

  4. Interlocking multi-material components made of structured steel sheets and high-pressure die cast aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senge, S.; Brachmann, J.; Hirt, G.; Bührig-Polaczek, A.

    2017-10-01

    Lightweight design is a major driving force of innovation, especially in the automotive industry. Using hybrid components made of two or more different materials is one approach to reduce the vehicles weight and decrease fuel consumption. As a possible way to increase the stiffness of multi-material components, this paper presents a process chain to produce such components made of steel sheets and high-pressure die cast aluminium. Prior to the casting sequence the steel sheets are structured in a modified rolling process which enables continuous interlocking with the aluminium. Two structures manufactured by this rolling process are tested. The first one is a channel like structure and the second one is a channel like structure with undercuts. These undercuts enable the formation of small anchors when the molten aluminium fills them. The correlation between thickness reduction during rolling and the shape of the resulting structure was evaluated for both structures. It can be stated that channels with a depth of up to 0.5 mm and a width of 1 mm could be created. Undercuts with different size depending on the thickness reduction could be realised. Subsequent aluminium high-pressure die casting experiments were performed to determine if the surface structure can be filled gap-free with molten aluminium during the casting sequence and if a gap-free connection can be achieved after contraction of the aluminium. The casting experiments showed that both structures could be filled during the high-pressure die casting. The channel like structure results in a gap between steel and aluminium after contraction of the cast metal whereas the structure with undercuts leads to a good interlocking resulting in a gap-free connection.

  5. Prediction of Thermal Fatigue in Tooling for Die-casting Copper via Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhuja, Amit; Brevick, Jerald R.

    2004-06-01

    Recent research by the Copper Development Association (CDA) has demonstrated the feasibility of die-casting electric motor rotors using copper. Electric motors using copper rotors are significantly more energy efficient relative to motors using aluminum rotors. However, one of the challenges in copper rotor die-casting is low tool life. Experiments have shown that the higher molten metal temperature of copper (1085 °C), as compared to aluminum (660 °C) accelerates the onset of thermal fatigue or heat checking in traditional H-13 tool steel. This happens primarily because the mechanical properties of H-13 tool steel decrease significantly above 650 °C. Potential approaches to mitigate the heat checking problem include: 1) identification of potential tool materials having better high temperature mechanical properties than H-13, and 2) reduction of the magnitude of cyclic thermal excursions experienced by the tooling by increasing the bulk die temperature. A preliminary assessment of alternative tool materials has led to the selection of nickel-based alloys Haynes 230 and Inconel 617 as potential candidates. These alloys were selected based on their elevated temperature physical and mechanical properties. Therefore, the overall objective of this research work was to predict the number of copper rotor die-casting cycles to the onset of heat checking (tool life) as a function of bulk die temperature (up to 650 °C) for Haynes 230 and Inconel 617 alloys. To achieve these goals, a 2D thermo-mechanical FEA was performed to evaluate strain ranges on selected die surfaces. The method of Universal Slopes (Strain Life Method) was then employed for thermal fatigue life predictions.

  6. Microstructural analysis of aluminum high pressure die castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Maria Diana

    Microstructural analysis of aluminum high pressure die castings (HPDC) is challenging and time consuming. Automating the stereology method is an efficient way in obtaining quantitative data; however, validating the accuracy of this technique can also pose some challenges. In this research, a semi-automated algorithm to quantify microstructural features in aluminum HPDC was developed. Analysis was done near the casting surface where it exhibited fine microstructure. Optical and Secondary electron (SE) and backscatter electron (BSE) SEM images were taken to characterize the features in the casting. Image processing steps applied on SEM and optical micrographs included median and range filters, dilation, erosion, and a hole-closing function. Measurements were done on different image pixel resolutions that ranged from 3 to 35 pixel/μm. Pixel resolutions below 6 px/μm were too low for the algorithm to distinguish the phases from each other. At resolutions higher than 6 px/μm, the volume fraction of primary α-Al and the line intercept count curves plateaued. Within this range, comparable results were obtained validating the assumption that there is a range of image pixel resolution relative to the size of the casting features at which stereology measurements become independent of the image resolution. Volume fraction within this curve plateau was consistent with the manual measurements while the line intercept count was significantly higher using the computerized technique for all resolutions. This was attributed to the ragged edges of some primary α-Al; hence, the algorithm still needs some improvements. Further validation of the code using other castings or alloys with known phase amount and size may also be beneficial.

  7. Notched bar Izod impact properties of zinc die castings

    SciTech Connect

    Schrems, K.K.; Dogan, O.N.; Goodwin, F.E.

    2007-03-01

    Notched bar Izod impact testing of zinc die cast Alloy 3, Alloy 5, ZA-8, and AcuZinc 5 was performed at five temperatures between -40\\mDC and room temperature in accordance with ASTM E23 for impact testing of metallic materials. A direct comparison between ASTM D256 for impact testing of plastics and ASTM E23 was performed using continuously cast zinc specimens of Alloy 5 and ZA-8 at -40\\mDC and room temperature. There are differences in sample sizes, impact velocity, and striker geometry between the two tests. Bulk zinc tested according to ASTM E23 resulted in higher impact energies at -40\\mDC and lowermore » impact energies at room temperature then did the same alloys when tested according to ASTM D256.« less

  8. Secondary Al-Si-Mg High-pressure Die Casting Alloys with Enhanced Ductility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bösch, Dominik; Pogatscher, Stefan; Hummel, Marc; Fragner, Werner; Uggowitzer, Peter J.; Göken, Mathias; Höppel, Heinz Werner

    2015-03-01

    Al-Si-Mg-based secondary cast alloys are attractive candidates for thin-walled high-pressure die castings for applications in the transport industry. The present study investigates the effect of manganese additions at high cooling rates on microstructure, mechanical properties, and on the dominating fracture mechanisms of alloy AlSi10Mg with an elevated iron concentration. Systematic variations of the Mn content from 0.20 to 0.85 wt pct at a constant Fe content of 0.55 wt pct illustrate the key changes in type, phase fraction, and shape of the Fe-containing intermetallic phases, and the corresponding influence on the alloy's ductility. For high-pressure die casting (HPDC), an optimal range of the Mn content between 0.40 and 0.60 wt pct, equivalent to a Mn/Fe ratio of approximately 1, has been identified. At these Mn and Fe contents, the high cooling rates obtained in HPDC result in the formation of fine and homogeneously distributed α-Al15(Fe,Mn)3Si2 phase, and crack initiation is transferred from AlFeSi intermetallics to eutectic silicon. The study interprets the microstructure-property relationship in the light of thermodynamic calculations which reveal a significant increase in undercooling of the α-Al15(Fe,Mn)3Si2 phase with increased Mn content. It concludes that the interdependence of the well-defined Mn/Fe ratio and the high cooling rate in HPDC can generate superior ductility in secondary AlSi10Mg cast alloys.

  9. Thermal Stress Analysis for Ceramics Stalk in the Low Pressure Die Casting Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Nao-Aki; Hendra, Nao-Aki; Takase, Yasushi; Li, Wenbin

    Low pressure die casting (LPDC) is defined as a net shape casting technology in which the molten metal is injected at high speeds and pressure into a metallic die. The LPDC process is playing an increasingly important role in the foundry industry as a low-cost and high-efficiency precision forming technique. The LPDC process is that the permanent die and filling systems are placed over the furnace containing the molten alloy. The filling of the cavity is obtained by forcing the molten metal by means of a pressurized gas in order to rise into a ceramic tube, which connects the die to the furnace. The ceramics tube called stalk has high temperature resistance and high corrosion resistance. However, attention should be paid to the thermal stress when the stalk is dipped into the molten aluminum. It is important to develop the design of the stalk to reduce the risk of fracture because of low fracture toughness of ceramics. In this paper, therefore, the finite element method is applied to calculate the thermal stresses when the stalk is dipped into the crucible by varying the dipping speeds and dipping directions. It is found that the thermal stress can be reduced by dipping slowly if the stalk is dipped into the crucible vertically, while the thermal stress can be reduced by dipping fast if it is dipped horizontally.

  10. ELF-MF Occupational Exposure in Die-casting and Electroplating Workers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Rajitha Kawshalya, Mailan Arachchige Don; Jung, Joon-Sig; Lee, Yun-Jin; Hong, Seung-Cheol

    2018-04-26

    A 24-h exposure assessment was performed in two groups of blue-collar workers from a die-casting and an electroplating plant to investigate levels of exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF), using EMDEX Lite. ELF-MF exposure of workers from the die-casting plant AM±SD (AM=arithmetic mean, SD=standard deviation) (0.649±1.343µT)] is higher than in electroplating workers (0.138±0.045µT). Higher ELF-MF exposure was found among workers living in same building as their workplace compared to that among other workers. This study suggests that ELF-MF exposure levels should be taken into consideration when providing dormitories for workers to minimize the levels of residential ELF-MF exposure due to emission from plants. The study recommends that blue-collar workers should be made aware of measures to minimize their exposure to environmental agents such as ELF-MF and electromagnetic field (EMF) during work, such as maintaining a safe distance between machines and avoiding undesirable behavior with equipment.

  11. Determining casting defects in near-net shape casting aluminum parts by computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiehua; Oberdorfer, Bernd; Habe, Daniel; Schumacher, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Three types of near-net shape casting aluminum parts were investigated by computed tomography to determine casting defects and evaluate quality. The first, second, and third parts were produced by low-pressure die casting (Al-12Si-0.8Cu-0.5Fe-0.9Mg-0.7Ni-0.2Zn alloy), die casting (A356, Al-7Si-0.3Mg), and semi-solid casting (A356, Al-7Si-0.3Mg), respectively. Unlike die casting (second part), low-pressure die casting (first part) significantly reduced the formation of casting defects (i.e., porosity) due to its smooth filling and solidification under pressure. No significant casting defect was observed in the third part, and this absence of defects indicates that semi-solid casting could produce high-quality near-net shape casting aluminum parts. Moreover, casting defects were mostly distributed along the eutectic grain boundaries. This finding reveals that refinement of eutectic grains is necessary to optimize the distribution of casting defects and reduce their size. This investigation demonstrated that computed tomography is an efficient method to determine casting defects in near-net shape casting aluminum parts.

  12. Formation Mechanism of Discoloration on Die-Cast AZ91D Components Surface After Chemical Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bao-sheng; Wei, Ying-hui; Hou, Li-feng

    2013-01-01

    A notebook (NB) computer component was manufactured from AZ91D Mg alloy by a die-casting process. After chemical conversion treatment, a discoloration was noted on the component surface. The source of this discoloration has been studied in detail by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and spark atomic absorption spectroscopy. The corrosion resistance was also measured by potentiodynamic polarization, hydrogen evolution and salt spray testing. The formation mechanism for the discoloration which was caused by the residue left behind by excess mold release agent sprayed during the die-casting was discussed in detail. After chemical conversion treatment, the residual-baked mold release agent was apparent on the component surface as "white ash." Consequently, it degraded seriously both the appearance and the corrosion resistance of the manufactured component.

  13. Casting Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michael D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Three articles discuss (1) casting technology as it relates to industry, with comparisons of shell casting, shell molding, and die casting; (2) evaporative pattern casting for metals; and (3) high technological casting with silicone rubber. (JOW)

  14. Process research into metallic pipe wear of hot chamber die casting machines and methods ofincreasing wear resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhametzyanova, G. F.; Kolesnikov, MS; Mukhametzyanov, I. R.; Astatshenko, V. I.

    2017-09-01

    The kinetics and reasons for metallic pipe wear of hot chamberzinc alloy die casting machines are established.Increasing metallic pipe wear components wear resistance is being achieved by means of die steelДИ - 22 with electroslag remelting modification and electron-beamremelting modification and after the processes of nitriding and boriding besides.

  15. Improved design and durability of aluminum die casting horizontal shot sleeves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birceanu, Sebastian

    The design and performance of shot sleeves is critical in meeting the engineering requirements of aluminum die cast parts. Improvement in shot sleeve materials have a major impact on dimensional stability, reproducibility and quality of the product. This investigation was undertaken in order to improve the life of aluminum die casting horizontal shot sleeves. Preliminary pin tests were run to evaluate the soldering, wash-out and thermal fatigue behavior of commercially available materials and coatings. An experimental rig was designed and constructed for shot sleeve configuration evaluation. Fabrication and testing of experimental shot sleeves was based upon preliminary results and manufacturing costs. Three shot sleeve designs and materials were compared to a reference nitrided H13 sleeve. Nitrided H13 is the preferred material for aluminum die casting shot sleeves because of wear resistance, strength and relative good soldering and wash-out resistance. The study was directed towards damage evaluation on the area under the pouring hole. This area is the most susceptible to damage because of high temperatures and impingement of molten aluminum. The results of this study showed that tungsten and molybdenum had the least amount of soldering and wash-out damage, and the best thermal fatigue resistance. Low solubility in molten aluminum and stability of intermetallic layers are main factors that determine the soldering and wash-out behavior. Thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient directly influence thermal fatigue behavior. TiAlN nanolayered coating was chosen as the material with the best damage resistance among several commercial PVD coatings, because of relatively large thickness and simple deposition conditions. The results show that molybdenum thermal sprayed coating provided the best protection against damage under the pouring hole. Improved bonding is however required for life extension of the coating. TiAlN PVD coating applied on H13 nitrided

  16. Cradle-to-Gate Impact Assessment of a High-Pressure Die-Casting Safety-Relevant Automotive Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchel, Silvia; Cornacchia, Giovanna; Panvini, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    The mass of automotive components has a direct influence on several aspects of vehicle performance, including both fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions, but the real environmental benefit has to be evaluated considering the entire life of the products with a proper life cycle assessment. In this context, the present paper analyzes the environmental burden connected to the production of a safety-relevant aluminum high-pressure die-casting component for commercial vehicles (a suspension cross-beam) considering all the phases connected to its manufacture. The focus on aluminum high-pressure die casting reflects the current trend of the industry and its high energy consumption. This work shows a new method that deeply analyzes every single step of the component's production through the implementation of a wide database of primary data collected thanks to collaborations of some automotive supplier companies. This energy analysis shows significant environmental benefits of aluminum recycling.

  17. Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Die-Cast Mg Alloy AZ91

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettberg, Luke; Anderson, Warwick; Jones, J. Wayne

    An investigation has been conducted on the influence of microstructure and artificial aging response (T6) on the low-cycle fatigue behavior of super vacuum die-cast (SVDC) AZ91. Fatigue lifetimes were determined from total strain-controlled fatigue tests for strain amplitudes of 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6%, under fully reversed loading at a frequency of 5 Hz. Cyclic stress-strain behavior was determined using incremental step test (IST) methods. Two locations in a prototype casting with different thicknesses and, therefore, solidification rates, microstructure and porosity, were examined. In general., at all total strain amplitudes fatigue life was unaffected by microstructure refinement and was attributed to significant levels of porosity. Cyclic softening and a subsequent increased cyclic hardening rate, compared to monotonic tests, were observed, independent of microstructure. These results, fractography and damage accumulation processes, determined from metallographic sectioning, are discussed.

  18. The influence of flushing time on the bonding quality of liquid white cast iron on the solid surface of similar material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandanadjaja, Beny; Purwadi, Wiwik; Idamayanti, Dewi; Lilansa, Noval; Hanaldi, Kus; Nurzaenal, Friya Kurnia

    2018-05-01

    Hard metal castings are widely used in the coal mill pulverizer as construction material for coal crushers. During its operation crushers and mills experience degradation caused by abrasion load. This research dealed with the surface overlaying of similiar material on the surface of white cast iron by mean of gravity casting. The die blank casting was preheated prior to the casting process of outer layer made of Ni-Hard white cast iron to guarantee bonding processes and avoid any crack. The preheating temperature of die blankin ther range of 500C up to 850C was set up to reach the interface temperature in the range of 887°C -1198°C and the flushing time was varied between 10-20 seconds. Studies carried on the microstructure of sample material revealed a formation of metallurgical bonding at the preheating temperature above 625 °C by pouring temperature ranging from 1438 °C to 1468 °C. Metallographical and chemical composition by mean of EDS examination were performed to observed the resut. This research concludes that the casting of Ni-Hard 1 overlay by applying gravity casting method can be done by preheating the surface of casting to 625 °C, interface temperature of 1150 °C, flushing time of 7 seconds and pouring temperature of 1430 °C. Excellent metallurgical bonding at the contact area between dieblank and overlay material has been achieved in which there is no parting line at the interface area to be observed.

  19. 2D and 3D characterization of pore defects in die cast AM60

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhuofei; CanmetMATERIALS, 183 Longwood Road South, Hamilton L8P 0A5, Ontario Canada; Maurey, Alexandre

    2016-04-15

    The widespread application of die castings can be hampered due to the potential of large scale porosity to act as nucleation sites for fracture and fatigue. It is therefore important to develop robust approaches to the characterization of porosity providing parameters that can be linked to the material's mechanical properties. We have tackled this problem in a study of the AM60 die cast Mg alloy, using samples extracted from a prototype shock tower. A quantitative characterization of porosity has been undertaken, analyzing porosity in both 2D (using classical metallographic methods) and in 3D (using X-ray computed tomography (XCT)). Metallographic characterizationmore » results show that shrinkage pores and small gas pores can be distinguished based on their distinct geometrical features. Shrinkage pores are irregular with multiple arms, resulting in a form factor less than 0.4. In contrast, gas pores are generally more circular in shape yielding form factors larger than 0.6. XCT provides deeper insight into the shape of pores, although this understanding is limited by the resolution obtainable by laboratory based XCT. It also shows how 2D sectioning can produce artefacts as single complex pores are sectioned into multiple small pores. - Highlights: • Mg (e.g. AM60) die castings may contain large scale porosity that act as nucleation sites for fracture and fatigue • Quantitative characterization of porosity metallography (2D) and X-ray tomography (3D) is used • Shrinkage pores and small gas pores can be distinguished based on their distinct geometrical features. • Shrinkage pores are irregular giving a form factor < 0.4; gas pores are rounder with form factors > 0.6 • XCT enables pore visualization, although limited by the resolution obtainable by laboratory based XCT.« less

  20. The fuzzy algorithm in the die casting mould for the application of multi-channel temperature control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jin-gen; Chen, Yi; Zhang, Jia-nan

    2017-01-01

    Mould manufacturing is one of the most basic elements in the production chain of China. The mould manufacturing technology has become an important symbol to measure the level of a country's manufacturing industry. The die-casting mould multichannel intelligent temperature control method is studied by cooling water circulation, which uses fuzzy control to realize, aiming at solving the shortcomings of slow speed and big energy consumption during the cooling process of current die-casting mould. At present, the traditional PID control method is used to control the temperature, but it is difficult to ensure the control precision. While , the fuzzy algorithm is used to realize precise control of mould temperature in cooling process. The design is simple, fast response, strong anti-interference ability and good robustness. Simulation results show that the control method is completely feasible, which has higher control precision.

  1. Quantitative Experimental Study of Defects Induced by Process Parameters in the High-Pressure Die Cast Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, P.; Jamali, J.; Sadayappan, K.; Wood, J. T.

    2018-05-01

    A quantitative experimental study of the effects of process parameters on the formation of defects during solidification of high-pressure die cast magnesium alloy components is presented. The parameters studied are slow-stage velocity, fast-stage velocity, intensification pressure, and die temperature. The amount of various defects are quantitatively characterized. Multiple runs of the commercial casting simulation package, ProCAST™, are used to model the mold-filling and solidification events. Several locations in the component including knit lines, last-to-fill region, and last-to-solidify region are identified as the critical regions that have a high concentration of defects. The area fractions of total porosity, shrinkage porosity, gas porosity, and externally solidified grains are separately measured. This study shows that the process parameters, fluid flow and local solidification conditions, play major roles in the formation of defects during HPDC process.

  2. Experimental Damage Criterion for Static and Fatigue Life Assessment of Commercial Aluminum Alloy Die Castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, Eleonora; Bonollo, Franco; Ferro, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    Defects, particularly porosity and oxides, in high-pressure die casting can seriously compromise the in-service behavior and durability of products subjected to static or cyclic loadings. In this study, the influence of dimension, orientation, and position of casting defects on the mechanical properties of an AlSi12(b) (EN-AC 44100) aluminum alloy commercial component has been studied. A finite element model has been carried out in order to calculate the stress distribution induced by service loads and identify the crack initiation zones. Castings were qualitatively classified on the basis of porosities distribution detected by X-ray technique and oxides observed on fracture surfaces of specimens coming from fatigue and tensile tests. A damage criterion has been formulated which considers the influence of defects position and orientation on the mechanical strength of the components. Using the proposed damage criterion, it was possible to describe the mechanical behavior of the castings with good accuracy.

  3. Development of a 3D Filling Model of Low-Pressure Die-Cast Aluminum Alloy Wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jianglan; Maijer, Daan; Cockcroft, Steve; Reilly, Carl

    2013-12-01

    A two-phase computational fluid dynamics model of the low-pressure die-cast process for the production of A356 aluminum alloy wheels has been developed to predict the flow conditions during die filling. The filling model represents a 36-deg section of a production wheel, and was developed within the commercial finite-volume package, ANSYS CFX, assuming isothermal conditions. To fully understand the behavior of the free surface, a novel technique was developed to approximate the vent resistances as they impact on the development of a backpressure within the die cavity. The filling model was first validated against experimental data, and then was used to investigate the effects of venting conditions and pressure curves during die filling. It was found that vent resistance and vent location strongly affected die filling time, free surface topography, and air entrainment for a given pressure fill-curve. With regard to the pressure curve, the model revealed a strong relation between the pressure curve and the flow behavior in the hub, which is an area prone to defect formation.

  4. Sputtered protective coatings for die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nieh, C.-Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Three experimental research designs investigating candidate materials and processes involved in protective die surface coating procedures by sputter deposition, using ion beam technologies, are discussed. Various pre-test results show that none of the coatings remained completely intact for 15,000 test cycles. The longest lifetime was observed for coatings such as tungsten, platinum, and molybdenum which reduced thermal fatigue, but exhibited oxidation and suppressed crack initiation only as long as the coating did not fracture. Final test results confirmed earlier findings and coatings with Pt and W proved to be the candidate materials to be used on a die surface to increase die life. In the W-coated specimens, which remained intact on the surface after thermal fatigue testing, no oxidation was found under the coating, although a few cracks formed on the surface where the coating broke down. Further research is planned.

  5. Direct Cast U-6Nb – 2017 Progress on Cylindrical Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Aikin, Jr., Robert M.

    2017-10-04

    This report describes work to further develop a sound technical basis and best practices for mold design and process parameters for the Direct Casting of U-6wt%Nb components. One major challenge to the production of U-6Nb components is the propensity for niobium segregation during casting and solidification. This is especially true for cylindrical castings where the vertical side walls allow flotation of Nb resulting in severe inverse macrosegregation. In this work, a small (120 mm diameter by 180 mm tall) and large cylinder (250 mm diameter by 310 mm tall) are examined with a focus on reducing, or eliminating, niobium segregation.more » It is demonstrated that counter gravity casting (top-to-bottom solidification) can be used to minimize segregation in the small cylinder. Attempts to counter gravity cast the large cylinder were unsuccessful, in large part due to size limitations of the current furnace. A path forward for casting of the large cylinders is discussed.« less

  6. Microstructure and corrosion behavior of die-cast AM60B magnesium alloys in a complex salt solution. A slow positron beam study

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y. F.; Yang, W.; Qin, Q. L.

    2013-12-15

    The microstructure and corrosion behavior of high pressure die-cast (HPDC) and super vacuum die-cast (SVDC) AM60B magnesium alloys were investigated in a complex salt solution using slow positron beam technique and potentiodynamic polarization tests. The experiments revealed that a CaCO 3 film was formed on the surface of the alloys and that the rate of CaCO 3 formation for the SVDC alloy with immersion time was slower than that of the HPDC alloy. The larger volume fraction of b-phase in the skin layer of the SVDC alloy than that of the HPDC alloy was responsible for the better corrosion resistance.

  7. Metallic Fuel Casting Development and Parameter Optimization Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    R.S. Fielding; J. Crapps; C. Unal

    One of the advantages of metallic fuel is the abilility to cast the fuel slugs to near net shape with little additional processing. However, the high aspect ratio of the fuel is not ideal for casting. EBR-II fuel was cast using counter gravity injection casting (CGIC) but, concerns have been raised concerning the feasibility of this process for americium bearing alloys. The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program has begun developing gravity casting techniques suitable for fuel production. Compared to CGIC gravity casting does not require a large heel that then is recycled, does not require application of a vacuummore » during melting, and is conducive to re-usable molds. Development has included fabrication of two separate benchscale, approximately 300 grams, systems. To shorten development time computer simulations have been used to ensure mold and crucible designs are feasible and to identify which fluid properties most affect casting behavior and therefore require more characterization.« less

  8. Optimization of Squeeze Casting for Aluminum Alloy Parts

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Qingming Chang

    2002-07-30

    This study was initiated with the installation of a new production size UBE 350 Ton VSC Squeeze Casting system in the Metal Casting Laboratory at Case Western University. A Lindberg 75k W electrical melting furnace was installed alongside. The challenge of installation and operation of such industrial-size equipment in an academic environment was met successfully. Subsequently, a Sterling oil die heater and a Visi-Track shot monitoring system were added. A significant number of inserts were designed and fabricated over the span of the project, primarily for squeeze casting different configurations of test bars and plates. A spiral ''ribbon insert'' formore » evaluation of molten metal fluidity was also fabricated. These inserts were used to generate a broad range of processing conditions and determine their effect on the quality of the squeeze cast parts. This investigation has studied the influence of the various casting variables on the quality of indirect squeeze castings primarily of aluminum alloys. The variables studied include gating design, fill time and fill patter, metal pressure and die temperature variations. The quality of the die casting was assessed by an analysis of both their surface condition and internal soundness. The primary metal tested was an aluminum 356 alloy. In addition to determining the effect of these casting variables on casting quality as measured by a flat plate die of various thickness, a number of test bar inserts with different gating designs have been inserted in the squeeze casting machine. The mechanical properties of these test bars produced under different squeeze casting conditions were measured and reported. The investigation of the resulting properties also included an analysis of the microstructure of the squeeze castings and the effect of the various structural constituents on the resulting properties. The main conclusions from this investigation are as follows: The ingate size and shape are very important since it

  9. A process chain for integrating piezoelectric transducers into aluminum die castings to generate smart lightweight structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Stefan; Wedler, Jonathan; Rhein, Sebastian; Schmidt, Michael; Körner, Carolin; Michaelis, Alexander; Gebhardt, Sylvia

    The application of piezoelectric transducers to structural body parts of machines or vehicles enables the combination of passive mechanical components with sensor and actuator functions in one single structure. According to Herold et al. [1] and Staeves [2] this approach indicates significant potential regarding smart lightweight construction. To obtain the highest yield, the piezoelectric transducers need to be integrated into the flux of forces (load path) of load bearing structures. Application in a downstream process reduces yield and process efficiency during manufacturing and operation, due to the necessity of a subsequent process step of sensor/actuator application. The die casting process offers the possibility for integration of piezoelectric transducers into metal structures. Aluminum castings are particularly favorable due to their high quality and feasibility for high unit production at low cost (Brunhuber [3], Nogowizin [4]). Such molded aluminum parts with integrated piezoelectric transducers enable functions like active vibration damping, structural health monitoring or energy harvesting resulting in significant possibilities of weight reduction, which is an increasingly important driving force of automotive and aerospace industry (Klein [5], Siebenpfeiffer [6]) due to increasingly stringent environmental protection laws. In the scope of those developments, this paper focuses on the entire process chain enabling the generation of lightweight metal structures with sensor and actuator function, starting from the manufacturing of piezoelectric modules over electrical and mechanical bonding to the integration of such modules into aluminum (Al) matrices by die casting. To achieve this challenging goal, piezoceramic sensors/actuator modules, so-called LTCC/PZT modules (LPM) were developed, since ceramic based piezoelectric modules are more likely to withstand the thermal stress of about 700 °C introduced by the casting process (Flössel et al., [7]). The

  10. 77 FR 6587 - PHB Die Casting a Subsidiary of PHB, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Career Concepts...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Contract Worker From Burns Industrial Group (BIG INC) Fairview, PA; Amended Certification Regarding... production of die castings. New information shows that a worker from Burns Industrial Group (BIG Inc) was... amending this certification to include a worker from Burns Industrial Group (BIG Inc) who was contracted by...

  11. Marginal Accuracy of Castings Fabricated with Ringless Casting Investment System and Metal Ring Casting Investment System: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Kalavathi, M; Sachin, Bhuvana; Prasanna, B G; Shreeharsha, T V; Praveen, B; Ragher, Mallikarjuna

    2016-02-01

    The thermal expansion of the investment can be restricted by the metal casting ring because the thermal expansion of the ring is less than that of the investment. The ringless casting procedure is in use in clinical dentistry, though there is little scientific data to support its use in fixed partial dentures. In this study, marginal discrepancy of castings produced with the ringless casting technique and the conventional technique using the metal rings were compared. A total of 30 wax patterns were fabricated directly on a metal die. Optical stereomicroscope was used to measure the marginal discrepancy between the metal die and wax patterns. A total of 15 castings were invested using Bellavest T phosphate-bonded investment with the ringless technique and 15 were invested with the same investment with a metal ring; 30 castings were produced using a nickel-chromium ceramo-metal alloy. The internal surface of the castings was not modified and seated with finger pressure. The vertical marginal discrepancy was measured using an optical stereomicroscope at a magnification of 100x. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using students t-test (paired t-test and unpaired t-test). The castings of the ringless technique provided less vertical marginal discrepancy (240.56 ± 45.81 μ) than the castings produced with the conventional metal ring technique (281.98± 53.05 μ). The difference was statistically significant. The ringless casting technique had produced better marginal accuracy compared with conventional casting technique. Ringless casting system can be used routinely for clinical purpose.

  12. Evaluation of interlocking bond strength between structured 1.0338 steel sheets and high pressure die cast AlMg5Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senge, S.; Brachmann, J.; Hirt, G.; Bührig-Polaczek, A.

    2018-05-01

    Multi-material components open up new possibilities for functional design. Such components combine beneficial physical properties of different materials in a single component as for instance chemical resistance, high strength or low density. The challenge is a reliable bond between both materials to enable a long term usage. This paper deals with a form closure connection to ensure a solid connection between steel strips and high pressure die cast aluminium. Two different sizes of channel structures with width ratios of 1.0 and 1.35 are produced on a steel sheet. An ensuing flat rolling pass is performed to create undercuts with a width of up to 50 µm, enabling an interlocking of the molten aluminium in the concluding casting process. For both rolling processes the resulting geometry is analysed depending on the thickness reduction. In a subsequent high pressure die casting process, aluminium is applied resulting in a complete form filling for the coarser structure. Comparing structures with and without undercuts, only structures suited with undercuts remain gap-free after solidification contraction. The finer structure could not be filled completely; nevertheless these structures result in shear strength of up to 45 MPa transversal to the channel-direction.

  13. The study of flow pattern and phase-change problem in die casting process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. S.; Wei, H.; Chen, Y. S.; Shang, H. M.

    1996-01-01

    The flow pattern and solidification phenomena in die casting process have been investigated in the first phase study. The flow pattern in filling process is predicted by using a VOF (volume of fluid) method. A good agreement with experimental observation is obtained for filling the water into a die cavity with different gate geometry and with an obstacle in the cavity. An enthalpy method has been applied to solve the solidification problem. By treating the latent heat implicitly into the enthalpy instead of explicitly into the source term, the CPU time can be reduced at least 20 times. The effect of material properties on solidification fronts is tested. It concludes that the dependence of properties on temperature is significant. The influence of the natural convection over the diffusion has also been studied. The result shows that the liquid metal solidification phenomena is diffusion dominant, and the natural convection can affect the shape of the interface. In the second phase study, the filling and solidification processes will be considered simultaneously.

  14. Case study of lean manufacturing application in a die casting manufacturing company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Ng Tan; Hoe, Clarence Chan Kok; Hong, Tang Sai; Ghobakhloo, Morteza; Pin, Chen Kah

    2015-05-01

    The case study of lean manufacturing aims to study the application of lean manufacturing in a die casting manufacturing company located in Pulau Penang, Malaysia. This case study describes mainly about the important concepts and applications of lean manufacturing which could gradually help the company in increasing the profit by studying and analyzing their current manufacturing process and company culture. Many approaches of lean manufacturing are studied in this project which includes: 5S housekeeping, Kaizen, and Takt Time. Besides, the lean tools mentioned, quality tool such as the House of Quality is being used as an analysis tool to continuously improve the product quality. In short, the existing lean culture in the company is studied and analyzed, with recommendations written at the end of this paper.

  15. Adhesive Bonding and Corrosion Protection of a Die Cast Magnesium Automotive Door

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretz, G. T.; Lazarz, K. A.; Hill, D. J.; Blanchard, P. J.

    It is well known that magnesium alloys, in close proximity to other alloys, are susceptible to galvanic corrosion. Combined with this fact, in automotive applications, it is rare that magnesium will be present in the absence of other alloys such as steel or aluminum. Therefore, in wet applications, where the galvanic cell is completed, it is necessary to isolate the magnesium in order to prevent accelerated corrosion. There are numerous commercial pre-treatments available for magnesium, however this paper focuses on conversion coatings in conjunction with a spray powder coat. By means of example, results for a hem flange joint on an AM50 die cast magnesium door structure will be presented. The outer door skin is an aluminum alloy hemmed around a cast magnesium flange. An adhesive is used between the inner and outer to help with stiffness and NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness). Results from bonded lap-shear coupon tests that have been exposed to accelerated corrosion cycles are presented. A second phase of this work considered a surrogate hem flange coupon, which was similarly exposed to the same accelerated corrosion cycle. Results from both of these tests are presented within this paper along with a discussion as to their suitability for use within automotive applications.

  16. Comparison of marginal accuracy of castings fabricated by conventional casting technique and accelerated casting technique: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S Srikanth; Revathi, Kakkirala; Reddy, S Kranthikumar

    2013-01-01

    Conventional casting technique is time consuming when compared to accelerated casting technique. In this study, marginal accuracy of castings fabricated using accelerated and conventional casting technique was compared. 20 wax patterns were fabricated and the marginal discrepancy between the die and patterns were measured using Optical stereomicroscope. Ten wax patterns were used for Conventional casting and the rest for Accelerated casting. A Nickel-Chromium alloy was used for the casting. The castings were measured for marginal discrepancies and compared. Castings fabricated using Conventional casting technique showed less vertical marginal discrepancy than the castings fabricated by Accelerated casting technique. The values were statistically highly significant. Conventional casting technique produced better marginal accuracy when compared to Accelerated casting. The vertical marginal discrepancy produced by the Accelerated casting technique was well within the maximum clinical tolerance limits. Accelerated casting technique can be used to save lab time to fabricate clinical crowns with acceptable vertical marginal discrepancy.

  17. Numerical simulation on semi-solid die-casting of magnesium matrix composite based on orthogonal experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huihui; He, Xiongwei; Guo, Peng

    2017-04-01

    Three factors (pouring temperature, injection speed and mold temperature) were selected to do three levels L9 (33)orthogonal experiment, then simulate processing of semi-solid die-casting of magnesium matrix composite by Flow-3D software. The stress distribution, temperature field and defect distribution of filling process were analyzed to find the optimized processing parameter with the help of orthogonal experiment. The results showed that semi-solid has some advantages of well-proportioned stress and temperature field, less defect concentrated in the surface. The results of simulation were the same as the experimental results.

  18. The Effect of Porosity on Fatigue of Die Cast AM60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhuofei; Kang, Jidong; Wilkinson, David S.

    2016-07-01

    AM60 high-pressure die castings are known to contain significant porosity which can affect fatigue life. We have studied this using samples drawn from prototype AM60 shock towers by conducting strain-controlled fatigue tests accompanied by X-ray computed tomography analysis. The results show that the machined surface is the preferential location for fatigue crack development, with pores close to these surfaces serving as initiation sites. Fatigue life shows a strong inverse correlation with the size of the fatigue-crack-initiating pore. Pore shape and pore orientation also influence the response. A supplemental study on surface roughness shows that porosity is the dominant factor in fatigue. Tomography enables the link between porosity and fatigue crack initiation to be clearly identified. These data are complemented by SEM observations of the fracture surfaces which are generally flat and full of randomly oriented serration patterns but without long-range fatigue striations.

  19. Initial Microstructure Evaluation of a U3Si2 + W Fuel Pin Fabricated Via Arc Melt Gravity Drop Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoggan, Rita E.; Harp, Jason M.

    2018-02-01

    Injection casting has historically been used to fabricate metallic nuclear fuel on a large scale. Casting of intermetallic fuel forms, such as U3Si2, may be an alternative pathway for fabrication of fuel pins to powder metallurgy. To investigate casting on a small scale, arc melt gravity drop casting was employed to cast a one-off pin of U3Si2 for evaluation as a fabrication method for U3Si2 as a light water reactor fuel. The pin was sectioned and examined via optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Image analysis was used to estimate the volume fraction of phase impurities as well as porosity. The primary phase determined by EDS was U3Si2 with U-O and U-Si-W phase impurities. Unusually high levels of tungsten were observed because of accidental tungsten introduction during arc melting. No significant changes in microstructure were observed after annealing a section of the pin at 800°C for 72 h. The average density of the sectioned specimens was 12.4 g/cm3 measured via Archimedes principle immersion density and He gas displacement.

  20. Processing of IN-718 Lattice Block Castings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.

    2002-01-01

    Recently a low cost casting method known as lattice block casting has been developed by JAM Corporation, Wilmington, Massachusetts for engineering materials such as aluminum and stainless steels that has shown to provide very high stiffness and strength with only a fraction of density of the alloy. NASA Glenn Research Center has initiated research to investigate lattice block castings of high temperature Ni-base superalloys such as the model system Inconel-718 (IN-718) for lightweight nozzle applications. Although difficulties were encountered throughout the manufacturing process , a successful investment casting procedure was eventually developed. Wax formulation and pattern assembly, shell mold processing, and counter gravity casting techniques were developed. Ten IN-718 lattice block castings (each measuring 15-cm wide by 30-cm long by 1.2-cm thick) have been successfully produced by Hitchiner Gas Turbine Division, Milford, New Hampshire, using their patented counter gravity casting techniques. Details of the processing and resulting microstructures are discussed in this paper. Post casting processing and evaluation of system specific mechanical properties of these specimens are in progress.

  1. Phase Transformation and Creep of Mg-Al-Ca Based Die-Cast Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Akane; Saddock, Nicholas D.; Jones, J. Wayne; Pollock, Tresa M.

    The microstructure and microstructural stability of die-cast AC53 (Mg-5Al-3Ca) and AXJ530 (Mg-5Al-3Ca-0.15Sr) have been investigated in detail by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Both alloys have an as-cast microstructure of α-Mg with (Mg, Al)2Ca (dihexagonal C36) eutectic at grain boundaries. During aging at 573 K, the C36 phase transforms to Al2Ca (cubic Cl5) phase. These two phases have a crystallographic orientation relationship of (0001)C36//{111}C15 and [2110]C36//[011]C15, and the transformation from C36 to C15 occurs by a shear-assisted process. Despite this change in the phase constitution, the network structure of the intermetallic compound(s) surrounding α-Mg grains is fairly stable, morphologically, even after prolonged exposure at elevated temperature. In the α-Mg matrix phase, precipitation of Al2Ca was observed after aging for 360 ks at 573 K. The precipitates are disc-shaped with a habit plane of {111}C15//(0001)α. AXJ530 shows higher creep resistance than AC53. The dislocation substructure that evolved during creep deformation was investigated in both alloys, and the basal and non-basal slip of a-dislocation and other slip modes of a+c- dislocations were observed. The relationship between creep properties and microstructure is discussed.

  2. [Variables effecting casting accuracy of quick heating casting investments].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Nakamura, H; Iwasaki, N; Morita, N; Habu, N; Nishimura, F

    1994-06-01

    Recently, several new products of investments for "quick heating" have been put on the Japanese market. The total casting procedure time for this quick heating method involves only one hour; 30-minutes waiting after the start of mixing before placing the mold directly into the 700 degrees C furnace and 30-minutes heating in the furnace. The purpose of this study was to evaluate two variables effecting casting accuracy using these new investments. The effect of thickness of the casting liner inside the casting ring and the effect of waiting time before placing the mold into the 700 degrees C furnace were evaluated. A stainless-steel die with a convergence angle of 8 degrees was employed. Marginal discrepancies of the crown between the wax patterns and castings were measured. The size of the cast crown became larger when the thickness of the ring liner was thick and when the waiting time before placing the mold into the furnace was long. These results suggest that these new investments have the advantage of providing sound castings using short-time casting procedures. However, it is necessary to pay careful attention to the casting conditions for obtaining reproducible castings.

  3. Optimization of Composition and Heat Treating of Die Steels for Extended Lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Quanyou Zhou

    2002-01-30

    An ''average'' die casting die costs fifty thousand dollars. A die used in making die cast aluminum engine blocks can cost well over one million dollars. These costs provide a strong incentive for extension of die life. While vacuum quenched Premium Grade H13 dies have become the most widely used in the United States, tool makers and die casters are constantly searching for new steels and heat treating procedures to extend die life. This project was undertaken to investigate the effects of composition and heat treating on die life and optimize these parameters.

  4. Improving Metal Casting Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Don Sirois, an Auburn University research associate, and Bruce Strom, a mechanical engineering Co-Op Student, are evaluating the dimensional characteristics of an aluminum automobile engine casting. More accurate metal casting processes may reduce the weight of some cast metal products used in automobiles, such as engines. Research in low gravity has taken an important first step toward making metal products used in homes, automobiles, and aircraft less expensive, safer, and more durable. Auburn University and industry are partnering with NASA to develop one of the first accurate computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials used in a manufacturing process called casting. Ford Motor Company's casting plant in Cleveland, Ohio is using NASA-sponsored computer modeling information to improve the casting process of automobile and light-truck engine blocks.

  5. A comparative evaluation of the marginal adaptation of a thermoplastic resin, a light cured wax and an inlay casting wax on stone dies: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Reji P; Nair, Vivek V; Harshakumar, K; Ravichandran, R; Lylajam, S; Viswambaran, Prasanth

    2018-01-01

    Different pattern materials do not produce copings with satisfactory, marginal accuracy when used on stone dies at varying time intervals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the vertical marginal accuracy of patterns formed from three materials, namely, thermoplastic resin, light cured wax and inlay casting wax at three-time intervals of 1, 12, and 24 h. A master die (zirconia abutment mimicking a prepared permanent maxillary central incisor) and metal sleeve (direct metal laser sintering crown #11) were fabricated. A total of 30 stone dies were obtained from the master die. Ten patterns were made each from the three materials and stored off the die at room temperature. The vertical marginal gaps were measured using digital microscope at 1, 12, and 24 h after reseating with gentle finger pressure. The results revealed a significant statistical difference in the marginal adaptation of three materials at all the three-time intervals. Light cured wax was found to be most accurate at all time intervals, followed by thermoplastic resin and inlay casting wax. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between all pairs of materials. The change in vertical marginal gap from 1 to 24 h between thermoplastic resin and light cured wax was not statistically significant. The marginal adaptation of all the three materials used, was well within the acceptable range of 25-70 μm. The resin pattern materials studied revealed significantly less dimensional change than inlay casting wax on storage at 1, 12, and 24 h time intervals. They may be employed in situations where high precision and delayed investing is expected.

  6. Precision technique for trimming dies using a magnification device.

    PubMed

    Beck, D B

    1980-05-01

    This article described a technique for trimming a die under magnification. However, the microscope is also useful for checking (1) margins of wax patterns for completeness, (2) the internal surfaces of castings for imperfections, bubbles, or retained investment particles which could prevent proper seating of the castings on the dies, (3) for cracks or contamination in dental porcelain as well as porcelain flash on margins; and (4) precision attachment operation after casting or soldering procedures. Attention to detail in these laboratory procedures greatly improves the final fit of dental castings and saves subsequent chairside adjustments and remakes.

  7. Effects of Pore Distributions on Ductility of Thin-Walled High Pressure Die-Cast Magnesium

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Kyoo Sil; Li, Dongsheng; Sun, Xin

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, a microstructure-based three-dimensional (3D) finite element modeling method is adopted to investigate the effects of porosity in thin-walled high pressure die-cast (HPDC) Magnesium alloys on their ductility. For this purpose, the cross-sections of AM60 casting samples are first examined using optical microscope and X-ray tomography to obtain the general information on the pore distribution features. The experimentally observed pore distribution features are then used to generate a series of synthetic microstructure-based 3D finite element models with different pore volume fractions and pore distribution features. Shear and ductile damage models are adopted in the finite element analyses tomore » induce the fracture by element removal, leading to the prediction of ductility. The results in this study show that the ductility monotonically decreases as the pore volume fraction increases and that the effect of ‘skin region’ on the ductility is noticeable under the condition of same local pore volume fraction in the center region of the sample and its existence can be beneficial for the improvement of ductility. The further synthetic microstructure-based 3D finite element analyses are planned to investigate the effects of pore size and pore size distribution.« less

  8. Predicting Stress vs. Strain Behaviors of Thin-Walled High Pressure Die Cast Magnesium Alloy with Actual Pore Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Kyoo Sil; Barker, Erin; Cheng, Guang

    2016-01-06

    In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) microstructure-based finite element modeling method (i.e., extrinsic modeling method) is developed, which can be used in examining the effects of porosity on the ductility/fracture of Mg castings. For this purpose, AM60 Mg tensile samples were generated under high-pressure die-casting in a specially-designed mold. Before the tensile test, the samples were CT-scanned to obtain the pore distributions within the samples. 3D microstructure-based finite element models were then developed based on the obtained actual pore distributions of the gauge area. The input properties for the matrix material were determined by fitting the simulation result to themore » experimental result of a selected sample, and then used for all the other samples’ simulation. The results show that the ductility and fracture locations predicted from simulations agree well with the experimental results. This indicates that the developed 3D extrinsic modeling method may be used to examine the influence of various aspects of pore sizes/distributions as well as intrinsic properties (i.e., matrix properties) on the ductility/fracture of Mg castings.« less

  9. Characterization of Pore Defects and Fatigue Cracks in Die Cast AM60 Using 3D X-ray Computed Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhuofei; Kang, Jidong; Wilkinson, David S.

    2015-08-01

    AM60 high pressure die castings have been used in automobile applications to reduce the weight of vehicles. However, the pore defects that are inherent in die casting may negatively affect mechanical properties, especially the fatigue properties. Here we have studied damage ( e.g., pore defects, fatigue cracks) during strained-controlled fatigue using 3-dimensional X-ray computed tomography (XCT). The fatigue test was interrupted every 2000 cycles and the specimen was removed to be scanned using a desktop micro-CT system. XCT reveals pore defects, cracks, and fracture surfaces. The results show that pores can be accurately measured and modeled in 3D. Defect bands are found to be made of pores under 50 µm (based on volume-equivalent sphere diameter). Larger pores are randomly distributed in the region between the defect bands. Observation of fatigue cracks by XCT is performed in three ways such that the 3D model gives the best illustration of crack-porosity interaction while the other two methods, with the cracks being viewed on transverse or longitudinal cross sections, have better detectability on crack initiation and crack tip observation. XCT is also of value in failure analysis on fracture surfaces. By assessing XCT data during fatigue testing and observing fracture surfaces on a 3D model, a better understanding on the crack initiation, crack-porosity interaction, and the morphology of fracture surface is achieved.

  10. A summary of special coatings projects conducted in support of the Die Casting Program

    SciTech Connect

    Selle, J.E.

    1988-09-12

    The usefulness of various kinds of coatings to the die casting program has been studied. This work includes heat transfer and fluid flow calculations, as well as experimental work, to examine the feasibility and characteristics of various types of coatings. Calculations include the effect of surface roughness on fluid flow, conductance as a function of coating thickness, conductivity as a function of coating porosity, and solidification and possible remelting of microspheres of metal. In each case, the model is described and the results are presented. Experimental work involved evaluating the relative insulating value of various coatings and an analysis ofmore » commercial flame-sprayed coatings, low-density coatings, and release coatings. In each case, description of the experimental arrangement is given and the results are described. 5 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs.« less

  11. Influence of polyurethane resin dies on the fit and adaptation of full veneer crowns.

    PubMed

    Lillywhite, Graeme R R; Vohra, Fahim

    2015-01-01

    Polyurethane resin is a possible alternative to type IV dental stone for fabrication of indirect restorations however its dimensional accuracy is questionable. The aim was to investigate the dimensional accuracy of silica filled polyurethane resin die material by evaluating the marginal fit and adaptation of indirect gold castings. Experimental, in vitro study. Totally 40 copper plated replicas of a nickel chrome master die analogous to a veneer gold crown preparation were made and impressions recorded using polyvinylsiloxane material. Twenty impressions were poured in type IV dental stone (control group (Vel-mix, Kerr, UK) and the remaining (n = 20) in silica filled polyurethane die material (test group) (Alpha Die MF, CA, USA). Gold castings were fabricated for each die using standardized techniques. The castings were seated on their respective copper plated dies, embedded in resin and sectioned. The specimens were analyzed by measuring marginal opening and the area beneath the casting at a ×63 magnification and using image analysis software. Data were analyzed using a Student's t-test. No significant difference was observed between the experimental groups (P > 0.05). The mean marginal opening for type IV, dental stone and polyurethane resin, was 57 ± 22.6 μm and 63.47 ± 27.1 μm, respectively. Stone displayed a smaller area beneath the casting (31581 ± 16297 μm 2 ) as compared to polyurethane resin (35003 ± 23039 μm 2 ). The fit and adaptation of indirect gold castings made on polyurethane and type IV dental stone dies were comparable.

  12. Analysis of Porosity Defects in Aluminum as Part Handle Motor Vehicle Lever Processed by High-pressure Die Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggraini, L.; Sugeng

    2018-05-01

    This research discusses the testing and analysis of cracking Aluminum (Al) material. Al as a handle lever was used for a braking device on a motor vehicle. Cracking of handle lever due to the part content of porosity from hydrogen gas. The existence of the H2 can be caused by the casting process and dies design that is less perfect, especially at the gate or brisket and overflow. This research is to optimize the process of making Al part handle lever, and the construction dies by following the standard. The results of these improvements were reevaluated through the chemical and mechanical testing properties stages, such as density test and tensile test on the workpiece as part handle lever. The loads on the tensile test are 25 kg and 35 kg, and the tensile test result has met the standard set by the motor vehicle company. The optimization result has the porosity defect can be reduced by 99 %. Therefore the best part handle lever can be produced.

  13. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Mechanical Performance of Dies

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller, Principal Investigator; Kabiri-Bamoradian, Contributors: Khalil; Delgado-Garza, Abelardo

    2011-09-13

    As a net shape process, die casting is intrinsically efficient and improvements in energy efficiency are strongly dependent on design and process improvements that reduce scrap rates so that more of the total consumed energy goes into acceptable, usable castings. A casting that is distorted and fails to meet specified dimensional requirements is typically remelted but this still results in a decrease in process yield, lost productivity, and increased energy consumption. This work focuses on developing, and expanding the use of, computer modeling methods that can be used to improve the dimensional accuracy of die castings and produce die designsmore » and machine/die setups that reduce rejection rates due to dimensional issues. A major factor contributing to the dimensional inaccuracy of the casting is the elastic deformations of the die cavity caused by the thermo mechanical loads the dies are subjected to during normal operation. Although thermal and die cavity filling simulation are widely used in the industry, structural modeling of the die, particularly for managing part distortion, is not yet widely practiced. This may be due in part to the need to have a thorough understanding of the physical phenomenon involved in die distortion and the mathematical theory employed in the numerical models to efficiently model the die distortion phenomenon. Therefore, two of the goals of this work are to assist in efforts to expand the use of structural modeling and related technologies in the die casting industry by 1) providing a detailed modeling guideline and tutorial for those interested in developing the necessary skills and capability and 2) by developing simple meta-models that capture the results and experience gained from several years of die distortion research and can be used to predict key distortion phenomena of relevance to a die caster with a minimum of background and without the need for simulations. These objectives were met. A detailed modeling tutorial

  14. Optimization of heat treatment parameters for additive manufacturing and gravity casting AlSi10Mg alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girelli, L.; Tocci, M.; Montesano, L.; Gelfi, M.; Pola, A.

    2017-11-01

    Additive manufacturing of metals is a production process developed in the last few years to realize net shape components with complex geometry and high performance. AlSi10Mg is one of the most widely used aluminium alloys, both in this field and in conventional foundry processes, for its significant mechanical properties combined with good corrosion resistance. In this paper the effect of heat treatment on AlSi10Mg alloy was investigated. Solution and ageing treatments were carried out with different temperatures and times on samples obtained by direct metal laser sintering and gravity casting in order to compare their performance. Microstructural analyses and hardness tests were performed to investigate the effectiveness of the heat treatment. The results were correlated to the sample microstructure and porosity, analysed by means of optical microscopy and density measurements. It was found that, in the additive manufactured samples, the heat treatment can reduce significantly the performance of the alloy also because of the increase of porosity due to entrapped gas during the deposition technique and that the higher the solution temperature the higher the increase of such defects. A so remarkable effect was not found in the conventional cast alloy.

  15. Low Temperature Consolidation of Micro/Nanosilver Die-Attach Preforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoppin, Jared; Reitz, Thomas L.; Miller, Ryan; Vijwani, Hema; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmila; Young, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Organically passivated silver nanopowder paste-based sintering is considered a promising solution for die-attach in high temperature power and sensing electronic devices. However, oxygen requirements during burnout and inherently high shrinkage rates limit their use to small die sizes. This work reports an alternative fabrication method that resolves decomposition and shrinkage issues of the die-attach by utilizing a prestressed optimized tape cast mixture of micro- and nanosilver particles with a polypropylene carbonate binder. The effects of prestressing, micro/nanosilver bimodal distribution, and polymer content on resulting microstructure and shear strength were investigated. Prior to application as a die-attach, uniaxial compression of the tape was found to significantly decrease shrinkage and improve green strength. This pre-stressing strategy allows for a decoupling of the resulting die-attach materials properties from the pressure applied during assembly. Bimodal mixtures consisting of 1-3 μm spherical powders with nanosilver resulted in shear strengths comparable to those of pure nanosilver. Shear strength decreased as bimodal particle size increased above 5 μm. A polymer content of ˜10 wt.% polypropylene carbonate combined with prestressing was identified as optimal for maximizing die-attach shear strength while still maintaining pliability and formability. Tape casts that were prestressed to 212 MPa by uniaxially compression and formulated with 10 wt.% of polypropylene carbonate resulted in a die-attach material with a shear strength of 54 MPa when sintered. These materials were used to demonstrate void-free 25-mm2 die-attach assemblies, suggesting that tape cast micro/nanosilver materials may be a promising die-attach method for high temperature and large-area electronics devices.

  16. Development of an Optimization Methodology for the Aluminum Alloy Wheel Casting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jianglan; Reilly, Carl; Maijer, Daan M.; Cockcroft, Steve L.; Phillion, Andre B.

    2015-08-01

    An optimization methodology has been developed for the aluminum alloy wheel casting process. The methodology is focused on improving the timing of cooling processes in a die to achieve improved casting quality. This methodology utilizes (1) a casting process model, which was developed within the commercial finite element package, ABAQUS™—ABAQUS is a trademark of Dassault Systèms; (2) a Python-based results extraction procedure; and (3) a numerical optimization module from the open-source Python library, Scipy. To achieve optimal casting quality, a set of constraints have been defined to ensure directional solidification, and an objective function, based on the solidification cooling rates, has been defined to either maximize, or target a specific, cooling rate. The methodology has been applied to a series of casting and die geometries with different cooling system configurations, including a 2-D axisymmetric wheel and die assembly generated from a full-scale prototype wheel. The results show that, with properly defined constraint and objective functions, solidification conditions can be improved and optimal cooling conditions can be achieved leading to process productivity and product quality improvements.

  17. Compound cast product and method for producing a compound cast product

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Thomas N.; Viswanathan, Srinath

    2002-09-17

    A compound cast product is formed in a casting mold (14) having a mold cavity (16) sized and shaped to form the cast product. A plurality of injectors (24) is supported from a bottom side (26) of the casting mold (14). The injectors (24) are in fluid communication with the mold cavity (16) through the bottom side (26) of the casting mold (14). A molten material holder furnace (12) is located beneath the casting mold (14). The holder furnace (12) defines molten material receiving chambers (36) configured to separately contain supplies of two different molten materials (37, 38). The holder furnace (12) is positioned such that the injectors (24) extend downward into the receiving chamber (36). The receiving chamber (36) is separated into at least two different flow circuits (51, 52). A first molten material (37) is received in a first flow circuit (51), and a second molten material (38) is received into a second flow circuit (52). The first and second molten materials (37, 38) are injected into the mold cavity (16) by the injectors (24) acting against the force of gravity. The injectors (24) are positioned such that the first and second molten materials (37, 38) are injected into different areas of the mold cavity (16). The molten materials (37, 38) are allowed to solidify and the resulting compound cast product is removed from the mold cavity (16).

  18. MACHINING ELIMINATION THROUGH APPLICATION OF THREAD FORMING FASTENERS IN NET SHAPED CAST HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Cleaver, Ryan J; Cleaver, Todd H; Talbott, Richard

    The ultimate objective of this work was to eliminate approximately 30% of the machining performed in typical automotive engine and transmission plants by using thread forming fasteners in as-cast holes of aluminum and magnesium cast components. The primary issues at the source of engineers reluctance to implementing thread forming fasteners in lightweight castings are: * Little proof of consistency of clamp load vs. input torque in either aluminum or magnesium castings. * No known data to understand the effect on consistency of clamp load as casting dies wear. The clamp load consistency concern is founded in the fact that amore » portion of the input torque used to create clamp load is also used to create threads. The torque used for thread forming may not be consistent due to variations in casting material, hole size and shape due to tooling wear and process variation (thermal and mechanical). There is little data available to understand the magnitude of this concern or to form the basis of potential solutions if the range of clamp load variation is very high (> +/- 30%). The range of variation that can be expected in as-cast hole size and shape over the full life cycle of a high pressure die casting die was established in previous work completed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, (PNNL). This established range of variation was captured in a set of 12 cast bosses by designing core pins at the size and draft angles identified in the sited previous work. The cast bosses were cut into nuts that could be used in the Ford Fastener Laboratory test-cell to measure clamp load when a thread forming fastener was driven into a cast nut. There were two sets of experiments run. First, a series of cast aluminum nuts were made reflecting the range of shape and size variations to be expected over the life cycle of a die casting die. Taptite thread forming fasteners, (a widely used thread forming fastener suitable for aluminum applications), were driven into the various

  19. Clean Metal Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS asmore » a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.« less

  20. Cast erosion from the cleaning of debris after the use of a cast trimmer.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Paul A; Beatty, Mark W

    2017-02-01

    Whether using tap water to rinse off debris will make a clinical difference to the surface detail of a gypsum cast is unknown. In addition, how best to remove debris from the cast is unknown. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the efficiency of different methods of cleaning a gypsum cast after trimming and the effect of short-term exposure to tap water on the surface quality of the cast. A die fitting American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association specification 25 (International Standards Organization specification 6873) for dental gypsum products was embedded in a Dentoform with the machined lines positioned at the same level as the occlusal surface of the posterior teeth. A flat plate was used to ensure that the plane of occlusion for the die was at the same position as the posterior teeth. Forty polyvinyl siloxane impressions of the Dentoform were made and poured with vacuum-mixed improved Type IV dental stone. Each cast was inspected for the accurate reproduction of the lines. The base of the 2-stage pour was trimmed with a cast trimmer with water, and surface debris was removed by rinsing by hand under tap water for 10 seconds, by brushing the cast with a soft toothbrush for 10 seconds, or by resoaking the cast and using a soft camel hair brush in slurry water for 10 seconds. The amount of debris was evaluated on a scale of 1 to 4, and the quality of the 20-μm line was evaluated on a scale of 1 to 4 under ×15 magnification. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis ranks test was used to identify significant differences among the different cleaning methods (α=.05). Results of the Kruskal-Wallis and Kruskal-Wallis Z-value tests demonstrated that all cleaning methods produced cleaner casts than were observed for uncleansed controls (P<.001), but no differences in debris removal were found among the different cleaning methods (.065≤P≤.901). The ability to see the quality of a 20-μm line (P=.974) was not statistically different

  1. Fabrication of ZnO Nanowires Arrays by Anodization and High-Vacuum Die Casting Technique, and Their Piezoelectric Properties

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chin-Guo; Chang, Ho; Wang, Jian-Hao

    2016-01-01

    In this investigation, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) with arrayed and regularly arranged nanopores is used as a template in the high-vacuum die casting of molten zinc metal (Zn) into the nanopores. The proposed technique yields arrayed Zn nanowires with an aspect ratio of over 600. After annealing, arrayed zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires are obtained. Varying the anodizing time yields AAO templates with thicknesses of approximately 50 μm, 60 μm, and 70 μm that can be used in the fabrication of nanowires of three lengths with high aspect ratios. Experimental results reveal that a longer nanowire generates a greater measured piezoelectric current. The ZnO nanowires that are fabricated using an alumina template are anodized for 7 h and produce higher piezoelectric current of up to 69 pA. PMID:27023546

  2. Fabrication of ZnO Nanowires Arrays by Anodization and High-Vacuum Die Casting Technique, and Their Piezoelectric Properties.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chin-Guo; Chang, Ho; Wang, Jian-Hao

    2016-03-24

    In this investigation, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) with arrayed and regularly arranged nanopores is used as a template in the high-vacuum die casting of molten zinc metal (Zn) into the nanopores. The proposed technique yields arrayed Zn nanowires with an aspect ratio of over 600. After annealing, arrayed zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires are obtained. Varying the anodizing time yields AAO templates with thicknesses of approximately 50 μm, 60 μm, and 70 μm that can be used in the fabrication of nanowires of three lengths with high aspect ratios. Experimental results reveal that a longer nanowire generates a greater measured piezoelectric current. The ZnO nanowires that are fabricated using an alumina template are anodized for 7 h and produce higher piezoelectric current of up to 69 pA.

  3. Evaluating the Tensile Properties of Aluminum Foundry Alloys through Reference Castings—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Anilchandra, A.R.; Arnberg, Lars; Bonollo, Franco; Fiorese, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The tensile properties of an alloy can be exploited if detrimental defects and imperfections of the casting are minimized and the microstructural characteristics are optimized through several strategies that involve die design, process management and metal treatments. This paper presents an analysis and comparison of the salient characteristics of the reference dies proposed in the literature, both in the field of pressure and gravity die-casting. The specimens produced with these reference dies, called separately poured specimens, are effective tools for the evaluation and comparison of the tensile and physical behaviors of Al-Si casting alloys. Some of the findings of the present paper have been recently developed in the frame of the European StaCast project whose results are complemented here with some more recent outcomes and a comprehensive analysis and discussion. PMID:28867796

  4. The casting of semi-permeable membranes in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vera, I.

    1986-01-01

    The experiment is to study polymeric membranes. Presently, semipermeable membranes are being manufactured from several different kinds of polymers all over the world and specific applications have been identified in fluid separation processes such as reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration and electrodialysis. Although, the ultrastructure of asymmetric and composite membranes have been under intensive study, still there are many questions about the factors affecting this structure and their degree of correlation. Nevertheless, there is indication that the entire morphological structure of polymeric membranes could be affected by the difference in specific gravity between the cast solution and the coagulation liquid normally used in the membranes preparation process. The casting of semipermeable membranes in space might help to identify the effect of gravity upon the structure of these membranes. It is important to recognize that the casting process involves changes of state and that in a microgravity environment, there will be a reduction on buoyancy-driven natural convection and density gradients.

  5. Estimation of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Squeeze Casting of Magnesium Alloy AM60 by Experimental Polynomial Extrapolation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhizhong; Niu, Xiaoping; Hu, Henry

    In this work, a different wall-thickness 5-step (with thicknesses as 3, 5, 8, 12, 20 mm) casting mold was designed, and squeeze casting of magnesium alloy AM60 was performed in a hydraulic press. The casting-die interfacial heat transfer coefficients (IHTC) in 5-step casting were determined based on experimental thermal histories data throughout the die and inside the casting which were recorded by fine type-K thermocouples. With measured temperatures, heat flux and IHTC were evaluated using the polynomial curve fitting method. The results show that the wall thickness affects IHTC peak values significantly. The IHTC value for the thick step is higher than that for the thin steps.

  6. Casting evaluation of U-Zr alloy system fuel slug for SFR prepared by injection casting method

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Ki-Hwan

    2013-07-01

    Metal fuel slugs of U-Pu-Zr alloys for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) have conventionally been fabricated by a vacuum injection casting method. Recently, management of minor actinides (MA) became an important issue because direct disposal of the long-lived MA can be a long-term burden for a tentative repository up to several hundreds of thousand years. In order to recycle transuranic elements (TRU) retained in spent nuclear fuel, remote fabrication capability in a shielded hot cell should be prepared. Moreover, generation of long-lived radioactive wastes and loss of volatile species should be minimized during the recycled fuel fabrication step. In order tomore » prevent the evaporation of volatile elements such as Am, alternative fabrication methods of metal fuel slugs have been studied applying gravity casting, and improved injection casting in KAERI, including melting under inert atmosphere. And then, metal fuel slugs were examined with casting soundness, density, chemical analysis, particle size distribution and microstructural characteristics. Based on these results there is a high level of confidence that Am losses will also be effectively controlled by application of a modest amount of overpressure. A surrogate fuel slug was generally soundly cast by improved injection casting method, melted fuel material under inert atmosphere.« less

  7. Extension of loop quantum gravity to f(R) theories.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangdong; Ma, Yongge

    2011-04-29

    The four-dimensional metric f(R) theories of gravity are cast into connection-dynamical formalism with real su(2) connections as configuration variables. Through this formalism, the classical metric f(R) theories are quantized by extending the loop quantization scheme of general relativity. Our results imply that the nonperturbative quantization procedure of loop quantum gravity is valid not only for general relativity but also for a rather general class of four-dimensional metric theories of gravity.

  8. Low Cost Al-Si Casting Alloy As In-Situ Composite for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2000-01-01

    A new aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloy has been successfully developed at NASA- Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that has significant improvement in tensile and fatigue strength at elevated temperatures (500 F-700 F). The alloy offers a number of benefits such as light weight, high hardness, low thermal expansion and high surface wear resistance. In hypereutectic form, this alloy is considered as an in-situ Al-Si composite with tensile strength of about 90% higher than the auto industry 390 alloy at 600 F. This composite is very economically produced by using either conventional permanent steel molds or die casting. The projected material cost is less than $0.90 per pound, and automotive components such as pistons can be cast for high production rate using conventional casting techniques with a low and fully accounted cost. Key Words: Metal matrix composites, In-situ composite, aluminum-silicon alloy, hypereutectic alloy, permanent mold casting, die casting.

  9. Surface singularities in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity.

    PubMed

    Pani, Paolo; Sotiriou, Thomas P

    2012-12-21

    Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity was recently proposed as an alternative to general relativity that offers a resolution of spacetime singularities. The theory differs from Einstein's gravity only inside matter due to nondynamical degrees of freedom, and it is compatible with all current observations. We show that the theory is reminiscent of Palatini f(R) gravity and that it shares the same pathologies, such as curvature singularities at the surface of polytropic stars and unacceptable Newtonian limit. This casts serious doubt on its viability.

  10. Microstructure, Tensile Properties, and Corrosion Behavior of Die-Cast Mg-7Al-1Ca- xSn Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Dong, Haikuo; Sun, Shijie; Wang, Zhi; Mao, Pingli; Liu, Zheng

    2018-02-01

    The microstructure, tensile properties, and corrosion behavior of die-cast Mg-7Al-1Ca- xSn ( x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 wt.%) alloys were studied using OM, SEM/EDS, tensile test, weight loss test, and electrochemical test. The experimental results showed that Sn addition effectively refined grains and intermetallic phases and increased the amount of intermetallic phases. Meanwhile, Sn addition to the alloys suppressed the formation of the (Mg,Al)2Ca phase and resulted in the formation of the ternary CaMgSn phase and the binary Mg2Sn phase. The Mg-7Al-1Ca-0.5Sn alloy exhibited best tensile properties at room temperature, while Mg-7Al-1Ca-1.0Sn alloy exhibited best tensile properties at elevated temperature. The corrosion resistance of studied alloys was improved by the Sn addition, and the Mg-7Al-1Ca-0.5Sn alloy presented the best corrosion resistance.

  11. 75 FR 20387 - Contech Castings, LLC, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... aluminum and magnesium die casted component parts for automobiles. New information shows that the assets of... casted component parts for automobiles. The amended notice applicable to TA-W-72,649 is hereby issued as...

  12. Microstructure, Mechanical and Surface Morphological Properties of Al5Ti5Cr Master Alloy as Friction Material Prepared by Stir Die Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Syed Faisal; Srivastava, Sanjay; Agarwal, Alka Bani

    2018-04-01

    Metal matrix composite offers outstanding properties for better performance of disc brakes. In the present study, the composite of AlTiCr master alloy was prepared by stir die casting method. The developed material was reinforced with (0-10 wt%) silicon carbide (SiC) and boron carbide (B4C). The effects of SiC reinforcement from 0 to 10 wt% on mechanical, microstructure and surface morphological properties of Al MMC was investigated and compared with B4C reinforcement. Physical properties like density and micro Vickers hardness number show an increasing trend with an increase in the percentage of SiC and B4C reinforcement. Mechanical properties viz. UTS, yield strength and percentage of elongation are improved with increasing the fraction of reinforcement. The surface morphology and phase were identified from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis and the oxidized product formed during the casting was investigated by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. This confirms the presence of crystallization of corundum (α-Al2O3) in small traces as one of the alumina phases, within casting sample. Micro-structural characterization by SEM depicted that the particles tend to be more agglomerated more and more with the percentage of the reinforcement. The AFM results reveal that the surface roughness value shows a decreasing trend with SiC reinforcement while roughness increases with increase the percentage of B4C.

  13. Shrinkage Prediction for the Investment Casting of Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the alloy shrinkage factors were obtained for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts. For the investment casting process, unfilled wax and fused silica with a zircon prime coat were used for patterns and shell molds, respectively. Dimensions of the die tooling, wax pattern, and casting were measured using a Coordinate Measurement Machine in order to obtain the actual tooling allowances. The alloy dimensions were obtained from numerical simulation results of solidification, heat transfer, and deformation phenomena. The numerical simulation results for the shrinkage factors were compared with experimental results.

  14. Titanium Aluminide Casting Technology Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bünck, Matthias; Stoyanov, Todor; Schievenbusch, Jan; Michels, Heiner; Gußfeld, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    Titanium aluminide alloys have been successfully introduced into civil aircraft engine technology in recent years, and a significant order volume increase is expected in the near future. Due to its beneficial buy-to-fly ratio, investment casting bears the highest potential for cost reduction of all competing production technologies for TiAl-LPTB. However, highest mechanical properties can be achieved by TiAl forging. In view of this, Access e.V. has developed technologies for the production of TiAl investment cast parts and TiAl die cast billets for forging purposes. While these parts meet the highest requirements, establishing series production and further optimizing resource and economic efficiency are present challenges. In order to meet these goals, Access has recently been certified according to aircraft standards, aiming at qualifying parts for production on technology readiness level 6. The present work gives an overview of the phases of development and certification.

  15. Microstructure characterization and corrosion resistance properties of Pb-Sb alloys for lead acid battery spine produced by different casting methods.

    PubMed

    Seikh, Asiful H; Sherif, El-Sayed M; Khan Mohammed, Sohail M A; Baig, Muneer; Alam, Mohammad Asif; Alharthi, Nabeel

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the microstructure, hardness, and corrosion resistance of Pb-5%Sb spine alloy. The alloy has been produced by high pressure die casting (HPDC), medium pressure die casting (AS) and low pressure die casting (GS) methods, respectively. The microstructure was characterized by using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The hardness was also reported. The corrosion resistance of the spines in 0.5M H2SO4 solution has been analyzed by measuring the weight loss, impedance spectroscopy and the potentiodynamic polarization techniques. It has been found that the spine produced by HPDC has defect-free fine grain structure resulting improvement in hardness and excellent corrosion resistance.

  16. Microstructure characterization and corrosion resistance properties of Pb-Sb alloys for lead acid battery spine produced by different casting methods

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Muneer; Alam, Mohammad Asif; Alharthi, Nabeel

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the microstructure, hardness, and corrosion resistance of Pb-5%Sb spine alloy. The alloy has been produced by high pressure die casting (HPDC), medium pressure die casting (AS) and low pressure die casting (GS) methods, respectively. The microstructure was characterized by using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The hardness was also reported. The corrosion resistance of the spines in 0.5M H2SO4 solution has been analyzed by measuring the weight loss, impedance spectroscopy and the potentiodynamic polarization techniques. It has been found that the spine produced by HPDC has defect-free fine grain structure resulting improvement in hardness and excellent corrosion resistance. PMID:29668709

  17. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Use of Laser Engineered Net Shaping for Rapid Manufacturing of Dies with Protective Coatings and Improved Thermal Management

    SciTech Connect

    Brevick, Jerald R.

    2014-06-13

    In the high pressure die casting process, molten metal is introduced into a die cavity at high pressure and velocity, enabling castings of thin wall section and complex geometry to be obtained. Traditional die materials have been hot work die steels, commonly H13. Manufacture of the dies involves machining the desired geometry from monolithic blocks of annealed tool steel, heat treating to desired hardness and toughness, and final machining, grinding and polishing. The die is fabricated with internal water cooling passages created by drilling. These materials and fabrication methods have been used for many years, however, there are limitations. Toolmore » steels have relatively low thermal conductivity, and as a result, it takes time to remove the heat from the tool steel via the drilled internal water cooling passages. Furthermore, the low thermal conductivity generates large thermal gradients at the die cavity surfaces, which ultimately leads to thermal fatigue cracking on the surfaces of the die steel. The high die surface temperatures also promote the metallurgical bonding of the aluminum casting alloy to the surface of the die steel (soldering). In terms of process efficiency, these tooling limitations reduce the number of die castings that can be made per unit time by increasing cycle time required for cooling, and increasing downtime and cost to replace tooling which has failed either by soldering or by thermal fatigue cracking (heat checking). The objective of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of designing, fabricating, and testing high pressure die casting tooling having properties equivalent to H13 on the surface in contact with molten casting alloy - for high temperature and high velocity molten metal erosion resistance – but with the ability to conduct heat rapidly to interior water cooling passages. A layered bimetallic tool design was selected, and the design evaluated for thermal and mechanical performance via finite element analysis

  18. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Light Metals Permanent Mold Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Fasoyinu, Yemi

    2014-03-31

    Current vehicles use mostly ferrous components for structural applications. It is possible to reduce the weight of the vehicle by substituting these parts with those made from light metals such as aluminum and magnesium. Many alloys and manufacturing processes can be used to produce these light metal components and casting is known to be most economical. One of the high integrity casting processes is permanent mold casting which is the focus of this research report. Many aluminum alloy castings used in automotive applications are produced by the sand casting process. Also, aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloys are the most widely used alloymore » systems for automotive applications. It is possible that by using high strength aluminum alloys based on an aluminum-copper (Al-Cu) system and permanent mold casting, the performance of these components can be enhanced significantly. This will also help to further reduce the weight. However, many technological obstacles need to be overcome before using these alloys in automotive applications in an economical way. There is very limited information in the open literature on gravity and low-pressure permanent mold casting of high strength aluminum alloys. This report summarizes the results and issues encountered during the casting trials of high strength aluminum alloy 206.0 (Al-Cu alloy) and moderate strength alloy 535.0 (Al-Mg alloy). Five engineering components were cast by gravity tilt-pour or low pressure permanent mold casting processes at CanmetMATERIALS (CMAT) and two production foundries. The results of the casting trials show that high integrity engineering components can be produced successfully from both alloys if specific processing parameters are used. It was shown that a combination of melt processing and mold temperature is necessary for the elimination of hot tears in both alloys.« less

  19. Casting the Spirit: A Handmade Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutenberg, Mona

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses how an art therapist working in a hospital palliative care unit has incorporated a ritual of hand casting to help bring closure to dying patients and family members who are grieving as death approaches. The finished hand sculptures depict the hands of the patients and, sometimes, of their loved ones. They are faithful and…

  20. Accuracy of Multiple Pour Cast from Various Elastomer Impression Methods

    PubMed Central

    Saad Toman, Majed; Ali Al-Shahrani, Abdullah; Ali Al-Qarni, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    The accurate duplicate cast obtained from a single impression reduces the profession clinical time, patient inconvenience, and extra material cost. The stainless steel working cast model assembly consisting of two abutments and one pontic area was fabricated. Two sets of six each custom aluminum trays were fabricated, with five mm spacer and two mm spacer. The impression methods evaluated during the study were additional silicone putty reline (two steps), heavy-light body (one step), monophase (one step), and polyether (one step). Type IV gypsum casts were poured at the interval of one hour, 12 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours. The resultant cast was measured with traveling microscope for the comparative dimensional accuracy. The data obtained were subjected to Analysis of Variance test at significance level <0.05. The die obtained from two-step putty reline impression techniques had the percentage of variation for the height −0.36 to −0.97%, while diameter was increased by 0.40–0.90%. The values for one-step heavy-light body impression dies, additional silicone monophase impressions, and polyether were −0.73 to −1.21%, −1.34%, and −1.46% for the height and 0.50–0.80%, 1.20%, and −1.30% for the width, respectively. PMID:28096815

  1. Deducing material quality in cast and hot-forged steels by new bending test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valberg, Henry; Langøy, Morten; Nedreberg, Mette; Helvig, Torgeir

    2017-10-01

    A special bend test has been developed and applied for the purpose of characterization and comparison of the material ductility in crankpin steel discs manufactured by casting, or casting subsequently followed by hot open-die forging (ODF) or closed-die forging (CDF). The bending test specimen consists of a small rectangular plate of material with a round hole cut out in the middle. The "eye-shape" specimens were cut out from various positions either near to the surface of, or from the interior of the discs. The test method revealed differences in ductility for the investigated materials, and for different depth positions inside the discs. The roughening of the specimen surface on the top-side of the specimen bend also varied dependent on the processing method for the material. Current results show that this test method is useful for evaluation of material quality in differently processed material. Experimental bend test results are presented for differently processed variants of the same material, i.e., crankpin discs either made by solely casting or casting subsequently followed by hot working either by ODF or CDF.

  2. Hot forging of roll-cast high aluminum content magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishi, Tomohiro; Watari, Hisaki; Suzuki, Mayumi; Haga, Toshio

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports on hot forging of high aluminum content magnesium alloy sheets manufactured using horizontal twin-roll casting. AZ111 and AZ131 were applied for twin-roll casting, and a hot-forging test was performed to manufacture high-strength magnesium alloy components economically. For twin-roll casting, the casting conditions of a thick sheet for hot forging were investigated. It was found that twin-roll casting of a 10mm-thick magnesium alloy sheet was possible at a roll speed of 2.5m/min. The grain size of the cast strip was 50 to 70µm. In the hot-forging test, blank material was obtained from as-cast strip. A servo press machine with a servo die cushion was used to investigate appropriate forging conditions (e.g., temperature, forging load, and back pressure) for twin-roll casts (TRCs) AZ111 and AZ131. It was determined that high aluminum content magnesium alloy sheets manufactured using twin-roll casting could be forged with a forging load of 150t and a back pressure of 3t at 420 to 430°C. Applying back pressure during hot forging effectively forged a pin-shaped product.

  3. Effect of Heat Treatment on Commercial AlSi12Cu1(Fe) and AlSi12(b) Aluminum Alloy Die Castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, E.; Bonollo, F.; Ferro, P.; Fabrizi, A.

    2018-03-01

    High-pressure die castings (HPDCs) cannot normally be heat-treated at a high temperature because of the presence of inner air/gas- or shrinkage-porosity that may lead to the formation of undesired surface blisters. In this paper, an unconventional heat treatment is proposed. Two secondary Al-Si alloys, AlSi12(b) and AlSi12Cu1(Fe), were stabilization heat-treated at 624 K (350 °C) with soaking times ranging from 1 to 8 hours. Enhancement of both static and dynamic mechanical properties was found to be related to the fragmentation of interconnected eutectic Si particles and the smoothing of coarser crystals. Increased ductility after heat treatment was correlated with a decrease in hardness and Si particle roundness. The formation of Si precipitates within the α-Al matrix was also observed.

  4. Morphology transition of the primary silicon particles in a hypereutectic A390 alloy in high pressure die casting.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Guo, Z; Song, J L; Hu, W X; Li, J C; Xiong, S M

    2017-11-03

    The microstructure of a high-pressure die-cast hypereutectic A390 alloy, including PSPs, pores, α-Al grains and Cu-rich phases, was characterized using synchrotron X-ray tomography, together with SEM, TEM and EBSD. The Cu-rich phases exhibited a net morphology and distributed at the boundaries of the α-Al grains, which in turn surrounded the PSPs. Statistical analysis of the reconstructed 1000 PSPs showed that both equivalent diameter and shape factor of the PSPs exhibited a unimodal distribution with peaks corresponding to 25 μm and 0.78, respectively.) PSPs morphology with multiple twinning were observed and morphological or growth transition of the PSPs from regular octahedral shape (with a shape factor of 0.85 was mainly caused by the constraint of the Cu-rich phases. In particular, the presence of the Cu-rich phases restricted the growth of the α-Al grains, inducing stress on the internal silicon particles, which caused multiple twinning occurrence with higher growth potential and consequently led to growth transitions of the PSPs.

  5. Casting Characteristics of High Cerium Content Aluminum Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, D; Rios, O R; Sims, Z C

    This paper compares the castability of the near eutectic aluminum-cerium alloy system to the aluminum-silicon and aluminum-copper systems. The alloys are compared based on die filling capability, feeding characteristics and tendency to hot tear in both sand cast and permanent mold applications. The castability ranking of the binary Al–Ce systems is as good as the aluminum-silicon system with some deterioration as additional alloying elements are added. In alloy systems that use cerium in combination with common aluminum alloying elements such as silicon, magnesium and/or copper, the casting characteristics are generally better than the aluminum-copper system. In general, production systems formore » melting, de-gassing and other processing of aluminum-silicon or aluminum-copper alloys can be used without modification for conventional casting of aluminum-cerium alloys.« less

  6. Microstructure and Corrosion Characterization of Squeeze Cast AM50 Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdeva, Deepika; Tiwari, Shashank; Sundarraj, Suresh; Luo, Alan A.

    2010-12-01

    Squeeze casting of magnesium alloys potentially can be used in lightweight chassis components such as control arms and knuckles. This study documents the microstructural analysis and corrosion behavior of AM50 alloys squeeze cast at different pressures between 40 and 120 MPa and compares them with high-pressure die cast (HPDC) AM50 alloy castings and an AM50 squeeze cast prototype control arm. Although the corrosion rates of the squeeze cast samples are slightly higher than those observed for the HPDC AM50 alloy, the former does produce virtually porosity-free castings that are required for structural applications like control arms and wheels. This outcome is extremely encouraging as it provides an opportunity for additional alloy and process development by squeeze casting that has remained relatively unexplored for magnesium alloys compared with aluminum. Among the microstructural parameters analyzed, it seems that the β-phase interfacial area, indicating a greater degree of β network, leads to a lower corrosion rate. Weight loss was the better method for determining corrosion behavior in these alloys that contain a large fraction of second phase, which can cause perturbations to an overall uniform surface corrosion behavior.

  7. Particles and Zinc on the Absorbed Impact Energy of Gravity Cast Aluminum Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corchado, Marcos; Reyes, Fernando; Suárez, Oscar Marcelo

    2014-06-01

    The effect of different amounts of boron, in the form of AlB2 particles, as well as zinc concentration in a gravity cast Al-B-Zn composite, was studied and related to the absorbed energy upon fracture during Charpy impact experiments. In addition, the authors correlated the composite Brinell hardness with the quantitative assessment of brittle and ductile fracture areas of the Charpy fractured specimens and found that increasing AlB2 particle concentration resulted in a reduction of absorbed impact energy. Although larger zinc levels produced somewhat similar results, the AlB2 effect was prevalent. The energy absorption upon impact reached a maximum when no particles were present; conversely, the lowest amount of absorbed energy corresponded to a composite with a composition of 15 wt.% Zn and 8% in volume of AlB2, i.e., the highest concentration of AlB2 and zinc studied. Raising the amount of AlB2 as well as zinc, as expected, resulted in higher Brinell hardness. A statistical analysis allowed studying of the particle size distribution, whereas values for crack tip opening displacement were subsequently calculated for the range of particle sizes found and the corresponding AlB2 particle volume percent. Higher porosity values were measured for larger AlB2 volume percent. Finally, analyses of fracture surfaces corroborated that brittle fracture was favored in composites with higher amounts of AlB2 and zinc.

  8. Development of a new casting method to fabricate U–Zr alloy containing minor actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Jong Hwan Kim; Hoon Song; Hyung Tae Kim

    2014-01-01

    Metal fuel slugs of U–Zr alloys for a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) have conventionally been fabricated using an injection casting method. However, casting alloys containing volatile radioactive constituents, such as Am, are problematic in a conventional injection casting method. As an alternative fabrication method, low pressure gravity casting has been developed. Casting soundness, microstructural characteristics, alloying composition, density, and fuel losses were evaluated for the following as-cast fuel slugs: U–10 wt% Zr, U–10 wt% Zr–5 wt% RE, and U–10 wt% Zr–5 wt% RE–5 wt% Mn. The U and Zr contents were uniform throughout the matrix, and impurities such as oxyen,more » carbon, and nitrogen satisfied the specification of total impurities less than 2,000 ppm. The appearance of the fuel slugs was generally sound, and the internal integrity was shown to be satisfactory based on gamma-ray radiography. In a volatile surrogate casting test, the U–Zr–RE–Mn fuel slug showed that nearly all of the manganese was retained when casting was done under an inert atmosphere.« less

  9. Effect of Casting Material on the Cast Pressure After Sequential Cast Splitting.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Aaron; Shaw, K Aaron; Boomsma, Shawn E; Cameron, Craig D

    2017-01-01

    Circumferential casting is a vital component of nonoperative fracture management. These casts are commonly valved to release pressure and decrease the risk of complications from swelling. However, little information exists regarding the effect of different casting supplies on the pressure within the cast. Seventy-five long-arm casts were performed on human volunteers, divided between 5 experimental groups with 15 casts in each groups. Testing groups consisted of 2 groups with a plaster short-arm cast overwrapped with fiberglass to a long arm with either cotton or synthetic cast padding. The 3 remaining groups included fiberglass long-arm casts with cotton, synthetic, or waterproof cast padding. A pediatric blood pressure cuff bladder was placed within the cast and inflated to 100 mm Hg. After inflation, the cast was sequentially released with pressure reading preformed after each stage. Order of release consisted of cast bivalve, cast padding release, and cotton stockinet release. After release, the cast was overwrapped with a loose elastic bandage. Difference in pressure readings were compared based upon the cast material. Pressures within the cast were found to decrease with sequential release of cast. The cast type had no effect of change in pressure. Post hoc testing demonstrated that the type of cast padding significantly affected the cast pressures with waterproof padding demonstrating the highest pressure readings at all time-points in the study, followed by synthetic padding. Cotton padding had the lowest pressure readings at all time-points. Type of cast padding significantly influences the amount of pressure within a long-arm cast, even after bivalving the cast and cutting the cast padding. Cotton cast padding allows for the greatest change in pressure. Cotton padding demonstrates the greatest change in pressure within a long-arm cast after undergoing bivalve. Synthetic and waterproof cast padding should not be used in the setting of an acute fracture to

  10. A simplified simulation model for a HPDC die with conformal cooling channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frings, Markus; Behr, Marek; Elgeti, Stefanie

    2017-10-01

    In general, the cooling phase of the high-pressure die casting process is based on complex physical phenomena: so-lidification of molten material; heat exchange between cast part, die and cooling fluid; turbulent flow inside the cooling channels that needs to be considered when computing the heat flux; interdependency of properties and temperature of the cooling liquid. Intuitively understanding and analyzing all of these effects when designing HPDC dies is not feasible. A remedy that has become available is numerical design, based for example on shape optimization methods. However, current computing power is not sufficient to perform optimization while at the same time fully resolving all physical phenomena. But since in HPDC suitable objective functions very often lead to integral values, e.g., average die temperature, this paper identifies possible simplifications in the modeling of the cooling phase. As a consequence, the computational effort is reduced to an acceptable level. A further aspect that arises in the context of shape optimization is the evaluation of shape gradients. The challenge here is to allow for large shape deformations without remeshing. In our approach, the cooling channels are described by their center lines. The flow profile of the cooling fluid is then estimated based on experimental data found in literature for turbulent pipe flows. In combination, the heat flux throughout cavity, die, and cooling channel can be described by one single advection-diffusion equation on a fixed mesh. The parameters in the equation are adjusted based on the position of cavity and cooling channel. Both results contribute towards a computationally efficient, yet accurate method, which can be employed within the frame of shape optimization of cooling channels in HPDC dies.

  11. Effects of preparation relief and flow channels on seating full coverage castings during cementation.

    PubMed

    Webb, E L; Murray, H V; Holland, G A; Taylor, D F

    1983-06-01

    Machined steel dies were used to study the effects of three die modifications on seating full coverage castings during cementation. The die modifications consisted of occlusal channels, occlusal surface relief, and axial channels. Fourteen specimens having one or more forms of die modification were compared with two control specimens having no die modifications. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the addition of four axial channels to the simulated preparation on the steel die produced a significant reduction in the mean marginal discrepancy during cementation. Occlusal modifications alone failed to produce significant reductions in marginal discrepancies when compared with the control specimens. Occlusal modifications in conjunction with axial channels failed to produce further significant reductions in marginal discrepancies when compared with those reductions observed in specimens having only axial channels.

  12. ELID grinding characteristics of large stamping die for Wolter mirror.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shaohui; Ohmori, Hitoshi; Liu, Qing; Morita, Shinnya; Chen, Fengjun; Asami, Muneaki; Fan, Yufeng

    2009-01-01

    An ultra-precision ELID grinding of large stamping dies of Wolter mirror for X-ray telescope was presented in this paper. The large stamping dies (S55C) with confocal paraboloid and hyperboloid was ground by ELID arc-enveloped grinding. In this ELID grinding system, cast iron fiber bonded (CIFB) diamond wheels were controlled by 3-dimentional ways to scan the work-piece and generate required surfaces. Its grinding characteristics such as attainable form accuracy, surface roughness were investigated. Furthermore, some measures to improve form accuracy were discussed and verified such as truing, compensating, and on-machine measuring.

  13. Effect of Zn Concentration on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al-Mg-Si-Zn Alloys Processed by Gravity Die Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longfei; Ji, Shouxun; Zhu, Qiang; Wang, Yun; Dong, Xixi; Yang, Wenchao; Midson, Stephen; Kang, Yonglin

    2018-06-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-8.1Mg-2.6Si-(0.08 to 4.62)Zn alloys (in wt pct) have been investigated by the permanent mold casting process. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the τ-Mg32(Al, Zn)49 phase forms when the Zn content is 1.01 wt pct. With higher Zn contents of 2.37 and 3.59 wt pct, the η-MgZn2 and τ-Mg32(Al, Zn)49 phases precipitate in the microstructure, and the η-MgZn2 phase forms when the Zn content is 4.62 wt pct. Metallurgical analysis shows that the η-MgZn2 and τ-Mg32(Al, Zn)49 phases strengthen the Al-8.1Mg-2.6Si-(0.08 to 4.62)Zn alloys. After solutionizing at 510 °C for 180 minutes and aging at 180 °C for 90 minutes, the η'-MgZn2 phase precipitates in the α-Al matrix, which significantly enhances the mechanical properties. Addition of 3.59 wt pct Zn to the Al-8.1Mg-2.6Si alloy with heat treatment increases the yield strength from 96 to 280 MPa, increases the ultimate tensile strength from 267 to 310 MPa, and decreases the elongation from 9.97 to 1.74 pct.

  14. Effects of Humidity and Temperature on Orange Dye-Based Organic Field Effect Transistors Fabricated at Different Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatima, N.; Ahmed, M. M.; Karimov, Kh. S.

    2017-11-01

    This study reports the fabrication of organic field effect transistors (OFETs) using 3-[ethyl[4-[(4-nitrophenyl)azo]phenyl]amino]propanenitrile, usually known as Orange-Dye 25 (OD) and its composite with sugar. The study investigated the heat- and humidity-dependent electrical characteristics of the fabricated devices. Fabrication was carried out from the aqueous solution of the materials using different gravity conditions, i.e., at positive (normal) gravity (+1 g) and at negative gravity (-1 g). A thin layer (10-15 μm) of OD or OD:sugar was deposited by drop-casting on pre-fabricated drain and source silver (Ag) electrodes having 30 μm separation and 2 mm length followed by aluminum (Al) thermal evaporation to achieve a Schottky barrier. Devices fabricated using OD at -1 g were more sensitive in capacitance-temperature and impedance-humidity relationships than those fabricated at +1 g. Moreover, OFETs fabricated at -1 g using OD:sugar offered capacitance-temperature sensitivity much higher than the devices fabricated at +1 g. It has been observed that, in the drop-casting method, the properties of OFETs are dependent upon gravity as well as the solution composition employed for channel definition.

  15. Fractography of cast gypsum.

    PubMed

    Mori, T; Yamane, M

    1982-02-01

    A fractographical study of dental cast gypsum was made in order to correlate the mechanical properties with the microstructure. Wet specimens fractured under tensile stress showed intercrystalline fracture and the tensile strength depended on the porosity present. Thus, it was assumed that tensile strength was dependent on the contact area between individual gypsum crystals and changes in porosity approximated to changes in contact area. Strength differences among specimens of a given W/P ratio, therefore, can be related to differences in intercrystalline contact areas. These theoretical considerations suggest that the classification of dental die stone and dental stone into high and low strength types based on strength properties only would be more practical and less confusing than at present.

  16. [Comparative adaptation of crowns of selective laser melting and wax-lost-casting method].

    PubMed

    Li, Guo-qiang; Shen, Qing-yi; Gao, Jian-hua; Wu, Xue-ying; Chen, Li; Dai, Wen-an

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the marginal adaptation of crowns fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) and wax-lost-casting method, so as to provide an experimental basis for clinic. Co-Cr alloy full crown were fabricated by SLM and wax-lost-casting for 24 samples in each group. All crowns were cemented with zinc phosphate cement and cut along longitudinal axis by line cutting machine. The gap between crown tissue surface and die was measured by 6-point measuring method with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The marginal adaptation of crowns fabricated by SLM and wax-lost-casting were compared statistically. The gap between SLM crowns were (36.51 ± 2.94), (49.36 ± 3.31), (56.48 ± 3.35), (42.20 ± 3.60) µm, and wax-lost-casting crowns were (68.86 ± 5.41), (58.86 ± 6.10), (70.62 ± 5.79), (69.90 ± 6.00) µm. There were significant difference between two groups (P < 0.05). Co-Cr alloy full crown fabricated by wax-lost-casting method and SLM method provide acceptable marginal adaptation in clinic, and the marginal adaptation of SLM is better than that of wax-lost-casting method.

  17. Compositional redistribution during casting of Hg sub 0.8 Cd sub 0.2 Te alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Perry, G. L. E.; Szofran, F. R.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    A series of Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te ingots was cast both vertically and horizontally under well-defined thermal conditions by using a two-zone furnace with isothermal heat-pipe liners. The main objective of the experiments was to establish correlations between casting parameters and compositional redistribution and to develop ground-based data for a proposed flight experiment of casting of Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te alloys under reduced gravity conditions. The compositional variations along the axial and radial directions were determined by precision density measurements, infrared transmission spectra, and X-ray energy dispersion spectrometry. Comparison between the experimental results and a numerical simulation of the solidification process of Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te is described.

  18. Wear Behavior and Mechanism of a Cr-Mo-V Cast Hot-Working Die Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, M. X.; Wang, S. Q.; Zhao, Y. T.; Chen, K. M.; Cui, X. H.

    2011-06-01

    The wear behavior and mechanisms of a Cr-Mo-V cast hot-working die steel with three microstructures (tempered martensite, troostite, and sorbite) were studied systematically through the dry-sliding wear tests within a normal load range of 50 to 300 N and an ambient temperature range of 298 K to 673 K (25 °C to 400 °C) by a pin-on-disk high-temperature wear machine. Five different mechanisms were observed in the experiments, namely adhesive, abrasive, mild oxidative, oxidative, and extrusive wear; one or more of those mechanisms would be dominant within particular ranges of load and temperature. The transition of wear mechanisms depended on the formation of tribo-oxides, which was related closely to load and temperature, and their delamination, which was mainly influenced by the matrix. By increasing the load and ambient temperature, the protective effect of tribo-oxides first strengthened, then decreased, and in some cases disappeared. Under a load ranging 50 to 300 N at 298 K (25 °C) and a load of 50 N at 473 K (200 °C), adhesive wear was the dominant wear mechanism, and abrasive wear appeared simultaneously. The wear was of mild oxidative type under a load ranging 100 to 300 N at 473 K (200 °C) and a load ranging 50 to 150 N at 673 K (400 °C) for tempered martensite and tempered troostite as well as under a load of 100 N at 473 K (200 °C) and a load ranging 50 to 100 N at 673 K (400 °C) for tempered sorbite. At the load of 200 N or greater, or the temperatures above 673 K (400 °C), oxidative wear (beyond mild oxidative wear) prevailed. When the highest load of 300 N at 673 K (400 °C) was applied, extrusive wear started to dominate for the tempered sorbite.

  19. Salvaged castings and methods of salvaging castings with defective cast cooling bumps

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Robert Alan; Schaeffer, Jon Conrad; Lee, Ching-Pang; Abuaf, Nesim; Hasz, Wayne Charles

    2002-01-01

    Castings for gas turbine parts exposed on one side to a high-temperature fluid medium have cast-in bumps on an opposite cooling surface side to enhance heat transfer. Areas on the cooling surface having defectively cast bumps, i.e., missing or partially formed bumps during casting, are coated with a braze alloy and cooling enhancement material to salvage the part.

  20. Pseudonephritis is associated with high urinary osmolality and high specific gravity in adolescent soccer players.

    PubMed

    Van Biervliet, Stephanie; Van Biervliet, Jean Pierre; Watteyne, Karel; Langlois, Michel; Bernard, Dirk; Vande Walle, Johan

    2013-08-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of exercise on urine sediment in adolescent soccer players. In 25 15-year-old (range 14.4-15.8 yrs) athletes, urinary protein, osmolality and cytology were analyzed by flow cytometry and automated dipstick analysis before (T(0)), during (T(1)), and after a match (T(2)). All athletes had normal urine analysis and blood pressure at rest, tested before the start of the soccer season. Fifty-eight samples were collected (T(0): 20, T(1): 17, T(2): 21). Proteinuria was present in 20 of 38 samples collected after exercise. Proteinuria was associated with increased urinary osmolality (p < .001) and specific gravity (p < .001). Hyaline and granular casts were present in respectively 8 of 38 and 8 of 38 of the urinary samples after exercise. The presence of casts was associated with urine protein concentration, osmolality, and specific gravity. This was also the case for hematuria (25 of 38) and leucocyturia (9 of 38). Squamous epithelial cells were excreted in equal amounts to white and red blood cells. A notable proportion of adolescent athletes developed sediment abnormalities, which were associated with urinary osmolality and specific gravity.

  1. Urinary casts

    MedlinePlus

    ... tubular epithelial casts; Waxy casts; Casts in the urine; Fatty casts; Red blood cell casts; White blood ... The urine sample you provide may need to be from your first morning urine. The sample needs to be ...

  2. Constraining f(R) gravity in solar system, cosmology and binary pulsar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tan; Zhang, Xing; Zhao, Wen

    2018-02-01

    The f (R) gravity can be cast into the form of a scalar-tensor theory, and scalar degree of freedom can be suppressed in high-density regions by the chameleon mechanism. In this article, for the general f (R) gravity, using a scalar-tensor representation with the chameleon mechanism, we calculate the parametrized post-Newtonian parameters γ and β, the effective gravitational constant Geff, and the effective cosmological constant Λeff. In addition, for the general f (R) gravity, we also calculate the rate of orbital period decay of the binary system due to gravitational radiation. Then we apply these results to specific f (R) models (Hu-Sawicki model, Tsujikawa model and Starobinsky model) and derive the constraints on the model parameters by combining the observations in solar system, cosmological scales and the binary systems.

  3. Development and Demonstration of Adanced Tooling Alloys for Molds and Dies

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. McHugh; Enrique J. Lavernia

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes research results in the project Development and Demonstration of Advanced Tooling Alloys for Molds and Dies. Molds, dies and related tooling are used to manufacture most of the plastic and metal products we use every day. Conventional fabrication of molds and dies involves a multiplicity of machining, benching and heat treatment unit operations. This approach is very expensive and time consuming. Rapid Solidifcation Process (RSP) Tooling is a spray-forming technology tailored for producing molds and dies. The appraoch combines rapid solidifcation processing and net-shape materials processing in a single step. An atomized spray of a tool-forming alloy,more » typically a tool steel, is deposited onto an easy-to-form tool pattern to replicate the pattern's shape and surface features. By so doing, the approach eliminates many machining operations in conventional mold making, significantly reducing cost, lead time and energy. Moreover, rapid solidification creates unique microstructural features by suppressing carbide precipitation and growth, and creating metastable phases. This can result in unique material properties following heat treatment. Spray-formed and aged tool steel dies have exhibited extended life compared to conventional dies in many forming operations such as forging, extrusion and die casting. RSP Tooling technolocy was commercialized with the formation of RSP Tooling, LLC in Solon, Oh.« less

  4. Accuracy of ringless casting and accelerated wax-elimination technique: a comparative in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rahul; Al-Keraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Kathuria, Nidhi; Gandhi, P V; Bhide, S V

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the ringless casting and accelerated wax-elimination techniques can be combined to offer a cost-effective, clinically acceptable, and time-saving alternative for fabricating single unit castings in fixed prosthodontics. Sixty standardized wax copings were fabricated on a type IV stone replica of a stainless steel die. The wax patterns were divided into four groups. The first group was cast using the ringless investment technique and conventional wax-elimination method; the second group was cast using the ringless investment technique and accelerated wax-elimination method; the third group was cast using the conventional metal ring investment technique and conventional wax-elimination method; the fourth group was cast using the metal ring investment technique and accelerated wax-elimination method. The vertical marginal gap was measured at four sites per specimen, using a digital optical microscope at 100× magnification. The results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA to determine statistical significance. The vertical marginal gaps of castings fabricated using the ringless technique (76.98 ± 7.59 μm) were significantly less (p < 0.05) than those castings fabricated using the conventional metal ring technique (138.44 ± 28.59 μm); however, the vertical marginal gaps of the conventional (102.63 ± 36.12 μm) and accelerated wax-elimination (112.79 ± 38.34 μm) castings were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The ringless investment technique can produce castings with higher accuracy and can be favorably combined with the accelerated wax-elimination method as a vital alternative to the time-consuming conventional technique of casting restorations in fixed prosthodontics. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  5. Glovebox Advanced Casting System Casting Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Fielding, Randall Sidney

    2016-03-01

    Casting optimization in the GACS included three broad areas; casting of U-10Zr pins, incorporation of an integral FCCI barrier, and development of a permanent crucible coating. U-10Zr casting was improved over last year’s results by modifying the crucible design to minimize contact with the colder mold. Through these modifications casting of a three pin batch was successful. Incorporation of an integral FCCI barrier also was optimized through furnace chamber pressure changes during the casting cycle to reduce gas pressures in the mold cavities which led to three full length pins being cast which incorporated FCCI barriers of three different thicknesses.more » Permanent crucible coatings were tested against a base case; 1500°C for 10 minutes in a U-20Pu-10Zr molten alloy. None of the candidate coating materials showed evidence of failure upon initial visual examination. In all areas of work a large amount of characterization will be needed to fully determine the effects of the optimization activities. The characterization activities and future work will occur next year.« less

  6. Gauge fixing in higher-derivative gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, A.; Julve, J.; Sánchez, E. J.

    1999-07-01

    Linearized 4-derivative gravity with a general gauge-fixing term is considered. By a Legendre transform and a suitable diagonalization procedure it is cast into a second-order equivalent form where the nature of the physical degrees of freedom, the gauge ghosts, the Weyl ghosts and the intriguing `third ghosts', characteristic to higher-derivative theories, is made explicit. The symmetries of the theory and the structure of the compensating Faddeev-Popov ghost sector exhibit non-trivial peculiarities. The unitarity breaking negative-norm Weyl ghosts, already present in the diff-invariant theory, are out of the reach of the ghost cancellation BRST mechanism.

  7. Distortion of three-unit implant frameworks during casting, soldering, and simulated porcelain firings.

    PubMed

    Zervas, P J; Papazoglou, E; Beck, F M; Carr, A B

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess distortion inherent in casting, soldering, and simulated porcelain firings of screw-retained, implant-supported three-unit fixed partial dentures (FPDs). Ten wax patterns were fabricated on a die-stone cast containing two implants, 20 mm apart from center to center. Five specimens were cast in a high-palladium alloy, exposed to simulated porcelain firings, sectioned, and then soldered with low-fusing solder. Five specimens were cast, sectioned, soldered with high-fusing solder, and then exposed to simulated porcelain firings. For each specimen, two horizontal and six vertical distances between appropriately scribed reference points were measured with a traveling microscope. Comparisons were made among the various measurements taken after wax-pattern fabrication, casting, high- and low-fusing soldering, and each porcelain firing. Data were analyzed using a repeated-measures factorial ANOVA (alpha = 0.05). Significant difference was detected in the amount of horizontal distortion during casting (53 +/- 24 microns) and high-fusing soldering (-49 +/- 50 microns), as well as in the amount of horizontal distortion during high-fusing soldering (-49 +/- 50 microns) and low-fusing soldering (17 +/- 26 microns). However, no clinically significant difference was found in the amount of horizontal distortion during casting, low-fusing, and high-fusing soldering. The greatest amount of distortion during the simulated porcelain firings took place during the oxidizing cycle. Soldering did not improve the casting misfit of a three-unit implant-retained FPD model. Metal-ceramic implant frameworks should be oxidized before intraoral fit evaluation.

  8. Development of a New Membrane Casting Apparatus for Studying Macrovoid Defects in Low-G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hanyong; Hwang, Sun-Tak; Krantz, William B.; Greenberg, Alan R.; Khare, Vivek; Zartman, Jeremiah; Todd, Paul W.

    2002-01-01

    A new membrane-casting apparatus is developed for studying macrovoid defects in polymeric membranes made by the wet- and dry-casting process in low-gravity. Macrovoids are large (10-50 micron), open cavities interspersed among the smaller pores in the substructure under the gelled skin surface layer of the cast membrane. Although their occurrence is considered endemic to the wet- and dry-casting process since they can lead to compaction or skin rupture in the membrane process, recent studies suggest several useful applications such as transdermal and osmotic drug delivery systems, miniature bioreactors, etc. However, lack of knowledge about the macrovoid formation mechanism is an obstacle to further development of applications using them. An on-going debate is the role of the surface-tension-driven solutocapillary convection during macrovoid formation. The rapid growth of macrovoids within 1-5 seconds and the high polymer concentration in and near macrovoids make it difficult to explain the mechanism of macrovoid growth by diffusion alone, which is the widely accepted hypothesis proposed by Reuvers et al. The hypothesis advanced by our research group can explain this rapid growth via a mechanism that involves diffusion from the casting solution in the meta-stable region to the macrovoid enhanced by solutocapillary convection induced by the steep nonsolvent concentration gradient in the vicinity of the macrovoid. Since macrovoid growth is hypothesized to be the interplay of a solutocapillary-induced driving force counteracted by viscous drag and buoyancy, eliminate the latter provides a means for testing this hypothesis. Moreover, free convection mass transfer in the nonsolvent immersion bath used to cause phase-separation in membrane casting complicates developing a model for both the wet-casting process and macrovoid growth. The low-g environment minimizes gravitationally induced free convection thereby permitting a tractable solution to the ternary diffusion

  9. Testing Quantum Gravity Induced Nonlocality via Optomechanical Quantum Oscillators.

    PubMed

    Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M T; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello

    2016-04-22

    Several quantum gravity scenarios lead to physics below the Planck scale characterized by nonlocal, Lorentz invariant equations of motion. We show that such nonlocal effective field theories lead to a modified Schrödinger evolution in the nonrelativistic limit. In particular, the nonlocal evolution of optomechanical quantum oscillators is characterized by a spontaneous periodic squeezing that cannot be generated by environmental effects. We discuss constraints on the nonlocality obtained by past experiments, and show how future experiments (already under construction) will either see such effects or otherwise cast severe bounds on the nonlocality scale (well beyond the current limits set by the Large Hadron Collider). This paves the way for table top, high precision experiments on massive quantum objects as a promising new avenue for testing some quantum gravity phenomenology.

  10. Fluid mechanics of directional solidification at reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. F.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of the proposed research is to provide additional groundbased support for the flight experiment 'Casting and Solidification Technology' (CAST). This experiment is to be performed in the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1) scheduled to be flown on a space shuttle mission scheduled for 1992. In particular, we will provide data on the convective motion and freckle formation during directional solidification of NH4Cl from its aqueous solution at simulated parameter ranges equivalent to reducing the gravity from the sea-level value down to 0.1 g or lower. The secondary objectives of the proposed research are to examine the stability phenomena associated with the onset of freckles and the mechanisms for their subsequent growth and decline (to eventual demise of some) by state-of-the-art imaging techniques and to formulate mathematical models for the prediction of the observed phenomena.

  11. Effect of dental technician disparities on the 3-dimensional accuracy of definitive casts.

    PubMed

    Emir, Faruk; Piskin, Bulent; Sipahi, Cumhur

    2017-03-01

    Studies that evaluated the effect of dental technician disparities on the accuracy of presectioned and postsectioned definitive casts are lacking. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the accuracy of presectioned and postsectioned definitive casts fabricated by different dental technicians by using a 3-dimensional computer-aided measurement method. An arch-shaped metal master model consisting of 5 abutments resembling prepared mandibular incisors, canines, and first molars and with a 6-degree total angle of convergence was designed and fabricated by computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology. Complete arch impressions were made (N=110) from the master model, using polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) and delivered to 11 dental technicians. Each technician fabricated 10 definitive casts with dental stone, and the obtained casts were numbered. All casts were sectioned, and removable dies were obtained. The master model and the presectioned and postsectioned definitive casts were digitized with an extraoral scanner, and the virtual master model and virtual presectioned and postsectioned definitive casts were obtained. All definitive casts were compared with the master model by using computer-aided measurements, and the 3-dimensional accuracy of the definitive casts was determined with best fit alignment and represented in color-coded maps. Differences were analyzed using univariate analyses of variance, and the Tukey honest significant differences post hoc tests were used for multiple comparisons (α=.05). The accuracy of presectioned and postsectioned definitive casts was significantly affected by dental technician disparities (P<.001). The largest dimensional changes were detected in the anterior abutments of both of the definitive casts. The changes mostly occurred in the mesiodistal dimension (P<.001). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the accuracy of presectioned and postsectioned definitive casts is susceptible

  12. Ventriculostomy Simulation Using Patient-Specific Ventricular Anatomy, 3D Printing, and Hydrogel Casting.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Justin R; Chen, Tsinsue; Nakaji, Peter; Frakes, David H; Gonzalez, L Fernando

    2015-11-01

    Educational simulators provide a means for students and experts to learn and refine surgical skills. Educators can leverage the strengths of medical simulators to effectively teach complex and high-risk surgical procedures, such as placement of an external ventricular drain. Our objective was to develop a cost-effective, patient-derived medical simulacrum for cerebral lateral ventriculostomy. A cost-effective, patient-derived medical simulacrum was developed for placement of an external lateral ventriculostomy. Elastomeric and gel casting techniques were used to achieve realistic brain geometry and material properties. 3D printing technology was leveraged to develop accurate cranial properties and dimensions. An economical, gravity-driven pump was developed to provide normal and abnormal ventricular pressures. A small pilot study was performed to gauge simulation efficacy using a technology acceptance model. An accurate geometric representation of the brain was developed with independent lateral cerebral ventricular chambers. A gravity-driven pump pressurized the ventricular cavities to physiologic values. A qualitative study illustrated that the simulation has potential as an educational tool to train medical professionals in the ventriculostomy procedure. The ventricular simulacrum can improve learning in a medical education environment. Rapid prototyping and multi-material casting techniques can produce patient-derived models for cost-effective and realistic surgical training scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A class of simple bouncing and late-time accelerating cosmologies in f(R) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuiroukidis, A.

    We consider the field equations for a flat FRW cosmological model, given by Eq. (??), in an a priori generic f(R) gravity model and cast them into a, completely normalized and dimensionless, system of ODEs for the scale factor and the function f(R), with respect to the scalar curvature R. It is shown that under reasonable assumptions, namely for power-law functional form for the f(R) gravity model, one can produce simple analytical and numerical solutions describing bouncing cosmological models where in addition there are late-time accelerating. The power-law form for the f(R) gravity model is typically considered in the literature as the most concrete, reasonable, practical and viable assumption [see S. D. Odintsov and V. K. Oikonomou, Phys. Rev. D 90 (2014) 124083, arXiv:1410.8183 [gr-qc

  14. Fibreglass Total Contact Casting, Removable Cast Walkers, and Irremovable Cast Walkers to Treat Diabetic Neuropathic Foot Ulcers: A Health Technology Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Vania; Tu, Hong Anh; Wells, David; Weir, Mark; Holubowich, Corinne; Walter, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers are a risk factor for lower leg amputation. Many experts recommend offloading with fibreglass total contact casting, removable cast walkers, and irremovable cast walkers as a way to treat these ulcers. Methods We completed a health technology assessment, which included an evaluation of clinical benefits and harms, value for money, and patient preferences for offloading devices. We performed a systematic literature search on August 17, 2016, to identify randomized controlled trials that compared fibreglass total contact casting, removable cast walkers, and irremovable cast walkers with other treatments (offloading or non-offloading) in patients with diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers. We developed a decision-analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of fibreglass total contact casting, removable cast walkers, and irremovable cast walkers, and we conducted a 5-year budget impact analysis. Finally, we interviewed people with diabetes who had lived experience with foot ulcers, asking them about the different offloading devices and the factors that influenced their treatment choices. Results We identified 13 randomized controlled trials. The evidence suggests that total contact casting, removable cast walkers, and irremovable cast walkers are beneficial in the treatment of neuropathic, noninfected foot ulcers in patients with diabetes but without severe peripheral arterial disease. Compared to removable cast walkers, ulcer healing was improved with total contact casting (moderate quality evidence; risk difference 0.17 [95% confidence interval 0.00–0.33]) and irremovable cast walkers (low quality evidence; risk difference 0.21 [95% confidence interval 0.01–0.40]). We found no difference in ulcer healing between total contact casting and irremovable cast walkers (low quality evidence; risk difference 0.02 [95% confidence interval −0.11–0.14]). The economic analysis showed that total contact casting and irremovable

  15. Fibreglass Total Contact Casting, Removable Cast Walkers, and Irremovable Cast Walkers to Treat Diabetic Neuropathic Foot Ulcers: A Health Technology Assessment.

    PubMed

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers are a risk factor for lower leg amputation. Many experts recommend offloading with fibreglass total contact casting, removable cast walkers, and irremovable cast walkers as a way to treat these ulcers. We completed a health technology assessment, which included an evaluation of clinical benefits and harms, value for money, and patient preferences for offloading devices. We performed a systematic literature search on August 17, 2016, to identify randomized controlled trials that compared fibreglass total contact casting, removable cast walkers, and irremovable cast walkers with other treatments (offloading or non-offloading) in patients with diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers. We developed a decision-analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of fibreglass total contact casting, removable cast walkers, and irremovable cast walkers, and we conducted a 5-year budget impact analysis. Finally, we interviewed people with diabetes who had lived experience with foot ulcers, asking them about the different offloading devices and the factors that influenced their treatment choices. We identified 13 randomized controlled trials. The evidence suggests that total contact casting, removable cast walkers, and irremovable cast walkers are beneficial in the treatment of neuropathic, noninfected foot ulcers in patients with diabetes but without severe peripheral arterial disease. Compared to removable cast walkers, ulcer healing was improved with total contact casting (moderate quality evidence; risk difference 0.17 [95% confidence interval 0.00-0.33]) and irremovable cast walkers (low quality evidence; risk difference 0.21 [95% confidence interval 0.01-0.40]). We found no difference in ulcer healing between total contact casting and irremovable cast walkers (low quality evidence; risk difference 0.02 [95% confidence interval -0.11-0.14]). The economic analysis showed that total contact casting and irremovable cast walkers were less expensive and

  16. Development of polymer nano composite patterns using fused deposition modeling for rapid investment casting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivek, Tiwary; Arunkumar, P.; Deshpande, A. S.; Vinayak, Malik; Kulkarni, R. M.; Asif, Angadi

    2018-04-01

    Conventional investment casting is one of the oldest and most economical manufacturing techniques to produce intricate and complex part geometries. However, investment casting is considered economical only if the volume of production is large. Design iterations and design optimisations in this technique proves to be very costly due to time and tooling cost for making dies for producing wax patterns. However, with the advent of Additive manufacturing technology, plastic patterns promise a very good potential to replace the wax patterns. This approach can be very useful for low volume production & lab requirements, since the cost and time required to incorporate the changes in the design is very low. This research paper discusses the steps involved for developing polymer nanocomposite filaments and checking its suitability for investment castings. The process parameters of the 3D printer machine are also optimized using the DOE technique to obtain mechanically stronger plastic patterns. The study is done to develop a framework for rapid investment casting for lab as well as industrial requirements.

  17. Two-View Gravity Stress Imaging Protocol for Nondisplaced Type II Supination External Rotation Ankle Fractures: Introducing the Gravity Stress Cross-Table Lateral View.

    PubMed

    Boffeli, Troy J; Collier, Rachel C; Gervais, Samuel J

    Assessing ankle stability in nondisplaced Lauge-Hansen supination external rotation type II injuries requires stress imaging. Gravity stress mortise imaging is routinely used as an alternative to manual stress imaging to assess deltoid integrity with the goal of differentiating type II from type IV injuries in cases without a posterior or medial fracture. A type II injury with a nondisplaced fibula fracture is typically treated with cast immobilization, and a type IV injury is considered unstable and often requires operative repair. The present case series (two patients) highlights a standardized 2-view gravity stress imaging protocol and introduces the gravity stress cross-table lateral view. The gravity stress cross-table lateral view provides a more thorough evaluation of the posterior malleolus owing to the slight external rotation and posteriorly directed stress. External rotation also creates less bony overlap between the tibia and fibula, allowing for better visualization of the fibula fracture. Gravity stress imaging confirmed medial-sided injury in both cases, confirming the presence of supination external rotation type IV or bimalleolar equivalent fractures. Open reduction and internal fixation was performed, and both patients achieved radiographic union. No further treatment was required at 21 and 33 months postoperatively. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Casting Ring Liner Length and Prewetting on the Marginal Adaptation and Dimensional Accuracy of Full Crown Castings.

    PubMed

    Haralur, Satheesh B; Hamdi, Osama A; Al-Shahrani, Abdulaziz A; Alhasaniah, Sultan

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of varying cellulose casting ring liner length and its prewetting on the marginal adaptation and dimensional accuracy of full veneer metal castings. The master die was milled in stainless steel to fabricate the wax pattern. Sixty wax patterns were fabricated with a uniform thickness of 1.5 mm at an occlusal surface and 1 mm axial surface, cervical width at 13.5 mm, and 10 mm cuspal height. The samples were divided into six groups ( n = 10). Groups I and II samples had the full-length cellulose prewet and dry ring liner, respectively. The groups III and IV had 2 mm short prewet and dry cellulose ring liner, respectively, whereas groups V and VI were invested in 6 mm short ring liner. The wax patterns were immediately invested in phosphate bonded investment, and casting procedure was completed with nickel-chrome alloy. The castings were cleaned and mean score of measurements at four reference points for marginal adaption, casting height, and cervical width was calculated. The marginal adaption was calculated with Imaje J software, whereas the casting height and cervical width was determined using a digital scale. The data was subjected to one-way analysis of varaince and Tukey post hoc statistical analysis with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 software. The group II had the best marginal adaption with a gap of 63.786 μm followed by group I (65.185 μm), group IV (87.740 μm), and group III (101.455 μm). A large marginal gap was observed in group V at 188.871 μm. Cuspal height was more accurate with group V (10.428 mm), group VI (10.421 mm), and group II (10.488 mm). The cervical width was approximately similar in group I, group III, and group V. Statistically significant difference was observed in Tukey post hoc analysis between group V and group VI with all the other groups with regards to marginal adaptation. The dry cellulose ring liners provided better marginal adaptation in comparison to prewet cellulose ring

  19. The Effect of Casting Ring Liner Length and Prewetting on the Marginal Adaptation and Dimensional Accuracy of Full Crown Castings

    PubMed Central

    Haralur, Satheesh B.; Hamdi, Osama A.; Al-Shahrani, Abdulaziz A.; Alhasaniah, Sultan

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of varying cellulose casting ring liner length and its prewetting on the marginal adaptation and dimensional accuracy of full veneer metal castings. Materials and Methods: The master die was milled in stainless steel to fabricate the wax pattern. Sixty wax patterns were fabricated with a uniform thickness of 1.5 mm at an occlusal surface and 1 mm axial surface, cervical width at 13.5 mm, and 10 mm cuspal height. The samples were divided into six groups (n = 10). Groups I and II samples had the full-length cellulose prewet and dry ring liner, respectively. The groups III and IV had 2 mm short prewet and dry cellulose ring liner, respectively, whereas groups V and VI were invested in 6 mm short ring liner. The wax patterns were immediately invested in phosphate bonded investment, and casting procedure was completed with nickel-chrome alloy. The castings were cleaned and mean score of measurements at four reference points for marginal adaption, casting height, and cervical width was calculated. The marginal adaption was calculated with Imaje J software, whereas the casting height and cervical width was determined using a digital scale. The data was subjected to one-way analysis of varaince and Tukey post hoc statistical analysis with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 software. Results: The group II had the best marginal adaption with a gap of 63.786 μm followed by group I (65.185 μm), group IV (87.740 μm), and group III (101.455 μm). A large marginal gap was observed in group V at 188.871 μm. Cuspal height was more accurate with group V (10.428 mm), group VI (10.421 mm), and group II (10.488 mm). The cervical width was approximately similar in group I, group III, and group V. Statistically significant difference was observed in Tukey post hoc analysis between group V and group VI with all the other groups with regards to marginal adaptation. Conclusion: The dry cellulose ring liners provided better marginal

  20. Arctic Ocean Gravity Field Derived From ERS-1 Satellite Altimetry.

    PubMed

    Laxon, S; McAdoo, D

    1994-07-29

    The derivation of a marine gravity field from satellite altimetry over permanently ice-covered regions of the Arctic Ocean provides much new geophysical information about the structure and development of the Arctic sea floor. The Arctic Ocean, because of its remote location and perpetual ice cover, remains from a tectonic point of view the most poorly understood ocean basin on Earth. A gravity field has been derived with data from the ERS-1 radar altimeter, including permanently ice-covered regions. The gravity field described here clearly delineates sections of the Arctic Basin margin along with the tips of the Lomonosov and Arctic mid-ocean ridges. Several important tectonic features of the Amerasia Basin are clearly expressed in this gravity field. These include the Mendeleev Ridge; the Northwind Ridge; details of the Chukchi Borderland; and a north-south trending, linear feature in the middle of the Canada Basin that apparently represents an extinct spreading center that "died" in the Mesozoic. Some tectonic models of the Canada Basin have proposed such a failed spreading center, but its actual existence and location were heretofore unknown.

  1. Experimental Studies of Heat-Transfer Behavior at a Casting/Water-Cooled-Mold Interface and Solution of the Heat-Transfer Coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Y. D.; Wang, F.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we propose an experimental model for forming an air gap at the casting/mold interface during the solidification process of the casting, with the size and formation time of the air gap able to be precisely and manually controlled. Based on this model, experiments of gravity casting were performed, and on the basis of the measured temperatures at different locations inside the casting and the mold, the inverse analysis method of heat transfer was applied to solve for the heat-transfer coefficient at the casting/mold interface during the solidification process. Furthermore, the impacts of the width and formation time of the air gap on the interface heat-transfer coefficient (IHTC) were analyzed. The results indicate that the experimental model succeeds in forming an air gap having a certain width at any moment during solidification of the casting, thus allowing us to conveniently and accurately study the impact of the air gap on IHTC using the model. In addition, the casting/mold IHTC is found to first rapidly decrease as the air gap forms and then slowly decrease as the solidification process continues. Moreover, as the width of the air gap and the formation time of the air gap increase, the IHTC decreases.

  2. Thermal fatigue behavior of H-13 die steel for aluminum die casting with various ion sputtered coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieh, C. Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Sputtered coatings of Mo, W, Pt, Ag, Au, Co, Cr, Ni, Ag + Cu, Mo + Pt, Si3N4, A1N, Cr3C2, Ta5Si3, and ZrO2 were applied to a 2-inch-square, 7-inch-long thermal fatigue test specimen which was then internally water cooled and alternately immersed in molten aluminum and cooled in air. After 15,000 cycles the thermal fatigue cracks at the specimen corners were measured. Results indicate that a significant improvement in thermal fatigue resistance was obtained with platinum, molybdenum, and tungsten coatings. Metallographic examination indicates that the improvement in thermal fatigue resistance resulted from protection of the surface of the die steel from oxidation. The high yield strength and ductility of molybdenum and tungsten contributed to the better thermal fatigue resistance.

  3. Test and evaluation of Apollo 14 composite casting demonstration specimens 6, 9, and 12, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reger, J. L.

    1971-01-01

    Flight and control specimens 6, 9, and 12 from the Apollo 14 composite casting demonstration were evaluated with respect to the degree of dispersion achieved for mixtures of immiscible materials under one-gravity and low gravity environments. The flight and control capsules 6, 9, and 12 contained paraffin and sodium acetate; paraffin, sodium acetate and argon; and paraffin, sodium acetate and 100 micrometer diameter tungsten microspheres, respectively. The evaluation and documentation utilized photographic and microstructure examinations, density measurements, and droplet size and distribution determinations. In addition, theoretical analyses were performed in order to aid in the understanding of the fluid behavior of the specimens during processing and subsequent solidification. A comparison of evaluated data with the theoretical analyses reveals that although the immiscible materials were uniquely dispersed in a low gravity environment, nonuniform dispersions were obtained primarily due to insufficient initial mixing and an essentially unidirectional thermal gradient during cooldown.

  4. Materials processing in zero gravity. [space manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuenscher, H. F.

    1973-01-01

    Manufacturing processes which are expected to show drastic changes in a space environment due to the absence of earth gravity are classified according to (1) buoyancy and thermal convection sensitive processes and (2) processes where molecular forces like cohesion and adhesion remain as the relatively strongest and hence controlling factors. Some specific process demonstration experiments carried out during the Apollo 14 mission and in the Skylab program are described. These include chemical separation by electrophoresis, the M551 metals melting experiment, the M552 exothermic brazing experiment, the M553 sphere forming experiment, the M554 composite casting experiment, and the M555 gallium arsenide crystal growth experiment.

  5. Effects of resistance form on attachment strength of resin-retained castings.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, P W; Shillingburg, H T; Johnson, D L

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of tooth preparation design on resistance to dislodgment of a resin-bonded fixed partial denture (RBFPD). The variations of tooth preparation tested included axial coverage, retentive grooves, and an occlusal rest. Patterns of the tooth preparation designs were prepared and cast in a base metal alloy. Retainer patterns were waxed to refractory casts of metal dies, cast, finished and then bonded to the dies. The complete assemblies were loaded to failure on an Instron mechanical testing machine, and analysis indicated that retainers with occlusal rests were the most resistant. Grooves provided no statistically significant increase in resistance to failure of the cement. Increased axial coverage did not increase resistance to dislodgment. Successful fixed partial dentures (FPDs) depend on cast retainers to resist displacement of the restoration during function. Introduction of resin-bonded restorations opened the possibility of FPDs with minimal reduction of abutments. Specific questions concerning long term success and tooth preparation designs were prominent concerns. The influence of resistance form on overall stability of a restoration was also of particular interest. Buonocore established the foundation for retention of composite resins to acid-pitted enamel. Rochette used this technology to bond perforated cast metal splints to periodontally compromised teeth. A mechanical interlock was created as composite resin engaged these perforations and sustained the cast splint to acid-etched enamel. Howe adapted this design for replacement of anterior teeth by adding porcelain to a metal ceramic framework and then bonding the framework to abutments without tooth preparations. The advantages of these procedures were their conservative nature, esthetics, and ease of rebonding after dislodgment. Livaditis and Thompson adapted the procedure proposed by Tanaka of corrosion-pitting the bonding surface of a base metal alloy. They increased the

  6. Soft cast versus rigid cast for treatment of distal radius buckle fractures in children.

    PubMed

    Witney-Lagen, Caroline; Smith, Christine; Walsh, Graham

    2013-04-01

    Buckle fractures are extremely common and their optimum management is still under debate. This study aimed to ascertain whether buckle fractures of the distal radius can be safely and effectively treated in soft cast with only a single orthopaedic outpatient clinic appointment. A total of 232 children with buckle fractures of the distal radius were included in the study. 111 children with 112 distal radius fractures were treated in full rigid cast and 121 children with 123 fractures were treated with soft cast. The rigid cast children attended outpatient clinic for removal of cast at 3 weeks. Soft casts were removed by parents unwinding the cast at home after 3 weeks. Follow-up was conducted prospectively by telephone questionnaire at an average of 6 weeks post-injury. Outcome data were available for 117 children treated in soft cast and for 102 children treated in rigid cast. The most common mechanism of injury was a fall sustained from standing or running, followed by falls from bikes and then trampoline accidents. Overall, both groups recovered well. Overall satisfaction with the outcome of treatment was 97.4% in soft cast and 95.2% in rigid cast. Casts were reported as comfortable by 95.7% in soft cast and 93.3% in rigid cast. Cast changes were required for 6.8% of soft casts and 11.5% of rigid casts. The most frequent cause for changing rigid casts was getting the cast wet. None of the improved scores seen in the soft cast group were statistically significant. No re-fractures were seen in either group. Nearly all (94.9%) children in soft cast did bathe, shower or swim in their cast. Parents of both groups preferred treatment with soft cast (p < 0.001). Reasons given for preferring the soft cast included the ability to get the cast wet, avoidance of the plaster saw and not having to take time off work to attend a follow-up visit for cast removal. Buckle fractures of the distal radius can be safely and effectively treated in soft cast with only a single

  7. Maintaining Low Voiding Solder Die Attach for Power Die While Minimizing Die Tilt

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, Randy; Peterson, Kenneth A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper addresses work to minimize voiding and die tilt in solder attachment of a large power die, measuring 9.0 mm X 6.5 mm X 0.1 mm (0.354” x 0.256” x 0.004”), to a heat spreader. As demands for larger high power die continue, minimizing voiding and die tilt is of interest for improved die functionality, yield, manufacturability, and reliability. High-power die generate considerable heat, which is important to dissipate effectively through control of voiding under high thermal load areas of the die while maintaining a consistent bondline (minimizing die tilt). Voiding was measured using acoustic imaging and die tiltmore » was measured using two different optical measurement systems. 80Au-20Sn solder reflow was achieved using a batch vacuum solder system with optimized fixturing. Minimizing die tilt proved to be the more difficult of the two product requirements to meet. Process development variables included tooling, weight and solder preform thickness.« less

  8. Reducing the Incidence of Cast-related Skin Complications in Children Treated With Cast Immobilization.

    PubMed

    Difazio, Rachel L; Harris, Marie; Feldman, Lanna; Mahan, Susan T

    2017-12-01

    Cast immobilization remains the mainstay of pediatric orthopaedic care, yet little is known about the incidence of cast-related skin complications in children treated with cast immobilization. The purposes of this quality improvement project were to: (1) establish a baseline rate of cast-related skin complications in children treated with cast immobilization, (2) identify trends in children who experienced cast-related skin complications, (3) design an intervention aimed at decreasing the rate of cast-related skin complications, and (4) determine the effectiveness of the intervention. A prospective interrupted time-series design was used to determine the incidence of cast-related skin complications overtime and compare the rates of skin complications before and after an intervention designed to decrease the incidence of cast-related heel complications. All consecutive patients who were treated with cast immobilization from September 2012 to September 2014 were included. A cast-related skin complications data collection tool was used to capture all cast-related skin complications. A high rate of heel events was noted in our preliminary analysis and an intervention was designed to decrease the rate of cast-related skin complications, including the addition of padding during casting and respective provider education. The estimated cast-related skin events rate for all patients was 8.9 per 1000 casts applied. The rate for the total preintervention sample was 13.6 per 1000 casts which decreased to 6.6 in the postintervention sample. When examining the heel-only group, the rate was 17.1 per 1000 lower extremity casts applied in the preintervention group and 6.8 in the postintervention group. Incorporating padding to the heel of lower extremity cast was an effective intervention in decreasing the incidence of cast-related skin complications in patients treated with cast immobilization. Level II.

  9. Cool Cast Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kinds of Casts? Most casts are made of fiberglass. Fiberglass is a kind of plastic that can be ... to the body part. It dries hard. Some fiberglass casts are waterproof. Doctors only use this type ...

  10. The Role of Indian Caste Identity and Caste Inconsistent Norms on Status Representation.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Sindhuja; Sekerdej, Maciek; von Hecker, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The Indian caste system is a complex social structure wherein social roles like one's profession became 'hereditary,' resulting in restricted social mobility and fixed status hierarchies. Furthermore, we argue that the inherent property of caste heightens group identification with one's caste. Highly identified group members would protect the identity of the group in situations when group norms are violated. In this paper, we were interested in examining the consequence of caste norm violation and how an individual's status is mentally represented. High caste norms are associated with moral values while the lower caste norms are associated with immorality. We predicted a 'black sheep effect,' that is, when high caste individuals' group identity (caste norm violation condition) is threatened their salient high caste identity would increase, thereby resulting in devaluing the status of their fellow in-group member if the latter is perceived as perpetrator. We presented participants with a social conflict situation of a victim and a perpetrator that is ' Caste norm consistent' (Lower caste individual as a perpetrator and higher caste individual as a victim) and vice versa 'Caste norm inconsistent' condition (higher caste individual as perpetrator and lower caste individual as a victim). Then, participants had to choose from nine pictorial depictions representing the protagonists in the story on a vertical line, with varying degrees of status distance. Results showed evidence for the black sheep effect and, furthermore, revealed that no other identity (religious, national, and regional) resulted in devaluing the status of fellow in-group member. These results help us understand the 'black sheep' effect in the context of moral norms and status representation and are discussed in the framework of the Indian society.

  11. A comparison of the accuracy of patterns processed from an inlay casting wax, an auto-polymerized resin and a light-cured resin pattern material.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Praveen; Chitre, Vidya; Aras, Meena A

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, inlay casting waxes have been used to fabricate patterns for castings. Newer resin pattern materials offer greater rigidity and strength, allowing easier laboratory and intraoral adjustment without the fear of pattern damage. They also claim to possess a greater dimensional stability when compared to inlay wax. This study attempted to determine and compare the marginal accuracy of patterns fabricated from an inlay casting wax, an autopolymerized pattern resin and a light polymerized pattern resin on storage off the die for varying time intervals. Ten patterns each were fabricated from an inlay casting wax (GC Corp., Tokyo, Japan), an autopolymerized resin pattern material (Pattern resin, GC Corp, Tokyo, Japan) and a light-cured resin pattern material (Palavit GLC, Hereaus Kulzer GmbH, Germany). The completed patterns were stored off the die at room temperature. Marginal gaps were evaluated by reseating the patterns on their respective dies and observing it under a stereomicroscope at 1, 12, and 24 h intervals after pattern fabrication. The results revealed that the inlay wax showed a significantly greater marginal discrepancy at the 12 and 24 h intervals. The autopolymerized resin showed an initial (at 1 h) marginal discrepancy slightly greater than inlay wax, but showed a significantly less marginal gap (as compared to inlay wax) at the other two time intervals. The light-cured resin proved to be significantly more dimensionally stable, and showed minimal change during the storage period. The resin pattern materials studied, undergo a significantly less dimensional change than the inlay waxes on prolonged storage. They would possibly be a better alternative to inlay wax in situations requiring high precision or when delayed investment (more than 1 h) of patterns can be expected.

  12. CAST FLOOR WITH VIEW OF TORPEDO LADLE (BENEATH CAST FLOOR) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CAST FLOOR WITH VIEW OF TORPEDO LADLE (BENEATH CAST FLOOR) AND KEEPERS OF THE CAST HOUSE FLOOR, S.L. KIMBROUGH AND DAVID HOLMES. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Blast Furnace No. 8, North of Valley Road, West of Ensley-Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  13. The Effects of Die Relief Agent on the Retention of Full Coverage Castings,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-19

    autopolymerizing resin. A diamond rotary instrument and a high speed dental handpiece using air- water coolant were employed to prepare the crown of each tooth...777 109 502 ARMY INST OF DENTAL RESEARCH WASHINGTON DC F/6 6/5 THE EFFECTS OF DIE RELIEF AGENT ON THE RETENTION OF FULL COYERA--ETC(U) FES 81 S 6...Kuffler" 4W Eugene F.Huget, COL, (Ret.) .9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK U.S. Army Institute of Dental

  14. Release of ToxCastDB and ExpoCastDB databases

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released two databases - the Toxicity Forecaster database (ToxCastDB) and a database of chemical exposure studies (ExpoCastDB) - that scientists and the public can use to access chemical toxicity and exposure data. ToxCastDB users can search and download data from over 50...

  15. [Experimental processing of corrosion casts of large animal organs].

    PubMed

    Pálek, R; Liška, V; Eberlová, L; Mírka, H; Svoboda, M; Haviar, S; Emingr, M; Brzoň, O; Mik, P; Třeška, V

    2018-01-01

    Corrosion casts (CCs) are used for the visualization and assessment of hollow structures. CCs with filled capillaries enable (with the help of imaging methods) to obtain data for mathematical organ perfusion modelling. As the processing is more difficult in case of organs with greater volume of the vasculature, mainly organs from small animals have been cast up to now. The aim of this study was to optimize the protocol of corrosion casting of different organs of pig. Porcine organs are relatively easily accessible and frequently used in experimental medicine. Organs from 10 healthy Prestice Black-Pied pigs (6 females, body weight 35-45 kg), were used in this study (liver, spleen, kidneys and small intestine). The organs were dissected, heparin was administered into the systemic circulation and then the vascular bed of the organs was flushed with heparinized saline either in situ (liver) or after their removal (spleen, kidney, small intestine). All handling was done under the water surface to prevent air embolization. The next step was an intraarterial (in case of the liver also intraportal) administration of Biodur E20® (Heidelberg, Germany) resin. After hardening of the resin the organ tissue was dissolved by 15% KOH and the specimen was rinsed with tap water. Voluminous casts were stored in 70% denatured alcohol, the smaller ones were lyophilized. The casts were assessed with a stereomicroscope, computed and microcomputed tomography (CT and microCT), a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and high-resolution digital microscope (HRDM). High-quality CCs of the porcine liver, kidneys, spleen and small intestine were created owing to the sophisticated organ harvesting, the suitable resin and casting procedure. Macroscopic clarity was improved thanks to the possibility of resin dying. Scanning by CT was performed and showed to be a suitable method for the liver cast examination. MicroCT, SEM and HRDM produced images of the most detailed structures of vascular bed

  16. The Role of Indian Caste Identity and Caste Inconsistent Norms on Status Representation

    PubMed Central

    Sankaran, Sindhuja; Sekerdej, Maciek; von Hecker, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The Indian caste system is a complex social structure wherein social roles like one’s profession became ‘hereditary,’ resulting in restricted social mobility and fixed status hierarchies. Furthermore, we argue that the inherent property of caste heightens group identification with one’s caste. Highly identified group members would protect the identity of the group in situations when group norms are violated. In this paper, we were interested in examining the consequence of caste norm violation and how an individual’s status is mentally represented. High caste norms are associated with moral values while the lower caste norms are associated with immorality. We predicted a ‘black sheep effect,’ that is, when high caste individuals’ group identity (caste norm violation condition) is threatened their salient high caste identity would increase, thereby resulting in devaluing the status of their fellow in-group member if the latter is perceived as perpetrator. We presented participants with a social conflict situation of a victim and a perpetrator that is ‘Caste norm consistent’ (Lower caste individual as a perpetrator and higher caste individual as a victim) and vice versa ‘Caste norm inconsistent’ condition (higher caste individual as perpetrator and lower caste individual as a victim). Then, participants had to choose from nine pictorial depictions representing the protagonists in the story on a vertical line, with varying degrees of status distance. Results showed evidence for the black sheep effect and, furthermore, revealed that no other identity (religious, national, and regional) resulted in devaluing the status of fellow in-group member. These results help us understand the ‘black sheep’ effect in the context of moral norms and status representation and are discussed in the framework of the Indian society. PMID:28408896

  17. Feeling Gravity's Pull: Gravity Modeling. The Gravity Field of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, Frank; Smith, David; Rowlands, David; Zuber, Maria; Neumann, G.; Chinn, Douglas; Pavlis, D.

    2000-01-01

    Most people take the constant presence of gravitys pull for granted. However, the Earth's gravitational strength actually varies from location to location. This variation occurs because mass, which influences an object's gravitational pull, is not evenly distributed within the planet. Changes in topography, such as glacial movement, an earthquake, or a rise in the ocean level, can subtly affect the gravity field. An accurate measurement of the Earth's gravity field helps us understand the distribution of mass beneath the surface. This insight can assist us in locating petroleum, mineral deposits, ground water, and other valuable substances. Gravity mapping can also help notice or verify changes in sea surface height and other ocean characteristics. Such changes may indicate climate change from polar ice melting and other phenomena. In addition, gravity mapping can indicate how land moves under the surface after earthquakes and other plate tectonic processes. Finally, changes in the Earth's gravity field might indicate a shift in water distribution that could affect agriculture, water supplies for population centers, and long-term weather prediction. Scientists can map out the Earth's gravity field by watching satellite orbits. When a satellite shifts in vertical position, it might be passing over an area where gravity changes in strength. Gravity is only one factor that may shape a satellite's orbital path. To derive a gravity measurement from satellite movement, scientists must remove other factors that might affect a satellite's position: 1. Drag from atmospheric friction. 2. Pressure from solar radiation as it heads toward Earth and. as it is reflected off the surface of the Earth 3. Gravitational pull from the Sun, the Moon, and other planets in the Solar System. 4. The effect of tides. 5. Relativistic effects. Scientists must also correct for the satellite tracking process. For example, the tracking signal must be corrected for refraction through the

  18. Finite-Element Analysis of Melt Flow in Horizontal Twin-Roll Casting of Magnesium Alloy AZ31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Jin

    Twin-roll casting has been useful in production of thin strips of metals. Especially, the process of horizontal twin-roll casting is often used for magnesium and aluminum alloys, which are lighter in weight and smaller in specific heat as well as latent heat in comparison to steel. In the present investigation, where magnesium alloy AZ31 was targeted, asymmetric behavior of the melt flow due to the gravity was examined in terms of contact length and pressure, and the nozzle for melt ejection was modified for its shape and location. Variations of the melt flow including vortexes were investigated in consideration of heterogeneous nucleation and uniform microstructure. The melt flow was further examined in the perspective of possible randomness of the grain orientation through thickness under differential speeds of rolls.

  19. Accurate defect die placement and nuisance defect reduction for reticle die-to-die inspections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Vincent; Huang, L. R.; Lin, C. J.; Tseng, Y. N.; Huang, W. H.; Tuo, Laurent C.; Wylie, Mark; Chen, Ellison; Wang, Elvik; Glasser, Joshua; Kelkar, Amrish; Wu, David

    2015-10-01

    Die-to-die reticle inspections are among the simplest and most sensitive reticle inspections because of the use of an identical-design neighboring-die for the reference image. However, this inspection mode can have two key disadvantages: (1) The location of the defect is indeterminate because it is unclear to the inspector whether the test or reference image is defective; and (2) nuisance and false defects from mask manufacturing noise and tool optical variation can limit the usable sensitivity. The use of a new sequencing approach for a die-to-die inspection can resolve these issues without any additional scan time, without sacrifice in sensitivity requirement, and with a manageable increase in computation load. In this paper we explore another approach for die-to-die inspections using a new method of defect processing and sequencing. Utilizing die-to-die double arbitration during defect detection has been proven through extensive testing to generate accurate placement of the defect in the correct die to ensure efficient defect disposition at the AIMS step. The use of this method maintained the required inspection sensitivity for mask quality as verified with programmed-defectmask qualification and then further validated with production masks comparing the current inspection approach to the new method. Furthermore, this approach can significantly reduce the total number of defects that need to be reviewed by essentially eliminating the nuisance and false defects that can result from a die-to-die inspection. This "double-win" will significantly reduce the effort in classifying a die-to-die inspection result and will lead to improved cycle times.

  20. A Winning Cast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Howmet Research Corporation was the first to commercialize an innovative cast metal technology developed at Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama. With funding assistance from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Auburn University's Solidification Design Center (a NASA Commercial Space Center), developed accurate nickel-based superalloy data for casting molten metals. Through a contract agreement, Howmet used the data to develop computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials in cast metal manufacturing. Howmet Metal Mold (HMM), part of Howmet Corporation Specialty Products, of Whitehall, Michigan, utilizes metal molds to manufacture net shape castings in various alloys and amorphous metal (metallic glass). By implementing the thermophysical property data from by Auburn researchers, Howmet employs its newly developed computer model predictions to offer customers high-quality, low-cost, products with significantly improved mechanical properties. Components fabricated with this new process replace components originally made from forgings or billet. Compared with products manufactured through traditional casting methods, Howmet's computer-modeled castings come out on top.

  1. Development and Implementation of the Casting of Rods Made of Refractory Cast Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabanov, I. V.; Urin, S. L.; Ivanyuk, A. S.; Nesterov, A. N.; Bogdanov, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    The problems of the production of a so-called casting rod blank made of a refractory casting alloy in the vacuum induction furnaces of AO Metallurgical Plant Electrostal are considered. A unique technology of casting and subsequent treatment of as-cast rod blanks made of refractory alloys is developed, tested, and optimized. As a result of the developed and performed measures for the production of metal products in the Consarc furnace, the ingot-to-product yield increases by 15% as compared to metal casting in an ISV-1.0 furnace. As a result, we have widened the range of cast alloy grades and are going to cast metals for the manufacture of blanks of other sizes and ranges of alloy an steel grades.

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Tensile Strength in Die Stone Incorporated with Sodium and Calcium Hypochlorite as Disinfectants: An in vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Pramodh, N R; Kumar, C N Vijay; Pradeep, M R; Naik, Ravi; Mahesh, C S; Kumari, Manju R

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the tensile strength of die stone incorporated with sodium and calcium hypochlorite as disinfectants. Two commercially available type IV die stone (Kalrock: Kalabhai Karson Pvt., Ltd and Pearlstone: Asian Chemicals) and two commercially available disinfectant solutions (sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite: Beachem Laboratory Chemical Private Limited, Chennai and Leo Chem Private Limited, Bengaluru) were used in this study, and the tensile strength was measured using Lloyd's Universal Testing Machine. The results show that incorporating the disinfecting solutions decreases the tensile strength of both products. The effect of decreasing tensile strength on type IV gypsum product is seen more in calcium hypochlorite when compared with sodium hypochlorite disinfecting solution, and the tensile strength of Kalrock specimens is higher than Pearlstone specimens after disinfecting with sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite solution. The statistical results also show significant results in all the groups when compared with the control group. The incorporation of sodium and calcium hypochlorite disinfecting solutions is not an encouraging method for both die materials as it reduces the tensile strength of type IV gypsum product. Tensile strength of Kalstone® die material is superior than Pearlstone® die material after mixing with sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite. According to the recommendations of Americans with Disability Act (ADA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, disinfecting the whole cast without or minimal changes in physical and mechanical properties was the motto of the study. The tensile strength in type IV gypsum product plays a most important role in retrieval of cast from impression, especially in narrow tooth preparation. This study reveals that incorporating method of disinfecting solutions is not recommended as it reduces the tensile strength.

  3. Cohomogeneity-one solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Yen-Kheng

    2017-05-01

    The field equations for Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity in D dimensions are reduced to an effective one-dimensional system under the influence of exponential potentials. Various cases where exact solutions can be found are explored. With this procedure, we present interesting solutions such as a one-parameter generalization of the dilaton-Melvin spacetime and a three-parameter solution that interpolates between the Reissner-Nordström and Bertotti-Robinson solutions. This procedure also allows simple, alternative derivations of known solutions such as the Lifshitz spacetime and the planar anti-de Sitter naked singularity. In the latter case, the metric is cast in a simpler form which reveals the presence of an additional curvature singularity.

  4. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.S.; O`Malley, R.J.; Sussman, R.C.

    1997-07-29

    A strip caster for producing a continuous strip includes a tundish for containing a melt, a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls and devices for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls with a powder flux material. The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin for receiving the melt through a teeming tube thereby establishing a meniscus between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line to a sealing chamber. A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550 C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll. 3 figs.

  5. Correlation of Normal Gravity Mixed Convection Blowoff Limits with Microgravity Forced Flow Blowoff Limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcum, Jeremy W.; Olson, Sandra L.; Ferkul, Paul V.

    2016-01-01

    The axisymmetric rod geometry in upward axial stagnation flow provides a simple way to measure normal gravity blowoff limits to compare with microgravity Burning and Suppression of Solids - II (BASS-II) results recently obtained aboard the International Space Station. This testing utilized the same BASS-II concurrent rod geometry, but with the addition of normal gravity buoyant flow. Cast polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) rods of diameters ranging from 0.635 cm to 3.81 cm were burned at oxygen concentrations ranging from 14 to 18% by volume. The forced flow velocity where blowoff occurred was determined for each rod size and oxygen concentration. These blowoff limits compare favorably with the BASS-II results when the buoyant stretch is included and the flow is corrected by considering the blockage factor of the fuel. From these results, the normal gravity blowoff boundary for this axisymmetric rod geometry is determined to be linear, with oxygen concentration directly proportional to flow speed. We describe a new normal gravity 'upward flame spread test' method which extrapolates the linear blowoff boundary to the zero stretch limit in order to resolve microgravity flammability limits-something current methods cannot do. This new test method can improve spacecraft fire safety for future exploration missions by providing a tractable way to obtain good estimates of material flammability in low gravity.

  6. Research on the influence of moulding-casting technology on the quality of castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josan, A.; Pinca Bretotean, C.; Raţiu, S.; Ardelean, E.; Ardelean, M.

    2017-05-01

    The quality of castings has a particularly role in the Romanian foundries. In this context, quality assurance is the overall objective of the foundries. The paper presents the critical analysis performed on moulding-casting technology of the type Lifting mechanism. This casting is a subset of the lifting and rotating mechanism of the furnace vault. The casting analysed is a medium size, with weight of 114 kg. The current moulding-casting technology involves moulding into three mould-parts leading to the occurrence of defects (decentering of the core, displacement of the lower mould and the middle mould and occurrence of burrs in area separated. Thus, to reduce the percentage of defects registered in industrial practice is necessary to change the moulding-casting technology. This requires the use of two mould-parts, re-dimensioning of the core and the core box and dimensioning of the runner network. The adoption of these changes in industrial practice has direct implications on the cost of casting and foundry costs default.

  7. Effect of microstructure and surface features on wetting angle of a Fe-3.2 wt%C.E. cast iron with water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, Samira; Niroumand, Behzad; Dorri Moghadam, Afsaneh; Rohatgi, Pradeep K.

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, variation in surface wetting behavior of a hypoeutectic cast iron with its microstructural features and surface roughness was investigated. Samples with an identical composition, i.e. Fe-3.2 wt%C.E., and different microstructures (a gray cast iron with A-type flake graphite and a white cast iron) were fabricated by gravity casting of molten cast iron in a chill mold at different cooling rates. A variation of surface roughness was also developed by polishing, a four-stage electroetching and a four-stage mechanical abrading on the samples. Roughness and water contact angles of all surfaces were then measured. The surface roughness factor and the solid fraction in contact with water by the Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter contact models were also calculated and compared with the corresponding measured contact angles to find out which regime was active. Results indicated that the surface microstructure and the type of constituents present at the surface influenced the cast iron surface wettability and that it was possible to change the surface contact angle by modification of the surface microstructure. The mechanically abraded gray cast iron followed the Wenzel-type regime while the electroetched surfaces of gray cast iron exhibited a transition from Wenzel to Cassie-Baxter type regime. In white cast iron, the results indicated Wenzel type behavior in the electroetched samples while for the mechanically abraded samples, none of these two models could predict the wetting behavior. Furthermore, the wetting angles of both gray and white cast irons were measured after 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks of air exposure. The results showed that the wetting angles of both samples increased to above 90° after one week of air exposure which was likely due to adsorption of low surface energy hydrocarbons on the surfaces.

  8. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert S.; O'Malley, Ronald J.; Sussman, Richard C.

    1997-01-01

    A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) includes a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14), a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22) and devices (29) for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces (44) of the casting rolls with a powder flux material (56). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550.degree. C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll.

  9. Tensile Properties and Fracture Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Foam Fabricated from Die Castings without Using Blowing Agent by Friction Stir Processing Route

    PubMed Central

    Hangai, Yoshihiko; Kamada, Hiroto; Utsunomiya, Takao; Kitahara, Soichiro; Kuwazuru, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Al foam has been used in a wide range of applications owing to its light weight, high energy absorption and high sound insulation. One of the promising processes for fabricating Al foam involves the use of a foamable precursor. In this study, ADC12 Al foams with porosities of 67%–78% were fabricated from Al alloy die castings without using a blowing agent by the friction stir processing route. The pore structure and tensile properties of the ADC12 foams were investigated and compared with those of commercially available ALPORAS. From X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) observations of the pore structure of ADC12 foams, it was found that they have smaller pores with a narrower distribution than those in ALPORAS. Tensile tests on the ADC12 foams indicated that as their porosity increased, the tensile strength and tensile strain decreased, with strong relation between the porosity, tensile strength, and tensile strain. ADC12 foams exhibited brittle fracture, whereas ALPORAS exhibited ductile fracture, which is due to the nature of the Al alloy used as the base material of the foams. By image-based finite element (FE) analysis using X-ray CT images corresponding to the tensile tests on ADC12 foams, it was shown that the fracture path of ADC12 foams observed in tensile tests and the regions of high stress obtained from FE analysis correspond to each other. Therefore, it is considered that the fracture behavior of ADC12 foams in relation to their pore structure distribution can be investigated by image-based FE analysis. PMID:28788573

  10. Tensile Properties and Fracture Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Foam Fabricated from Die Castings without Using Blowing Agent by Friction Stir Processing Route.

    PubMed

    Hangai, Yoshihiko; Kamada, Hiroto; Utsunomiya, Takao; Kitahara, Soichiro; Kuwazuru, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiro

    2014-03-21

    Al foam has been used in a wide range of applications owing to its light weight, high energy absorption and high sound insulation. One of the promising processes for fabricating Al foam involves the use of a foamable precursor. In this study, ADC12 Al foams with porosities of 67%-78% were fabricated from Al alloy die castings without using a blowing agent by the friction stir processing route. The pore structure and tensile properties of the ADC12 foams were investigated and compared with those of commercially available ALPORAS. From X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) observations of the pore structure of ADC12 foams, it was found that they have smaller pores with a narrower distribution than those in ALPORAS. Tensile tests on the ADC12 foams indicated that as their porosity increased, the tensile strength and tensile strain decreased, with strong relation between the porosity, tensile strength, and tensile strain. ADC12 foams exhibited brittle fracture, whereas ALPORAS exhibited ductile fracture, which is due to the nature of the Al alloy used as the base material of the foams. By image-based finite element (FE) analysis using X-ray CT images corresponding to the tensile tests on ADC12 foams, it was shown that the fracture path of ADC12 foams observed in tensile tests and the regions of high stress obtained from FE analysis correspond to each other. Therefore, it is considered that the fracture behavior of ADC12 foams in relation to their pore structure distribution can be investigated by image-based FE analysis.

  11. Advanced Casting Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    components with consequent cost and weight benefits but there is traditionally a reluctance by designers to trust castings. The object of the...Specialist Meeting was to present the current state of developments of advanced casting technology, and to bring together designers and materials and...significantly in the near future. The discussion highlighted areas needing further attention, which included: — Designers need to design for casting, not

  12. A Combined Gravity Compensation Method for INS Using the Simplified Gravity Model and Gravity Database.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao; Yang, Gongliu; Wang, Jing; Wen, Zeyang

    2018-05-14

    In recent decades, gravity compensation has become an important way to reduce the position error of an inertial navigation system (INS), especially for a high-precision INS, because of the extensive application of high precision inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyros). This paper first deducts the INS's solution error considering gravity disturbance and simulates the results. Meanwhile, this paper proposes a combined gravity compensation method using a simplified gravity model and gravity database. This new combined method consists of two steps all together. Step 1 subtracts the normal gravity using a simplified gravity model. Step 2 first obtains the gravity disturbance on the trajectory of the carrier with the help of ELM training based on the measured gravity data (provided by Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics; Chinese Academy of sciences), and then compensates it into the error equations of the INS, considering the gravity disturbance, to further improve the navigation accuracy. The effectiveness and feasibility of this new gravity compensation method for the INS are verified through vehicle tests in two different regions; one is in flat terrain with mild gravity variation and the other is in complex terrain with fierce gravity variation. During 2 h vehicle tests, the positioning accuracy of two tests can improve by 20% and 38% respectively, after the gravity is compensated by the proposed method.

  13. A Combined Gravity Compensation Method for INS Using the Simplified Gravity Model and Gravity Database

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao; Yang, Gongliu; Wang, Jing; Wen, Zeyang

    2018-01-01

    In recent decades, gravity compensation has become an important way to reduce the position error of an inertial navigation system (INS), especially for a high-precision INS, because of the extensive application of high precision inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyros). This paper first deducts the INS’s solution error considering gravity disturbance and simulates the results. Meanwhile, this paper proposes a combined gravity compensation method using a simplified gravity model and gravity database. This new combined method consists of two steps all together. Step 1 subtracts the normal gravity using a simplified gravity model. Step 2 first obtains the gravity disturbance on the trajectory of the carrier with the help of ELM training based on the measured gravity data (provided by Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics; Chinese Academy of sciences), and then compensates it into the error equations of the INS, considering the gravity disturbance, to further improve the navigation accuracy. The effectiveness and feasibility of this new gravity compensation method for the INS are verified through vehicle tests in two different regions; one is in flat terrain with mild gravity variation and the other is in complex terrain with fierce gravity variation. During 2 h vehicle tests, the positioning accuracy of two tests can improve by 20% and 38% respectively, after the gravity is compensated by the proposed method. PMID:29757983

  14. Cast Metals Coalition Technology Transfer and Program Management Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gwyn, Mike

    2009-03-31

    The Cast Metals Coalition (CMC) partnership program was funded to ensure that the results of the Department of Energy's (DOE) metalcasting research and development (R&D) projects are successfully deployed into industry. Specifically, the CMC program coordinated the transfer and deployment of energy saving technologies and process improvements developed under separately funded DOE programs and projects into industry. The transition of these technologies and process improvements is a critical step in the path to realizing actual energy savings. At full deployment, DOE funded metalcasting R&D results are projected to save 55% of the energy used by the industry in 1998. Thismore » closely aligns with DOE's current goal of driving a 25% reduction in industrial energy intensity by 2017. In addition to benefiting DOE, these energy savings provide metalcasters with a significant economic advantage. Deployment of already completed R&D project results and those still underway is estimated to return over 500% of the original DOE and industry investment. Energy savings estimates through December 2008 from the Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT) portfolio of projects alone are 12 x 1012 BTUs, with a projection of over 50 x 1012 BTUs ten years after program completion. These energy savings and process improvements have been made possible through the unique collaborative structure of the CMC partnership. The CMC team consists of DOE's Office of Industrial Technology, the three leading metalcasting technical societies in the U.S: the American Foundry Society; the North American Die Casting Association; and the Steel Founders Society of America; and the Advanced Technology Institute (ATI), a recognized leader in distributed technology management. CMC provides collaborative leadership to a complex industry composed of approximately 2,100 companies, 80% of which employ less than 100 people, and only 4% of which employ more than 250 people. Without

  15. The effect of preparation taper on the retention of cemented cast crowns under lateral fatigue loading.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Stephen M; Morris, W Jack; Keesee, Stephen M; Barsky, Todd B; Parker, M Harry

    2006-06-01

    Clinicians have used resistance form as a basis for determining guidelines for preparation design to ensure clinical success of cemented cast restorations. Disagreement on whether clinical success follows the on-off or linear nature of resistance form continues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the number of cycles required to dislodge a cemented complete crown casting under a cyclic lateral load as a function of taper and to compare this relationship for the resistive and nonresistive ranges of taper. Three dies were milled from stainless steel at each of the following tapers: 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32 degrees. A gold-palladium metal-ceramic alloy crown was fabricated for each die, cemented, and subjected to lateral cyclic loading until failure or 1,000,000 cycles. The limiting taper for the dies with their given height and base was 26.6 degrees. Dies with taper less than 26.6 degrees had resistance form, whereas dies with taper larger than 26.6 degrees did not. A linear regression (alpha=.05) was used to evaluate the relation of cycles at dislodgement to taper. The average number of cycles to crown dislodgement or completion for each taper (SD), in units of 10,000, was as follows: 4 degrees, 100 (0); 8 degrees, 100 (0); 12 degrees, 93.54 (16.56); 16 degrees, 61.33 (38.47); 20 degrees, 25.73 (34.67); 24 degrees, 4.33 (7.36); 28 degrees, 0.06 (0.08); and 32 degrees, 0.05 (0.09). The crowns in the resistive area less than 26.6 degrees that demonstrated failure showed a linear regression with a correlation coefficient of -0.995 between the average number of cycles to dislodge the crown and the taper. The slope was significantly different from zero (P=.0048), with a value of -7.58 and a standard error of 0.53. The number of cycles required to cause crown dislodgement was linear after 12 degrees in the resistive area and nearly zero for preparations in the nonresistive area. The limiting taper concept closely predicted the transition point where the

  16. High-Throughput Study of Diffusion and Phase Transformation Kinetics of Magnesium-Based Systems for Automotive Cast Magnesium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Alan A; Zhao, Ji-Cheng; Riggi, Adrienne

    The objective of the proposed study is to establish a scientific foundation on kinetic modeling of diffusion, phase precipitation, and casting/solidification, in order to accelerate the design and optimization of cast magnesium (Mg) alloys for weight reduction of U.S. automotive fleet. The team has performed the following tasks: 1) study diffusion kinetics of various Mg-containing binary systems using high-throughput diffusion multiples to establish reliable diffusivity and mobility databases for the Mg-aluminum (Al)-zinc (Zn)-tin (Sn)-calcium (Ca)-strontium (Sr)-manganese (Mn) systems; 2) study the precipitation kinetics (nucleation, growth and coarsening) using both innovative dual-anneal diffusion multiples and cast model alloys to provide largemore » amounts of kinetic data (including interfacial energy) and microstructure atlases to enable implementation of the Kampmann-Wagner numerical model to simulate phase transformation kinetics of non-spherical/non-cuboidal precipitates in Mg alloys; 3) implement a micromodel to take into account back diffusion in the solid phase in order to predict microstructure and microsegregation in multicomponent Mg alloys during dendritic solidification especially under high pressure die-casting (HPDC) conditions; and, 4) widely disseminate the data, knowledge and information using the Materials Genome Initiative infrastructure (http://www.mgidata.org) as well as publications and digital data sharing to enable researchers to identify new pathways/routes to better cast Mg alloys.« less

  17. AMCC casting development, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    PCC successfully cast and performed nondestructive testing, FPI and x-ray, on seventeen AMCC castings. Destructive testing, lab analysis and chemical milling, was performed on eleven of the castings and the remaining six castings were shipped to NASA or Aerojet. Two of the six castings shipped, lots 015 and 016, were fully processed per blueprint requirements. PCC has fully developed the gating and processing parameters of this part and feels the part could be implemented into production, after four more castings have been completed to ensure the repeatability of the process. The AMCC casting has been a technically challenging part due to its size, configuration, and alloy type. The height and weight of the wax pattern assembly necessitated the development of a hollow gating system to ensure structural integrity of the shell throughout the investment process. The complexity in the jacket area of the casting required the development of an innovative casting technology that PCC has termed 'TGC' or thermal gradient control. This method of setting up thermal gradients in the casting during solidification represents a significant process improvement for PCC and has been successfully implemented on other programs. The alloy, JBK75, is a relatively new alloy in the investment casting arena and required our engineering staff to learn the gating, processing, and dimensional characteristics of the material.

  18. Corrosion and protection of heterogeneous cast Al-Si (356) and Al-Si-Cu-Fe (380) alloys by chromate adn cerium inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Syadwad

    In this study, the localized corrosion and conversion coating on cast alloys 356 (Al-7.0Si-0.3Mg) and 380 (Al-8.5Si-3.5Cu-1.6Fe) were characterized. The intermetallic phases presence in the permanent mold cast alloy 356 are primary-Si, Al5FeSi, Al8Si6Mg3Fe and Mg2Si. The die cast alloy 380 is rich in Cu and Fe elements. These alloying elements result in formation of the intermetallic phases Al 5FeSi, Al2Cu and Al(FeCuCr) along with primary-Si. The Cu- and Fe-rich IMPS are cathodic with respect to the matrix phase and strongly govern the corrosion behavior of the two cast alloys in an aggressive environment due to formation of local electrochemical cell in their vicinity. Results have shown that corrosion behavior of permanent mould cast alloy 356 is significantly better than the die cast aluminum alloy 380, primarily due to high content of Cu- and Fe-rich phases such as Al2Cu and Al 5FeSi in the latter. The IMPS also alter the protection mechanism of the cast alloys in the presence of inhibitors in an environment. The presence of chromate in the solution results in reduced cathodic activity on all the phases. Chromate provides some anodic inhibition by increasing pitting potentials and altering corrosion potentials for the phases. Results have shown that performance of CCC was much better on 356 than on 380, primarily due to inhomogeneous and incomplete coating deposition on Cu- and Fe- phases present in alloy 380. XPS and Raman were used to characterize coating deposition on intermetallics. Results show evidence of cyanide complex formation on the intermetallic phases. The presence of this complex is speculated to locally suppress CCC formation. Formation and breakdown of cerium conversion coatings on 356 and 380 was also analyzed. Results showed that deposition of cerium hydroxide started with heavy precipitation on intermetallic particles with the coatings growing outwards onto the matrix. Electrochemical analysis of synthesized intermetallics compounds in the

  19. SLIP CASTING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Allison, A.G.

    1959-09-01

    S>A process is described for preparing a magnesium oxide slip casting slurry which when used in conjunction with standard casting techniques results in a very strong "green" slip casting and a fired piece of very close dimensional tolerance. The process involves aging an aqueous magnestum oxide slurry, having a basic pH value, until it attains a specified critical viscosity at which time a deflocculating agent is added without upsetting the basic pH value.

  20. Gravity and gravity gradient changes caused by a point dislocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian-Liang; Li, Hui; Li, Rui-Hao

    1995-02-01

    In this paper we studied gravitational potential, gravity and its gradient changes, which are caused by a point dislocation, and gave the concise mathematical deduction with definite physical implication in dealing with the singular integral at a seismic source. We also analysed the features of the fields of gravity and gravity gradient, gravity-vertical-displacement gradient. The conclusions are: (1) Gravity and gravity gradient changes are very small with the change of vertical position; (2) Gravity change is much greater than the gravity gradient change which is not so distinct; (3) The gravity change due to redistribution of mass accounts for 10 50 percent of the total gravity change caused by dislocation. The signs (positive or negative) of total gravity change and vertical displacement are opposite each other at the same point for strike slip and dip slip; (4) Gravity-vertical-displacement-gradient is not constant; it manifests a variety of patterns for different dislocation models; (5) Gravity-vertical-displacement-gradient is approximately equal to apparent gravity-vertical-displacement-gradient.

  1. How to Avoid Cast Saw Complications.

    PubMed

    Halanski, Matthew A

    2016-06-01

    As casts are routinely used in pediatric orthopaedics, casts saws are commonly used to remove such casts. Despite being a viewed as the "conservative" and therefore often assumed safest treatment modality, complications associated with the use of casts and cast saws occur. In this manuscript, we review the risk factors associated with cast saw injuries. Cast saw injuries are thermal or abrasive (or both) in nature. Thermal risk factors include: cast saw specifications (including a lack of attached vacuum), use of a dull blade, cutting in a concavity, too thin padding, and overly thick casting materials. Risk factors associated with abrasive injuries include: sharp blades, thin padding, and cutting over boney prominences. Because nearly all clinicians contact the skin with the blade during cast removal, appropriate "in-out technique" is critical. Such technique prevents a hot blade from remaining in contact with the skin for any significant time, diminishing the risk of burn. Similarly, using such technique prevents "dragging the blade" that may pull the skin taught, cutting it. It may be useful to teach proper technique as perforating a cast rather than cutting a cast.

  2. Accuracy of single-abutment digital cast obtained using intraoral and cast scanners.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Jun; Jeong, Ii-Do; Park, Jin-Young; Jeon, Jin-Hun; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Woong-Chul

    2017-02-01

    Scanners are frequently used in the fabrication of dental prostheses. However, the accuracy of these scanners is variable, and little information is available. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the accuracy of cast scanners with that of intraoral scanners by using different image impression techniques. A poly(methyl methacrylate) master model was fabricated to replicate a maxillary first molar single-abutment tooth model. The master model was scanned with an accurate engineering scanner to obtain a true value (n=1) and with 2 intraoral scanners (CEREC Bluecam and CEREC Omnicam; n=6 each). The cast scanner scanned the master model and duplicated the dental stone cast from the master model (n=6). The trueness and precision of the data were measured using a 3-dimensional analysis program. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the different sets of scanning data, followed by a post hoc Mann-Whitney U test with a significance level modified by Bonferroni correction (α/6=.0083). The type 1 error level (α) was set at .05. The trueness value (root mean square: mean ±standard deviation) was 17.5 ±1.8 μm for the Bluecam, 13.8 ±1.4 μm for the Omnicam, 17.4 ±1.7 μm for cast scanner 1, and 12.3 ±0.1 μm for cast scanner 2. The differences between the Bluecam and the cast scanner 1 and between the Omnicam and the cast scanner 2 were not statistically significant (P>.0083), but a statistically significant difference was found between all the other pairs (P<.0083). The precision of the scanners was 12.7 ±2.6 μm for the Bluecam, 12.5 ±3.7 μm for the Omnicam, 9.2 ±1.2 μm for cast scanner 1, and 6.9 ±2.6 μm for cast scanner 2. The differences between Bluecam and Omnicam and between Omnicam and cast scanner 1 were not statistically significant (P>.0083), but there was a statistically significant difference between all the other pairs (P<.0083). An Omnicam in video image impression had better trueness than a cast scanner but with a similar

  3. [The surface roughness analysis of the titanium casting founding by a new titanium casting investment material].

    PubMed

    Liang, Qin-ye; Wu, Xia-yi; Lin, Xue-feng

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the surface roughness property of the titanium castings cast in a new investment for titanium casting. Six wax patterns (20 mm × 20 mm × 0.5 mm) were invested using two investments: three in a new titanium investment material and three in the control material (Rematitan Plus). Six titanium specimens were obtained by conventional casting. After casting, surface roughness of the specimens were evaluated with a surface profilometer. The surface roughness of the specimens cast in new titanium investment material was (1.72 ± 0.08) µm, which was much smaller than that from Rematitan Plus [(1.91 ± 0.15) µm, P < 0.05]. The surfaces of titanium cast using these two investment materials are both smooth enough to fulfill the demand of the titanium precision-casting for prosthodontic clinical use.

  4. Fluid/gravity correspondence for massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wen-Jian; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate the fluid/gravity correspondence in the framework of massive Einstein gravity. Treating the gravitational mass terms as an effective energy-momentum tensor and utilizing the Petrov-like boundary condition on a timelike hypersurface, we find that the perturbation effects of massive gravity in bulk can be completely governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation living on the cutoff surface under the near horizon and nonrelativistic limits. Furthermore, we have concisely computed the ratio of dynamical viscosity to entropy density for two massive Einstein gravity theories, and found that they still saturate the Kovtun-Son-Starinets (KSS) bound.

  5. Non-Newtonian gravity or gravity anomalies?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David P.; Chao, B. Fong; Schatten, Kenneth H.; Sager, William W.

    1988-01-01

    Geophysical measurements of G differ from laboratory values, indicating that gravity may be non-Newtonian. A spherical harmonic formulation is presented for the variation of (Newtonian) gravity inside the Earth. Using the GEM-10B Earth Gravitational Field Model, it is shown that long-wavelength gravity anomalies, if not corrected, may masquerade as non-Newtonian gravity by providing significant influences on experimental observation of delta g/delta r and G. An apparent contradiction in other studies is also resolved: i.e., local densities appear in equations when average densities of layers seem to be called for.

  6. Noise Reduction to Reduce Patient Anxiety During Cast Removal: Can We Decrease Patient Anxiety With Cast Removal by Wearing Noise Reduction Headphones During Cast Saw Use?

    PubMed

    Mahan, Susan T; Harris, Marie S; Lierhaus, Anneliese M; Miller, Patricia E; DiFazio, Rachel L

    Noise reduction headphones decrease the sound during cast removal. Their effectiveness in decreasing anxiety has not been studied. Compare pediatric patients' anxiety levels during cast removal with and without utilization of noise reduction headphones combined with use of a personal electronic device. Quality improvement project. Patients randomly assigned to noise reduction headphone group or standard care group during cast removal. Faces, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability Scale and heart rate were evaluated prior to, during, and after cast removal. Data were compared across groups. Fifty patients were included; 25 per group. No difference detected between the 2 groups in Faces, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability Scale score prior to (p = .05) or after cast removal (p = .30). During cast removal, the headphone group had lower FLACC Scale scores (p = .03). Baseline heart rate was lower in the headphone group prior to (p = .02) and after (p = .005) cast removal with no difference during cast removal (p = .24). Utilizing noise reduction headphones and a personal electronic device during the cast removal process decreases patient anxiety.

  7. Precision cast vs. wrought superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, J. K.; Borofka, J. C.; Casey, M. E.

    1986-01-01

    While cast polycrystalline superalloys recommend themselves in virtue of better 'buy-to-fly' ratios and higher strengthening gamma-prime volume fractions than those of wrought superalloys, the expansion of their use into such critical superalloy applications as gas turbine hot section components has been slowed by insufficient casting process opportunities for microstructural control. Attention is presently drawn, however, to casting process developments facilitating the production of defect-tolerant superalloy castings having improved fracture reliability. Integrally bladed turbine wheel and thin-walled turbine exhaust case near-net-shape castings have been produced by these means.

  8. Effects of background gravity stimuli on gravity-controlled behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, D. F.

    1976-01-01

    Physiological and developmental effects of altered gravity were researched. The stimulus properties of gravity have been found to possess reinforcing and aversive properties. Experimental approaches taken, used animals placed into fields of artificial gravity, in the form of parabolic or spiral centrifuges. Gravity preferences were noted and it was concluded that the psychophysics of gravity and background factors which support these behaviors should be further explored.

  9. Casting Of Multilayer Ceramic Tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Procedure for casting thin, multilayer ceramic membranes, commonly called tapes, involves centrifugal casting at accelerations of 1,800 to 2,000 times normal gravitational acceleration. Layers of tape cast one at a time on top of any previous layer or layers. Each layer cast from slurry of ground ceramic suspended in mixture of solvents, binders, and other components. Used in capacitors, fuel cells, and electrolytic separation of oxygen from air.

  10. Quiet breathing in hindlimb casted mice.

    PubMed

    Receno, Candace N; Roffo, Katelynn E; Mickey, Marisa C; DeRuisseau, Keith C; DeRuisseau, Lara R

    2018-06-07

    The hindlimb casting model was developed to study skeletal muscle reloading following a period of unloading. It is unknown if ventilation parameters of mice are affected by the casting model. We tested the hypothesis that hindlimb casted mice have similar ventilatory patterns compared to mice with the casts removed. Male CD-1 mice underwent 14 days of hindlimb immobilization via plaster casting. Breathing parameters were obtained utilizing unrestrained barometric plethysmography (UBP). Breathing traces were analyzed with Ponemah software for breathing frequency, tidal volume (TV), and minute ventilation (MV). Frequency, TV and MV did not show any differences in quiet breathing patterns during or post-casting in mice. Thus, the hindlimb casting model does not complicate breathing during and after casting and should not interfere with the unloading and reloading of skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Integrally cored ceramic investment casting mold fabricated by ceramic stereolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Chang-Jun

    Superalloy airfoils are produced by investment casting (IC), which uses ceramic cores and wax patterns with ceramic shell molds. Hollow cored superalloy airfoils in a gas turbine engine are an example of complex IC parts. The complex internal hollow cavities of the airfoil are designed to conduct cooling air through one or more passageways. These complex internal passageways have been fabricated by a lost wax process requiring several processing steps; core preparation, injection molding for wax pattern, and dipping process for ceramic shell molds. Several steps generate problems such as high cost and decreased accuracy of the ceramic mold. For example, costly tooling and production delay are required to produce mold dies for complex cores and wax patterns used in injection molding, resulting in a big obstacle for prototypes and smaller production runs. Rather than using separate cores, patterns, and shell molds, it would be advantageous to directly produce a mold that has the casting cavity and the ceramic core by one process. Ceramic stereolithography (CerSLA) can be used to directly fabricate the integrally cored ceramic casting mold (ICCM). CerSLA builds ceramic green objects from CAD files from many thin liquid layers of powder in monomer, which are solidified by polymerization with a UV laser, thereby "writing" the design for each slice. This dissertation addresses the integrally cored casting ceramic mold (ICCM), the ceramic core with a ceramic mold shell in a single patternless construction, fabricated by ceramic stereolithography (CerSLA). CerSLA is considered as an alternative method to replace lost wax processes, for small production runs or designs too complex for conventional cores and patterns. The main topic is the development of methods to successfully fabricate an ICCM by CerSLA from refractory silica, as well as related issues. The related issues are the segregation of coarse fused silica powders in a layer, the degree of segregation parameter to

  12. Symptomatic stent cast.

    PubMed

    Keohane, John; Moore, Michael; O'Mahony, Seamus; Crosbie, Orla

    2008-02-01

    Biliary stent occlusion is a major complication of endoscopic stent insertion and results in repeat procedures. Various theories as to the etiology have been proposed, the most frequently studied is the attachment of gram negative bacteria within the stent. Several studies have shown prolongation of stent patency with antibiotic prophylaxis. We report the case of stent occlusion from a cast of a previously inserted straight biliary stent; a "stent cast" in an 86-year-old woman with obstructive jaundice. This was retrieved with the lithotrypter and she made an uneventful recovery. This is the first reported case of a biliary stent cast.

  13. CENTRIFUGAL CASTING MACHINE

    DOEpatents

    Shuck, A.B.

    1958-04-01

    A device is described that is specifically designed to cast uraniumn fuel rods in a vacuunn, in order to obtain flawless, nonoxidized castings which subsequently require a maximum of machining or wastage of the expensive processed material. A chamber surrounded with heating elements is connected to the molds, and the entire apparatus is housed in an airtight container. A charge of uranium is placed in the chamber, heated, then is allowed to flow into the molds While being rotated. Water circulating through passages in the molds chills the casting to form a fine grained fuel rod in nearly finished form.

  14. Marginal accuracy of nickel chromium copings fabricated by conventional and accelerated casting procedures, produced with ringless and metal ring investment procedures: A comparative in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Alex, Deepa; Shetty, Y. Bharath; Miranda, Glynis Anita; Prabhu, M. Bharath; Karkera, Reshma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Conventional investing and casting techniques are time-consuming and usually requires 2–4 h for completion. Accelerated nonstandard, casting techniques have been reported to achieve similar quality results in significantly less time, namely, in 30–40 min. During casting, it is essential to achieve compensation for the shrinkage of solidifying alloy by investment expansion. The metal casting ring restricts the thermal expansion of investment because the thermal expansion of the ring is lesser than that of the investment. The use of casting ring was challenged with the introduction of the ringless technique. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 test samples of nickel chromium (Ni-Cr) cast copings were obtained from the patterns fabricated using inlay casting wax. The 20 wax patterns were invested using metal ring and 20 wax patterns were invested using the ringless investment system. Of both the groups, 10 samples underwent conventional casting, and the other 10 underwent accelerated casting. The patterns were casted using the induction casting technique. All the test samples of cast copings were evaluated for vertical marginal gaps at four points on the die employing a stereo optical microscope. Results: The vertical marginal discrepancy data obtained were tabulated. Mean and standard deviations were obtained. Vertical discrepancies were analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey honestly significantly different. The data obtained were found to be very highly significant (P < 0.001). Mean vertical gap was the maximum for Group II (53.64 μm) followed by Group IV (47.62 μm), Group I (44.83 μm) and Group III (35.35 μm). Conclusion: The Ni-Cr cast copings fabricated with the conventional casting using ringless investment system showed significantly better marginal fit than that of cast copings fabricated from conventional and accelerated casting with metal ring investment and accelerated casting using ringless investment since those copings had

  15. Marginal accuracy of nickel chromium copings fabricated by conventional and accelerated casting procedures, produced with ringless and metal ring investment procedures: A comparative in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Alex, Deepa; Shetty, Y Bharath; Miranda, Glynis Anita; Prabhu, M Bharath; Karkera, Reshma

    2015-01-01

    Conventional investing and casting techniques are time-consuming and usually requires 2-4 h for completion. Accelerated nonstandard, casting techniques have been reported to achieve similar quality results in significantly less time, namely, in 30-40 min. During casting, it is essential to achieve compensation for the shrinkage of solidifying alloy by investment expansion. The metal casting ring restricts the thermal expansion of investment because the thermal expansion of the ring is lesser than that of the investment. The use of casting ring was challenged with the introduction of the ringless technique. A total of 40 test samples of nickel chromium (Ni-Cr) cast copings were obtained from the patterns fabricated using inlay casting wax. The 20 wax patterns were invested using metal ring and 20 wax patterns were invested using the ringless investment system. Of both the groups, 10 samples underwent conventional casting, and the other 10 underwent accelerated casting. The patterns were casted using the induction casting technique. All the test samples of cast copings were evaluated for vertical marginal gaps at four points on the die employing a stereo optical microscope. The vertical marginal discrepancy data obtained were tabulated. Mean and standard deviations were obtained. Vertical discrepancies were analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey honestly significantly different. The data obtained were found to be very highly significant (P < 0.001). Mean vertical gap was the maximum for Group II (53.64 μm) followed by Group IV (47.62 μm), Group I (44.83 μm) and Group III (35.35 μm). The Ni-Cr cast copings fabricated with the conventional casting using ringless investment system showed significantly better marginal fit than that of cast copings fabricated from conventional and accelerated casting with metal ring investment and accelerated casting using ringless investment since those copings had shown the least vertical marginal discrepancies among the four

  16. Packaged die heater

    DOEpatents

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  17. Alloy Shrinkage factors for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S; Porter, Wallace D

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the alloy shrinkage factors were obtained for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts. For the investment casting process, unfilled wax and fused silica with a zircon prime coat were used for patterns and shell molds, respectively. Dimensions of the die tooling, wax pattern, and casting were measured using a Coordinate Measurement Machine. For all the properties, the experimental data available in the literature did not cover the entire temperature range necessary for process simulation. A comparison between the predicted material property data measured property data is made. It was found that most material properties weremore » accurately predicted over the most of the temperature range of the process. Several assumptions were made in order to obtain a complete set of mechanical property data at high temperatures. Thermal expansion measurements for the 17-4PH alloy were conducted at heating and cooling. As a function of temperature, the thermal expansion for both the alloy and shell mold materials showed different evolution at heating and cooling. Thus, one generic simulation were performed with thermal expansion obtained at heating and another one with thermal expansion obtained at cooling. The alloy dimensions were obtained from numerical simulation results of solidification, heat transfer, and deformation phenomena. As compared with experimental results, the numerical simulation results for the shrinkage factors were slightly over-predicted.« less

  18. Alloy Shrinkage Factors for the Investment Casting of 17-4PH Stainless Steel Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabau, Adrian S.; Porter, Wallace D.

    2008-04-01

    In this study, alloy shrinkage factors were obtained for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts. For the investment casting process, unfilled wax and fused silica with a zircon prime coat were used for patterns and shell molds, respectively. The dimensions of the die tooling, wax pattern, and casting were measured using a coordinate measurement machine (CMM). For all the properties, the experimental data available in the literature did not cover the entire temperature range necessary for process simulation. A comparison between the predicted material property data and measured property data is made. It was found that most material properties were accurately predicted over most of the temperature range of the process. Several assumptions were made, in order to obtain a complete set of mechanical property data at high temperatures. Thermal expansion measurements for the 17-4PH alloy were conducted during heating and cooling. As a function of temperature, the thermal expansion for both the alloy and shell mold materials showed a different evolution on heating and cooling. Thus, one generic simulation was performed with thermal expansion obtained on heating, and another one was performed with thermal expansion obtained on cooling. The alloy dimensions were obtained from the numerical simulation results of the solidification, heat transfer, and deformation phenomena. As compared with experimental results, the numerical simulation results for the shrinkage factors were slightly overpredicted.

  19. HFIR Fuel Casting Support

    SciTech Connect

    Imhoff, Seth D.; Gibbs, Paul Jacob; Solis, Eunice Martinez

    Process exploration for fuel production for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) using cast LEU-10wt.%Mo as an initial processing step has just begun. This project represents the first trials concerned with casting design and quality. The studies carried out over the course of this year and information contained in this report address the initial mold development to be used as a starting point for future operations. In broad terms, the final billet design is that of a solid rolling blank with an irregular octagonal cross section. The work covered here is a comprehensive view of the initial attempts to producemore » a sound casting. This report covers the efforts to simulate, predict, cast, inspect, and revise the initial mold design.« less

  20. Rapid Cycle Casting of Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    C’, and at temperature T, are Infiltrated by !L amougt of liquid of composition C’., such that ,C, 4 f+.C’L - X. V. 7 average carbon content of the...maximum liquid penetration was 100 mm at an infiltration pressure of 755 kPa. The average casting composition was 0.94 w/o carbon . The segregation at...content* at four casting locations. 2. Results The casting composition ( carbon content) as a function of casting location is given in Table D-IV. The

  1. Sixty Years of Casting Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John

    2015-11-01

    The 60 years of solidification research since the publication of Chalmer's constitutional undercooling in 1953 has been a dramatic advance of understanding which has and continues to be an inspiration. In contrast, 60 years of casting research has seen mixed fortunes. One of its success stories relates to improvements in inoculation of gray irons, and another to the discovery of spheroidal graphite iron, although both of these can be classified as metallurgical rather than casting advances. It is suggested that true casting advances have dated from the author's lab in 1992 when a critical surface turbulence condition was defined for the first time. These last 20 years have seen the surface entrainment issues of castings developed to a sufficient sophistication to revolutionize the performance of light alloy and steel foundries. However, there is still a long way to go, with large sections of the steel and Ni-base casting industries still in denial that casting defects are important or even exist. The result has been that special ingots are still cast poorly, and shaped casting operations have suffered massive losses. For secondary melted and cast materials, electro-slag remelting has the potential to be much superior to expensive vacuum arc remelting, which has cost our aerospace and defense industries dearly over the years. This failure to address and upgrade our processing of liquid metals is a serious concern, since the principle entrainment defect, the bifilm, is seen as the principle initiator of cracks in metals; in general, bifilms are the Griffith cracks that initiate failures by cracking. A new generation of crack resistant metals and engineering structures can now be envisaged.

  2. SPHERICAL DIE

    DOEpatents

    Livingston, J.P.

    1959-01-27

    A die is presented for pressing powdered materials into a hemispherical shape of uniforin density and wall thickness comprising a fcmale and male die element held in a stationary spaced relation with the space being equivalent to the wall thickness and defining the hemispherical shape, a pressing ring linearly moveable along the male die element, an inlet to fill the space with powdered materials, a guiding system for moving the pressing ring along the male die element so as to press the powdered material and a heating system for heating the male element so that the powdered material is heated while being pressed.

  3. 21 CFR 880.6185 - Cast cover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cast cover. 880.6185 Section 880.6185 Food and....6185 Cast cover. (a) Identification. A cast cover is a device intended for medical purposes that is made of waterproof material and placed over a cast to protect it from getting wet during a shower or a...

  4. Gravity Acceleration and Gravity Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanyongquan, Han; Yuteng, Tang

    2017-10-01

    The magnitude of the gravitational acceleration of the earth is derived from low of universal gravitation. If the size and mass of the gravitational force are proportional to any situation, then the celestial surface gravity is greater than the celestial center near the gravity, and objective facts do not match. Specific derivation method, F = GMm / R2 = mg, g = GM/R2 . c / Ú, G is the gravitational constant, M is the mass of the earth, and finally the g = 9.8 m/s 2 is obtained. We assume that the earth is a standard positive sphere, the earth's volume V = 4 ΠR3/3, assuming that the earth's density is ρ, then M = ρ 4 ΠR3/3 .. c / Ú, the c / Ú into c / Ú get: g = G ρ4 ΠR / 3 .. c / Û, the density of the earth is constant. Careful analysis of the formula c / Û The result of this calculation, we can reach conclusion the gravity acceleration g and the radius of the earth is proportional. In addition to the radius of the Earth c / U the right is constant, That is, the Earth's Gravity acceleration of the outer layer of the earth is greater than the Earth's Gravity acceleration of Inner layer. We are in High School, Huairou District, Beijing, China Author: hanyongquan tangyuteng TEL: 15611860790, 15810953809.

  5. Gravity field information from Gravity Probe-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Colombo, O. L.; Everitt, C. W. F.

    1989-01-01

    The Gravity Probe-B Mission will carry the Stanford Gyroscope relativity experiment into orbit in the mid 1990's, as well as a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver whose tracking data will be used to study the earth gravity field. Estimates of the likely quality of a gravity field model to be derived from the GPS data are presented, and the significance of this experiment to geodesy and geophysics are discussed.

  6. Terrestrial Gravity Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Different forms of fluctuations of the terrestrial gravity field are observed by gravity experiments. For example, atmospheric pressure fluctuations generate a gravity-noise foreground in measurements with super-conducting gravimeters. Gravity changes caused by high-magnitude earthquakes have been detected with the satellite gravity experiment GRACE, and we expect high-frequency terrestrial gravity fluctuations produced by ambient seismic fields to limit the sensitivity of ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. Accordingly, terrestrial gravity fluctuations are considered noise and signal depending on the experiment. Here, we will focus on ground-based gravimetry. This field is rapidly progressing through the development of GW detectors. The technology is pushed to its current limits in the advanced generation of the LIGO and Virgo detectors, targeting gravity strain sensitivities better than 10-23 Hz-1/2 above a few tens of a Hz. Alternative designs for GW detectors evolving from traditional gravity gradiometers such as torsion bars, atom interferometers, and superconducting gradiometers are currently being developed to extend the detection band to frequencies below 1 Hz. The goal of this article is to provide the analytical framework to describe terrestrial gravity perturbations in these experiments. Models of terrestrial gravity perturbations related to seismic fields, atmospheric disturbances, and vibrating, rotating or moving objects, are derived and analyzed. The models are then used to evaluate passive and active gravity noise mitigation strategies in GW detectors, or alternatively, to describe their potential use in geophysics. The article reviews the current state of the field, and also presents new analyses especially with respect to the impact of seismic scattering on gravity perturbations, active gravity noise cancellation, and time-domain models of gravity perturbations from atmospheric and seismic point sources. Our understanding of

  7. Terrestrial Gravity Fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Harms, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Different forms of fluctuations of the terrestrial gravity field are observed by gravity experiments. For example, atmospheric pressure fluctuations generate a gravity-noise foreground in measurements with super-conducting gravimeters. Gravity changes caused by high-magnitude earthquakes have been detected with the satellite gravity experiment GRACE, and we expect high-frequency terrestrial gravity fluctuations produced by ambient seismic fields to limit the sensitivity of ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. Accordingly, terrestrial gravity fluctuations are considered noise and signal depending on the experiment. Here, we will focus on ground-based gravimetry. This field is rapidly progressing through the development of GW detectors. The technology is pushed to its current limits in the advanced generation of the LIGO and Virgo detectors, targeting gravity strain sensitivities better than 10 -23 Hz -1/2 above a few tens of a Hz. Alternative designs for GW detectors evolving from traditional gravity gradiometers such as torsion bars, atom interferometers, and superconducting gradiometers are currently being developed to extend the detection band to frequencies below 1 Hz. The goal of this article is to provide the analytical framework to describe terrestrial gravity perturbations in these experiments. Models of terrestrial gravity perturbations related to seismic fields, atmospheric disturbances, and vibrating, rotating or moving objects, are derived and analyzed. The models are then used to evaluate passive and active gravity noise mitigation strategies in GW detectors, or alternatively, to describe their potential use in geophysics. The article reviews the current state of the field, and also presents new analyses especially with respect to the impact of seismic scattering on gravity perturbations, active gravity noise cancellation, and time-domain models of gravity perturbations from atmospheric and seismic point sources. Our understanding of

  8. Gravity field of the Western Weddell Sea: Comparison of airborne gravity and Geosat derived gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, R. E.; Brozena, J. M.; Haxby, W. F.; Labrecque, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    Marine gravity surveying in polar regions was typically difficult and costly, requiring expensive long range research vessels and ice-breakers. Satellite altimetry can recover the gravity field in these regions where it is feasible to survey with a surface vessel. Unfortunately, the data collected by the first global altimetry mission, Seasat, was collected only during the austral winter, producing a very poor quality gravitational filed for the southern oceans, particularly in the circum-Antarctic regions. The advent of high quality airborne gravity (Brozena, 1984; Brozena and Peters, 1988; Bell, 1988) and the availability of satellite altimetry data during the austral summer (Sandwell and McAdoo, 1988) has allowed the recovery of a free air gravity field for most of the Weddell Sea. The derivation of the gravity field from both aircraft and satellite measurements are briefly reviewed, before presenting along track comparisons and shaded relief maps of the Weddell Sea gravity field based on these two data sets.

  9. Cast abscess: a case report.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Kelly D; Goucher, Nicholas R

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a case in which a pediatric patient wounded his ankle when he stuck an object inside the cast while trying to scratch himself. The wound became infected and resulted in a limb-threatening abscess. Although most patients treated with casts do not have any significant problems, it is important to emphasize cast care instructions to young patients and their parents. In addition, it may be equally important to advise patients about safe methods to alleviate itching, such as blowing cool air under the cast. In this way, the risk of serious infectious complications can be minimized.

  10. Performance Steel Castings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    Development of Sand Properties 103 Advanced Modeling Dataset.. 105 High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) Steels 107 Steel Casting and Engineering Support...to achieve the performance goals required for new systems. The dramatic reduction in weight and increase in capability will require high performance...for improved weapon system reliability. SFSA developed innovative casting design and manufacturing processes for high performance parts. SFSA is

  11. Seeking the Light: Gravity Without the Influence of Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, Fred; Kern, Volker; Reed, Dave; Etheridge, Guy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    All living things sense gravity like humans might sense light or sound. The Biological Research In Canisters (BRIC-14) experiment, explores how moss cells sense and respond to gravity and light. This experiment studies how gravity influences the internal structure of moss cells and seeks to understand the influences of the spaceflight environment on cell growth. This knowledge will help researchers understand the role of gravity in the evolution of cells and life on earth.

  12. Terrestrial gravity data analysis for interim gravity model improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This is the first status report for the Interim Gravity Model research effort that was started on June 30, 1986. The basic theme of this study is to develop appropriate models and adjustment procedures for estimating potential coefficients from terrestrial gravity data. The plan is to use the latest gravity data sets to produce coefficient estimates as well as to provide normal equations to NASA for use in the TOPEX/POSEIDON gravity field modeling program.

  13. Genetic structure of Rajaka caste and affinities with other caste populations of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Parvatheesam, C; Babu, B V; Babu, M C

    1997-01-01

    The present study gives an account of the genetic structure in terms of distribution of a few genetic markers, viz., A1A2B0, Rh(D), G6PD deficiency and haemoglobin among the Rajaka caste population of Andhra Pradesh, India. The genetic relationships of the Rajaka caste with other Andhra caste populations were investigated in terms of genetic distance, i.e., Sq B (mn) of Balakrishnan and Sanghvi. Relatively lesser distance was established between the Rajaka and two Panchama castes. Also, the pattern of genetic distance corroborates the hierarchical order of the Hindu varna system.

  14. Preliminary science report on the directional solidification of hypereutectic cast iron during KC-135 low-G maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, P. A.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Hendrix, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    An ADSS-P directional solidification furnace was reconfigured for operation on the KC-135 low-g aircraft. The system offers many advantages over quench ingot methods for study of the effects of sedimentation and convection on alloy formation. The directional sodification furnace system was first flown during the September 1982 series of flights. The microstructure of the hypereutectic cast iron sample solidified on one of these flights suggests a low-g effect on graphite morphology. Further experiments are needed to ascertain that this effect is due to low-gravity and to deduce which of the possible mechanisms is responsible for it.

  15. Self-disinfecting Alginate vs Conventional Alginate: Effect on Surface Hardness of Gypsum Cast-An in vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Ranjith; George, Navia; Thummala, Niharika R; Ravi, S V; Nagpal, Ajay

    2017-11-01

    For the construction of any dental prosthesis, accurate impressions are necessary. Hence, we undertook the present study to evaluate and compare the surface hardness of gypsum casts poured from impressions made using conventional alginate and self-disinfecting alginate. A total of 30 impressions of stainless steel die were made, out of which 15 impressions were made with conventional alginate and 15 were made with self-disinfecting alginate and poured using Type III dental stone. Thirty stone specimens were subjected for hardness testing. Data were analyzed using independent samples t-test to compare the mean surface hardness. Difference in surface hardness was statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). Surface hardness of gypsum casts poured using impressions made from self-disinfecting alginate and conventional alginates were comparable. Self-disinfecting alginates may be employed in clinical practice as safe and effective materials to overcome the infection control issues without compromising on the properties of the material.

  16. Forced and natural convection in laminar-jet diffusion flames. [normal-gravity, inverted-gravity and zero-gravity flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggard, J. B., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted on methane, laminar-jet, diffusion flames with coaxial, forced-air flow to examine flame shapes in zero-gravity and in situations where buoyancy aids (normal-gravity flames) or hinders (inverted-gravity flames) the flow velocities. Fuel nozzles ranged in size from 0.051 to 0.305 cm inside radius, while the coaxial, convergent, air nozzle had a 1.4 cm inside radius at the fuel exit plane. Fuel flows ranged from 1.55 to 10.3 cu cm/sec and air flows from 0 to 597 cu cm/sec. A computer program developed under a previous government contract was used to calculate the characteristic dimensions of normal and zero-gravity flames only. The results include a comparison between the experimental data and the computed axial flame lengths for normal gravity and zero gravity which showed good agreement. Inverted-gravity flame width was correlated with the ratio of fuel nozzle radius to average fuel velocity. Flame extinguishment upon entry into weightlessness was studied, and it was found that relatively low forced-air velocities (approximately 10 cm/sec) are sufficient to sustain methane flame combustion in zero gravity. Flame color is also discussed.

  17. Method for casting thin metal objects

    DOEpatents

    Pehrson, Brandon P; Moore, Alan F

    2015-04-14

    Provided herein are various embodiments of systems for casting thin metal plates and sheets. Typical embodiments include layers of mold cavities that are oriented vertically for casting the metal plates. In some embodiments, the mold cavities include a beveled edge such that the plates that are cast have a beveled edge. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled with a molten metal through an open horizontal edge of the cavity. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled through one or more vertical feed orifices. Further disclosed are methods for forming a thin cast metal plate or sheet where the thickness of the cast part is in a range from 0.005 inches to 0.2 inches, and the surface area of the cast part is in a range from 16 square inches to 144 square inches.

  18. Superconducting gravity gradiometer for sensitive gravity measurements. I. Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, H.A.; Paik, H.J.

    1987-06-15

    Because of the equivalence principle, a global measurement is necessary to distinguish gravity from acceleration of the reference frame. A gravity gradiometer is therefore an essential instrument needed for precision tests of gravity laws and for applications in gravity survey and inertial navigation. Superconductivity and SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) technology can be used to obtain a gravity gradiometer with very high sensitivity and stability. A superconducting gravity gradiometer has been developed for a null test of the gravitational inverse-square law and space-borne geodesy. Here we present a complete theoretical model of this instrument. Starting from dynamical equations for themore » device, we derive transfer functions, a common mode rejection characteristic, and an error model of the superconducting instrument. Since a gradiometer must detect a very weak differential gravity signal in the midst of large platform accelerations and other environmental disturbances, the scale factor and common mode rejection stability of the instrument are extremely important in addition to its immunity to temperature and electromagnetic fluctuations. We show how flux quantization, the Meissner effect, and properties of liquid helium can be utilized to meet these challenges.« less

  19. Dualities and emergent gravity: Gauge/gravity duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Haro, Sebastian

    2017-08-01

    In this paper I develop a framework for relating dualities and emergence: two notions that are close to each other but also exclude one another. I adopt the conception of duality as 'isomorphism', from the physics literature, cashing it out in terms of three conditions. These three conditions prompt two conceptually different ways in which a duality can be modified to make room for emergence; and I argue that this exhausts the possibilities for combining dualities and emergence (via coarse-graining). I apply this framework to gauge/gravity dualities, considering in detail three examples: AdS/CFT, Verlinde's scheme, and black holes. My main point about gauge/gravity dualities is that the theories involved, qua theories of gravity, must be background-independent. I distinguish two senses of background-independence: (i) minimalistic and (ii) extended. I argue that the former is sufficiently strong to allow for a consistent theory of quantum gravity; and that AdS/CFT is background-independent on this account; while Verlinde's scheme best fits the extended sense of background-independence. I argue that this extended sense should be applied with some caution: on pain of throwing the baby (general relativity) out with the bath-water (extended background-independence). Nevertheless, it is an interesting and potentially fruitful heuristic principle for quantum gravity theory construction. It suggests some directions for possible generalisations of gauge/gravity dualities. The interpretation of dualities is discussed; and the so-called 'internal' vs. 'external' viewpoints are articulated in terms of: (i) epistemic and metaphysical commitments; (ii) parts vs. wholes. I then analyse the emergence of gravity in gauge/gravity dualities in terms of the two available conceptualisations of emergence; and I show how emergence in AdS/CFT and in Verlinde's scenario differ from each other. Finally, I give a novel derivation of the Bekenstein-Hawking black hole entropy formula based on

  20. Nonlocal Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashhoon, Bahram

    2017-05-01

    Relativity theory is based on a postulate of locality, which means that the past history of the observer is not directly taken into account. This book argues that the past history should be taken into account. In this way, nonlocality 1R 2i1nr-in the sense of history dependence-is introduced into relativity theory. The deep connection between inertia and gravitation suggests that gravity could be nonlocal, and in nonlocal gravity the fading gravitational memory of past events must then be taken into account. Along this line of thought, a classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation has recently been developed. A significant consequence of this theory is that the nonlocal aspect of gravity appears to simulate dark matter. According to nonlocal gravity theory, what astronomers attribute to dark matter should instead be due to the nonlocality of gravitation. Nonlocality dominates on the scale of galaxies and beyond. Memory fades with time; therefore, the nonlocal aspect of gravity becomes weaker as the universe expands. The implications of nonlocal gravity are explored in this book for gravitational lensing, gravitational radiation, the gravitational physics of the Solar System and the internal dynamics of nearby galaxies, as well as clusters of galaxies. This approach is extended to nonlocal Newtonian cosmology, where the attraction of gravity fades with the expansion of the universe. Thus far, scientists have only compared some of the consequences of nonlocal gravity with astronomical observations.

  1. HIGH PRESSURE DIES

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, W.B.

    1960-05-31

    A press was invented for subjecting specimens of bismuth, urania, yttria, or thoria to high pressures and temperatures. The press comprises die parts enclosing a space in which is placed an electric heater thermally insulated from the die parts so as not to damage them by heat. The die parts comprise two opposed inner frustoconical parts and an outer part having a double frustoconical recess receiving the inner parts. The die space decreases in size as the inner die parts move toward one another against the outer part and the inner parts, though very hard, do not fracture because of the mode of support provided by the outer part.

  2. Response of rat hindlimb muscles to 12 hours recovery from tail-cast suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.; Henriksen, E. J.; Jacob, S.; Jaspers, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    Previous work has shown a number of biochemical changes which accompany atrophy or reduced muscle growth in hindlimb of tail-casted, suspended rats. These results clearly show that altered muscle growth was due to changes in protein turnover. Accordingly, the rise in soleus tyrosine following unloading reflects the more negative protein balance. Other major changes we found included slower synthesis of glutamine as indicated by lower ratios of glutamine/glutamate and reduced levels of aspartate which coincide with slower aspartate and ammonia metabolism in vitro. In conjunction with the study of SL-3 rats, which were subjected to 12 h of post-flight gravity, a study of the effects of 12 h eight bearing on metabolism of 6-day unloaded hindlimb muscles was carried out.

  3. Europium containing red light-emitting fibers made by electrohydrodynamic casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Yong X.; Panahi, Niousha; Yu, Christina; Gan, Jeremy B.; Cheng, Wanli

    2018-05-01

    Red light-emitting polymeric micro- and nanofibers were made by electrohydrodynamic co-casting of two fluids. One fluid contains a 10 wt% concentration europium (III) complex dissolved in a dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent. The europium complex, an Eu3+ compound with the nominal formula of Eu(BA)3phen/PAN, consists of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), and benzoic acid (BA). The other fluid consists of iron metal oxide nanoparticles dispersed in a solution containing 10 wt% polyacrylonitrile polymer in DMF solvent. The two fluids were electrohydrodynamically co-cast onto a soft tissue paper using a stainless steel coaxial nozzle. The intensity of the electric field used for the co-casting was 1.5 kV/cm. Scanning electron microscopic observation on the fibers obtained from the co-casting was made. The size of the fibers ranges from several hundreds of nanometers to several microns. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis of the fibers confirmed that the major elements included C, O, Fe, and Eu. The fluorescence of the two types of fibers was tested under the excitation of a UV light source. It was found that when the europium complex-containing solution was the sheath fluid and the iron-containing solution was the core, the prepared fibers showed red light-emitting behavior under ultraviolet light. Time-dependent fluorescence shows the two-stage decaying behavior. The first stage lasts about 2000 s and the intensity of fluorescence decreases linearly. The second stage reveals the slow decaying behavior and it lasts longer than 3 h. Based on the bi-exponential data fitting using a processing MATLAB code, the fluorescence-related constants were extracted. A bi-exponential formula was proposed to describe the time-dependent fluorescence behavior of the fiber made by the europium complex-containing solution as the sheath fluid. The decaying in the fluorescence shows two different stages. The first stage lasts about 2000 s and it is characterized

  4. Influence of die geometry and material selection on the behavior of protective die covers in closed-die forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yingyan; Rosenstock, Dirk; Wolfgarten, Martin; Hirt, Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    Due to the fact that tooling costs make up to 30% of total costs of the final forged part, the tool life is always one main research topic in closed-die forging [1]. To improve the wear resistance of forging dies, many methods like nitriding and deposition of ceramic layers have been used. However, all these methods will lose its effect after a certain time, then tool repair or exchange is needed, which requires additional time and costs. A new method, which applies an inexpensive and changeable sheet metal on the forging die to protect it from abrasive wear, was firstly proposed in [2]. According to the first investigation, the die cover is effective for decreasing thermal and mechanical loads, but there are still several challenges to overcome in this concept, like wrinkling and thinning of the die cover. Therefore, an experimental study using different geometries and die cover materials is presented within this work. The results indicate the existence of feasible application cases of this concept, since conditions are found under which a die cover made of 22MnB5 still keeps its original shape even after 7 forging cycles.

  5. Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, David M [Livermore, CA; Sampayan, Stephen [Manteca, CA; Slenes, Kirk [Albuquerque, NM; Stoller, H M [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-10

    A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

  6. Die Sonne.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    der Time-Life Bücher, Redaktion

    Contents: 1. Das Antlitz der Sonne. Ein kosmisches Kraftwerk. 2. Erforschung des Innern. Die Beobachtung des Zentralgestirns. 3. Der unstete Nachbar. Geschenke des Sonnenlichts. 4. Ein endloser Partikelstrom. Die Kraft eines solaren Sturms.

  7. Impact of Simulation Technology on Die and Stamping Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Mark W.

    2005-08-01

    Over the last ten years, we have seen an explosion in the use of simulation-based techniques to improve the engineering, construction, and operation of GM production tools. The impact has been as profound as the overall switch to CAD/CAM from the old manual design and construction methods. The changeover to N/C machining from duplicating milling machines brought advances in accuracy and speed to our construction activity. It also brought significant reductions in fitting sculptured surfaces. Changing over to CAD design brought similar advances in accuracy, and today's use of solid modeling has enhanced that accuracy gain while finally leading to the reduction in lead time and cost through the development of parametric techniques. Elimination of paper drawings for die design, along with the process of blueprinting and distribution, provided the savings required to install high capacity computer servers, high-speed data transmission lines and integrated networks. These historic changes in the application of CAE technology in manufacturing engineering paved the way for the implementation of simulation to all aspects of our business. The benefits are being realized now, and the future holds even greater promise as the simulation techniques mature and expand. Every new line of dies is verified prior to casting for interference free operation. Sheet metal forming simulation validates the material flow, eliminating the high costs of physical experimentation dependent on trial and error methods of the past. Integrated forming simulation and die structural analysis and optimization has led to a reduction in die size and weight on the order of 30% or more. The latest techniques in factory simulation enable analysis of automated press lines, including all stamping operations with corresponding automation. This leads to manufacturing lines capable of running at higher levels of throughput, with actual results providing the capability of two or more additional strokes per

  8. High-Strength Aluminum Casting Alloy for High-Temperature Applications (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund Final Project No. 97-10)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    A new aluminum-silicon alloy has been successfully developed at Marshall Space Flight Center that has a significant improvement in tensile strength at elevated temperatures (550 to 700 F). For instance, the new alloy shows in average tensile strength of at least 90 percent higher than the current 390 aluminum piston alloy tested at 500 F. Compared to conventional aluminum alloys, automotive engines using the new piston alloy will have improved gas mileage, and may produce less air pollution in order to meet the future U.S. automotive legislative requirements for low hydrocarbon emissions. The projected cost for this alloy is less than $0.95/lb, and it readily allows the automotive components to be cast at a high production volume with a low, fully accounted cost. It is economically produced by pouring molten metal directly into conventional permanent steel molds or die casting.

  9. 21 CFR 888.5960 - Cast removal instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cast removal instrument. 888.5960 Section 888.5960...) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5960 Cast removal instrument. (a) Identification. A cast removal instrument is an AC-powered, hand-held device intended to remove a cast from a...

  10. An investigation of squeeze-cast alloy 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamwell, W. R.

    1993-01-01

    Alloy 718 billets produced by the squeeze-cast process have been evaluated for use as potential replacements for propulsion engine components which are normally produced from forgings. Alloy 718 billets were produced using various processing conditions. Structural characterizations were performed on 'as-cast' billets. As-cast billets were then homogenized and solution treated and aged according to conventional heat-treatment practices for this alloy. Mechanical property evaluations were performed on heat-treated billets. As-cast macrostructures and microstructures varied with squeeze-cast processing parameters. Mechanical properties varied with squeeze-cast processing parameters and heat treatments. One billet exhibited a defect free, refined microstructure, with mechanical properties approaching those of wrought alloy 718 bar, confirming the feasibility of squeeze-casting alloy 718. However, further process optimization is required, and further structural and mechanical property improvements are expected with process optimization.

  11. Casting of Ti-6Al-4V alloy compared with pure Ti in an Ar-arc casting machine.

    PubMed

    Syverud, M; Okabe, T; Herø, H

    1995-10-01

    Dental prostheses of Ti are normally cast in pure Ti. Some appliances, however, require higher yield strength. Casting of Ti alloys is of interest in such cases. The objective of the present work was to study the quality of castings made of Ti-6Al-4V compared with those made of pure Ti. Casting was made into a mold kept at room temperature using a MgO-Al2O3 investment. A standardized five-unit bridge was cast, consisting of two cylindrical crowns with sharp margins and three pontics. The overall mold filling was satisfactory. The margins of the casting alloys were, however, more rugged and incomplete than those of pure Ti. The most likely reason for this difference is the increased formation of dendrites in the alloy and thus more resistance to fluid flow. Furthermore, the sprue of the alloy was also found to contain some spherical, internal pores. Such pores were rare in the pure Ti castings. The surface reactions were found to be minimal for both of the materials. Increased casting deficiencies observed in the cast bridges of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, compared with pure Ti, were: 1) the margins of the crowns in the bridge were less complete and 2) there was a tendency to an increased internal porosity, particularly in the sprues.

  12. Casting Footprints for Eternity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Apollo 11 Astronaut Buzz Aldrin has his footprints casted during the dedication ceremony of the rocket fountain at Building 4200 at Marshall Space Flight Center. The casts of Aldrin's footprints will be placed in the newly constructed Von Braun courtyard representing the accomplishments of the Apollo 11 lunar landing.

  13. Casting fine grained, fully dense, strong inorganic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Sam W.; Spencer, Larry S.; Phillips, Michael R.

    2015-11-24

    Methods and apparatuses for casting inorganic materials are provided. The inorganic materials include metals, metal alloys, metal hydrides and other materials. Thermal control zones may be established to control the propagation of a freeze front through the casting. Agitation from a mechanical blade or ultrasonic energy may be used to reduce porosity and shrinkage in the casting. After solidification of the casting, the casting apparatus may be used to anneal the cast part.

  14. Lovelock gravities from Born-Infeld gravity theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concha, P. K.; Merino, N.; Rodríguez, E. K.

    2017-02-01

    We present a Born-Infeld gravity theory based on generalizations of Maxwell symmetries denoted as Cm. We analyze different configuration limits allowing to recover diverse Lovelock gravity actions in six dimensions. Further, the generalization to higher even dimensions is also considered.

  15. Die singulation method

    DOEpatents

    Swiler, Thomas P.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Francis, Kathryn M.

    2013-06-11

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with an HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  16. Die singulation method

    DOEpatents

    Swiler, Thomas P [Albuquerque, NM; Garcia, Ernest J [Albuquerque, NM; Francis, Kathryn M [Rio Rancho, NM

    2014-01-07

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with a HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  17. Novel method for titanium crown casting using a combination of wax patterns fabricated by a CAD/CAM system and a non-expanded investment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zutai; Tamaki, Yukimichi; Hotta, Yasuhiro; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2006-07-01

    For titanium casting, most commercial investments for titanium recommend casting at a low mold temperature to reduce oxidation. However, the thermal expansion values of the molds at low casting temperatures may be insufficient. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining accurate titanium crown casts using wax pattern fabricated by a CAD/CAM system with a non-expanded mold. Three types of experimental magnesia-based investments (A, B and C) were made and their properties were evaluated for dental use. Two kinds of wax patterns for full-coverage coping crowns (S-0: cement space of 0 microm; S-20: cement space of 20 microm) were fabricated using a commercial CAD/CAM system. A traditional method (TM) using inlay wax was performed for comparison. The investment for titanium casting was decided from the fundamental data of experimental investments. Titanium crowns were replaced on the stone die and the thickness of the cement layer was evaluated. There were no significant differences for the setting time and setting expansion among the experimental investments, but the aluminous cement content played a role in hardening and contracting the mold. The fit of the titanium crowns differed significantly between the TM and the CAD/CAM system. The ranges of thickness obtained from the TM, S-0 and S-20 were 20.78-357.88 microm, 25.12-107.46 microm and 17.84-58.92 microm, respectively. High quality titanium crown casting was obtained using a combination of wax patterns fabricated by a CAD/CAM system and a non-expanded MgO-based investment.

  18. Morphology and Performance of 5Cr5MoV Casting Die Steel in the Process of Surfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yulai; Kong, Xiangrui; Yang, Pengcong; Fu, Hongde; Wang, Xuezhu

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the microstructures and mechanical properties of the deposited metal on surface of die steel, two layer of weld-seam were prepared on the surface of 5Cr5MoV die steel by arc surfacing. The surface microstructures and microhardness were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer and Vickers microhardness tester, respectively. The effect of load on the abrasion resistance and wear mechanism of the base metal and surfacing metal was studied by pin-on-disk tribometer. The results showed that martensite and retained austenite exist in weld-seam, both of them grow up in the form of dendrites and equiaxed grains and microhardness reach 774.2HV. The microstructures of the quenching zone mainly consist of martensite and retained austenite, while tempered martensite is the dominant phase in partial quenching zone. The abrasion resistance of the surfacing metal is superior to the base metal based on the results of wear test. The wear rates of surfacing metal and base metal raise with the increase of load. The wear rates of base metal raise extremely when the load reach 210N. Both of two kinds of materials have the similar wear mechanism, namely, abrasive wear at low load, oxidative wear and adhesive wear at high load.

  19. CASTING METHOD AND APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Gray, C.F.; Thompson, R.H.

    1958-10-01

    An improved apparatus for the melting and casting of uranium is described. A vacuum chamber is positioned over the casting mold and connected thereto, and a rod to pierce the oxide skin of the molten uranium is fitted into the bottom of the melting chamber. The entire apparatus is surrounded by a jacket, and operations are conducted under a vacuum. The improvement in this apparatus lies in the fact that the top of the melting chamber is fitted with a plunger which allows squeezing of the oxide skin to force out any molten uranium remaining after the skin has been broken and the molten charge has been cast.

  20. 21 CFR 888.5940 - Cast component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cast component. 888.5940 Section 888.5940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5940 Cast component. (a) Identification. A cast component is a...

  1. 21 CFR 888.5940 - Cast component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cast component. 888.5940 Section 888.5940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5940 Cast component. (a) Identification. A cast component is a...

  2. 21 CFR 888.5940 - Cast component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cast component. 888.5940 Section 888.5940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5940 Cast component. (a) Identification. A cast component is a...

  3. 21 CFR 888.5940 - Cast component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cast component. 888.5940 Section 888.5940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... the cast heel, toe cap, cast support, and walking iron. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls...

  4. 21 CFR 888.5940 - Cast component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cast component. 888.5940 Section 888.5940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... the cast heel, toe cap, cast support, and walking iron. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls...

  5. Evaluation of ames Multistix-SG for urine specific gravity versus refractometer specific gravity.

    PubMed

    Adams, L J

    1983-12-01

    A comparison of urine specific gravity by a commercially available multiple reagent strip (Multistix-SG; Ames Division, Miles Laboratory) versus refractometer specific gravity (TS Meter; American Optical Corporation) was performed on 214 routine urine specimens. Agreement to +/- 0.005 was found in 72% of the specimens (r = 0.80). Urine specific gravity by the Multistix-SG showed a significant positive bias at urine pHs less than or equal to 6.0 and a negative bias at urine pHs greater than 7.0 in comparison to refractometer specific gravity. At concentrated (specific gravity greater than or equal to 1.020) specific gravities, up to 25% of urine specimens were misclassified as not concentrated by Multistix-SG specific gravity in comparison to refractometer specific gravity. The additional cost of the specific gravity reagent to a multiple reagent test strip in addition to the poor performance relative to refractometer specific gravity leads to the conclusion that including this specific gravity methodology on a multiple reagent strip is neither cost effective nor clinically useful.

  6. When Your Child Needs a Cast

    MedlinePlus

    ... a waterproof plastic cast protector instead of plastic bags. You can buy this at a drugstore. Keep the cast completely out of the water by propping it up on the side of the tub. If the cast or liner gets splashed, gently blow air into it from a hair dryer on the ...

  7. A Comparative Study of Hot Deformation Behaviors for Sand Casting and Centrifugal Casting Q235B Flange Blanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Fangcheng; Li, Yongtang; Ju, Li

    2017-03-01

    Hot compression tests of sand casting and centrifugal casting Q235B flange blanks were performed at strain rate range of 0.01-5 s-1 and temperature range of 850-1,150 °C. The evolutions of microstructure and texture were revealed. The constitutive models based on Arrhenius constitutive modeling were proposed by considering the effects of strain on material constants. The results show that recrystallization in centrifugal casting Q235B is more apparent than that in sand casting, resulting in the finer grains and lower flow stress for centrifugal casting Q235B. The intensities of textures slightly weaken with the increase of temperature. At 1,050 °C and 5 s-1, the textures of sand casting are characterized by strong {001}<100> and {001}<110>, which are related with severe deformation, while the textures of centrifugal casting are composed of {110}<110> and {111}<112>, which are related with dynamic recovery and shear deformation. A good agreement between the predicted and experimental flow stress is achieved and demonstrates that the proposed constitutive models are reliable.

  8. Gravity data of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponce, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Gravity data for the entire state of Nevada and adjacent parts of California, Utah, and Arizona are available on this CD-ROM. About 80,000 gravity stations were compiled primarily from the National Geophysical Data Center and the U.S. Geological Survey. Gravity data was reduced to the Geodetic Reference System of 1967 and adjusted to the Gravity Standardization Net 1971 gravity datum. Data were processed to complete Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies by applying standard gravity corrections including terrain and isostatic corrections. Selected principal fact references and a list of sources for data from the National Geophysical Data Center are included.

  9. Emulsion based cast booster - a priming system

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.N.; Mishra, A.K.

    2005-07-01

    This paper explores the potential of emulsion based cast booster to be used as primer to initiate bulk delivered emulsion explosives used in mines. An attempt has been made for comparative study between conventional cast booster and emulsion based cast booster in terms of the initiation process developed and their capability to develop and maintain the stable detonation process in the column explosives. The study has been conducted using a continuous velocity of detonation (VOD) measuring instrument. During this study three blasts have been monitored. In each blast two holes have been selected for study, the first hole being initiatedmore » with conventional cast booster while the other one with emulsion based cast booster. The findings of the study advocates that emulsion based cast booster is capable of efficient priming of bulk delivered column explosive with stable detonation process in the column. Further, the booster had advantages over the conventional PETN/TNT based cast booster. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo.« less

  10. Properties of a hybrid plaster-fibreglass cast

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Mark N.; Yen, David

    2000-01-01

    Objective To examine the suitability of a plaster-fibreglass hybrid cast for orthopedic applications, comparing them to plaster of Paris (POP) and fibreglass constructs. Method Groups of 10 standardized hybrid, POP and fibreglass casts were studied. An Instron servo-hydraulic system was used to test the casts in 3-point bending and shear. Outcome measures Strength, stiffness, weight, thickness and cost of the 3 types of cast, and shear strength at the interface between the POP and fibreglass in the hybrid casts. Results The hybrid casts were twice as strong as the POP constructs, were stiffer and weighed 14% less but were thicker and cost 2.5 times more. They were almost as strong as and less than half the cost of the fibreglass constructs but were thicker, not as stiff, and weighed 42% more. The shear strength of the POP–fibreglass interface in the hybrid casts was higher than the 3-point bending strength of this construct by a factor of 3. Conclusions Plaster-fibreglass hybrid casts should be considered for orthopedic use on the basis of their strength, stiffness, weight and cost, combined with their acknowledged advantages of good moulding ability and water resistance. PMID:11045095

  11. Improved Casting Furnace Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Fielding, Randall Sidney; Tolman, David Donald

    In an attempt to ensure more consistent casting results and remove some schedule variance associated with casting, an improved casting furnace concept has been developed. The improved furnace uses the existing arc melter hardware and glovebox utilities. The furnace concept was designed around physical and operational requirements such as; a charge sized of less than 30 grams, high heating rates and minimal additional footprint. The conceptual model is shown in the report as well as a summary of how the requirements were met.

  12. EDITORIAL: Focus section on quantum gravity - 25 years of quantum gravity Focus section on quantum gravity - 25 years of quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, Joseph

    2011-08-01

    The problem of quantum gravity has been with us for over 80 years. After quantum theory was established in the 1920s, it was successfully applied to the electromagnetic field. Over the years there have been many attempts to bring gravity into the fold. There has been work on the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity, perturbative approaches to quantum gravity and more. Much intellectual effort went into understanding conceptual and technical problems stemming from the general covariance of the theory. However, in earlier decades, the subject of quantum gravity was relatively on the fringes of theoretical physics research, pursued by a small and diverse community of people. In the mid 1980s the situation changed dramatically. The subject of quantum gravity came to the forefront of fundamental physics research, no longer a backwater but the mainstream. Quantum gravity was widely acknowledged as the last frontier of fundamental physics and attracted the brightest young people. Unlike in previous decades, workers in this area were no longer isolated groups or individuals ploughing lonely furrows, but organised into coherent `programmes' for a concerted attack on the problem. The main programmes coincidentally were all formulated in the mid 1980s. The two `programmes' covered in this section are string theory and loop quantum gravity. String theory was born an offshoot of Hadronic models in particle physics and reflects the particle physicists view that gravity is just one more interaction to be encompassed by a unified theory. Loop quantum gravity reflects the general relativist's conviction that gravity is different and should not be treated as a perturbation about Minkowski spacetime. Each of these approaches has its proponents, adherents and critics. It is now about a quarter of a century since these programmes started. It is perhaps a good time to take stock and assess where we are now and where each of these programmes is headed. The idea in this focus

  13. Low Pressure Flame Blowoff from the Forward Stagnation Region of a Blunt-Nosed Cast PMMA Cylinder in Axial Mixed Convective Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcum, J. W.; Rachow, P.; Ferkul, P. V.; Olson, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    Low-pressure blowoff experiments were conducted with a stagnation flame stabilized on the forward tip of cast PMMA rods in a vertical wind tunnel. Pressure, forced flow velocity, gravity, and ambient oxygen concentration were varied. Stagnation flame blowoff is determined from a time-stamped video recording of the test. The blowoff pressure is determined from test section pressure transducer data that is synchronized with the time stamp. The forced flow velocity is also determined from the choked flow orifice pressure. Most of the tests were performed in normal gravity, but a handful of microgravity tests were also conducted to determine the influence of buoyant flow velocity on the blowoff limits. The blowoff limits are found to have a linear dependence between the partial pressure of oxygen and the total pressure, regardless of forced flow velocity and gravity level. The flow velocity (forced and/or buoyant) affects the blowoff pressure through the critical Damkohler number residence time, which dictates the partial pressure of oxygen at blowoff. This is because the critical stretch rate increases linearly with increasing pressure at low pressure (sub-atmospheric pressures) since a second-order overall reaction rate with two-body reactions dominates in this pressure range.

  14. Effects of heat treatment on mechanical properties of h13 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guanghua, Yan; Xinmin, Huang; Yanqing, Wang; Xingguo, Qin; Ming, Yang; Zuoming, Chu; Kang, Jin

    2010-12-01

    Heat treatment on the mechanical properties of H13 hot working die steel for die casting is discussed. The H13 steel for die casting was treated by different temperatures of vacuum quenching, tempering, and secondary tempering to investigate its mechanical properties. Strength, plasticity, hardness, and impact toughness of the H13 hot working die steel for die casting were measured. Microstructure, grain size, and carbide particle size after heat treatment have a great impact on the mechanical properties of H13 hot working die steel for die casting. The microstructure of the H13 was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by a metallographic microscope. It is found that H13 exhibits excellent mechanical properties after vacuum quenching at 1050°C and twice tempering at 600°C.

  15. Influence of Custom Trays, Dual-Arch Passive, Flexed Trays and Viscosities of Elastomeric Impression Materials on Working Dies.

    PubMed

    Arora, Mansi; Kohli, Shivani; Kalsi, Rupali

    2016-05-01

    Dual arch impression technique signifies an essential improvement in fixed prosthodontics and has numerous benefits over conventional impression techniques. The accuracy of working dies fabricated from dual arch impression technique remains in question because there is little information available in the literature. This study was conducted to compare the accuracy of working dies fabricated from impressions made from two different viscosities of impression materials using metal, plastic dual arch trays and custom made acrylic trays. The study samples were grouped into two groups based on the viscosity of impression material used i.e. Group I (monophase), whereas Group II consisted of Dual Mix technique using a combination of light and heavy body material. These were further divided into three subgroups A, B and C depending on the type of impression tray used (metal dual arch tray, plastic dual arch tray and custom made tray). Measurements of the master cast were made using profile projector. Descriptive statistics like mean, Standard Deviation (SD) were calculated for all the groups. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for multiple group comparisons. A p-value of 0.05 or less was considered statistically significant. The gypsum dies obtained with the three types of impression trays using two groups of impression materials were smaller than the master models in dimensions. The plastic dual arch trays produced dies which were the least accurate of the three groups. There was no significant difference in the die dimensions obtained using the two viscosities of impression materials.

  16. Influence of Custom Trays, Dual-Arch Passive, Flexed Trays and Viscosities of Elastomeric Impression Materials on Working Dies

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Shivani; Kalsi, Rupali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dual arch impression technique signifies an essential improvement in fixed prosthodontics and has numerous benefits over conventional impression techniques. The accuracy of working dies fabricated from dual arch impression technique remains in question because there is little information available in the literature. Aim This study was conducted to compare the accuracy of working dies fabricated from impressions made from two different viscosities of impression materials using metal, plastic dual arch trays and custom made acrylic trays. Materials and Methods The study samples were grouped into two groups based on the viscosity of impression material used i.e. Group I (monophase), whereas Group II consisted of Dual Mix technique using a combination of light and heavy body material. These were further divided into three subgroups A, B and C depending on the type of impression tray used (metal dual arch tray, plastic dual arch tray and custom made tray). Measurements of the master cast were made using profile projector. Descriptive statistics like mean, Standard Deviation (SD) were calculated for all the groups. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for multiple group comparisons. A p-value of 0.05 or less was considered statistically significant. Results The gypsum dies obtained with the three types of impression trays using two groups of impression materials were smaller than the master models in dimensions. Conclusion The plastic dual arch trays produced dies which were the least accurate of the three groups. There was no significant difference in the die dimensions obtained using the two viscosities of impression materials. PMID:27437342

  17. Twin-belt continuous caster with containment and cooling of the exiting cast product for enabling high-speed casting of molten-center product

    DOEpatents

    Dykes, Charles D.; Daniel, Sabah S.; Wood, J. F. Barry

    1990-02-20

    In continuously casting molten metal into cast product by a twin-belt machine, it is desirable to achieve dramatic increases in speed (linear feet per minute) at which cast product exits the machine, particularly in installations where steel cast product is intended to feed a downstream regular rolling mill (as distinct from a planetary mill) operating in tandem with the twin-belt caster. Such high-speed casting produces product with a relatively thin shell and molten interior, and the shell tends to bulge outwardly due to metallostatic head pressure of the molten center. A number of cooperative features enable high-speed, twin-belt casting: (1) Each casting belt is slidably supported adjacent to the caster exit pulley for bulge control and enhanced cooling of cast product. (2) Lateral skew steering of each belt provides an effective increase in moving mold length plus a continuity of heat transfer not obtained with prior art belt steering apparatus. (3) The exiting slab is contained and supported downstream from the casting machine to prevent bulging of the shell of the cast product, and (4) spray cooling is incorporated in the exit containment apparatus for secondary cooling of cast product.

  18. Biomimetic Materials by Freeze Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Michael M.; Mckittrick, Joanna; Meyers, Marc A.

    2013-06-01

    Natural materials, such as bone and abalone nacre, exhibit exceptional mechanical properties, a product of their intricate microstructural organization. Freeze casting is a relatively simple, inexpensive, and adaptable materials processing method to form porous ceramic scaffolds with controllable microstructural features. After infiltration of a second polymeric phase, hybrid ceramic-polymer composites can be fabricated that closely resemble the architecture and mechanical performance of natural bone and nacre. Inspired by the narwhal tusk, magnetic fields applied during freeze casting can be used to further control architectural alignment, resulting in freeze-cast materials with enhanced mechanical properties.

  19. Strip casting apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert S.; Baker, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip.

  20. Assisted Dying & Disability.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Christopher A

    2017-07-01

    This article explores at least two dominant critiques of assisted dying from a disability rights perspective. In spite of these critiques, I conclude that assisted dying ought to be permissible. I arrive at the conclusion that if we respect and value people with disabilities, we ought to permit assisted dying. I do so in the following manner. First, I examine recent changes in legislation that have occurred since the Royal Society of Canada Expert Panel on End-of-Life Decision-Making report, published in this journal. I suggest that these changes are likely to only strengthen opposition to assisted dying from disability rights activists and people with disabilities. Second, I focus on respect for people with disabilities and in particular, respect for their autonomy and decision-making abilities. Third, I explore the opposition to assisted dying that focuses on risk and the vulnerability of people with disabilities. Here I suggest that this risk ought not to be of special concern. Ultimately, I conclude that upholding respect for the disabled requires the legalization of assisted dying, rather than the denial of access in a misguided effort to protect people with disabilities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Grain Refinement of Magnesium Alloys: A Review of Recent Research, Theoretical Developments, and Their Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    StJohn, D. H.; Easton, M. A.; Qian, M.; Taylor, J. A.

    2013-07-01

    This paper builds on the "Grain Refinement of Mg Alloys" published in 2005 and reviews the grain refinement research on Mg alloys that has been undertaken since then with an emphasis on the theoretical and analytical methods that have been developed. Consideration of recent research results and current theoretical knowledge has highlighted two important factors that affect an alloy's as-cast grain size. The first factor applies to commercial Mg-Al alloys where it is concluded that impurity and minor elements such as Fe and Mn have a substantially negative impact on grain size because, in combination with Al, intermetallic phases can be formed that tend to poison the more potent native or deliberately added nucleant particles present in the melt. This factor appears to explain the contradictory experimental outcomes reported in the literature and suggests that the search for a more potent and reliable grain refining technology may need to take a different approach. The second factor applies to all alloys and is related to the role of constitutional supercooling which, on the one hand, promotes grain nucleation and, on the other hand, forms a nucleation-free zone preventing further nucleation within this zone, consequently limiting the grain refinement achievable, particularly in low solute-containing alloys. Strategies to reduce the negative impact of these two factors are discussed. Further, the Interdependence model has been shown to apply to a broad range of casting methods from slow cooling gravity die casting to fast cooling high pressure die casting and dynamic methods such as ultrasonic treatment.

  2. Novel technologies for the lost foam casting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wenming; Fan, Zitian

    2018-03-01

    Lost foam casting (LFC) is a green precision casting process categorized as a near net forming technology. Yet, despite its popularity, it still suffers from some technological problems, such as poor filling ability of the castings, coarse and non-dense microstructure, low mechanical properties for the Al and Mg LFC processes, and defective carburization for the low carbon steel LFC process. These drawbacks restrict the development and widespread application of the LFC process. To solve these problems, the present study developed several novel LFC technologies, namely, LFC technologies under vacuum and low pressure, vibration solidification, and pressure solidification conditions; expendable shell casting technology; and preparation technology of bimetallic castings based on the LFC process. The results showed that the LFC under vacuum and low pressure evidently improved the filling ability and solved the oxidization problem of the alloys, which is suitable for producing complex and thinwall castings. The vibration and pressure solidifications increased the compactness of the castings and refined the microstructure, significantly improving the mechanical properties of the castings. The expendable shell casting technology could solve the pore, carburization, and inclusion defects of the traditional LFC method, obtaining castings with acceptable surface quality. Moreover, the Al/Mg and Al/Al bimetallic castings with acceptable metallurgical bonding were successfully fabricated using the LFC process. These proposed novel LFC technologies can solve the current technological issues and promote the technological progress of the LFC process.

  3. Cardiovascular cast model fabrication and casting effectiveness evaluation in fetus with severe congenital heart disease or normal heart.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Cao, Hai-yan; Xie, Ming-xing; He, Lin; Han, Wei; Hong, Liu; Peng, Yuan; Hu, Yun-fei; Song, Ben-cai; Wang, Jing; Wang, Bin; Deng, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the application and effectiveness of vascular corrosion technique in preparing fetal cardiovascular cast models, 10 normal fetal heart specimens with other congenital disease (control group) and 18 specimens with severe congenital heart disease (case group) from induced abortions were enrolled in this study from March 2013 to June 2015 in our hospital. Cast models were prepared by injecting casting material into vascular lumen to demonstrate real geometries of fetal cardiovascular system. Casting effectiveness was analyzed in terms of local anatomic structures and different anatomical levels (including overall level, atrioventricular and great vascular system, left-sided and right-sided heart), as well as different trimesters of pregnancy. In our study, all specimens were successfully casted. Casting effectiveness analysis of local anatomic structures showed a mean score from 1.90±1.45 to 3.60±0.52, without significant differences between case and control groups in most local anatomic structures except left ventricle, which had a higher score in control group (P=0.027). Inter-group comparison of casting effectiveness in different anatomical levels showed no significant differences between the two groups. Intra-group comparison also revealed undifferentiated casting effectiveness between atrioventricular and great vascular system, or left-sided and right-sided heart in corresponding group. Third-trimester group had a significantly higher perfusion score in great vascular system than second-trimester group (P=0.046), while the other anatomical levels displayed no such difference. Vascular corrosion technique can be successfully used in fabrication of fetal cardiovascular cast model. It is also a reliable method to demonstrate three-dimensional anatomy of severe congenital heart disease and normal heart in fetus.

  4. Micromechanical die attachment surcharge

    DOEpatents

    Filter, William F.; Hohimer, John P.

    2002-01-01

    An attachment structure is disclosed for attaching a die to a supporting substrate without the use of adhesives or solder. The attachment structure, which can be formed by micromachining, functions purely mechanically in utilizing a plurality of shaped pillars (e.g. round, square or polygonal and solid, hollow or slotted) that are formed on one of the die or supporting substrate and which can be urged into contact with various types of mating structures including other pillars, a deformable layer or a plurality of receptacles that are formed on the other of the die or supporting substrate, thereby forming a friction bond that holds the die to the supporting substrate. The attachment structure can further include an alignment structure for precise positioning of the die and supporting substrate to facilitate mounting the die to the supporting substrate. The attachment structure has applications for mounting semiconductor die containing a microelectromechanical (MEM) device, a microsensor or an integrated circuit (IC), and can be used to form a multichip module. The attachment structure is particularly useful for mounting die containing released MEM devices since these devices are fragile and can otherwise be damaged or degraded by adhesive or solder mounting.

  5. Planarian regeneration under micro- and hyper-gravity simulated contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auletta, Gennaro; Van Loon, ing.. Jack J. W. A.; Adell, Teresa; Salo, Emili

    collectively and in synchrony to propel the mucus and allow the locomotion. The assembly of ciliary structures could be affected by gravity changes. Our strategy consists in the histological, immunological and transcriptomic analysis of planarians that have completely regenerated head and tail structures under different gravity conditions: earth gravity (1g), micro-gravity (in the random positioning machine) and hyper-gravity (in a large diameter centrifuge, at 4g and 8g). Our data shows that planarians regenerate properly head and tail structures, including the eyes and the brain, in all those conditions. However some differences between the groups could be detected: 1) a slight decrease in the number of mitotic cells is observed in hyper-gravity conditions with respect to normal and micro- gravity conditions; 2) an increase in the number of animals that fissioned the tail, which is a mechanism to reproduce asexually for planarians, was observed in hyper-gravity conditions with respect to the rest; 3) although trunk fragments regenerate head and tail properly, smaller fragments, that is, head or tail pieces, could not regenerate the missing tissues under 8g conditions, and they died. Under 4g conditions they could regenerate but not properly; 4) defects in the density and length of the cilia were observed under micro- and hyper- gravity. A transcriptomic analysis is being conducted with samples from all the groups, with the aim to detect gene categories differentially regulated under micro- and hyper- gravity contexts.

  6. Vancomycin-Associated Cast Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Luque, Yosu; Louis, Kevin; Jouanneau, Chantal; Placier, Sandrine; Esteve, Emmanuel; Bazin, Dominique; Rondeau, Eric; Letavernier, Emmanuel; Wolfromm, Alice; Gosset, Clément; Boueilh, Anna; Burbach, Maren; Frère, Perrine; Verpont, Marie-Christine; Vandermeersch, Sophie; Langui, Dominique; Daudon, Michel; Frochot, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Vancomycin is a widely prescribed antibiotic, but the exact nature of vancomycin-associated nephrotoxicity is unclear, in particular when considering the frequent coadministration of aminoglycosides. We describe here the initial case of a 56-year-old woman with normal renal function developing unexplained ARF without hypovolemia after administration of vancomycin without coadministration of aminoglycosides. Studying the patient’s renal biopsy specimen, we ascertained that obstructive tubular casts composed of noncrystal nanospheric vancomycin aggregates entangled with uromodulin explained the vancomycin-associated ARF. We developed in parallel a new immunohistologic staining technique to detect vancomycin in renal tissue and confirmed retrospectively that deleterious vancomycin-associated casts existed in eight additional patients with acute tubular necrosis in the absence of hypovolemia. Concomitant high vancomycin trough plasma levels had been observed in each patient. We also reproduced experimentally the toxic and obstructive nature of vancomycin-associated cast nephropathy in mice, which we detected using different in vivo imaging techniques. In conclusion, the interaction of uromodulin with nanospheric vancomycin aggregates represents a new mode of tubular cast formation, revealing the hitherto unsuspected mechanism of vancomycin-associated renal injury. PMID:28082518

  7. Vancomycin-Associated Cast Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Luque, Yosu; Louis, Kevin; Jouanneau, Chantal; Placier, Sandrine; Esteve, Emmanuel; Bazin, Dominique; Rondeau, Eric; Letavernier, Emmanuel; Wolfromm, Alice; Gosset, Clément; Boueilh, Anna; Burbach, Maren; Frère, Perrine; Verpont, Marie-Christine; Vandermeersch, Sophie; Langui, Dominique; Daudon, Michel; Frochot, Vincent; Mesnard, Laurent

    2017-06-01

    Vancomycin is a widely prescribed antibiotic, but the exact nature of vancomycin-associated nephrotoxicity is unclear, in particular when considering the frequent coadministration of aminoglycosides. We describe here the initial case of a 56-year-old woman with normal renal function developing unexplained ARF without hypovolemia after administration of vancomycin without coadministration of aminoglycosides. Studying the patient's renal biopsy specimen, we ascertained that obstructive tubular casts composed of noncrystal nanospheric vancomycin aggregates entangled with uromodulin explained the vancomycin-associated ARF. We developed in parallel a new immunohistologic staining technique to detect vancomycin in renal tissue and confirmed retrospectively that deleterious vancomycin-associated casts existed in eight additional patients with acute tubular necrosis in the absence of hypovolemia. Concomitant high vancomycin trough plasma levels had been observed in each patient. We also reproduced experimentally the toxic and obstructive nature of vancomycin-associated cast nephropathy in mice, which we detected using different in vivo imaging techniques. In conclusion, the interaction of uromodulin with nanospheric vancomycin aggregates represents a new mode of tubular cast formation, revealing the hitherto unsuspected mechanism of vancomycin-associated renal injury. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  8. Heat Treatment Development for a Rapidly Solidified Heat Resistant Cast Al-Si Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzak, W.; Chen, D. L.; Shaha, S. K.

    2013-07-01

    Existing heat treatment standards do not properly define tempers for thin-walled castings that solidified with high solidification rates. Recently emerged casting processes such as vacuum high pressure die casting should not require long solution treatment times due to the fine microstructures arising from rapid solidification rates. The heat treatment studies involving rapidly solidified samples with secondary dendrite arm spacing between 10 and 35 μm were conducted for solution times between 30 min and 9 h and temperatures of 510 and 525 °C and for various aging parameters. The metallurgical analysis revealed that an increase in microstructure refinement could enable a reduction of solution time up to 88%. Solution treatment resulted in the dissolution of Al2Cu and Al5Mg8Si6Cu2, while Fe- and TiZrV-based phases remained partially in the microstructure. The highest strength of approximately 351 ± 9.7 and 309 ± 3.4 MPa for the UTS and YS, respectively, was achieved for a 2-step solution treatment at 510 and 525 °C in the T6 peak aging conditions, i.e., 150 °C for 100 h. The T6 temper did not yield dimensionally stable microstructure since exceeding 250 °C during in-service operation could result in phase transformation corresponding to the over-aging reaction. The microstructure refinement had a statistically stronger effect on the alloy strength than the increase in solutionizing time. Additionally, thermal analysis and dilatometer results were presented to assess the dissolution of phases during solution treatment, aging kinetics as well as dimensional stability.

  9. Chemical-Gene Interactions from ToxCast Bioactivity Data ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Characterizing the effects of chemicals in biological systems is often summarized by chemical-gene interactions, which have sparse coverage in the literature. The ToxCast chemical screening program has produced bioactivity data for nearly 2000 chemicals and over 450 gene targets. To evaluate the information gained from the ToxCast project, a ToxCast bioactivity network was created comprising ToxCast chemical-gene interactions based on assay data and compared to a chemical-gene association network from literature. The literature network was compiled from PubMed articles, excluding ToxCast publications, mapped to genes and chemicals. Genes were identified by curated associations available from NCBI while chemicals were identified by PubChem submissions. The frequencies of chemical-gene associations from the literature network were log-scaled and then compared to the ToxCast bioactivity network. In total, 140 times more chemical-gene associations were present in the ToxCast network in comparison to the literature-derived network highlighting the vast increase in chemical-gene interactions putatively elucidated by the ToxCast research program. There were 165 associations found in the literature network that were reproduced by ToxCast bioactivity data, and 336 associations in the literature network were not reproduced by the ToxCast bioactivity network. The literature network relies on the assumption that chemical-gene associations represent a true chemical-gene inte

  10. The role of water in slip casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccauley, R. A.; Phelps, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    Slips and casting are considered in terms of physical and colloidal chemistry. Casting slips are polydisperse suspensions of lyophobic particles in water, whose degree of coagulation is controlled by interaction of flocculating and deflocculating agents. Slip casting rate and viscosity are functions of temperature. Slip rheology and response to deflocculating agents varies significantly as the kinds and amounts of colloid modifiers change. Water is considered as a raw material. Various concepts of water/clay interactions and structures are discussed. Casting is a de-watering operation in which water moves from slip to cast to mold in response to a potential energy termed moisture stress. Drying is an evaporative process from a free water surface.

  11. 3D joint inversion of gravity-gradient and borehole gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Meixia; Yang, Qingjie; Huang, Danian

    2017-12-01

    Borehole gravity is increasingly used in mineral exploration due to the advent of slim-hole gravimeters. Given the full-tensor gradiometry data available nowadays, joint inversion of surface and borehole data is a logical next step. Here, we base our inversions on cokriging, which is a geostatistical method of estimation where the error variance is minimised by applying cross-correlation between several variables. In this study, the density estimates are derived using gravity-gradient data, borehole gravity and known densities along the borehole as a secondary variable and the density as the primary variable. Cokriging is non-iterative and therefore is computationally efficient. In addition, cokriging inversion provides estimates of the error variance for each model, which allows direct assessment of the inverse model. Examples are shown involving data from a single borehole, from multiple boreholes, and combinations of borehole gravity and gravity-gradient data. The results clearly show that the depth resolution of gravity-gradient inversion can be improved significantly by including borehole data in addition to gravity-gradient data. However, the resolution of borehole data falls off rapidly as the distance between the borehole and the feature of interest increases. In the case where the borehole is far away from the target of interest, the inverted result can be improved by incorporating gravity-gradient data, especially all five independent components for inversion.

  12. The efficiencies of cast blasting in wide pits

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.L.; King, M.G.

    Blasting activities in all four pits at Thunder Basin Coal`s Black Thunder Mine are focused on cast blasting. With widths varying from 190 feet to 265 feet and bench heights varying from 90 feet to 175 feet, casting efficiencies vary with different geometry`s. For example, the percent cast to final in the 200 foot pit is on the average higher than the 270 foot pit. The powder factors are somewhat higher in the narrower pits, thus increasing the cost of blasting. This leads to a very detailed look at the actual benefit of cast blasting and the associated cost ofmore » these benefits. The simple solution would be to reduce the width of the pits, thereby increasing the percent cast to final. However, the lower rehandle and low coal loss associated with wide pits would be fortified. Upon further review it becomes obvious that the wider pits could not be compared to the narrow pits with the cast to final percent indices. The focus should be shifted to cubic yards cast to final per lineal foot of pit. This will allow for more accurate measures of the casting efficiency of the shot. When comparing the pits with these indices their performances were much closer than the percent cast to final indices. The powder factors being higher in the narrow pits drove up the cost per cubic yard cast to final. Therefore, even though the percent cast to final was higher, the cost per cubic yard was also higher.« less

  13. Fracture Analysis of Cast Steel Sling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinghui

    2018-02-01

    The fracture reasons of ZG270-500 cast steel sling are analyzed through such means as macroscopic morphology analysis, chemical composition analysis, and microscopic metallography analysis. Results: coarse Widmanstatten structure and casting defects occurring in casting and subsequent heat treatment process reduce the strength, plasticity and toughness of the steel, which is the main reason of brittle fracture of the sling during work, and corresponding improvement suggestions are proposed herein.

  14. (abstract) Venus Gravity Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konopliv, A. S.; Sjogren, W. L.

    1995-01-01

    A global gravity field model of Venus to degree and order 75 (5772 spherical harmonic coefficients) has been estimated from Doppler radio tracking of the orbiting spacecraft Pioneer Venus Orbiter (1979-1992) and Magellan (1990-1994). After the successful aerobraking of Magellan, a near circular polar orbit was attained and relatively uniform gravity field resolution (approximately 200 km) was obtained with formal uncertainties of a few milligals. Detailed gravity for several highland features are displayed as gravity contours overlaying colored topography. The positive correlation of typography with gravity is very high being unlike that of the Earth, Moon, and Mars. The amplitudes are Earth-like, but have significantly different gravity-topography ratios for different features. Global gravity, geoid, and isostatic anomaly maps as well as the admittance function are displayed.

  15. Gravity brake

    DOEpatents

    Lujan, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    A mechanical gravity brake that prevents hoisted loads within a shaft from free-falling when a loss of hoisting force occurs. A loss of hoist lifting force may occur in a number of situations, for example if a hoist cable were to break, the brakes were to fail on a winch, or the hoist mechanism itself were to fail. Under normal hoisting conditions, the gravity brake of the invention is subject to an upward lifting force from the hoist and a downward pulling force from a suspended load. If the lifting force should suddenly cease, the loss of differential forces on the gravity brake in free-fall is translated to extend a set of brakes against the walls of the shaft to stop the free fall descent of the gravity brake and attached load.

  16. Strip casting apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

    1988-09-20

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

  17. Electromagnetic confinement for vertical casting or containing molten metal

    DOEpatents

    Lari, Robert J.; Praeg, Walter F.; Turner, Larry R.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus and method adapted to confine a molten metal to a region by means of an alternating electromagnetic field. As adapted for use in the present invention, the alternating electromagnetic field given by B.sub.y =(2.mu..sub.o .rho.gy).sup.1/2 (where B.sub.y is the vertical component of the magnetic field generated by the magnet at the boundary of the region; y is the distance measured downward form the top of the region, .rho. is the metal density, g is the acceleration of gravity and .mu..sub.o is the permeability of free space) induces eddy currents in the molten metal which interact with the magnetic field to retain the molten metal with a vertical boudnary. As applied to an apparatus for the continuous casting of metal sheets or rods, metal in liquid form can be continuously introduced into the region defined by the magnetic field, solidified and conveyed away from the magnetic field in solid form in a continuous process.

  18. Cutoff for extensions of massive gravity and bi-gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matas, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Recently there has been interest in extending ghost-free massive gravity, bi-gravity, and multi-gravity by including non-standard kinetic terms and matter couplings. We first review recent proposals for this class of extensions, emphasizing how modifications of the kinetic and potential structure of the graviton and modifications of the coupling to matter are related. We then generalize existing no-go arguments in the metric language to the vielbein language in second-order form. We give an ADM argument to show that the most promising extensions to the kinetic term and matter coupling contain a Boulware-Deser ghost. However, as recently emphasized, we may still be able to view these extensions as effective field theories below some cutoff scale. To address this possibility, we show that there is a decoupling limit where a ghost appears for a wide class of matter couplings and kinetic terms. In particular, we show that there is a decoupling limit where the linear effective vielbein matter coupling contains a ghost. Using the insight we gain from this decoupling limit analysis, we place an upper bound on the cutoff for the linear effective vielbein coupling. This result can be generalized to new kinetic interactions in the vielbein language in second-order form. Combined with recent results, this provides a strong uniqueness argument on the form of ghost-free massive gravity, bi-gravity, and multi-gravity.

  19. A comparison between the dimensions of positive transtibial residual limb molds prepared by air pressure casting and weight-bearing casting methods.

    PubMed

    Hajiaghaei, Behnam; Ebrahimi, Ismail; Kamyab, Mojtaba; Saeedi, Hassan; Jalali, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Creating a socket with proper fit is an important factor to ensure the comfort and control of prosthetic devices. Several techniques are commonly used to cast transtibial stumps but their effect on stump shape deformation is not well understood. This study compares the dimensions, circumferences and volumes of the positive casts and also the socket comfort between two casting methods. Our hypothesis was that the casts prepared by air pressure method have less volume and are more comfortable than those prepared by weight bearing method. Fifteen transtibial unilateral amputees participated in the study. Two weight bearing and air pressure casting methods were utilized for their residual limbs. The diameters and circumferences of various areas of the residual limbs and positive casts were compared. The volumes of two types of casts were measured by a volumeter and compared. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to measure the sockets fit comfort. Circumferences at 10 and 15 cm below the patella on the casts were significantly smaller in air pressure casting method compared to the weight bearing method (p=0.00 and 0.01 respectively). The volume of the cast in air pressure method was lower than that of the weight bearing method (p=0.006). The amputees found the fit of the sockets prepared by air pressure method more comfortable than the weight bearing sockets (p=0.015). The air pressure casting reduced the circumferences of the distal portion of residual limbs which has more soft tissue and because of its snug fit it provided more comfort for amputees, according to the VAS measurements.

  20. Genetic evidence on the origins of Indian caste populations.

    PubMed

    Bamshad, M; Kivisild, T; Watkins, W S; Dixon, M E; Ricker, C E; Rao, B B; Naidu, J M; Prasad, B V; Reddy, P G; Rasanayagam, A; Papiha, S S; Villems, R; Redd, A J; Hammer, M F; Nguyen, S V; Carroll, M L; Batzer, M A; Jorde, L B

    2001-06-01

    The origins and affinities of the approximately 1 billion people living on the subcontinent of India have long been contested. This is owing, in part, to the many different waves of immigrants that have influenced the genetic structure of India. In the most recent of these waves, Indo-European-speaking people from West Eurasia entered India from the Northwest and diffused throughout the subcontinent. They purportedly admixed with or displaced indigenous Dravidic-speaking populations. Subsequently they may have established the Hindu caste system and placed themselves primarily in castes of higher rank. To explore the impact of West Eurasians on contemporary Indian caste populations, we compared mtDNA (400 bp of hypervariable region 1 and 14 restriction site polymorphisms) and Y-chromosome (20 biallelic polymorphisms and 5 short tandem repeats) variation in approximately 265 males from eight castes of different rank to approximately 750 Africans, Asians, Europeans, and other Indians. For maternally inherited mtDNA, each caste is most similar to Asians. However, 20%-30% of Indian mtDNA haplotypes belong to West Eurasian haplogroups, and the frequency of these haplotypes is proportional to caste rank, the highest frequency of West Eurasian haplotypes being found in the upper castes. In contrast, for paternally inherited Y-chromosome variation each caste is more similar to Europeans than to Asians. Moreover, the affinity to Europeans is proportionate to caste rank, the upper castes being most similar to Europeans, particularly East Europeans. These findings are consistent with greater West Eurasian male admixture with castes of higher rank. Nevertheless, the mitochondrial genome and the Y chromosome each represents only a single haploid locus and is more susceptible to large stochastic variation, bottlenecks, and selective sweeps. Thus, to increase the power of our analysis, we assayed 40 independent, biparentally inherited autosomal loci (1 LINE-1 and 39 Alu elements

  1. Non-rigid Reconstruction of Casting Process with Temperature Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jinhua; Wang, Yanjie; Li, Xin; Wang, Ying; Wang, Lu

    2017-09-01

    Off-line reconstruction of rigid scene has made a great progress in the past decade. However, the on-line reconstruction of non-rigid scene is still a very challenging task. The casting process is a non-rigid reconstruction problem, it is a high-dynamic molding process lacking of geometric features. In order to reconstruct the casting process robustly, an on-line fusion strategy is proposed for dynamic reconstruction of casting process. Firstly, the geometric and flowing feature of casting are parameterized in manner of TSDF (truncated signed distance field) which is a volumetric block, parameterized casting guarantees real-time tracking and optimal deformation of casting process. Secondly, data structure of the volume grid is extended to have temperature value, the temperature interpolation function is build to generate the temperature of each voxel. This data structure allows for dynamic tracking of temperature of casting during deformation stages. Then, the sparse RGB features is extracted from casting scene to search correspondence between geometric representation and depth constraint. The extracted color data guarantees robust tracking of flowing motion of casting. Finally, the optimal deformation of the target space is transformed into a nonlinear regular variational optimization problem. This optimization step achieves smooth and optimal deformation of casting process. The experimental results show that the proposed method can reconstruct the casting process robustly and reduce drift in the process of non-rigid reconstruction of casting.

  2. Global Gravity Field Determination by Combination of terrestrial and Satellite Gravity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fecher, T.; Pail, R.; Gruber, T.

    2011-12-01

    A multitude of impressive results document the success of the satellite gravity field mission GOCE with a wide field of applications in geodesy, geophysics and oceanography. The high performance of GOCE gravity field models can be further improved by combination with GRACE data, which is contributing the long wavelength signal content of the gravity field with very high accuracy. An example for such a consistent combination of satellite gravity data are the satellite-only models GOCO01S and GOCO02S. However, only the further combination with terrestrial and altimetric gravity data enables to expand gravity field models up to very high spherical harmonic degrees and thus to achieve a spatial resolution down to 20-30 km. First numerical studies for high-resolution global gravity field models combining GOCE, GRACE and terrestrial/altimetric data on basis of the DTU10 model have already been presented. Computations up to degree/order 600 based on full normal equations systems to preserve the full variance-covariance information, which results mainly from different weights of individual terrestrial/altimetric data sets, have been successfully performed. We could show that such large normal equations systems (degree/order 600 corresponds to a memory demand of almost 1TByte), representing an immense computational challenge as computation time and memory requirements put high demand on computational resources, can be handled. The DTU10 model includes gravity anomalies computed from the global model EGM08 in continental areas. Therefore, the main focus of this presentation lies on the computation of high-resolution combined gravity field models based on real terrestrial gravity anomaly data sets. This is a challenge due to the inconsistency of these data sets, including also systematic error components, but a further step to a real independent gravity field model. This contribution will present our recent developments and progress by using independent data sets at certain

  3. Generalized quasitopological gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennigar, Robie A.; KubizÅák, David; Mann, Robert B.

    2017-05-01

    We construct the most general, to cubic order in curvature, theory of gravity whose (most general) static spherically symmetric vacuum solutions are fully described by a single field equation. The theory possesses the following remarkable properties: (i) It has a well-defined Einstein gravity limit, (ii) it admits "Schwarzschild-like" solutions characterized by a single metric function, (iii) on maximally symmetric backgrounds it propagates the same degrees of freedom as Einstein's gravity, and (iv) Lovelock and quasitopological gravities, as well as the recently developed Einsteinian cubic gravity [Bueno and Cano Phys. Rev. D 94, 104005 (2016)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.94.104005] in four dimensions, are recovered as special cases. We perform a brief analysis of asymptotically flat black holes in this theory and study their thermodynamics.

  4. Triple Plate Mold Final Report: Optimization of the Mold Design and Casting Parameters for a Thin U-10mo Fuel Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Aikin, Jr., Robert M.

    This work describes the experiments and modeling that have been performed to improve and try to optimize the simultaneous casting of three plates of U-10wt%Mo in a single coil vacuum induction melting (VIM) furnace. The plates of interest are 280 mm wide by 203 mm tall by 5 mm thick (11" x 8" x 0.2"). The initial mold design and processing parameters were supplied by Y-12. The mold and casting cavity were instrumented with a number of thermocouples, and the casting performed to determine the thermal history of the mold and casting. The resulting cast plates were radiographed and numerousmore » defects identified. Metallography was performed to help identify the nature of the radiographically observed defects. This information was then used to validate a mold filling and solidification model of that casting. Based on the initial casting, good casting design practice, and process simulation of several design alternatives, a revised design was developed with the goal of minimizing casting defects such as porosity. The redesigned mold had a larger hot-top and had its long axis along the horizontal direction. These changes were to try to develop a strong thermal gradient conducive to good feeding and minimization of micro- and macroporosity in the cast plates. An instrumented casting was then performed with the revised mold design and a linear distributor. This design yielded cast plates with significantly less radiographically identified defects. Unfortunately, there was significant variation in plate weight and metal content in their hot-tops. Fluid flow simulations were then performed on this mold/distributor design. This helped identify the issue with this linear distributor design. Additional simulations were then performed on candidate distributor redesigns and a preferred distributor annular design was identified. This improved annular design was used to produce a third instrumented casting with favorable results. These refined designs and their radiographic

  5. MOLDS FOR CASTING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.W.; Miley, F.; Pritchard, W.C.

    1962-02-27

    A coated mold for casting plutonium comprises a mold base portion of a material which remains solid and stable at temperatures as high as the pouring temperature of the metal to be cast and having a thin coating of the order of 0.005 inch thick on the interior thereof. The coating is composed of finely divided calcium fluoride having a particle size of about 149 microns. (AEC)

  6. Method of casting aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Poco, John F.

    1993-01-01

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm.sup.3 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of alcogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent.

  7. The Ins and Outs of Relief Casting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Yvonne

    2000-01-01

    Describes a unit on clay casting that introduces students to relief sculpture. The unit takes three 45 to 50 minute class periods three weeks apart. Discusses each class session in detail: (1) creating the casting; (2) turning out and rinsing the casting; and (3) enriching the surface with color. (CMK)

  8. Gravity, Magnetism, and "Down": Non-Physics College Students' Conceptions of Gravity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asghar, Anila; Libarkin, Julie C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how students enrolled in entry-level geology, most of whom would graduate from college without university-level physics courses, thought about and applied the concept of gravity while solving problems concerning gravity. The repercussions of students' gravity concepts are then considered in the context of non-physics…

  9. Gsolve, a Python computer program with a graphical user interface to transform relative gravity survey measurements to absolute gravity values and gravity anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbine, Jack; Tontini, Fabio Caratori; Stagpoole, Vaughan; Smith, Euan; O'Brien, Grant

    2018-01-01

    A Python program (Gsolve) with a graphical user interface has been developed to assist with routine data processing of relative gravity measurements. Gsolve calculates the gravity at each measurement site of a relative gravity survey, which is referenced to at least one known gravity value. The tidal effects of the sun and moon, gravimeter drift and tares in the data are all accounted for during the processing of the survey measurements. The calculation is based on a least squares formulation where the difference between the absolute gravity at each surveyed location and parameters relating to the dynamics of the gravimeter are minimized with respect to the relative gravity observations, and some supplied gravity reference site values. The program additionally allows the user to compute free air gravity anomalies, with respect to the GRS80 and GRS67 reference ellipsoids, from the determined gravity values and calculate terrain corrections at each of the surveyed sites using a prism formula and a user supplied digital elevation model. This paper reviews the mathematical framework used to reduce relative gravimeter survey observations to gravity values. It then goes on to detail how the processing steps can be implemented using the software.

  10. Faster, Less Expensive Dies Using RSP Tooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knirsch, James R.

    2007-08-01

    RSP Tooling is an indirect spray form additive process that can produce production tooling for virtually any forming process and from virtually any metal. In the past 24 months a significant amount of research and development has been performed. This resulted in an increase in the basic metallurgical understanding of what transpires during the rapid solidification of the metal, significant improvements in the production machine up time, ceramic developments that have improved finish, process changes that have resulted in a shorter lead time for tool delivery, and the testing of many new alloys. RSP stands for Rapid Solidification Process and is the key to the superior metallurgical properties that result from the technology. Most metals that are sprayed in the process leave the machine with the same physical properties as the same metal normally achieves through heat treatment and in some cases the properties are superior. Many new applications are being pursued including INVAR tools for aerospace composite materials, and bimetallic tools made from tool steel and beryllium copper for die casting and plastic injection molding. Recent feasibility studies have been performed with tremendous success.

  11. Effect of flask vibration time on casting integrity, Surface Penetration and Coating Inclusion in lost foam casting of Al-Si Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Karimian, Majid; Idris, M. H.; Ourdjini, A.

    2011-01-17

    The paper presents the result of an experimental investigation conducted on medium aluminum silicon alloy casting- LM6, using no-vacuum assisted lost foam casting process. The study is directed for establishing the relationship between the flask vibrations times developed for molded sample on the casting integrity, surface penetration and coating inclusion defects of the casting. Four different flask vibration times namely 180, 120, 90 and 60 sec. were investigated. The casting integrity was investigated in terms of fulfilling in all portions and edges. The surface penetration was measured using optical microscope whilst image analyzer was used to quantify the percentage ofmore » coating inclusion in the casting. The results show that vibration time has significant influence on the fulfilling as well as the internal integrity of the lost foam casting. It was found that the lower vibration time produced comparatively sound casing.« less

  12. Method of casting articles of a bulk-solidifying amorphous alloy

    DOEpatents

    Lin, X.; Johnson, W.L.; Peker, A.

    1998-08-25

    A casting charge of a bulk-solidifying amorphous alloy is cast into a mold from a temperature greater than its crystallized melting temperature, and permitted to solidify to form an article. The oxygen content of the casting charge is limited to an operable level, as excessively high oxygen contents produce premature crystallization during the casting operation. During melting, the casting charge is preferably heated to a temperature above a threshold temperature to eliminate heterogeneous crystallization nucleation sites within the casting charge. The casting charge may be cast from above the threshold temperature, or it may be cooled to the casting temperature of more than the crystallized melting point but not more than the threshold temperature, optionally held at this temperature for a period of time, and thereafter cast. 8 figs.

  13. Method of casting articles of a bulk-solidifying amorphous alloy

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Xianghong; Johnson, William L.; Peker, Atakan

    1998-01-01

    A casting charge of a bulk-solidifying amorphous alloy is cast into a mold from a temperature greater than its crystallized melting temperature, and permitted to solidify to form an article. The oxygen content of the casting charge is limited to an operable level, as excessively high oxygen contents produce premature crystallization during the casting operation. During melting, the casting charge is preferably heated to a temperature above a threshold temperature to eliminate heterogeneous crystallization nucleation sites within the casting charge. The casting charge may be cast from above the threshold temperature, or it may be cooled to the casting temperature of more than the crystallized melting point but not more than the threshold temperature, optionally held at this temperature for a period of time, and thereafter cast.

  14. Characterization of Technetium Speciation in Cast Stone

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Wang, Guohui

    2013-11-11

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Production and Long-Term Performance of Low Temperature Waste Forms” to provide additional information on technetium (Tc) speciation characterization in the Cast Stone waste form. To support the use of Cast Stone as an alternative to vitrification for solidifying low-activity waste (LAW) and as the current baseline waste form for secondary waste streams at the Hanford Site, additional understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone is needed to predict the long-term Tc leachability frommore » Cast Stone and to meet the regulatory disposal-facility performance requirements for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Characterizations of the Tc speciation within the Cast Stone after leaching under various conditions provide insights into how the Tc is retained and released. The data generated by the laboratory tests described in this report provide both empirical and more scientific information to increase our understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone and its release mechanism under relevant leaching processes for the purpose of filling data gaps and to support the long-term risk and performance assessments of Cast Stone in the IDF at the Hanford Site.« less

  15. AMCC casting development. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Combustion Chamber Casting (AMCC) has been a technically challenging part due to its size, configuration, and alloy type. The height and weight of the wax pattern assembly necessitated the development of a hollow gating system to ensure structural integrity of the shell throughout the investment process. The complexity in the jacket area of the casting required the development of an innovative casting technology that PCC has termed 'TGC' or Thermal Gradient Control. This method, of setting up thermal gradients in the casting during solidification, represents a significant process improvement for PCC and has been successfully implemented on other programs. Metallurgical integrity of the final four castings was very good. Only the areas of the parts that utilized 'TGC Shape & Location System #2' showed any significant areas of microshrinkage when evaluated by non-destructive tests. Alumina oxides detected by FPI on the 'float' surfaces (top sid surfaces of the casting during solidification) of the part were almost entirely less than the acceptance criteria of .032 inches in diameter. Destructive chem mill of the castings was required to determine the effect of the process variables used during the processing of these last four parts (with the exception of the 'Shape & Location of TGC' variable).

  16. Effects of Casting Conditions on End Product Defects in Direct Chill Casted Hot Rolling Ingots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorulmaz, Arda; Yüksel, Çağlar; Erzi, Eraz; Dispinar, Derya

    Direct chill casting is a reliable casting process for almost any wrought aluminum alloy for subsequent deformation via hot rolling to supply vital industries such as aerospace, automotive, construction, packaging and maritime. While some defects occur during casting, like hot tearing, some others like surface defect causing blisters, appear after hot rolling process or annealing after final cold rolling steps. It was found that some of these defects are caused by melt impurities formed from entrained folded aluminum oxides or bifilms. A study in a hot rolling casting facility was carried out with different melt cleaning practices, launder and molten metal transferring designs. Bifilm index and reduced pressure test were used for determining melt cleanliness measurement. It was found that porous plug gas diffusons for degassing are more effective than lance type degassers and a design towards less turbulent molten metal flow from furnace to mould cavity are necessary for reducing defects caused by bifilms.

  17. Driving with a short arm cast in a simulator.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Damian; Mansour, Kristin Gotaas; Kenny, Benjamin William; Attia, John; Meads, Bryce

    2015-12-01

    To test the ability to steer in a driving simulator in subjects with a short arm cast. 17 men and 13 women aged 23 to 67 (mean, 37) years who had a valid driver's licence were randomised to the cast-first group (n=16; 7 had the cast on the dominant arm) or the cast-second group (n=14; 8 had the cast on the dominant arm) and drove in a simulator. A short arm plaster-of-Paris cast was applied in a neutral position, allowing free movement of the metacarpophalangeal joints, thumb, and elbow joint. Outcome measures included the number of driving off track instances, the number of crashes, the lap time, and the effect of hand dominance on these parameters. Subjects were asked whether the cast had impeded their steering ability. Subjects with or without a cast were comparable in terms of the number of driving off track instances, number of crashes, and lap time. Compared with no cast, the odds ratio (OR) of a subject in a cast driving off the track was 1.02 (p=0.921) and having a crash was 0.79 (p=0.047). All subjects were 1.23 times more likely to drive off the track in their first lap (OR=2.66, p=0.019). The mean lap time decreased for each consecutive lap from the 2nd to 5th laps. Subjects driving with a cast on the dominant or non-dominant arm were comparable. 26 out of the 30 participants considered that the plaster cast impeded their steering ability. Compared with no cast, driving with a short arm cast did not significantly decrease steering ability in a driving simulator.

  18. Modern Cast Irons in Chemical Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1934-11-09

    fl’ceew. T I SOCIETY OF CHEMICAL INDUSTRY CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GROUP MODERN CAST IRONS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING By J. G. PEARCE, M.Sc., F.Inst.P...CAST IRONS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING By J. G. PEARCE, M.Sc., F.Inst.P., M.I.E.E.* INTRODUCTION to chemical or thermal resistance. Small blow-holes Any...consideration of modern cast irons in chemical seldom appear to reduce the mechanical strength of engineering should strictly be prefaced by a definition

  19. Geodesy and gravity experiment in earth orbit using a superconducting gravity gradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paik, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    A superconducting gravity gradiometer is under development with NASA support for space application. It is planned that a sensitive three-axis gravity gradiometer will be flown in a low-altitude (about 160 km) polar orbit in the 1990's for the purpose of obtaining a high-resolution gravity map of the earth. The large twice-an-orbit term in the harmonic expansion of gravity coming from the oblateness of the earth can be analyzed to obtain a precision test of the inverse square law at a distance of 100-1000 km. In this paper, the design, operating principle, and performance of the superconducting gravity gradiometer are described. The concept of a gravity-gradiometer mission (GGM), which is in an initial stage of development is discussed. In particular, requirements that such a mission imposes on the design of the cryogenic spacecraft will be addressed.

  20. Artificial gravity - The evolution of variable gravity research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Charles A.; Sulzman, Frank M.; Keefe, J. Richard

    1987-01-01

    The development of a space life science research program based on the use of rotational facilities is described. In-flight and ground centrifuges can be used as artificial gravity environments to study the following: nongravitational biological factors; the effects of 0, 1, and hyper G on man; counter measures for deconditioning astronauts in weightlessness; and the development of suitable artificial gravity for long-term residence in space. The use of inertial fields as a substitute for gravity, and the relations between the radius of the centrifuge and rotation rate and specimen height and rotation radius are examined. An example of a centrifuge study involving squirrel monkeys is presented.

  1. Grain refinement and texture development of cast bismuth-antimony alloy via severe plastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Jae-Taek

    The purpose of this work was to study learn about grain refinement mechanisms and texture development in cast n-type Bi90Sb10 alloy caused by severe plastic deformation. The practical objective is to produce a fine grained and textured microstructure in Bi90Sb10 alloy with enhanced thermoelectric performance and mechanical strength. In the study, twelve millimeter diameter cast bars of Bi90Sb 10 alloy were encapsulated in square cross section aluminum 6061 alloy containers. The composite bars were equal channel angular (ECAE) extruded through a 90 degree angle die at high homologous temperature. Various extrusion conditions were studied including punch speed (0.1, 0.3 and 0.6 in/min), extrusion temperature (220, 235 and 250°C), number of extrusion passes (1, 2 and 4), route (A, BC and C), and exit channel area reduction ratio (half and quarter area of inlet channel). The affect of an intermediate long term heat treatment (for 100 hours at 250°C under 10-3 torr vacuum) was explored. Processed materials were characterized by optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, wavelength dispersive spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Texture was analyzed using the {006} reflection plane to identify the orientation of the basal poles in processed materials. The cast grains were irregularly shaped, had a grain size of hundreds-of-microns to millimeters, and showed inhomogeneous chemical composition. Severe plastic deformation refines the cast grains through dynamic recrystallization and causes the development of a bimodal microstructure consisting of fine grains (5-30 micron) and coarse grains (50-300 micron). ECAE processing of homogenizied Bi-Sb alloy causes grain refinement and produces a more uniform microstructure. Texture results show that ECAE route C processing gives a similar or slightly stronger texture than ECAE route A processing. In both cases, the basal-plane poles become aligned with the shear direction. Reduction area exit

  2. Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations

    PubMed Central

    Bamshad, Michael; Kivisild, Toomas; Watkins, W. Scott; Dixon, Mary E.; Ricker, Chris E.; Rao, Baskara B.; Naidu, J. Mastan; Prasad, B.V. Ravi; Reddy, P. Govinda; Rasanayagam, Arani; Papiha, Surinder S.; Villems, Richard; Redd, Alan J.; Hammer, Michael F.; Nguyen, Son V.; Carroll, Marion L.; Batzer, Mark A.; Jorde, Lynn B.

    2001-01-01

    The origins and affinities of the ∼1 billion people living on the subcontinent of India have long been contested. This is owing, in part, to the many different waves of immigrants that have influenced the genetic structure of India. In the most recent of these waves, Indo-European-speaking people from West Eurasia entered India from the Northwest and diffused throughout the subcontinent. They purportedly admixed with or displaced indigenous Dravidic-speaking populations. Subsequently they may have established the Hindu caste system and placed themselves primarily in castes of higher rank. To explore the impact of West Eurasians on contemporary Indian caste populations, we compared mtDNA (400 bp of hypervariable region 1 and 14 restriction site polymorphisms) and Y-chromosome (20 biallelic polymorphisms and 5 short tandem repeats) variation in ∼265 males from eight castes of different rank to ∼750 Africans, Asians, Europeans, and other Indians. For maternally inherited mtDNA, each caste is most similar to Asians. However, 20%–30% of Indian mtDNA haplotypes belong to West Eurasian haplogroups, and the frequency of these haplotypes is proportional to caste rank, the highest frequency of West Eurasian haplotypes being found in the upper castes. In contrast, for paternally inherited Y-chromosome variation each caste is more similar to Europeans than to Asians. Moreover, the affinity to Europeans is proportionate to caste rank, the upper castes being most similar to Europeans, particularly East Europeans. These findings are consistent with greater West Eurasian male admixture with castes of higher rank. Nevertheless, the mitochondrial genome and the Y chromosome each represents only a single haploid locus and is more susceptible to large stochastic variation, bottlenecks, and selective sweeps. Thus, to increase the power of our analysis, we assayed 40 independent, biparentally inherited autosomal loci (1 LINE-1 and 39 Alu elements) in all of the caste and

  3. Riser Feeding Evaluation Method for Metal Castings Using Numerical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Nadiah

    One of the design aspects that continues to create a challenge for casting designers is the optimum design of casting feeders (risers). As liquid metal solidifies, the metal shrinks and forms cavities inside the casting. In order to avoid shrinkage cavities, risers are added to the casting shape to supply additional molten metal when shrinkage occurs during solidification. The shrinkage cavities in the casting are compensated by controlling the cooling rate to promote directional solidification. This control can be achieved by designing the casting such that the cooling begins at the sections that are farthest away from the risers and ends at the risers. Therefore, the risers will solidify last and feed the casting with the molten metal. As a result, the shrinkage cavities formed during solidification are in the risers which are later removed from the casting. Since casting designers have to usually go through iterative processes of validating the casting designs which are very costly due to expensive simulation processes or manual trials and errors on actual casting processes, this study investigates more efficient methods that will help casting designers utilize their casting experiences systematically to develop good initial casting designs. The objective is to reduce the casting design method iterations; therefore, reducing the cost involved in that design processes. The aim of this research aims at finding a method that can help casting designers design effective risers used in sand casting process of aluminum-silicon alloys by utilizing the analysis of solidification simulation. The analysis focuses on studying the significance of pressure distribution of the liquid metal at the early stage of casting solidification, when heat transfer and convective fluid flow are taken into account in the solidification simulation. The mathematical model of casting solidification was solved using the finite volume method (FVM). This study focuses to improve our

  4. Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisson, Eric; Will, Clifford M.

    2014-05-01

    Preface; 1. Foundations of Newtonian gravity; 2. Structure of self-gravitating bodies; 3. Newtonian orbital dynamics; 4. Minkowski spacetime; 5. Curved spacetime; 6. Post-Minkowskian theory: formulation; 7. Post-Minkowskian theory: implementation; 8. Post-Newtonian theory: fundamentals; 9. Post-Newtonian theory: system of isolated bodies; 10. Post-Newtonian celestial mechanics, astrometry and navigation; 11. Gravitational waves; 12. Radiative losses and radiation reaction; 13. Alternative theories of gravity; References; Index.

  5. Herausforderungen durch die deutsche Wiedervereinigung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stäglin, Reiner

    Die Wiedervereinigung stellte auch die Statistik vor große Aufgaben. Die als Organ der staatlichen Planung staatsnah orientierte Statistik der DDR musste auf das zur Neutralität und wissenschaftlichen Unabhängigkeit verpflichtete System der Bundesrepublik umgestellt werden. Ebenso verlangten die Universitäten eine Neuorientierung. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft hat sich vor allem dreier Aufgaben mit großem Engagement, aber auch mit Bedachtsamkeit angenommen: Aufnahme und Integration der Statistiker aus den neuen Bundesländern in die Gesellschaft, Begleitung der Neuausrichtung des Faches Statistik an deren Hochschulen und Sicherung sowie Nutzung von Datenbeständen der ehemaligen DDR.

  6. Method of casting aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Poco, J.F.

    1993-09-07

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm[sup 3] to 0.6 g/cm[sup 3]. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of aerogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent. 2 figures.

  7. Casting methods

    DOEpatents

    Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

    2012-12-18

    A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

  8. Obtaining of High Cr Content Cast Iron Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florea, C.; Bejinariu, C.; Carcea, I.; Cimpoesu, N.; Chicet, D. L.; Savin, C.

    2017-06-01

    We have obtained, through the classic casting process, 3 highly chromium-based experimental alloys proposed for replacing the FC 250 classical cast iron in braking applications. Casting was carried out in an induction furnace and cast into moulds made of KALHARTZ 8500 resin casting mixture and HARTER hardener at SC RanCon SRL Iasi. It is known that the microstructure of the cast iron is a combination of martensite with a small amount of residual austenite after the heat treatment of the ingot. In the case of high-alloy chromium alloys, the performance of the material is due to the presence of M7C3 carbides distributed in the iron matrix Resistance to machining and deformation is based on alloy composition and microstructure, while abrasion resistance will depend on properties and wear conditions.

  9. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... established. (3) For castings procured to a specification that guarantees the mechanical properties of the material in the casting and provides for demonstration of these properties by test of coupons cut from the...

  10. 14 CFR 27.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... established. (3) For castings procured to a specification that guarantees the mechanical properties of the material in the casting and provides for demonstration of these properties by test of coupons cut from the...

  11. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... established. (3) For castings procured to a specification that guarantees the mechanical properties of the material in the casting and provides for demonstration of these properties by test of coupons cut from the...

  12. 14 CFR 27.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... established. (3) For castings procured to a specification that guarantees the mechanical properties of the material in the casting and provides for demonstration of these properties by test of coupons cut from the...

  13. Nonaqueous slip casting of high temperature ceramic superconductors using an investment casting technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Matthew W. (Inventor); Taylor, Theodore D. (Inventor); Wise, Stephanie A. (Inventor); Buckley, John D. (Inventor); Vasquez, Peter (Inventor); Buck, Gregory M. (Inventor); Hicks, Lana P. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for slip casting ceramic articles that does not employ parting agents and affords the casting of complete, detailed, precision articles that do not possess parting lines is presented. This process is especially useful for high temperature superconductors and water-sensitive ceramics. A wax pattern for a shell mold is provided, and an aqueous mixture of a calcium sulfate-bonded investment material is applied as a coating to the wax pattern. The coated wax pattern is then dried, followed by curing to vaporize the wax pattern and leave a shell mold of the calcium sulfate-bonded investment material. The shell mold is cooled to room temperature, and a ceramic slip, created by dispersing a ceramic powder in an organic liquid, is poured therein. After a ceramic shell of desired thickness or a solid article has set up in the shell mold, excess ceramic slip is poured out. The shell mold is misted with water and peeled away from the ceramic article, after which the ceramic is fired to provide a complete, detailed, precision, high temperature superconductive ceramic article without parting lines. The casting technique may take place in the presence of a magnetic field to orient the ceramic powders during the casting process.

  14. Gravity waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritts, David

    1987-01-01

    Gravity waves contributed to the establishment of the thermal structure, small scale (80 to 100 km) fluctuations in velocity (50 to 80 m/sec) and density (20 to 30%, 0 to peak). Dominant gravity wave spectrum in the middle atmosphere: x-scale, less than 100 km; z-scale, greater than 10 km; t-scale, less than 2 hr. Theorists are beginning to understand middle atmosphere motions. There are two classes: Planetary waves and equatorial motions, gravity waves and tidal motions. The former give rise to variability at large scales, which may alter apparent mean structure. Effects include density and velocity fluctuations, induced mean motions, and stratospheric warmings which lead to the breakup of the polar vortex and cooling of the mesosphere. On this scale are also equatorial quasi-biennial and semi-annual oscillations. Gravity wave and tidal motions produce large rms fluctuations in density and velocity. The magnitude of the density fluctuations compared to the mean density is of the order of the vertical wavelength, which grows with height. Relative density fluctuations are less than, or of the order of 30% below the mesopause. Such motions may cause significant and variable convection, and wind shear. There is a strong seasonal variation in gravity wave amplitude. Additional observations are needed to address and quantify mean and fluctuation statistics of both density and mean velocity, variability of the mean and fluctuations, and to identify dominant gravity wave scales and sources as well as causes of variability, both temporal and geographic.

  15. Development of Gravity-Sensing Organs in Altered Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiederhold, M. L.; Gao, W. Y.; Harrison, J. L.; Hejl, R.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments are described in which the development of the gravity-sensing organs was studied in newt larvae reared in micro-g on the IML-2 mission and in Aplysia embryos and larvae reared on a centrifuge at 1 to 5 g. In Aplysia embryos, the statolith (single dense mass on which gravity and linear acceleration act) was reduced in size in a graded fashion at increasing g. In early post-metamorphic Aplysia or even in isolated statocysts from such animals, the number of statoconia produced is reduced at high gravity Newt larvae launched before any of the otoconia were formed and reared for 15 days in micro-gravity had nearly adult labyrinths at the end of the IML-2 mission. The otoliths of the saccule and utricle were the same size in flight and ground-reared larvae. However, the system of aragonitic otoconia produced in the endolymphatic sac in amphibians was much larger and developed earlier in the flight-reared larvae. At later developmental stages, the aragonitic otoconia enter and fill the saccule. One flight-reared larva was maintained for nine months post-flight and the size of the saccular otolith, as well as the volume of otoconia within the endolymphatic sac, were considerably larger than in age-matched, ground-reared newts. This suggests that rearing in micro-gravity initiates a process that continues for several months after introduction to 1-g, which greatly increases the volume of otoconia. The flight-reared animal had abnormal posture, pointing its head upward, whereas normal ground-reared newts always keep their head horizontal. This suggests that rearing for even a short period in micro-gravity can have lasting functional consequences in an animal subsequently reared in 1-g conditions on Earth.

  16. Low-gravity fluid flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrach, S.

    1982-01-01

    The behavior of fluids in micro-gravity conditions is examined, with particular regard to applications in the growth of single crystals. The effects of gravity on fluid behavior are reviewed, and the advent of Shuttle flights are noted to offer extended time for experimentation and processing in a null-gravity environment, with accelerations resulting solely from maneuvering rockets. Buoyancy driven flows are considered for the cases stable-, unstable-, and mixed-mode convection. Further discussion is presented on g-jitter, surface-tension gradient, thermoacoustic, and phase-change convection. All the flows are present in both gravity and null gravity conditions, although the effects of buoyancy and g-jitter convection usually overshadow the other effects while in a gravity field. Further work is recommended on critical-state and sedimentation processes in microgravity conditions.

  17. The Effects of Casting Porosity on the Tensile Behavior of Investment Cast 17-4PH Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susan, D. F.; Crenshaw, T. B.; Gearhart, J. S.

    2015-08-01

    The effect of casting porosity on the mechanical behavior of investment cast 17-4PH stainless steel was studied as well as the effect of heat treatment on the alloy's sensitivity to casting defects. Interdendritic porosity, formed during solidification and shrinkage of the alloy, reduces the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength roughly in proportion to the reduction in load bearing cross-section. The effects of casting porosity on ductility (% strain, % reduction in area) are more severe, in agreement with research on other alloy systems. In this study, 10% porosity reduced the ductility of 17-4PH stainless steel by almost 80% for the high-strength H925 condition. Tensile testing at -10°C (263 K) further reduces the alloy ductility with and without pores present. In the lower strength H1100 condition, the ductility is higher than the H925 condition, as expected, and somewhat less sensitive to porosity. By measuring the area % porosity on the fracture surface of tensile specimens, the trend in failure strain versus area % porosity was obtained and analyzed using two methods: an empirical approach to determine an index of defect susceptibility with a logarithmic fit and an analytical approach based on the constitutive stress-strain behavior and critical strain concentration in the vicinity of the casting voids. The applicability of the second method depends on the amount of non-uniform strain (necking) and, as such, the softer H1100 material did not correlate well to the model. The behavior of 17-4PH was compared to previous work on cast Al alloys, Mg alloys, and other cast materials.

  18. Rough case-based reasoning system for continues casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Wenbin; Lei, Zhufeng

    2018-04-01

    The continuous casting occupies a pivotal position in the iron and steel industry. The rough set theory and the CBR (case based reasoning, CBR) were combined in the research and implementation for the quality assurance of continuous casting billet to improve the efficiency and accuracy in determining the processing parameters. According to the continuous casting case, the object-oriented method was applied to express the continuous casting cases. The weights of the attributes were calculated by the algorithm which was based on the rough set theory and the retrieval mechanism for the continuous casting cases was designed. Some cases were adopted to test the retrieval mechanism, by analyzing the results, the law of the influence of the retrieval attributes on determining the processing parameters was revealed. A comprehensive evaluation model was established by using the attribute recognition theory. According to the features of the defects, different methods were adopted to describe the quality condition of the continuous casting billet. By using the system, the knowledge was not only inherited but also applied to adjust the processing parameters through the case based reasoning method as to assure the quality of the continuous casting and improve the intelligent level of the continuous casting.

  19. Basic Casting from A to Z. Student's Instruction Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zebco, Tulsa, OK.

    A profusely illustrated student instruction booklet contains step-by-step directions and diagrams for learning four basic casting techniques. Separate sections cover basic spin-casting, spinning, bait-casting, and fly-casting. Each section details recommended equipment (reel, rod, line, plug, tackle, lures, leaders, flies), describes specific…

  20. Method and mold for casting thin metal objects

    DOEpatents

    Pehrson, Brandon P; Moore, Alan F

    2014-04-29

    Provided herein are various embodiments of systems for casting thin metal plates and sheets. Typical embodiments include layers of mold cavities that are oriented vertically for casting the metal plates. In some embodiments, the mold cavities include a beveled edge such that the plates that are cast have a beveled edge. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled with a molten metal through an open horizontal edge of the cavity. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled through one or more vertical feed orifices. Further disclosed are methods for forming a thin cast metal plate or sheet where the thickness of the cast part is in a range from 0.005 inches to 0.2 inches, and the surface area of the cast part is in a range from 16 square inches to 144 square inches.

  1. Caste in 21st Century India: Competing Narratives

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Sonalde; Dubey, Amaresh

    2012-01-01

    Recent debates regarding inclusion of caste in 2011 Census have raised questions about whether caste still matters in modern India. Ethnographic studies of the mid-20th century identified a variety of dimensions along which caste differentiation occurs. At the same time, whether this differentiation translates into hierarchy remains a contentious issue as does the persistence of caste, given the economic changes of the past two decades. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 41,554 households conducted in 2005, this paper examines the relationship between social background and different dimensions of well-being. The results suggest continued persistence of caste disparities in education, income and social networks. PMID:22736803

  2. Fan Fuel Casting Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Imhoff, Seth D.

    LANL was approached to provide material and design guidance for a fan-shaped fuel element. A total of at least three castings were planned. The first casting is a simple billet mold to be made from high carbon DU-10Mo charge material. The second and third castings are for optimization of the actual fuel plate mold. The experimental scope for optimization is only broad enough for a second iteration of the mold design. It is important to note that partway through FY17, this project was cancelled by the sponsor. This report is being written in order to capture the knowledge gained shouldmore » this project resume at a later date.« less

  3. Displaced capillary dies

    DOEpatents

    Kalejs, Juris P.; Chalmers, Bruce; Surek, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    An asymmetrical shaped capillary die made exclusively of graphite is used to grow silicon ribbon which is capable of being made into solar cells that are more efficient than cells produced from ribbon made using a symmetrically shaped die.

  4. Displaced capillary dies

    DOEpatents

    Kalejs, Juris P.; Chalmers, Bruce; Surek, Thomas

    1984-01-01

    An asymmetrical shaped capillary die made exclusively of graphite is used to grow silicon ribbon which is capable of being made into solar cells that are more efficient than cells produced from ribbon made using a symmetrically shaped die.

  5. Education and Caste in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauhan, Chandra Pal Singh

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the policy of reservation for lower castes in India. This policy is similar to that of affirmative action in the United States. The paper provides a brief overview of the caste system and discusses the types of groups that are eligible for reservation, based on data from government reports. The stance of this paper is that…

  6. Casting materials and their application in research and teaching.

    PubMed

    Haenssgen, Kati; Makanya, Andrew N; Djonov, Valentin

    2014-04-01

    From a biological point of view, casting refers to filling of anatomical and/or pathological spaces with extraneous material that reproduces a three-dimensional replica of the space. Casting may be accompanied by additional procedures such as corrosion, in which the soft tissue is digested out, leaving a clean cast, or the material may be mixed with radiopaque substances to allow x-ray photography or micro computed topography (µCT) scanning. Alternatively, clearing of the surrounding soft tissue increases transparency and allows visualization of the casted cavities. Combination of casting with tissue fixation allows anatomical dissection and didactic surgical procedures on the tissue. Casting materials fall into three categories namely, aqueous substances (India ink, Prussian blue ink), pliable materials (gelatins, latex, and silicone rubber), or hard materials (methyl methacrylates, polyurethanes, polyesters, and epoxy resins). Casting has proved invaluable in both teaching and research and many phenomenal biological processes have been discovered through casting. The choice of a particular material depends inter alia on the targeted use and the intended subsequent investigative procedures, such as dissection, microscopy, or µCT. The casting material needs to be pliable where anatomical and surgical manipulations are intended, and capillary-passable for ultrastructural investigations.

  7. Effects of Casting Size on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Spheroidal and Compacted Graphite Cast Irons: Experimental Results and Comparison with International Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceschini, L.; Morri, Alessandro; Morri, Andrea

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of casting size (10-210 mm) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of spheroidal (SGI) and compacted (CGI) graphite cast irons. A comparison of the experimental mechanical data with those specified by ISO standards is presented and discussed. The study highlighted that the microstructure and mechanical properties of SGI (also known as ductile or nodular cast iron) are more sensitive to casting size than CGI (also known as vermicular graphite cast irons). In particular, in both types of cast iron, hardness, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength decreased, with increasing casting size, by 27% in SGI and 17% in CGI. Elongation to failure showed, instead, an opposite trend, decreasing from 5 to 3% in CGI, while increasing from 5 to 11% in SGI. These results were related to different microstructures, the ferritic fraction being more sensitive to the casting size in SGI than CGI. Degeneration of spheroidal graphite was observed at casting size above 120 mm. The microstructural similarities between degenerated SGI and CGI suggested the proposal of a unified empirical constitutional law relating the most important microstructural parameters to the ultimate tensile strength. An outstanding result was also the finding that standard specifications underestimated the mechanical properties of both cast irons (in particular SGI) and, moreover, did not take into account their variation with casting size, at thicknesses over 60 mm.

  8. Threshold Gravity Determination and Artificial Gravity Studies Using Magnetic Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N.; Leslie, F.

    2005-01-01

    What is the threshold gravity (minimum gravity level) required for the nominal functioning of the human system? What dosage is required (magnitude and duration)? Do human cell lines behave differently in microgravity in response to an external stimulus? The critical need for a variable gravity simulator is emphasized by recent experiments on human epithelial cells and lymphocytes on the Space Shuttle clearly showing that cell growth and function are markedly different from those observed terrestrially. Those differences are also dramatic between cells grown in space and those in Rotating Wall Vessels (RWV), or NASA bioreactor often used to simulate microgravity, indicating that although morphological growth patterns (three dimensional growth) can be successfully simulated using RWVs, cell function performance is not reproduced - a critical difference. If cell function is dramatically affected by gravity off-loading, then cell response to stimuli such as radiation, stress, etc. can be very different from terrestrial cell lines. Yet, we have no good gravity simulator for use in study of these phenomena. This represents a profound shortcoming for countermeasures research. We postulate that we can use magnetic levitation of cells and tissue, through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients, as a terrestrial microgravity model to study human cells. Specific objectives of the research are: 1. To develop a tried, tested and benchmarked terrestrial microgravity model for cell culture studies; 2. Gravity threshold determination; 3. Dosage (magnitude and duration) of g-level required for nominal functioning of cells; 4. Comparisons of magnetic levitation model to other models such as RWV, hind limb suspension, etc. and 5. Cellular response to reduced gravity levels of Moon and Mars.

  9. Wissenschaft, die unsere Kultur verändert. Tiefenschichten des Streits um die Evolutionstheorie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzelt, Werner J.

    Die Evolutionstheorie ist eine der erfolgreichsten wissenschaftlichen Theorien. Sie erlaubt es, unsere Herkunft zu verstehen und riskante Merkmale gerade der menschlichen Spezies zu begreifen. Zugleich ist die Evolutionstheorie eine der umstrittensten Theorien. Das liegt nicht an ihrer empirischen Tragfähigkeit, sondern an ihrem Gegenstand. Sie handelt nämlich nicht nur - wie Hunderte andere wissenschaftliche Theorien - von der "Welt da draußen“, sondern vor allem auch von uns selbst und von unserem Platz in dieser Welt. Den einen gilt sie obendrein als Überwinderin religiösen Aberglaubens, den anderen als neuer Zugang zu Gott und seinem Wirken in der Welt. Ferner sehen die einen in der Evolution eine unbezweifelbare Tatsache gleich der Schwerkraft oder dem Holocaust, die anderen aber eine - noch oder dauerhaft - unbewiesene Hypothese oder gar eine falsche Schöpfungslehre. Und während die meisten Streitfragen solcher Art nach wechselseitig akzeptierten Regeln ‚normaler Wissenschaft‘ geklärt werden, wird bei der Frage nach dem Woher unserer Spezies und Kultur die intellektuelle Zuständigkeit von Wissenschaft mitunter überhaupt bezweifelt. Anscheinend geht es schon um recht tiefe Schichten unserer Kultur und nicht nur der wissenschaftlichen, wenn - wie seit 150 Jahren - um die Evolutionstheorie gestritten wird. Wie sehen diese Schichten aus?

  10. The Ambiguous Dying Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bern-Klug, Mercedes

    2004-01-01

    More than one-half of the 2.4 million deaths that will occur in the United States in 2004 will be immediately preceded by a time in which the likelihood of dying can best be described as "ambiguous." Many people die without ever being considered "dying" or "at the end of life." These people may miss out on the…

  11. Anti-gravity device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palsingh, S. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An educational toy useful in demonstrating fundamental concepts regarding the laws of gravity is described. The device comprises a sphere 10 of radius r resting on top of sphere 12 of radius R. The center of gravity of sphere 10 is displaced from its geometrical center by distance D. The dimensions are so related that D((R+r)/r) is greater than r. With the center of gravity of sphere 10 lying on a vertical line, the device is in equilibrium. When sphere 10 is rolled on the surface of sphere 12 it will return to its equilibrium position upon release. This creates an illusion that sphere 10 is defying the laws of gravity. In reality, due to the above noted relationship of D, R, and r, the center of gravity of sphere 10 rises from its equilibrium position as it rolls a short distance up or down the surface of sphere 12.

  12. Dynamical spacetimes in conformal gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongsheng; Zhang, Yi; Li, Xin-Zhou

    2017-08-01

    The conformal gravity remarkably boosts our prehension of gravity theories. We find a series of dynamical solutions in the W2-conformal gravity, including generalized Schwarzschild-Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (GSFRW), charged generalized Schwarzschild-Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (CGSFRW), especially rotating Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (RFRW), charged rotating Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (CRFRW), and a dynamical cylindrically symmetric solutions. The RFRW, CRFRW and the dynamical cylindrically symmetric solutions are never found in the Einstein gravity and modified gravities. The GSFRW and CGSFRW solutions take different forms from the corresponding solutions in the Einstein gravity.

  13. Characteristics of Marine Gravity Anomaly Reference Maps and Accuracy Analysis of Gravity Matching-Aided Navigation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hubiao; Wu, Lin; Chai, Hua; Xiao, Yaofei; Hsu, Houtse; Wang, Yong

    2017-08-10

    The variation of a marine gravity anomaly reference map is one of the important factors that affect the location accuracy of INS/Gravity integrated navigation systems in underwater navigation. In this study, based on marine gravity anomaly reference maps, new characteristic parameters of the gravity anomaly were constructed. Those characteristic values were calculated for 13 zones (105°-145° E, 0°-40° N) in the Western Pacific area, and simulation experiments of gravity matching-aided navigation were run. The influence of gravity variations on the accuracy of gravity matching-aided navigation was analyzed, and location accuracy of gravity matching in different zones was determined. Studies indicate that the new parameters may better characterize the marine gravity anomaly. Given the precision of current gravimeters and the resolution and accuracy of reference maps, the location accuracy of gravity matching in China's Western Pacific area is ~1.0-4.0 nautical miles (n miles). In particular, accuracy in regions around the South China Sea and Sulu Sea was the highest, better than 1.5 n miles. The gravity characteristic parameters identified herein and characteristic values calculated in various zones provide a reference for the selection of navigation area and planning of sailing routes under conditions requiring certain navigational accuracy.

  14. Characteristics of Marine Gravity Anomaly Reference Maps and Accuracy Analysis of Gravity Matching-Aided Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hubiao; Chai, Hua; Xiao, Yaofei; Hsu, Houtse; Wang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The variation of a marine gravity anomaly reference map is one of the important factors that affect the location accuracy of INS/Gravity integrated navigation systems in underwater navigation. In this study, based on marine gravity anomaly reference maps, new characteristic parameters of the gravity anomaly were constructed. Those characteristic values were calculated for 13 zones (105°–145° E, 0°–40° N) in the Western Pacific area, and simulation experiments of gravity matching-aided navigation were run. The influence of gravity variations on the accuracy of gravity matching-aided navigation was analyzed, and location accuracy of gravity matching in different zones was determined. Studies indicate that the new parameters may better characterize the marine gravity anomaly. Given the precision of current gravimeters and the resolution and accuracy of reference maps, the location accuracy of gravity matching in China’s Western Pacific area is ~1.0–4.0 nautical miles (n miles). In particular, accuracy in regions around the South China Sea and Sulu Sea was the highest, better than 1.5 n miles. The gravity characteristic parameters identified herein and characteristic values calculated in various zones provide a reference for the selection of navigation area and planning of sailing routes under conditions requiring certain navigational accuracy. PMID:28796158

  15. Physics of Artificial Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bukley, Angie; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses potential technologies for achieving artificial gravity in a space vehicle. We begin with a series of definitions and a general description of the rotational dynamics behind the forces ultimately exerted on the human body during centrifugation, such as gravity level, gravity gradient, and Coriolis force. Human factors considerations and comfort limits associated with a rotating environment are then discussed. Finally, engineering options for designing space vehicles with artificial gravity are presented.

  16. Spall behavior of cast iron with varying microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plume, Gifford; Rousseau, Carl-Ernst

    2014-07-01

    The spall strength of cast iron with varying microstructures has been investigated using plate impact at moderate speed. Stress history measurements were made with manganin stress gauges embedded between the back face of the specimen and a low impedance polycarbonate backing. Five separate cast irons were tested. Four of these consisted of gray cast iron with graphite in flake form, with three classified as Type VII A2 and the fourth containing a bimodal distribution of Types VII A4 and VII D8. The fifth casting consisted of ductile cast iron with graphite in nodular form, classified as Type I, size class 5. The spall strength for the Type VII A2 gray cast irons varied between 40 and 370 MPa, and that of the additional gray cast iron, between 410 and 490 MPa. The spall strength of the ductile cast iron fell within the range of 0.94-1.2 GPa. It is shown that the spall strength is linked to the damage level at the spall plane, where an increased level of tensile stress is required to generate higher levels of damage. Post mortem analysis was performed on the recovered samples, revealing the graphite phase to be the primary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons, where crack nucleation is directly correlated to the debonding of graphite from the metal matrix. The average length of graphite found within a casting is linked to the material's strength, where strength increases as a function of decreasing length. The morphology and mean free path of graphite precipitates further govern the subsequent coalescence of initiated cracks to form a complete fracture plane. In cases where graphite spacing is large, increased energy level is required to complete the fracture process. A secondary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons has also been linked to the microstructure of the metal matrix, with pearlite yielding higher spall strengths than free ferrite.

  17. Cutting efficiency of air-turbine burs on cast titanium and dental casting alloys.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, I; Ohkubo, C; Ford, J P; Atsuta, M; Okabe, T

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cutting efficiency of air-turbine burs on cast free-machining titanium alloy (DT2F) and to compare the results with those for cast commercially pure (CP) Ti, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and dental casting alloys. The cast metal (DT2F, CP Ti, Ti-6Al-4V, Type IV gold alloy and Co-Cr alloy) specimens were cut with air-turbine burs (carbide burs and diamond points) at air pressures of 138 or 207 kPa and a cutting force of 0.784 N. The cutting efficiency of each bur was evaluated as volume loss calculated from the weight loss cut for 5 s and the density of each metal. The bulk microhardness was measured to correlate the machinability and the hardness of each metal. The amounts of DT2F cut with the carbide burs were significantly (p < 0.05) greater than for the other titanium specimens at either 138 or 207 kPa. The diamond points exhibited similar machining efficiency among all metals except for Type IV gold alloy. The increase in the volume loss of Co-Cr alloy (Vitallium) cut with the diamond points showed a negative value (-29%) with an increase in air pressure from 138 to 207 kPa. There was a negative correlation between the amounts of metal removed (volume loss) and the hardness (r2 = 0.689) when the carbide burs were used. The results of this study indicated that a free-machining titanium alloy (DT2F) exhibited better machinability compared to CP Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloy when using carbide fissure burs. When machining cast CP Ti and its alloys, carbide fissure burs possessed a greater machining efficiency than the diamond points and are recommended for titanium dental prostheses.

  18. Modeling the surface contamination of dental titanium investment castings.

    PubMed

    Atwood, R C; Lee, P D; Curtis, R V

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a computational tool for assisting the design of titanium dental castings with minimal defects and to compare computational simulations with casting experiments. Modeling. An in-house cellular-automata solidification and finite-difference diffusion program was coupled with a commercial casting program and applied to (a) simple geometric wedge models and (b) a 3D-laser scan of a molar crown casting. Experimental. Wedges and molar crowns were hand-waxed and investment cast in commercial purity grade 1 (CP-1) titanium by a commercial dental laboratory. The castings were sectioned and analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, and microhardness testing. In the wedge sample, contamination with impurities (Al, Si), including intermetallic precipitates, was found to extend to a depth ranging from 30 to 120 microm depending on the section thickness and hence the local cooling rate. Microstructural and mechanical (hardness) effects were found to a depth ranging from 80 to 250 microm. The coupled micro/macro model predictions showed reasonable agreement for the pattern of contamination. Dental and medical applications demand close dimensional tolerance and freedom from surface impurities and structural flaws in castings having unique shapes. The ability to predict the structural, mechanical, and chemical changes resulting from the casting process will help to design the casting and post-casting processes to minimize these problems.

  19. The Angry Dying Patient.

    PubMed

    Houston, Robert E.

    1999-02-01

    Over 25 years ago, Kubler-Ross identified anger as a predictable part of the dying process. When the dying patient becomes angry in the clinical setting, all types of communication become strained. Physicians can help the angry dying patient through this difficult time by using 10 rules of engagement. When physicians engage and empathize with these patients, they improve the patient's response to pain and they reduce patient suffering. When physicians educate patients on their normal responses to dying and enlist them in the process of family reconciliation, they can impact the end-of-life experience in a positive way.

  20. The Angry Dying Patient

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    Over 25 years ago, Kubler-Ross identified anger as a predictable part of the dying process. When the dying patient becomes angry in the clinical setting, all types of communication become strained. Physicians can help the angry dying patient through this difficult time by using 10 rules of engagement. When physicians engage and empathize with these patients, they improve the patient's response to pain and they reduce patient suffering. When physicians educate patients on their normal responses to dying and enlist them in the process of family reconciliation, they can impact the end-of-life experience in a positive way. PMID:15014699

  1. Accuracy of mapping the Earth's gravity field fine structure with a spaceborne gravity gradiometer mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    The spaceborne gravity gradiometer is a potential sensor for mapping the fine structure of the Earth's gravity field. Error analyses were performed to investigate the accuracy of the determination of the Earth's gravity field from a gravity field satellite mission. The orbital height of the spacecraft is the dominating parameter as far as gravity field resolution and accuracies are concerned.

  2. GRAIL Spots Gravity Anomaly

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-05

    A 300-mile-long linear gravity anomaly on the far side of the moon has been revealed by gravity gradients measured by NASA GRAIL mission. GRAIL data are shown on the left, with red and blue corresponding to stronger gravity gradients.

  3. Cross-Validation of the Computerized Adaptive Screening Test (CAST).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pliske, Rebecca M.; And Others

    The Computerized Adaptive Screening Test (CAST) was developed to provide an estimate at recruiting stations of prospects' Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) scores. The CAST was designed to replace the paper-and-pencil Enlistment Screening Test (EST). The initial validation study of CAST indicated that CAST predicts AFQT at least as accurately…

  4. Methods and apparatuses for manufacturing monocrystalline cast silicon and monocrystalline cast silicon bodies for photovoltaics

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, Nathan G [Gettysburg, PA

    2011-11-01

    Methods and apparatuses are provided for casting silicon for photovoltaic cells and other applications. With such methods and apparatuses, a cast body of monocrystalline silicon may be formed that is free of, or substantially free of, radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 35 cm is provided.

  5. Crustal density contrast detection by global gravity and topography models and in-situ gravity observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claessens, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    Mass density contrasts in the Earth's crust can be detected using an inversion of terrestrial or airborne gravity data. This contribution shows a technique to detect short-scale density contrasts using in-situ gravity observations in combination with a high-resolution global gravity model that includes variations in the gravity field due to topography. The technique is exemplified at various test sites using the Global Gravity Model Plus (GGMplus), which is a 7.2 arcsec resolution model of the Earth's gravitational field, covering all land masses and near-coastal areas within +/- 60° latitude. The model is a composite of GRACE and GOCE satellite observations, the EGM2008 global gravity model, and short-scale topographic gravity effects. Since variations in the Earth's gravity field due to topography are successfully modelled by GGMplus, any remaining differences with in-situ gravity observations are primarily due to mass density variations. It is shown that this technique effectively filters out large-scale density variations, and highlights short-scale near-surface density contrasts in the Earth's crust. Numerical results using recent high-density gravity surveys are presented, which indicate a strong correlation between density contrasts found and known lines of geological significance.

  6. Anomalies and gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Mielke, Eckehard W.

    Anomalies in Yang-Mills type gauge theories of gravity are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the relation between the Dirac spin, the axial current j5 and the non-covariant gauge spin C. Using diagrammatic techniques, we show that only generalizations of the U(1)- Pontrjagin four-form F and F = dC arise in the chiral anomaly, even when coupled to gravity. Implications for Ashtekar's canonical approach to quantum gravity are discussed.

  7. Ultrasonically assisted single screw extrusion, film blowing and film casting of LLDPE/clay and PA6/clay nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niknezhad, Setareh

    maleic anhydride (MA) affected mechanical properties and oxygen permeability with ultrasonic treatment to higher extent. However, use of compatibilizers led to a higher die pressure and resulted in opaque cast films. The mechanical properties were in agreement with crystallinity of samples. The exfoliated structure was achieved for PA6/clay 30B nanocomposites prepared using ultrasonically assisted single screw extrusion except for untreated nanocomposites containing 10 wt% of clay 30B. Untreated 92.5/7.5 and 90/10 PA6/clay 30B blown films showed the intercalated structure, but the exfoliated structure was achieved with ultrasonic treatment. All cast films of PA6/clay 30B showed the exfoliated structure. FTIR spectroscopy along with XRD results confirmed the existence of alpha and gamma-type crystals in the cast films, with clay particles favoring the formation of gamma-type crystals, and ultrasonic treatment favoring the formation of alpha-type crystals. Both parameters increased crystallinity of cast films improving their mechanical properties and oxygen permeability.

  8. Evaluating Material Flammability in Microgravity and Martian Gravity Compared to the NASA Standard Normal Gravity Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oslon, Sandra. L.; Ferkul, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Drop tower tests are conducted at Martian gravity to determine the flammability of three materials compared to previous tests in other normal gravity and reduced gravity environments. The comparison is made with consideration of a modified NASA standard test protocol. Material flammability limits in the different gravity and flow environments are tabulated to determine the factor of safety associated with normal gravity flammability screening. Previous testing at microgravity and Lunar gravity indicated that some materials burned to lower oxygen concentrations in low gravity than in normal gravity, although the low g extinction limit criteria are not the same as 1g due to time constraints in drop testing. Similarly, the data presented in this paper for Martian gravity suggest that there is a gravity level below Earth s at which materials burn more readily than on Earth. If proven for more materials, this may indicate the need to include a factor of safety on 1g flammability limits.

  9. INDIAN CASTE SYSTEM: HISTORICAL AND PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEWS.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Madhusudana Rao

    2015-12-01

    This paper elucidates the historical origins and transformations of India's caste system. Surveying the complex developments over many centuries, it points out that three positions have been taken in this regard. One suggests that the caste one is born into can be transcended within one's lifetime by performing good deeds. The other declares caste to be immutable forever. And, the third says that one can be reborn into a higher caste if one lives a virtuous life. Moving on to the sociopolitical realm, the paper notes how these positions have been used and exploited. The paper then attempts to anchor the existence and purpose of the Hindu caste system in Freud's ideas about group psychology and Klein's proposals of splitting and projective identification. The paper also deploys the large group psychology concepts of Volkan and the culturally nuanced psychoanalytic anthropology of Roland and Kakar. It concludes with delineating some ameliorative strategies for this tragic problem in the otherwise robust democratic society of India.

  10. Bile Cast Nephropathy Caused by Obstructive Cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Aniort, Julien; Poyet, Anaïs; Kemeny, Jean-Louis; Philipponnet, Carole; Heng, Anne-Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major complication in patients with liver disease. Although hepatorenal syndrome is frequently involved, bile cast nephropathy, characterized by tubular bile cast formation, has been scarcely described in the setting of severe liver failure. Few renal histology studies are available in these patients. We describe a case of bile cast nephropathy in a patient with obstructive cholestasis caused by stones in the common bile duct. The kidney biopsy confirmed this diagnosis, with several green casts in tubular lumens, tubular injury, and bilirubin composition of the tubular casts with Hall stain. The patient had no confounding cause of kidney failure, and complete kidney recovery followed removal of the bile duct obstruction. This case shows that severe cholestasis is sufficient to cause AKI, and that AKI can be reversible after treatment of the biliary obstruction. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Data reduction and tying in regional gravity surveys—results from a new gravity base station network and the Bouguer gravity anomaly map for northeastern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado-Cardador, Manuel; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    2006-12-01

    Since 1947 Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) has conducted oil exploration projects using potential field methods. Geophysical exploration companies under contracts with Pemex carried out gravity anomaly surveys that were referred to different floating data. Each survey comprises observations of gravity stations along highways, roads and trails at intervals of about 500 m. At present, 265 separate gravimeter surveys that cover 60% of the Mexican territory (mainly in the oil producing regions of Mexico) are available. This gravity database represents the largest, highest spatial resolution information, and consequently has been used in the geophysical data compilations for the Mexico and North America gravity anomaly maps. Regional integration of gravimeter surveys generates gradients and spurious anomalies in the Bouguer anomaly maps at the boundaries of the connected surveys due to the different gravity base stations utilized. The main objective of this study is to refer all gravimeter surveys from Pemex to a single new first-order gravity base station network, in order to eliminate problems of gradients and spurious anomalies. A second objective is to establish a network of permanent gravity base stations (BGP), referred to a single base from the World Gravity System. Four regional loops of BGP covering eight States of Mexico were established to support the tie of local gravity base stations from each of the gravimeter surveys located in the vicinity of these loops. The third objective is to add the gravity constants, measured and calculated, for each of the 265 gravimeter surveys to their corresponding files in the Pemex and Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo database. The gravity base used as the common datum is the station SILAG 9135-49 (Latin American System of Gravity) located in the National Observatory of Tacubaya in Mexico City. We present the results of the installation of a new gravity base network in northeastern Mexico, reference of the 43 gravimeter surveys

  12. Development of Cast Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralidharan, G.; Yamamoto, Y.; Brady, M. P.; Walker, L. R.; Meyer, H. M., III; Leonard, D. N.

    2016-11-01

    Cast Fe-Ni-Cr chromia-forming austenitic stainless steels with Ni levels up to 45 wt.% are used at high temperatures in a wide range of industrial applications that demand microstructural stability, corrosion resistance, and creep strength. Although alumina scales offer better corrosion protection at these temperatures, designing cast austenitic alloys that form a stable alumina scale and achieve creep strength comparable to existing cast chromia-forming alloys is challenging. This work outlines the development of cast Fe-Ni-Cr-Al austenitic stainless steels containing about 25 wt.% Ni with good creep strength and the ability to form a protective alumina scale for use at temperatures up to 800-850°C in H2O-, S-, and C-containing environments. Creep properties of the best alloy were comparable to that of HK-type cast chromia-forming alloys along with improved oxidation resistance typical of alumina-forming alloys. Challenges in the design of cast alloys and a potential path to increasing the temperature capability are discussed.

  13. Neighbour-die effect on the measurement of wafer-level flip-chip LED dies in production lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tengfei; Wan, Zirui; Li, Bin

    2017-11-01

    The light from the side surfaces of the test flip-chip light-emitting diode (FCLED) dies is reflected, refracted or absorbed by neighbour dies during the measurement of wafer-level FCLED dies in production lines. A notable measurement deviation is caused by the neighbour-die effect, which is not considered in current industry practice. In this paper, Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations are used to study the measurement deviations caused by the neighbour-die effect and extension ratios of the film. The simulation results show that the maximal deviation of radiant flux impinging the photodiode can reach 5.5%, if the die is tested without any neighbour dies, or is surrounded by a set of neighbour dies at an extension ratio of 1.1. Moreover, the dependence between the measurement results and neighbour cases for different extension ratios is also investigated. Then, a modified calibration method is proposed and studied. The proposed technique can be used to improve the calibration and measurement accuracy of the test equipment used for measurement of wafer-level FCLED dies in production lines.

  14. Cold Cracking During Direct-Chill Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskin, D. G.; Lalpoor, M.; Katgerman, L.

    Cold cracking phenomenon is the least studied, yet very important defect occurring during direct chill casting. The spontaneous nature of this defect makes its systematic study almost impossible, and the computer simulation of the thermomechanical behavior of the ingot during its cooling after the end of solidification requires constitutive parameters of high-strength aluminum alloys in the as-cast condition, which are not readily available. In this paper we describe constitutive behavior of high strength 7xxx series aluminum alloys in the as-cast condition based on experimentally measured tensile properties at different strain rates and temperatures, plane strain fracture toughness at different temperatures, and thermal contraction. In addition, fracture and structure of the specimens and real cold-cracked billets are examined. As a result a fracture-mechanics-based criterion of cold cracking is suggested based on the critical crack length, and is validated upon pilot-scale billet casting.

  15. A comparative study of the microstructures observed in statically cast and continuously cast Bi-In-Sn ternary eutectic alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, S.; Soda, H.; McLean, A.

    2000-01-01

    A ternary eutectic alloy with a composition of 57.2 pct Bi, 24.8 pct In, and 18 pct Sn was continuously cast into wire of 2 mm diameter with casting speeds of 14 and 79 mm/min using the Ohno Continuous Casting (OCC) process. The microstructures obtained were compared with those of statically cast specimens. Extensive segregation of massive Bi blocks, Bi complex structures, and tin-rich dendrites was found in specimens that were statically cast. Decomposition of {radical}Sn by a eutectoid reaction was confirmed based on microstructural evidence. Ternary eutectic alloy with a cooling rate of approximately 1 C/min formed a doublemore » binary eutectic. The double binary eutectic consisted of regions of BiIn and decomposed {radical}Sn in the form of a dendrite cell structure and regions of Bi and decomposed {radical}Sn in the form of a complex-regular cell. The Bi complex-regular cells, which are a ternary eutectic constituent, existed either along the boundaries of the BiIn-decomposed {radical}Sn dendrite cells or at the front of elongated dendrite cell structures. In the continuously cast wires, primary Sn dendrites coupled with a small Bi phase were uniformly distributed within the Bi-In alloy matrix. Neither massive Bi phase, Bi complex-regular cells, no BiIn eutectic dendrite cells were observed, resulting in a more uniform microstructure in contrast to the heavily segregated structures of the statically cast specimens.« less

  16. Investigation of Heat Transfer at the Mold/Metal Interface in Permanent Mold Casting of Light Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Robert D. Pehlke; John T. Berry

    2005-12-16

    Accurate modeling of the metal casting process prior to creating a mold design demands reliable knowledge of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient at the mold metal interface as a function of both time and location. The phenomena concerned with the gap forming between the mold and the solidifying metal are complex but need to be understood before any modeling is attempted. The presence of mold coatings further complicates the situation. A commercial casting was chosen and studied in a gravity permanent mold casting process. The metal/mold interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) was the focus of the research. A simple, directmore » method has been used to evaluate the IHTC. Both the simulation and experiments have shown that a reasonably good estimate of the heat transfer coefficient could be made in the case studied. It has been found that there is a good agreement between experiments and simulations in the temperature profiles during the solidification process, given that the primary mechanism of heat transfer across the gap in permanent mold casting of light alloys is by conduction across the gap. The procedure utilized to determine the interfacial heat transfer coefficient can be applied to other casting processes. A recently completed project involving The University of Michigan and Mississippi State University, together with several industrial partners, which was supported by the USDOE through the Cast Metals Coalition, examined a number of cases of thermal contact. In an investigation which gave special consideration to the techniques of measurement, several mold coatings were employed and results presented as a function of time. Realistic conditions of coating thickness and type together with an appropriate combination of mold preheat and metal pouring temperature were strictly maintained throughout the investigation. Temperature sensors, in particular thermocouples, play an important part in validating the predictions of solidification models

  17. Torus Approach in Gravity Field Determination from Simulated GOCE Gravity Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huanling; Wen, Hanjiang; Xu, Xinyu; Zhu, Guangbin

    2016-08-01

    In Torus approach, observations are projected to the nominal orbits with constant radius and inclination, lumped coefficients provides a linear relationship between observations and spherical harmonic coefficients. Based on the relationship, two-dimensional FFT and block-diagonal least-squares adjustment are used to recover Earth's gravity field model. The Earth's gravity field model complete to degree and order 200 is recovered using simulated satellite gravity gradients on a torus grid, and the degree median error is smaller than 10-18, which shows the effectiveness of Torus approach. EGM2008 is employed as a reference model and the gravity field model is resolved using the simulated observations without noise given on GOCE orbits of 61 days. The error from reduction and interpolation can be mitigated by iterations. Due to polar gap, the precision of low-order coefficients is lower. Without considering these coefficients the maximum geoid degree error and cumulative error are 0.022mm and 0.099mm, respectively. The Earth's gravity field model is also recovered from simulated observations with white noise 5mE/Hz1/2, which is compared to that from direct method. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that Torus approach is a valid method for processing massive amount of GOCE gravity gradients.

  18. Effects of horizontal body casting on the baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billman, G. E.; Dickey, D. T.; Sandler, H.; Stone, H. L.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term horizontal body position on baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate. Six male rhesus monkeys (6.2-9.4 kg) were given bolus injections of 4.0 microgram/kg, phenylephrine during each of the following conditions: awake, anesthetized (10 mg/kg ketamine HCl), and after beta-blockade (1 mg/kg propranolol HCl) before, 7, 14, and 28 days after being placed in a horizontal body cast. R-R interval vs. systolic arterial pressure was plotted, and the slope was determined by least-squares-fit linear regression. Baroreceptor slope was significantly reduced by 7 days of horizontal body position and remained attenuated throughout the 28-day restraint period both before and after beta-receptor blockade. These data are consistent with the thesis that prolonged exposure to a zero-gravity environment impairs autonomic reflex regulation of the cardiovascular system.

  19. Quantum gravity from noncommutative spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jungjai; Yang, Hyun Seok

    2014-12-01

    We review a novel and authentic way to quantize gravity. This novel approach is based on the fact that Einstein gravity can be formulated in terms of a symplectic geometry rather than a Riemannian geometry in the context of emergent gravity. An essential step for emergent gravity is to realize the equivalence principle, the most important property in the theory of gravity (general relativity), from U(1) gauge theory on a symplectic or Poisson manifold. Through the realization of the equivalence principle, which is an intrinsic property in symplectic geometry known as the Darboux theorem or the Moser lemma, one can understand how diffeomorphism symmetry arises from noncommutative U(1) gauge theory; thus, gravity can emerge from the noncommutative electromagnetism, which is also an interacting theory. As a consequence, a background-independent quantum gravity in which the prior existence of any spacetime structure is not a priori assumed but is defined by using the fundamental ingredients in quantum gravity theory can be formulated. This scheme for quantum gravity can be used to resolve many notorious problems in theoretical physics, such as the cosmological constant problem, to understand the nature of dark energy, and to explain why gravity is so weak compared to other forces. In particular, it leads to a remarkable picture of what matter is. A matter field, such as leptons and quarks, simply arises as a stable localized geometry, which is a topological object in the defining algebra (noncommutative ★-algebra) of quantum gravity.

  20. 46 CFR 56.60-10 - Cast iron and malleable iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cast iron and malleable iron. 56.60-10 Section 56.60-10... APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-10 Cast iron and malleable iron. (a) The low ductility of cast iron and... avoided. Cast iron and malleable iron components shall not be used at temperatures above 450 °F. Cast iron...

  1. Method and apparatus for planar drag strip casting

    DOEpatents

    Powell, John C.; Campbell, Steven L.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved process and apparatus for strip casting. The combination of a planar flow casting nozzle positioned back from the top dead center position with an attached nozzle extension, provides an increased level of casting control and quality. The nozzle extension provides a means of containing the molten pool above the rotating substrate to increase the control of molten metal at the edges of the strip and increase the range of coating thicknesses which may be produced. The level of molten metal in the containment means is regulated to be above the level of melt supplying the casting nozzle which produces a condition of planar drag flow with the casting substrate prior to solidification.

  2. Method and apparatus for planar drag strip casting

    DOEpatents

    Powell, J.C.; Campbell, S.L.

    1991-11-12

    The present invention is directed to an improved process and apparatus for strip casting. The combination of a planar flow casting nozzle positioned back from the top dead center position with an attached nozzle extension, provides an increased level of casting control and quality. The nozzle extension provides a means of containing the molten pool above the rotating substrate to increase the control of molten metal at the edges of the strip and increase the range of coating thicknesses which may be produced. The level of molten metal in the containment means is regulated to be above the level of melt supplying the casting nozzle which produces a condition of planar drag flow with the casting substrate prior to solidification. 5 figures.

  3. An audit of complications of fiberglass cast and hybrid cast for fractures of the foot, ankle and forearm in a Swedish emergency department.

    PubMed

    Ekwall, Anna; Carlberg, Eva; Palmberg, Gunilla; Sloberg, Rut

    2018-06-01

    Patients of all ages present to the Emergency Department (ED) with fractures that require immobilization using a cast. Various casting materials are used, all with advantages and disadvantages and there are considerable risks associated with fracture management using cast immobilization. The frequency and severity of complications from fiberglass or hybrid casts applied in the emergency setting has not previously been studied. The aim of this audit was to describe all the complications that occurred within 30 days in patients who had a fiberglass cast applied for immobilization of uncomplicated, non-angulated fractures of the foot, ankle or forearm. A retrospective care record audit was conducted that included 430 patients. The most common complications found were skin complications and cast related problems. No severe complications (e.g. compartment syndrome, venous thromboembolism or infection) were found. Fiberglass casts did not cause severe complications in this group of patients with uncomplicated fractures of the extremities. However, 25% of the patients experienced some form of complication. Interventions are needed that minimize the frequency of complications. As with all healthcare interventions, it is crucial that staff applying casts and providing follow-up care are competent. If casts are applied correctly and the patient is well informed and concordant, complications can be avoided. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Improved Slip Casting Of Ceramic Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, Gregory M.; Vasquez, Peter; Hicks, Lana P.

    1994-01-01

    Improved technique of investment slip casting developed for making precise ceramic wind-tunnel models. Needed in wind-tunnel experiments to verify predictions of aerothermodynamical computer codes. Ceramic materials used because of their low heat conductivities and ability to survive high temperatures. Present improved slip-casting technique enables casting of highly detailed models from aqueous or nonaqueous solutions. Wet shell molds peeled off models to ensure precise and undamaged details. Used at NASA Langley Research Center to form superconducting ceramic components from nonaqueous slip solutions. Technique has many more applications when ceramic materials developed further for such high-strength/ temperature components as engine parts.

  5. Present status of marine gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, A. B.

    1978-01-01

    The technique of measuring gravity at sea was greatly improved by the development of spring-type surface-ship gravimeters which can be operated in a wide variety of sea conditions. A brief review of the most recent developments in marine gravity is presented. The extent of marine gravity data coverage is illustrated in a compilation map of the world's free-air gravity anomaly maps of the world's oceans. A brief discussion of some of the main results in the interpretation of marine gravity is given. Some comments made on recent determinations of the gravity field in oceanic regions using satellite radar altimeters are also presented.

  6. 49 CFR 192.755 - Protecting cast-iron pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protecting cast-iron pipelines. 192.755 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.755 Protecting cast-iron pipelines. When an operator has knowledge that the support for a segment of a buried cast-iron...

  7. Unimodular F ( R ) gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Nojiri, S.; Odintsov, S.D.; Oikonomou, V.K., E-mail: nojiri@gravity.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: odintsov@ieec.uab.es, E-mail: v.k.oikonomou1979@gmail.com

    2016-05-01

    We extend the formalism of the Einstein-Hilbert unimodular gravity in the context of modified F ( R ) gravity. After appropriately modifying the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric in a way that it becomes compatible to the unimodular condition of having a constant metric determinant, we derive the equations of motion of the unimodular F ( R ) gravity by using the metric formalism of modified gravity with Lagrange multiplier constraint. The resulting equations are studied in frames of reconstruction method, which enables us to realize various cosmological scenarios, which was impossible to realize in the standard Einstein-Hilbert unimodular gravity. Several unimodular Fmore » ( R ) inflationary scenarios are presented, and in some cases, concordance with Planck and BICEP2 observational data can be achieved.« less

  8. Precision Casting via Advanced Simulation and Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A two-year program was conducted to develop and commercially implement selected casting manufacturing technologies to enable significant reductions in the costs of castings, increase the complexity and dimensional accuracy of castings, and reduce the development times for delivery of high quality castings. The industry-led R&D project was cost shared with NASA's Aerospace Industry Technology Program (AITP). The Rocketdyne Division of Boeing North American, Inc. served as the team lead with participation from Lockheed Martin, Ford Motor Company, Howmet Corporation, PCC Airfoils, General Electric, UES, Inc., University of Alabama, Auburn University, Robinson, Inc., Aracor, and NASA-LeRC. The technical effort was organized into four distinct tasks. The accomplishments reported herein. Task 1.0 developed advanced simulation technology for core molding. Ford headed up this task. On this program, a specialized core machine was designed and built. Task 2.0 focused on intelligent process control for precision core molding. Howmet led this effort. The primary focus of these experimental efforts was to characterize the process parameters that have a strong impact on dimensional control issues of injection molded cores during their fabrication. Task 3.0 developed and applied rapid prototyping to produce near net shape castings. Rocketdyne was responsible for this task. CAD files were generated using reverse engineering, rapid prototype patterns were fabricated using SLS and SLA, and castings produced and evaluated. Task 4.0 was aimed at developing technology transfer. Rocketdyne coordinated this task. Casting related technology, explored and evaluated in the first three tasks of this program, was implemented into manufacturing processes.

  9. Independent origins of Indian caste and tribal paternal lineages.

    PubMed

    Cordaux, Richard; Aunger, Robert; Bentley, Gillian; Nasidze, Ivane; Sirajuddin, S M; Stoneking, Mark

    2004-02-03

    The origins of the nearly one billion people inhabiting the Indian subcontinent and following the customs of the Hindu caste system are controversial: are they largely derived from Indian local populations (i.e. tribal groups) or from recent immigrants to India? Archaeological and linguistic evidence support the latter hypothesis, whereas recent genetic data seem to favor the former hypothesis. Here, we analyze the most extensive dataset of Indian caste and tribal Y chromosomes to date. We find that caste and tribal groups differ significantly in their haplogroup frequency distributions; caste groups are homogeneous for Y chromosome variation and more closely related to each other and to central Asian groups than to Indian tribal or any other Eurasian groups. We conclude that paternal lineages of Indian caste groups are primarily descended from Indo-European speakers who migrated from central Asia approximately 3,500 years ago. Conversely, paternal lineages of tribal groups are predominantly derived from the original Indian gene pool. We also provide evidence for bidirectional male gene flow between caste and tribal groups. In comparison, caste and tribal groups are homogeneous with respect to mitochondrial DNA variation, which may reflect the sociocultural characteristics of the Indian caste society.

  10. Extrusion die and method

    DOEpatents

    Lipp, G. Daniel

    1994-04-26

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of rhombic cell cross-section by extrusion through an extrusion die of triangular cell discharge slot configuration, the die incorporating feedholes at selected slot intersections only, such that slot segments communicating directly with the feedholes discharge web material and slot segments not so connected do not discharge web material, whereby a rhombic cell cross-section in the extruded body is provided.

  11. A spaceborne superconducting gravity gradiometer for mapping the earth's gravity field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paik, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    The principles of a satellite gravity gradiometer system which measures all five independent components of the gravity gradient tensor with a sensitivity of 0.001 E/Hz to the 1/2 power or better, are analyzed, and the status of development of the system is reviewed. The superconducting gravity gradiometer uses sensitive superconducting accelerometers, each of which are composed of a weakly suspended superconducting proof mass, a superconducting magnetic transducer, and a low-noise superconducting magnetometer. The magnetic field produced by the transducer coils is modulated by the motion of the proof mass and detected by the magnetometer. A combination of two or four of such accelerometers with proper relative orientation of sensitive axes results in an in-line or a cross component gravity gradiometer.

  12. [Manufacture and clinical application of 215 IPS-Empress casting ceramic restorations].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Zhou, Jian

    2008-08-01

    To explore the manufacture and clinical application of IPS-Empress casting ceramic restorations. The problems in manufacture and clinical operation of 215 casting ceramic restorations were analyzed. In 215 casting ceramic restorations, 12 (5.58%) casting ceramic restorations were affected by clinical design or application, 15 (6.98%) casting ceramic restorations were affected by some manufacture problems, and 14 (6.51%) casting ceramic restorations were affected by clinical try-in. Through 2-3 years' follow-up, the achievement ratio of 215 IPS-Empress casting ceramic restorations was 94.88%, and 11 casting ceramic restorations were affected by some problems. Beauty and simultaneous enamel wear are the characteristics of casting ceramic restorations. But because of its brittle, the indications should be strictly selected.

  13. Beryllium-aluminum alloys for investment castings

    SciTech Connect

    Nachtrab, W.T.; Levoy, N.

    1997-05-01

    Beryllium-aluminum alloys containing greater than 60 wt % beryllium are very favorable materials for applications requiring light weight and high stiffness. However, when produced by traditional powder metallurgical methods, these alloys are expensive and have limited applications. To reduce the cost of making beryllium-aluminum components, Nuclear Metals Inc. (NMI) and Lockheed Martin Electronics and Missiles have recently developed a family of patented beryllium-aluminum alloys that can be investment cast. Designated Beralcast, the alloys can achieve substantial weight savings because of their high specific strength and stiffness. In some cases, weight has been reduced by up to 50% over aluminum investmentmore » casting. Beralcast is now being used to make thin wall precision investment castings for several advanced aerospace applications, such as the RAH-66 Comanche helicopter and F-22 jet fighter. This article discusses alloy compositions, properties, casting method, and the effects of cobalt additions on strength.« less

  14. Comparative study of two commercially pure titanium casting methods

    PubMed Central

    RODRIGUES, Renata Cristina Silveira; FARIA, Adriana Claudia Lapria; ORSI, Iara Augusta; de MATTOS, Maria da Gloria Chiarello; MACEDO, Ana Paula; RIBEIRO, Ricardo Faria

    2010-01-01

    The interest in using titanium to fabricate removable partial denture (RPD) frameworks has increased, but there are few studies evaluating the effects of casting methods on clasp behavior. Objective This study compared the occurrence of porosities and the retentive force of commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) and cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) removable partial denture circumferential clasps cast by induction/centrifugation and plasma/vacuum-pressure. Material and Methods 72 frameworks were cast from CP Ti (n=36) and Co-Cr alloy (n=36; control group). For each material, 18 frameworks were casted by electromagnetic induction and injected by centrifugation, whereas the other 18 were casted by plasma and injected by vacuum-pressure. For each casting method, three subgroups (n=6) were formed: 0.25 mm, 0.50 mm, and 0.75 mm undercuts. The specimens were radiographed and subjected to an insertion/removal test simulating 5 years of framework use. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's to compare materials and cast methods (α=0.05). Results Three of 18 specimens of the induction/centrifugation group and 9 of 18 specimens of plasma/vacuum-pressure cast presented porosities, but only 1 and 7 specimens, respectively, were rejected for simulation test. For Co-Cr alloy, no defects were found. Comparing the casting methods, statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were observed only for the Co-Cr alloy with 0.25 mm and 0.50 mm undercuts. Significant differences were found for the 0.25 mm and 0.75 mm undercuts dependent on the material used. For the 0.50 mm undercut, significant differences were found when the materials were induction casted. Conclusion Although both casting methods produced satisfactory CP Ti RPD frameworks, the occurrence of porosities was greater in the plasma/vacuum-pressure than in the induction/centrifugation method, the latter resulting in higher clasp rigidity, generating higher retention force values. PMID:21085805

  15. Cosmological tests of modified gravity.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Kazuya

    2016-04-01

    We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard [Formula: see text]CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years.

  16. Gravity quantized: Loop quantum gravity with a scalar field

    SciTech Connect

    Domagala, Marcin; Kaminski, Wojciech; Giesel, Kristina

    2010-11-15

    ...''but we do not have quantum gravity.'' This phrase is often used when analysis of a physical problem enters the regime in which quantum gravity effects should be taken into account. In fact, there are several models of the gravitational field coupled to (scalar) fields for which the quantization procedure can be completed using loop quantum gravity techniques. The model we present in this paper consists of the gravitational field coupled to a scalar field. The result has similar structure to the loop quantum cosmology models, except that it involves all the local degrees of freedom of the gravitational fieldmore » because no symmetry reduction has been performed at the classical level.« less

  17. Gravity signatures of terrane accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Heather; Abbott, Dallas

    1999-01-01

    In modern collisional environments, accreted terranes are bracketed by forearc gravity lows, a gravitational feature which results from the abandonment of the original trench and the initiation of a new trench seaward of the accreted terrane. The size and shape of the gravity low depends on the type of accreted feature and the strength of the formerly subducting plate. Along the Central American trench, the accretion of Gorgona Island caused a seaward trench jump of 48 to 66 km. The relict trench axes show up as gravity lows behind the trench with minimum values of -78 mgal (N of Gorgona) and -49 mgal (S of Gorgona) respectively. These forearc gravity lows have little or no topographic expression. The active trench immediately seaward of these forearc gravity lows has minimum gravity values of -59 mgal (N of Gorgona) and -58 mgal (S of Gorgona), respectively. In the north, the active trench has a less pronounced gravity low than the sediment covered forearc. In the Mariana arc, two Cretaceous seamounts have been accreted to the Eocene arc. The northern seamount is most likely a large block, the southern seamount may be a thrust slice. These more recent accretion events have produced modest forearc topographic and gravity lows in comparison with the topographic and gravity lows within the active trench. However, the minimum values of the Mariana forearc gravity lows are modest only by comparison to the Mariana Trench (-216 mgal); their absolute values are more negative than at Gorgona Island (-145 to -146 mgal). We speculate that the forearc gravity lows and seaward trench jumps near Gorgona Island were produced by the accretion of a hotspot island from a strong plate. The Mariana gravity lows and seaward trench jumps (or thrust slices) were the result of breaking a relatively weak plate close to the seamount edifice. These gravity lows resulting from accretion events should be preserved in older accreted terranes.

  18. 46 CFR 153.239 - Use of cast iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of cast iron. 153.239 Section 153.239 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK... Systems § 153.239 Use of cast iron. (a) Cast iron used in a cargo containment system must meet the...

  19. Development of cast alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels

    DOE PAGES

    Muralidharan, G.; Yamamoto, Y.; Brady, M. P.; ...

    2016-09-06

    Cast Fe-Ni-Cr chromia-forming austenitic stainless steels with Ni levels up to 45 wt. % are used at high temperatures in a wide range of industrial applications that demand microstructural stability, corrosion resistance, and creep strength. Although alumina scales offer better corrosion protection at these temperatures, designing cast austenitic alloys that form a stable alumina scale and achieve creep strength comparable to existing cast chromia-forming alloys is challenging. This work outlines the development of cast Fe-Ni-Cr-Al austenitic stainless steels containing about 25 wt. % Ni with good creep strength and the ability to form a protective alumina scale for use atmore » temperatures up to 800 C - 850 C in H 2O-, S-, and C- containing environments. Creep properties of the best alloy were comparable to that of HK-type cast chromia-forming alloy along with improved oxidation resistance typical of alumina-forming alloys. Lastly, challenges in the design of cast alloys and a potential path to increasing the temperature capability are discussed.« less

  20. Directional gravity sensing in gravitropism.

    PubMed

    Morita, Miyo Terao

    2010-01-01

    Plants can reorient their growth direction by sensing organ tilt relative to the direction of gravity. With respect to gravity sensing in gravitropism, the classic starch statolith hypothesis, i.e., that starch-accumulating amyloplast movement along the gravity vector within gravity-sensing cells (statocytes) is the probable trigger of subsequent intracellular signaling, is widely accepted. Several lines of experimental evidence have demonstrated that starch is important but not essential for gravity sensing and have suggested that it is reasonable to regard plastids (containers of starch) as statoliths. Although the word statolith means sedimented stone, actual amyloplasts are not static but instead possess dynamic movement. Recent studies combining genetic and cell biological approaches, using Arabidopsis thaliana, have demonstrated that amyloplast movement is an intricate process involving vacuolar membrane structures and the actin cytoskeleton. This review covers current knowledge regarding gravity sensing, particularly gravity susception, and the factors modulating the function of amyloplasts for sensing the directional change of gravity. Specific emphasis is made on the remarkable differences in the cytological properties, developmental origins, tissue locations, and response of statocytes between root and shoot systems. Such an approach reveals a common theme in directional gravity-sensing mechanisms in these two disparate organs.

  1. Project CAST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles County Board of Education, La Plata, MD. Office of Special Education.

    The document outlines procedures for implementing Project CAST (Community and School Together), a community-based career education program for secondary special education students in Charles County, Maryland. Initial sections discuss the role of a learning coordinator, (including relevant travel reimbursement and mileage forms) and an overview of…

  2. Crew Autonomous Scheduling Test (CAST)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-18

    iss052e016190 (July 18, 2017) --- Astronaut Peggy Whitson is photographed sitting in front of the Cupola windows during the final Crew Autonomous Scheduling Test (CAST) session. The CAST investigation analyzes whether crews can develop plans in a reasonable period of time with appropriate input, whether proximity of planners to the planned operations increases efficiency, and if crew members are more satisfied when given a role in plan development.

  3. Vascular corrosion casting technique steps.

    PubMed

    Verli, Flaviana Dornela; Rossi-Schneider, Tissiana Raquel; Schneider, Felipe Luís; Yurgel, Liliane Soares; de Souza, Maria Antonieta Lopes

    2007-01-01

    The vascular corrosion casting technique produces a replica of vascular beds of normal or pathological tissues. Once associated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), this technique provides details of the three-dimensional anatomic arrangement of the vascular replica, which is the main advantage of this method. The present study is intended to describe the steps of the vascular corrosion casting technique and the different ways to perform them. them.

  4. A Model of Gravity Vector Measurement Noise for Estimating Accelerometer Bias in Gravity Disturbance Compensation.

    PubMed

    Tie, Junbo; Cao, Juliang; Chang, Lubing; Cai, Shaokun; Wu, Meiping; Lian, Junxiang

    2018-03-16

    Compensation of gravity disturbance can improve the precision of inertial navigation, but the effect of compensation will decrease due to the accelerometer bias, and estimation of the accelerometer bias is a crucial issue in gravity disturbance compensation. This paper first investigates the effect of accelerometer bias on gravity disturbance compensation, and the situation in which the accelerometer bias should be estimated is established. The accelerometer bias is estimated from the gravity vector measurement, and a model of measurement noise in gravity vector measurement is built. Based on this model, accelerometer bias is separated from the gravity vector measurement error by the method of least squares. Horizontal gravity disturbances are calculated through EGM2008 spherical harmonic model to build the simulation scene, and the simulation results indicate that precise estimations of the accelerometer bias can be obtained with the proposed method.

  5. A Model of Gravity Vector Measurement Noise for Estimating Accelerometer Bias in Gravity Disturbance Compensation

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Juliang; Cai, Shaokun; Wu, Meiping; Lian, Junxiang

    2018-01-01

    Compensation of gravity disturbance can improve the precision of inertial navigation, but the effect of compensation will decrease due to the accelerometer bias, and estimation of the accelerometer bias is a crucial issue in gravity disturbance compensation. This paper first investigates the effect of accelerometer bias on gravity disturbance compensation, and the situation in which the accelerometer bias should be estimated is established. The accelerometer bias is estimated from the gravity vector measurement, and a model of measurement noise in gravity vector measurement is built. Based on this model, accelerometer bias is separated from the gravity vector measurement error by the method of least squares. Horizontal gravity disturbances are calculated through EGM2008 spherical harmonic model to build the simulation scene, and the simulation results indicate that precise estimations of the accelerometer bias can be obtained with the proposed method. PMID:29547552

  6. Lower limb intracast pressures generated by different types of immobilisation casts.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Salma; Hazlerigg, Alexandra; Vusirikala, Anuhya; Nguyen, Joseph; Matthews, Stuart

    2017-02-18

    To determine if complete, split casts and backslabs [plaster of Paris (POP) and fiberglass] generate different intracast pressures and pain. Increased swelling within casts was modeled by a closed water system attached to an expandable bag placed directly under different types of casts applied to a healthy lower limb. Complete fiberglass and POP casts, split casts and backslabs were applied. Twenty-five milliliter aliquots of saline were injected into the system and the generated intracast pressures were measured using a sphygmomanometer. The subject was blinded to the pressure scores to avoid bias. All casts were applied to the same right limb on the same subject to avoid the effects of variations in anatomy or physiology on intracast pressures. Pain levels were evaluated using the Visual Analogue Score after each sequential saline injection. Each type of cast was reapplied four times and the measurements were repeated on four separate occasions. Sample sizes were determined by a pre-study 90% power calculation to detect a 20% difference in intracast pressures between cast groups. A significant difference between the various types of casts was noted when the saline volume was greater than 100 mL ( P = 0.009). The greatest intracast pressure was generated by complete fiberglass casts, which were significantly higher than complete POP casts or backslabs ( P = 0.018 and P = 0.008 respectively) at intracast saline volumes of 100 mL and higher. Backslabs produced a significantly lower intracast pressure compared to complete POP only once the saline volume within casts exceeded 225 mL ( P = 0.009). Intracast pressures were significantly lower in split casts ( P = 0.003). Split POP and fiberglass casts produced the lowest intracast pressures, even compared to backslabs ( P = 0.009). Complete fiberglass casts generated the highest pain levels at manometer pressures of 75 mmHg and greater ( P = 0.001). Split fiberglass casts had significantly reduced pain levels ( P = 0

  7. BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Gravity: third edition Quantum Gravity: third edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2012-09-01

    The request by Classical and Quantum Gravity to review the third edition of Claus Kiefer's 'Quantum Gravity' puts me in a slightly awkward position. This is a remarkably good book, which every person working in quantum gravity should have on the shelf. But in my opinion quantum gravity has undergone some dramatic advances in the last few years, of which the book makes no mention. Perhaps the omission only attests to the current vitality of the field, where progress is happening fast, but it is strange for me to review a thoughtful, knowledgeable and comprehensive book on my own field of research, which ignores what I myself consider the most interesting results to date. Kiefer's book is unique as a broad introduction and a reliable overview of quantum gravity. There are numerous books in the field which (often notwithstanding titles) focus on a single approach. There are also countless conference proceedings and article collections aiming to be encyclopaedic, but offering disorganized patchworks. Kiefer's book is a careful and thoughtful presentation of all aspects of the immense problem of quantum gravity. Kiefer is very learned, and brings together three rare qualities: he is pedagogical, he is capable of simplifying matter to the bones and capturing the essential, and he offers a serious and balanced evaluation of views and ideas. In a fractured field based on a major problem that does not yet have a solution, these qualities are precious. I recommend Kiefer's book to my students entering the field: to work in quantum gravity one needs a vast amount of technical knowledge as well as a grasp of different ideas, and Kiefer's book offers this with remarkable clarity. This novel third edition simplifies and improves the presentation of several topics, but also adds very valuable new material on quantum gravity phenomenology, loop quantum cosmology, asymptotic safety, Horava-Lifshitz gravity, analogue gravity, the holographic principle, and more. This is a testament

  8. Adaptive significance of the Indian caste system: an ecological perspective.

    PubMed

    Gadgil, M; Malhotra, K C

    1983-01-01

    Indian society is an agglomeration of several thousand endogamous groups or castes each with a restricted geographical range and a hereditarily determined mode of subsistence. These reproductively isolated castes may be compared to biological species, and the society thought of as a biological community with each caste having its specific ecological niche. In this paper we examine the ecological-niche relationships of castes which are directly dependent on natural resources. Evidence is presented to show that castes living together in the same region had so organized their pattern of resource use as to avoid excessive intercaste competition for limiting resources. Furthermore, territorial division of the total range of the caste regulated intra-caste competition. Hence, a particular plant or animal resource in a given locality was used almost exclusively by a given lineage within a caste generation after generation. This favoured the cultural evolution of traditions ensuring sustainable use of natural resources. This must have contributed significantly to the stability of Indian caste society over several thousand years. The collapse of the base of natural resources and increasing monetarization of the economy has, however, destroyed the earlier complementarity between the different castes and led to increasing conflicts between them in recent years.

  9. Effect of molybdenum, vanadium, boron on mechanical properties of high chromium white cast iron in as-cast condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurjaman, F.; Sumardi, S.; Shofi, A.; Aryati, M.; Suharno, B.

    2016-02-01

    In this experiment, the effect of the addition carbide forming elements on high chromium white cast iron, such as molybdenum, vanadium and boron on its mechanical properties and microstructure was investigated. The high chromium white cast iron was produced by casting process and formed in 50 mm size of grinding balls with several compositions. Characterization of these grinding balls was conducted by using some testing methods, such as: chemical and microstructure analysis, hardness, and impact test. From the results, the addition of molybdenum, vanadium, and boron on high chromium white cast iron provided a significant improvement on its hardness, but reduced its toughness. Molybdenum induced fully austenitic matrix and Mo2C formation among eutectic M7C3 carbide. Vanadium was dissolved in the matrix and carbide. While boron was played a role to form fine eutectic carbide. Grinding balls with 1.89 C-13.1 Cr-1.32 Mo-1.36 V-0.00051 B in as-cast condition had the highest hardness, which was caused by finer structure of eutectic carbide, needle like structure (upper bainite) matrix, and martensite on its carbide boundary.

  10. Gravity: Simple Experiments for Young Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Larry

    This book contains 12 simple experiments through which students can learn about gravity and its implications. Some of the topics included are weight, weightlessness, artificial gravity, the pull of gravity on different shapes, center of gravity, the universal law of gravity, and balancing. Experiments include: finding the balancing point; weighing…

  11. Methods for Casting Subterranean Ant Nests

    PubMed Central

    Tschinkel, Walter R.

    2010-01-01

    The study of subterranean ant nests has been impeded by the difficulty of rendering their structures in visible form. Here, several different casting materials are shown to make perfect casts of the underground nests of ants. Each material (dental plaster, paraffin wax, aluminum, zinc) has advantages and limitations, which are discussed. Some of the materials allow the recovery of the ants entombed in the casts, allowing a census of the ants to be connected with features of their nest architecture. The necessary equipment and procedures are described in the hope that more researchers will study this very important aspect of ant natural history. PMID:20673073

  12. Caste, Class and the Love-Marriage: Social Change in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Lauren A.

    1977-01-01

    The present study of a small town in rural West Bengal, India, reveals a number of "love-marriages" involving individuals from castes of distinctly different ranks in the local caste hierarchy. Despite the prevailing rule of caste endogamy, inter-caste couples appear to face little difficulty. (Author)

  13. Precise Determination of the Zero-Gravity Surface Figure of a Mirror without Gravity-Sag Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloemhof, Eric E.; Lam, Jonathan C.; Feria, V. Alfonso; Chang, Zensheu

    2007-01-01

    The zero-gravity surface figure of optics used in spaceborne astronomical instruments must be known to high accuracy, but earthbound metrology is typically corrupted by gravity sag. Generally, inference of the zero-gravity surface figure from a measurement made under normal gravity requires finite-element analysis (FEA), and for accurate results the mount forces must be well characterized. We describe how to infer the zero-gravity surface figure very precisely using the alternative classical technique of averaging pairs of measurements made with the direction of gravity reversed. We show that mount forces as well as gravity must be reversed between the two measurements and discuss how the St. Venant principle determines when a reversed mount force may be considered to be applied at the same place in the two orientations. Our approach requires no finite-element modeling and no detailed knowledge of mount forces other than the fact that they reverse and are applied at the same point in each orientation. If mount schemes are suitably chosen, zero-gravity optical surfaces may be inferred much more simply and more accurately than with FEA.

  14. The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jo; Scott, Fiona; Stott, Carol; Allison, Carrie; Bolton, Patrick; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

    2005-01-01

    The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST) is a parental questionnaire to screen for autism spectrum conditions. In this validation study, the CAST was distributed to 1925 children aged 5-11 in mainstream Cambridgeshire schools. A sample of participants received a full diagnostic assessment, conducted blind to screen status. The sensitivity of…

  15. Psychotherapy with Older Dying Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Carol J.

    Psychotherapy with older dying patients can lead to problems of countertransference for the clinician. Working with dying patients requires flexibility to adapt basic therapeutics to the institutional setting. Goals of psychotherapy must be reconceptualized for dying clients. The problems of countertransference arise because clinicians themselves…

  16. Evaluation of cast creep occurring during simulated clubfoot correction

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Tamara L; Altiok, Haluk; Wang, Mei; McGrady, Linda M; Krzak, Joseph; Graf, Adam; Tarima, Sergey; Smith, Peter A; Harris, Gerald, F

    2016-01-01

    The Ponseti method is a widely accepted and highly successful conservative treatment of pediatric clubfoot involving weekly manipulations and cast applications. Qualitative assessments have indicated the potential success of the technique with cast materials other than standard plaster of Paris. However, guidelines for clubfoot correction based on the mechanical response of these materials have yet to be investigated. The current study sought to characterize and compare the ability of three standard cast materials to maintain the Ponseti corrected foot position by evaluating cast creep response. A dynamic cast testing device, built to model clubfoot correction, was wrapped in plaster-of-Paris, semi-rigid fiberglass, and rigid fiberglass. Three-dimensional motion responses to two joint stiffnesses were recorded. Rotational creep displacement and linearity of the limb-cast composite were analyzed. Minimal change in position over time was found for all materials. Among cast materials, the rotational creep displacement was significantly different (p < 0.0001). The most creep displacement occurred in the plaster-of-Paris (2.0 degrees), then the semi-rigid fiberglass (1.0 degrees), and then the rigid fiberglass (0.4 degrees). Torque magnitude did not affect creep displacement response. Analysis of normalized rotation showed quasi—linear viscoelastic behavior. This study provided a mechanical evaluation of cast material performance as used for clubfoot correction. Creep displacement dependence on cast material and insensitivity to torque were discovered. This information may provide a quantitative and mechanical basis for future innovations for clubfoot care. PMID:23636764

  17. Heat Transfer Coefficient at Cast-Mold Interface During Centrifugal Casting: Calculation of Air Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohacek, Jan; Kharicha, Abdellah; Ludwig, Andreas; Wu, Menghuai; Karimi-Sibaki, Ebrahim

    2018-06-01

    During centrifugal casting, the thermal resistance at the cast-mold interface represents a main blockage mechanism for heat transfer. In addition to the refractory coating, an air gap begins to form due to the shrinkage of the casting and the mold expansion, under the continuous influence of strong centrifugal forces. Here, the heat transfer coefficient at the cast-mold interface h has been determined from calculations of the air gap thickness d a based on a plane stress model taking into account thermoelastic stresses, centrifugal forces, plastic deformations, and a temperature-dependent Young's modulus. The numerical approach proposed here is rather novel and tries to offer an alternative to the empirical formulas usually used in numerical simulations for a description of a time-dependent heat transfer coefficient h. Several numerical tests were performed for different coating thicknesses d C, rotation rates Ω, and temperatures of solidus T sol. Results demonstrated that the scenario at the interface is unique for each set of parameters, hindering the possibility of employing empirical formulas without a preceding experiment being performed. Initial values of h are simply equivalent to the ratio of the coating thermal conductivity and its thickness ( 1000 Wm-2 K-1). Later, when the air gap is formed, h drops exponentially to values at least one order of magnitude smaller ( 100 Wm-2 K-1).

  18. Repair welding of cast iron coated electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żuk, M.; Górka, J.; Dojka, R.; Czupryński, A.

    2017-08-01

    Welding cast iron is a complex production procedure. Repair welding was used to repair damaged or poorly made castings. This is due to a tendency to cracking of the material during welding as well as after it. Welding cast iron can be carried out on hot or on cold. Hot welding requires high heat material and the use of welding material in the form of cast iron. In the case of cold welding, it is possible to use different materials. Mostly used filler metals are nickel and copper based. The work shows the course of research concerning repairmen of ductile iron with arc welding method. For the reparation process four types of ESAB company coated electrodes dedicated for cast iron were used with diameter 3.2 and 4 mm: ES 18-8-6B (4mm), EB 150 (4mm), OK NiCl, EŻM. In the cast iron examined during the testing grooves were made using plasma methods, in order to simulate the removed casting flaws. Then the welding process with coated electrodes was executed. The process utilized low welding current row of 100A, so there would only be a small amount of heat delivered to the heat affected zone (HAZ). Short stitches were made, after welding it was hammered, in order to remove stresses. After the repair welding the part of studies commenced which purpose was finding surface defects using visual testing (VT) and penetration testing (PT). In the second part, a series of macro and microscopic studies were executed witch the purpose of disclosuring the structure. Then the hardness tests for welds cross sections were performed. An important aspect of welding cast iron is the colour of the padding weld after welding, more precisely the difference between the base material and padding weld, the use of different materials extra gives the extra ability to select the best variant. The research of four types of coated electrode was executed, based on the demands the best option in terms of aesthetic, strength and hardness.

  19. Testing quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansson, Johan; Francois, Stephane

    The search for a theory of quantum gravity is the most fundamental problem in all of theoretical physics, but there are as yet no experimental results at all to guide this endeavor. What seems to be needed is a pragmatic way to test if gravitation really occurs between quantum objects or not. In this paper, we suggest such a potential way out of this deadlock, utilizing macroscopic quantum systems; superfluid helium, gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates and “macroscopic” molecules. It turns out that true quantum gravity effects — here defined as observable gravitational interactions between truly quantum objects — could and should be seen (if they occur in nature) using existing technology. A falsification of the low-energy limit in the accessible weak-field regime would also falsify the full theory of quantum gravity, making it enter the realm of testable, potentially falsifiable theories, i.e. becoming real physics after almost a century of pure theorizing. If weak-field gravity between quantum objects is shown to be absent (in the regime where the approximation should apply), we know that gravity then is a strictly classical phenomenon absent at the quantum level.

  20. Venus Gravity Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konopliv, Alexander S.; Sjogren, William L.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the Venus gravity methods and results to date (model MGNP90LSAAP). It is called a handbook in that it contains many useful plots (such as geometry and orbit behavior) that are useful in evaluating the tracking data. We discuss the models that are used in processing the Doppler data and the estimation method for determining the gravity field. With Pioneer Venus Orbiter and Magellan tracking data, the Venus gravity field was determined complete to degree and order 90 with the use of the JPL Cray T3D Supercomputer. The gravity field shows unprecedented high correlation with topography and resolution of features to the 2OOkm resolution. In the procedure for solving the gravity field, other information is gained as well, and, for example, we discuss results for the Venus ephemeris, Love number, pole orientation of Venus, and atmospheric densities. Of significance is the Love number solution which indicates a liquid core for Venus. The ephemeris of Venus is determined to an accuracy of 0.02 mm/s (tens of meters in position), and the rotation period to 243.0194 +/- 0.0002 days.

  1. Gravity and Biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily R.

    1996-01-01

    Gravity has been the most constant environmental factor throughout the evolution of biological species on Earth. Organisms are rarely exposed to other gravity levels, either increased or decreased, for prolonged periods. Thus, evolution in a constant 1G field has historically prevented us from appreciating the potential biological consequences of a multi-G universe. To answer the question 'Can terrestrial life be sustained and thrive beyond our planet?' we need to understand the importance of gravity on living systems, and we need to develop a multi-G, rather than a 1G, mentality. The science of gravitational biology took a giant step with the advent of the space program, which provided the first opportunity to examine living organisms in gravity environments lower than could be sustained on Earth. Previously, virtually nothing was known about the effects of extremely low gravity on living organisms, and most of the initial expectations were proven wrong. All species that have flown in space survive in microgravity, although no higher organism has ever completed a life cycle in space. It has been found, however, that many systems change, transiently or permanently, as a result of prolonged exposure to microgravity.

  2. Development of a CFD code for casting simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murph, Jesse E.

    1993-01-01

    Because of high rejection rates for large structural castings (e.g., the Space Shuttle Main Engine Alternate Turbopump Design Program), a reliable casting simulation computer code is very desirable. This code would reduce both the development time and life cycle costs by allowing accurate modeling of the entire casting process. While this code could be used for other types of castings, the most significant reductions of time and cost would probably be realized in complex investment castings, where any reduction in the number of development castings would be of significant benefit. The casting process is conveniently divided into three distinct phases: (1) mold filling, where the melt is poured or forced into the mold cavity; (2) solidification, where the melt undergoes a phase change to the solid state; and (3) cool down, where the solidified part continues to cool to ambient conditions. While these phases may appear to be separate and distinct, temporal overlaps do exist between phases (e.g., local solidification occurring during mold filling), and some phenomenological events are affected by others (e.g., residual stresses depend on solidification and cooling rates). Therefore, a reliable code must accurately model all three phases and the interactions between each. While many codes have been developed (to various stages of complexity) to model the solidification and cool down phases, only a few codes have been developed to model mold filling.

  3. Improved Net-Level Filling And Finishing Of Large Castings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Erik P.; Brown, Richard F.

    1995-01-01

    Improved method of vacuum casting of large, generally cylindrical objects to net sizes and shapes reduces amount of direct manual labor by workers in proximity to cast material. Original application for which method devised is fabrication of solid rocket-motor segments containing solid propellant, wherein need to minimize exposure of workers to propellant material being cast. Improved method adaptable to other applications involving large castings of toxic, flammable, or otherwise hazardous materials.

  4. Roll Casting of Aluminum Alloy Clad Strip

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, R.; Tsuge, H.; Haga, T.

    2011-01-17

    Casting of aluminum alloy three layers of clad strip was tried using the two sets of twin roll casters, and effects of the casting parameters on the cladding conditions were investigated. One twin roll caster was mounted on the other twin roll caster. Base strip was 8079 aluminum alloy and overlay strips were 6022 aluminum alloy. Effects of roll-load of upper and lower casters and melt temperature of the lower caster were investigated. When the roll-load of the upper and lower caster was large enough, the overlay strip could be solidified and be connected. The overlay strip could be connectedmore » when the melt of the overlay strip cast by the lower caster was low enough. Sound three layers of clad strip could be cast by proper conditions.« less

  5. Pultrusion Die Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L. (Inventor); Johnson, Gary S. (Inventor); Frye, Mark W. (Inventor); Stanfield, Clarence E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates generally to pultrusion die assemblies, and more particularly, to a pultrusion die assembly which incorporates a plurality of functions in order to produce a continuous, thin composite fiber reinforced thermoplastic material. The invention is useful for making high performance thermoplastic composite materials in sheets which can be coiled on a spool and stored for further processing.

  6. 25 CFR 217.6 - Method of casting votes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of casting votes. 217.6 Section 217.6 Indians.... § 217.6 Method of casting votes. Within 30 days after an issue and any analysis provided for in §§ 217.4... superintendent in writing of the number of votes cast for and against the proposed or alternative solutions. If...

  7. Butterfly effect in 3D gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaemmaqami, Mohammad M.

    2017-11-01

    We study the butterfly effect by considering shock wave solutions near the horizon of the anti-de Sitter black hole in some three-dimensional gravity models including 3D Einstein gravity, minimal massive 3D gravity, new massive gravity, generalized massive gravity, Born-Infeld 3D gravity, and new bigravity. We calculate the butterfly velocities of these models and also we consider the critical points and different limits in some of these models. By studying the butterfly effect in the generalized massive gravity, we observe a correspondence between the butterfly velocities and right-left moving degrees of freedom or the central charges of the dual 2D conformal field theories.

  8. Incidence and etiology of unplanned cast changes for fractures in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    DiPaola, Matthew J; Abzug, Joshua M; Pizzutillo, Peter D; Herman, Martin J

    2014-09-01

    The majority of pediatric fractures are treated in casts due to the child's ability to heal rapidly and remodel. Unplanned cast changes are a time and economic burden with potentially adverse effects on fracture management. The purpose of this study is to document the incidence, etiology, and complications related to unplanned cast changes. A prospective study was conducted over a 6-month period to determine the incidence of unplanned cast changes. All casts applied were nonwaterproof. Data collected include the reason for cast placement, type of cast placed, duration of wear before the unplanned change, reason for the unplanned change, experience level of the original cast applicator, and cast-related complications. A total of 1135 casts were placed with 58% placed by a resident, 38% by a cast technician, 2% by a physician's assistant, and 2% by an attending physician. Sixty casts (5.3%) required an unplanned change including 19 short-arm casts, 18 short-leg casts, 17 long-arm casts, 4 thumb spica casts, and 2 long-leg casts. The average duration from cast application until the unplanned change was 13 days. Twenty-eight (47%) were changed for wetness, 20 (33%) for wear/breakage, 2 (3%) for skin irritation, and 10 (17%) for other reasons including objects in the cast and patient self-removal. Two patients had superficial skin infections requiring oral antibiotics. No fracture reductions were lost secondary to an unplanned cast change. The need for an unplanned cast change did not correlate with the level of experience of the applicator. Most unplanned cast changes were the result of patient nonadherence to instructions and not related to cast application technique. Improved patient and family education regarding cast care may reduce the frequency of unplanned cast changes, thus reducing an economic and time burden on the health care system. Level II--prognostic study.

  9. Nonsingular universe in massive gravity's rainbow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendi, S. H.; Momennia, M.; Eslam Panah, B.; Panahiyan, S.

    2017-06-01

    One of the fundamental open questions in cosmology is whether we can regard the universe evolution without singularity like a Big Bang or a Big Rip. This challenging subject stimulates one to regard a nonsingular universe in the far past with an arbitrarily large vacuum energy. Considering the high energy regime in the cosmic history, it is believed that Einstein gravity should be corrected to an effective energy dependent theory which could be acquired by gravity's rainbow. On the other hand, employing massive gravity provided us with solutions to some of the long standing fundamental problems of cosmology such as cosmological constant problem and self acceleration of the universe. Considering these aspects of gravity's rainbow and massive gravity, in this paper, we initiate studying FRW cosmology in the massive gravity's rainbow formalism. At first, we show that although massive gravity modifies the FRW cosmology, but it does not itself remove the big bang singularity. Then, we generalize the massive gravity to the case of energy dependent spacetime and find that massive gravity's rainbow can remove the early universe singularity. We bring together all the essential conditions for having a nonsingular universe and the effects of both gravity's rainbow and massive gravity generalizations on such criteria are determined.

  10. Application of TRIZ Theory in Patternless Casting Manufacturing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weidong; Gan, Dequan; Jiang, Ping; Tian, Yumei

    The ultimate goal of Patternless Casting Manufacturing (referred to as PCM) is how to obtain the casts by casting the sand mold directly. In the previous PCM, the resin content of sand mold is much higher than that required by traditional resin sand, so the casts obtained are difficult to be sound and qualified products, which limits the application of this technique greatly. In this paper, the TRIZ algorithm is introduced to the innovation process in PCM systematically.

  11. Report on results of current and future metal casting

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, Cetin; Carlson, Neil N.

    2015-09-28

    New modeling capabilities needed to simulate the casting of metallic fuels are added to Truchas code. In this report we summarize improvements we made in FY2015 in three areas; (1) Analysis of new casting experiments conducted with BCS and EFL designs, (2) the simulation of INL’s U-Zr casting experiments with Flow3D computer program, (3) the implementation of surface tension model into Truchas for unstructured mesh required to run U-Zr casting.

  12. Paper Casting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrasjid, Dorine A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes an art project, based on the work of artist Chew Teng Beng, in the molding of wet paper on a plaster cast to create embossed paper designs. The values of such a project are outlined, including a note that its tactile approach makes it suitable to visually handicapped students. (SJL)

  13. Comparison the Marginal and Internal Fit of Metal Copings Cast from Wax Patterns Fabricated by CAD/CAM and Conventional Wax up Techniques.

    PubMed

    Vojdani, M; Torabi, K; Farjood, E; Khaledi, Aar

    2013-09-01

    Metal-ceramic crowns are most commonly used as the complete coverage restorations in clinical daily use. Disadvantages of conventional hand-made wax-patterns introduce some alternative ways by means of CAD/CAM technologies. This study compares the marginal and internal fit of copings cast from CAD/CAM and conventional fabricated wax-patterns. Twenty-four standardized brass dies were prepared and randomly divided into 2 groups according to the wax-patterns fabrication method (CAD/CAM technique and conventional method) (n=12). All the wax-patterns were fabricated in a standard fashion by means of contour, thickness and internal relief (M1-M12: representative of CAD/CAM group, C1-C12: representative of conventional group). CAD/CAM milling machine (Cori TEC 340i; imes-icore GmbH, Eiterfeld, Germany) was used to fabricate the CAD/CAM group wax-patterns. The copings cast from 24 wax-patterns were cemented to the corresponding dies. For all the coping-die assemblies cross-sectional technique was used to evaluate the marginal and internal fit at 15 points. The Student's t- test was used for statistical analysis (α=0.05). The overall mean (SD) for absolute marginal discrepancy (AMD) was 254.46 (25.10) um for CAD/CAM group and 88.08(10.67) um for conventional group (control). The overall mean of internal gap total (IGT) was 110.77(5.92) um for CAD/CAM group and 76.90 (10.17) um for conventional group. The Student's t-test revealed significant differences between 2 groups. Marginal and internal gaps were found to be significantly higher at all measured areas in CAD/CAM group than conventional group (p< 0.001). Within limitations of this study, conventional method of wax-pattern fabrication produced copings with significantly better marginal and internal fit than CAD/CAM (machine-milled) technique. All the factors for 2 groups were standardized except wax pattern fabrication technique, therefore, only the conventional group results in copings with clinically acceptable

  14. Modal Vibration Analysis of Large Castings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werlink, Rudolph J.; Margasahayam, Ravi N.

    2009-01-01

    The art of experimental modal vibration analysis (MVA) has been extended to apply to large castings. This extension was made to enable the use of experimental MVA as a relatively inexpensive, simple means of assessing the internal structural integrity of tread shoes of crawler transporters used to move spacecraft to the launch pad at Kennedy Space Center. Each tread shoe is made from cast iron and weighs about a ton (has a mass .907 kg). The present extended version of experimental MVA could also be applied to other large castings. It could be especially useful to manufacturers as a means of rapidly discriminating against large castings that contain unacceptably large concentrations of internal defects. The use of experimental MVA to assess structural integrity is not new. What are new here are those aspects of the extension of experimental MVA that pertain to the application of MVA to objects so massive that it may not be practical or cost effective to mount them in special test fixtures that impose special test boundary conditions to test them in place under normal conditions of use.

  15. Effect of various putty-wash impression techniques on marginal fit of cast crowns.

    PubMed

    Nissan, Joseph; Rosner, Ofir; Bukhari, Mohammed Amin; Ghelfan, Oded; Pilo, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    Marginal fit is an important clinical factor that affects restoration longevity. The accuracy of three polyvinyl siloxane putty-wash impression techniques was compared by marginal fit assessment using the nondestructive method. A stainless steel master cast containing three abutments with three metal crowns matching the three preparations was used to make 45 impressions: group A = single-step technique (putty and wash impression materials used simultaneously), group B = two-step technique with a 2-mm relief (putty as a preliminary impression to create a 2-mm wash space followed by the wash stage), and group C = two-step technique with a polyethylene spacer (plastic spacer used with the putty impression followed by the wash stage). Accuracy was assessed using a toolmaker microscope to measure and compare the marginal gaps between each crown and finish line on the duplicated stone casts. Each abutment was further measured at the mesial, buccal, and distal aspects. One-way analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis. P values and Scheffe post hoc contrasts were calculated. Significance was determined at .05. One-way analysis of variance showed significant differences among the three impression techniques in all three abutments and at all three locations (P < .001). Group B yielded dies with minimal gaps compared to groups A and C. The two-step impression technique with 2-mm relief was the most accurate regarding the crucial clinical factor of marginal fit.

  16. GRINDING ROOM AT SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BESSEMER FOUNDRY SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GRINDING ROOM AT SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BESSEMER FOUNDRY SHOWING WHEELABORATOR THAT IMPALE SHOT AT TUMBLING CASTINGS TO REMOVE EXCESS SURFACE METALS AND SAND; ANNEALING OVENS TO HEAT CERTAIN CASTINGS TO ACHIEVE A DESIRED CHARACTERISTIC; AND GRINDING WHEELS USED TO REMOVE GATES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Grinding & Shipping, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  17. Effects of Gravity on Cells, Tissues, and Organisms: Their Implications on Habitat and Human Support in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizito, John

    2004-01-01

    This presentation will demonstrate that gravity plays a major role in advanced human life support in a closed habitat. The examples include, but are not limited to, control of purity in drinking water supplies (application of biocides), control of urine in space rodent habitats and operation of space septic tanks (waste management). Our goal is to understand and determine possible mechanisms that describe the process by which cells anchor to a substrate to form dynamic, vibrant communities of cells which influence human health in absence of gravity. The balance of all forces (mechanotransduction) acting on a cell will determine whether a cell thrives and multiplies or dies in a process called apoptosis and/or necrosis. The balance of forces are tightly coupled to the transport of nutrients and metabolic products (biochemotransduction) to and from the cell interface. We will highlight our effort to improve astronaut health by showing that microgravity life support systems have to be designed differently from those on Earth.

  18. Gravity measurements in southeastern Alaska reveal negative gravity rate of change caused by glacial isostatic adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, W.; Miura, S.; Sato, T.; Sugano, T.; Freymueller, J.; Kaufman, M.; Larsen, C. F.; Cross, R.; Inazu, D.

    2010-12-01

    For the past 300 years, southeastern Alaska has undergone rapid ice-melting and land uplift attributable to global warming. Corresponding crustal deformation (3 cm/yr) caused by the Little Ice Age retreat is detectable with modern geodetic techniques such as GPS and tidal gauge measurements. Geodetic deformation provides useful information for assessing ice-melting rates, global warming effects, and subcrustal viscosity. Nevertheless, integrated geodetic observations, including gravity measurements, are important. To detect crustal deformation caused by glacial isostatic adjustment and to elucidate the viscosity structure in southeastern Alaska, Japanese and U.S. researchers began a joint 3-year project in 2006 using GPS, Earth tide, and absolute gravity measurements. A new absolute gravity network was established, comprising five sites around Glacier Bay, near Juneau, Alaska. This paper reports the network's gravity measurements during 2006-2008. The bad ocean model in this area hindered ocean loading correction: Large tidal residuals remain in the observations. Accurate tidal correction necessitated on-site tidal observation. Results show high observation precision for all five stations: <1 μGal. The gravity rate of change was found to be -3.5 to -5.6 μGal/yr in the gravity network. Furthermore, gravity results obtained during the 3 years indicate a similar gravity change rate. These gravity data are anticipated for application in geophysical studies of southeastern Alaska. Using gravity and vertical displacement data, we constructed a quantity to remove viscoelastic effects. The observations are thus useful to constrain present-day ice thickness changes. A gravity bias of about -13.2 ± 0.1 mGal exists between the Potsdam and current FG5 gravity data.

  19. Born-Infeld Gravity Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setare, M. R.; Sahraee, M.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the behavior of linearized gravitational excitation in the Born-Infeld gravity in AdS3 space. We obtain the linearized equation of motion and show that this higher-order gravity propagate two gravitons, massless and massive, on the AdS3 background. In contrast to the R2 models, such as TMG or NMG, Born-Infeld gravity does not have a critical point for any regular choice of parameters. So the logarithmic solution is not a solution of this model, due to this one cannot find a logarithmic conformal field theory as a dual model for Born-Infeld gravity.

  20. Brane-World Gravity.

    PubMed

    Maartens, Roy; Koyama, Kazuya

    2010-01-01

    The observable universe could be a 1+3-surface (the "brane") embedded in a 1+3+ d -dimensional spacetime (the "bulk"), with Standard Model particles and fields trapped on the brane while gravity is free to access the bulk. At least one of the d extra spatial dimensions could be very large relative to the Planck scale, which lowers the fundamental gravity scale, possibly even down to the electroweak (∼ TeV) level. This revolutionary picture arises in the framework of recent developments in M theory. The 1+10-dimensional M theory encompasses the known 1+9-dimensional superstring theories, and is widely considered to be a promising potential route to quantum gravity. At low energies, gravity is localized at the brane and general relativity is recovered, but at high energies gravity "leaks" into the bulk, behaving in a truly higher-dimensional way. This introduces significant changes to gravitational dynamics and perturbations, with interesting and potentially testable implications for high-energy astrophysics, black holes, and cosmology. Brane-world models offer a phenomenological way to test some of the novel predictions and corrections to general relativity that are implied by M theory. This review analyzes the geometry, dynamics and perturbations of simple brane-world models for cosmology and astrophysics, mainly focusing on warped 5-dimensional brane-worlds based on the Randall-Sundrum models. We also cover the simplest brane-world models in which 4-dimensional gravity on the brane is modified at low energies - the 5-dimensional Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati models. Then we discuss co-dimension two branes in 6-dimensional models.

  1. Method of reducing the green density of a slip cast article

    DOEpatents

    Mangels, John A.; Dickie, Ray A.

    1985-01-01

    The method disclosed in this specification is one of reducing the green density of an article cast in a slip casting operation. The article is cast from a casting slip containing silicon metal particles, yttrium containing particles, and a small amount of a fluoride salt which is effective to suppress flocculation of the silicon metal particles by y.sup.+3 ions derived from the yttrium containing particles. The method is characterized by the following step. A small amount of compound which produces a cation which will partly flocculate the particles of silicon metal is added to the casting slip. The small amount of this compound is added so that when the casting slip is slip cast into a casting mold, the partly flocculated particles of silicon will interrupt an otherwise orderly packing of the particles of silicon and particles of yttrium. In this manner, the green density of the slip cast article is reduced and the article may be more easily nitrided.

  2. Somigliana-Pizzetti gravity: the international gravity formula accurate to the sub-nanoGal level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardalan, A. A.; Grafarend, E. W.

    2001-09-01

    The Somigliana-Pizzetti gravity field (the International gravity formula), namely the gravity field of the level ellipsoid (the International Reference Ellipsoid), is derived to the sub-nanoGal accuracy level in order to fulfil the demands of modern gravimetry (absolute gravimeters, super conducting gravimeters, atomic gravimeters). Equations (53), (54) and (59) summarise Somigliana-Pizzetti gravity o({,u) as a function of Jacobi spheroidal latitude { and height u to the order ™(10m10 Gal), and o(B,H) as a function of Gauss (surface normal) ellipsoidal latitude B and height H to the order ™(10m10 Gal) as determined by GPS (`global problem solver'). Within the test area of the state of Baden-Württemberg, Somigliana-Pizzetti gravity disturbances of an average of 25.452 mGal were produced. Computer programs for an operational application of the new international gravity formula with (L,B,H) or (u,{,u) coordinate inputs to a sub-nanoGal level of accuracy are available on the Internet.

  3. Caste development and evolution in ants: it's all about size.

    PubMed

    Trible, Waring; Kronauer, Daniel J C

    2017-01-01

    Female ants display a wide variety of morphological castes, including workers, soldiers, ergatoid (worker-like) queens and queens. Alternative caste development within a species arises from a variable array of genetic and environmental factors. Castes themselves are also variable across species and have been repeatedly gained and lost throughout the evolutionary history of ants. Here, we propose a simple theory of caste development and evolution. We propose that female morphology varies as a function of size, such that larger individuals possess more queen-like traits. Thus, the diverse mechanisms that influence caste development are simply mechanisms that affect size in ants. Each caste-associated trait has a unique relationship with size, producing a phenotypic space that permits some combinations of worker- and queen-like traits, but not others. We propose that castes are gained and lost by modifying the regions of this phenotypic space that are realized within a species. These modifications can result from changing the size-frequency distribution of individuals within a species, or by changing the association of tissue growth and size. We hope this synthesis will help unify the literature on caste in ants, and facilitate the discovery of molecular mechanisms underlying caste development and evolution. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Electroslag Treatment of Liquid Cast Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grachev, V. A.

    2018-01-01

    The processes that occur in the liquid metal-slag system during electroslag treatment of cast iron are studied from an electrochemical standpoint. The role of electrolysis in the electroslag process is shown, and a method for producing high-strength cast iron with globular graphite using electrolysis of a slag containing magnesium oxides and fluorides is proposed and tested.

  5. Management of Intolerance to Casting the Upper Extremities in Claustrophobic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nagura, Issei; Kanatani, Takako; Sumi, Masatoshi; Inui, Atsuyuki; Mifune, Yutaka; Kokubu, Takeshi; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Some patients showed unusual responses to the immobilization without any objective findings with casts in upper extremities. We hypothesized their that intolerance with excessive anxiety to casts is due to claustrophobia triggered by cast immobilization. The aim of this study is to analyze the relevance of cast immobilization to the feeling of claustrophobia and discover how to handle them. Methods. There were nine patients who showed the caustrophobic symptoms with their casts. They were assesed whether they were aware of their claustrophobis themselves. Further we investigated the alternative immobilization to casts. Results. Seven out of nine cases that were aware of their claustrophobic tendencies either were given removable splints initially or had the casts converted to removable splints when they exhibited symptoms. The two patients who were unaware of their latent claustrophobic tendencies were identified when they showed similar claustrophobic symptoms to the previous patients soon after short arm cast application. We replaced the casts with removable splints. This resolved the issue in all cases. Conclusions. We should be aware of the claustrophobia if patients showed unusual responses to the immobilization without any objective findings with casts in upper extremities, where removal splint is practical alternative to cast to continue the treatment successfully. PMID:25379544

  6. Factors contributing to the temperature beneath plaster or fiberglass cast material

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Michael J; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2008-01-01

    Background Most cast materials mature and harden via an exothermic reaction. Although rare, thermal injuries secondary to casting can occur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors that contribute to the elevated temperature beneath a cast and, more specifically, evaluate the differences of modern casting materials including fiberglass and prefabricated splints. Methods The temperature beneath various types (plaster, fiberglass, and fiberglass splints), brands, and thickness of cast material were measured after they were applied over thermometer which was on the surface of a single diameter and thickness PVC tube. A single layer of cotton stockinette with variable layers and types of cast padding were placed prior to application of the cast. Serial temperature measurements were made as the cast matured and reached peak temperature. Time to peak, duration of peak, and peak temperature were noted. Additional tests included varying the dip water temperature and assessing external insulating factors. Ambient temperature, ambient humidity and dip water freshness were controlled. Results Outcomes revealed that material type, cast thickness, and dip water temperature played key roles regarding the temperature beneath the cast. Faster setting plasters achieved peak temperature quicker and at a higher level than slower setting plasters. Thicker fiberglass and plaster casts led to greater peak temperature levels. Likewise increasing dip-water temperature led to elevated temperatures. The thickness and type of cast padding had less of an effect for all materials. With a definition of thermal injury risk of skin injury being greater than 49 degrees Celsius, we found that thick casts of extra fast setting plaster consistently approached dangerous levels (greater than 49 degrees for an extended period). Indeed a cast of extra-fast setting plaster, 20 layers thick, placed on a pillow during maturation maintained temperatures over 50 degrees of Celsius for over 20

  7. Sleep and gravity.

    PubMed

    Gonfalone, Alain A

    2018-04-01

    What is known about sleep results from years of observation at the surface of the Earth. Since a few decade man has been able to reach space, escape from the earth attraction and spend days and nights in a weightless condition. Some major physiological changes have been observed during long stays and in particular the sleep duration in space is shorter than on ground. This paper reviews a novel hypothesis proposing that sleep is partly due to gravity. Gravity is a fundamental part of our environment, but is elusive and difficult to apprehend. At the same time, all creatures on Earth undergo cycles of activity and periods of rest (although not always sleep). Careful analysis of previous research on sleep, on Earth, in space and in water, shows that gravity differs in these three situations, and sleep also varies, at least in its duration. On Earth, Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep is conditioned by gravity; in space, astronauts have a shorter sleep duration and this is even more striking when a test subject is immersed in water for a week. In conclusion, sleep is partly due to gravity, which acts on our body and brain during the wake period. Copyright © 2018 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Industrial processes influenced by gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrach, Simon

    1988-01-01

    In considering new directions for low gravity research with particular regard to broadening the number and types of industrial involvements, it is noted that transport phenomena play a vital role in diverse processes in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and biotech industries. Relatively little attention has been given to the role of gravity in such processes. Accordingly, numerous industrial processes and phenomena are identified which involve gravity and/or surface tension forces. Phase separations and mixing are examples that will be significantly different in low gravity conditions. A basis is presented for expanding the scope of the low gravity research program and the potential benefits of such research is indicated.

  9. Investigation of the interfacial reactions between steel and aluminum coatings for hybrid casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Wiesner, S.; Gerdt, L.

    2018-06-01

    Coating of AA7075 was applied by means of cold gas spraying on steel substrates of 22MnB5 and DC04 as an interlayer for high pressure die casting of aluminum/steel hybrid components. The morphology and growth kinetics of intermetallic compounds formed at the interface between coating and steel has been investigated. Furthermore, the effect of alloying elements on the formation of the intermetallic phases was analyzed. The coated samples were heat treated by means of induction heating at the temperature T = 550 °C with different dwell times in the range of 10 s < t < 5 min. The reaction layer growth was examined by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Additionally, the intermetallic compounds were characterized by means of nanoindentation. Intermetallic compounds of AlFe phases occurred as the major constituent in the reaction zone for different combinations of coating and substrates.

  10. Characterization of Ni-Cr alloys using different casting techniques and molds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Teng, Fu-Yuan; Hung, Chun-Cheng

    2014-02-01

    This study differentiated the mechanical properties of nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) alloys under various casting techniques (different casting molds and casting atmospheres). These techniques were sampled by a sand mold using a centrifugal machine in ambient air (group I) and electromagnetic induction in an automatic argon castimatic casting machine (group II). The specimen casting used a graphite mold by a castimatic casting machine (group III). The characteristics of the Ni-Cr alloys, yield and ultimate tensile strength, bending modulus, microhardness, diffraction phase, grindability, ability to spring back, as well as ground microstructure and pattern under different casting conditions were evaluated. The group III specimens exhibited the highest values in terms of strength, modulus, hardness, and grindability at a grind rate of 500 rpm. Moreover, group III alloys exhibited smaller grain sizes, higher ability to spring back, and greater ductility than those casted by sand investment (groups I and II). The main factor, "casting mold," significantly influenced all mechanical properties. The graphite mold casting of the Ni-Cr dental alloys in a controlled atmosphere argon casting system provided an excellent combination of high mechanical properties and good ability to spring back, and preserved the ductile properties for application in Ni-Cr porcelain-fused system. The results can offer recommendations to assist a prosthetic technician in selecting the appropriate casting techniques to obtain the desired alloy properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sealing properties of three luting agents used for complete cast crowns: a bacterial leakage study.

    PubMed

    Zmener, O; Pameijer, C H; Rincon, S M H; Serrano, S A; Chaves, C

    2013-01-01

    To assess the sealing properties of three different luting materials used for cementation of full cast crowns on extracted human premolars. Thirty noncarious human premolars were prepared in a standardized fashion for full cast crown restorations. All margins were placed in dentin. After impressions of the preparations, stone dies were fabricated on which copings were waxed, which were cast in type III alloy using standardized laboratory methods. Teeth were randomly assigned to three groups of 10 samples each (n=10), for which the following cements were used: 1) a resin-modified glass ionomer cement, Rely X Luting Plus (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA); 2) a self-adhesive resin cement, Maxcem Elite (Kerr Corporation, Orange, CA, USA); and 3) a glass ionomer cement, Ketac Cem (3M ESPE), the latter used as control. After cementation the samples were allowed to bench-set for 10 minutes, stored in water at 37°C, subjected to thermal cycling (2000×, between 5°C and 55°C, dwell time 35 seconds), and then stored in sterile phosphate buffer for seven days at 37°C. Subsequently, the occlusal surface was carefully reduced until the dentin was exposed. Finishing on wet sand paper removed the gold flash caused by grinding. After sterilization, the specimens were subjected to bacterial microleakage in a dual chamber apparatus for 60 days. Bacterial leakage was checked daily. Data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier survival test. Significant pairwise differences were analyzed using the log-rank test followed by Fisher exact test at a p<0.05 level of significance. Rely X Luting Plus showed the lowest microleakage scores, which statistically differed significantly from Maxcem Elite and Ketac Cem (p<0.05). Rely X Luting Plus cement displayed significantly lower microleakage scores than a self-adhesive resin-based and conventional glass ionomer cement.

  12. A molecular concept of caste in insect societies.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Seirian; Bell, Emily; Taylor, Daisy

    2018-02-01

    The term 'caste' is used to describe the division of reproductive labour that defines eusocial insect societies. The definition of 'caste' has been debated over the last 50 years, specifically with respect to the simplest insect societies; this raises the question of whether a simple categorisation of social behaviour by reproductive state alone is helpful. Gene-level analyses of behaviours of individuals in hymenopteran social insect societies now provide a new empirical base-line for defining caste and understanding the evolution and maintenance of a reproductive division of labour. We review this literature to identify a set of potential molecular signatures that, combined with behavioural, morphological and physiological data, help define caste more precisely; these signatures vary with the type of society, and are likely to be influenced by ecology, life-history, and stage in the colony cycle. We conclude that genomic approaches provide us with additional ways to help quantify and categorise caste, and behaviour in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Structure and properties of stir-cast zinc alloys

    SciTech Connect

    LeHuy, H.; Blain J.; Masounave, J.

    Stir casting (or rheocasting) of ZA-27 zinc alloys was investigated experimentally. By vigorously agitating the alloys during cooling, the dendrites that were forming were fragmented giving a unique structure composed of spherical and rosette shaped particles suspended in the remaining liquid. Under high shear rates ({center dot}{gamma} = 300s{sup {minus}1} or more) the slurries with primary particle concentrations as high as 60% displayed viscosities as low as 20 poises and could easily be casted. The effects of processing variables such as shearing and cooling rates and casting temperatures were studied. Their relative importance on the rheological and microstructural behavior ofmore » the stir cast alloys are discussed. Results from viscosity measurements on slurries show that non-dendritical ZA-27 alloys obey a power law fluid model. Finally, results from mechanical and compressive studies carried out on solidified slurries are discussed and compared to conventional casted and wrought alloy properties.« less

  14. Grindability of alpha-case formed on cast titanium.

    PubMed

    Koike, Marie; Jacobson, David; Chan, Kwai S; Okabe, Toru

    2009-09-01

    The hardened alpha-case (alpha-case) layer inevitably forms on the surface of titanium castings when prepared by investment casting. Because the hardness of the alpha-case is incomparable to that of the interior structure, the perception exists that the alpha-case is difficult to remove during cutting, grinding and polishing. Grindability (ease of grinding) of cast cpTi and cast Ti-6Al-4V was evaluated by grinding cast specimens incrementally using a SiC abrasive wheel. The present study revealed that the presence of the brittle alpha-case with lower fracture toughness is beneficial in grinding titanium. The alpha-case on the ductile cpTi can be ground much easier than its bulk interior structure. In less ductile Ti-6Al-4V, the grinding rate is much higher than that of cpTi, and the alpha-case and its interior structure are at similar levels since the fracture toughness of its alpha-case and the bulk material is not large enough.

  15. Gravity gradient preprocessing at the GOCE HPF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouman, J.; Rispens, S.; Gruber, T.; Schrama, E.; Visser, P.; Tscherning, C. C.; Veicherts, M.

    2009-04-01

    One of the products derived from the GOCE observations are the gravity gradients. These gravity gradients are provided in the Gradiometer Reference Frame (GRF) and are calibrated in-flight using satellite shaking and star sensor data. In order to use these gravity gradients for application in Earth sciences and gravity field analysis, additional pre-processing needs to be done, including corrections for temporal gravity field signals to isolate the static gravity field part, screening for outliers, calibration by comparison with existing external gravity field information and error assessment. The temporal gravity gradient corrections consist of tidal and non-tidal corrections. These are all generally below the gravity gradient error level, which is predicted to show a 1/f behaviour for low frequencies. In the outlier detection the 1/f error is compensated for by subtracting a local median from the data, while the data error is assessed using the median absolute deviation. The local median acts as a high-pass filter and it is robust as is the median absolute deviation. Three different methods have been implemented for the calibration of the gravity gradients. All three methods use a high-pass filter to compensate for the 1/f gravity gradient error. The baseline method uses state-of-the-art global gravity field models and the most accurate results are obtained if star sensor misalignments are estimated along with the calibration parameters. A second calibration method uses GOCE GPS data to estimate a low degree gravity field model as well as gravity gradient scale factors. Both methods allow to estimate gravity gradient scale factors down to the 10-3 level. The third calibration method uses high accurate terrestrial gravity data in selected regions to validate the gravity gradient scale factors, focussing on the measurement band. Gravity gradient scale factors may be estimated down to the 10-2 level with this method.

  16. Methods and apparatuses for manufacturing geometric multicrystalline cast silicon and geometric multicrystalline cast silicon bodies for photovoltaics

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, Nathan G

    2015-02-10

    Methods and apparatuses are provided for casting silicon for photovoltaic cells and other applications. With such methods and apparatuses, a cast body of geometrically ordered multi-crystalline silicon may be formed that is free or substantially free of radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 10 cm is provided.

  17. Gravity anomaly map of Mars and Moon and analysis of Venus gravity field: New analysis procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The technique of harmonic splines allows direct estimation of a complete planetary gravity field (geoid, gravity, and gravity gradients) everywhere over the planet's surface. Harmonic spline results of Venus are presented as a series of maps at spacecraft and constant altitudes. Global (except for polar regions) and local relations of gravity to topography are described.

  18. Microstructural Evolution in Intensively Melt Sheared Direct Chill Cast Al-Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S.; Rao, A. K. Prasada; Patel, J. B.; Scamans, G. M.; Fan, Z.

    The work presented here introduces the novel melt conditioned direct chill casting (MC-DC) technology, where intensive melt shearing is applied to the conventional direct-chill casting process. MC-DC casting can successfully produce high quality Al-alloy billets. The results obtained from 80 mm diameter billets cast at speed of 200 mm/min show that MC-DC casting of Al-alloys, substantially refines the microstructure and reduces macro-segregation. In this paper, we present the preliminary results and discuss microstructural evolution during MC-DC casting of Al-alloys.

  19. New standards for reducing gravity data: The North American gravity database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinze, W. J.; Aiken, C.; Brozena, J.; Coakley, B.; Dater, D.; Flanagan, G.; Forsberg, R.; Hildenbrand, T.; Keller, Gordon R.; Kellogg, J.; Kucks, R.; Li, X.; Mainville, A.; Morin, R.; Pilkington, M.; Plouff, D.; Ravat, D.; Roman, D.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Veronneau, M.; Webring, M.; Winester, D.

    2005-01-01

    The North American gravity database as well as databases from Canada, Mexico, and the United States are being revised to improve their coverage, versatility, and accuracy. An important part of this effort is revising procedures for calculating gravity anomalies, taking into account our enhanced computational power, improved terrain databases and datums, and increased interest in more accurately defining long-wavelength anomaly components. Users of the databases may note minor differences between previous and revised database values as a result of these procedures. Generally, the differences do not impact the interpretation of local anomalies but do improve regional anomaly studies. The most striking revision is the use of the internationally accepted terrestrial ellipsoid for the height datum of gravity stations rather than the conventionally used geoid or sea level. Principal facts of gravity observations and anomalies based on both revised and previous procedures together with germane metadata will be available on an interactive Web-based data system as well as from national agencies and data centers. The use of the revised procedures is encouraged for gravity data reduction because of the widespread use of the global positioning system in gravity fieldwork and the need for increased accuracy and precision of anomalies and consistency with North American and national databases. Anomalies based on the revised standards should be preceded by the adjective "ellipsoidal" to differentiate anomalies calculated using heights with respect to the ellipsoid from those based on conventional elevations referenced to the geoid. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  20. Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimensions for Investment Casting, Phase III

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S

    2008-04-01

    Efforts during Phase III focused mainly on the shell-alloy systems. A high melting point alloy, 17-4PH stainless steel, was considered. The experimental part of the program was conducted at ORNL and commercial foundries, where wax patterns were injected, molds were invested, and alloys were poured. Shell molds made of fused-silica and alumino-silicates were considered. A literature review was conducted on thermophysical and thermomechanical properties alumino-silicates. Material property data, which were not available from material suppliers, was obtained. For all the properties of 17-4PH stainless steel, the experimental data available in the literature did not cover the entire temperature range necessarymore » for process simulation. Thus, some material properties were evaluated using ProCAST, based on CompuTherm database. A comparison between the predicted material property data and measured property data was made. It was found that most material properties were accurately predicted only over several temperature ranges. No experimental data for plastic modulus were found. Thus, several assumptions were made and ProCAST recommendations were followed in order to obtain a complete set of mechanical property data at high temperatures. Thermal expansion measurements for the 17-4PH alloy were conducted during heating and cooling. As a function of temperature, the thermal expansion for both the alloy and shell mold materials showed different evolution on heating and cooling. Numerical simulations were performed using ProCAST for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts in fused silica molds using the thermal expansion obtained on heating and another one with thermal expansion obtained on cooling. Since the fused silica shells had the lowest thermal expansion properties in the industry, the dewaxing phase, including the coupling between wax-shell systems, was neglected. The shell mold was considered to be a pure elastic material. The alloy dimensions

  1. Einsteinian cubic gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Pablo; Cano, Pablo A.

    2016-11-01

    We drastically simplify the problem of linearizing a general higher-order theory of gravity. We reduce it to the evaluation of its Lagrangian on a particular Riemann tensor depending on two parameters, and the computation of two derivatives with respect to one of those parameters. We use our method to construct a D -dimensional cubic theory of gravity which satisfies the following properties: (1) it shares the spectrum of Einstein gravity, i.e., it only propagates a transverse and massless graviton on a maximally symmetric background; (2) it is defined in the same way in general dimensions; (3) it is neither trivial nor topological in four dimensions. Up to cubic order in curvature, the only previously known theories satisfying the first two requirements are the Lovelock ones. We show that, up to cubic order, there exists only one additional theory satisfying requirements (1) and (2). Interestingly, this theory is, along with Einstein gravity, the only one which also satisfies (3).

  2. Casting for infantile scoliosis: the pitfall of increased peak inspiratory pressure.

    PubMed

    Dhawale, Arjun A; Shah, Suken A; Reichard, Samantha; Holmes, Laurens; Brislin, Robert; Rogers, Kenneth; Mackenzie, William G

    2013-01-01

    Serial cast correction is a popular treatment option for progressive infantile scoliosis. Body casting can lead to chest and abdominal expansion restriction and result in decreased chest wall compliance. There are no studies evaluating the effects of casting on ventilation in infantile scoliosis. This study examines changes in peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) during serial casting for infantile scoliosis. We retrospectively reviewed data obtained from 37 serial Cotrel elongation, derotation, and flexion cast corrections in patients with infantile scoliosis. Patient demographics, radiographic measurements, and anesthesia data were recorded. Anesthesia technique was standardized: children were intubated with rigid endotracheal tubes (ETTs); tidal volume was held constant at 8 to 10 cm(3)/kg using volume control ventilation; and PIP was recorded at baseline, after cast application before window cutout, and after window cutout before extubation. Any complications were documented. We assessed the PIP changes with a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). The mean age at first casting was 21.8 months (range, 12 to 42 mo) and mean follow-up since first casting was 22.4 months (range, 13 to 40 mo) with mean major Cobb angle of 53±15 degrees. The mean PIP was 15.5±4.9 cm H(2)O before casting, 31.9±7.9 cm H(2)O after cast application, and 20.4±5.6 cm H2O after making windows. There was a 106% increase after casting and 32% increase after window cutout from the baseline PIP levels. There was a significant difference in PIP on repeated measures ANOVA (P<0.0001). Intraoperatively, there was difficulty in maintaining ventilation during 2 procedures and 1 hypotensive episode. One patient developed hypoxemia after casting and another had delayed difficulty in breathing. Casting resulted in an increased PIP due to transient restrictive pulmonary process; after windows were cut out, the PIP reduced but not to baseline. In patients with underlying pulmonary disease, the

  3. 40 CFR 464.10 - Applicability; description of the aluminum casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... aluminum casting subcategory. 464.10 Section 464.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Aluminum Casting Subcategory § 464.10 Applicability; description of the aluminum casting subcategory. The... introduction of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works resulting from aluminum casting operations as...

  4. 40 CFR 464.20 - Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... copper casting subcategory. 464.20 Section 464.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Copper Casting Subcategory § 464.20 Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory. The... introduction of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works resulting from copper casting operations as...

  5. 40 CFR 464.20 - Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... copper casting subcategory. 464.20 Section 464.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Copper Casting Subcategory § 464.20 Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory. The... introduction of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works resulting from copper casting operations as...

  6. 40 CFR 464.30 - Applicability; description of the ferrous casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ferrous casting subcategory. 464.30 Section 464.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ferrous Casting Subcategory § 464.30 Applicability; description of the ferrous casting subcategory. The...

  7. Resistance against bacterial leakage of four luting agents used for cementation of complete cast crowns.

    PubMed

    Zmener, Osvaldo; Pameijer, Cornelis H; Hernández, Sandra

    2014-02-01

    To assess the sealing properties of four luting materials used for cementation of full cast crowns. 40 human premolars were prepared with a chamfer finish line. Stone dies were fabricated and copings were waxed, invested and cast in gold. Ten samples (n = 10) were randomly assigned to four groups. In two groups, resin modified glass-ionomer cements were used, ACTIVA BioACTIVE-CEMENT/BASE/LINER and FujiCem2; the third group received the self-adhesive resin cement Embrace WetBond, while the fourth group served as control with a zinc phosphate cement. After cementation, excess cement was removed followed by bench-set for 10 minutes. All samples were stored in water at 37 degrees C and subjected to thermal cycling (x2000 between 5 and 55 degrees C). Subsequently the occlusal surface was reduced exposing the dentin. After sterilization the specimens were subjected to bacterial microleakage with E. faecalis in a dual chamber apparatus for a period of 60 days. Bacterial leakage was checked daily. Data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meyer survival test. Significant pairwise differences were analyzed using the Log Rank test and the Fishers' exact test at P < 0.05. ACTIVA BioACTIVE-CEMENT/BASE/LINER, FujiCem2 and Embrace WetBond showed the lowest microleakage scores and differed statistically significantly (P < 0.05) from zinc phosphate cement.

  8. Performance of prestressed girders cast with LWSCC.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-08-01

    Bond of prestressing steel has been a much debated topic since the 1950s. Limited data are available on the transfer and development length of strands cast in self : consolidating concrete (SCC) and even less for strands cast in light weight, self-co...

  9. PRODUCTION OF SLIP CAST CALCIA HOLLOWWARE

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, S.D.; Nuckolls, D.E.; Cowan, R.E.

    1963-12-31

    A method for producing slip cast calcia hollow ware in which a dense calcia grain is suspended in isobutyl acetate or a mixture of tertiary amyl alcohol and o-xylene is presented. A minor amount of triethanolamine and oleic acid is added to the suspension vehicle as viscosity adjusting agents and the suspension is cast in a plaster mold, dried, and fired. (AEC)

  10. Short-term after-effect of forearm cast removal in children.

    PubMed

    Katz, Kalman; Weigl, Daniel; Becker, Tal; Attias, Joseph; Bar-On, Elhanan

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the sensation in the hand after forearm cast removal in children. The study group included 33 consecutive children who were treated nonoperatively for a forearm fracture at our center over a 1-year period. The children were asked to report any sensation in the ipsilateral hand after cast removal, and the findings were analyzed against background and fracture-related data. The patients ranged in age from 6 to 14 years (median 10.00 years). Seventeen had been immobilized in an above-elbow cast and the remainder in a below-elbow cast. All children treated with an above-elbow cast complained that after cast removal, the hand on that side felt limp, and they had to hold it with the contralateral hand. By contrast, only one child treated with a below-elbow cast reported this sensation (p = 0.0001, Fisher exact test). Orthopedic surgeons and rehabilitation unit staff should be aware of the possibility of a very short-term sensation of drooping and weakness of the hand after removal of an above-elbow cast in children and prepare the child and parents accordingly in order to lessen unnecessary anxiety.

  11. Comparative Analysis of the Microstructural Features of 28 wt.% Cr Cast Iron Fabricated by Pulsed Plasma Deposition and Conventional Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabak, Yu. G.; Efremenko, V. G.; Shimizu, K.; Lekatou, A.; Pastukhova, T. V.; Azarkhov, A. Yu.; Zurnadzhy, V. I.

    2018-02-01

    The effect of pulsed plasma deposition (by an electrothermal axial plasma accelerator) followed by post-heat treatment on the structure and microhardness of a 28 wt.% Cr white cast iron is analyzed and discussed with respect to the microstructure of the conventionally cast monolithic counterpart. The cast iron (as deposited on a 14 wt.% Cr cast iron substrate) had a microhardness of 630-750 HV0.05; it had layered light contrast/dark contrast structure where dark contrast layers contain fine carbide network. Pulsed plasma deposition followed by heat treatment resulted in a substantial refinement of the microstructure: eutectic M7C3 coarse acicular plates in the conventional cast iron were replaced by fine M7C3, M3C2, M3C particles (Cr depleted in favor of Fe), while the initial carbide particle of 2-3 μm was reduced to 0.6 μm. Secondary dendrite arm spacing decreased from 15 to 1.3 μm, accordingly. The carbide volume fraction in the post-heat-treated coating remarkably increased with respect to the conventional counterpart resulting in a substantial increase in the coating hardness (1300-1750 HV0.05). The heat-treated coating displayed higher resistance to three-body abrasion than the as-deposited coating and similar resistance with that of the conventionally cast iron.

  12. Influence of rotational speed of centrifugal casting process on appearance, microstructure, and sliding wear behaviour of Al-2Si cast alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukunda, P. G.; Shailesh, Rao A.; Rao, Shrikantha S.

    2010-02-01

    Although the manner in which the molten metal flows plays a major role in the formation of the uniform cylinder in centrifugal casting, not much information is available on this topic. The flow in the molten metal differs at various rotational speeds, which in turn affects the final casting. In this paper, the influence of the flow of molten metal of hyper eutectic Al-2Si alloys at various rotational speeds is discussed. At an optimum speed of 800 rpm, a uniform cylinder was formed. For the rotational speeds below and above these speeds, an irregular shaped casting was formed, which is mainly due to the influence of melt. Primary á-Al particles were formed in the tube periphery at low rotational speed, and their sizes and shapes were altered with changes in rotational speeds. The wear test for the inner surface of the casting showed better wear properties for the casting prepared at the optimum speed of rotation.

  13. Medizintechnik in der Tumororthopädie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgkart, Rainer; Gollwitzer, Hans; Holzapfel, Boris; Rudert, Maximilian; Rechl, Hans; Gradinger, Reiner

    Die Behandlung der Knochentumoren unterlag in den letzten 20 Jahren einem raschen und stetigen Wandel, was zum einen auf die verbesserten Therapieerfolge durch den Einsatz von neoadjuvanten Therapieformen zurückzuführen ist, und andererseits von medizintechnischen Entwicklungen bezüglich moderner Schnittbilddiagnostik, neuer 3D Operationsplanungsverfahren wie das Rapid Prototyping und adaptiv modularer Tumorendoprothesensystemen u. a. begleitet wurde. Gerade die technischen Entwicklungen haben dazu geführt, daß im Bereich der Extremitäten und der Wirbelsäule radikalere Eingriffe durchgeführt werden können, was die lokale Tumorkontrolle wesentlich verbessert hat. In zunehmenden Maße werden deshalb nicht nur Kurzzeiterfolge sondern auch mittel- und langfristige Fortschritte bei der Behandlung der malignen Knochentumoren einschließlich der Metastasenbehandlung erreicht. Grundlage der Therapie ist dabei immer primär die Sicherung der Diagnose mittels Biopsie und die bildgebende sowie histologische Stadieneinteilung des malignen Tumors. Nach der Tumorresektion kann die Rekonstruktion biologisch oder mit Endoprothesensystemen erfolgen. Gerade die weiterentwickelten modularen Systeme führen zu guten funktionellen Ergebnissen mit langen Standzeiten und einer reduzierten Komplikationsrate. Individuell angefertigte Implantate sind vor allem im Bereich der Rekonstruktion komplexer Beckentumoren von großer klinischer Bedeutung.

  14. Data Package for Secondary Waste Form Down-Selection—Cast Stone

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-09-05

    Available literature on Cast Stone and Saltstone was reviewed with an emphasis on determining how Cast Stone and related grout waste forms performed in relationship to various criteria that will be used to decide whether a specific type of waste form meets acceptance criteria for disposal in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at Hanford. After the critical review of the Cast Stone/Saltstone literature, we conclude that Cast Stone is a good candidate waste form for further consideration. Cast stone meets the target IDF acceptance criteria for compressive strength, no free liquids, TCLP leachate are below the UTS permissible concentrations andmore » leach rates for Na and Tc-99 are suiteably low. The cost of starting ingredients and equipment necessary to generate Cast Stone waste forms with secondary waste streams are low and the Cast Stone dry blend formulation can be tailored to accommodate variations in liquid waste stream compositions. The database for Cast Stone short-term performance is quite extensive compared to the other three candidate waste solidification processes. The solidification of liquid wastes in Cast Stone is a mature process in comparison to the other three candidates. Successful production of Cast Stone or Saltstone has been demonstrated from lab-scale monoliths with volumes of cm3 through m3 sized blocks to 210-liter sized drums all the way to the large pours into vaults at Savannah River. To date over 9 million gallons of low activity liquid waste has been solidified and disposed in concrete vaults at Savannah River.« less

  15. Materials for Advanced Ultrasupercritical Steam Turbines Task 4: Cast Superalloy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Thangirala, Mani

    The Steam Turbine critical stationary structural components are high integrity Large Shell and Valve Casing heavy section Castings, containing high temperature steam under high pressures. Hence to support the development of advanced materials technology for use in an AUSC steam turbine capable of operating with steam conditions of 760°C (1400°F) and 35 Mpa (5000 psia), Casting alloy selection and evaluation of mechanical, metallurgical properties and castability with robust manufacturing methods are mandated. Alloy down select from Phase 1 based on producability criteria and creep rupture properties tested by NETL-Albany and ORNL directed the consortium to investigate cast properties of Haynesmore » 282 and Haynes 263. The goals of Task 4 in Phase 2 are to understand a broader range of mechanical properties, the impact of manufacturing variables on those properties. Scale up the size of heats to production levels to facilitate the understanding of the impact of heat and component weight, on metallurgical and mechanical behavior. GE Power & Water Materials and Processes Engineering for the Phase 2, Task 4.0 Castings work, systematically designed and executed casting material property evaluation, multiple test programs. Starting from 15 lbs. cylinder castings to world’s first 17,000 lbs. poured weight, heavy section large steam turbine partial valve Haynes 282 super alloy casting. This has demonstrated scalability of the material for steam Turbine applications. Activities under Task 4.0, Investigated and characterized various mechanical properties of Cast Haynes 282 and Cast Nimonic 263. The development stages involved were: 1) Small Cast Evaluation: 4 inch diam. Haynes 282 and Nimonic 263 Cylinders. This provided effects of liquidus super heat range and first baseline mechanical data on cast versions of conventional vacuum re-melted and forged Ni based super alloys. 2) Step block castings of 300 lbs. and 600 lbs. Haynes 282 from 2 foundry heats were evaluated

  16. Improved Airborne Gravity Results Using New Relative Gravity Sensor Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, N.

    2013-12-01

    Airborne gravity data has contributed greatly to our knowledge of subsurface geophysics particularly in rugged and otherwise inaccessible areas such as Antarctica. Reliable high quality GPS data has renewed interest in improving the accuracy of airborne gravity systems and recent improvements in the electronic control of the sensor have increased the accuracy and ability of the classic Lacoste and Romberg zero length spring gravity meters to operate in turbulent air conditions. Lacoste and Romberg type gravity meters provide increased sensitivity over other relative gravity meters by utilizing a mass attached to a horizontal beam which is balanced by a ';zero length spring'. This type of dynamic gravity sensor is capable of measuring gravity changes on the order of 0.05 milliGals in laboratory conditions but more commonly 0.7 to 1 milliGal in survey use. The sensor may have errors induced by the electronics used to read the beam position as well as noise induced by unwanted accelerations, commonly turbulence, which moves the beam away from its ideal balance position otherwise known as the reading line. The sensor relies on a measuring screw controlled by a computer which attempts to bring the beam back to the reading line position. The beam is also heavily damped so that it does not react to most unwanted high frequency accelerations. However this heavily damped system is slow to react, particularly in turns where there are very high Eotvos effects. New sensor technology utilizes magnetic damping of the beam coupled with an active feedback system which acts to effectively keep the beam locked at the reading line position. The feedback system operates over the entire range of the system so there is now no requirement for a measuring screw. The feedback system operates at very high speed so that even large turbulent events have minimal impact on data quality and very little, if any, survey line data is lost because of large beam displacement errors. Airborne testing

  17. ToxCast Dashboard

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The ToxCast Dashboard helps users examine high-throughput assay data to inform chemical safety decisions. To date, it has data on over 9,000 chemicals and information from more than 1,000 high-throughput assay endpoint components.

  18. The role of serial casting in early-onset scoliosis (EOS).

    PubMed

    Baulesh, David M; Huh, Jeannie; Judkins, Timothy; Garg, Sumeet; Miller, Nancy H; Erickson, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Serial casting has demonstrated efficacy for idiopathic early-onset scoliosis (EOS). Results of casting in nonidiopathic (syndromic and congenital) EOS patients have not previously been well described. A total of 53 patients underwent serial casting for EOS from 2005 to 2010 at a single institution. Deformity was classified as idiopathic or nonidiopathic. Diagnosis, time in cast, number of casts, use of bracing, complications, and outcomes were recorded. Radiographic measures included Cobb angle and thoracic height (T1-T12). Thoracic height velocity was calculated and compared with established norms. A total of 36 patients, 19 idiopathic and 17 nonidiopathic (14 syndromic, 3 congenital), completed cast treatment and had >6-month follow-up and were therefore included. Of those, 17% (6/36) experienced resolution of their deformity, 53% (19/26) are currently in braces, and 31% (11/36) had undergone surgery. Surgery occurred on average at age 5.6 years and was delayed by an average of 2.1 years from time of first cast. A 19% complication was observed. There was no statistical difference in the rate of resolution of deformity between idiopathic (5/19) and nonidiopathic (1/17) patients (P=0.182), although there exists a trend toward greater curve correction in idiopathic patients. Surgery occurred in fewer patients (2/19) in the idiopathic group compared with the nonidiopathic group (9/17) (P=0.006). Significant improvements in Cobb angle was observed in the idiopathic group (12.2 degrees) during casting (P=0.003). Nonidiopathic patients did not maintain the correction gained during casting at the time of final follow-up. T1-T12 height increased across all study patients regardless of etiology during the period of casting at similar velocity to established norms of 1.4 cm/y for this age group. Serial casting offers modest deformity correction in idiopathic deformities compared with nonidiopathic deformities. Thoracic height growth continued throughout the casting period

  19. Experimental investigation on in-situ microwave casting of copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman Mishra, Radha; Sharma, Apurbba Kumar

    2018-04-01

    The in-situ microwave casting of metallic materials is a recently developed casting process. The process works on the principles of hybrid microwave heating and is accomplished inside the applicator cavity. The process involves – melting of the charge, in-situ pouring and solidification of the melt. The electromagnetic and thermal properties of the charge affects microwave-material interaction and hence melting of the charge. On the other hand, cooling conditions inside the applicator controls solidification process. The present work reports on in-situ casting of copper developed inside a multimode cavity at 2.45 GHz using 1400 W. The molten metal was allowed to get poured in-situ inside a graphite mold and solidification was carried out in the same mold inside the applicator cavity. The interaction of microwave with the charge during exposure was studied and the role of oxide layer during meltingthe copper blocks has been presented. The developed in-situ cast was characterized to access the cast quality. Microstructural study revealed the homogeneous and dense structure of the cast. The X-ray diffraction pattern indicated presence of copper in different orientations with (1 1 1) as the dominant orientation. The average micro indentation hardness of the casts was found 93±20 HV.

  20. CASTING FURNACES

    DOEpatents

    Ruppel, R.H.; Winters, C.E.

    1961-01-01

    A device is described for casting uranium which comprises a crucible, a rotatable table holding a plurality of molds, and a shell around both the crucible and the table. The bottom of the crucible has an eccentrically arranged pouring hole aligned with one of the molds at a time. The shell can be connected with a vacuum.

  1. Analysis of Mold Friction in a Continuous Casting Using Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yong; Fang, Bohan; Ding, Qiqi; Wang, Fangyin

    2018-04-01

    Mold friction (MDF) is an important parameter reflecting the lubrication condition between the initial shell and the mold during continuous casting. In this article, based on practical MDF from the slab continuous casting driven by a mechanical vibration device, the characteristics of friction were analyzed by continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) in different casting conditions, such as normal casting, level fluctuation, and alarming of the temperature measurement system. The results show that the CWT of friction accurately captures the subtle changes in friction force, such as the periodic characteristic of MDF during normal casting and the disordered feature of MDF during level fluctuation. Most important, the results capture the occurrence of abnormal casting and display the friction frequency characteristics at this abnormal time. In addition, in this article, there are some abnormal casting conditions, and the friction signal is stable until there is a sudden large change when abnormal casting, such as split breakout and submerged entry nozzle breakage, occurs. The DWT has a good ability to capture the friction characteristics for such abnormal situations. In particular, the potential abnormal features of MDF were presented in advance, which provides strong support for identifying abnormal casting and even preventing abnormal casting.

  2. Soldier caste influences on candidate primer pheromone levels and juvenile hormone-dependent caste differentiation in workers of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes.

    PubMed

    Tarver, Matthew R; Schmelz, Eric A; Scharf, Michael E

    2011-06-01

    Caste systems and the division of labor they make possible are common underlying features of all social insects. Multiple extrinsic factors have been shown to impact caste composition in social insect colonies. Primer pheromones are one type of extrinsic caste-regulatory factor; they are chemical signaling molecules produced by certain colony members to impact developmental physiology of recipient nestmates. However, only limited evidence exists regarding primer pheromones and their actions in eusocial termites. In previous research we identified two soldier-produced terpenes, γ-cadinene (CAD) and γ-cadinenal (ALD), as candidate primer pheromones of the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes. In the present study we tested hypotheses related to CAD and ALD action in recipient individuals. We examined the influences of terminally developed soldier termites on (1) CAD and ALD levels and (2) caste differentiation in developmentally totipotent workers. Our findings show CAD and ALD (respectively) are caste stimulatory and inhibitory components of chemical blends present in soldier heads, ALD levels increase significantly (10.9×) in workers only in the presence of soldiers, and soldiers can reduce developmental-hormone response thresholds of workers, presumably via ALD action. These findings provide novel evidence supporting that CAD and ALD are authentic caste-regulatory primer pheromones in Reticulitermes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Focus on quantum Einstein gravity Focus on quantum Einstein gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjorn, Jan; Reuter, Martin; Saueressig, Frank

    2012-09-01

    The gravitational asymptotic safety program summarizes the attempts to construct a consistent and predictive quantum theory of gravity within Wilson's generalized framework of renormalization. Its key ingredient is a non-Gaussian fixed point of the renormalization group flow which controls the behavior of the theory at trans-Planckian energies and renders gravity safe from unphysical divergences. Provided that the fixed point comes with a finite number of ultraviolet-attractive (relevant) directions, this construction gives rise to a consistent quantum field theory which is as predictive as an ordinary, perturbatively renormalizable one. This opens up the exciting possibility of establishing quantum Einstein gravity as a fundamental theory of gravity, without introducing supersymmetry or extra dimensions, and solely based on quantization techniques that are known to work well for the other fundamental forces of nature. While the idea of gravity being asymptotically safe was proposed by Steven Weinberg more than 30 years ago [1], the technical tools for investigating this scenario only emerged during the last decade. Here a key role is played by the exact functional renormalization group equation for gravity, which allows the construction of non-perturbative approximate solutions for the RG-flow of the gravitational couplings. Most remarkably, all solutions constructed to date exhibit a suitable non-Gaussian fixed point, lending strong support to the asymptotic safety conjecture. Moreover, the functional renormalization group also provides indications that the central idea of a non-Gaussian fixed point providing a safe ultraviolet completion also carries over to more realistic scenarios where gravity is coupled to a suitable matter sector like the standard model. These theoretical successes also triggered a wealth of studies focusing on the consequences of asymptotic safety in a wide range of phenomenological applications covering the physics of black holes, early

  4. Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, Edward H.; Tuckerman, David B.

    1991-01-01

    A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required.

  5. Satellite borne gravity gradiometer study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, E.; Jircitano, A.; Affleck, C.

    1976-01-01

    Gravity gradiometry is recognized to be a very difficult instrumentation problem because extremely small differential acceleration levels have to be measured, 0.1 EU corresponds to an acceleration of 10 to the minus 11th power g at two points 1 meter apart. A feasibility model of a gravity gradiometer is being developed for airborne applications using four modified versions of the proven Model VII accelerometers mounted on a slowly rotating fixture. Gravity gradients are being measured to 1.07 EU in a vertical rotation axis orientation. Equally significant are the outstanding operational characteristics such as fast reaction time, low temperature coefficients and high degree of bias stability over long periods of time. The rotating accelerometer gravity gradiometer approach and its present status is discussed and it is the foundation for the orbital gravity gradiometer analyzed. The performance levels achieved in a 1 g environment of the earth and under relatively high seismic disturbances, lend the orbital gravity gradiometer a high confidence level of success.

  6. Results of Casting in Severe Curves in Infantile Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Stasikelis, Peter J; Carpenter, Ashley M

    2018-04-01

    Previous work has demonstrated best results for casting in infantile scoliosis when the curves are small and the child begins casting under 2 years of age. This study examines if casting can delay the need for growth friendly instrumentation in severe curves (50 to 106 degrees) and how the comorbidities of syrinx or genetic syndromes affected outcomes. All children undergoing casting for scoliosis at a single institution over an 8-year period were examined. Inclusion criteria included initial curve at first casting of ≥50 degrees, age ≤3 years at the start of casting, and a minimum follow-up of 3 years. Of 148 children undergoing casting during this period, 44 met our inclusion criteria. All children underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Ten children with a syrinx were identified. Ten children had known genetic syndromes (2 who also had a syrinx). The 26 children without these comorbidities were considered idiopathic. Curve magnitude ranged from 50 to 106 degrees. Nine of the 26 (35%) children in the children with idiopathic curves demonstrated resolution of their curves, while only 3 of the remaining 18 (17%) did. Of the children that did not have resolution of their curves, 14 were maintained over the entire follow-up period to within 15 degrees of their initial curve and 13 were improved 15 degrees or more. Only 5 children had an increase of 15 degrees or more over the follow-up period and 4 of these have undergone growth friendly instrumentation after a mean delay from initial cast of 71 months (range, 18 to 100 mo). This study demonstrates that even in severe curves, casting was effective in delaying instrumentation in all cases, and led to curve resolution of the curves in 12 of 44 children. Level III-case control study.

  7. Modular Extended-Stay HyperGravity Facility Design Concept: An Artificial-Gravity Space-Settlement Ground Analogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    This document defines the design concept for a ground-based, extended-stay hypergravity facility as a precursor for space-based artificial-gravity facilities that extend the permanent presence of both human and non-human life beyond Earth in artificial-gravity settlements. Since the Earth's current human population is stressing the environment and the resources off-Earth are relatively unlimited, by as soon as 2040 more than one thousand people could be living in Earthorbiting artificial-gravity habitats. Eventually, the majority of humanity may live in artificialgravity habitats throughout this solar system as well as others, but little is known about the longterm (multi-generational) effects of artificial-gravity habitats on people, animals, and plants. In order to extend life permanently beyond Earth, it would be useful to create an orbiting space facility that generates 1g as well as other gravity levels to rigorously address the numerous challenges of such an endeavor. Before doing so, developing a ground-based artificial-gravity facility is a reasonable next step. Just as the International Space Station is a microgravity research facility, at a small fraction of the cost and risk a ground-based artificial-gravity facility can begin to address a wide-variety of the artificial-gravity life-science questions and engineering challenges requiring long-term research to enable people, animals, and plants to live off-Earth indefinitely.

  8. Using the full tensor of GOCE gravity gradients for regional gravity field modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieb, Verena; Bouman, Johannes; Dettmering, Denise; Fuchs, Martin; Schmidt, Michael

    2013-04-01

    With its 3-axis gradiometer GOCE delivers 3-dimensional (3D) information of the Earth's gravity field. This essential advantage - e.g. compared with the 1D gravity field information from GRACE - can be used for research on the Earth's interior and for geophysical exploration. To benefit from this multidimensional measurement system, the combination of all 6 GOCE gradients and additionally the consistent combination with other gravity observations mean an innovative challenge for regional gravity field modelling. As the individual gravity gradients reflect the gravity field depending on different spatial directions, observation equations are formulated separately for each of these components. In our approach we use spherical localizing base functions to display the gravity field for specified regions. Therefore the series expansions based on Legendre polynomials have to be adopted to obtain mathematical expressions for the second derivatives of the gravitational potential which are observed by GOCE in the Cartesian Gradiometer Reference Frame (GRF). We (1) have to transform the equations from the spherical terrestrial into a Cartesian Local North-Oriented Reference Frame (LNOF), (2) to set up a 3x3 tensor of observation equations and (3) finally to rotate the tensor defined in the terrestrial LNOF into the GRF. Thus we ensure the use of the original non-rotated and unaffected GOCE measurements within the analysis procedure. As output from the synthesis procedure we then obtain the second derivatives of the gravitational potential for all combinations of the xyz Cartesian coordinates in the LNOF. Further the implementation of variance component estimation provides a flexible tool to diversify the influence of the input gradiometer observations. On the one hand the less accurate xy and yz measurements are nearly excluded by estimating large variance components. On the other hand the yy measurements, which show systematic errors increasing at high latitudes, could be

  9. Superconducting tensor gravity gradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paik, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    The employment of superconductivity and other material properties at cryogenic temperatures to fabricate sensitive, low-drift, gravity gradiometer is described. The device yields a reduction of noise of four orders of magnitude over room temperature gradiometers, and direct summation and subtraction of signals from accelerometers in varying orientations are possible with superconducting circuitry. Additional circuits permit determination of the linear and angular acceleration vectors independent of the measurement of the gravity gradient tensor. A dewar flask capable of maintaining helium in a liquid state for a year's duration is under development by NASA, and a superconducting tensor gravity gradiometer for the NASA Geodynamics Program is intended for a LEO polar trajectory to measure the harmonic expansion coefficients of the earth's gravity field up to order 300.

  10. Global grids of gravity anomalies and vertical gravity gradients at 10 km altitude from GOCE gradient data 2009-2011 and polar gravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tscherning, Carl Christian; Arabelos, Dimitrios; Reguzzoni, Mirko

    2013-04-01

    The GOCE satellite measures gravity gradients which are filtered and transformed to gradients into an Earth-referenced frame by the GOCE High Level processing Facility. More than 80000000 data with 6 components are available from the period 2009-2011. IAG Arctic gravity was used north of 83 deg., while data at the Antarctic was not used due to bureaucratic restrictions by the data-holders. Subsets of the data have been used to produce gridded values at 10 km altitude of gravity anomalies and vertical gravity gradients in 20 deg. x 20 deg. blocks with 10' spacing. Various combinations and densities of data were used to obtain values in areas with known gravity anomalies. The (marginally) best choice was vertical gravity gradients selected with an approximately 0.125 deg spacing. Using Least-Squares Collocation, error-estimates were computed and compared to the difference between the GOCE-grids and grids derived from EGM2008 to deg. 512. In general a good agreement was found, however with some inconsistencies in certain areas. The computation time on a usual server with 24 processors was typically 100 minutes for a block with generally 40000 GOCE vertical gradients as input. The computations will be updated with new Wiener-filtered data in the near future.

  11. Active Response Gravity Offload System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valle, Paul; Dungan, Larry; Cunningham, Thomas; Lieberman, Asher; Poncia, Dina

    2011-01-01

    The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) provides the ability to simulate with one system the gravity effect of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and microgravity, where the gravity is less than Earth fs gravity. The system works by providing a constant force offload through an overhead hoist system and horizontal motion through a rail and trolley system. The facility covers a 20 by 40-ft (approximately equals 6.1 by 12.2m) horizontal area with 15 ft (approximately equals4.6 m) of lifting vertical range.

  12. The Effect of Center of Gravity and Anthropometrics on Human Performance in Simulated Lunar Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulugeta, Lealem; Chappell, Steven P.; Skytland, Nicholas G.

    2009-01-01

    NASA EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance (EPSP) Project at JSC has been investigating the effects of Center of Gravity and other factors on astronaut performance in reduced gravity. A subset of the studies have been performed with the water immersion technique. Study results show correlation between Center of Gravity location and performance. However, data variability observed between subjects for prescribed Center of Gravity configurations. The hypothesis is that Anthropometric differences between test subjects could be a source of the performance variability.

  13. Gravity model improvement investigation. [improved gravity model for determination of ocean geoid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siry, J. W.; Kahn, W. D.; Bryan, J. W.; Vonbun, F. F.

    1973-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to improve the gravity model and hence the ocean geoid. A specific objective is the determination of the gravity field and geoid with a space resolution of approximately 5 deg and a height resolution of the order of five meters. The concept of the investigation is to utilize both GEOS-C altimeter and satellite-to-satellite tracking data to achieve the gravity model improvement. It is also planned to determine the geoid in selected regions with a space resolution of about a degree and a height resolution of the order of a meter or two. The short term objectives include the study of the gravity field in the GEOS-C calibration area outlined by Goddard, Bermuda, Antigua, and Cape Kennedy, and also in the eastern Pacific area which is viewed by ATS-F.

  14. Effect of pressure difference on the quality of titanium casting.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, I; Watkins, J H; Nakajima, H; Atsuta, M; Okabe, T

    1997-03-01

    In casting titanium using a two-compartment casting machine, Herø et al. (1993) reported that the pressure difference between the melting chamber and the mold chamber affected the soundness of the castings. This study tested the hypothesis that differences in pressure produce castings with various amounts of porosity and different mechanical properties values. Plastic dumbbell-shaped patterns were invested with an alumina-based, phosphate-bonded investment material. Both chambers of the casting machine were evacuated to 6 x 10(-2) torr; the argon pressure difference was then adjusted to either 50, 150, 300, or 450 torr. The porosity of the cast specimens was determined by x-ray radiography and quantitative image analysis. Tensile strength and elongation were measured by means of a universal testing machine at a strain rate of 1.7 x 10(-4)/s. The fractured surfaces were examined by SEM. Changes in Vickers hardness with depth from the cast surface were measured on polished cross-sections of the specimens. Raising the argon pressure difference to 300 and 450 torr caused a significant increase in internal porosity and a resultant decrease in the engineering tensile strength and elongation. The highest tensile strength (approximately 540 MPa), elongation (approximately 10%), bulk hardness (HV50g 209), and lowest porosity level (approximately 0.8%) occurred in the specimens cast at 150 torr. Turbulence of the metal during casting was thought to be responsible for the increase in porosity levels with the increase in argon pressure difference. By choosing an argon pressure difference (around 150 torr) suitable for this geometry, we could produce castings which have adequate mechanical properties and low porosity levels.

  15. [Dying and death in societal transformation].

    PubMed

    Heller, Andreas; Wegleitner, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Dying and death in modern societies are subject to profound social, professional and cultural-religious changes. Secularization and a stronger differentiation of societies have led to a change in the way humans handle the dying process. Normatively ritualized collective behaviour has been replaced by an individual, subjectivized approach. In late modern societies there are many different views of what "successful" or "good" dying means.In the article this change is described by the following seven theses: 1. We live longer and we die longer. 2. We no longer die suddenly and unexpectedly but slowly and foreseeably. 3. Even though our biological life on earth has become longer, our life has been shortened by the loss of eternity. 4. We no longer die on the stage of ritualized relationships with our family and neighbours but behind the curtains of organizations. 5. We live and die in a society of organizations and have to get organized for the final phase of our life. 6. Living and dying are no large, state-owned enterprises but small, private enterprises. 7. The hospice movement as well as palliative medicine have created public awareness, made dying a matter of discussion and offered a new set of options.In late modernism end-of-life care requires new approaches based on individual and shared responsibility as well as cooperation between professional institutions and community-based voluntary care.A change towards community care is visible. Thus "dying" is a topic in the discussion about the future of public health and societal solidarity.

  16. Apparatus for restraining and transporting dies

    DOEpatents

    Allison, James W.; LaBarre, Timothy L.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for restraining and transporting dies in punch press operations is provided. A floatation platen for supporting a die on the platen's upper surface has a plurality of recessed gas exhaust ports on the platen's lower surface. A source of pressurized gas delivers gas to a platen manifold, for delivery to orifices located in the gas exhaust ports. The flow of gas is controlled by a first valve adjacent the gas source and a second valve adjacent the manifold, with the second valve being used to control the gas flow during movement of the die. In this fashion, a die may be moved on a cushion of air from one workstation to a selected second workstation. A moveable hydraulically operated restraining fixture is also provided, for clamping the die in position during the compacting phase, and for releasing the die after completion of the compacting phase by releasing the hydraulic pressure on the restraining fixture. When pressure in the hydraulic cylinders on the restraining fixture is reversed, the restraining fixture will retract so that there is no contact between the die and the restraining fixture, thereby allowing the die to be removed from a first workstation and moved to a second selected workstation.

  17. Caste load and the evolution of reproductive skew.

    PubMed

    Holman, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive skew theory seeks to explain how reproduction is divided among group members in animal societies. Existing theory is framed almost entirely in terms of selection, though nonadaptive processes must also play some role in the evolution of reproductive skew. Here I propose that a genetic correlation between helper fecundity and breeder fecundity may frequently constrain the evolution of reproductive skew. This constraint is part of a wider phenomenon that I term "caste load," which is defined as the decline in mean fitness caused by caste-specific selection pressures, that is, differential selection on breeding and nonbreeding individuals. I elaborate the caste load hypothesis using quantitative and population genetic arguments and individual-based simulations. Although selection can sometimes erode genetic correlations and resolve caste load, this may be constrained when mutations have similar pleiotropic effects on breeder and helper traits. I document evidence for caste load, identify putative genomic adaptations to it, and suggest future research directions. The models highlight the value of considering adaptation within the boundaries imposed by genetic architecture and incidentally reaffirm that monogamy promotes the evolutionary transition to eusociality.

  18. The fractography of casting alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, G.W.

    1994-10-01

    Several types of casting alloys were fractured using various loading modes (uniaxial tension, bending, impact, and torsion, and cyclic stressing), and the corresponding mechanical properties were determined. The unetched and etched fracture surfaces and the microstructures were examined using conventional techniques. The types of casting alloys that were the subjects f these investigations include gray iron, ductile iron, cast steel, and aluminum-base alloys (A380, A356, and 319). The fractographic studies have yielded these generalizations regarding the topography of the fracture surfaces. In the case of low-ductility alloys such as gray iron and the aluminum-base alloys, the tensile edge of amore » fracture surface produced by a stress system with a strong bending-moment component has a highly irregular contour, whereas the compressive edge of the fracture surface is quite straight and parallel to the bend axis. On the other hand, the periphery of a fracture surface produced by uniaxial tension has a completely irregular contour. The fracture surface produced by cyclic loading of a gray iron does not display any macroscopic evidence (such as a thumb nail) of the loading mode. However, the fracture surface of each of the other casting alloys displays clear, macroscopic evidence of failure induced by fatigue. The aluminum-base alloys fracture completely within the interdendritic region of the microstructure when subjected to monotonic loading by uniaxial tension or bending, whereas a fatigue crack propagates predominantly through the primary crystals of the microstructure.« less

  19. Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, E.H.; Tuckerman, D.B.

    1991-09-10

    A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required. 1 figure.

  20. Reinraumtechnik für die Medizintechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petek, Max; Jungbluth, Martin; Krampe, Erhard

    Die Reinraumtechnik ist heute ein unverzichtbarer Bestandteil bei der Fertigung von Produkten der Life Sciences, den Bereichen Pharma, Lebensmittel, Kosmetik und Medizintechnik. In Anbetracht der langen Historie der Medizintechnik ist sie jedoch eine sehr junge Disziplin. Die Bedeutung von Keimen und die richtige Einschätzung ihrer Größe wurden zwar sehr früh bereits durch Paracelsus erkannt, jedoch wurden daraus noch keine speziellen oder kontinuierlich umgesetzten Hygienevorschriften abgeleitet. Die erste bekannte technische Umsetzung von Hygieneempfehlungen geht auf den Franzosen François Nicolas Appert zurück, der eine aseptische Abfüllmethode für Lebensmittel entwickelte und diese 1810 veröffentlichte [1]. Die erste dokumentierte medizinische Umsetzung stellten Hygienevorschriften für Ärzte dar, die Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis nach 1847 in der Wiener Klinik für Geburtshilfe einführte [2].