Cosmological implications of modified gravity induced by quantum metric fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xing; Harko, Tiberiu; Liang, Shi-Dong
2016-08-01
We investigate the cosmological implications of modified gravities induced by the quantum fluctuations of the gravitational metric. If the metric can be decomposed as the sum of the classical and of a fluctuating part, of quantum origin, then the corresponding Einstein quantum gravity generates at the classical level modified gravity models with a non-minimal coupling between geometry and matter. As a first step in our study, after assuming that the expectation value of the quantum correction can be generally expressed in terms of an arbitrary second order tensor constructed from the metric and from the thermodynamic quantities characterizing the matter content of the Universe, we derive the (classical) gravitational field equations in their general form. We analyze in detail the cosmological models obtained by assuming that the quantum correction tensor is given by the coupling of a scalar field and of a scalar function to the metric tensor, and by a term proportional to the matter energy-momentum tensor. For each considered model we obtain the gravitational field equations, and the generalized Friedmann equations for the case of a flat homogeneous and isotropic geometry. In some of these models the divergence of the matter energy-momentum tensor is non-zero, indicating a process of matter creation, which corresponds to an irreversible energy flow from the gravitational field to the matter fluid, and which is direct consequence of the non-minimal curvature-matter coupling. The cosmological evolution equations of these modified gravity models induced by the quantum fluctuations of the metric are investigated in detail by using both analytical and numerical methods, and it is shown that a large variety of cosmological models can be constructed, which, depending on the numerical values of the model parameters, can exhibit both accelerating and decelerating behaviors.
Testing Quantum Gravity Induced Nonlocality via Optomechanical Quantum Oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello
2016-04-01
Several quantum gravity scenarios lead to physics below the Planck scale characterized by nonlocal, Lorentz invariant equations of motion. We show that such nonlocal effective field theories lead to a modified Schrödinger evolution in the nonrelativistic limit. In particular, the nonlocal evolution of optomechanical quantum oscillators is characterized by a spontaneous periodic squeezing that cannot be generated by environmental effects. We discuss constraints on the nonlocality obtained by past experiments, and show how future experiments (already under construction) will either see such effects or otherwise cast severe bounds on the nonlocality scale (well beyond the current limits set by the Large Hadron Collider). This paves the way for table top, high precision experiments on massive quantum objects as a promising new avenue for testing some quantum gravity phenomenology.
Testing Quantum Gravity Induced Nonlocality via Optomechanical Quantum Oscillators.
Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M T; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello
2016-04-22
Several quantum gravity scenarios lead to physics below the Planck scale characterized by nonlocal, Lorentz invariant equations of motion. We show that such nonlocal effective field theories lead to a modified Schrödinger evolution in the nonrelativistic limit. In particular, the nonlocal evolution of optomechanical quantum oscillators is characterized by a spontaneous periodic squeezing that cannot be generated by environmental effects. We discuss constraints on the nonlocality obtained by past experiments, and show how future experiments (already under construction) will either see such effects or otherwise cast severe bounds on the nonlocality scale (well beyond the current limits set by the Large Hadron Collider). This paves the way for table top, high precision experiments on massive quantum objects as a promising new avenue for testing some quantum gravity phenomenology.
Tests of quantum-gravity-induced nonlocality via optomechanical experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello
2017-01-01
The nonrelativistic limit of nonlocal modifications to the Klein-Gordon operator is studied, and the experimental possibilities of casting stringent constraints on the nonlocality scale via planned and/or current optomechanical experiments are discussed. Details of the perturbative analysis and semianalytical simulations leading to the dynamic evolution of a quantum harmonic oscillator in the presence of nonlocality reported in [A. Belenchia, D. M. T. Benincasa, S. Liberati, F. Marin, F. Marino, and A. Ortolan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 161303 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.161303] are given, together with a comprehensive account of the experimental methodology with particular regard to sensitivity limitations related to thermal decoherence time and active cooling of the oscillator. Finally, a strategy for detecting nonlocality scales of the order of 10-22÷10-26 m by means of the spontaneous time-periodic squeezing of quantum-coherent states is provided.
Investigating Quantum Modulation States
2016-03-01
INVESTIGATING QUANTUM MODULATION STATES MARCH 2016 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED STINFO COPY AIR...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) OCT 2012 – SEP 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INVESTIGATING QUANTUM MODULATION STATES 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This effort was primarily concerned with quantum aspects of optical communications. Two quantum communications technologies were
Tripartite quantum state sharing.
Lance, Andrew M; Symul, Thomas; Bowen, Warwick P; Sanders, Barry C; Lam, Ping Koy
2004-04-30
We demonstrate a multipartite protocol to securely distribute and reconstruct a quantum state. A secret quantum state is encoded into a tripartite entangled state and distributed to three players. By collaborating, any two of the three players can reconstruct the state, while individual players obtain nothing. We characterize this (2,3) threshold quantum state sharing scheme in terms of fidelity, signal transfer, and reconstruction noise. We demonstrate a fidelity averaged over all reconstruction permutations of 0.73+/-0.04, a level achievable only using quantum resources.
Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spehner, Dominique
2014-07-01
A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature.
Cluster State Quantum Computation
2014-02-01
nearest neighbor cluster state has been shown to be a universal resource for MBQC thus we can say our quantum computer is universal. We note that...CLUSTER STATE QUANTUM COMPUTATION FEBRUARY 2014 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED STINFO COPY AIR FORCE...TITLE AND SUBTITLE CLUSTER STATE QUANTUM COMPUTATION 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62788F 6
Cluster State Quantum Computing
2012-12-01
implementation of quantum computation,” Fortschr. Phys. 48, 771 (2000). [Dragoman01] D. Dragoman, “Proposal for a three-qubit teleportation experiment”, Phys...CLUSTER STATE QUANTUM COMPUTING DECEMBER 2012 INTERIM TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION...From - To) NOV 2010 – OCT 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CLUSTER STATE QUANTUM COMPUTING 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guevara, Ivonne; Wiseman, Howard
2015-10-01
Smoothing is an estimation method whereby a classical state (probability distribution for classical variables) at a given time is conditioned on all-time (both earlier and later) observations. Here we define a smoothed quantum state for a partially monitored open quantum system, conditioned on an all-time monitoring-derived record. We calculate the smoothed distribution for a hypothetical unobserved record which, when added to the real record, would complete the monitoring, yielding a pure-state "quantum trajectory." Averaging the pure state over this smoothed distribution yields the (mixed) smoothed quantum state. We study how the choice of actual unraveling affects the purity increase over that of the conventional (filtered) state conditioned only on the past record.
Guevara, Ivonne; Wiseman, Howard
2015-10-30
Smoothing is an estimation method whereby a classical state (probability distribution for classical variables) at a given time is conditioned on all-time (both earlier and later) observations. Here we define a smoothed quantum state for a partially monitored open quantum system, conditioned on an all-time monitoring-derived record. We calculate the smoothed distribution for a hypothetical unobserved record which, when added to the real record, would complete the monitoring, yielding a pure-state "quantum trajectory." Averaging the pure state over this smoothed distribution yields the (mixed) smoothed quantum state. We study how the choice of actual unraveling affects the purity increase over that of the conventional (filtered) state conditioned only on the past record.
Correlated multipartite quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batle, J.; Casas, M.; Plastino, A.
2013-03-01
We investigate quantum states that possess both maximum entanglement and maximum discord between the pertinent parties. Since entanglement (discord) is defined only for bipartite (two-qubit) systems, we use an appropriate sum over all bipartitions as the associated measure. The ensuing definition—not new for entanglement—is thus extended here to quantum discord. Also, additional dimensions within the parties are considered (qudits). We also discuss quantum correlations that induce Mermin's Bell-inequality violation for all multiqubit systems. One finds some differences when quantum mechanics is defined over the field of real or of complex numbers.
Quantum Transition State Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waalkens, Holger
2009-03-01
The main idea of Wigner's transition state theory (TST) is to compute reaction rates from the flux through a dividing surface placed between reactants and products. In order not to overestimate the rate the dividing surface needs to have the no- recrossing property, i.e. reactive trajectories cross the dividing surface exactly once, and nonreactive trajectories do not cross it at all. The long standing problem of how to construct such a diving surface for multi-degree-of-freedom systems was solved only recently using ideas from dynamical systems theory. Here a normal form allows for a local decoupling of the classical dynamics which leads to the explicit construction of the phase space structures that govern the reaction dynamics through transition states. The dividing surface is spanned by a normally hyperbolic manifold which is the mathematical manifestation of the transition state as an unstable invariant subsystem of one degree of freedom less than the full system. The mere existence of a quantum version of TST is discussed controversially in the literature. The key isssue is the presence of quantum mechanical tunneling which prohibits the existence of a local theory analogous to the classical case. Various approaches have been devloped to overcome this problem by propagating quantum wavefunctions through the transition state region. These approaches have in common that they are computationally very expensive which seriously limits their applicability. In contrast the approach by Roman Schubert, Stephen Wiggins and myself is local in nature. A quantum normal form allows us to locally decouple the quantum dynamics to any desired order in Planck's constant. This yields not only the location of the scattering and resonance wavefunctions relative to the classical phase space structures, but also leads to very efficient algorithms to compute cumulative reaction probabilities and Gamov-Siegert resonances which are the quantum imprints of the transition state.
Rudolph, Terry; Spekkens, Robert W.
2004-11-01
We introduce a primitive for quantum cryptography that we term 'state targeting'. We show that increasing one's probability of success in this task above a minimum amount implies an unavoidable increase in the probability of a particular kind of failure. This is analogous to the unavoidable disturbance to a quantum state that results from gaining information about its identity, and can be shown to be a purely quantum effect. We solve various optimization problems for state targeting that are useful for the security analysis of two-party cryptographic tasks implemented between remote antagonistic parties. Although we focus on weak coin flipping, the results are significant for other two-party protocols, such as strong coin flipping, partially binding and concealing bit commitment, and bit escrow. Furthermore, the results have significance not only for the traditional notion of security in cryptography, that of restricting a cheater's ability to bias the outcome of the protocol, but also for a different notion of security that arises only in the quantum context, that of cheat sensitivity. Finally, our analysis leads to some interesting secondary results, namely, a generalization of Uhlmann's theorem and an operational interpretation of the fidelity between two mixed states.
Realizing Controllable Quantum States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takayanagi, Hideaki; Nitta, Junsaku
1. Entanglement in solid states. Orbital entanglement and violation of bell inequalities in mesoscopic conductors / M. Büttiker, P. Samuelsson and E. V. Sukhoruk. Teleportation of electron spins with normal and superconducting dots / O. Sauret, D. Feinberg and T. Martin. Entangled state analysis for one-dimensional quantum spin system: singularity at critical point / A. Kawaguchi and K. Shimizu. Detecting crossed Andreev reflection by cross-current correlations / G. Bignon et al. Current correlations and transmission probabilities for a Y-shaped diffusive conductor / S. K. Yip -- 2. Mesoscopic electronics. Quantum bistability, structural transformation, and spontaneous persistent currents in mesoscopic Aharonov-Bohm loops / I. O. Kulik. Many-body effects on tunneling of electrons in magnetic-field-induced quasi one-dimensional systems in quantum wells / T. Kubo and Y. Tokura. Electron transport in 2DEG narrow channel under gradient magnetic field / M. Hara et al. Transport properties of a quantum wire with a side-coupled quantum dot / M. Yamaguchi et al. Photoconductivity- and magneto-transport studies of single InAs quantum wires / A. Wirthmann et al. Thermoelectric transports in charge-density-wave systems / H. Yoshimoto and S. Kurihara -- 3. Mesoscopic superconductivity. Parity-restricted persistent currents in SNS nanorings / A. D. Zaikin and S. V. Sharov. Large energy dependence of current noise in superconductingh/normal metal junctions / F. Pistolesi and M. Houzet. Generation of photon number states and their superpositions using a superconducting qubit in a microcavity / Yu-Xi Liu, L. F. Wei and F. Nori. Andreev interferometry for pumped currents / F. Taddei, M. Governale and R. Fazio. Suppression of Cooper-pair breaking against high magnetic fields in carbon nanotubes / J. Haruyama et al. Impact of the transport supercurrent on the Josephson effect / S. N. Shevchenko. Josephson current through spin-polarized Luttinger liquid / N. Yokoshi and S. Kurihara
Meyer-Scott, Evan; Tiedau, Johannes; Harder, Georg; Shalm, Lynden K.; Bartley, Tim J.
2017-01-01
The statistical properties of photons are fundamental to investigating quantum mechanical phenomena using light. In multiphoton, two-mode systems, correlations may exist between outcomes of measurements made on each mode which exhibit useful properties. Correlation in this sense can be thought of as increasing the probability of a particular outcome of a measurement on one subsystem given a measurement on a correlated subsystem. Here, we show a statistical property we call “discorrelation”, in which the probability of a particular outcome of one subsystem is reduced to zero, given a measurement on a discorrelated subsystem. We show how such a state can be constructed using readily available building blocks of quantum optics, namely coherent states, single photons, beam splitters and projective measurement. We present a variety of discorrelated states, show that they are entangled, and study their sensitivity to loss. PMID:28134333
Meyer-Scott, Evan; Tiedau, Johannes; Harder, Georg; Shalm, Lynden K; Bartley, Tim J
2017-01-30
The statistical properties of photons are fundamental to investigating quantum mechanical phenomena using light. In multiphoton, two-mode systems, correlations may exist between outcomes of measurements made on each mode which exhibit useful properties. Correlation in this sense can be thought of as increasing the probability of a particular outcome of a measurement on one subsystem given a measurement on a correlated subsystem. Here, we show a statistical property we call "discorrelation", in which the probability of a particular outcome of one subsystem is reduced to zero, given a measurement on a discorrelated subsystem. We show how such a state can be constructed using readily available building blocks of quantum optics, namely coherent states, single photons, beam splitters and projective measurement. We present a variety of discorrelated states, show that they are entangled, and study their sensitivity to loss.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engelsen, Nils; Hosten, Onur; Krishnakumar, Rajiv; Kasevich, Mark
2016-05-01
The standard quantum limit (SQL) for quantum metrology has been surpassed by as much as a factor of 100 using entangled states. However, in order to utilize these states, highly engineered, low-noise state readout is required. Here we present a new method to bypass this requirement in a wide variety of physical systems. We implement the protocol experimentally in a system using the clock states of 5 ×105 87 Rb atoms. Through a nonlinear, optical cavity-mediated interaction we generate spin squeezed states. A small microwave rotation followed by an additional optical cavity interaction stage allow us to exploit the full sensitivity of the squeezed states with a fluorescence detection system. Though the technical noise floor of our fluorescence detection is 15dB above the SQL, we show metrology at 8dB below the SQL. This is the first time squeezed states prepared in a cavity are read out by fluorescence imaging. The method described can be used in any system with a suitable nonlinear interaction.
Quantum properties of exponential states
Luis, Alfredo
2007-05-15
The use of Renyi entropy as an uncertainty measure alternative to variance leads to the study of states with quantum fluctuations below the levels established by Gaussian states, which are the position-momentum minimum uncertainty states according to variance. We examine the quantum properties of states with exponential wave functions, which combine reduced fluctuations with practical feasibility.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bohnet-Waldraff, Fabian; Braun, D.; Giraud, O.
2016-01-01
We investigate quantumness of spin-1 states, defined as the Hilbert-Schmidt distance to the convex hull of spin coherent states. We derive its analytic expression in the case of pure states as a function of the smallest eigenvalue of the Bloch matrix and give explicitly the closest classical state for an arbitrary pure state. Numerical evidence is given that the exact formula for pure states provides an upper bound on the quantumness of mixed states. Due to the connection between quantumness and entanglement we obtain new insights into the geometry of symmetric entangled states.
Gravity-Induced Vacuum Dominance
Lima, William C. C.; Vanzella, Daniel A. T.
2010-04-23
It has been widely believed that, except in very extreme situations, the influence of gravity on quantum fields should amount to just small, subdominant contributions. This view seemed to be endorsed by the seminal results obtained over the last decades in the context of renormalization of quantum fields in curved spacetimes. Here, however, we argue that this belief is false by showing that there exist well-behaved spacetime evolutions where the vacuum energy density of free quantum fields is forced, by the very same background spacetime, to become dominant over any classical energy-density component. By estimating the time scale for the vacuum energy density to become dominant, and therefore for backreaction on the background spacetime to become important, we argue that this (infrared) vacuum dominance may bear unexpected astrophysical and cosmological implications.
Gravity-induced vacuum dominance.
Lima, William C C; Vanzella, Daniel A T
2010-04-23
It has been widely believed that, except in very extreme situations, the influence of gravity on quantum fields should amount to just small, subdominant contributions. This view seemed to be endorsed by the seminal results obtained over the last decades in the context of renormalization of quantum fields in curved spacetimes. Here, however, we argue that this belief is false by showing that there exist well-behaved spacetime evolutions where the vacuum energy density of free quantum fields is forced, by the very same background spacetime, to become dominant over any classical energy-density component. By estimating the time scale for the vacuum energy density to become dominant, and therefore for backreaction on the background spacetime to become important, we argue that this (infrared) vacuum dominance may bear unexpected astrophysical and cosmological implications.
Continuous-variable quantum-state sharing via quantum disentanglement
Lance, Andrew M.; Symul, Thomas; Lam, Ping Koy; Bowen, Warwick P.; Sanders, Barry C.; Tyc, Tomas; Ralph, T.C.
2005-03-01
Quantum-state sharing is a protocol where perfect reconstruction of quantum states is achieved with incomplete or partial information in a multipartite quantum network. Quantum-state sharing allows for secure communication in a quantum network where partial information is lost or acquired by malicious parties. This protocol utilizes entanglement for the secret-state distribution and a class of 'quantum disentangling' protocols for the state reconstruction. We demonstrate a quantum-state sharing protocol in which a tripartite entangled state is used to encode and distribute a secret state to three players. Any two of these players can collaborate to reconstruct the secret state, while individual players obtain no information. We investigate a number of quantum disentangling processes and experimentally demonstrate quantum-state reconstruction using two of these protocols. We experimentally measure a fidelity, averaged over all reconstruction permutations, of F=0.73{+-}0.02. A result achievable only by using quantum resources.
Typical Unpreparability of Quantum States with Quantum Circuit Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Mingxing
2014-04-01
The quantum entanglement is an interesting resource in quantum information processing, especially in measurement-based quantum computing. However, most quantum states may be too entangled to be prepared efficiently in terms of quantum circuit theory, in that high values of the geometric measure of entanglement preclude states from holding a polynomial quantum preparation circuit. We prove that this phenomenon experiences occurs in a dramatic majority of all states using a novel circuit tree-state correspondence. This work highlights new aspects of the roles both entanglement and quantum circuit theory play for quantum information processing.
Quantum coherence of steered states
Hu, Xueyuan; Milne, Antony; Zhang, Boyang; Fan, Heng
2016-01-01
Lying at the heart of quantum mechanics, coherence has recently been studied as a key resource in quantum information theory. Quantum steering, a fundamental notion originally considered by Schödinger, has also recently received much attention. When Alice and Bob share a correlated quantum system, Alice can perform a local measurement to ‘steer’ Bob’s reduced state. We introduce the maximal steered coherence as a measure describing the extent to which steering can remotely create coherence; more precisely, we find the maximal coherence of Bob’s steered state in the eigenbasis of his original reduced state, where maximization is performed over all positive-operator valued measurements for Alice. We prove that maximal steered coherence vanishes for quantum-classical states whilst reaching a maximum for pure entangled states with full Schmidt rank. Although invariant under local unitary operations, maximal steered coherence may be increased when Bob performs a channel. For a two-qubit state we find that Bob’s channel can increase maximal steered coherence if and only if it is neither unital nor semi-classical, which coincides with the condition for increasing discord. Our results show that the power of steering for coherence generation, though related to discord, is distinct from existing measures of quantum correlation. PMID:26781214
Quantum coherence of steered states.
Hu, Xueyuan; Milne, Antony; Zhang, Boyang; Fan, Heng
2016-01-19
Lying at the heart of quantum mechanics, coherence has recently been studied as a key resource in quantum information theory. Quantum steering, a fundamental notion originally considered by Schödinger, has also recently received much attention. When Alice and Bob share a correlated quantum system, Alice can perform a local measurement to 'steer' Bob's reduced state. We introduce the maximal steered coherence as a measure describing the extent to which steering can remotely create coherence; more precisely, we find the maximal coherence of Bob's steered state in the eigenbasis of his original reduced state, where maximization is performed over all positive-operator valued measurements for Alice. We prove that maximal steered coherence vanishes for quantum-classical states whilst reaching a maximum for pure entangled states with full Schmidt rank. Although invariant under local unitary operations, maximal steered coherence may be increased when Bob performs a channel. For a two-qubit state we find that Bob's channel can increase maximal steered coherence if and only if it is neither unital nor semi-classical, which coincides with the condition for increasing discord. Our results show that the power of steering for coherence generation, though related to discord, is distinct from existing measures of quantum correlation.
Gravity-induced stresses in finite slopes
Savage, W.Z.
1994-01-01
An exact solution for gravity-induced stresses in finite elastic slopes is presented. This solution, which is applied for gravity-induced stresses in 15, 30, 45 and 90?? finite slopes, has application in pit-slope design, compares favorably with published finite element results for this problem and satisfies the conditions that shear and normal stresses vanish on the ground surface. The solution predicts that horizontal stresses are compressive along the top of the slopes (zero in the case of the 90?? slope) and tensile away from the bottom of the slopes, effects which are caused by downward movement and near-surface horizontal extension in front of the slope in response to gravity loading caused by the additional material associated with the finite slope. ?? 1994.
Quantum States as Objective Informational Bridges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Healey, Richard
2017-02-01
A quantum state represents neither properties of a physical system nor anyone's knowledge of its properties. The important question is not what quantum states represent but how they are used—as informational bridges. Knowing about some physical situations (its backing conditions), an agent may assign a quantum state to form expectations about other possible physical situations (its advice conditions). Quantum states are objective: only expectations based on correct state assignments are generally reliable. If a quantum state represents anything, it is the objective probabilistic relations between its backing conditions and its advice conditions. This paper offers an account of quantum states and their function as informational bridges, in quantum teleportation and elsewhere.
Product-State Approximations to Quantum States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Harrow, Aram W.
2016-02-01
We show that for any many-body quantum state there exists an unentangled quantum state such that most of the two-body reduced density matrices are close to those of the original state. This is a statement about the monogamy of entanglement, which cannot be shared without limit in the same way as classical correlation. Our main application is to Hamiltonians that are sums of two-body terms. For such Hamiltonians we show that there exist product states with energy that is close to the ground-state energy whenever the interaction graph of the Hamiltonian has high degree. This proves the validity of mean-field theory and gives an explicitly bounded approximation error. If we allow states that are entangled within small clusters of systems but product across clusters then good approximations exist when the Hamiltonian satisfies one or more of the following properties: (1) high degree, (2) small expansion, or (3) a ground state where the blocks in the partition have sublinear entanglement. Previously this was known only in the case of small expansion or in the regime where the entanglement was close to zero. Our approximations allow an extensive error in energy, which is the scale considered by the quantum PCP (probabilistically checkable proof) and NLTS (no low-energy trivial-state) conjectures. Thus our results put restrictions on the possible Hamiltonians that could be used for a possible proof of the qPCP or NLTS conjectures. By contrast the classical PCP constructions are often based on constraint graphs with high degree. Likewise we show that the parallel repetition that is possible with classical constraint satisfaction problems cannot also be possible for quantum Hamiltonians, unless qPCP is false. The main technical tool behind our results is a collection of new classical and quantum de Finetti theorems which do not make any symmetry assumptions on the underlying states.
Quantum state transfer via Bloch oscillations
Tamascelli, Dario; Olivares, Stefano; Rossotti, Stefano; Osellame, Roberto; Paris, Matteo G. A.
2016-01-01
The realization of reliable quantum channels, able to transfer a quantum state with high fidelity, is a fundamental step in the construction of scalable quantum devices. In this paper we describe a transmission scheme based on the genuinely quantum effect known as Bloch oscillations. The proposed protocol makes it possible to carry a quantum state over different distances with a minimal engineering of the transmission medium and can be implemented and verified on current quantum technology hardware. PMID:27189630
Entanglement for All Quantum States
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de la Torre, A. C.; Goyeneche, D.; Leitao, L.
2010-01-01
It is shown that a state that is factorizable in the Hilbert space corresponding to some choice of degrees of freedom becomes entangled for a different choice of degrees of freedom. Therefore, entanglement is not a special case but is ubiquitous in quantum systems. Simple examples are calculated and a general proof is provided. The physical…
Mizel, Ari
2004-07-01
Ground-state quantum computers mimic quantum-mechanical time evolution within the amplitudes of a time-independent quantum state. We explore the principles that constrain this mimicking. A no-cloning argument is found to impose strong restrictions. It is shown, however, that there is flexibility that can be exploited using quantum teleportation methods to improve ground-state quantum computer design.
Distinguishability of generic quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puchała, Zbigniew; Pawela, Łukasz; Życzkowski, Karol
2016-06-01
Properties of random mixed states of dimension N distributed uniformly with respect to the Hilbert-Schmidt measure are investigated. We show that for large N , due to the concentration of measure, the trace distance between two random states tends to a fixed number D ˜=1 /4 +1 /π , which yields the Helstrom bound on their distinguishability. To arrive at this result, we apply free random calculus and derive the symmetrized Marchenko-Pastur distribution, which is shown to describe numerical data for the model of coupled quantum kicked tops. Asymptotic value for the root fidelity between two random states, √{F }=3/4 , can serve as a universal reference value for further theoretical and experimental studies. Analogous results for quantum relative entropy and Chernoff quantity provide other bounds on the distinguishablity of both states in a multiple measurement setup due to the quantum Sanov theorem. We study also mean entropy of coherence of random pure and mixed states and entanglement of a generic mixed state of a bipartite system.
Gravity-Induced Gene Expression in Plants.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sederoff, Heike; Heber, Steffen; Howard, Brian; Myburg-Nichols, Henrietta; Hammond, Rebecca; Salinas-Mondragon, Raul; Brown, Christopher S.
Plants sense changes in their orientation towards the vector of gravity and respond with directional growth. Several metabolites in the signal transduction cascade have been identified. However, very little is known about the interaction between these sensing and signal transduction events and even less is known about their role in the differential growth response. Gravity induced changes in transcript abundance have been identified in Arabidopsis whole seedlings and root apices (Moseyko et al. 2002; Kimbrough et al. 2004). Gravity induced transcript abundance changes can be observed within less than 1 min after stimulation (Salinas-Mondragon et al. 2005). Gene expression however requires not only transcription but also translation of the mRNA. Translation can only occur when mRNA is associated with ribosomes, even though not all mRNA associated with ribosomes is actively translated. To approximate translational capacity we quantified whole genome transcript abundances in corn stem pulvini during the first hour after gravity stimulation in total and poly-ribosomal fractions. As in Arabidopsis root apices, transcript abundances of several clusters of genes responded to gravity stimulation. The vast majority of these transcripts were also found to associate with polyribosomes in the same temporal and quantitative pattern. These genes are transcriptionally regulated by gravity stimulation, but do not exhibit translational regulation. However, a small group of genes showed increased transcriptional regulation after gravity stimulation, but no association with polysomes. These transcripts likely are translationally repressed. The mechanism of translational repression for these transcripts is unknown. Based on the hypothesis that the genes essential for gravitropic responses should be expressed in most or all species, we compared the temporal gravity induced expression pattern of all orthologs identified between maize and Arabidopsis. A small group of genes showed high
Understanding molecular dynamics quantum-state by quantum-state
Lawrance, W.D.; Moore, C.B.; Petek, H.
1985-02-22
It is now possible to resolve completely the initial and final quantum states in chemical processes. Spectra of reactive intermediates, of highly vibrationally excited molecules, and even of molecules in the process of falling apart have been recorded. This information has led to greater understanding of the molecular structure and dynamics of small gas-phase molecules. Many of the concepts and spectroscopic techniques that have been developed will be valuable throughout chemistry.
Teleportation of an atomic ensemble quantum state.
Dantan, A; Treps, N; Bramati, A; Pinard, M
2005-02-11
We propose a protocol to achieve high fidelity quantum state teleportation of a macroscopic atomic ensemble using a pair of quantum-correlated atomic ensembles. We show how to prepare this pair of ensembles using quasiperfect quantum state transfer processes between light and atoms. Our protocol relies on optical joint measurements of the atomic ensemble states and magnetic feedback reconstruction.
Quantum State Engineering Via Coherent-State Superpositions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Janszky, Jozsef; Adam, P.; Szabo, S.; Domokos, P.
1996-01-01
The quantum interference between the two parts of the optical Schrodinger-cat state makes possible to construct a wide class of quantum states via discrete superpositions of coherent states. Even a small number of coherent states can approximate the given quantum states at a high accuracy when the distance between the coherent states is optimized, e. g. nearly perfect Fock state can be constructed by discrete superpositions of n + 1 coherent states lying in the vicinity of the vacuum state.
Creating a Superposition of Unknown Quantum States.
Oszmaniec, Michał; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Wójcik, Antoni
2016-03-18
The superposition principle is one of the landmarks of quantum mechanics. The importance of quantum superpositions provokes questions about the limitations that quantum mechanics itself imposes on the possibility of their generation. In this work, we systematically study the problem of the creation of superpositions of unknown quantum states. First, we prove a no-go theorem that forbids the existence of a universal probabilistic quantum protocol producing a superposition of two unknown quantum states. Second, we provide an explicit probabilistic protocol generating a superposition of two unknown states, each having a fixed overlap with the known referential pure state. The protocol can be applied to generate coherent superposition of results of independent runs of subroutines in a quantum computer. Moreover, in the context of quantum optics it can be used to efficiently generate highly nonclassical states or non-Gaussian states.
Quantum amplification and quantum optical tapping with squeezed states and correlated quantum states
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ou, Z. Y.; Pereira, S. F.; Kimble, H. J.
1994-01-01
Quantum fluctuations in a nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) are investigated experimentally with a squeezed state coupled into the internal idler mode of the NOPA. Reductions of the inherent quantum noise of the amplifier are observed with a minimum noise level 0.7 dB below the usual noise level of the amplifier with its idler mode in a vacuum state. With two correlated quantum fields as the amplifier's inputs and proper adjustment of the gain of the amplifier, it is shown that the amplifier's intrinsic quantum noise can be completely suppressed so that noise-free amplification is achieved. It is also shown that the NOPA, when coupled to either a squeezed state or a nonclassically correlated state, can realize quantum tapping of optical information.
Entangled States, Holography and Quantum Surfaces
Chapline, G F
2003-08-13
Starting with an elementary discussion of quantum holography, we show that entangled quantum states of qubits provide a ''local'' representation of the global geometry and topology of quantum Riemann surfaces. This representation may play an important role in both mathematics and physics. Indeed, the simplest way to represent the fundamental objects in a ''theory of everything'' may be as muti-qubit entangled states.
Quantum State Tomography via Reduced Density Matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xin, Tao; Lu, Dawei; Klassen, Joel; Yu, Nengkun; Ji, Zhengfeng; Chen, Jianxin; Ma, Xian; Long, Guilu; Zeng, Bei; Laflamme, Raymond
2017-01-01
Quantum state tomography via local measurements is an efficient tool for characterizing quantum states. However, it requires that the original global state be uniquely determined (UD) by its local reduced density matrices (RDMs). In this work, we demonstrate for the first time a class of states that are UD by their RDMs under the assumption that the global state is pure, but fail to be UD in the absence of that assumption. This discovery allows us to classify quantum states according to their UD properties, with the requirement that each class be treated distinctly in the practice of simplifying quantum state tomography. Additionally, we experimentally test the feasibility and stability of performing quantum state tomography via the measurement of local RDMs for each class. These theoretical and experimental results demonstrate the advantages and possible pitfalls of quantum state tomography with local measurements.
Multiple Multi-Qubit Quantum States Sharing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Hua-Wang; Dai, Yue-Wei
2016-04-01
A multiple multi-qubit quantum states sharing scheme is proposed, in which the dealer can share multiple multi-qubit quantum states among the participants through only one distribution and one recovery. The dealer encodes the secret quantum states into a special entangled state, and then distributes the particles of the entangled state to the participants. The participants perform the single-particle measurements on their particles, and can cooperate to recover the multiple multi-qubit quantum states. Compared to the existing schemes, our scheme is more efficient and more flexible in practice.
Li Zhenni; Jin Jiasen; Yu Changshui
2011-01-15
We present schemes for a type of one-parameter bipartite quantum state to probe quantum entanglement, quantum discord, the classical correlation, and the quantum state based on cavity QED. It is shown that our detection does not influence all these measured quantities. We also discuss how the spontaneous emission introduced by our probe atom influences our detection.
Quantum state transfer through noisy quantum cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avalle, Michele; Genoni, Marco G.; Serafini, Alessio
2015-05-01
We model the transport of an unknown quantum state on one dimensional qubit lattices by means of a quantum cellular automata (QCA) evolution. We do this by first introducing a class of discrete noisy dynamics, in the first excitation sector, in which a wide group of classical stochastic dynamics is embedded within the more general formalism of quantum operations. We then extend the Hilbert space of the system to accommodate a global vacuum state, thus allowing for the transport of initial on-site coherences besides excitations, and determine the dynamical constraints that define the class of noisy QCA in this subspace. We then study the transport performance through numerical simulations, showing that for some instances of the dynamics perfect quantum state transfer is attainable. Our approach provides one with a natural description of both unitary and open quantum evolutions, where the homogeneity and locality of interactions allow one to take into account several forms of quantum noise in a plausible scenario.
Quantum optics. Quantum harmonic oscillator state synthesis by reservoir engineering.
Kienzler, D; Lo, H-Y; Keitch, B; de Clercq, L; Leupold, F; Lindenfelser, F; Marinelli, M; Negnevitsky, V; Home, J P
2015-01-02
The robust generation of quantum states in the presence of decoherence is a primary challenge for explorations of quantum mechanics at larger scales. Using the mechanical motion of a single trapped ion, we utilize reservoir engineering to generate squeezed, coherent, and displaced-squeezed states as steady states in the presence of noise. We verify the created state by generating two-state correlated spin-motion Rabi oscillations, resulting in high-contrast measurements. For both cooling and measurement, we use spin-oscillator couplings that provide transitions between oscillator states in an engineered Fock state basis. Our approach should facilitate studies of entanglement, quantum computation, and open-system quantum simulations in a wide range of physical systems.
Quantum simulation of classical thermal states.
Dür, W; Van den Nest, M
2011-10-21
We establish a connection between ground states of local quantum Hamiltonians and thermal states of classical spin systems. For any discrete classical statistical mechanical model in any spatial dimension, we find an associated quantum state such that the reduced density operator behaves as the thermal state of the classical system. We show that all these quantum states are unique ground states of a universal 5-body local quantum Hamiltonian acting on a (polynomially enlarged) qubit system on a 2D lattice. The only free parameters of the quantum Hamiltonian are coupling strengths of two-body interactions, which allow one to choose the type and dimension of the classical model as well as the interaction strength and temperature. This opens the possibility to study and simulate classical spin models in arbitrary dimension using a 2D quantum system.
Quantum secret sharing with qudit graph states
Keet, Adrian; Fortescue, Ben; Sanders, Barry C.; Markham, Damian
2010-12-15
We present a unified formalism for threshold quantum secret sharing using graph states of systems with prime dimension. We construct protocols for three varieties of secret sharing: with classical and quantum secrets shared between parties over both classical and quantum channels.
Quantum jumps, superpositions, and the continuous evolution of quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dick, Rainer
2017-02-01
The apparent dichotomy between quantum jumps on the one hand, and continuous time evolution according to wave equations on the other hand, provided a challenge to Bohr's proposal of quantum jumps in atoms. Furthermore, Schrödinger's time-dependent equation also seemed to require a modification of the explanation for the origin of line spectra due to the apparent possibility of superpositions of energy eigenstates for different energy levels. Indeed, Schrödinger himself proposed a quantum beat mechanism for the generation of discrete line spectra from superpositions of eigenstates with different energies. However, these issues between old quantum theory and Schrödinger's wave mechanics were correctly resolved only after the development and full implementation of photon quantization. The second quantized scattering matrix formalism reconciles quantum jumps with continuous time evolution through the identification of quantum jumps with transitions between different sectors of Fock space. The continuous evolution of quantum states is then recognized as a sum over continually evolving jump amplitudes between different sectors in Fock space. In today's terminology, this suggests that linear combinations of scattering matrix elements are epistemic sums over ontic states. Insights from the resolution of the dichotomy between quantum jumps and continuous time evolution therefore hold important lessons for modern research both on interpretations of quantum mechanics and on the foundations of quantum computing. They demonstrate that discussions of interpretations of quantum theory necessarily need to take into account field quantization. They also demonstrate the limitations of the role of wave equations in quantum theory, and caution us that superpositions of quantum states for the formation of qubits may be more limited than usually expected.
Mapping quantum state dynamics in spontaneous emission
Naghiloo, M.; Foroozani, N.; Tan, D.; Jadbabaie, A.; Murch, K. W.
2016-01-01
The evolution of a quantum state undergoing radiative decay depends on how its emission is detected. If the emission is detected in the form of energy quanta, the evolution is characterized by a quantum jump to a lower energy state. In contrast, detection of the wave nature of the emitted radiation leads to different dynamics. Here, we investigate the diffusive dynamics of a superconducting artificial atom under continuous homodyne detection of its spontaneous emission. Using quantum state tomography, we characterize the correlation between the detected homodyne signal and the emitter's state, and map out the conditional back-action of homodyne measurement. By tracking the diffusive quantum trajectories of the state as it decays, we characterize selective stochastic excitation induced by the choice of measurement basis. Our results demonstrate dramatic differences from the quantum jump evolution associated with photodetection and highlight how continuous field detection can be harnessed to control quantum evolution. PMID:27167893
Atomic quantum state teleportation and swapping.
Kuzmich, A; Polzik, E S
2000-12-25
A set of protocols for atoms-photons and atoms-atoms quantum state teleportation and swapping utilizing Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen light is proposed. The protocols work for polarization quantum states of multiphoton light pulses and macroscopic samples of atoms, i.e., for continuous quantum variables. A simple free space interaction of polarized light with a spin polarized atomic ensemble is shown to suffice for these protocols. Feasibility of experimental realization using gas samples of atoms is analyzed.
Investigating Quantum Data Encrypted Modulation States
2014-11-01
loss, detector quantum efficiency , amplifier gain, and noise sources over and above photon shot noise. The signal and Local Oscillator are two...INVESTIGATING QUANTUM DATA ENCRYPTED MODULATION STATES NOVEMBER 2014 INTERIM TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED...OCT 2013 – OCT 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INVESTIGATING QUANTUM DATA ENCRYPTED MODULATION STATES 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE / R148 5b. GRANT
Improved quantum state transfer via quantum partially collapsing measurements
Man, Zhong-Xiao; Ba An, Nguyen; Xia, Yun-Jie
2014-10-15
In this work, we present a general scheme to improve quantum state transfer (QST) by taking advantage of quantum partially collapsing measurements. The scheme consists of a weak measurement performed at the initial time on the qubit encoding the state of concern and a subsequent quantum reversal measurement at a desired time on the destined qubit. We determine the strength q{sub r} of the post quantum reversal measurement as a function of the strength p of the prior weak measurement and the evolution time t so that near-perfect QST can be achieved by choosing p close enough to 1, with a finite success probability, regardless of the evolution time and the distance over which the QST takes place. The merit of our scheme is twofold: it not only improves QST, but also suppresses the energy dissipation, if any. - Highlights: • A scheme using weak/reversal measurements is devised to improve quantum state transfer. • It can suppress dissipation allowing optimal quantum state transfer in open system. • Explicit condition for achieving near-perfect quantum state transfer is established. • Applications to spin chain and cavity array are considered in detail.
Robust quantum receivers for coherent state discrimination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becerra, Francisco Elohim
2014-05-01
Quantum state discrimination is a central task for quantum information and is a fundamental problem in quantum mechanics. Nonorthogonal states, such as coherent states which have intrinsic quantum noise, cannot be discriminated with total certainty because of their intrinsic overlap. This nonorthogonality is at the heart of quantum key distribution for ensuring absolute secure communications between a transmitter and a receiver, and can enable many quantum information protocols based on coherent states. At the same time, while coherent states are used for communications because of their robustness to loss and simplicity of generation and detection, their nonorthogonality inherently produces errors in the process of decoding the information. The minimum error probability in the discrimination of nonorthogonal coherent states measured by an ideal lossless and noiseless conventional receiver is given by the standard quantum limit (SQL). This limit sets strict bounds on the ultimate performance of coherent communications and many coherent-state-based quantum information protocols. However, measurement strategies based on the quantum properties of these states can allow for better measurements that surpass the SQL and approach the ultimate measurement limits allowed by quantum mechanics. These measurement strategies can allow for optimally extracting information encoded in these states for coherent and quantum communications. We present the demonstration of a receiver based on adaptive measurements and single-photon counting that unconditionally discriminates multiple nonorthogonal coherent states below the SQL. We also discuss the potential of photon-number-resolving detection to provide robustness and high sensitivity under realistic conditions for an adaptive coherent receiver with detectors with finite photon-number resolution.
Secret Sharing of a Quantum State.
Lu, He; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Luo-Kan; Li, Zheng-Da; Liu, Chang; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Ma, Xiongfeng; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-07-15
Secret sharing of a quantum state, or quantum secret sharing, in which a dealer wants to share a certain amount of quantum information with a few players, has wide applications in quantum information. The critical criterion in a threshold secret sharing scheme is confidentiality: with less than the designated number of players, no information can be recovered. Furthermore, in a quantum scenario, one additional critical criterion exists: the capability of sharing entangled and unknown quantum information. Here, by employing a six-photon entangled state, we demonstrate a quantum threshold scheme, where the shared quantum secrecy can be efficiently reconstructed with a state fidelity as high as 93%. By observing that any one or two parties cannot recover the secrecy, we show that our scheme meets the confidentiality criterion. Meanwhile, we also demonstrate that entangled quantum information can be shared and recovered via our setting, which shows that our implemented scheme is fully quantum. Moreover, our experimental setup can be treated as a decoding circuit of the five-qubit quantum error-correcting code with two erasure errors.
Secret Sharing of a Quantum State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, He; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Luo-Kan; Li, Zheng-Da; Liu, Chang; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Ma, Xiongfeng; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-07-01
Secret sharing of a quantum state, or quantum secret sharing, in which a dealer wants to share a certain amount of quantum information with a few players, has wide applications in quantum information. The critical criterion in a threshold secret sharing scheme is confidentiality: with less than the designated number of players, no information can be recovered. Furthermore, in a quantum scenario, one additional critical criterion exists: the capability of sharing entangled and unknown quantum information. Here, by employing a six-photon entangled state, we demonstrate a quantum threshold scheme, where the shared quantum secrecy can be efficiently reconstructed with a state fidelity as high as 93%. By observing that any one or two parties cannot recover the secrecy, we show that our scheme meets the confidentiality criterion. Meanwhile, we also demonstrate that entangled quantum information can be shared and recovered via our setting, which shows that our implemented scheme is fully quantum. Moreover, our experimental setup can be treated as a decoding circuit of the five-qubit quantum error-correcting code with two erasure errors.
Optimal conclusive teleportation of quantum states
Roa, L.; Delgado, A.; Fuentes-Guridi, I.
2003-08-01
Quantum teleportation of qudits is revisited. In particular, we analyze the case where the quantum channel corresponds to a nonmaximally entangled state and show that the success of the protocol is directly related to the problem of distinguishing nonorthogonal quantum states. The teleportation channel can be seen as a coherent superposition of two channels, one of them being a maximally entangled state, thus leading to perfect teleportation, and the other, corresponding to a nonmaximally entangled state living in a subspace of the d-dimensional Hilbert space. The second channel leads to a teleported state with reduced fidelity. We calculate the average fidelity of the process and show its optimality.
Quantum pump in quantum spin Hall edge states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Fang
2016-09-01
We present a theory for quantum pump in a quantum spin Hall bar with two quantum point contacts (QPCs). The pump currents can be generated by applying harmonically modulating gate voltages at QPCs. The phase difference between the gate voltages introduces an effective gauge field, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry and generates pump currents. The pump currents display very different pump frequency dependence for weak and strong e-e interaction. These unique properties are induced by the helical feature of the edge states, and therefore can be used to detect and control edge state transport.
Quantum information theory of the Bell-state quantum eraser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glick, Jennifer R.; Adami, Christoph
2017-01-01
Quantum systems can display particle- or wavelike properties, depending on the type of measurement that is performed on them. The Bell-state quantum eraser is an experiment that brings the duality to the forefront, as a single measurement can retroactively be made to measure particlelike or wavelike properties (or anything in between). Here we develop a unitary information-theoretic description of this and several related quantum measurement situations that sheds light on the trade-off between the quantum and classical features of the measurement. In particular, we show that both the coherence of the quantum state and the classical information obtained from it can be described using only quantum-information-theoretic tools and that those two measures satisfy an equality on account of the chain rule for entropies. The coherence information and the which-path information have simple interpretations in terms of state preparation and state determination and suggest ways to account for the relationship between the classical and the quantum world.
Entanglement and Coherence in Quantum State Merging.
Streltsov, A; Chitambar, E; Rana, S; Bera, M N; Winter, A; Lewenstein, M
2016-06-17
Understanding the resource consumption in distributed scenarios is one of the main goals of quantum information theory. A prominent example for such a scenario is the task of quantum state merging, where two parties aim to merge their tripartite quantum state parts. In standard quantum state merging, entanglement is considered to be an expensive resource, while local quantum operations can be performed at no additional cost. However, recent developments show that some local operations could be more expensive than others: it is reasonable to distinguish between local incoherent operations and local operations which can create coherence. This idea leads us to the task of incoherent quantum state merging, where one of the parties has free access to local incoherent operations only. In this case the resources of the process are quantified by pairs of entanglement and coherence. Here, we develop tools for studying this process and apply them to several relevant scenarios. While quantum state merging can lead to a gain of entanglement, our results imply that no merging procedure can gain entanglement and coherence at the same time. We also provide a general lower bound on the entanglement-coherence sum and show that the bound is tight for all pure states. Our results also lead to an incoherent version of Schumacher compression: in this case the compression rate is equal to the von Neumann entropy of the diagonal elements of the corresponding quantum state.
Entropy for quantum pure states and quantum H theorem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Xizhi; Wu, Biao
2015-06-01
We construct a complete set of Wannier functions that are localized at both given positions and momenta. This allows us to introduce the quantum phase space, onto which a quantum pure state can be mapped unitarily. Using its probability distribution in quantum phase space, we define an entropy for a quantum pure state. We prove an inequality regarding the long-time behavior of our entropy's fluctuation. For a typical initial state, this inequality indicates that our entropy can relax dynamically to a maximized value and stay there most of time with small fluctuations. This result echoes the quantum H theorem proved by von Neumann [Zeitschrift für Physik 57, 30 (1929), 10.1007/BF01339852]. Our entropy is different from the standard von Neumann entropy, which is always zero for quantum pure states. According to our definition, a system always has bigger entropy than its subsystem even when the system is described by a pure state. As the construction of the Wannier basis can be implemented numerically, the dynamical evolution of our entropy is illustrated with an example.
Gravity Induced Formation of Concentration Gradients in Supersaturated Binary Solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Izmailov, Alexander F.; Myerson, Allan S.
1996-01-01
Experimental and theoretical studies of the formation of solute concentration gradient in supersaturated binary solutions in a gravitational field were carried out. The formation of solute concentration gradient was associated with the gravity induced redistribution of subcritical solute clusters. The birth-death process of the new solute-rich phase domains (subcritical solute clusters) was described in terms of the time-dependent Ginzburg Landau model developed for metastable state relaxation in binary (solute + solvent) non-critical solutions in the presence of a gravitational field. A new mathematical Ansatz was developed for solution of the model equations. This Ansatz has allowed to approach for the first time the following important problems: (1) Microstructure of solute distribution inside of the subcritical solute clusters. The analytical results obtained demonstrate that solute inside of the subcritical solute clusters is heterogeneously distributed with a spatially periodic structure. (2) Macrostructure of the solute subcritical clusters distribution in a gravitational field. The subcritical solute clusters are found to be distributed heterogeneously in a gravitational field. This heterogeneity, which is due to the heterogeneous birth-death process of the subcritical solute clusters in a gravitational field, initiates a noticeable solute concentration gradient in vertical columns of supersaturated binary solutions. An analysis and comparison of theoretical results and experimental data related to the solute concentration gradient formation in a gravitational field are presented. It is also demonstrated that the critical radius of solute clusters (radius of nucleation) and induction time are gravity-dependent.
Gaussian state for the bouncing quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mielczarek, Jakub; Piechocki, Włodzimierz
2012-10-01
We present results concerning propagation of the Gaussian state across the cosmological quantum bounce. The reduced phase space quantization of loop quantum cosmology is applied to the Friedman-Robertson-Walker universe with a free massless scalar field. Evolution of quantum moments of the canonical variables is investigated. The covariance turns out to be a monotonic function so it may be used as an evolution parameter having quantum origin. We show that for the Gaussian state the Universe is least quantum at the bounce. We propose explanation of this counter-intuitive feature using the entropy of squeezing. The obtained time dependence of entropy is in agreement with qualitative predictions based on von Neumann entropy for mixed states. We show that, for the considered Gaussian state, semiclassicality is preserved across the bounce, so there is no cosmic forgetfulness.
Authentication Protocol using Quantum Superposition States
Kanamori, Yoshito; Yoo, Seong-Moo; Gregory, Don A.; Sheldon, Frederick T
2009-01-01
When it became known that quantum computers could break the RSA (named for its creators - Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman) encryption algorithm within a polynomial-time, quantum cryptography began to be actively studied. Other classical cryptographic algorithms are only secure when malicious users do not have sufficient computational power to break security within a practical amount of time. Recently, many quantum authentication protocols sharing quantum entangled particles between communicators have been proposed, providing unconditional security. An issue caused by sharing quantum entangled particles is that it may not be simple to apply these protocols to authenticate a specific user in a group of many users. An authentication protocol using quantum superposition states instead of quantum entangled particles is proposed. The random number shared between a sender and a receiver can be used for classical encryption after the authentication has succeeded. The proposed protocol can be implemented with the current technologies we introduce in this paper.
The Quantum State as Spatial Displacement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holland, Peter
We give a simple demonstration that the Schrödinger equation of wave mechanics may be recast as a self-contained second-order Newtonian law for a congruence of spacetime trajectories. This implies that a pictorial representation of the quantum state as a displacement function is implicit in the quantum description, complementary to and independent of the wave function. Quantum evolution is described by the deterministic unfolding of a continuous coordinate transformation. Introducing gauge potentials for the density and current density it is shown that the wave-mechanical and trajectory pictures are connected by a canonical transformation. The canonical trajectory theory is shown to provide an alternative basis for the quantum operator calculus and the observability of the quantum state is examined within this context. The construction illuminates some of the problems involved in connecting the quantum and classical descriptions.
Quantum State Detection through Repetitive Mapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hume, D. B.; Rosenband, T.; Bergquist, J. C.; Wineland, D. J.
2007-03-01
State detection plays an important role in quantum information processing and quantum-limited metrology. In some cases the quantum system of interest can only be detected with poor efficiency. One approach to overcoming this limitation is to couple the primary quantum system to an ancillary quantum system used for measurement [1]. The measurement process consists of mapping the primary state to the ancilla followed by ancilla detection. If this can be done without affecting the projected populations of the primary system, the measurement may be repeated. In this case, detection fidelity can be significantly higher than both the fidelity of state transfer and the intrinsic measurement fidelity of the ancillary system. Using two ions as the primary and ancillary systems (^27Al^+ and ^9Be^+ respectively) held in a harmonic trap, we demonstrate near unit fidelity measurement despite imperfect information transfer and ancilla detection. [1] P.O. Schmidt, et. al. Science 309 749 (2005)
Adaptive Quantum State Detection through Repetitive Mapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hume, David; Rosenband, Till; Wineland, David; Bergquist, Jim
2007-06-01
State detection plays an important role in quantum information processing and quantum-limited metrology. In some quantum systems direct detection is impossible or inefficient. This can be overcome by coupling the primary quantum system to an ancillary system used for measurement [1]. The measurement process consists of mapping the primary state to the ancilla followed by ancilla detection. If the measurement does not affect the projected populations of the primary system, it may be repeated yielding higher fidelity. Using two trapped ion species (^27Al^+ and ^9Be^+) as the primary and ancillary systems, we demonstrate high-fidelity measurement despite imperfect information transfer and ancilla detection. An adaptive measurement strategy allows for multiple qubit state discrimination with one ancilla. This opens the way for several applications in quantum information processing and advances our optical clock effort. [1] P.O. Schmidt, et. al. Science 309 749 (2005)
Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states
Lupo, C.; Mancini, S.; De Pasquale, A.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.
2012-12-15
We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom-the symplectic eigenvalues-which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.
Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lupo, C.; Mancini, S.; De Pasquale, A.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.
2012-12-01
We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom—the symplectic eigenvalues—which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.
Fractional Quantum Hall States in a Ge Quantum Well.
Mironov, O A; d'Ambrumenil, N; Dobbie, A; Leadley, D R; Suslov, A V; Green, E
2016-04-29
Measurements of the Hall and dissipative conductivity of a strained Ge quantum well on a SiGe/(001)Si substrate in the quantum Hall regime are reported. We analyze the results in terms of thermally activated quantum tunneling of carriers from one internal edge state to another across saddle points in the long-range impurity potential. This shows that the gaps for different filling fractions closely follow the dependence predicted by theory. We also find that the estimates of the separation of the edge states at the saddle are in line with the expectations of an electrostatic model in the lowest spin-polarized Landau level (LL), but not in the spin-reversed LL where the density of quasiparticle states is not high enough to accommodate the carriers required.
Individual Atoms in their Quantum Ground State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwartz, Eyal; Sompet, Pimonpan; Fung, Yin Hsien; Andersen, Mikkel F.
2016-05-01
An ultimate control of pure quantum states is an excellent platform for various quantum science and engineering. In this work, we perform quantum manipulation of individual Rubidium atoms in a tightly focus optical tweezer in order to cool them into their vibrational ground state via Raman sideband cooling. Our experimental scheme involves a combination of Raman sideband transitions and optical pumping of the atoms that couples two magnetic field sublevels indifferent to magnetic noise thus providing a much longer atomic coherence time compared to previous cooling schemes. By installing most of the atoms in their ground state, we managed to achieve two-dimensional cooling on the way to create a full nil entropy quantum state of single atoms and single molecules. We acknowledge the Marsden Fund, CORE and DWC for their support.
Colored Quantum Algebra and Its Bethe State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jin-Zheng; Jia, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Shi-Kun
2014-12-01
We investigate the colored Yang—Baxter equation. Based on a trigonometric solution of colored Yang—Baxter equation, we construct a colored quantum algebra. Moreover we discuss its algebraic Bethe ansatz state and highest wight representation.
Quantum information. Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits.
Pfaff, W; Hensen, B J; Bernien, H; van Dam, S B; Blok, M S; Taminiau, T H; Tiggelman, M J; Schouten, R N; Markham, M; Twitchen, D J; Hanson, R
2014-08-01
Realizing robust quantum information transfer between long-lived qubit registers is a key challenge for quantum information science and technology. Here we demonstrate unconditional teleportation of arbitrary quantum states between diamond spin qubits separated by 3 meters. We prepare the teleporter through photon-mediated heralded entanglement between two distant electron spins and subsequently encode the source qubit in a single nuclear spin. By realizing a fully deterministic Bell-state measurement combined with real-time feed-forward, quantum teleportation is achieved upon each attempt with an average state fidelity exceeding the classical limit. These results establish diamond spin qubits as a prime candidate for the realization of quantum networks for quantum communication and network-based quantum computing.
Average fidelity between random quantum states
Zyczkowski, Karol; Sommers, Hans-Juergen
2005-03-01
We analyze mean fidelity between random density matrices of size N, generated with respect to various probability measures in the space of mixed quantum states: the Hilbert-Schmidt measure, the Bures (statistical) measure, the measure induced by the partial trace, and the natural measure on the space of pure states. In certain cases explicit probability distributions for the fidelity are derived. The results obtained may be used to gauge the quality of quantum-information-processing schemes.
LOCC indistinguishable orthogonal product quantum states
Zhang, Xiaoqian; Tan, Xiaoqing; Weng, Jian; Li, Yongjun
2016-01-01
We construct two families of orthogonal product quantum states that cannot be exactly distinguished by local operation and classical communication (LOCC) in the quantum system of 2k+i ⊗ 2l+j (i, j ∈ {0, 1} and i ≥ j ) and 3k+i ⊗ 3l+j (i, j ∈ {0, 1, 2}). And we also give the tiling structure of these two families of quantum product states where the quantum states are unextendible in the first family but are extendible in the second family. Our construction in the quantum system of 3k+i ⊗ 3l+j is more generalized than the other construction such as Wang et al.’s construction and Zhang et al.’s construction, because it contains the quantum system of not only 2k ⊗ 2l and 2k+1 ⊗ 2l but also 2k ⊗ 2l+1 and 2k+1 ⊗ 2l+1. We calculate the non-commutativity to quantify the quantumness of a quantum ensemble for judging the local indistinguishability. We give a general method to judge the indistinguishability of orthogonal product states for our two constructions in this paper. We also extend the dimension of the quantum system of 2k ⊗ 2l in Wang et al.’s paper. Our work is a necessary complement to understand the phenomenon of quantum nonlocality without entanglement. PMID:27377310
Anomalous hydrodynamics of fractional quantum Hall states
Wiegmann, P.
2013-09-15
We propose a comprehensive framework for quantum hydrodynamics of the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states. We suggest that the electronic fluid in the FQH regime can be phenomenologically described by the quantized hydrodynamics of vortices in an incompressible rotating liquid. We demonstrate that such hydrodynamics captures all major features of FQH states, including the subtle effect of the Lorentz shear stress. We present a consistent quantization of the hydrodynamics of an incompressible fluid, providing a powerful framework to study the FQH effect and superfluids. We obtain the quantum hydrodynamics of the vortex flow by quantizing the Kirchhoff equations for vortex dynamics.
Quantum state transfer in optomechanical arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Moraes Neto, G. D.; Andrade, F. M.; Montenegro, V.; Bose, S.
2016-06-01
Quantum state transfer between distant nodes is at the heart of quantum processing and quantum networking. Stimulated by this, we propose a scheme where one can achieve quantum state transfer with a high fidelity between sites in a cavity quantum optomechanical network. In our lattice, each individual site is composed of a localized mechanical mode which interacts with a laser-driven cavity mode via radiation pressure, while photons hop between neighboring sites. After diagonalization of the Hamiltonian of each cell, we show that the system can be reduced to an effective Hamiltonian of two decoupled bosonic chains, and therefore we can apply the well-known results in quantum state transfer together with an additional condition on the transfer times. In fact, we show that our transfer protocol works for any arbitrary joint quantum state of a mechanical and an optical mode. Finally, in order to analyze a more realistic scenario we take into account the effects of independent thermal reservoirs for each site. By solving the standard master equation within the Born-Markov approximation, we reassure both the effective model and the feasibility of our protocol.
Entanglement and the shareability of quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doherty, Andrew C.
2014-10-01
This brief review discusses the problem of determining whether a given quantum state is separable or entangled. I describe an established approach to this problem that is based on the monogamy of entanglement, which is the observation that a pair of quantum systems that are strongly entangled must be uncorrelated with the rest of the world. Unentangled states on the other hand involve correlations that can be shared with many other parties. Checking whether a given quantum state is shareable involves constructing certain symmetric quantum state extensions and I discuss how to do this using a class of optimizations known as semidefinite programs. An attractive feature of this approach is that it generates explicit entanglement witnesses that can be measured to demonstrate the entanglement experimentally. In recent years analysis of this approach has greatly increased our understanding of the complexity of determining whether a given quantum state is entangled and this review aims to give a unified discussion of these developments. Specifically, I describe how to use finite quantum de Finetti theorems to prove that highly shareable states are nearly separable and use these results to understand the computational complexity of the problem. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.
Fidelity between Gaussian mixed states with quantum state quadrature variances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hai-Long, Zhang; Chun, Zhou; Jian-Hong, Shi; Wan-Su, Bao
2016-04-01
In this paper, from the original definition of fidelity in a pure state, we first give a well-defined expansion fidelity between two Gaussian mixed states. It is related to the variances of output and input states in quantum information processing. It is convenient to quantify the quantum teleportation (quantum clone) experiment since the variances of the input (output) state are measurable. Furthermore, we also give a conclusion that the fidelity of a pure input state is smaller than the fidelity of a mixed input state in the same quantum information processing. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB338002) and the Foundation of Science and Technology on Information Assurance Laboratory (Grant No. KJ-14-001).
Classical and Quantum-Mechanical State Reconstruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Khanna, F. C.; Mello, P. A.; Revzen, M.
2012-01-01
The aim of this paper is to present the subject of state reconstruction in classical and in quantum physics, a subject that deals with the experimentally acquired information that allows the determination of the physical state of a system. Our first purpose is to explain a method for retrieving a classical state in phase space, similar to that…
Quantum states tomography with noisy measurement channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogdanov, Yu. I.; Bantysh, B. I.; Bogdanova, N. A.; Kvasnyy, A. B.; Lukichev, V. F.
2016-12-01
We consider realistic measurement systems, where measurements are accompanied by decoherence processes. The aim of this work is the construction of methods and algorithms for precise quantum measurements with fidelity close to the fundamental limit. In the present work the notions of ideal and non-ideal quantum measurements are strictly formalized. It is shown that non-ideal quantum measurements could be represented as a mixture of ideal measurements. Based on root approach the quantum state reconstruction method is developed. Informational accuracy theory of non-ideal quantum measurements is proposed. The monitoring of the amount of information about the quantum state parameters is examined, including the analysis of the information degradation under the noise influence. The study of achievable fidelity in non-ideal quantum measurements is performed. The results of simulation of fidelity characteristics of a wide class of quantum protocols based on polyhedrons geometry with high level of symmetry are presented. The impact of different decoherence mechanisms, including qubit amplitude and phase relaxation, bit-flip and phase-flip, is considered.
Quantum superreplication of states and gates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiribella, Giulio; Yang, Yuxiang
2016-06-01
Although the no-cloning theorem forbids perfect replication of quantum information, it is sometimes possible to produce large numbers of replicas with vanishingly small error. This phenomenon, known as quantum superreplication, can occur for both quantum states and quantum gates. The aim of this paper is to review the central features of quantum superreplication and provide a unified view of existing results. The paper also includes new results. In particular, we show that when quantum superreplication can be achieved, it can be achieved through estimation up to an error of size O( M/ N 2), where N and M are the number of input and output copies, respectively. Quantum strategies still offer an advantage for superreplication in that they allow for exponentially faster reduction of the error. Using the relation with estimation, we provide i) an alternative proof of the optimality of Heisenberg scaling in quantum metrology, ii) a strategy for estimating arbitrary unitary gates with a mean square error scaling as log N/ N 2, and iii) a protocol that generates O( N 2) nearly perfect copies of a generic pure state U |0> while using the corresponding gate U only N times. Finally, we point out that superreplication can be achieved using interactions among k systems, provided that k is large compared to M 2/ N 2.
Quantum states with strong positive partial transpose
Chruscinski, Dariusz; Jurkowski, Jacek; Kossakowski, Andrzej
2008-02-15
We construct a large class of bipartite M x N quantum states which defines a proper subset of states with positive partial transposes (PPTs). Any state from this class has PPT but the positivity of its partial transposition is recognized with respect to canonical factorization of the original density operator. We propose to call elements from this class states with strong positive partial transposes (SPPTs). We conjecture that all SPPT states are separable.
Sequential quantum teleportation of optical coherent states
Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Furusawa, Akira; Loock, Peter van
2007-09-15
We demonstrate a sequence of two quantum teleportations of optical coherent states, combining two high-fidelity teleporters for continuous variables. In our experiment, the individual teleportation fidelities are evaluated as F{sub 1}=0.70{+-}0.02 and F{sub 2}=0.75{+-}0.02, while the fidelity between the input and the sequentially teleported states is determined as F{sup (2)}=0.57{+-}0.02. This still exceeds the optimal fidelity of one half for classical teleportation of arbitrary coherent states and almost attains the value of the first (unsequential) quantum teleportation experiment with optical coherent states.
Adiabatic cluster-state quantum computing
Bacon, Dave; Flammia, Steven T.
2010-09-15
Models of quantum computation (QC) are important because they change the physical requirements for achieving universal QC. For example, one-way QC requires the preparation of an entangled ''cluster'' state, followed by adaptive measurement on this state, a set of requirements which is different from the standard quantum-circuit model. Here we introduce a model based on one-way QC but without measurements (except for the final readout), instead using adiabatic deformation of a Hamiltonian whose initial ground state is the cluster state. Our results could help increase the feasibility of adiabatic schemes by using tools from one-way QC.
Quantum Fidelity for Arbitrary Gaussian States.
Banchi, Leonardo; Braunstein, Samuel L; Pirandola, Stefano
2015-12-31
We derive a computable analytical formula for the quantum fidelity between two arbitrary multimode Gaussian states which is simply expressed in terms of their first- and second-order statistical moments. We also show how such a formula can be written in terms of symplectic invariants and used to derive closed forms for a variety of basic quantities and tools, such as the Bures metric, the quantum Fisher information, and various fidelity-based bounds. Our result can be used to extend the study of continuous-variable protocols, such as quantum teleportation and cloning, beyond the current one-mode or two-mode analyses, and paves the way to solve general problems in quantum metrology and quantum hypothesis testing with arbitrary multimode Gaussian resources.
Quantum Fidelity for Arbitrary Gaussian States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banchi, Leonardo; Braunstein, Samuel L.; Pirandola, Stefano
2015-12-01
We derive a computable analytical formula for the quantum fidelity between two arbitrary multimode Gaussian states which is simply expressed in terms of their first- and second-order statistical moments. We also show how such a formula can be written in terms of symplectic invariants and used to derive closed forms for a variety of basic quantities and tools, such as the Bures metric, the quantum Fisher information, and various fidelity-based bounds. Our result can be used to extend the study of continuous-variable protocols, such as quantum teleportation and cloning, beyond the current one-mode or two-mode analyses, and paves the way to solve general problems in quantum metrology and quantum hypothesis testing with arbitrary multimode Gaussian resources.
Chiral Thermoelectrics with Quantum Hall Edge States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sánchez, Rafael; Sothmann, Björn; Jordan, Andrew N.
2015-04-01
The thermoelectric properties of a three-terminal quantum Hall conductor are investigated. We identify a contribution to the thermoelectric response that relies on the chirality of the carrier motion rather than on spatial asymmetries. The Onsager matrix becomes maximally asymmetric with configurations where either the Seebeck or the Peltier coefficients are zero while the other one remains finite. Reversing the magnetic field direction exchanges these effects, which originate from the chiral nature of the quantum Hall edge states. The possibility to generate spin-polarized currents in quantum spin Hall samples is discussed.
Chiral thermoelectrics with quantum Hall edge states.
Sánchez, Rafael; Sothmann, Björn; Jordan, Andrew N
2015-04-10
The thermoelectric properties of a three-terminal quantum Hall conductor are investigated. We identify a contribution to the thermoelectric response that relies on the chirality of the carrier motion rather than on spatial asymmetries. The Onsager matrix becomes maximally asymmetric with configurations where either the Seebeck or the Peltier coefficients are zero while the other one remains finite. Reversing the magnetic field direction exchanges these effects, which originate from the chiral nature of the quantum Hall edge states. The possibility to generate spin-polarized currents in quantum spin Hall samples is discussed.
Quantum gate and quantum state preparation through neighboring optimal control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Yuchen
Successful implementation of fault-tolerant quantum computation on a system of qubits places severe demands on the hardware used to control the many-qubit state. It is known that an accuracy threshold Pa exists for any quantum gate that is to be used for such a computation to be able to continue for an unlimited number of steps. Specifically, the error probability Pe for such a gate must fall below the accuracy threshold: Pe < Pa. Estimates of Pa vary widely, though Pa ˜ 10-4 has emerged as a challenging target for hardware designers. I present a theoretical framework based on neighboring optimal control that takes as input a good quantum gate and returns a new gate with better performance. I illustrate this approach by applying it to a universal set of quantum gates produced using non-adiabatic rapid passage. Performance improvements are substantial comparing to the original (unimproved) gates, both for ideal and non-ideal controls. Under suitable conditions detailed below, all gate error probabilities fall by 1 to 4 orders of magnitude below the target threshold of 10-4. After applying the neighboring optimal control theory to improve the performance of quantum gates in a universal set, I further apply the general control theory in a two-step procedure for fault-tolerant logical state preparation, and I illustrate this procedure by preparing a logical Bell state fault-tolerantly. The two-step preparation procedure is as follow: Step 1 provides a one-shot procedure using neighboring optimal control theory to prepare a physical qubit state which is a high-fidelity approximation to the Bell state |beta 01> = 1/√2(|01> + |10>). I show that for ideal (non-ideal) control, an approximate |beta01> state could be prepared with error probability epsilon ˜ 10-6 (10-5) with one-shot local operations. Step 2 then takes a block of p pairs of physical qubits, each prepared in |beta 01> state using Step 1, and fault-tolerantly prepares the logical Bell state for the C4
Quantum state sharing against the controller's cheating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Run-hua; Zhong, Hong; Huang, Liu-sheng
2013-08-01
Most existing QSTS schemes are equivalent to the controlled teleportation, in which a designated agent (i.e., the recoverer) can recover the teleported state with the help of the controllers. However, the controller may attempt to cheat the recoverer during the phase of recovering the secret state. How can we detect this cheating? In this paper, we considered the problem of detecting the controller's cheating in Quantum State Sharing, and further proposed an effective Quantum State Sharing scheme against the controller's cheating. We cleverly use Quantum Secret Sharing, Multiple Quantum States Sharing and decoy-particle techniques. In our scheme, via a previously shared entanglement state Alice can teleport multiple arbitrary multi-qubit states to Bob with the help of Charlie. Furthermore, by the classical information shared previously, Alice and Bob can check whether there is any cheating of Charlie. In addition, our scheme only needs to perform Bell-state and single-particle measurements, and to apply C-NOT gate and other single-particle unitary operations. With the present techniques, it is feasible to implement these necessary measurements and operations.
Quantum entanglement of quark colour states
Buividovich, P. V.; Kuvshinov, V. I.
2010-03-24
An analysis of quantum entanglement between the states of static colour charges in the vacuum of pure Yang-Mills theory is carried out. Hilbert space of physical states of the fields and the charges is endowed with a direct product structure by attaching an infinite Dirac string to each charge.
Central tetrads and quantum spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borowiec, Andrzej; Jurić, Tajron; Meljanac, Stjepan; Pachoł, Anna
2016-06-01
In this paper, we perform a parallel analysis to the model proposed in [E. J. Beggs and S. Majid, Gravity induced from quantum spacetime, Class. Quantum Grav. 31 (2014) 035020, arXiv: 1305.2403 [gr-qc
Projective loop quantum gravity. I. State space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lanéry, Suzanne; Thiemann, Thomas
2016-12-01
Instead of formulating the state space of a quantum field theory over one big Hilbert space, it has been proposed by Kijowski to describe quantum states as projective families of density matrices over a collection of smaller, simpler Hilbert spaces. Beside the physical motivations for this approach, it could help designing a quantum state space holding the states we need. In a latter work by Okolów, the description of a theory of Abelian connections within this framework was developed, an important insight being to use building blocks labeled by combinations of edges and surfaces. The present work generalizes this construction to an arbitrary gauge group G (in particular, G is neither assumed to be Abelian nor compact). This involves refining the definition of the label set, as well as deriving explicit formulas to relate the Hilbert spaces attached to different labels. If the gauge group happens to be compact, we also have at our disposal the well-established Ashtekar-Lewandowski Hilbert space, which is defined as an inductive limit using building blocks labeled by edges only. We then show that the quantum state space presented here can be thought as a natural extension of the space of density matrices over this Hilbert space. In addition, it is manifest from the classical counterparts of both formalisms that the projective approach allows for a more balanced treatment of the holonomy and flux variables, so it might pave the way for the development of more satisfactory coherent states.
Classical and quantum-mechanical state reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khanna, F. C.; Mello, P. A.; Revzen, M.
2012-07-01
The aim of this paper is to present the subject of state reconstruction in classical and in quantum physics, a subject that deals with the experimentally acquired information that allows the determination of the physical state of a system. Our first purpose is to explain a method for retrieving a classical state in phase space, similar to that used in medical imaging known as computer-aided tomography. It is remarkable that this method can be taken over to quantum mechanics, where it leads to a description of the quantum state in terms of the Wigner function which, although it may take on negative values, plays the role of the probability density in phase space in classical physics. We then present another approach to quantum state reconstruction based on the notion of mutually unbiased bases—a notion of current research interest, for which we give explanatory remarks—and indicate the relation between these two approaches. Since the subject of state reconstruction is rarely considered at the level of textbooks, the presentation in this paper is aimed at graduate-level readers.
Nanoscale solid-state quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ardavan, A.; Austwick, M.; Benjamin, S.C.; Briggs, G.A.D.; Dennis, T.J.S.; Ferguson, A.; Hasko, D.G.; Kanai, M.; Khlobystov, A.N.; Lovett, B.W.; Morley, G.W.; Oliver, R.A.; Pettifor, D.G.; Porfyrakis, K.; Reina, J.H.; Rice, J.H.; Smith, J.D.; Taylor, R.A.; Williams, D.A.; Adelmann, C.; Mariette, H.; Hamers, R.J.
2003-07-01
Most experts agree that it is too early to say how quantum computers will eventually be built, and several nanoscale solid-state schemes are being implemented in a range of materials. Nanofabricated quantum dots can be made in designer configurations, with established technology for controlling interactions and for reading out results. Epitaxial quantum dots can be grown in vertical arrays in semiconductors, and ultrafast optical techniques are available for controlling and measuring their excitations. Single-walled carbon nanotubes can be used for molecular self-assembly of endohedral fullerenes, which can embody quantum information in the electron spin. The challenges of individual addressing in such tiny structures could rapidly become intractable with increasing numbers of qubits, but these schemes are amenable to global addressing methods for computation.
Superadiabatic quantum state transfer in spin chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agundez, R. R.; Hill, C. D.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.; Rogge, S.; Blaauboer, M.
2017-01-01
In this paper we propose a superadiabatic protocol where quantum state transfer can be achieved with arbitrarily high accuracy and minimal control across long spin chains with an odd number of spins. The quantum state transfer protocol only requires the control of the couplings between the qubits on the edge and the spin chain. We predict fidelities above 0.99 for an evolution of nanoseconds using typical spin-exchange coupling values of μ eV . Furthermore, by building a superadiabatic formalism on top of this protocol, we propose an effective superadiabatic protocol that retains the minimal control over the spin chain and further improves the fidelity.
Quantum contextuality of a qutrit state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Zhen-Peng; Su, Hong-Yi; Chen, Jing-Ling
2015-07-01
We present a study of quantum contextuality of three-dimensional mixed states for the Klyachko-Can-Binicioğlu-Shumovsky (KCBS) and the Kurzyński-Kaszlikowski (KK) noncontextuality inequalities. For any class of states whose eigenvalues are arranged in decreasing order, a universal set of measurements always exists for the KK inequality, whereas none exists for the KCBS inequality. This difference can be reflected from the spectral distribution of the overall measurement matrix. Our results would facilitate the error analysis for experimental setups, and our spectral method in the paper combined with graph theory could be useful in future studies on quantum contextuality.
Tasks and premises in quantum state determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carmeli, Claudio; Heinosaari, Teiko; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro
2014-02-01
The purpose of quantum tomography is to determine an unknown quantum state from measurement outcome statistics. There are two obvious ways to generalize this setting. First, our task need not be the determination of any possible input state but only some input states, for instance pure states. Second, we may have some prior information, or premise, which guarantees that the input state belongs to some subset of states, for instance the set of states with rank less than half of the dimension of the Hilbert space. We investigate state determination under these two supplemental features, concentrating on the cases where the task and the premise are statements about the rank of the unknown state. We characterize the structure of quantum observables (positive operator valued measures) that are capable of fulfilling these type of determination tasks. After the general treatment we focus on the class of covariant phase space observables, thus providing physically relevant examples of observables both capable and incapable of performing these tasks. In this context, the effect of noise is discussed.
Coherent semiclassical states for loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corichi, Alejandro; Montoya, Edison
2011-08-01
The spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model with a massless scalar field in loop quantum cosmology admits a description in terms of a completely solvable model. This has been used to prove that: (i) the quantum bounce that replaces the big bang singularity is generic; (ii) there is an upper bound on the energy density for all states, and (iii) semiclassical states at late times had to be semiclassical before the bounce. Here we consider a family of exact solutions to the theory, corresponding to generalized coherent Gaussian and squeezed states. We analyze the behavior of basic physical observables and impose restrictions on the states based on physical considerations. These turn out to be enough to select, from all the generalized coherent states, those that behave semiclassical at late times. We study then the properties of such states near the bounce where the most “quantum behavior” is expected. As it turns out, the states remain sharply peaked and semiclassical at the bounce and the dynamics is very well approximated by the “effective theory” throughout the time evolution. We compare the semiclassicality properties of squeezed states to those of the Gaussian semiclassical states and conclude that the Gaussians are better behaved. In particular, the asymmetry in the relative fluctuations before and after the bounce are negligible, thus ruling out claims of so-called “cosmic forgetfulness.”
Communication: Fully coherent quantum state hopping
Martens, Craig C.
2015-10-14
In this paper, we describe a new and fully coherent stochastic surface hopping method for simulating mixed quantum-classical systems. We illustrate the approach on the simple but unforgiving problem of quantum evolution of a two-state quantum system in the limit of unperturbed pure state dynamics and for dissipative evolution in the presence of both stationary and nonstationary random environments. We formulate our approach in the Liouville representation and describe the density matrix elements by ensembles of trajectories. Population dynamics are represented by stochastic surface hops for trajectories representing diagonal density matrix elements. These are combined with an unconventional coherent stochastic hopping algorithm for trajectories representing off-diagonal quantum coherences. The latter generalizes the binary (0,1) “probability” of a trajectory to be associated with a given state to allow integers that can be negative or greater than unity in magnitude. Unlike existing surface hopping methods, the dynamics of the ensembles are fully entangled, correctly capturing the coherent and nonlocal structure of quantum mechanics.
Quantum Well States in Magnetic Nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Z. Q.
2000-03-01
Quantum Well (QW) states in magnetic nanostructures play an important role in many phenomena such as the oscillatory interlayer coupling in giant magnetoresistance (GMR) multilayers. Photoemission provides the most direct measurement of QW states in k-space. In this talk, I will report our recent results on QW states obtained at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The high brightness and fine spot size of photon beam at beamline 7 of ALS allow the performance of photoemission experiment on double wedged samples. First, the nature of QW states in metallic thin films will be discussed. Using one monolayer Ni as a probe, we show that the amplitude of the QW wavefunction is described by an envelope function. Second, quantum interference between two QWs will be discussed. Finally, we demonstrate the interconnection between the QW states and the oscillatory interlayer coupling in magnetic multilayers.
Coherent state polarons in quantum wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thilagam, A.; Lohe, M. A.
2005-01-01
We investigate the polaronic effects of an electron confined in a quantum well, which we describe through its algebraic properties using su (1 , 1), taking into account the electron-bulk longitudinal-optical phonon interaction. We construct the variational wave function as the direct product of an electronic part and a part describing coherent phonons generated by the Low-Lee-Pines transformation from the vacuum state. We use two explicit forms of coherent states, Perelomov and Barut-Girardello states, to represent the electronic part in the quantum well spectrum. Our results show that in a coherent state basis for electrons the basic polaron parameters such as the energy gap shift and effective mass are further enhanced compared to those obtained with the conventional sinusoidal form of the basis. The difference between the two types of quantum well coherent states appears in polaronic interactions in quantum wells. We extend the calculations in order to estimate polaron lifetimes for a variety of different material systems.
Geometric uncertainty relation for mixed quantum states
Andersson, Ole Heydari, Hoshang
2014-04-15
In this paper we use symplectic reduction in an Uhlmann bundle to construct a principal fiber bundle over a general space of unitarily equivalent mixed quantum states. The bundle, which generalizes the Hopf bundle for pure states, gives in a canonical way rise to a Riemannian metric and a symplectic structure on the base space. With these we derive a geometric uncertainty relation for observables acting on quantum systems in mixed states. We also give a geometric proof of the classical Robertson-Schrödinger uncertainty relation, and we compare the two. They turn out not to be equivalent, because of the multiple dimensions of the gauge group for general mixed states. We give examples of observables for which the geometric relation provides a stronger estimate than that of Robertson and Schrödinger, and vice versa.
Efficient quantum optical state engineering and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCusker, Kevin T.
Over a century after the modern prediction of the existence of individual particles of light by Albert Einstein, a reliable source of this simple quantum state of one photon does not exist. While common light sources such as a light bulb, LED, or laser can produce a pulse of light with an average of one photon, there is (currently) no way of knowing the number of photons in that pulse without first absorbing (and thereby destroying) them. Spontaneous parametric down-conversion, a process in which one high-energy photon splits into two lower-energy photons, allows us to prepare a single-photon state by detecting one of the photons, which then heralds the existence of its twin. This process has been the workhorse of quantum optics, allowing demonstrations of a myriad of quantum processes and protocols, such as entanglement, cryptography, superdense coding, teleportation, and simple quantum computing demonstrations. All of these processes would benefit from better engineering of the underlying down-conversion process, but despite significant effort (both theoretical and experimental), optimization of this process is ongoing. The focus of this work is to optimize certain aspects of a down-conversion source, and then use this tool in novel experiments not otherwise feasible. Specifically, the goal is to optimize the heralding efficiency of the down-conversion photons, i.e., the probability that if one photon is detected, the other photon is also detected. This source is then applied to two experiments (a single-photon source, and a quantum cryptography implementation), and the detailed theory of an additional application (a source of Fock states and path-entangled states, called N00N states) is discussed, along with some other possible applications.
Quantum state transfer in double-quantum-well devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jakumeit, Jurgen; Tutt, Marcel; Pavlidis, Dimitris
1994-01-01
A Monte Carlo simulation of double-quantum-well (DQW) devices is presented in view of analyzing the quantum state transfer (QST) effect. Different structures, based on the AlGaAs/GaAs system, were simulated at 77 and 300 K and optimized in terms of electron transfer and device speed. The analysis revealed the dominant role of the impurity scattering for the QST. Different approaches were used for the optimization of QST devices and basic physical limitations were found in the electron transfer between the QWs. The maximum transfer of electrons from a high to a low mobility well was at best 20%. Negative differential resistance is hampered by the almost linear rather than threshold dependent relation of electron transfer on electric field. By optimizing the doping profile the operation frequency limit could be extended to 260 GHz.
Quantum Random Walks with General Particle States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belton, Alexander C. R.
2014-06-01
A convergence theorem is obtained for quantum random walks with particles in an arbitrary normal state. This unifies and extends previous work on repeated-interactions models, including that of Attal and Pautrat (Ann Henri Poincaré 7:59-104 2006) and Belton (J Lond Math Soc 81:412-434, 2010; Commun Math Phys 300:317-329, 2010). When the random-walk generator acts by ampliation and either multiplication or conjugation by a unitary operator, it is shown that the quantum stochastic cocycle which arises in the limit is driven by a unitary process.
Experimental Demonstration of Adaptive Quantum State Estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okamoto, Ryo; Iefuji, Minako; Oyama, Satoshi; Yamagata, Koichi; Imai, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Akio; Takeuchi, Shigeki
2012-09-01
The first experimental demonstration of an adaptive quantum state estimation (AQSE) is reported. The strong consistency and asymptotic efficiency of AQSE have been mathematically proven [A. Fujiwara, J. Phys. A 39, 12489 (2006)JPHAC50305-447010.1088/0305-4470/39/40/014]. In this Letter, the angle of linear polarization of single photons, the phase parameter between the right and the left circularly polarization, is estimated using AQSE, and the strong consistency and asymptotic efficiency are experimentally verified. AQSE will provide a general useful method in both quantum information processing and metrology.
Quantum nondemolition measurement of the Werner state
Jin Jiasen; Yu Changshui; Pei Pei; Song Heshan
2010-10-15
We propose a theoretical scheme of quantum nondemolition measurement of two-qubit Werner state. We discuss our scheme with the two qubits restricted in a local place and then extend the scheme to the case in which two qubits are separated. We also consider the experimental realization of our scheme based on cavity quantum electrodynamics. It is very interesting that our scheme is robust against the dissipative effects introduced by the probe process. We also give a brief interpretation of our scheme finally.
Quantifying the coherence of pure quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jianxin; Grogan, Shane; Johnston, Nathaniel; Li, Chi-Kwong; Plosker, Sarah
2016-10-01
In recent years, several measures have been proposed for characterizing the coherence of a given quantum state. We derive several results that illuminate how these measures behave when restricted to pure states. Notably, we present an explicit characterization of the closest incoherent state to a given pure state under the trace distance measure of coherence. We then use this result to show that the states maximizing the trace distance of coherence are exactly the maximally coherent states. We define the trace distance of entanglement and show that it coincides with the trace distance of coherence for pure states. Finally, we give an alternate proof to a recent result that the ℓ1 measure of coherence of a pure state is never smaller than its relative entropy of coherence.
Information criteria for efficient quantum state estimation
Yin, J. O. S.; Enk, S. J. van
2011-06-15
Recently several more efficient versions of quantum state tomography have been proposed, with the purpose of making tomography feasible even for many-qubit states. The number of state parameters to be estimated is reduced by tentatively introducing certain simplifying assumptions on the form of the quantum state, and subsequently using the data to rigorously verify these assumptions. The simplifying assumptions considered so far were (i) the state can be well approximated to be of low rank, or (ii) the state can be well approximated as a matrix product state, or (iii) only the permutationally invariant part of the density matrix is determined. We add one more method in that same spirit: We allow in principle any model for the state, using any (small) number of parameters (which can, e.g., be chosen to have a clear physical meaning), and the data are used to verify the model. The proof that this method is valid cannot be as strict as in the above-mentioned cases, but is based on well-established statistical methods that go under the name of ''information criteria.'' We exploit here, in particular, the Akaike information criterion. We illustrate the method by simulating experiments on (noisy) Dicke states.
Sharing the Quantum State and the Classical Information Simultaneously
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei
2016-08-01
An efficient quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed, in which the quantum state and the classical information can be shared simultaneously through only one distribution. The dealer uses the operations of quantum-controlled-not and Hadamard gate to encode the secret quantum state and classical information, and the participants use the single-particle measurements to recover the original quantum state and classical information. Compared to the existing schemes, our scheme is more efficient when the quantum state and the classical information need to be shared simultaneously.
Control aspects of quantum computing using pure and mixed states.
Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Marx, Raimund; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J
2012-10-13
Steering quantum dynamics such that the target states solve classically hard problems is paramount to quantum simulation and computation. And beyond, quantum control is also essential to pave the way to quantum technologies. Here, important control techniques are reviewed and presented in a unified frame covering quantum computational gate synthesis and spectroscopic state transfer alike. We emphasize that it does not matter whether the quantum states of interest are pure or not. While pure states underly the design of quantum circuits, ensemble mixtures of quantum states can be exploited in a more recent class of algorithms: it is illustrated by characterizing the Jones polynomial in order to distinguish between different (classes of) knots. Further applications include Josephson elements, cavity grids, ion traps and nitrogen vacancy centres in scenarios of closed as well as open quantum systems.
Experimental demonstration of graph-state quantum secret sharing.
Bell, B A; Markham, D; Herrera-Martí, D A; Marin, A; Wadsworth, W J; Rarity, J G; Tame, M S
2014-11-21
Quantum communication and computing offer many new opportunities for information processing in a connected world. Networks using quantum resources with tailor-made entanglement structures have been proposed for a variety of tasks, including distributing, sharing and processing information. Recently, a class of states known as graph states has emerged, providing versatile quantum resources for such networking tasks. Here we report an experimental demonstration of graph state-based quantum secret sharing--an important primitive for a quantum network with applications ranging from secure money transfer to multiparty quantum computation. We use an all-optical setup, encoding quantum information into photons representing a five-qubit graph state. We find that one can reliably encode, distribute and share quantum information amongst four parties, with various access structures based on the complex connectivity of the graph. Our results show that graph states are a promising approach for realising sophisticated multi-layered communication protocols in quantum networks.
Quantum anomalous Hall state in bilayer graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nandkishore, Rahul; Levitov, Leonid
2010-09-01
We present a symmetry-based analysis of competition between different gapped states that have been proposed in bilayer graphene (BLG), which are all degenerate on a mean-field level. We classify the states in terms of a hidden SU(4) symmetry, and distinguish symmetry-protected degeneracies from accidental degeneracies. One of the states, which spontaneously breaks discrete time-reversal symmetry but no continuous symmetry, is identified as a quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state, which exhibits quantum Hall effect at zero magnetic field. We investigate the lifting of the accidental degeneracies by thermal and zero-point fluctuations, taking account of the modes softened under renormalization group (RG). Working in a “saddle point plus quadratic fluctuations” approximation, we identify two types of RG-soft modes which have competing effects. Zero-point fluctuations, dominated by “transverse” modes which are unique to BLG, favor the QAH state. Thermal fluctuations, dominated by “longitudinal” modes, favor a SU(4) symmetry-breaking multiplet of states. We discuss the phenomenology and experimental signatures of the QAH state in BLG, and also propose a way to induce the QAH state using weak external magnetic fields.
Remote State Preparation for Quantum Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ber, Ran; Zohar, Erez
2016-07-01
Remote state preparation is generation of a desired state by a remote observer. In spite of causality, it is well known, according to the Reeh-Schlieder theorem, that it is possible for relativistic quantum field theories, and a "physical" process achieving this task, involving superoscillatory functions, has recently been introduced. In this work we deal with non-relativistic fields, and show that remote state preparation is also possible for them, hence obtaining a Reeh-Schlieder-like result for general fields. Interestingly, in the nonrelativistic case, the process may rely on completely different resources than the ones used in the relativistic case.
Extreme Violation of Local Realism in Quantum Hypergraph States.
Gachechiladze, Mariami; Budroni, Costantino; Gühne, Otfried
2016-02-19
Hypergraph states form a family of multiparticle quantum states that generalizes the well-known concept of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, cluster states, and more broadly graph states. We study the nonlocal properties of quantum hypergraph states. We demonstrate that the correlations in hypergraph states can be used to derive various types of nonlocality proofs, including Hardy-type arguments and Bell inequalities for genuine multiparticle nonlocality. Moreover, we show that hypergraph states allow for an exponentially increasing violation of local realism which is robust against loss of particles. Our results suggest that certain classes of hypergraph states are novel resources for quantum metrology and measurement-based quantum computation.
Quantum state of the black hole interior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brustein, Ram; Medved, A. J. M.
2015-08-01
If a black hole (BH) is initially in an approximately pure state and it evaporates by a unitary process, then the emitted radiation will be in a highly quantum state. As the purifier of this radiation, the state of the BH interior must also be in some highly quantum state. So that, within the interior region, the mean-field approximation cannot be valid and the state of the BH cannot be described by some semiclassical metric. On this basis, we model the state of the BH interior as a collection of a large number of excitations that are packed into closely spaced but single-occupancy energy levels; a sort-of "Fermi sea" of all light-enough particles. This highly quantum state is surrounded by a semiclassical region that lies close to the horizon and has a non-vanishing energy density. It is shown that such a state looks like a BH from the outside and decays via gravitational pair production in the near-horizon region at a rate that agrees with the Hawking rate. We also consider the fate of a classical object that has passed through to the BH interior and show that, once it has crossed over the near-horizon threshold, the object meets its demise extremely fast. This result cannot be attributed to a "firewall", as the trauma to the in-falling object only begins after it has passed through the near-horizon region and enters a region where semiclassical spacetime ends but the energy density is still parametrically smaller than Planckian.
Ancilla-approximable quantum state transformations
Blass, Andreas; Gurevich, Yuri
2015-04-15
We consider the transformations of quantum states obtainable by a process of the following sort. Combine the given input state with a specially prepared initial state of an auxiliary system. Apply a unitary transformation to the combined system. Measure the state of the auxiliary subsystem. If (and only if) it is in a specified final state, consider the process successful, and take the resulting state of the original (principal) system as the result of the process. We review known information about exact realization of transformations by such a process. Then we present results about approximate realization of finite partial transformations. We not only consider primarily the issue of approximation to within a specified positive ε, but also address the question of arbitrarily close approximation.
Quantum key distribution device with coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lodewyck, Jérôme; Bloch, Matthieu; García-Patrón, Raúl; Fossier, Simon; Karpov, Evgueni; Diamanti, Eleni; Debuisschert, Thierry; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; McLaughlin, Steven W.; Grangier, Philippe
2007-09-01
We report on both theoretical and experimental aspects of a fully implemented quantum key distribution device with coherent states. This system features a final key rate of more than 2 kb/s over 25 km of optical fiber. It comprises all required elements for field operation: a compact optical setup, a fast secret bit extraction using efficient LDPC codes, privacy amplification algorithms and a classical channel software. Both hardware and software are operated in real time.
Spectral coherent-state quantum cryptography.
Cincotti, Gabriella; Spiekman, Leo; Wada, Naoya; Kitayama, Ken-ichi
2008-11-01
A novel implementation of quantum-noise optical cryptography is proposed, which is based on a simplified architecture that allows long-haul, high-speed transmission in a fiber optical network. By using a single multiport encoder/decoder and 16 phase shifters, this new approach can provide the same confidentiality as other implementations of Yuen's encryption protocol, which use a larger number of phase or polarization coherent states. Data confidentiality and error probability for authorized and unauthorized receivers are carefully analyzed.
Quantum Darwinism for mixed-state environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quan, Haitao; Zwolak, Michael; Zurek, Wojciech
2009-03-01
We exam quantum darwinism when a system is in the presence of a mixed environment, and we find a general relation between the mutual information for the mixed-state environment and the change of the entropy of the fraction of the environment. We then look at a particular solvable model, and we numerically exam the time evolution of the ``mutual information" for large environment. Finally we discuss about the exact expressions for all entropies and the mutual information at special time.
Mavromatos, Nick E.; Sarkar, Sarben; Meregaglia, Anselmo; Sakharov, Alexander S.
2008-03-01
Quantum decoherence, the evolution of pure states into mixed states, may be a feature of quantum-gravity models. In most cases, such models lead to fewer neutrinos of all active flavors being detected in a long-baseline experiment as compared to three-flavor standard neutrino oscillations. We discuss the potential of the CNGS and J-PARC beams in constraining models of quantum-gravity induced decoherence using neutrino oscillations as a probe. We use as much as possible model-independent parametrizations, even though they are motivated by specific microscopic models, for fits to the expected experimental data which yield bounds on quantum-gravity decoherence parameters.
Extremal quantum correlations: Experimental study with two-qubit states
Chiuri, A.; Mataloni, P.; Vallone, G.
2011-08-15
We explore experimentally the space of two-qubit quantum-correlated mixed states, including frontier states as defined by the use of quantum discord and von Neumann entropy. Our experimental setup is flexible enough to allow for high-quality generation of a vast variety of states. We address quantitatively the relation between quantum discord and a recently suggested alternative measure of quantum correlations.
Arbitrated quantum signature scheme based on cluster states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yu-Guang; Lei, He; Liu, Zhi-Chao; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min
2016-06-01
Cluster states can be exploited for some tasks such as topological one-way computation, quantum error correction, teleportation and dense coding. In this paper, we investigate and propose an arbitrated quantum signature scheme with cluster states. The cluster states are used for quantum key distribution and quantum signature. The proposed scheme can achieve an efficiency of 100 %. Finally, we also discuss its security against various attacks.
Non-commutativity and Local Indistinguishability of Quantum States
Ma, Teng; Zhao, Ming-Jing; Wang, Yao-Kun; Fei, Shao-Ming
2014-01-01
We study the local indistinguishability problem of quantum states. By introducing an easily calculated quantity, non-commutativity, we present an criterion which is both necessary and sufficient for the local indistinguishability of a complete set of pure orthogonal product states. A constructive distinguishing procedure to obtain the concrete local measurements and classical communications is given. The non-commutativity of ensembles can be also used to characterize the quantumness for classical-quantum or quantum-classical correlated states. PMID:25208830
Adiabatic graph-state quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antonio, B.; Markham, D.; Anders, J.
2014-11-01
Measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) and holonomic quantum computation (HQC) are two very different computational methods. The computation in MBQC is driven by adaptive measurements executed in a particular order on a large entangled state. In contrast in HQC the system starts in the ground subspace of a Hamiltonian which is slowly changed such that a transformation occurs within the subspace. Following the approach of Bacon and Flammia, we show that any MBQC on a graph state with generalized flow (gflow) can be converted into an adiabatically driven holonomic computation, which we call adiabatic graph-state quantum computation (AGQC). We then investigate how properties of AGQC relate to the properties of MBQC, such as computational depth. We identify a trade-off that can be made between the number of adiabatic steps in AGQC and the norm of \\dot{H} as well as the degree of H, in analogy to the trade-off between the number of measurements and classical post-processing seen in MBQC. Finally the effects of performing AGQC with orderings that differ from standard MBQC are investigated.
Pseudogap state near a quantum critical point
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Efetov, K. B.; Meier, H.; Pépin, C.
2013-07-01
In the standard picture of a quantum phase transition, a single quantum critical point separates the phases at zero temperature. Here we show that the two-dimensional case is considerably more complex. Instead of the single point separating the antiferromagnet from the normal metal, we have discovered a broad region between these two phases where the magnetic order is destroyed but certain areas of the Fermi surface are closed by a large gap. This gap reflects the formation of a quantum state characterized by a superposition of d-wave superconductivity and a quadrupole density wave, which builds a chequerboard pattern with a period incommensurate with that of the original spin-density wave. At moderate temperatures both orders coexist over comparatively large distances but thermal fluctuations destroy the long-range order. Below a critical temperature the fluctuations are less essential and superconductivity becomes stable. This phenomenon may help to explain the origin of the mysterious pseudogap state and of the high-temperature transition into the superconducting state in the cuprates. In particular, we show that spectroscopic probes on the oxygen and copper sites reveal chequerboard order.
Block-free optical quantum Banyan network based on quantum state fusion and fission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Chang-Hua; Meng, Yan-Hong; Quan, Dong-Xiao; Zhao, Nan; Pei, Chang-Xing
2014-12-01
Optical switch fabric plays an important role in building multiple-user optical quantum communication networks. Owing to its self-routing property and low complexity, a banyan network is widely used for building switch fabric. While, there is no efficient way to remove internal blocking in a banyan network in a classical way, quantum state fusion, by which the two-dimensional internal quantum states of two photons could be combined into a four-dimensional internal state of a single photon, makes it possible to solve this problem. In this paper, we convert the output mode of quantum state fusion from spatial-polarization mode into time-polarization mode. By combining modified quantum state fusion and quantum state fission with quantum Fredkin gate, we propose a practical scheme to build an optical quantum switch unit which is block free. The scheme can be extended to building more complex units, four of which are shown in this paper.
Gravity-induced stresses in stratified rock masses
Amadei, B.; Swolfs, H.S.; Savage, W.Z.
1988-01-01
This paper presents closed-form solutions for the stress field induced by gravity in anisotropic and stratified rock masses. These rocks are assumed to be laterally restrained. The rock mass consists of finite mechanical units, each unit being modeled as a homogeneous, transversely isotropic or isotropic linearly elastic material. The following results are found. The nature of the gravity induced stress field in a stratified rock mass depends on the elastic properties of each rock unit and how these properties vary with depth. It is thermodynamically admissible for the induced horizontal stress component in a given stratified rock mass to exceed the vertical stress component in certain units and to be smaller in other units; this is not possible for the classical unstratified isotropic solution. Examples are presented to explore the nature of the gravity induced stress field in stratified rock masses. It is found that a decrease in rock mass anisotropy and a stiffening of rock masses with depth can generate stress distributions comparable to empirical hyperbolic distributions previously proposed in the literature. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.
Quantum fidelity of symmetric multipartite states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neven, A.; Mathonet, P.; Gühne, O.; Bastin, T.
2016-11-01
For two symmetric quantum states one may be interested in maximizing the overlap under local operations applied to one of them. The question arises whether the maximal overlap can be obtained by applying the same local operation to each party. We show that for two symmetric multiqubit states and local unitary transformations this is the case; the maximal overlap can be reached by applying the same unitary matrix everywhere. For local invertible operations (stochastic local operations assisted by classical communication equivalence), however, we present counterexamples, demonstrating that considering the same operation everywhere is not enough.
Realization of quantum state privacy amplification in a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Liang; Wang, Chuan; Long, Gui Lu
2010-06-01
Quantum state privacy amplification (QSPA) is the quantum analogue of classical privacy amplification. If the state information of a series of single-particle states has some leakage, QSPA reduces this leakage by condensing the state information of two particles into the state of one particle. Recursive applications of the operations will eliminate the quantum state information leakage to a required minimum level. In this paper, we report the experimental implementation of a quantum state privacy amplification protocol in a nuclear magnetic resonance system. The density matrices of the states are constructed in the experiment, and the experimental results agree well with theory.
Preparing projected entangled pair states on a quantum computer.
Schwarz, Martin; Temme, Kristan; Verstraete, Frank
2012-03-16
We present a quantum algorithm to prepare injective projected entangled pair states (PEPS) on a quantum computer, a class of open tensor networks representing quantum states. The run time of our algorithm scales polynomially with the inverse of the minimum condition number of the PEPS projectors and, essentially, with the inverse of the spectral gap of the PEPS's parent Hamiltonian.
d-Dimensional quantum state sharing with adversary structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei
2016-04-01
A quantum secret sharing scheme with adversary structure is proposed. In the proposed scheme, the secret is a d-dimensional quantum state. The dealer can distribute the private keys according to the adversary structure and encode the quantum state through the d-dimensional Pauli unitary operation. The legitimate participants perform the unitary operations on the encrypted quantum state according to their private keys and recover the original quantum state. Compared to the existing QSS schemes, our scheme can be more efficient when only the adversary structure is given.
Scheme for teleportation of quantum states onto a mechanical resonator.
Mancini, Stefano; Vitali, David; Tombesi, Paolo
2003-04-04
We propose an experimentally feasible scheme to teleport an unkown quantum state onto the vibrational degree of freedom of a macroscopic mirror. The quantum channel between the two parties is established by exploiting radiation pressure effects.
Quantum discord of bipartite entangled non-linear coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castro, E.; Zambrano, A.; Ladera, C. L.; Gómez, R.
2013-11-01
Quantum discord measures the fraction of the pair-wise mutual information that is locally inaccessible in a multipartite system. Nonzero quantum discord has interesting and significant applications because although non-zero entanglement guarantees the existence of quantum correlation in a bipartite quantum system, zero entanglement does not guarantee the absence of a quantum correlation. On the other hand, many quantum optics systems can be described as deformed quantum oscillators. In this work, we investigate the quantum discord of bipartite entangled nonlinear coherent states, in the context of the so-called f-deformed coherent states algebra. To calculate the quantum discord, we consider quasi- Werner mixed states bases on bipartite entangled f-deformed coherent states. Two explicit analytic expressions are derived for the quantum discord of two different nonlinear deformed coherent states. The first one considers deformed coherent states obtained as eigenstates of the annihilation deformed operator, and the second one is obtained by using a deformed displacement operator. We compare the quantum discord of those states, when the nonlinear deformation function is either associated with the SU(1,1) coherent states in the Gilmore-Perelomov or Barut-Girardello representations, respectively.
Gravity-induced stresses near a vertical cliff
Savage, W.Z.
1993-01-01
The exact solution for gravity-induced stresses beneath a vertical cliff presented here has application to the design of cut slopes in rock, compares favorably with published photoelastic and finite-element results for this problem, and satisfies the condition that shear and normal stresses vanish on the ground surface, except at the bottom corner where stress concentrations exist. The solution predicts that horizontal stresses are tensile away from the bottom of the cliff-effects caused by movement below the cliff in response to the gravity loading of the cliff. Also, it is shown that along the top of the cliff normal stresses reduce to those predicted for laterally constrained flat-lying topography. ?? 1993.
An impurity-induced gap system as a quantum data bus for quantum state transfer
Chen, Bing; Li, Yong; Song, Z.; Sun, C.-P.
2014-09-15
We introduce a tight-binding chain with a single impurity to act as a quantum data bus for perfect quantum state transfer. Our proposal is based on the weak coupling limit of the two outermost quantum dots to the data bus, which is a gapped system induced by the impurity. By connecting two quantum dots to two sites of the data bus, the system can accomplish a high-fidelity and long-distance quantum state transfer. Numerical simulations for finite system show that the numerical and analytical results of the effective coupling strength agree well with each other. Moreover, we study the robustness of this quantum communication protocol in the presence of disorder in the couplings between the nearest-neighbor quantum dots. We find that the gap of the system plays an important role in robust quantum state transfer.
Experimental magic state distillation for fault-tolerant quantum computing.
Souza, Alexandre M; Zhang, Jingfu; Ryan, Colm A; Laflamme, Raymond
2011-01-25
Any physical quantum device for quantum information processing (QIP) is subject to errors in implementation. In order to be reliable and efficient, quantum computers will need error-correcting or error-avoiding methods. Fault-tolerance achieved through quantum error correction will be an integral part of quantum computers. Of the many methods that have been discovered to implement it, a highly successful approach has been to use transversal gates and specific initial states. A critical element for its implementation is the availability of high-fidelity initial states, such as |0〉 and the 'magic state'. Here, we report an experiment, performed in a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum processor, showing sufficient quantum control to improve the fidelity of imperfect initial magic states by distilling five of them into one with higher fidelity.
Quantum state measurement in double quantum dots with a radio-frequency quantum point contact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Lei; Wang, Hai-Xia; Yin, Wen; Wang, Fang-Wei
2014-02-01
We study the dynamics of two electron spins in coupled quantum dots (CQDs) monitored by a quantum point contact (QPC) detector. Their quantum state can be measured by embedding the QPC in an LC circuit. We derive the Bloch-type rate equations of the reduced density matrix for CQDs. Special attention is paid to the numerical results for the weak measurement condintion under a strong Coulomb interaction. It is shown that the evolution of QPC current always follows that of electron occupation in the right dot. In addition, we find that the output voltage of the circuit can reflect the evolution of QPC current when the circuit and QPC are approximately equal in frequency. In particular, the wave shape of the output voltage can be improved by adjusting the circuit resonance frequency and bandwidth.
Geometric defects in quantum Hall states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gromov, Andrey
2016-08-01
We describe a geometric (or gravitational) analog of the Laughlin quasiholes in fractional quantum Hall states. Analogously to the quasiholes, these defects can be constructed by an insertion of an appropriate vertex operator into the conformal block representation of a trial wave function; however, unlike the quasiholes these defects are extrinsic and do not correspond to true excitations of the quantum fluid. We construct a wave function in the presence of such defects and explain how to assign an electric charge and a spin to each defect and calculate the adiabatic, non-Abelian statistics of the defects. The defects turn out to be equivalent to the genons in that their adiabatic exchange statistics can be described in terms of representations of the mapping class group of an appropriate higher genus Riemann surface. We present a general construction that, in principle, makes it possible to calculate the statistics of Zn genons for any "parent" topological phase. We illustrate the construction on the example of the Laughlin state and perform an explicit calculation of the braiding matrices. In addition to non-Abelian statistics, geometric defects possess a universal Abelian overall phase, determined by the gravitational anomaly.
Coherent manipulation of single quantum systems in the solid state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Childress, Lilian Isabel
2007-12-01
The controlled, coherent manipulation of quantum-mechanical systems is an important challenge in modern science and engineering, with significant applications in quantum information science. Solid-state quantum systems such as electronic spins, nuclear spins, and superconducting islands are among the most promising candidates for realization of quantum bits (qubits). However, in contrast to isolated atomic systems, these solid-state qubits couple to a complex environment which often results in rapid loss of coherence, and, in general, is difficult to understand. Additionally, the strong interactions which make solid-state quantum systems attractive can typically only occur between neighboring systems, leading to difficulties in coupling arbitrary pairs of quantum bits. This thesis presents experimental progress in understanding and controlling the complex environment of a solid-state quantum bit, and theoretical techniques for extending the distance over which certain quantum bits can interact coherently. Coherent manipulation of an individual electron spin associated with a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond is used to gain insight into its mesoscopic environment. Furthermore, techniques for exploiting coherent interactions between the electron spin and a subset of the environment are developed and demonstrated, leading to controlled interactions with single isolated nuclear spins. The quantum register thus formed by a coupled electron and nuclear spin provides the basis for a theoretical proposal for fault-tolerant long-distance quantum communication with minimal physical resource requirements. Finally, we consider a mechanism for long-distance coupling between quantum dots based on chip-scale cavity quantum electrodynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooper, Merlin; Slade, Eirion; Karpiński, Michał; Smith, Brian J.
2015-03-01
Conditional quantum optical processes enable a wide range of technologies from generation of highly non-classical states to implementation of quantum logic operations. The process fidelity that can be achieved in a realistic implementation depends on a number of system parameters. Here we experimentally examine Fock state filtration, a canonical example of a broad class of conditional quantum operations acting on a single optical field mode. This operation is based upon interference of the mode to be manipulated with an auxiliary single-photon state at a beam splitter, resulting in the entanglement of the two output modes. A conditional projective measurement onto a single photon state at one output mode heralds the success of the process. This operation, which implements a measurement-induced nonlinearity, is capable of suppressing particular photon-number probability amplitudes of an arbitrary quantum state. We employ coherent-state process tomography to determine the precise operation realized in our experiment, which is mathematically represented by a process tensor. To identify the key sources of experimental imperfection, we develop a realistic model of the process and identify three main contributions that significantly hamper its efficacy. The experimentally reconstructed process tensor is compared with the model, yielding a fidelity better than 0.95. This enables us to identify three key challenges to overcome in realizing a filter with optimal performance—namely the single-photon nature of the auxiliary state, high mode overlap of the optical fields involved, and the need for photon-number-resolving detection when heralding. The results show that the filter does indeed exhibit a non-linear response as a function of input photon number and preserves the phase relation between Fock layers of the output state, providing promise for future applications.
Quantum Halo States in Helium Tetramers.
Stipanović, Petar; Vranješ Markić, Leandra; Boronat, Jordi
2017-01-12
The universality of quantum halo states enables a comparison of systems from different fields of physics, as demonstrated in two- and three-body clusters. In the present work, we studied weakly bound helium tetramers in order to test whether some of these four-body realistic systems qualify as halos. Their ground-state binding energies and structural properties were thoroughly estimated using the diffusion Monte Carlo method with pure estimators. Helium tetramer properties proved to be less sensitive on the potential model than previously evaluated trimer properties. We predict the existence of realistic four-body halo (4)He2(3)He2, whereas (4)He4 and (4)He3(3)He are close to the border and thus can be used as prototypes of quasi-halo systems. Our results could be tested by the experimental determination of the tetramers' structural properties using a setup similar to the one developed for the study of helium trimers.
Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Latifah, E.; Purwanto, A.
2014-03-01
Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.
Correlated states of a quantum oscillator acted by short pulses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manko, O. V.
1993-01-01
Correlated squeezed states for a quantum oscillator are constructed based on the method of quantum integrals of motion. The quantum oscillator is acted upon by short duration pulses. Three delta-kickings of frequency are used to model the pulses' dependence upon the time aspects of the frequency of the oscillator. Additionally, the correlation coefficient and quantum variances of operations of coordinates and momenta are written in explicit form.
Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system
Latifah, E.; Purwanto, A.
2014-03-24
Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.
Super Quantum Discord for X-type States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Tao; Ma, Teng; Wang, Yaokun; Fei, Shaoming; Wang, Zhixi
2015-02-01
Weak measurement is a new way to manipulate and control quantum systems. Different from projection measurement, weak measurement only makes a small change in status. Applying weak measurement to quantum discord, Singh and Pati proposed a new kind of quantum correlations called "super quantum discord (SQD)" [Ann. Phys. 343,141(2014)].Unfortunately, the super quantum discord is also difficult to calculate. There are only few explicit formulae about SQD. We derive an analytical formula of SQD for general X-type two-qubit states, which surpass the conclusion for Werner states and Bell diagonal states. Furthermore, our results reveal more knowledge about the new insight of quantum correlation and give a new way to compare SQD with normal quantum discord. Finally, we analyze its dynamics under nondissipative channels.
Quantum Entanglement Swapping between Two Multipartite Entangled States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Xiaolong; Tian, Caixing; Deng, Xiaowei; Li, Qiang; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi
2016-12-01
Quantum entanglement swapping is one of the most promising ways to realize the quantum connection among local quantum nodes. In this Letter, we present an experimental demonstration of the entanglement swapping between two independent multipartite entangled states, each of which involves a tripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled state of an optical field. The entanglement swapping is implemented deterministically by means of a joint measurement on two optical modes coming from the two multipartite entangled states respectively and the classical feedforward of the measurement results. After entanglement swapping the two independent multipartite entangled states are merged into a large entangled state in which all unmeasured quantum modes are entangled. The entanglement swapping between a tripartite GHZ state and an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled state is also demonstrated and the dependence of the resultant entanglement on transmission loss is investigated. The presented experiment provides a feasible technical reference for constructing more complicated quantum networks.
Cavity State Reservoir Engineering in Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holland, Eric T.
Engineered quantum systems are poised to revolutionize information science in the near future. A persistent challenge in applied quantum technology is creating controllable, quantum interactions while preventing information loss to the environment, decoherence. In this thesis, we realize mesoscopic superconducting circuits whose macroscopic collective degrees of freedom, such as voltages and currents, behave quantum mechanically. We couple these mesoscopic devices to microwave cavities forming a cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) architecture comprised entirely of circuit elements. This application of cavity QED is dubbed Circuit QED and is an interdisciplinary field seated at the intersection of electrical engineering, superconductivity, quantum optics, and quantum information science. Two popular methods for taming active quantum systems in the presence of decoherence are discrete feedback conditioned on an ancillary system or quantum reservoir engineering. Quantum reservoir engineering maintains a desired subset of a Hilbert space through a combination of drives and designed entropy evacuation. Circuit QED provides a favorable platform for investigating quantum reservoir engineering proposals. A major advancement of this thesis is the development of a quantum reservoir engineering protocol which maintains the quantum state of a microwave cavity in the presence of decoherence. This thesis synthesizes strongly coupled, coherent devices whose solutions to its driven, dissipative Hamiltonian are predicted a priori. This work lays the foundation for future advancements in cavity centered quantum reservoir engineering protocols realizing hardware efficient circuit QED designs.
Quantum speed limits for Bell-diagonal states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Wei; Jiang, Ke-Xia; Zhang, Ying-Jie; Xia, Yun-Jie
2015-12-01
The lower bounds of the evolution time between two distinguishable states of a system, defined as quantum speed limit time, can characterize the maximal speed of quantum computers and communication channels. We study the quantum speed limit time between the composite quantum states and their target states in the presence of nondissipative decoherence. For the initial states with maximally mixed marginals, we obtain the exact expressions of the quantum speed limit time which mainly depend on the parameters of the initial states and the decoherence channels. Furthermore, by calculating the quantum speed limit time for the time-dependent states started from a class of initial states, we discover that the quantum speed limit time gradually decreases in time, and the decay rate of the quantum speed limit time would show a sudden change at a certain critical time. Interestingly, at the same critical time, the composite system dynamics would exhibit a sudden transition from classical decoherence to quantum decoherence. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61178012 and 11304179), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant Nos. 20123705120002 and 20133705110001), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province of China (Grant No. ZR2014AP009), and the Scientific Research Foundation of Qufu Normal University.
Excited State Quantum-Classical Molecular Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krstic, Predrag
2005-05-01
The development of a new theoretical, algorithmic, and computational framework is reported describing the corresponding excited state many-body dynamics by applying multiphysics described by classical equations of motion for nuclei and Hartree-Fock/Multi-Configuration Hartree-Fock and multiresolution techniques for solving the quantum part of the problem (i.e. the motion of the electrons). We primarily have in mind reactive and electron-transition dynamics which involves molecular clusters, containing hundreds of atoms, perturbed by a slow ionic/atomic/molecular projectile, with possible applications in plasma-surface interactions, cluster physics, chemistry and biotechnology. The validation of the developed technique is performed at three-body systems. Application to the transition dynamics in small carbon clusters and hydrocarbons perturbed by slow carbon ions resolves some long-standing issues in the ion-surface interactions in fusion tokamaks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jun; Lu, Dawei; Luo, Zhihuang; Laflamme, Raymond; Peng, Xinhua; Du, Jiangfeng
2016-07-01
Precisely characterizing and controlling realistic quantum systems under noises is a challenging frontier in quantum sciences and technologies. In developing reliable controls for open quantum systems, one is often confronted with the problem of the lack of knowledge on the system controllability. The purpose of this paper is to give a numerical approach to this problem, that is, to approximately compute the reachable set of states for coherently controlled quantum Markovian systems. The approximation consists of setting both upper and lower bounds for system's reachable region of states. Furthermore, we apply our reachability analysis to the control of the relaxation dynamics of a two-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance spin system. We implement some experimental tasks of quantum state engineering in this open system at a near optimal performance in view of purity: e.g., increasing polarization and preparing pseudopure states. These results demonstrate the usefulness of our theory and show interesting and promising applications of environment-assisted quantum dynamics.
Semiquantum-key distribution using less than four quantum states
Zou Xiangfu; Qiu Daowen; Li Lvzhou; Wu Lihua; Li Lvjun
2009-05-15
Recently Boyer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 140501 (2007)] suggested the idea of semiquantum key distribution (SQKD) in which Bob is classical and they also proposed a semiquantum key distribution protocol (BKM2007). To discuss the security of the BKM2007 protocol, they proved that their protocol is completely robust. This means that nonzero information acquired by Eve on the information string implies the nonzero probability that the legitimate participants can find errors on the bits tested by this protocol. The BKM2007 protocol uses four quantum states to distribute a secret key. In this paper, we simplify their protocol by using less than four quantum states. In detail, we present five different SQKD protocols in which Alice sends three quantum states, two quantum states, and one quantum state, respectively. Also, we prove that all the five protocols are completely robust. In particular, we invent two completely robust SQKD protocols in which Alice sends only one quantum state. Alice uses a register in one SQKD protocol, but she does not use any register in the other. The information bit proportion of the SQKD protocol in which Alice sends only one quantum state but uses a register is the double as that in the BKM2007 protocol. Furthermore, the information bit rate of the SQKD protocol in which Alice sends only one quantum state and does not use any register is not lower than that of the BKM2007 protocol.
Super quantum discord for general two qubit X states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jing, Naihuan; Yu, Bing
2017-04-01
The exact solutions of the super quantum discord are derived for general two qubit X states in terms of a one-variable function. Several exact solutions of the super quantum discord are given for the general X state over nontrivial regions of a seven-dimensional manifold.
The impact of quantum dot filling on dual-band optical transitions via intermediate quantum states
Wu, Jiang; Passmore, Brandon; Manasreh, M. O.
2015-08-28
InAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors with different doping levels were investigated to understand the effect of quantum dot filling on both intraband and interband optical transitions. The electron filling of self-assembled InAs quantum dots was varied by direct doping of quantum dots with different concentrations. Photoresponse in the near infrared and middle wavelength infrared spectral region was observed from samples with low quantum dot filling. Although undoped quantum dots were favored for interband transitions with the absence of a second optical excitation in the near infrared region, doped quantum dots were preferred to improve intraband transitions in the middle wavelength infrared region. As a result, partial filling of quantum dot was required, to the extent of maintaining a low dark current, to enhance the dual-band photoresponse through the confined electron states.
Explorations into quantum state diffusion beyond the Markov approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broadbent, Curtis J.; Jing, Jun; Yu, Ting; Eberly, Joseph H.
2011-05-01
The non-Markovian quantum state diffusion equation is rapidly becoming a powerful tool for both theoretical and numerical investigations into non-trivial problems in quantum optical QED. It has been used to rederive the exact master equation for quantum Brownian motion, as well as an optical cavity or a two-level atom which is either damped or dephased under the rotating wave approximation. The exact quantum state diffusion equations for the spin-1 system have also been found, and general theorems have now been derived for solving the N-cavity, N-qubit, and N-level systems. Here, we build upon the results of Ref. to explore other problems from quantum optical QED using the non-Markovian quantum state diffusion equation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peřinová, Vlasta; Lukš, Antonín
2015-06-01
The SU(2) group is used in two different fields of quantum optics, the quantum polarization and quantum interferometry. Quantum degrees of polarization may be based on distances of a polarization state from the set of unpolarized states. The maximum polarization is achieved in the case where the state is pure and then the distribution of the photon-number sums is optimized. In quantum interferometry, the SU(2) intelligent states have also the property that the Fisher measure of information is equal to the inverse minimum detectable phase shift on the usual simplifying condition. Previously, the optimization of the Fisher information under a constraint was studied. Now, in the framework of constraint optimization, states similar to the SU(2) intelligent states are treated.
Faithful conditional quantum state transfer between weakly coupled qubits
Miková, M.; Straka, I.; Mičuda, M.; Krčmarský, V.; Dušek, M.; Ježek, M.; Fiurášek, J.; Filip, R.
2016-01-01
One of the strengths of quantum information theory is that it can treat quantum states without referring to their particular physical representation. In principle, quantum states can be therefore fully swapped between various quantum systems by their mutual interaction and this quantum state transfer is crucial for many quantum communication and information processing tasks. In practice, however, the achievable interaction time and strength are often limited by decoherence. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a procedure for faithful quantum state transfer between two weakly interacting qubits. Our scheme enables a probabilistic yet perfect unidirectional transfer of an arbitrary unknown state of a source qubit onto a target qubit prepared initially in a known state. The transfer is achieved by a combination of a suitable measurement of the source qubit and quantum filtering on the target qubit depending on the outcome of measurement on the source qubit. We experimentally verify feasibility and robustness of the transfer using a linear optical setup with qubits encoded into polarization states of single photons. PMID:27562544
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment via pre- and post-selected quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yan-Bing; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Li, Zi-Chen; Qin, Su-Juan; Yang, Ya-Tao
2014-01-01
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment is a most important and realizable quantum bit commitment (QBC) protocol. By taking advantage of quantum mechanism, it can achieve higher security than classical bit commitment. In this paper, we propose a QBC schemes based on pre- and post-selected quantum states. The analysis indicates that both of the two participants' cheat strategies will be detected with non-zero probability. And the protocol can be implemented with today's technology as a long-term quantum memory is not needed.
Influence-free states on compound quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnum, Howard; Fuchs, Christopher; Renes, Joseph; Wilce, Alexander
2006-03-01
Probability states for bipartite local measurements and correlations between local measurements are considered, in general and when the local systems behave quantum-mechanically. We review the facts that in general allowing local measurements conditional on classically communicated results from the other site imposes no-signalling in the direction opposite communication, and that in the locally quantum case, two-way no-signalling restricts states to be in the dual of the cone of unentangled states, isomorphic to that of positive maps. We show that in the ``decomposable'' subcone, generated by quantum states and their partial transposes, the extremal quantum states and extremal partial transposes remain extremal. And we show that decomposable states do not violate Cirelson inequalities. We show that locally-quantum no-signalling states must be combined in a thoroughoing no-signalling fashion. Thus Alice and Bob cannot consistently accumulate a sequence of independent states of this nature (as they might a supply of shared Bell states to use in entanglement distillation) while having available the full panoply of quantum observables and operations at their respective sites. The relation of no-signalling to the ``closest-to-Bayesian'' conditional quantum dynamics of C. Fuchs will also be touched on.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, KeJia; Zhang, Long; Song, TingTing; Yang, YingHui
2016-06-01
In this paper, we propose certain different design ideas on a novel topic in quantum cryptography — quantum operation sharing (QOS). Following these unique ideas, three QOS schemes, the "HIEC" (The scheme whose messages are hidden in the entanglement correlation), "HIAO" (The scheme whose messages are hidden with the assistant operations) and "HIMB" (The scheme whose messages are hidden in the selected measurement basis), have been presented to share the single-qubit operations determinately on target states in a remote node. These schemes only require Bell states as quantum resources. Therefore, they can be directly applied in quantum networks, since Bell states are considered the basic quantum channels in quantum networks. Furthermore, after analyse on the security and resource consumptions, the task of QOS can be achieved securely and effectively in these schemes.
Quantum broadcast scheme and multi-output quantum teleportation via four-qubit cluster state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Yan; Zha, Xin Wei; Li, Wei
2017-02-01
In this paper, two theoretical schemes of the arbitrary single-qubit states via four-qubit cluster state are proposed. One is three-party quantum broadcast scheme, which realizes the broadcast among three participants. The other is multi-output quantum teleportation. Both allow two distant receivers to simultaneously and deterministically obtain the arbitrary single-qubit states, respectively. Compared with former schemes of an arbitrary single-qubit state, the proposed schemes realize quantum multi-cast communication efficiently, which enables Bob and Charlie to obtain the states simultaneously in the case of just knowing Alice's measurement results. The proposed schemes play an important role in quantum information, specially in secret sharing and quantum teleportation.
Complex Wavelet Transform of the Two-mode Quantum States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Jun; Zhou, Jun; Yuan, Hao; He, Rui; Fan, Hong-Yi
2016-08-01
By employing the bipartite entangled state representation and the technique of integration within an ordered product of operators, the classical complex wavelet transform of a complex signal function can be recast to a matrix element of the squeezing-displacing operator U 2( μ, σ) between the mother wavelet vector < ψ| and the two-mode quantum state vector | f> to be transformed. < ψ| U 2( μ, σ)| f> can be considered as the spectrum for analyzing the two-mode quantum state | f>. In this way, for some typical two-mode quantum states, such as two-mode coherent state and two-mode Fock state, we derive the complex wavelet transform spectrum and carry out the numerical calculation. This kind of wavelet-transform spectrum can be used to recognize quantum states.
Tripartite Quantum Controlled Teleportation via Seven-Qubit Cluster State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wei; Zha, Xin-Wei; Qi, Jian-Xia
2016-09-01
In this paper, a theoretical scheme for tripartite quantum controlled teleportation is presented using the entanglement property of seven-qubit cluster state. This means that Alice wants to transmit a entangled state of particle a to Bob, Charlie wants to transmit a entangled state of particle b to David and Edison wants to transmit a entangled state of particle c to Ford via the control of the supervisor. In the end, we compared the aspects of quantum resource consumption, operation complexity, classical resource consumption, quantum information bits transmitted, success probability and efficiency with other schemes.
Quantum teleportation of composite systems via mixed entangled states
Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Sanders, Barry C.
2006-09-15
We analyze quantum teleportation for composite systems, specifically for concatenated teleporation (decomposing a large composite state into smaller states of dimension commensurate with the channel) and partial teleportation (teleporting one component of a larger quantum state). We obtain an exact expression for teleportation fidelity that depends solely on the dimension and singlet fraction for the entanglement channel and entanglement (measures by I concurrence) for the state; in fact quantum teleportation for composite systems provides an operational interpretation for I concurrence. In addition we obtain tight bounds on teleportation fidelity and prove that the average fidelity approaches the lower bound of teleportation fidelity in the high-dimension limit.
Extending Noether's theorem by quantifying the asymmetry of quantum states.
Marvian, Iman; Spekkens, Robert W
2014-05-13
Noether's theorem is a fundamental result in physics stating that every symmetry of the dynamics implies a conservation law. It is, however, deficient in several respects: for one, it is not applicable to dynamics wherein the system interacts with an environment; furthermore, even in the case where the system is isolated, if the quantum state is mixed then the Noether conservation laws do not capture all of the consequences of the symmetries. Here we address these deficiencies by introducing measures of the extent to which a quantum state breaks a symmetry. Such measures yield novel constraints on state transitions: for nonisolated systems they cannot increase, whereas for isolated systems they are conserved. We demonstrate that the problem of finding non-trivial asymmetry measures can be solved using the tools of quantum information theory. Applications include deriving model-independent bounds on the quantum noise in amplifiers and assessing quantum schemes for achieving high-precision metrology.
Multipartite entanglement accumulation in quantum states: Localizable generalized geometric measure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadhukhan, Debasis; Roy, Sudipto Singha; Pal, Amit Kumar; Rakshit, Debraj; SenDe, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal
2017-02-01
Multiparty quantum states are useful for a variety of quantum information and computation protocols. We define a multiparty entanglement measure based on local measurements on a multiparty quantum state and an entanglement measure averaged on the postmeasurement ensemble. Using the generalized geometric measure as the measure of multipartite entanglement for the ensemble, we demonstrate, in the case of several well-known classes of multipartite pure states, that the localized multipartite entanglement can exceed the entanglement present in the original state. We also show that measurement over multiple parties may be beneficial in enhancing localizable multipartite entanglement. We point out that localizable generalized geometric measure faithfully signals quantum critical phenomena in well-known quantum spin models even when considerable finite-size effect is present in the system.
Coherent quantum states from classical oscillator amplitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Briggs, John S.; Eisfeld, Alexander
2012-05-01
In the first days of quantum mechanics Dirac pointed out an analogy between the time-dependent coefficients of an expansion of the Schrödinger equation and the classical position and momentum variables solving Hamilton's equations. Here it is shown that the analogy can be made an equivalence in that, in principle, systems of classical oscillators can be constructed whose position and momenta variables form time-dependent amplitudes which are identical to the complex quantum amplitudes of the coupled wave function of an N-level quantum system with real coupling matrix elements. Hence classical motion can reproduce quantum coherence.
Preparing ground States of quantum many-body systems on a quantum computer.
Poulin, David; Wocjan, Pawel
2009-04-03
Preparing the ground state of a system of interacting classical particles is an NP-hard problem. Thus, there is in general no better algorithm to solve this problem than exhaustively going through all N configurations of the system to determine the one with lowest energy, requiring a running time proportional to N. A quantum computer, if it could be built, could solve this problem in time sqrt[N]. Here, we present a powerful extension of this result to the case of interacting quantum particles, demonstrating that a quantum computer can prepare the ground state of a quantum system as efficiently as it does for classical systems.
Experimental realization of dimension witnesses based on quantum state discrimination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Yong-Nan; Liu, Zhao-Di; Sun, Jun; Chen, Geng; Xu, Xiao-Ye; Wu, Yu-Chun; Tang, Jian-Shun; Han, Yong-Jian; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-11-01
The dimension witness is an important concept in fundamental physics and quantum information processing which allows one to test the dimension of an unknown physical system in a device independent manner. Here, we report an experimental test of classical and quantum dimensions in a prepare and measure scenario through dimension witnesses based on quantum state discrimination. In our work, we have not only distinguished between quantum and classical systems of the same dimension (two, three, and four dimensions) but also distinguished between real and complex two-level quantum systems. We have also shown the strong link between dimension witnesses and quantum state discrimination which was introduced in N. Brunner, M. Navascués, and T. Vértesi [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 150501 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.150501].
Purifying Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states using degenerate quantum codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ho, K. H.; Chau, H. F.
2008-10-01
Degenerate quantum codes are codes that do not reveal the complete error syndrome. Their ability to conceal the complete error syndrome makes them powerful resources in certain quantum-information processing tasks. In particular, the most error-tolerant way to purify depolarized Bell states using one-way communication known to date involves degenerate quantum codes. Here we study three closely related purification schemes for depolarized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states shared among m⩾3 players by means of degenerate quantum codes and one-way classical communications. We find that our schemes tolerate more noise than all other one-way schemes known to date, further demonstrating the effectiveness of degenerate quantum codes in quantum-information processing.
Open quantum dots in graphene: Scaling relativistic pointer states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferry, D. K.; Huang, L.; Yang, R.; Lai, Y.-C.; Akis, R.
2010-04-01
Open quantum dots provide a window into the connection between quantum and classical physics, particularly through the decoherence theory, in which an important set of quantum states are not "washed out" through interaction with the environment-the pointer states provide connection to trapped classical orbits which remain stable in the dots. Graphene is a recently discovered material with highly unusual properties. This single layer, one atom thick, sheet of carbon has a unique bandstructure, governed by the Dirac equation, in which charge carriers imitate relativistic particles with zero rest mass. Here, an atomic orbital-based recursive Green's function method is used for studying the quantum transport. We study quantum fluctuations in graphene and bilayer graphene quantum dots with this recursive Green's function method. Finally, we examine the scaling of the domiant fluctuation frequency with dot size.
Reverse quantum state engineering using electronic feedback loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kießlich, Gerold; Emary, Clive; Schaller, Gernot; Brandes, Tobias
2012-12-01
We propose an all-electronic technique to manipulate and control interacting quantum systems by unitary single-jump feedback conditioned on the outcome of a capacitively coupled electrometer and, in particular, a single-electron transistor. We provide a general scheme for stabilizing pure states in the quantum system and use an effective Hamiltonian method for the quantum master equation to elaborate on the nature of stabilizable states and the conditions under which state purification can be achieved. The state engineering within the quantum feedback scheme is shown to be linked with the solution of an inverse eigenvalue problem. Two applications of the feedback scheme are presented in detail: (i) stabilization of delocalized pure states in a single charge qubit and (ii) entanglement stabilization in two coupled charge qubits. In the latter example, we demonstrate the stabilization of a maximally entangled Bell state for certain detector positions and local feedback operations.
Nonclassical properties and quantum resources of hierarchical photonic superposition states
Volkoff, T. J.
2015-11-15
We motivate and introduce a class of “hierarchical” quantum superposition states of N coupled quantum oscillators. Unlike other well-known multimode photonic Schrödinger-cat states such as entangled coherent states, the hierarchical superposition states are characterized as two-branch superpositions of tensor products of single-mode Schrödinger-cat states. In addition to analyzing the photon statistics and quasiprobability distributions of prominent examples of these nonclassical states, we consider their usefulness for highprecision quantum metrology of nonlinear optical Hamiltonians and quantify their mode entanglement. We propose two methods for generating hierarchical superpositions in N = 2 coupled microwave cavities, exploiting currently existing quantum optical technology for generating entanglement between spatially separated electromagnetic field modes.
Quantum metrology with spin cat states under dissipation.
Huang, Jiahao; Qin, Xizhou; Zhong, Honghua; Ke, Yongguan; Lee, Chaohong
2015-12-09
Quantum metrology aims to yield higher measurement precisions via quantum techniques such as entanglement. It is of great importance for both fundamental sciences and practical technologies, from testing equivalence principle to designing high-precision atomic clocks. However, due to environment effects, highly entangled states become fragile and the achieved precisions may even be worse than the standard quantum limit (SQL). Here we present a high-precision measurement scheme via spin cat states (a kind of non-Gaussian entangled states in superposition of two quasi-orthogonal spin coherent states) under dissipation. In comparison to maximally entangled states, spin cat states with modest entanglement are more robust against losses and their achievable precisions may still beat the SQL. Even if the detector is imperfect, the achieved precisions of the parity measurement are higher than the ones of the population measurement. Our scheme provides a realizable way to achieve high-precision measurements via dissipative quantum systems of Bose atoms.
Quantum metrology with spin cat states under dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Jiahao; Qin, Xizhou; Zhong, Honghua; Ke, Yongguan; Lee, Chaohong
2015-12-01
Quantum metrology aims to yield higher measurement precisions via quantum techniques such as entanglement. It is of great importance for both fundamental sciences and practical technologies, from testing equivalence principle to designing high-precision atomic clocks. However, due to environment effects, highly entangled states become fragile and the achieved precisions may even be worse than the standard quantum limit (SQL). Here we present a high-precision measurement scheme via spin cat states (a kind of non-Gaussian entangled states in superposition of two quasi-orthogonal spin coherent states) under dissipation. In comparison to maximally entangled states, spin cat states with modest entanglement are more robust against losses and their achievable precisions may still beat the SQL. Even if the detector is imperfect, the achieved precisions of the parity measurement are higher than the ones of the population measurement. Our scheme provides a realizable way to achieve high-precision measurements via dissipative quantum systems of Bose atoms.
Experimental demonstration of macroscopic quantum coherence in Gaussian states
Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd; Andersen, Ulrik L.; Takeno, Yuishi; Yukawa, Mitsuyoshi; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Furusawa, Akira
2007-09-15
We witness experimentally the presence of macroscopic coherence in Gaussian quantum states using a recently proposed criterion [E. G. Cavalcanti and M. D. Reid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 170405 (2006)]. The macroscopic coherence stems from interference between macroscopically distinct states in phase space, and we prove experimentally that a coherent state contains these features with a distance in phase space of 0.51{+-}0.02 shot noise units. This is surprising because coherent states are generally considered being at the border between classical and quantum states, not yet displaying any nonclassical effect. For squeezed and entangled states the effect may be larger but depends critically on the state purity.
GENERAL: Preservation of quantum states via a super-Zeno effect on ensemble quantum computers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Ting-Ting; Luo, Jun; Sun, Xian-Ping; Zhan, Ming-Sheng
2009-11-01
Following a recent proposal by Dhar et al (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 100405), we demonstrate experimentally the preservation of quantum states in a two-qubit system based on a super-Zeno effect using liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Using inverting radiofrequency pulses and delicately selecting time intervals between two pulses, we suppress the effect of decoherence of quantum states. We observe that preservation of the quantum state |11rangle with the super-Zeno effect is three times more efficient than the ordinary one with the standard Zeno effect.
Geometric Phase for Adiabatic Evolutions of General Quantum States
Wu, Biao; Liu, Jie; Niu, Qian; Singh, David J
2005-01-01
The concept of a geometric phase (Berry's phase) is generalized to the case of noneigenstates, which is applicable to both linear and nonlinear quantum systems. This is particularly important to nonlinear quantum systems, where, due to the lack of the superposition principle, the adiabatic evolution of a general state cannot be described in terms of eigenstates. For linear quantum systems, our new geometric phase reduces to a statistical average of Berry's phases. Our results are demonstrated with a nonlinear two-level model.
Novel Approaches to Quantum Computation Using Solid State Qubits
2007-12-31
Han, A scheme for the teleportation of multiqubit quantum information via the control of many agents in a network, submitted to Phys. Lett. A, 343...approach, Phys. Rev. B 70, 094513 (2004). 22. C.-P. Yang, S.-I. Chu, and S. Han, Efficient many party controlled teleportation of multiqubit quantum ...June 1, 2001- September 30, 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER "Novel Approaches to Quantum Computation Using Solid State Qubits" F49620
Dynamics of open bosonic quantum systems in coherent state representation
Dalvit, D. A. R.; Berman, G. P.; Vishik, M.
2006-01-15
We consider the problem of decoherence and relaxation of open bosonic quantum systems from a perspective alternative to the standard master equation or quantum trajectories approaches. Our method is based on the dynamics of expectation values of observables evaluated in a coherent state representation. We examine a model of a quantum nonlinear oscillator with a density-density interaction with a collection of environmental oscillators at finite temperature. We derive the exact solution for dynamics of observables and demonstrate a consistent perturbation approach.
Ground state of the universe in quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorobey, Natalia; Lukyanenko, Alexander
2016-01-01
We find a physical state of a closed universe with the minimal excitation of the universe expansion energy in quantum gravity. It is an analog of the vacuum state of the ordinary quantum field theory in the Minkowsky space, but in our approach an energy of space of a closed universe together with the energy of its matter content are minimized. This ground state is chosen among an enlarged set of physical states, compared with the ordinary covariant quantum gravity. In our approach, physical states are determined by weak constraints: quantum mechanical averages of gravitational constraint operators equal zero. As a result, they appear to be non-static in such a modification of quantum gravity. Quantum dynamics of the universe is described by Schrödinger equation with a cosmic time determined by weak gravitational constraints. In order to obtain the observed megascopic universe with the inflation stage just after its quantum beginning, a lot of the energy in the form of the inflaton scalar field condensate is prescribed to the initial state. Parameters of the initial state for a homogeneous model of the universe are calculated.
Quantum Teleportation of High-dimensional Atomic Momenta State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qurban, Misbah; Abbas, Tasawar; Rameez-ul-Islam; Ikram, Manzoor
2016-06-01
Atomic momenta states of the neutral atoms are known to be decoherence resistant and therefore present a viable solution for most of the quantum information tasks including the quantum teleportation. We present a systematic protocol for the teleportation of high-dimensional quantized momenta atomic states to the field state inside the cavities by applying standard cavity QED techniques. The proposal can be executed under prevailing experimental scenario.
Effect of relativistic motion on witnessing nonclassicality of quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Checińska, Agata; Lorek, Krzysztof; Dragan, Andrzej
2017-01-01
We show that the operational definition of nonclassicality of a quantum state depends on the motion of the observer. We use the relativistic Unruh-DeWitt detector model to witness nonclassicality of the probed field state. It turns out that the witness based on the properties of the P representation of the quantum state depends on the trajectory of the detector. Inertial and noninertial motion of the device have qualitatively different impact on the performance of the witness.
Steady state quantum discord for circularly accelerated atoms
Hu, Jiawei; Yu, Hongwei
2015-12-15
We study, in the framework of open quantum systems, the dynamics of quantum entanglement and quantum discord of two mutually independent circularly accelerated two-level atoms in interaction with a bath of fluctuating massless scalar fields in the Minkowski vacuum. We assume that the two atoms rotate synchronically with their separation perpendicular to the rotating plane. The time evolution of the quantum entanglement and quantum discord of the two-atom system is investigated. For a maximally entangled initial state, the entanglement measured by concurrence diminishes to zero within a finite time, while the quantum discord can either decrease monotonically to an asymptotic value or diminish to zero at first and then followed by a revival depending on whether the initial state is antisymmetric or symmetric. When both of the two atoms are initially excited, the generation of quantum entanglement shows a delayed feature, while quantum discord is created immediately. Remarkably, the quantum discord for such a circularly accelerated two-atom system takes a nonvanishing value in the steady state, and this is distinct from what happens in both the linear acceleration case and the case of static atoms immersed in a thermal bath.
Quantum synchronization and quantum state sharing in an irregular complex network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wenlin; Li, Chong; Song, Heshan
2017-02-01
We investigate the quantum synchronization phenomenon of the complex network constituted by coupled optomechanical systems and prove that the unknown identical quantum states can be shared or distributed in the quantum network even though the topology is varying. Considering a channel constructed by quantum correlation, we show that quantum synchronization can sustain and maintain high levels in Markovian dissipation for a long time. We also analyze the state-sharing process between two typical complex networks, and the results predict that linked nodes can be directly synchronized, but the whole network will be synchronized only if some specific synchronization conditions are satisfied. Furthermore, we give the synchronization conditions analytically through analyzing network dynamics. This proposal paves the way for studying multi-interaction synchronization and achieving effective quantum information processing in a complex network.
Quantum correlations in a family of bipartite separable qubit states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Chuanmei; Liu, Yimin; Chen, Jianlan; Zhang, Zhanjun
2017-03-01
Quantum correlations (QCs) in some separable states have been proposed as a key resource for certain quantum communication tasks and quantum computational models without entanglement. In this paper, a family of nine-parameter separable states, obtained from arbitrary mixture of two sets of bi-qubit product pure states, is considered. QCs in these separable states are studied analytically or numerically using four QC quantifiers, i.e., measurement-induced disturbance (Luo in Phys Rev A77:022301, 2008), ameliorated MID (Girolami et al. in J Phys A Math Theor 44:352002, 2011),quantum dissonance (DN) (Modi et al. in Phys Rev Lett 104:080501, 2010), and new quantum dissonance (Rulli in Phys Rev A 84:042109, 2011), respectively. First, an inherent symmetry in the concerned separable states is revealed, that is, any nine-parameter separable states concerned in this paper can be transformed to a three-parameter kernel state via some certain local unitary operation. Then, four different QC expressions are concretely derived with the four QC quantifiers. Furthermore, some comparative studies of the QCs are presented, discussed and analyzed, and some distinct features about them are exposed. We find that, in the framework of all the four QC quantifiers, the more mixed the original two pure product states, the bigger QCs the separable states own. Our results reveal some intrinsic features of QCs in separable systems in quantum information.
Robust quantum state recovery from amplitude damping within a mixed states framework
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahrokh Esfahani, Saeideh; Liao, Zeyang; Zubairy, M. Suhail
2016-08-01
Due to interaction with the environment, a quantum state is subjected to decoherence which becomes one of the major problems in many quantum systems. Amplitude damping is one of the most important decoherence processes. Here, we show that general two-qubit mixed states undergoing amplitude damping can be almost completely restored using a reversal procedure. This reversal procedure through CNOT and Hadamard gates could also protect the entanglement of two-qubit mixed states from general amplitude damping. We also propose a robust recovery scheme to protect the quantum states when the decay parameters or the input quantum states are not completely known.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heyl, Markus
2017-02-01
Quantum critical states exhibit strong quantum fluctuations and are therefore highly susceptible to perturbations. In this Rapid Communication we study the dynamical stability against a sudden coupling to these strong fluctuations by quenching the order parameter of the underlying transition. Such a quench can generate superextensive energy fluctuations. This leads to a dynamical quantum phase transition (DQPT) with nonanalytic real-time behavior in the resulting decay of the initial state. By establishing a general connection between DQPTs and quantum speed limits, this allows us to obtain a quantum speed limit with unconventional system-size dependence. These findings are illustrated for the one-dimensional and the infinitely connected transverse-field Ising model. The main concepts, however, are general and can be applied also to other critical states. An outlook is given on the implications of superextensive energy fluctuations on potential restricted thermalization despite nonintegrability.
Topological quantum computing with Read-Rezayi states.
Hormozi, L; Bonesteel, N E; Simon, S H
2009-10-16
Read-Rezayi fractional quantum Hall states are among the prime candidates for realizing non-Abelian anyons which, in principle, can be used for topological quantum computation. We present a prescription for efficiently finding braids which can be used to carry out a universal set of quantum gates on encoded qubits based on anyons of the Read-Rezayi states with k>2, k not equal 4. This work extends previous results which only applied to the case k=3 (Fibonacci) and clarifies why, in that case, gate constructions are simpler than for a generic Read-Rezayi state.
Creating arbitrary quantum vibrational states in a carbon nanotube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Heng; Burkard, Guido
2016-11-01
We theoretically study the creation of single- and multiphonon Fock states and arbitrary superpositions of quantum phonon states in a nanomechanical carbon nanotube (CNT) resonator. In our model, a doubly clamped CNT resonator is initialized in the ground state, and a single electron is trapped in a quantum dot which is formed by an electric gate potential and brought into the magnetic field of a micromagnet. The preparation of arbitrary quantum phonon states is based on the coupling between the mechanical motion of the CNT and the electron spin which acts as a nonlinearity. We assume that electrical driving pulses with different frequencies are applied on the system. The quantum information is transferred from the spin qubit to the mechanical motion by the spin-phonon coupling, and the electron spin qubit can be reset by the single-electron spin resonance. We describe Wigner tomography which can be applied at the end to obtain the phase information of the prepared phonon states.
Five Measurement Bases Determine Pure Quantum States on Any Dimension.
Goyeneche, D; Cañas, G; Etcheverry, S; Gómez, E S; Xavier, G B; Lima, G; Delgado, A
2015-08-28
A long-standing problem in quantum mechanics is the minimum number of observables required for the characterization of unknown pure quantum states. The solution to this problem is especially important for the developing field of high-dimensional quantum information processing. In this work we demonstrate that any pure d-dimensional state is unambiguously reconstructed by measuring five observables, that is, via projective measurements onto the states of five orthonormal bases. Thus, in our method the total number of different measurement outcomes (5d) scales linearly with d. The state reconstruction is robust against experimental errors and requires simple postprocessing, regardless of d. We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of our scheme through the reconstruction of eight-dimensional quantum states, encoded in the momentum of single photons.
Model Fractional Quantum Hall States and Jack Polynomials
Bernevig, B. Andrei; Haldane, F. D. M.
2008-06-20
We describe an occupation-number-like picture of fractional quantum Hall states in terms of polynomial wave functions characterized by a dominant occupation-number configuration. The bosonic variants of single-component Abelian and non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall states are modeled by Jack symmetric polynomials (Jacks), characterized by dominant occupation-number configurations satisfying a generalized Pauli principle. In a series of well-known quantum Hall states, including the Laughlin, Read-Moore, and Read-Rezayi, the Jack polynomials naturally implement a ''squeezing rule'' that constrains allowed configurations to be restricted to those obtained by squeezing the dominant configuration. The Jacks presented in this Letter describe new trial uniform states, but it is yet to be determined to which actual experimental fractional quantum Hall effect states they apply.
Deterministic Production of Photon Number States via Quantum Feedback Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geremia, J. M.
2006-05-01
It is well-known that measurements reduce the state of a quantum system, at least approximately, to an eigenstate of the operator associated with the physical property being measured. Here, we employ a continuous measurement of cavity photon number to achieve a robust, nondestructively verifiable procedure for preparing number states of an optical cavity mode. Such Fock states are highly sought after for the enabling role they play in quantum computing, networking and precision metrology. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the particular Fock state produced in each application of the continuous photon number measurement can be controlled using techniques from real-time quantum feedback control. The result of the feedback- stabilized measurement is a deterministic source of (nearly ideal) cavity Fock states. An analysis of feedback stability and the experimental viability of a quantum optical implementation currently underway at the University of New Mexico will be presented.
Photodissociation of ultracold diatomic strontium molecules with quantum state control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McDonald, M.; McGuyer, B. H.; Apfelbeck, F.; Lee, C.-H.; Majewska, I.; Moszynski, R.; Zelevinsky, T.
2016-07-01
Chemical reactions at ultracold temperatures are expected to be dominated by quantum mechanical effects. Although progress towards ultracold chemistry has been made through atomic photoassociation, Feshbach resonances and bimolecular collisions, these approaches have been limited by imperfect quantum state selectivity. In particular, attaining complete control of the ground or excited continuum quantum states has remained a challenge. Here we achieve this control using photodissociation, an approach that encodes a wealth of information in the angular distribution of outgoing fragments. By photodissociating ultracold 88Sr2 molecules with full control of the low-energy continuum, we access the quantum regime of ultracold chemistry, observing resonant and nonresonant barrier tunnelling, matter-wave interference of reaction products and forbidden reaction pathways. Our results illustrate the failure of the traditional quasiclassical model of photodissociation and instead are accurately described by a quantum mechanical model. The experimental ability to produce well-defined quantum continuum states at low energies will enable high-precision studies of long-range molecular potentials for which accurate quantum chemistry models are unavailable, and may serve as a source of entangled states and coherent matter waves for a wide range of experiments in quantum optics.
Photodissociation of ultracold diatomic strontium molecules with quantum state control.
McDonald, M; McGuyer, B H; Apfelbeck, F; Lee, C-H; Majewska, I; Moszynski, R; Zelevinsky, T
2016-07-07
Chemical reactions at ultracold temperatures are expected to be dominated by quantum mechanical effects. Although progress towards ultracold chemistry has been made through atomic photoassociation, Feshbach resonances and bimolecular collisions, these approaches have been limited by imperfect quantum state selectivity. In particular, attaining complete control of the ground or excited continuum quantum states has remained a challenge. Here we achieve this control using photodissociation, an approach that encodes a wealth of information in the angular distribution of outgoing fragments. By photodissociating ultracold (88)Sr2 molecules with full control of the low-energy continuum, we access the quantum regime of ultracold chemistry, observing resonant and nonresonant barrier tunnelling, matter-wave interference of reaction products and forbidden reaction pathways. Our results illustrate the failure of the traditional quasiclassical model of photodissociation and instead are accurately described by a quantum mechanical model. The experimental ability to produce well-defined quantum continuum states at low energies will enable high-precision studies of long-range molecular potentials for which accurate quantum chemistry models are unavailable, and may serve as a source of entangled states and coherent matter waves for a wide range of experiments in quantum optics.
Quantum-dot cluster-state computing with encoded qubits
Weinstein, Yaakov S.; Hellberg, C. Stephen; Levy, Jeremy
2005-08-15
A class of architectures is advanced for cluster-state quantum computation using quantum dots. These architectures include using single and multiple dots as logical qubits. Special attention is given to supercoherent qubits introduced by Bacon et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 247902 (2001)] for which we discuss the effects of various errors and present a means of error protection.
Quantum Discord of 2 n -Dimensional Bell-Diagonal States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Karimi, N.; Amidi, D.; Zahir Olyaei, H.
2016-03-01
In this study, using the concept of relative entropy as a distance measure of correlations we investigate the important issue of evaluating quantum correlations such as entanglement, dissonance and classical correlations for 2 n -dimensional Bell-diagonal states. We provide an analytical technique, which describes how we find the closest classical states(CCS) and the closest separable states(CSS) for these states. Then analytical results are obtained for quantum discord of 2 n -dimensional Bell-diagonal states. As illustration, some special cases are examined. Finally, we investigate the additivity relation between the different correlations for the separable generalized Bloch sphere states.
Qudit quantum computation on matrix product states with global symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Dong-Sheng; Stephen, David T.; Raussendorf, Robert
2017-03-01
Resource states that contain nontrivial symmetry-protected topological order are identified for universal single-qudit measurement-based quantum computation. Our resource states fall into two classes: one as the qudit generalizations of the one-dimensional qubit cluster state, and the other as the higher-symmetry generalizations of the spin-1 Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki (AKLT) state, namely, with unitary, orthogonal, or symplectic symmetry. The symmetry in cluster states protects information propagation (identity gate), while the higher symmetry in AKLT-type states enables nontrivial gate computation. This work demonstrates a close connection between measurement-based quantum computation and symmetry-protected topological order.
Quantum information transmission in the quantum wireless multihop network based on Werner state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Li-Hui; Yu, Xu-Tao; Cai, Xiao-Fei; Gong, Yan-Xiao; Zhang, Zai-Chen
2015-05-01
Many previous studies about teleportation are based on pure state. Study of quantum channel as mixed state is more realistic but complicated as pure states degenerate into mixed states by interaction with environment, and the Werner state plays an important role in the study of the mixed state. In this paper, the quantum wireless multihop network is proposed and the information is transmitted hop by hop through teleportation. We deduce a specific expression of the recovered state not only after one-hop teleportation but also across multiple intermediate nodes based on Werner state in a quantum wireless multihop network. We also obtain the fidelity of multihop teleportation. Project supported by the Prospective Future Network Project of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BY2013095-1-18) and the Independent Project of State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves (Grant No. Z201504).
A Single-Photon Subtractor for Multimode Quantum States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ra, Young-Sik; Jacquard, Clément; Averchenko, Valentin; Roslund, Jonathan; Cai, Yin; Dufour, Adrien; Fabre, Claude; Treps, Nicolas
2016-05-01
In the last decade, single-photon subtraction has proved to be key operations in optical quantum information processing and quantum state engineering. Implementation of the photon subtraction has been based on linear optics and single-photon detection on single-mode resources. This technique, however, becomes unsuitable with multimode resources such as spectrally multimode squeezed states or continuous variables cluster states. We implement a single-photon subtractor for such multimode resources based on sum-frequency generation and single-photon detection. An input multimode quantum state interacts with a bright control beam whose spectrum has been engineered through ultrafast pulse-shaping. The multimode quantum state resulting from the single-photon subtractor is analyzed with multimode homodyne detection whose local oscillator spectrum is independently engineered. We characterize the single-photon subtractor via coherent-state quantum process tomography, which provides its mode-selectivity and subtraction modes. The ability to simultaneously control the state engineering and its detection ensures both flexibility and scalability in the production of highly entangled non-Gaussian quantum states.
A secure quantum group signature scheme based on Bell states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Kejia; Song, Tingting; Zuo, Huijuan; Zhang, Weiwei
2013-04-01
In this paper, we propose a new secure quantum group signature with Bell states, which may have applications in e-payment system, e-government, e-business, etc. Compared with the recent quantum group signature protocols, our scheme is focused on the most general situation in practice, i.e. only the arbitrator is trusted and no intermediate information needs to be stored in the signing phase to ensure the security. Furthermore, our scheme has achieved all the characteristics of group signature—anonymity, verifiability, traceability, unforgetability and undeniability, by using some current developed quantum and classical technologies. Finally, a feasible security analysis model for quantum group signature is presented.
Direct Imaging of Electron States in Open Quantum Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aoki, N.; Brunner, R.; Burke, A. M.; Akis, R.; Meisels, R.; Ferry, D. K.; Ochiai, Y.
2012-03-01
We use scanning gate microscopy to probe the ballistic motion of electrons within an open GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dot. Conductance maps are recorded by scanning a biased tip over the open quantum dot while a magnetic field is applied. We show that, for specific magnetic fields, the measured conductance images resemble the classical transmitted and backscattered trajectories and their quantum mechanical analogue. In addition, we prove experimentally, with this direct measurement technique, the existence of pointer states. The demonstrated direct imaging technique is essential for the fundamental understanding of wave function scarring and quantum decoherence theory.
Quantum-classical correspondence in steady states of nonadiabatic systems
Fujii, Mikiya; Yamashita, Koichi
2015-12-31
We first present nonadiabatic path integral which is exact formulation of quantum dynamics in nonadiabatic systems. Then, by applying the stationary phase approximations to the nonadiabatic path integral, a semiclassical quantization condition, i.e., quantum-classical correspondence, for steady states of nonadiabatic systems is presented as a nonadiabatic trace formula. The present quantum-classical correspondence indicates that a set of primitive hopping periodic orbits, which are invariant under time evolution in the phase space of the slow degree of freedom, should be quantized. The semiclassical quantization is then applied to a simple nonadiabatic model and accurately reproduces exact quantum energy levels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Hailin; Zhang, Zhongshan
2017-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) system is presently being developed for providing high-security transmission in future free-space optical communication links. However, current QKD technique restricts quantum secure communication to a low bit rate. To improve the QKD bit rate, we propose a subcarrier multiplexing multiple-input multiple-output quantum key distribution (SCM-MQKD) scheme with orthogonal quantum states. Specifically, we firstly present SCM-MQKD system model and drive symmetrical SCM-MQKD system into decoherence-free subspaces. We then utilize bipartite Werner and isotropic states to construct multiple parallel single photon with orthogonal quantum states that are invariant for unitary operations. Finally, we derive the density matrix and the capacity of SCM-MQKD system, respectively. Theoretical analysis and numerical results show that the capacity of SCM-MQKD system will increase {log _2}(N^2+1) times than that of single-photon QKD system.
Charge state hysteresis in semiconductor quantum dots
Yang, C. H.; Rossi, A. Lai, N. S.; Leon, R.; Lim, W. H.; Dzurak, A. S.
2014-11-03
Semiconductor quantum dots provide a two-dimensional analogy for real atoms and show promise for the implementation of scalable quantum computers. Here, we investigate the charge configurations in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor double quantum dot tunnel coupled to a single reservoir of electrons. By operating the system in the few-electron regime, the stability diagram shows hysteretic tunnelling events that depend on the history of the dots charge occupancy. We present a model which accounts for the observed hysteretic behaviour by extending the established description for transport in double dots coupled to two reservoirs. We demonstrate that this type of device operates like a single-electron memory latch.
Quantum correlations in Gaussian states via Gaussian channels: steering, entanglement, and discord
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhong-Xiao; Wang, Shuhao; Li, Qiting; Wang, Tie-Jun; Wang, Chuan
2016-06-01
Here we study the quantum steering, quantum entanglement, and quantum discord for Gaussian Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states via Gaussian channels. And the sudden death phenomena for Gaussian steering and Gaussian entanglement are theoretically observed. We find that some Gaussian states have only one-way steering, which confirms the asymmetry of quantum steering. Also we investigate that the entangled Gaussian states without Gaussian steering and correlated Gaussian states own no Gaussian entanglement. Meanwhile, our results support the assumption that quantum entanglement is intermediate between quantum discord and quantum steering. Furthermore, we give experimental recipes for preparing quantum states with desired types of quantum correlations.
Quantum Teleportation of A Four-qubit State by Using Six-qubit Cluster State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yuan-hua; Sang, Ming-huang; Wang, Xian-ping; Nie, Yi-you
2016-08-01
We propose a scheme for perfect quantum teleportation of a special form of four-qubit state by using a six-qubit cluster state as quantum channel. In our scheme, the sender only needs six-qubit von-Neumann projective measurements, and the receiver can reconstruct the original four-qubit state by applying the appropriate unitary operation.
Quantum state control of ultracold plasma fission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schulz-Weiling, M.; Grant, E. R.
2016-03-01
Double-resonant transitions excite nitric oxide in a seeded supersonic molecular beam, yielding a state-selected Rydberg gas that evolves to form an ultracold plasma. This plasma propagates in z with the molecular beam over a variable distance as great as 600 mm to strike an imaging detector, which records the charge distribution in the dimensions, x and y. The laser-crossed molecular beam excitation geometry convolutes an axial Gaussian distribution of NO about z with the Gaussian intensity distribution of the laser beam about x to create an ellipsoidal volume of Rydberg gas. Plasma images provide evidence for the relaxation of this Rydberg gas volume in an electron impact avalanche that breaks the ellipsoidal symmetry in x to form repelling plasma volumes. We find that the energy deposited in the recoil velocity of mass transport, V x depends systematically on the initially selected Rydberg gas principal quantum number, n 0, and the initial density of the Rydberg gas, ρ 0. These quantities combine to determine ρ e, the initial density of electrons formed by the prompt Penning ionization of closely spaced pairs of Rydberg molecules. Above a threshold density of Penning electrons, we find that V x depends linearly on ρ e. We argue that this bifurcation occurs as a consequence of the initial geometry of the Rydberg gas. Ambipolar electron expansion accelerates initially formed core ions. Resonant charge transfer redistributes this ion energy to the column of Rydberg molecules on the long axis of the ellipsoid. The equalized velocities in each direction give rise to a ±x streaming motion that concentrates density in opposing plasma volumes, causing the symmetric gas volume to split like a rotating liquid drop. Significantly, these dynamics reduce electron temperature with little decrease in the ion density or increase in the ion temperature. This appears to facilitate the formation of a strongly coupled plasma.
Superconducting analogue of the parafermion fractional quantum Hall states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaezi, Abolhassan
2014-03-01
Read and Rezayi Zk parafermion wavefunctions describe ν = 2 + k /(kM + 2) fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states. These states support non-Abelian excitations from which protected quantum gates can be designed. However, there is no experimental evidence for these non-Abelian anyons to date. In this talk, we discuss the ν = 2 / k FQH-superconductor heterostructure and through analytical and numerical calculations we argue that it can yield the superconducting analogue of the Zk parafermion FQH state. The resulting topological state has a gapless chiral edge state with Zk parafermion conformal field theory description. For instance, we find that a ν = 2 / 3 FQH in proximity to a superconductor produces a Z3 parafermion superconducting state. This state can host Fibonacci anyons capable of performing universal quantum computation through braiding operations. We finally discuss our experimental proposal for realizing parafermion superconductors. Reference: arXiv:1307.8069
Theoretically extensible quantum digital signature with starlike cluster states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yu-Guang; Liu, Zhi-Chao; Li, Jian; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Zuo, Hui-Juan; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min
2017-01-01
Chen et al. (Phys Rev A 73:012303,
Distinct Quantum States Can Be Compatible with a Single State of Reality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewis, Peter; Jennings, David; Barrett, Jonathan; Rudolph, Terry
2013-03-01
Perhaps the quantum state represents information available to some agent or experimenter about reality, and not reality directly. This view is attractive because if quantum states represent only information, then wave function collapse is possibly no more mysterious than a Bayesian update of a probability distribution given new data. Several other ``puzzling'' features of quantum theory also follow naturally given this view. In order to explore this idea rigorously, we consider models for quantum systems with probabilities for measurement outcomes determined by some underlying physical state of the system, where the underlying state is not necessarily described by quantum theory. In our model, quantum states correspond to probability distributions over the underlying states so that the Born rule is recovered. More specifically, we consider models for quantum systems where several quantum states are consistent with a single underlying state-i.e., probability distributions for distinct quantum states overlap. Recent work shows that such a model is impossible (e.g. the PBR theorem (Nat. Phys. 8, p.474)). Significantly, our example demonstrates that non-trivial assumptions (beyond those required for a well-defined realistic model) are necessary for the PBR theorem and those like it. This work was supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, Leverhulme Foundation and The Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851
Quantum key distribution session with 16-dimensional photonic states
Etcheverry, S.; Cañas, G.; Gómez, E. S.; Nogueira, W. A. T.; Saavedra, C.; Xavier, G. B.; Lima, G.
2013-01-01
The secure transfer of information is an important problem in modern telecommunications. Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides a solution to this problem by using individual quantum systems to generate correlated bits between remote parties, that can be used to extract a secret key. QKD with D-dimensional quantum channels provides security advantages that grow with increasing D. However, the vast majority of QKD implementations has been restricted to two dimensions. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using higher dimensions for real-world quantum cryptography by performing, for the first time, a fully automated QKD session based on the BB84 protocol with 16-dimensional quantum states. Information is encoded in the single-photon transverse momentum and the required states are dynamically generated with programmable spatial light modulators. Our setup paves the way for future developments in the field of experimental high-dimensional QKD. PMID:23897033
Typical pure nonequilibrium steady states and irreversibility for quantum transport.
Monnai, Takaaki; Yuasa, Kazuya
2016-07-01
It is known that each single typical pure state in an energy shell of a large isolated quantum system well represents a thermal equilibrium state of the system. We show that such typicality holds also for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS's). We consider a small quantum system coupled to multiple infinite reservoirs. In the long run, the total system reaches a unique NESS. We identify a large Hilbert space from which pure states of the system are to be sampled randomly and show that the typical pure states well describe the NESS. We also point out that the irreversible relaxation to the unique NESS is important to the typicality of the pure NESS's.
Minimum-error discrimination of entangled quantum states
Lu, Y.; Coish, N.; Kaltenbaek, R.; Hamel, D. R.; Resch, K. J.; Croke, S.
2010-10-15
Strategies to optimally discriminate between quantum states are critical in quantum technologies. We present an experimental demonstration of minimum-error discrimination between entangled states, encoded in the polarization of pairs of photons. Although the optimal measurement involves projection onto entangled states, we use a result of J. Walgate et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4972 (2000)] to design an optical implementation employing only local polarization measurements and feed-forward, which performs at the Helstrom bound. Our scheme can achieve perfect discrimination of orthogonal states and minimum-error discrimination of nonorthogonal states. Our experimental results show a definite advantage over schemes not using feed-forward.
Gauge transformation of quantum states in probability representation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korennoy, Ya A.; Man’ko, V. I.
2017-04-01
The gauge invariance of the evolution equations of tomographic probability distribution functions of quantum particles in an electromagnetic field is illustrated. Explicit expressions for the transformations of ordinary tomograms of states under a gauge transformation of electromagnetic field potentials are obtained. Gauge-independent optical and symplectic tomographic quasi-distributions and tomographic probability distributions of states of quantum system are introduced, and their evolution equations have the Liouville equation in corresponding representations as the classical limits are found.
Bound Electron States in Skew-symmetric Quantum Wire Intersections
2014-01-01
in transistors, solar cells , LEDs, and diode lasers. They have also investigated quantum dots as agents for medical imaging and as possible qubits in... solar cells .” Chemical reviews 110.11 (2010): 6873-6890. [9] Bonadeo, Nicolas H., et al. ”Coherent optical control of the quantum state of a single...dots on GaAs /InP , (inset) a single InAs quantum dot. two reasons. First, the superposition of the ground and excited states de- phases more slowly in
Bell operator and Gaussian squeezed states in noncommutative quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bastos, Catarina; Bernardini, Alex E.; Bertolami, Orfeu; Dias, Nuno Costa; Prata, João Nuno
2016-05-01
We examine putative corrections to the Bell operator due to the noncommutativity in the phase space. Starting from a Gaussian squeezed envelope whose time evolution is driven by commutative (standard quantum mechanics) and noncommutative dynamics, respectively, we conclude that although the time-evolving covariance matrix in the noncommutative case is different from the standard case, the squeezing parameter dominates and there are no noticeable noncommutative corrections to the Bell operator. This indicates that, at least for squeezed states, the privileged states to test Bell correlations, noncommutativity versions of quantum mechanics remain as nonlocal as quantum mechanics itself.
Quantum AdaBoost algorithm via cluster state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yuan
2017-03-01
The principle and theory of quantum computation are investigated by researchers for many years, and further applied to improve the efficiency of classical machine learning algorithms. Based on physical mechanism, a quantum version of AdaBoost (Adaptive Boosting) training algorithm is proposed in this paper, of which purpose is to construct a strong classifier. In the proposed scheme with cluster state in quantum mechanism is to realize the weak learning algorithm, and then update the corresponding weight of examples. As a result, a final classifier can be obtained by combining efficiently weak hypothesis based on measuring cluster state to reweight the distribution of examples.
Continuous-variable quantum network coding for coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shang, Tao; Li, Ke; Liu, Jian-wei
2017-04-01
As far as the spectral characteristic of quantum information is concerned, the existing quantum network coding schemes can be looked on as the discrete-variable quantum network coding schemes. Considering the practical advantage of continuous variables, in this paper, we explore two feasible continuous-variable quantum network coding (CVQNC) schemes. Basic operations and CVQNC schemes are both provided. The first scheme is based on Gaussian cloning and ADD/SUB operators and can transmit two coherent states across with a fidelity of 1/2, while the second scheme utilizes continuous-variable quantum teleportation and can transmit two coherent states perfectly. By encoding classical information on quantum states, quantum network coding schemes can be utilized to transmit classical information. Scheme analysis shows that compared with the discrete-variable paradigms, the proposed CVQNC schemes provide better network throughput from the viewpoint of classical information transmission. By modulating the amplitude and phase quadratures of coherent states with classical characters, the first scheme and the second scheme can transmit 4{log _2}N and 2{log _2}N bits of information by a single network use, respectively.
Quantum memory for entangled continuous-variable states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jensen, K.; Wasilewski, W.; Krauter, H.; Fernholz, T.; Nielsen, B. M.; Owari, M.; Plenio, M. B.; Serafini, A.; Wolf, M. M.; Polzik, E. S.
2011-01-01
A quantum memory for light is a key element for the realization of future quantum information networks. Requirements for a good quantum memory are versatility (allowing a wide range of inputs) and preservation of quantum information in a way unattainable with any classical memory device. Here we demonstrate such a quantum memory for continuous-variable entangled states, which play a fundamental role in quantum information processing. We store an extensive alphabet of two-mode 6.0dB squeezed states obtained by varying the orientation of squeezing and the displacement of the states. The two components of the entangled state are stored in two room-temperature cells separated by 0.5m, one for each mode, with a memory time of 1ms. The true quantum character of the memory is rigorously proved by showing that the experimental memory fidelity 0.52+/-0.02 significantly exceeds the benchmark of 0.45 for the best possible classical memory for a range of displacements.
Salini, K.; Prabhu, R.; Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal
2014-09-15
Monogamy of quantum correlation measures puts restrictions on the sharability of quantum correlations in multiparty quantum states. Multiparty quantum states can satisfy or violate monogamy relations with respect to given quantum correlations. We show that all multiparty quantum states can be made monogamous with respect to all measures. More precisely, given any quantum correlation measure that is non-monogamic for a multiparty quantum state, it is always possible to find a monotonically increasing function of the measure that is monogamous for the same state. The statement holds for all quantum states, whether pure or mixed, in all finite dimensions and for an arbitrary number of parties. The monotonically increasing function of the quantum correlation measure satisfies all the properties that are expected for quantum correlations to follow. We illustrate the concepts by considering a thermodynamic measure of quantum correlation, called the quantum work deficit.
Generation and protection of steady-state quantum correlations due to quantum channels with memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, You-neng; Fang, Mao-fa; Wang, Guo-you; Zeng, Ke
2016-12-01
We have proposed a scheme of the generation and preservation of two-qubit steady-state quantum correlations through quantum channels where successive uses of the channels are correlated. Different types of noisy channels with memory, such as amplitude damping, phase damping, and depolarizing channels, have been taken into account. Some analytical or numerical results are presented. The effect of channels with memory on dynamics of quantum correlations has been discussed in detail. The results show that steady-state entanglement between two initial qubits whose initial states are prepared in a specific family states without entanglement subject to amplitude damping channel with memory can be generated. The entanglement creation is related to the memory coefficient of channel μ . The stronger the memory coefficient of channel μ is, the more the entanglement creation is, and the earlier the separable state becomes the entangled state. Besides, we compare the dynamics of entanglement with that of quantum discord when a two-qubit system is initially prepared in an entangled state. We show that entanglement dynamics suddenly disappears, while quantum discord dynamics displays only in the asymptotic limit. Furthermore, two-qubit quantum correlations can be preserved at a long time in the limit of μ → 1.
Towards Quantum Teleportation Between a Photonic Qubit and a Quantum Dot Spin State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, Jia Jun; Yang, Jian; Kwiat, Paul
2015-05-01
Quantum teleportation plays a vital role in quantum computation and communication, as it provides an interface between dissimilar qubits, allowing the possibility to exploit experimental advantages presented in different quantum systems. For example, a quantum dot spin qubit can be used for long storage time while a telecom wavelength photonic qubit can be used for robust information transfer between distant parties. Here we are developing a narrowband single-photon source with the aim of demonstrating quantum teleportation of a photonic state to a quantum dot spin state. To ensure high indistinguishability between the photon sources, cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric down-conversion is used to generate narrowband photons of 200 MHz, matching the entangled spin-photon state emitted from the quantum dot. The source cavity mainly consists of three optical components in sequence, type-II nonlinear crystal (PPKTP), a KTP crystal for double-resonance tuning and a concave output coupler. By placing a polarizing beam splitter after the source, a single photon can be heralded at an expected rate of 13 kHz. To achieve high fidelity, an electro-optic modulator can be used to match the frequencies of the down-conversion and quantum dot photons.
Counting black hole microscopic states in loop quantum gravity
Ghosh, A.; Mitra, P.
2006-09-15
Counting of microscopic states of black holes is performed within the framework of loop quantum gravity. This is the first calculation of the pure horizon states using statistical methods, which reveals the possibility of additional states missed in the earlier calculations, leading to an increase of entropy. Also for the first time a microcanonical temperature is introduced within the framework.
Generation of cluster states in optomechanical quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Houhou, Oussama; Aissaoui, Habib; Ferraro, Alessandro
2015-12-01
We consider an optomechanical quantum system composed of a single cavity mode interacting with N mechanical resonators. We propose a scheme for generating continuous-variable graph states of arbitrary size and shape, including the so-called cluster states for universal quantum computation. The main feature of this scheme is that, differently from previous approaches, the graph states are hosted in the mechanical degrees of freedom rather than in the radiative ones. Specifically, via a 2 N -tone drive, we engineer a linear Hamiltonian which is instrumental to dissipatively drive the system to the desired target state. The robustness of this scheme is assessed against finite interaction times and mechanical noise, confirming it as a valuable approach towards quantum state engineering for continuous-variable computation in a solid-state platform.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Zhi; Yao, Chunmei; Zou, Jian
2013-10-01
Using the weak measurement (WM) and quantum measurement reversal (QMR) approach, robust state transfer and entanglement distribution can be realized in the spin-(1)/(2) Heisenberg chain. We find that the ultrahigh fidelity and long distance of quantum state transfer with certain success probability can be obtained using proper WM and QMR, i.e., the average fidelity of a general pure state from 80% to almost 100%, which is almost size independent. We also find that the distance and quality of entanglement distribution for the Bell state and the general Werner mixed state can be obviously improved by the WM and QMR approach.
Singly and Doubly Occupied Higher Quantum States in Nanocrystals.
Jeong, Juyeon; Yoon, Bitna; Kwon, Young-Wan; Choi, Dongsun; Jeong, Kwang Seob
2017-02-08
Filling the lowest quantum state of the conduction band of colloidal nanocrystals with a single electron, which is analogous to the filling the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital in a molecule with a single electron, has attracted much attention due to the possibility of harnessing the electron spin for potential spin-based applications. The quantized energy levels of the artificial atom, in principle, make it possible for a nanocrystal to be filled with an electron if the Fermi-energy level is optimally tuned during the nanocrystal growth. Here, we report the singly occupied quantum state (SOQS) and doubly occupied quantum state (DOQS) of a colloidal nanocrystal in steady state under ambient conditions. The number of electrons occupying the lowest quantum state can be controlled to be zero, one (unpaired), and two (paired) depending on the nanocrystal growth time via changing the stoichiometry of the nanocrystal. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy proved the nanocrystals with single electron to show superparamagnetic behavior, which is a direct evidence of the SOQS, whereas the DOQS of the two- or zero-electron occupied nanocrystals in the 1Se exhibit diamagnetic behavior. In combination with the superconducting quantum interference device measurement, it turns out that the SOQS of the HgSe colloidal quantum dots has superparamagnetic property. The appearance and change of the steady-state mid-IR intraband absorption spectrum reflect the sequential occupation of the 1Se state with electrons. The magnetic property of the colloidal quantum dot, initially determined by the chemical synthesis, can be tuned from diamagnetic to superparamagnetic and vice versa by varying the number of electrons through postchemical treatment. The switchable magnetic property will be very useful for further applications such as colloidal nanocrystal based spintronics, nonvolatile memory, infrared optoelectronics, catalyst, imaging, and quantum computing.
Quantum state regeneration in entanglement based quantum key distribution protocols
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erdmann, Reinhard
2014-05-01
Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) has been shown to be provably secure when certain idealized conditions are met in a physical realization. All implementations of QKD to date require non-orthogonal basis measurements to implement it; making it commonly assumed that measurement basis variation is fundamental to making QKD protocols secure from eavesdropping. We show here that in particular physical conditions this assumption is incorrect, and that provable security can be achieved without use of multiple bases. Basis setting information can in fact be shared with all potential eavesdroppers, as they are unable to use it to acquire or influence any part of the encryption key generation. Furthermore the key generation efficiency is limited to 100 % as compared with an inherent 50 % limit for alternating bases in BB84 or Entangled Ekert protocols.
Optimal state discrimination and unstructured search in nonlinear quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Childs, Andrew M.; Young, Joshua
2016-02-01
Nonlinear variants of quantum mechanics can solve tasks that are impossible in standard quantum theory, such as perfectly distinguishing nonorthogonal states. Here we derive the optimal protocol for distinguishing two states of a qubit using the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, a model of nonlinear quantum mechanics that arises as an effective description of Bose-Einstein condensates. Using this protocol, we present an algorithm for unstructured search in the Gross-Pitaevskii model, obtaining an exponential improvement over a previous algorithm of Meyer and Wong. This result establishes a limitation on the effectiveness of the Gross-Pitaevskii approximation. More generally, we demonstrate similar behavior under a family of related nonlinearities, giving evidence that the ability to quickly discriminate nonorthogonal states and thereby solve unstructured search is a generic feature of nonlinear quantum mechanics.
Deterministic photonic cluster state generation from quantum dot molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Economou, Sophia; Gimeno-Segovia, Mercedes; Rudolph, Terry
2014-03-01
Currently, the most promising approach for photon-based quantum information processing is measurement-based, or one-way, quantum computing. In this scheme, a large entangled state of photons is prepared upfront and the computation is implemented with single-qubit measurements alone. Available approaches to generating the cluster state are probabilistic, which makes scalability challenging. We propose to generate the cluster state using a quantum dot molecule with one electron spin per quantum dot. The two spins are coupled by exchange interaction and are periodically pulsed to produce photons. We show that the entanglement created by free evolution between the spins is transferred to the emitted photons, and thus a 2D photonic ladder can be created. Our scheme only utilizes single-spin gates and measurement, and is thus fully consistent with available technology.
Ultrafast Quantum Control and Quantum Processing in the Vibronic States of Molecules and Solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sussman, Benjamin; Bustard, Philip; England, Duncan; Lausten, Rune
2014-05-01
The unusual features of quantum mechanics are enabling the development of technologies not possible with classical physics, including applications in secure communications, quantum processing, and enhanced measurement. Efforts to build these devices utilize nonclassical states in numerous quantum systems, including cavity quantum electrodynamics, trap ions, nuclear spins, etc. as the basis for many prototypes. Here we investigate vibronic states in both molecules and bulk solids as distinct alternatives. We demonstrate a memory for light based on storing photons in the vibrations of hydrogen molecules and the optical phonons of diamond. Both classical and nonclassical photon states are used. These THz-bandwidth memories can be used to store femtosecond pulses for many operational time bins before the states decohere, making them viable for local photonic processing. We investigate decoherence and major sources of competing noise. While sustaining quantum coherence is critical for most quantum processing, rapid dephasing can also be used as a resource in these systems for rapid quantum random number generation, suitable for high-performance cryptography. NSERC
Student ability to distinguish between superposition states and mixed states in quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Passante, Gina; Emigh, Paul J.; Shaffer, Peter S.
2015-12-01
Superposition gives rise to the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics and is therefore one of the concepts at the heart of quantum mechanics. Although we have found that many students can successfully use the idea of superposition to calculate the probabilities of different measurement outcomes, they are often unable to identify the experimental implications of a superposition state. In particular, they fail to recognize how a superposition state and a mixed state (sometimes called a "lack of knowledge" state) can produce different experimental results. We present data that suggest that superposition in quantum mechanics is a difficult concept for students enrolled in sophomore-, junior-, and graduate-level quantum mechanics courses. We illustrate how an interactive lecture tutorial can improve student understanding of quantum mechanical superposition. A longitudinal study suggests that the impact persists after an additional quarter of quantum mechanics instruction that does not specifically address these ideas.
Thermal state truncation by using quantum-scissors device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Hong-xia; Xu, Xue-xiang; Yuan, Hong-chun
2017-01-01
A non-Gaussian state being a mixture of the vacuum and single-photon states can be generated by truncating a thermal state in a quantum-scissors device of Pegg et al. (1998) [12]. In contrast to the thermal state, the generated state shows nonclassical property including the negativity of Wigner function. Besides, signal amplification and signal-to-noise ratio enhancement can be achieved.
Quantum state space as a maximal consistent set
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tabia, Gelo Noel
2012-02-01
Measurement statistics in quantum theory are obtained from the Born rule and the uniqueness of the probability measure it assigns through quantum states is guaranteed by Gleason's theorem. Thus, a possible systematic way of exploring the geometry of quantum state space expresses quantum states in terms of outcome probabilities of a symmetric informationally complete measurement. This specific choice for representing quantum states is motivated by how the associated probability space provides a natural venue for characterizing the set of quantum states as a geometric construct called a maximal consistent set. We define the conditions for consistency and maximality of a set, provide some examples of maximal consistent sets and attempt to deduce the steps for building up a maximal consistent set of probability distributions equivalent to Hilbert space. In particular, we demonstrate how the reconstruction procedure works for qutrits and observe how it reveals an elegant underlying symmetry among five SIC-POVMs and a complete set of mutually unbiased bases, known in finite affine geometry as the Hesse configuration.
Average coherence and its typicality for random mixed quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lin
2017-04-01
The Wishart ensemble is a useful and important random matrix model used in diverse fields. By realizing induced random mixed quantum states as a Wishart ensemble with fixed unit trace, using matrix integral technique we give a fast track to the average coherence for random mixed quantum states induced via partial-tracing of the Haar-distributed bipartite pure states. As a direct consequence of this result, we get a compact formula for the average subentropy of random mixed states. These compact formulae extend our previous work.
Engineering squeezed states of microwave radiation with circuit quantum electrodynamics
Li Pengbo; Li Fuli
2011-03-15
We introduce a squeezed state source for microwave radiation with tunable parameters in circuit quantum electrodynamics. We show that when a superconducting artificial multilevel atom interacting with a transmission line resonator is suitably driven by external classical fields, two-mode squeezed states of the cavity modes can be engineered in a controllable fashion from the vacuum state via adiabatic following of the ground state of the system. This scheme appears to be robust against decoherence and is realizable with present techniques in circuit quantum electrodynamics.
High-NOON states by mixing quantum and classical light.
Afek, Itai; Ambar, Oron; Silberberg, Yaron
2010-05-14
Precision measurements can be brought to their ultimate limit by harnessing the principles of quantum mechanics. In optics, multiphoton entangled states, known as NOON states, can be used to obtain high-precision phase measurements, becoming more and more advantageous as the number of photons grows. We generated "high-NOON" states (N = 5) by multiphoton interference of quantum down-converted light with a classical coherent state in an approach that is inherently scalable. Super-resolving phase measurements with up to five entangled photons were produced with a visibility higher than that obtainable using classical light only.
Efficient computations of quantum canonical Gibbs state in phase space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bondar, Denys I.; Campos, Andre G.; Cabrera, Renan; Rabitz, Herschel A.
2016-06-01
The Gibbs canonical state, as a maximum entropy density matrix, represents a quantum system in equilibrium with a thermostat. This state plays an essential role in thermodynamics and serves as the initial condition for nonequilibrium dynamical simulations. We solve a long standing problem for computing the Gibbs state Wigner function with nearly machine accuracy by solving the Bloch equation directly in the phase space. Furthermore, the algorithms are provided yielding high quality Wigner distributions for pure stationary states as well as for Thomas-Fermi and Bose-Einstein distributions. The developed numerical methods furnish a long-sought efficient computation framework for nonequilibrium quantum simulations directly in the Wigner representation.
Minimized state complexity of quantum-encoded cryptic processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riechers, Paul M.; Mahoney, John R.; Aghamohammadi, Cina; Crutchfield, James P.
2016-05-01
The predictive information required for proper trajectory sampling of a stochastic process can be more efficiently transmitted via a quantum channel than a classical one. This recent discovery allows quantum information processing to drastically reduce the memory necessary to simulate complex classical stochastic processes. It also points to a new perspective on the intrinsic complexity that nature must employ in generating the processes we observe. The quantum advantage increases with codeword length: the length of process sequences used in constructing the quantum communication scheme. In analogy with the classical complexity measure, statistical complexity, we use this reduced communication cost as an entropic measure of state complexity in the quantum representation. Previously difficult to compute, the quantum advantage is expressed here in closed form using spectral decomposition. This allows for efficient numerical computation of the quantum-reduced state complexity at all encoding lengths, including infinite. Additionally, it makes clear how finite-codeword reduction in state complexity is controlled by the classical process's cryptic order, and it allows asymptotic analysis of infinite-cryptic-order processes.
Gaussian private quantum channel with squeezed coherent states
Jeong, Kabgyun; Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Su-Yong
2015-01-01
While the objective of conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) is to secretly generate and share the classical bits concealed in the form of maximally mixed quantum states, that of private quantum channel (PQC) is to secretly transmit individual quantum states concealed in the form of maximally mixed states using shared one-time pad and it is called Gaussian private quantum channel (GPQC) when the scheme is in the regime of continuous variables. We propose a GPQC enhanced with squeezed coherent states (GPQCwSC), which is a generalization of GPQC with coherent states only (GPQCo) [Phys. Rev. A 72, 042313 (2005)]. We show that GPQCwSC beats the GPQCo for the upper bound on accessible information. As a subsidiary example, it is shown that the squeezed states take an advantage over the coherent states against a beam splitting attack in a continuous variable QKD. It is also shown that a squeezing operation can be approximated as a superposition of two different displacement operations in the small squeezing regime. PMID:26364893
Single-Atom Gating of Quantum State Superpositions
Moon, Christopher
2010-04-28
The ultimate miniaturization of electronic devices will likely require local and coherent control of single electronic wavefunctions. Wavefunctions exist within both physical real space and an abstract state space with a simple geometric interpretation: this state space - or Hilbert space - is spanned by mutually orthogonal state vectors corresponding to the quantized degrees of freedom of the real-space system. Measurement of superpositions is akin to accessing the direction of a vector in Hilbert space, determining an angle of rotation equivalent to quantum phase. Here we show that an individual atom inside a designed quantum corral1 can control this angle, producing arbitrary coherent superpositions of spatial quantum states. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy and nanostructures assembled atom-by-atom we demonstrate how single spins and quantum mirages can be harnessed to image the superposition of two electronic states. We also present a straightforward method to determine the atom path enacting phase rotations between any desired state vectors. A single atom thus becomes a real-space handle for an abstract Hilbert space, providing a simple technique for coherent quantum state manipulation at the spatial limit of condensed matter.
Experimental demonstration of quantum teleportation of a squeezed state
Takei, Nobuyuki; Aoki, Takao; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Furusawa, Akira; Koike, Satoshi; Yoshino, Ken-ichiro; Hiraoka, Takuji; Wakui, Kentaro; Mizuno, Jun; Takeoka, Masahiro; Ban, Masashi
2005-10-15
Quantum teleportation of a squeezed state is demonstrated experimentally. Due to some inevitable losses in experiments, a squeezed vacuum necessarily becomes a mixed state which is no longer a minimum uncertainty state. We establish an operational method of evaluation for quantum teleportation of such a state using fidelity and discuss the classical limit for the state. The measured fidelity for the input state is 0.85{+-}0.05, which is higher than the classical case of 0.73{+-}0.04. We also verify that the teleportation process operates properly for the nonclassical state input and its squeezed variance is certainly transferred through the process. We observe the smaller variance of the teleported squeezed state than that for the vacuum state input.
Reducing collective quantum state rotation errors with reversible dephasing
Cox, Kevin C.; Norcia, Matthew A.; Weiner, Joshua M.; Bohnet, Justin G.; Thompson, James K.
2014-12-29
We demonstrate that reversible dephasing via inhomogeneous broadening can greatly reduce collective quantum state rotation errors, and observe the suppression of rotation errors by more than 21 dB in the context of collective population measurements of the spin states of an ensemble of 2.1×10{sup 5} laser cooled and trapped {sup 87}Rb atoms. The large reduction in rotation noise enables direct resolution of spin state populations 13(1) dB below the fundamental quantum projection noise limit. Further, the spin state measurement projects the system into an entangled state with 9.5(5) dB of directly observed spectroscopic enhancement (squeezing) relative to the standard quantum limit, whereas no enhancement would have been obtained without the suppression of rotation errors.
Quantum state transfer through time reversal of an optical channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hush, M. R.; Bentley, C. D. B.; Ahlefeldt, R. L.; James, M. R.; Sellars, M. J.; Ugrinovskii, V.
2016-12-01
Rare-earth ions have exceptionally long coherence times, making them an excellent candidate for quantum information processing. A key part of this processing is quantum state transfer. We show that perfect state transfer can be achieved by time reversing the intermediate quantum channel, and suggest using a gradient echo memory (GEM) to perform this time reversal. We propose an experiment with rare-earth ions to verify these predictions, where an emitter and receiver crystal are connected with an optical channel passed through a GEM. We investigate the effect experimental imperfections and collective dynamics have on the state transfer process. We demonstrate that super-radiant effects can enhance coupling into the optical channel and improve the transfer fidelity. We lastly discuss how our results apply to state transfer of entangled states.
Monogamy of quantum correlations in three-qubit pure states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sudha; Devi, A. R. Usha; Rajagopal, A. K.
2012-01-01
The limitation on the shareability of quantum entanglement over several parties, the so-called monogamy of entanglement, is an issue that has received considerable attention from the quantum information community over the last decade. A natural question of interest in this connection is whether monogamy of correlations is true for correlations other than entanglement. This issue is examined here by choosing quantum deficit, proposed by A. K. Rajagopal and R. W. Rendell [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.66.022104 66, 022104 (2002)], an operational measure of correlations. In addition to establishing the polygamous nature of the class of three-qubit symmetric pure states characterized by two distinct Majorana spinors (to which the W states belong), those with three distinct Majorana spinors [to which Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states belong] are shown to either obey or violate monogamy relations. While the generalized W states can be monogamous or polygamous, the generalized GHZ states exhibit monogamy with respect to quantum deficit. The issue of using monogamy conditions based on quantum deficit to witness the states belonging to stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC) inequivalent classes is discussed in light of these results.
Complete hyperentangled-Bell-state analysis for quantum communication
Sheng Yubo; Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu
2010-09-15
It is impossible to unambiguously distinguish the four Bell states in polarization, resorting to linear optical elements only. Recently, the hyperentangled Bell state, the simultaneous entanglement in more than one degree of freedom, has been used to assist in the complete Bell-state analysis of the four Bell states. However, if the additional degree of freedom is qubitlike, one can only distinguish 7 from the group of 16 states. Here we present a way to distinguish the hyperentangled Bell states completely with the help of cross-Kerr nonlinearity. Also, we discuss its application in the quantum teleportation of a particle in an unknown state in two different degrees of freedom and in the entanglement swapping of hyperentangled states. These applications will increase the channel capacity of long-distance quantum communication.
Quantum homomorphic signature based on Bell-state measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Qing-bin; Yang, Guo-wu; She, Kun; Li, Xiao-yu; Fang, Jun-bin
2016-12-01
In this paper, a novel quantum homomorphic signature scheme based solely on Bell-state measurement is proposed. It allows an aggregator to merge two signature nodes' signatures of their classical messages into one signature, which is an effective approach to identity authentication for multiple streams to enhance the security of quantum networks. And it is easy to generalize this scheme to multiple nodes. Bell-state measurement has been realized by using only linear optical elements in many experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution schemes, which makes us believe that our scheme can be realized in the near future. It is shown that our scheme is a quantum group homomorphic signature scheme and is secure by the scheme analysis.
Many-body localization protected quantum state transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laumann, Chris R.; Yao, Norman Y.; Vishwanath, Ashvin
In thermal phases, the quantum coherence of individual degrees of freedom is rapidly lost to the environment. Many-body localized (MBL) phases limit the spread of this coherence and appear promising for quantum information applications. However, such applications require not just long coherence times but also a means to transport and manipulate information. We demonstrate that this can be done in a one dimensional model of interacting spins at infinite temperature. Our protocol utilizes protected qubits which emerge at the boundary between topological and trivial phases. State transfer occurs via dynamic shifts of this boundary and is shown to preserve quantum information. As an example, we discuss the implementation of a universal, two-qubit gate based upon MBL-protected quantum state transfer.
Absorbing State Phase Transition with Competing Quantum and Classical Fluctuations.
Marcuzzi, Matteo; Buchhold, Michael; Diehl, Sebastian; Lesanovsky, Igor
2016-06-17
Stochastic processes with absorbing states feature examples of nonequilibrium universal phenomena. While the classical regime has been thoroughly investigated in the past, relatively little is known about the behavior of these nonequilibrium systems in the presence of quantum fluctuations. Here, we theoretically address such a scenario in an open quantum spin model which, in its classical limit, undergoes a directed percolation phase transition. By mapping the problem to a nonequilibrium field theory, we show that the introduction of quantum fluctuations stemming from coherent, rather than statistical, spin flips alters the nature of the transition such that it becomes first order. In the intermediate regime, where classical and quantum dynamics compete on equal terms, we highlight the presence of a bicritical point with universal features different from the directed percolation class in a low dimension. We finally propose how this physics could be explored within gases of interacting atoms excited to Rydberg states.
Absorbing State Phase Transition with Competing Quantum and Classical Fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcuzzi, Matteo; Buchhold, Michael; Diehl, Sebastian; Lesanovsky, Igor
2016-06-01
Stochastic processes with absorbing states feature examples of nonequilibrium universal phenomena. While the classical regime has been thoroughly investigated in the past, relatively little is known about the behavior of these nonequilibrium systems in the presence of quantum fluctuations. Here, we theoretically address such a scenario in an open quantum spin model which, in its classical limit, undergoes a directed percolation phase transition. By mapping the problem to a nonequilibrium field theory, we show that the introduction of quantum fluctuations stemming from coherent, rather than statistical, spin flips alters the nature of the transition such that it becomes first order. In the intermediate regime, where classical and quantum dynamics compete on equal terms, we highlight the presence of a bicritical point with universal features different from the directed percolation class in a low dimension. We finally propose how this physics could be explored within gases of interacting atoms excited to Rydberg states.
Average subentropy, coherence and entanglement of random mixed quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lin; Singh, Uttam; Pati, Arun K.
2017-02-01
Compact expressions for the average subentropy and coherence are obtained for random mixed states that are generated via various probability measures. Surprisingly, our results show that the average subentropy of random mixed states approaches the maximum value of the subentropy which is attained for the maximally mixed state as we increase the dimension. In the special case of the random mixed states sampled from the induced measure via partial tracing of random bipartite pure states, we establish the typicality of the relative entropy of coherence for random mixed states invoking the concentration of measure phenomenon. Our results also indicate that mixed quantum states are less useful compared to pure quantum states in higher dimension when we extract quantum coherence as a resource. This is because of the fact that average coherence of random mixed states is bounded uniformly, however, the average coherence of random pure states increases with the increasing dimension. As an important application, we establish the typicality of relative entropy of entanglement and distillable entanglement for a specific class of random bipartite mixed states. In particular, most of the random states in this specific class have relative entropy of entanglement and distillable entanglement equal to some fixed number (to within an arbitrary small error), thereby hugely reducing the complexity of computation of these entanglement measures for this specific class of mixed states.
Generalized coherent and intelligent states for exact solvable quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El Kinani, A. H.; Daoud, M.
2002-02-01
The so-called Gazeau-Klauder and Perelomov coherent states are introduced for an arbitrary quantum system. We give also the general framework to construct the generalized intelligent states which minimize the Robertson-Schrödinger uncertainty relation. As illustration, the Pöschl-Teller potentials of trigonometric type will be chosen. We show the advantage of the analytical representations of Gazeau-Klauder and Perelomov coherent states in obtaining the generalized intelligent states in analytical way.
Non-Abelian statistics in the fractional quantum Hall states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, X. G.
1991-02-01
The fractional quantum Hall states with non-Abelian statistics are studied. Those states are shown to be characterized by non-Abelian topological orders and are identified with some of the Jain states. The gapless edge states are found to be described by non-Abelian Kac-Moody algebras. It is argued that the topological orders and the associated properties are robust against any kinds of small perturbations.
Controlled interaction of surface quantum-well electronic states.
Seufert, Knud; Auwärter, Willi; García de Abajo, F J; Ecija, David; Vijayaraghavan, Saranyan; Joshi, Sushobhan; Barth, Johannes V
2013-01-01
We report on the construction of well-defined surface quantum well arrangements by combining self-assembly protocols and molecular manipulation procedures. After the controlled removal of individual porphyrin molecules from dense-packed arrays on Ag(111), the surface state electrons are confined at the bare silver patches. These act as quantum wells that show well-defined unoccupied bound surface states. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy and complementary boundary element method calculations are performed to characterize the interaction between the bound states of adjacent quantum wells and reveal a hybridization of wave functions resulting in bonding and antibonding states. The interwell coupling can be tuned by the deliberate choice of the molecules acting as potential barriers. The fabrication method is shown to be ideally suited to engineer specific configurations as one-dimensional chains or two-dimensional artificial molecules.
Phonon squeezed states: quantum noise reduction in solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Xuedong; Nori, Franco
1999-03-01
This article discusses quantum fluctuation properties of a crystal lattice, and in particular, phonon squeezed states. Squeezed states of phonons allow a reduction in the quantum fluctuations of the atomic displacements to below the zero-point quantum noise level of coherent phonon states. Here we discuss our studies of both continuous-wave and impulsive second-order Raman scattering mechanisms. The later approach was used to experimentally suppress (by one part in a million) fluctuations in phonons. We calculate the expectation values and fluctuations of both the atomic displacement and the lattice amplitude operators, as well as the effects of the phonon squeezed states on macroscopically measurable quantities, such as changes in the dielectric constant. These results are compared with recent experiments. Further information, including preprints and animations, are available in http://www-personal.engin.umich.edu/∼nori/squeezed.html.
Hierarchy of Stochastic Pure States for Open Quantum System Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suess, D.; Eisfeld, A.; Strunz, W. T.
2014-10-01
We derive a hierarchy of stochastic evolution equations for pure states (quantum trajectories) for open quantum system dynamics with non-Markovian structured environments. This hierarchy of pure states (HOPS) is generally applicable and provides the exact reduced density operator as an ensemble average over normalized states. The corresponding nonlinear equations are presented. We demonstrate that HOPS provides an efficient theoretical tool and apply it to the spin-boson model, the calculation of absorption spectra of molecular aggregates, and energy transfer in a photosynthetic pigment-protein complex.
Irreducible Decompositions and Stationary States of Quantum Channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carbone, Raffaella; Pautrat, Yan
2016-06-01
For a quantum channel (completely positive, trace-preserving map), we prove a generalization to the infinite-dimensional case of a result by Baumgartner and Narnhofer [3]: this result is, in a probabilistic language, a decomposition of a general quantum channel into its irreducible recurrent components. More precisely, we prove that the positive recurrent subspace (i.e. the space supporting the invariant states) can be decomposed as the direct sum of supports of extremal invariant states; this decomposition is not unique, in general, but we can determine all the possible decompositions. This allows us to describe the full structure of invariant states.
Preparing a mechanical oscillator in non-gaussian quantum states.
Khalili, Farid; Danilishin, Stefan; Miao, Haixing; Müller-Ebhardt, Helge; Yang, Huan; Chen, Yanbei
2010-08-13
We propose a protocol for coherently transferring non-Gaussian quantum states from an optical field to a mechanical oscillator. We demonstrate its experimental feasibility in future gravitational-wave detectors and tabletop optomechanical devices. This work not only outlines a feasible way to investigate nonclassicality in macroscopic optomechanical systems, but also presents a new and elegant approach for solving non-Markovian open quantum dynamics in general linear systems.
Quantum state tomography with noninstantaneous measurements, imperfections, and decoherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Six, P.; Campagne-Ibarcq, Ph.; Dotsenko, I.; Sarlette, A.; Huard, B.; Rouchon, P.
2016-01-01
Tomography of a quantum state is usually based on a positive-operator-valued measure (POVM) and on their experimental statistics. Among the available reconstructions, the maximum-likelihood (MaxLike) technique is an efficient one. We propose an extension of this technique when the measurement process cannot be simply described by an instantaneous POVM. Instead, the tomography relies on a set of quantum trajectories and their measurement records. This model includes the fact that, in practice, each measurement could be corrupted by imperfections and decoherence, and could also be associated with the record of continuous-time signals over a finite amount of time. The goal is then to retrieve the quantum state that was present at the start of this measurement process. The proposed extension relies on an explicit expression of the likelihood function via the effective matrices appearing in quantum smoothing and solutions of the adjoint quantum filter. It allows us to retrieve the initial quantum state as in standard MaxLike tomography, but where the traditional POVM operators are replaced by more general ones that depend on the measurement record of each trajectory. It also provides, aside from the MaxLike estimate of the quantum state, confidence intervals for any observable. Such confidence intervals are derived, as the MaxLike estimate, from an asymptotic expansion of multidimensional Laplace integrals appearing in Bayesian mean estimation. A validation is performed on two sets of experimental data: photon(s) trapped in a microwave cavity subject to quantum nondemolition measurements relying on Rydberg atoms, and heterodyne fluorescence measurements of a superconducting qubit.
Black hole state degeneracy in loop quantum gravity
Agullo, Ivan; Diaz-Polo, Jacobo; Fernandez-Borja, Enrique
2008-05-15
The combinatorial problem of counting the black hole quantum states within the isolated horizon framework in loop quantum gravity is analyzed. A qualitative understanding of the origin of the band structure shown by the degeneracy spectrum, which is responsible for the black hole entropy quantization, is reached. Even when motivated by simple considerations, this picture allows to obtain analytical expressions for the most relevant quantities associated to this effect.
Electron states in semiconductor quantum dots
Dhayal, Suman S.; Ramaniah, Lavanya M.; Ruda, Harry E.; Nair, Selvakumar V.
2014-11-28
In this work, the electronic structures of quantum dots (QDs) of nine direct band gap semiconductor materials belonging to the group II-VI and III-V families are investigated, within the empirical tight-binding framework, in the effective bond orbital model. This methodology is shown to accurately describe these systems, yielding, at the same time, qualitative insights into their electronic properties. Various features of the bulk band structure such as band-gaps, band curvature, and band widths around symmetry points affect the quantum confinement of electrons and holes. These effects are identified and quantified. A comparison with experimental data yields good agreement with the calculations. These theoretical results would help quantify the optical response of QDs of these materials and provide useful input for applications.
On quantum coding for ensembles of mixed states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnum, Howard; Caves, Carlton M.; Fuchs, Christopher A.; Jozsa, Richard; Schumacher, Benjamin
2001-09-01
We consider the problem of optimal asymptotically faithful compression for ensembles of mixed quantum states. Although the optimal rate is unknown, we prove upper and lower bounds and describe a series of illustrative examples of compression of mixed states. We also discuss a classical analogue of the problem.
Quantum State Sharing in the Driven CQED Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Li; Shao, Qing
2016-04-01
An experimentally feasible scheme to securely distribute and reconstruct a single-atom quantum state between two parties via a tripartite entangled state in cavity QED has been proposed. If they collaborate, both users can reconstruct and read the distributed secret information.
1D quantum simulation using a solid state platform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirkendall, Megan; Irvin, Patrick; Huang, Mengchen; Levy, Jeremy; Lee, Hyungwoo; Eom, Chang-Beom
Understanding the properties of large quantum systems can be challenging both theoretically and numerically. One experimental approach-quantum simulation-involves mapping a quantum system of interest onto a physical system that is programmable and experimentally accessible. A tremendous amount of work has been performed with quantum simulators formed from optical lattices; by contrast, solid-state platforms have had only limited success. Our experimental approach to quantum simulation takes advantage of nanoscale control of a metal-insulator transition at the interface between two insulating complex oxide materials. This system naturally exhibits a wide variety of ground states (e.g., ferromagnetic, superconducting) and can be configured into a variety of complex geometries. We will describe initial experiments that explore the magnetotransport properties of one-dimensional superlattices with spatial periods as small as 4 nm, comparable to the Fermi wavelength. The results demonstrate the potential of this solid-state quantum simulation approach, and also provide empirical constraints for physical models that describe the underlying oxide material properties. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from AFOSR (FA9550-12-1- 0057 (JL), FA9550-10-1-0524 (JL) and FA9550-12-1-0342 (CBE)), ONR N00014-15-1-2847 (JL), and NSF DMR-1234096 (CBE).
On optimal methods for adiabatic quantum state transformations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Somma, Rolando
2013-03-01
Many problems in science could be solved by preparing the low-energy quantum state (or any eigenstate) of a Hamiltonian. A common example is the Boolean satisfiability problem, where each clause can be mapped to the energy of an interacting many-body system, and the problem reduces to minimizing the energy. In quantum computing, adiabatic quantum state transformations (ASTs) provide a tool for preparing the quantum state. ASTs are conventionally implemented via slow or adiabatic perturbations to the Hamiltonian, relying on the quantum adiabatic theorem. Nevertheless, more efficient implementations of ASTs exist. In this talk I will review recently developed methods for ASTs that are more efficient and require less assumptions on the Hamiltonians than the conventional implementation. Such methods involve measurements of the states along the evolution path and have a best-case implementation cost of L/G, where L is the length of the (evolved) state path and G is a lower bound to the spectral gap of the Hamiltonians. I will show that this cost is optimal and comment on results of the gap amplification problem, where the goal is to reduce the cost by increasing G. We acknowledge support from NSF through the CCF program and the LDRD programs at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories.
Solving Quantum Ground-State Problems with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Li, Zhaokai; Yung, Man-Hong; Chen, Hongwei; Lu, Dawei; Whitfield, James D.; Peng, Xinhua; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Du, Jiangfeng
2011-01-01
Quantum ground-state problems are computationally hard problems for general many-body Hamiltonians; there is no classical or quantum algorithm known to be able to solve them efficiently. Nevertheless, if a trial wavefunction approximating the ground state is available, as often happens for many problems in physics and chemistry, a quantum computer could employ this trial wavefunction to project the ground state by means of the phase estimation algorithm (PEA). We performed an experimental realization of this idea by implementing a variational-wavefunction approach to solve the ground-state problem of the Heisenberg spin model with an NMR quantum simulator. Our iterative phase estimation procedure yields a high accuracy for the eigenenergies (to the 10−5 decimal digit). The ground-state fidelity was distilled to be more than 80%, and the singlet-to-triplet switching near the critical field is reliably captured. This result shows that quantum simulators can better leverage classical trial wave functions than classical computers PMID:22355607
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levy, James E.; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Ganti, Anand; Phillips, Cynthia A.; Landahl, Andrew J.; Gurrieri, Thomas M.; Carr, Robert D.; Stalford, Harold L.; Nielsen, Erik
2011-08-01
In this paper we present the impact of classical electronics constraints on a solid-state quantum dot logical qubit architecture. Constraints due to routing density, bandwidth allocation, signal timing and thermally aware placement of classical supporting electronics significantly affect the quantum error correction circuit's error rate (by a factor of ~3-4 in our specific analysis). We analyze one level of a quantum error correction circuit using nine data qubits in a Bacon-Shor code configured as a quantum memory. A hypothetical silicon double quantum dot quantum bit (qubit) is used as the fundamental element. A pessimistic estimate of the error probability of the quantum circuit is calculated using the total number of gates and idle time using a provably optimal schedule for the circuit operations obtained with an integer program methodology. The micro-architecture analysis provides insight about the different ways the electronics impact the circuit performance (e.g. extra idle time in the schedule), which can significantly limit the ultimate performance of any quantum circuit and therefore is a critical foundation for any future larger scale architecture analysis.
Laser driven impurity states in two-dimensional quantum dots and quantum rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laroze, D.; Barseghyan, M.; Radu, A.; Kirakosyan, A. A.
2016-11-01
The hydrogenic donor impurity states in two-dimensional GaAs/Ga0.7Al0.3As quantum dot and quantum ring have been investigated under the action of intense laser field. A laser dressed effect on both electron confining and electron-impurity Coulomb interaction potentials has been considered. The single electron energy spectrum and wave functions have been found using the effective mass approximation and exact diagonalization technique. The accidental degeneracy of the impurity states have been observed for different positions of the impurity and versus values of the laser field parameter. The obtained theoretical results indicate a novel opportunity to tune the performance of quantum dots and quantum rings and to control their specific properties by means of laser field.
High-efficiency tomographic reconstruction of quantum states by quantum nondemolition measurements
Huang, J. S.; Wei, L. F.; Oh, C. H.
2011-03-15
We propose a high-efficiency scheme to tomographically reconstruct an unknown quantum state by using a series of quantum nondemolition (QND) measurements. The proposed QND measurements of the qubits are implemented by probing the stationary transmissions through a driven dispersively coupled resonator. It is shown that only one kind of QND measurement is sufficient to determine all the diagonal elements of the density matrix of the detected quantum state. The remaining nondiagonal elements can be similarly determined by transferring them to the diagonal locations after a series of unitary operations. Compared with the tomographic reconstructions based on the usual destructive projective measurements (wherein one such measurement can determine only one diagonal element of the density matrix), the present reconstructive approach exhibits significantly high efficiency. Specifically, our generic proposal is demonstrated by the experimental circuit quantum electrodynamics systems with a few Josephson charge qubits.
Improving quantum state estimation with mutually unbiased bases.
Adamson, R B A; Steinberg, A M
2010-07-16
When used in quantum state estimation, projections onto mutually unbiased bases have the ability to maximize information extraction per measurement and to minimize redundancy. We present the first experimental demonstration of quantum state tomography of two-qubit polarization states to take advantage of mutually unbiased bases. We demonstrate improved state estimation as compared to standard measurement strategies and discuss how this can be understood from the structure of the measurements we use. We experimentally compared our method to the standard state estimation method for three different states and observe that the infidelity was up to 1.84 ± 0.06 times lower by using our technique than it was by using standard state estimation methods.
Investigating bias in maximum-likelihood quantum-state tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, G. B.; Glancy, S.; Vasconcelos, H. M.
2017-02-01
Maximum-likelihood quantum-state tomography yields estimators that are consistent, provided that the likelihood model is correct, but the maximum-likelihood estimators may have bias for any finite data set. The bias of an estimator is the difference between the expected value of the estimate and the true value of the parameter being estimated. This paper investigates bias in the widely used maximum-likelihood quantum-state tomography. Our goal is to understand how the amount of bias depends on factors such as the purity of the true state, the number of measurements performed, and the number of different bases in which the system is measured. For this, we perform numerical experiments that simulate optical homodyne tomography of squeezed thermal states under various conditions, perform tomography, and estimate bias in the purity of the estimated state. We find that estimates of higher purity states exhibit considerable bias, such that the estimates have lower purities than the true states.
High-efficiency quantum state transfer and quantum memory using a mechanical oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sete, Eyob A.; Eleuch, H.
2015-03-01
We analyze an optomechanical system that can be used to efficiently transfer a quantum state between an optical cavity and a distant mechanical oscillator coupled to a second optical cavity. We show that for a moderate mechanical Q factor it is possible to achieve a transfer efficiency of 99.4 % by using adjustable cavity damping rates and destructive interference. We also show that the quantum mechanical oscillator can be used as a quantum memory device with an efficiency of 96 % employing a pulsed optomechanical coupling. Although the mechanical dissipation slightly decreases the efficiency, its effect can be significantly reduced by designing a high-Q mechanical oscillator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kato, Kentaro; Hirota, Osamu
2005-08-01
The quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal of coherent state of light is applied to the quantum stream cipher by Y-00 protocol. We first discuss on the performance of the square-root measurement (SRM) for the QAM signals in comparison with the optimum receiver. It is shown that the quantum stream cipher with the QAM signals is designed by using the SRM, taking account of the ciphertext-only attack and the known/chosen plain attack. Furthermore, the modification of the quantum stream cipher with the QAM signals is considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komnik, A.; Saleur, H.
2011-09-01
We verify the validity of the Cohen-Gallavotti fluctuation theorem for the strongly correlated problem of charge transfer through an impurity in a chiral Luttinger liquid, which is realizable experimentally as a quantum point contact in a fractional quantum Hall edge state device. This is accomplished via the development of an analytical method to calculate the full counting statistics of the problem in all the parameter regimes involving the temperature, the Hall voltage, and the gate voltage.
Komnik, A; Saleur, H
2011-09-02
We verify the validity of the Cohen-Gallavotti fluctuation theorem for the strongly correlated problem of charge transfer through an impurity in a chiral Luttinger liquid, which is realizable experimentally as a quantum point contact in a fractional quantum Hall edge state device. This is accomplished via the development of an analytical method to calculate the full counting statistics of the problem in all the parameter regimes involving the temperature, the Hall voltage, and the gate voltage.
Quantum gloves: Quantum states that encode as much as possible chirality and nothing else
Collins, D.; Diosi, L.; Gisin, N.; Massar, S.; Popescu, S.
2005-08-15
Communicating a physical quantity cannot be done using information only - i.e., using abstract cbits and/or qubits. Rather one needs appropriate physical realizations of cbits and/or qubits. We illustrate this by considering the problem of communicating chirality. We discuss in detail the physical resources this necessitates and introduce the natural concept of quantum gloves - i.e., rotationally invariant quantum states that encode as much as possible the concept of chirality and nothing more.
Robust Quantum State Transfer in Random Unpolarized Spin Chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, N. Y.; Jiang, L.; Gorshkov, A. V.; Gong, Z.-X.; Zhai, A.; Duan, L.-M.; Lukin, M. D.
2011-01-01
We propose and analyze a new approach for quantum state transfer between remote spin qubits. Specifically, we demonstrate that coherent quantum coupling between remote qubits can be achieved via certain classes of random, unpolarized (infinite temperature) spin chains. Our method is robust to coupling-strength disorder and does not require manipulation or control over individual spins. In principle, it can be used to attain perfect state transfer over an arbitrarily long range via purely Hamiltonian evolution and may be particularly applicable in a solid-state quantum information processor. As an example, we demonstrate that it can be used to attain strong coherent coupling between nitrogen-vacancy centers separated by micrometer distances at room temperature. Realistic imperfections and decoherence effects are analyzed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thapliyal, Kishore; Verma, Amit; Pathak, Anirban
2015-12-01
Recently, a large number of protocols for bidirectional controlled state teleportation (BCST) have been proposed using n-qubit entangled states (nin {5,6,7}) as quantum channel. Here, we propose a general method of selecting multiqubit (n>4) quantum channels suitable for BCST and show that all the channels used in the existing protocols of BCST can be obtained using the proposed method. Further, it is shown that the quantum channels used in the existing protocols of BCST form only a negligibly small subset of the set of all the quantum channels that can be constructed using the proposed method to implement BCST. It is also noted that all these quantum channels are also suitable for controlled bidirectional remote state preparation. Following the same logic, methods for selecting quantum channels for other controlled quantum communication tasks, such as controlled bidirectional joint remote state preparation and controlled quantum dialogue, are also provided.
Quantum Discord and Entanglement of Quasi-Werner States Based on Bipartite Entangled Coherent States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, Manoj K.; Maurya, Ajay K.; Prakash, Hari
2016-06-01
Present work is an attempt to compare quantum discord and quantum entanglement of quasi-Werner states formed with the four bipartite entangled coherent states (ECS) used recently for quantum teleportation of a qubit encoded in superposed coherent state. Out of these, the quasi-Werner states based on maximally ECS due to its invariant nature under local operation is independent of measurement basis and mean photon numbers, while for quasi-Werner states based on non-maximally ECS, it depends upon measurement basis as well as on mean photon number. However, for large mean photon numbers since non-maximally ECS becomes almost maximally entangled therefore dependence of quantum discord for non-maximally ECS based quasi-Werner states on the measurement basis disappears.
Physical realization of quantum teleportation for a nonmaximal entangled state
Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Asano, Masanari; Ohya, Masanori
2010-08-15
Recently, Kossakowski and Ohya (K-O) proposed a new teleportation scheme which enables perfect teleportation even for a nonmaximal entangled state [A. Kossakowski and M. Ohya, Infinite Dimensional Analysis Quantum Probability and Related Topics 10, 411 (2007)]. To discuss a physical realization of the K-O scheme, we propose a model based on quantum optics. In our model, we take a superposition of Schroedinger's cat states as an input state being sent from Alice to Bob, and their entangled state is generated by a photon number state through a beam splitter. When the average photon number for our input states is equal to half the number of photons into the beam splitter, our model has high fidelity.
Physical realization of quantum teleportation for a nonmaximal entangled state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Asano, Masanari; Ohya, Masanori
2010-08-01
Recently, Kossakowski and Ohya (K-O) proposed a new teleportation scheme which enables perfect teleportation even for a nonmaximal entangled state [A. Kossakowski and M. Ohya, Infinite Dimensional Analysis Quantum Probability and Related Topics0219-025710.1142/S021902570700283X 10, 411 (2007)]. To discuss a physical realization of the K-O scheme, we propose a model based on quantum optics. In our model, we take a superposition of Schrödinger’s cat states as an input state being sent from Alice to Bob, and their entangled state is generated by a photon number state through a beam splitter. When the average photon number for our input states is equal to half the number of photons into the beam splitter, our model has high fidelity.
Localization and coherent states in a quantum DNLS trimer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martínez-Galicia, Ricardo; Panayotaros, Panayotis
2016-11-01
We compare quantum states obtained from the integration of exact and approximate evolution equations for a quantized discrete nonlinear Schrödinger system (DNLS) with three lattice sites (trimer). The initial conditions are Glauber coherent states, and their projections to subspaces with a definite number of particles, and we are especially interested in coherent states that correspond to classical states that are in the neighborhood of breather solutions of the classical system. The breathers are well defined periodic orbits of the classical DNLS that we heuristically view as examples of spatially localized solutions. The two evolution equations give converging results in the subspaces with an increasing number of particles. This is no longer the case for normalized projections of Glauber states, where we see that the distance between the quantum states obtained by the exact and approximate equations shows recurrence phenomena that depend on the number of quanta and on the dynamical properties of the classical trajectory.
Improving ancilla states for quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weinstein, Yaakov S.; Chai, Daniel; Xie, Newton
2016-04-01
We analyze the improvement in output state fidelity upon improving the construction accuracy of ancilla states. Specifically, we simulate gates and syndrome measurements on a single qubit of information encoded into the [[7,1,3
Entanglement and quantum teleportation via decohered tripartite entangled states
Metwally, N.
2014-12-15
The entanglement behavior of two classes of multi-qubit system, GHZ and GHZ like states passing through a generalized amplitude damping channel is discussed. Despite this channel causes degradation of the entangled properties and consequently their abilities to perform quantum teleportation, one can always improve the lower values of the entanglement and the fidelity of the teleported state by controlling on Bell measurements, analyzer angle and channel’s strength. Using GHZ-like state within a generalized amplitude damping channel is much better than using the normal GHZ-state, where the decay rate of entanglement and the fidelity of the teleported states are smaller than those depicted for GHZ state.
Laplacian matrices of weighted digraphs represented as quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adhikari, Bibhas; Banerjee, Subhashish; Adhikari, Satyabrata; Kumar, Atul
2017-03-01
Representing graphs as quantum states is becoming an increasingly important approach to study entanglement of mixed states, alternate to the standard linear algebraic density matrix-based approach of study. In this paper, we propose a general weighted directed graph framework for investigating properties of a large class of quantum states which are defined by three types of Laplacian matrices associated with such graphs. We generalize the standard framework of defining density matrices from simple connected graphs to density matrices using both combinatorial and signless Laplacian matrices associated with weighted directed graphs with complex edge weights and with/without self-loops. We also introduce a new notion of Laplacian matrix, which we call signed Laplacian matrix associated with such graphs. We produce necessary and/or sufficient conditions for such graphs to correspond to pure and mixed quantum states. Using these criteria, we finally determine the graphs whose corresponding density matrices represent entangled pure states which are well known and important for quantum computation applications. We observe that all these entangled pure states share a common combinatorial structure.
Quantum secret sharing with continuous-variable cluster states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lau, Hoi-Kwan; Weedbrook, Christian
2013-10-01
We extend the formalism of cluster-state quantum secret sharing, as presented by Markham and Sanders [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.78.042309 78, 042309 (2008)] and Keet [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.82.062315 82, 062315 (2010)], to the continuous-variable regime. We show that both classical and quantum information can be shared by distributing continuous-variable cluster states through either public or private channels. We find that the adversary structure is completely denied from the secret if the cluster state is infinitely squeezed, but some secret information would be leaked if a realistic finitely squeezed state is employed. We suggest benchmarks to evaluate the security in the finitely squeezed cases. For the sharing of classical secrets, we borrow techniques from the continuous-variable quantum key distribution to compute the secret-sharing rate. For the sharing of quantum states, we estimate the amount of entanglement distilled for teleportation from each cluster state.
Fisher symmetry and the geometry of quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gross, Jonathan A.; Barnum, Howard; Caves, Carlton M.
The quantum Fisher information (QFI) is a valuable tool on account of the achievable lower bound it provides for single-parameter estimation. Due to the existence of incompatible quantum observables, however, the lower bound provided by the QFI cannot be saturated in the general multi-parameter case. A bound demonstrated by Gill and Massar (GM) captures some of the limitations that incompatibility imposes in the multi-parameter case. We further explore the structure of measurements allowed by quantum mechanics, identifying restrictions beyond those given by the QFI and GM bound. These additional restrictions give insight into the geometry of quantum state space and notions of measurement symmetry related to the QFI.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Chong; Zhang, Jiajia; Xu, Jie; Tong, Wei; Cao, Boxiao; Li, Kun; Pan, Bicai; Su, Haibin; Xie, Yi
2012-10-01
Quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTMs), stemming from their importance for understanding materials with unconventional properties, has continued to attract widespread theoretical and experimental attention. However, the observation of QTMs in the most promising candidates of molecular magnets and few iron-based compounds is limited to very low temperature. Herein, we first highlight a simple system, ultrasmall half-metallic V3O4 quantum dots, as a promising candidate for the investigation of QTMs at high temperature. The quantum superparamagnetic state (QSP) as a high temperature signature of QTMs is observed at 16 K, which is beyond absolute zero temperature and much higher than that of conventional iron-based compounds due to the stronger spin-orbital coupling of V3+ ions bringing high anisotropy energy. It is undoubtedly that this ultrasmall quantum dots, V3O4, offers not only a promising candidate for theoretical understanding of QTMs but also a very exciting possibility for computers using mesoscopic magnets.
Moiré assisted fractional quantum Hall state spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Fengcheng; MacDonald, A. H.
2016-12-01
Intra-Landau level excitations in the fractional quantum Hall regime are not accessible via optical absorption measurements. We point out that optical probes are enabled by the periodic potentials produced by a moiré pattern. Our observation is motivated by the recent observations of fractional quantum Hall incompressible states in moiré-patterned graphene on a hexagonal boron nitride substrate, and is theoretically based on f -sum rule considerations supplemented by a perturbative analysis of the influence of the moiré potential on many-body states.
Null Values and Quantum State Discrìmination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zilberberg, Oded; Romito, Alessandro; Starling, David J.; Howland, Gregory A.; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Howell, John C.; Gefen, Yuval
2013-04-01
We present a measurement protocol for discriminating between two different quantum states of a qubit with high fidelity. The protocol, called null value, is comprised of a projective measurement performed on the system with a small probability (also known as partial collapse), followed by a tuned postselection. We report on an optical experimental implementation of the scheme. We show that our protocol leads to an amplified signal-to-noise ratio (as compared with a straightforward strong measurement) when discerning between the two quantum states.
Computational approach for calculating bound states in quantum field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lv, Q. Z.; Norris, S.; Brennan, R.; Stefanovich, E.; Su, Q.; Grobe, R.
2016-09-01
We propose a nonperturbative approach to calculate bound-state energies and wave functions for quantum field theoretical models. It is based on the direct diagonalization of the corresponding quantum field theoretical Hamiltonian in an effectively discretized and truncated Hilbert space. We illustrate this approach for a Yukawa-like interaction between fermions and bosons in one spatial dimension and show where it agrees with the traditional method based on the potential picture and where it deviates due to recoil and radiative corrections. This method permits us also to obtain some insight into the spatial characteristics of the distribution of the fermions in the ground state, such as the bremsstrahlung-induced widening.
Quantum imaging with N-photon states in position space.
Brainis, E
2011-11-21
We investigate the physics of quantum imaging with N > 2 entangled photons in position space. It is shown that, in paraxial approximation, the space-time propagation of the quantum state can be described by a generalized Huygens-Fresnel principle for the N-photon wave function. The formalism allows the initial conditions to be set on multiple reference planes, which is very convenient to describe the generation of multiple photon pairs in separate thin crystals. Applications involving state shaping and spatial entanglement swapping are developed.
Adiabatic following for a three-state quantum system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Wei; Shore, Bruce W.; Rangelov, Andon; Kyoseva, Elica
2017-01-01
Adiabatic time-evolution - found in various forms of adiabatic following and adiabatic passage - is often advantageous for controlled manipulation of quantum systems due to its insensitivity to deviations in the pulse shapes and timings. In this paper we discuss controlled adiabatic evolution of a three-state quantum system, a natural advance to the widespread use of two-state systems in numerous contemporary applications. We discuss, and illustrate, not only possibilities for population transfer but also for creating, with prescribed relative phase, 50:50 superpositions of two Zeeman sublevels in a letter-vee coupling linkage.
Largest separable balls around the maximally mixed bipartite quantum state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gurvits, Leonid; Barnum, Howard
2002-12-01
For finite-dimensional bipartite quantum systems, we find the exact size of the largest balls, in spectral lp norms for 1<=p<=∞, of separable (unentangled) matrices around the identity matrix. This implies a simple and intuitively meaningful geometrical sufficient condition for separability of bipartite density matrices: that their purity tr ρ2 not be too large. Theoretical and experimental applications of these results include algorithmic problems such as computing whether or not a state is entangled, and practical ones such as obtaining information about the existence or nature of entanglement in states reached by nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computation implementations or other experimental situations.
Universal crossover from ground-state to excited-state quantum criticality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Byungmin; Potter, Andrew C.; Vasseur, Romain
2017-01-01
We study the nonequilibrium properties of a nonergodic random quantum chain in which highly excited eigenstates exhibit critical properties usually associated with quantum critical ground states. The ground state and excited states of this system belong to different universality classes, characterized by infinite-randomness quantum critical behavior. Using strong-disorder renormalization group techniques, we show that the crossover between the zero and finite energy density regimes is universal. We analytically derive a flow equation describing the unitary dynamics of this isolated system at finite energy density from which we obtain universal scaling functions along the crossover.
Quantum State Control of Trapped Atomic and Molecular Ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seck, Christopher M.
Full quantum control of a molecule would have a significant impact in molecular coherent control (alignment and orientation) and ultracold and quantum chemistry, quantum computing and simulation as well as hybrid quantum devices, and precision spectroscopy of importance to fundamental physics research. Precision spectroscopy of even simple diatomic molecules offers the possibility of uncovering physics beyond the standard model, specifically time variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio, which is currently constrained by astronomical molecular observations at the 10-16 1/yr level and laboratory atomic measurements at the 10-17 1/yr level. To achieve this level of measurement and to avoid the complications of diatomic structure on traditional spectroscopy methods, molecular quantum logic spectroscopy (mQLS) will be the spectroscopy technique of choice. We discuss development of in-house external-cavity diode laser (ECDL) systems and improvements to the Libbrecht-Hall circuit, which is a well-known, low-noise current driver for narrow-linewidth diode lasers. However, as the current approaches the maximum set limit, the noise in the laser current increases dramatically. This behavior is documented and simple circuit modifications to alleviate this issue are explored. We cool trapped AlH+ molecules to their ground rotational-vibrational quantum state using an electronically-exciting broadband laser to simultaneously drive cooling resonances from many different rotational levels. We demonstrate rotational cooling on the 140(20) ms timescale from room temperature to 3.8 K, with the ground state population increasing from 3% to 95.4%. Since QLS does not require the high gate fidelities usually associated with quantum computation and quantum simulation, it is possible to make simplifying choices in ion species and quantum protocols at the expense of some fidelity. We demonstrate sideband cooling and motional state detection protocols for 138Ba+ of sufficient fidelity
Generating and using truly random quantum states in Mathematica
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miszczak, Jarosław Adam
2012-01-01
The problem of generating random quantum states is of a great interest from the quantum information theory point of view. In this paper we present a package for Mathematica computing system harnessing a specific piece of hardware, namely Quantis quantum random number generator (QRNG), for investigating statistical properties of quantum states. The described package implements a number of functions for generating random states, which use Quantis QRNG as a source of randomness. It also provides procedures which can be used in simulations not related directly to quantum information processing. Program summaryProgram title: TRQS Catalogue identifier: AEKA_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKA_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 7924 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 88 651 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica, C Computer: Requires a Quantis quantum random number generator (QRNG, http://www.idquantique.com/true-random-number-generator/products-overview.html) and supporting a recent version of Mathematica Operating system: Any platform supporting Mathematica; tested with GNU/Linux (32 and 64 bit) RAM: Case dependent Classification: 4.15 Nature of problem: Generation of random density matrices. Solution method: Use of a physical quantum random number generator. Running time: Generating 100 random numbers takes about 1 second, generating 1000 random density matrices takes more than a minute.
A search algorithm for quantum state engineering and metrology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knott, P. A.
2016-07-01
In this paper we present a search algorithm that finds useful optical quantum states which can be created with current technology. We apply the algorithm to the field of quantum metrology with the goal of finding states that can measure a phase shift to a high precision. Our algorithm efficiently produces a number of novel solutions: we find experimentally ready schemes to produce states that show significant improvements over the state-of-the-art, and can measure with a precision that beats the shot noise limit by over a factor of 4. Furthermore, these states demonstrate a robustness to moderate/high photon losses, and we present a conceptually simple measurement scheme that saturates the Cramér-Rao bound.
Matrix model for non-Abelian quantum Hall states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorey, Nick; Tong, David; Turner, Carl
2016-08-01
We propose a matrix quantum mechanics for a class of non-Abelian quantum Hall states. The model describes electrons which carry an internal SU(p ) spin. The ground states of the matrix model include spin-singlet generalizations of the Moore-Read and Read-Rezayi states and, in general, lie in a class previously introduced by Blok and Wen. The effective action for these states is a U(p ) Chern-Simons theory. We show how the matrix model can be derived from quantization of the vortices in this Chern-Simons theory and how the matrix model ground states can be reconstructed as correlation functions in the boundary WZW model.
Ground state configurations in two-mode quantum Rabi models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chilingaryan, Suren; Rodríguez-Lara, B. M.
We study two models describing a single two-level system coupled to two boson field modes in either a parallel or orthogonal configuration. Both models may be feasible for experimental realization through Raman adiabatic driving in cavity QED. We study their ground state configurations; that is, we find the quantum precursors of the corresponding semi-classical phase transitions. We found that the ground state configurations of both models present the same critical coupling as the quantum Rabi model. Around this critical coupling, the ground state goes from the so-called normal configuration with no excitation, the qubit in the ground state and the fields in the quantum vacuum state, to a ground state with excitations, the qubit in a superposition of ground and excited state, while the fields are not in the vacuum anymore, for the first model. The second model shows a more complex ground state configuration landscape where we find the normal configuration mentioned above, two single-mode configurations, where just one of the fields and the qubit are excited, and a dual-mode configuration, where both fields and the qubit are excited. S A Chilingaryan acknowledges financial support from CONACYT.
Speedup of quantum evolution of multiqubit entanglement states
Zhang, Ying-Jie; Han, Wei; Xia, Yun-Jie; Tian, Jian-Xiang; Fan, Heng
2016-01-01
As is well known, quantum speed limit time (QSLT) can be used to characterize the maximal speed of evolution of quantum systems. We mainly investigate the QSLT of generalized N-qubit GHZ-type states and W-type states in the amplitude-damping channels. It is shown that, in the case N qubits coupled with independent noise channels, the QSLT of the entangled GHZ-type state is closely related to the number of qubits in the small-scale system. And the larger entanglement of GHZ-type states can lead to the shorter QSLT of the evolution process. However, the QSLT of the W-type states are independent of the number of qubits and the initial entanglement. Furthermore, by considering only M qubits among the N-qubit system respectively interacting with their own noise channels, QSLTs for these two types states are shorter than in the case N qubits coupled with independent noise channels. We therefore reach the interesting result that the potential speedup of quantum evolution of a given N-qubit GHZ-type state or W-type state can be realized in the case the number of the applied noise channels satisfying M < N. PMID:27283757
Nonadiabatic quantum state engineering driven by fast quench dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herrera, Marcela; Sarandy, Marcelo S.; Duzzioni, Eduardo I.; Serra, Roberto M.
2014-02-01
There are a number of tasks in quantum information science that exploit nontransitional adiabatic dynamics. Such a dynamics is bounded by the adiabatic theorem, which naturally imposes a speed limit in the evolution of quantum systems. Here, we investigate an approach for quantum state engineering exploiting a shortcut to the adiabatic evolution, which is based on rapid quenches in a continuous-time Hamiltonian evolution. In particular, this procedure is able to provide state preparation faster than the adiabatic brachistochrone. Remarkably, the evolution time in this approach is shown to be ultimately limited by its "thermodynamical cost," provided in terms of the average work rate (average power) of the quench process. We illustrate this result in a scenario that can be experimentally implemented in a nuclear magnetic resonance setup.
Single-atom edgelike states via quantum interference
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pelegrí, G.; Polo, J.; Turpin, A.; Lewenstein, M.; Mompart, J.; Ahufinger, V.
2017-01-01
We demonstrate how quantum interference may lead to the appearance of robust edgelike states of a single ultracold atom in a two-dimensional optical ribbon. We show that these states can be engineered within the manifold of either local ground states of the sites forming the ribbon or states carrying one unit of angular momentum. In the former case, we show that the implementation of edgelike states can be extended to other geometries, such as tilted square lattices. In the latter case, we suggest using the winding number associated to the angular momentum as a synthetic dimension.
Quantum nonlocality of four-qubit entangled states
Wu, Chunfeng; Yeo, Ye; Oh, C. H.; Kwek, L. C.
2007-03-15
We derive a Bell inequality for testing violation of local realism. Quantum nonlocality of several four-qubit states is investigated. These include the Greenberger-Zeilinger-Horne (GHZ) state, W state, linear cluster state, and the state |{chi}> that has recently been proposed in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 060502 (2006)]. The Bell inequality is optimally violated by |{chi}> but not violated by the GHZ state. The linear cluster state also violates the Bell inequality though not optimally. The state |{chi}> can thus be discriminated from the linear cluster state by using the inequality. Different aspects of four-partite entanglement are also studied by considering the usefulness of a family of four-qubit mixed states as resources for two-qubit teleportation. Our results generalize those in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 797 (1994)].
Quantum-state preparation with universal gate decompositions
Plesch, Martin; Brukner, Caslav
2011-03-15
In quantum computation every unitary operation can be decomposed into quantum circuits--a series of single-qubit rotations and a single type entangling two-qubit gates, such as controlled-not(cnot) gates. Two measures are important when judging the complexity of the circuit: the total number of cnot gates needed to implement it and the depth of the circuit, measured by the minimal number of computation steps needed to perform it. Here we give an explicit and simple quantum circuit scheme for preparation of arbitrary quantum states, which can directly utilize any decomposition scheme for arbitrary full quantum gates, thus connecting the two problems. Our circuit reduces the depth of the best currently known circuit by a factor of 2. It also reduces the total number of cnot gates from 2{sup n} to (23/24)2{sup n} in the leading order for even number of qubits. Specifically, the scheme allows us to decrease the upper bound from 11 cnot gates to 9 and the depth from 11 to 5 steps for four qubits. Our results are expected to help in designing and building small-scale quantum circuits using present technologies.
Arbitrary unitary transformations on optical states using a quantum memory
Campbell, Geoff T.; Pinel, Olivier; Hosseini, Mahdi; Buchler, Ben C.; Lam, Ping Koy
2014-12-04
We show that optical memories arranged along an optical path can perform arbitrary unitary transformations on frequency domain optical states. The protocol offers favourable scaling and can be used with any quantum memory that uses an off-resonant Raman transition to reversibly transfer optical information to an atomic spin coherence.
Bond Length Dependence on Quantum States as Shown by Spectroscopy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lim, Kieran F.
2005-01-01
A discussion on how a spreadsheet simulation of linear-molecular spectra could be used to explore the dependence of rotational band spacing and contours on average bond lengths in the initial and final quantum states is presented. The simulation of hydrogen chloride IR, iodine UV-vis, and nitrogen UV-vis spectra clearly show whether the average…
The conditional entropy power inequality for Gaussian quantum states
Koenig, Robert
2015-02-15
We propose a generalization of the quantum entropy power inequality involving conditional entropies. For the special case of Gaussian states, we give a proof based on perturbation theory for symplectic spectra. We discuss some implications for entanglement-assisted classical communication over additive bosonic noise channels.
Local mapping of detector response for reliable quantum state estimation
Cooper, Merlin; Karpiński, Michał; Smith, Brian J.
2014-01-01
Improved measurement techniques are central to technological development and foundational scientific exploration. Quantum physics relies on detectors sensitive to non-classical features of systems, enabling precise tests of physical laws and quantum-enhanced technologies including precision measurement and secure communications. Accurate detector response calibration for quantum-scale inputs is key to future research and development in these cognate areas. To address this requirement, quantum detector tomography has been recently introduced. However, this technique becomes increasingly challenging as the complexity of the detector response and input space grow in a number of measurement outcomes and required probe states, leading to further demands on experiments and data analysis. Here we present an experimental implementation of a versatile, alternative characterization technique to address many-outcome quantum detectors that limits the input calibration region and does not involve numerical post processing. To demonstrate the applicability of this approach, the calibrated detector is subsequently used to estimate non-classical photon number states. PMID:25019300
Stable pure state quantum tomography from five orthonormal bases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carmeli, Claudio; Heinosaari, Teiko; Kech, Michael; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro
2016-08-01
For any finite-dimensional Hilbert space, we construct explicitly five orthonormal bases such that the corresponding measurements allow for efficient tomography of an arbitrary pure quantum state. This means that such measurements can be used to distinguish an arbitrary pure state from any other state, pure or mixed, and the pure state can be reconstructed from the outcome distribution in a feasible way. The set of measurements we construct is independent of the unknown state, and therefore our results provide a fixed scheme for pure state tomography, as opposed to the adaptive (state-dependent) scheme proposed by Goyeneche et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., 115 (2015) 090401). We show that our scheme is robust with respect to noise, in the sense that any measurement scheme which approximates these measurements well enough is equally suitable for pure state tomography. Finally, we present two convex programs which can be used to reconstruct the unknown pure state from the measurement outcome distributions.
Memory-built-in quantum cloning in a hybrid solid-state spin register
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, W.-B.; Zu, C.; He, L.; Zhang, W.-G.; Duan, L.-M.
2015-07-01
As a way to circumvent the quantum no-cloning theorem, approximate quantum cloning protocols have received wide attention with remarkable applications. Copying of quantum states to memory qubits provides an important strategy for eavesdropping in quantum cryptography. We report an experiment that realizes cloning of quantum states from an electron spin to a nuclear spin in a hybrid solid-state spin register with near-optimal fidelity. The nuclear spin provides an ideal memory qubit at room temperature, which stores the cloned quantum states for a millisecond under ambient conditions, exceeding the lifetime of the original quantum state carried by the electron spin by orders of magnitude. The realization of a cloning machine with built-in quantum memory provides a key step for application of quantum cloning in quantum information science.
Robust Multiple-Range Coherent Quantum State Transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bing; Peng, Yan-Dong; Li, Yong; Qian, Xiao-Feng
2016-07-01
We propose a multiple-range quantum communication channel to realize coherent two-way quantum state transport with high fidelity. In our scheme, an information carrier (a qubit) and its remote partner are both adiabatically coupled to the same data bus, i.e., an N-site tight-binding chain that has a single defect at the center. At the weak interaction regime, our system is effectively equivalent to a three level system of which a coherent superposition of the two carrier states constitutes a dark state. The adiabatic coupling allows a well controllable information exchange timing via the dark state between the two carriers. Numerical results show that our scheme is robust and efficient under practically inevitable perturbative defects of the data bus as well as environmental dephasing noise.
Understanding boundary effects in quantum state tomography - One qubit case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugiyama, Takanori; Turner, Peter S.; Murao, Mio
2014-12-01
For classical and quantum estimation with finite data sets, the estimation error can deviate significantly from its asymptotic (large data set) behavior. In quantum state tomography, a major reason for this is the existence of a boundary in the parameter space imposed by constraints, such as the positive semidefiniteness of density matrices. Intuitively, we should be able to reduce the estimation error by using our knowledge of these constraints. This intuition is correct for maximumlikelihood estimators, but the size of the reduction has not been evaluated quantitatively. In this proceeding, we evaluate the improvement in one qubit state tomography by using mathematical tools in classical statistical estimation theory. In particular, we show that the effect of the reduction decreases exponentially with respect to the number of data sets when the true state is mixed, and it remains at arbitrarily large data set when the true state is pure.
Robust Multiple-Range Coherent Quantum State Transfer
Chen, Bing; Peng, Yan-Dong; Li, Yong; Qian, Xiao-Feng
2016-01-01
We propose a multiple-range quantum communication channel to realize coherent two-way quantum state transport with high fidelity. In our scheme, an information carrier (a qubit) and its remote partner are both adiabatically coupled to the same data bus, i.e., an N-site tight-binding chain that has a single defect at the center. At the weak interaction regime, our system is effectively equivalent to a three level system of which a coherent superposition of the two carrier states constitutes a dark state. The adiabatic coupling allows a well controllable information exchange timing via the dark state between the two carriers. Numerical results show that our scheme is robust and efficient under practically inevitable perturbative defects of the data bus as well as environmental dephasing noise. PMID:27364891
Excited-state quantum phase transition in the Rabi model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puebla, Ricardo; Hwang, Myung-Joong; Plenio, Martin B.
2016-08-01
The Rabi model, a two-level atom coupled to a harmonic oscillator, can undergo a second-order quantum phase transition (QPT) [M.-J. Hwang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 180404 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.180404]. Here we show that the Rabi QPT accompanies critical behavior in the higher-energy excited states, i.e., the excited-state QPT (ESQPT). We derive analytic expressions for the semiclassical density of states, which show a logarithmic divergence at a critical energy eigenvalue in the broken symmetry (superradiant) phase. Moreover, we find that the logarithmic singularities in the density of states lead to singularities in the relevant observables in the system such as photon number and atomic polarization. We corroborate our analytical semiclassical prediction of the ESQPT in the Rabi model with its numerically exact quantum mechanical solution.
Non-Gaussianity of quantum states: An experimental test on single-photon-added coherent states
Barbieri, Marco; Ferreyrol, Franck; Blandino, Remi; Grangier, Philippe; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Spagnolo, Nicolo; Genoni, Marco G.; Paris, Matteo G. A.
2010-12-15
Non-Gaussian states and processes are useful resources in quantum information with continuous variables. An experimentally accessible criterion has been proposed to measure the degree of non-Gaussianity of quantum states based on the conditional entropy of the state with a Gaussian reference. Here we adopt such a criterion to characterize an important class of nonclassical states: single-photon-added coherent states. Our studies demonstrate the reliability and sensitivity of this measure and use it to quantify how detrimental is the role of experimental imperfections in our implementation.
Quantum interference between a single-photon Fock state and a coherent state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Windhager, A.; Suda, M.; Pacher, C.; Peev, M.; Poppe, A.
2011-04-01
We derive analytical expressions for the single mode quantum field state at the individual output ports of a beam splitter when a single-photon Fock state and a coherent state are incident on the input ports. The output states turn out to be a statistical mixture between a displaced Fock state and a coherent state. Consequently we are able to find an analytical expression for the corresponding Wigner function. Because of the generality of our calculations the obtained results are valid for all passive and lossless optical four port devices. We show further how the results can be adapted to the case of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In addition we consider the case for which the single-photon Fock state is replaced with a general input state: a coherent input state displaces each general quantum state at the output port of a beam splitter with the displacement parameter being the amplitude of the coherent state.
Quantum teleportation with a three-Bell-state analyzer.
van Houwelingen, J A W; Brunner, N; Beveratos, A; Zbinden, H; Gisin, N
2006-04-07
We present a novel Bell-state analyzer (BSA) for time-bin qubits allowing the detection of three out of four Bell states with linear optics, two detectors, and no auxiliary photons. The theoretical success rate of this scheme is 50%. Our new BSA demonstrates the power of generalized quantum measurements, known as positive operator valued measurements. A teleportation experiment was performed to demonstrate its functionality. We also present a teleportation experiment with a fidelity larger than the cloning limit.
Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems.
Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2008-05-16
We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows us to determine rigorously the existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally nonexactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary range.
Scaling relations for gaps in fractional quantum Hall states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murthy, Ganpathy; Park, K.; Shankar, R.; Jain, J. K.
1998-12-01
The microscopic Hamiltonian approach of Murthy and Shankar, which has recently been used to calculate the transport gaps of quantum Hall states with fractions ν=p/(2ps+1), also implies scaling relations between gaps within a single sequence (fixed s) as well as between gaps of corresponding states in different sequences. This work tests these relations for a system of electrons in the lowest Landau level interacting with a model potential cutoff at high momenta due to sample thickness.
Continuous Measurement Quantum State Tomography of Atomic Ensembles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riofrio Almeida, Carlos A.
Quantum state tomography is a fundamental tool in quantum information processing tasks. It allows us to estimate the state of a quantum system by measuring different observables on many identically prepared copies of the system. Usually, one makes projective measurements of an "informationally complete" set of observables and repeats them enough times so that good estimates of their expectation values are obtained. This is, in general, a very time-consuming task that requires a large number of measurements. There are, however, systems in which the data acquisition can be done more efficiently. In fact, an ensemble of quantum systems can be prepared and manipulated by external fields while being continuously probed collectively, producing enough information to estimate its state. This provides a basis for continuous measurement quantum tomography, and is the main topic of this dissertation. This method, based on weak continuous measurement, has the advantage of being fast, accurate, and almost nonperturbative. In this work, we present a extensive discussion and a generalization of the protocol proposed in [1], which was experimentally achieved in [2] using cold cesium atoms. In this protocol, an ensemble of identically prepared systems is collectively probed and controlled in a time-dependent manner so as to create an informationally complete continuous measurement record. The measurement history is then inverted to determine the state at the initial time. To achieve this, we use two different estimation methods: the widely used maximum likelihood and the novel compressed sensing algorithms. The general formalism is applied to the case of reconstruction of the quantum state encoded in the magnetic sub-levels of a large-spin alkali atom, 133Cs. We extend the applicability of the protocol in [1] to the more ambitious case of reconstruction of states in the full 16-dimensional electronic-ground subspace ( F = 3, F = 4), controlled by microwaves and radio
Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André
2015-12-01
We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.240405]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state.
Typicality in spin-network states of quantum geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anza, Fabio; Chirco, Goffredo
2016-10-01
In this work, we extend the so-called typicality approach, originally formulated in statistical mechanics contexts, to S U (2 ) -invariant spin-network states. Our results do not depend on the physical interpretation of the spin network; however, they are mainly motivated by the fact that spin-network states can describe states of quantum geometry, providing a gauge-invariant basis for the kinematical Hilbert space of several background-independent approaches to quantum gravity. The first result is, by itself, the existence of a regime in which we show the emergence of a typical state. We interpret this as the proof that in that regime there are certain (local) properties of quantum geometry which are "universal." Such a set of properties is heralded by the typical state, of which we give the explicit form. This is our second result. In the end, we study some interesting properties of the typical state, proving that the area law for the entropy of a surface must be satisfied at the local level, up to logarithmic corrections which we are able to bound.
Selective interactions in trapped ions: State reconstruction and quantum logic
Solano, E.
2005-01-01
We propose the implementation of selective interactions of atom-motion subspaces in trapped ions. These interactions yield resonant exchange of population inside a selected subspace, leaving the others in a highly dispersive regime. Selectivity allows us to generate motional Fock (and other nonclassical) states with high purity out of a wide class of initial states, and becomes an unconventional cooling mechanism when the ground state is chosen. Individual population of number states can be distinctively measured, as well as the motional Wigner function. Furthermore, a protocol for implementing quantum logic through a suitable control of selective subspaces is presented.
Quantum benchmark for teleportation and storage of squeezed states.
Adesso, Gerardo; Chiribella, Giulio
2008-05-02
We provide a quantum benchmark for teleportation and storage of single-mode squeezed states with zero displacement and a completely unknown degree of squeezing along a given direction. For pure squeezed input states, a fidelity higher than 81.5% has to be attained in order to outperform any classical strategy based on an estimation of the unknown squeezing and repreparation of squeezed states. For squeezed thermal input states, we derive an upper and a lower bound on the classical average fidelity which tighten for moderate degree of mixedness. These results enable a critical discussion of recent experiments with squeezed light.
Experimental demonstration of squeezed-state quantum averaging
Lassen, Mikael; Madsen, Lars Skovgaard; Andersen, Ulrik L.; Sabuncu, Metin; Filip, Radim
2010-08-15
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a universal quantum averaging process implementing the harmonic mean of quadrature variances. The averaged variances are prepared probabilistically by means of linear optical interference and measurement-induced conditioning. We verify that the implemented harmonic mean yields a lower value than the corresponding value obtained for the standard arithmetic-mean strategy. The effect of quantum averaging is experimentally tested for squeezed and thermal states as well as for uncorrelated and partially correlated noise sources. The harmonic-mean protocol can be used to efficiently stabilize a set of squeezed-light sources with statistically fluctuating noise levels.
Robust state preparation in quantum simulations of Dirac dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Xue-Ke; Deng, Fu-Guo; Lamata, Lucas; Muga, J. G.
2017-02-01
A nonrelativistic system such as an ultracold trapped ion may perform a quantum simulation of a Dirac equation dynamics under specific conditions. The resulting Hamiltonian and dynamics are highly controllable, but the coupling between momentum and internal levels poses some difficulties to manipulate the internal states accurately in wave packets. We use invariants of motion to inverse engineer robust population inversion processes with a homogeneous, time-dependent simulated electric field. This exemplifies the usefulness of inverse-engineering techniques to improve the performance of quantum simulation protocols.
Spectrum of localized states in graphene quantum dots and wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zalipaev, V. V.; Maksimov, D. N.; Linton, C. M.; Kusmartsev, F. V.
2013-01-01
We developed semiclassical method and show that any smooth potential in graphene describing elongated a quantum dot or wire may behave as a barrier or as a trapping well or as a double barrier potential, Fabry-Perot structure, for 1D Schrödinger equation. The energy spectrum of quantum wires has been found and compared with numerical simulations. We found that there are two types of localized states, stable and metastable, having finite life time. These life times are calculated, as is the form of the localized wave functions which are exponentially decaying away from the wire in the perpendicular direction.
On the reduction criterion for random quantum states
Jivulescu, Maria Anastasia Lupa, Nicolae; Nechita, Ion
2014-11-15
In this paper, we study the reduction criterion for detecting entanglement of large dimensional bipartite quantum systems. We first obtain an explicit formula for the moments of a random quantum state to which the reduction criterion has been applied. We show that the empirical eigenvalue distribution of this random matrix converges strongly to a limit that we compute, in three different asymptotic regimes. We then employ tools from free probability theory to study the asymptotic positivity of the reduction operators. Finally, we compare the reduction criterion with other entanglement criteria, via thresholds.
Jeong, Hyunseok; Ralph, Timothy C.
2007-10-15
We study characteristics of superpositions and entanglement of thermal states at high temperatures and discuss their applications to quantum-information processing. We introduce thermal-state qubits and thermal-Bell states, which are a generalization of pure-state qubits and Bell states to thermal mixtures. A scheme is then presented to discriminate between the four thermal-Bell states without photon number resolving detection but with Kerr nonlinear interactions and two single-photon detectors. This enables one to perform quantum teleportation and gate operations for quantum computation with thermal-state qubits.
Solid-State NMR Quantum Computer
2005-09-29
Spin State of a Single Nucleus in Silicon," Phys. Rev. B. 69, 125306-1 - 125306-5 (March 2004). " Fumiko Yamaguchi, Thaddeus D. Ladd, Cyrus P. Master...personnel supported by this project Senior researchers Yoshihisa Yamamoto (Faculty) Fumiko Yamaguchi (Research Associate) Graduate students T. D. Ladd
Quantum Enhanced Imaging by Entangled States
2009-07-01
2009 13 . SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The use of entangled states in a prospective standoff imaging sensor has been explored. Specifically... 13 FIGURE 6 UNFOLDED VERSION OF SETUP FOR PSEUDO-THERMAL GHOST IMAGING. ....................... 13 FIGURE 7 SYSTEM...ALONG ATMOSPHERIC PATH. (D)-(E) FFTS OF STARTING AND FINAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF BEAM. ABSCISSA IS IN CYCLES PER METER. ......... 22 FIGURE 13 VARIANCE
Quantum state transfer between valley and photon qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Ming-Jay; Peng, Han-Ying; Na, Neil; Wu, Yu-Shu
2017-02-01
The electron-photon interaction in two-dimensional materials obeys the rule of "electron valley-photon polarization" correspondence. At the quantum level, such correspondence can be utilized to entangle valleys and polarizations and attain the transfer of quantum states (or information) between valley and photon qubits. Our paper presents a theoretical study of the interaction between the two types of qubits and the resultant quantum state transfer. A generic setup is introduced, which involves optical cavities enhancing the electron-photon interaction as well as facilitating both the entanglement and unentanglement between valleys and polarizations required by the transfer. The quantum system considered consists of electrons, optically excited trions, and cavity photons, with photons moving in and out of the system. A wave equation based analysis is performed, and analytical expressions are derived for the two important figures of merits that characterize the transfer, namely, yield and fidelity, allowing for the investigation of their dependences on various qubit and cavity parameters. A numerical study of the yield and fidelity has also been carried out. Overall, this paper shows promising characteristics in the valley-photon state transfer, with the conclusion that the valley-polarization correspondence can be exploited to achieve the transfer with good yield and high fidelity.
Hamiltonian approach to Ehrenfest expectation values and Gaussian quantum states.
Bonet-Luz, Esther; Tronci, Cesare
2016-05-01
The dynamics of quantum expectation values is considered in a geometric setting. First, expectation values of the canonical observables are shown to be equivariant momentum maps for the action of the Heisenberg group on quantum states. Then, the Hamiltonian structure of Ehrenfest's theorem is shown to be Lie-Poisson for a semidirect-product Lie group, named the Ehrenfest group. The underlying Poisson structure produces classical and quantum mechanics as special limit cases. In addition, quantum dynamics is expressed in the frame of the expectation values, in which the latter undergo canonical Hamiltonian motion. In the case of Gaussian states, expectation values dynamics couples to second-order moments, which also enjoy a momentum map structure. Eventually, Gaussian states are shown to possess a Lie-Poisson structure associated with another semidirect-product group, which is called the Jacobi group. This structure produces the energy-conserving variant of a class of Gaussian moment models that have previously appeared in the chemical physics literature.
Hamiltonian approach to Ehrenfest expectation values and Gaussian quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonet-Luz, Esther; Tronci, Cesare
2016-05-01
The dynamics of quantum expectation values is considered in a geometric setting. First, expectation values of the canonical observables are shown to be equivariant momentum maps for the action of the Heisenberg group on quantum states. Then, the Hamiltonian structure of Ehrenfest's theorem is shown to be Lie-Poisson for a semidirect-product Lie group, named the Ehrenfest group. The underlying Poisson structure produces classical and quantum mechanics as special limit cases. In addition, quantum dynamics is expressed in the frame of the expectation values, in which the latter undergo canonical Hamiltonian motion. In the case of Gaussian states, expectation values dynamics couples to second-order moments, which also enjoy a momentum map structure. Eventually, Gaussian states are shown to possess a Lie-Poisson structure associated with another semidirect-product group, which is called the Jacobi group. This structure produces the energy-conserving variant of a class of Gaussian moment models that have previously appeared in the chemical physics literature.
Symmetry-induced anyon breeding in fractional quantum Hall states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Yuan-Ming; Fidkowski, Lukasz
2014-03-01
An exotic feature of the fractional quantum Hall effect is the emergence of anyons, which are quasiparticle excitations with fractional statistics. In the presence of a symmetry, such as U (1) charge conservation, it is well known that anyons can carry fractional symmetry quantum numbers. In this paper we reveal a different class of symmetry realizations, i.e., anyons can "breed" in multiples under symmetry operation. We focus on the global Ising (Z2) symmetry and show examples of these unconventional symmetry realizations in Laughlin-type fractional quantum Hall states. One remarkable consequence of such an Ising symmetry is the emergence of anyons on the Ising symmetry domain walls. We also provide a mathematical framework which generalizes this phenomenon to any Abelian topological orders.
Metal-to-insulator switching in quantum anomalous Hall states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Lei; Kou, Xufeng; Wang, Jing; Fan, Yabin; Choi, Eun Sang; Shao, Qiming; Zhang, Shou Cheng; Wang, Kang Lung
Quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) was recently achieved in magnetic topological insulator films as a form of dissipationless transport without external magnetic field. However, the universal phase diagram of QAHE and its relation with quantum Hall effect (QHE) remain to be investigated. Here, we report the experimental observation of the giant longitudinal resistance peak and zero Hall conductance plateau at the coercive field in the six quintuple-layer (Cr0.12Bi0.26Sb0.62)2 Te3 film, and demonstrate the metal-to-insulator switching between two opposite QAHE plateau states up to 0.3 K. The universal QAHE phase diagram is further confirmed through the angle-dependent measurements. Our results address that the quantum phase transitions in both QAHE and QHE regimes are in the same universality class, yet the microscopic details are different.
Quantum Holonomies from Spectral Networks and Framed BPS States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabella, Maxime
2017-04-01
We propose a method for determining the spins of BPS states supported on line defects in 4d N=2 theories of class S. Via the 2d-4d correspondence, this translates to the construction of quantum holonomies on a punctured Riemann surface C. Our approach combines the technology of spectral networks, which decomposes flat {GL(K,C)-connections on C in terms of flat abelian connections on a K-fold cover of C, and the skein algebra in the 3-manifold C × [0,1]}, which expresses the representation theory of the quantum group U q ( gl K ). With any path on C, the quantum holonomy associates a positive Laurent polynomial in the quantized Fock-Goncharov coordinates of higher Teichmüller space. This confirms various positivity conjectures in physics and mathematics.
Quantum error correction against photon loss using multicomponent cat states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergmann, Marcel; van Loock, Peter
2016-10-01
We analyze a generalized quantum error-correction code against photon loss where a logical qubit is encoded into a subspace of a single oscillator mode that is spanned by distinct multicomponent cat states (coherent-state superpositions). We present a systematic code construction that includes the extension of an existing one-photon-loss code to higher numbers of losses. When subject to a photon loss (amplitude damping) channel, the encoded qubits are shown to exhibit a cyclic behavior where the code and error spaces each correspond to certain multiples of losses, half of which can be corrected. As another generalization we also discuss how to protect logical qudits against photon losses, and as an application we consider a one-way quantum communication scheme in which the encoded qubits are periodically recovered while the coherent-state amplitudes are restored as well at regular intervals.
Quantum state transfer and conditional phase gate via off-resonant quantum Zeno dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Wan-Jun; Yang, Zhen-Biao; Wu, Huai-Zhi
2017-01-01
We propose a scheme to realize the quantum state transfer (QST) and conditional phase gate (CPG) between two qubits (acted by nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers) based on off-resonant quantum Zeno dynamics. We also consider the entanglement dynamics of two qubits in this system. Since no cavity photons or excited levels of the NV center is populated during the whole process, the scheme is immune to the decay of cavity and spontaneous emission of the NV center. The strictly numerical simulation shows that the fidelities of QST and CPG are high even in the presence of realistic imperfections.
Decoherence and thermalization of a pure quantum state in quantum field theory.
Giraud, Alexandre; Serreau, Julien
2010-06-11
We study the real-time evolution of a self-interacting O(N) scalar field initially prepared in a pure, coherent quantum state. We present a complete solution of the nonequilibrium quantum dynamics from a 1/N expansion of the two-particle-irreducible effective action at next-to-leading order, which includes scattering and memory effects. We demonstrate that, restricting one's attention (or ability to measure) to a subset of the infinite hierarchy of correlation functions, one observes an effective loss of purity or coherence and, on longer time scales, thermalization. We point out that the physics of decoherence is well described by classical statistical field theory.
Quantum phase estimation using path-symmetric entangled states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Su-Yong; Lee, Chang-Woo; Lee, Jaehak; Nha, Hyunchul
2016-07-01
We study the sensitivity of phase estimation using a generic class of path-symmetric entangled states |φ>|0> + |0>|φ>, where an arbitrary state |φ> occupies one of two modes in quantum superposition. With this generalization, we identify the fundamental limit of phase estimation under energy constraint that is characterized by the photon statistics of the component state |φ>. We show that quantum Cramer-Rao bound (QCRB) can be indefinitely lowered with super-Poissonianity of the state |φ>. For possible measurement schemes, we demonstrate that a full photon-counting employing the path-symmetric entangled states achieves the QCRB over the entire range [0, 2π] of unknown phase shift ϕ whereas a parity measurement does so in a certain confined range of ϕ. By introducing a component state of the form , we particularly show that an arbitrarily small QCRB can be achieved even with a finite energy in an ideal situation. This component state also provides the most robust resource against photon loss among considered entangled states over the range of the average input energy Nav > 1. Finally we propose experimental schemes to generate these path-symmetric entangled states for phase estimation.
Quantum phase estimation using path-symmetric entangled states
Lee, Su-Yong; Lee, Chang-Woo; Lee, Jaehak; Nha, Hyunchul
2016-01-01
We study the sensitivity of phase estimation using a generic class of path-symmetric entangled states |φ〉|0〉 + |0〉|φ〉, where an arbitrary state |φ〉 occupies one of two modes in quantum superposition. With this generalization, we identify the fundamental limit of phase estimation under energy constraint that is characterized by the photon statistics of the component state |φ〉. We show that quantum Cramer-Rao bound (QCRB) can be indefinitely lowered with super-Poissonianity of the state |φ〉. For possible measurement schemes, we demonstrate that a full photon-counting employing the path-symmetric entangled states achieves the QCRB over the entire range [0, 2π] of unknown phase shift ϕ whereas a parity measurement does so in a certain confined range of ϕ. By introducing a component state of the form , we particularly show that an arbitrarily small QCRB can be achieved even with a finite energy in an ideal situation. This component state also provides the most robust resource against photon loss among considered entangled states over the range of the average input energy Nav > 1. Finally we propose experimental schemes to generate these path-symmetric entangled states for phase estimation. PMID:27457267
Optimal error intervals for properties of the quantum state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xikun; Shang, Jiangwei; Ng, Hui Khoon; Englert, Berthold-Georg
2016-12-01
Quantum state estimation aims at determining the quantum state from observed data. Estimating the full state can require considerable efforts, but one is often only interested in a few properties of the state, such as the fidelity with a target state, or the degree of correlation for a specified bipartite structure. Rather than first estimating the state, one can, and should, estimate those quantities of interest directly from the data. We propose the use of optimal error intervals as a meaningful way of stating the accuracy of the estimated property values. Optimal error intervals are analogs of the optimal error regions for state estimation [New J. Phys. 15, 123026 (2013), 10.1088/1367-2630/15/12/123026]. They are optimal in two ways: They have the largest likelihood for the observed data and the prechosen size, and they are the smallest for the prechosen probability of containing the true value. As in the state situation, such optimal error intervals admit a simple description in terms of the marginal likelihood for the data for the properties of interest. Here, we present the concept and construction of optimal error intervals, report on an iterative algorithm for reliable computation of the marginal likelihood (a quantity difficult to calculate reliably), explain how plausible intervals—a notion of evidence provided by the data—are related to our optimal error intervals, and illustrate our methods with single-qubit and two-qubit examples.
Unitary equilibration after a quantum quench of a thermal state
Jacobson, N. Tobias; Venuti, Lorenzo Campos; Zanardi, Paolo
2011-08-15
In this work we investigate the equilibration dynamics after a sudden Hamiltonian quench of a quantum spin system initially prepared in a thermal state. To characterize the equilibration we evaluate the Loschmidt echo, a global measure for the degree of distinguishability between the initial and time-evolved quenched states. We present general results valid for small quenches and detailed analysis of the quantum XY chain. The result is that quantum criticality manifests, even at small but finite temperatures, in a universal double-peaked form of the echo statistics and poor equilibration for sufficiently relevant perturbations. In addition, for this model we find a tight lower bound on the Loschmidt echo in terms of the purity of the initial state and the more easily evaluated Hilbert-Schmidt inner product between initial and time-evolved quenched states. This bound allows us to relate the time-averaged Loschmidt echo with the purity of the time-averaged state, a quantity that has been shown to provide an upper bound on the variance of observables.
Leghtas, Z; Touzard, S; Pop, I M; Kou, A; Vlastakis, B; Petrenko, A; Sliwa, K M; Narla, A; Shankar, S; Hatridge, M J; Reagor, M; Frunzio, L; Schoelkopf, R J; Mirrahimi, M; Devoret, M H
2015-02-20
Physical systems usually exhibit quantum behavior, such as superpositions and entanglement, only when they are sufficiently decoupled from a lossy environment. Paradoxically, a specially engineered interaction with the environment can become a resource for the generation and protection of quantum states. This notion can be generalized to the confinement of a system into a manifold of quantum states, consisting of all coherent superpositions of multiple stable steady states. We have confined the state of a superconducting resonator to the quantum manifold spanned by two coherent states of opposite phases and have observed a Schrödinger cat state spontaneously squeeze out of vacuum before decaying into a classical mixture. This experiment points toward robustly encoding quantum information in multidimensional steady-state manifolds.
Podoshvedov, S. A.
2008-03-15
We study a teleportation protocol of an unknown macroscopic qubit by means of a quantum channel composed of the displaced vacuum and single-photon states. The scheme is based on linear optical devices such as a beam splitter and photon number resolving detectors. A method based on conditional measurement is used to generate both the macroscopic qubit and entangled state composed from displaced vacuum and single-photon states. We show that such a qubit has both macroscopic and microscopic properties. In particular, we investigate a quantum teleportation protocol from a macroscopic object to a microscopic state.
Quantum Teleportation of an Arbitrary N-qubit State via GHZ-like States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Bo; Liu, Xing-tong; Wang, Jian; Tang, Chao-jing
2016-03-01
Recently Zhu (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 53, 4095, 2014) had shown that using GHZ-like states as quantum channel, it is possible to teleport an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state. We investigate this channel for the teleportation of an arbitrary N-qubit state. The strict proof through mathematical induction is presented and the rule for the receiver to reconstruct the desired state is explicitly derived in the most general case. We also discuss that if a system of quantum secret sharing of classical message is established, our protocol can be transformed to a N-qubit perfect controlled teleportation scheme from the controller's point of view.
Quantum anonymous voting with unweighted continuous-variable graph states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Ying; Feng, Yanyan; Zeng, Guihua
2016-08-01
Motivated by the revealing topological structures of continuous-variable graph state (CVGS), we investigate the design of quantum voting scheme, which has serious advantages over the conventional ones in terms of efficiency and graphicness. Three phases are included, i.e., the preparing phase, the voting phase and the counting phase, together with three parties, i.e., the voters, the tallyman and the ballot agency. Two major voting operations are performed on the yielded CVGS in the voting process, namely the local rotation transformation and the displacement operation. The voting information is carried by the CVGS established before hand, whose persistent entanglement is deployed to keep the privacy of votes and the anonymity of legal voters. For practical applications, two CVGS-based quantum ballots, i.e., comparative ballot and anonymous survey, are specially designed, followed by the extended ballot schemes for the binary-valued and multi-valued ballots under some constraints for the voting design. Security is ensured by entanglement of the CVGS, the voting operations and the laws of quantum mechanics. The proposed schemes can be implemented using the standard off-the-shelf components when compared to discrete-variable quantum voting schemes attributing to the characteristics of the CV-based quantum cryptography.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Shu-Jiang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Wang, Lian-Hai; Ding, Qing-Yan; Zhang, Shu-Hui
2016-06-01
In 2011, Qu et al. proposed a quantum information hiding protocol based on the entanglement swapping of χ-type quantum states. Because a χ-type state can be described by the 4-particle cat states which have good symmetry, the possible output results of the entanglement swapping between a given χ-type state and all of the 16 χ-type states are divided into 8 groups instead of 16 groups of different results when the global phase is not considered. So it is difficult to read out the secret messages since each result occurs twice in each line (column) of the secret messages encoding rule for the original protocol. In fact, a 3-bit instead of a 4-bit secret message can be encoded by performing two unitary transformations on 2 particles of a χ-type quantum state in the original protocol. To overcome this defect, we propose an improved quantum information hiding protocol based on the general term formulas of the entanglement swapping among χ-type states. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61572297, 61303199, 61272514, and 61373131, the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. ZR2013FM025, ZR2013FQ001, ZR2014FM003, and ZY2015YL018, the Shandong Provincial Outstanding Research Award Fund for Young Scientists of China under Grant Nos. BS2015DX006 and BS2014DX007, the National Development Foundation for Cryptological Research, China under Grant No. MMJJ201401012, the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions and Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center on Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology Funds, and the Shandong Academy of Sciences Youth Fund Project, China under Grant Nos. 2015QN003 and 2013QN007
Quantum Probability Cancellation Due to a Single-Photon State
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ou, Z. Y.
1996-01-01
When an N-photon state enters a lossless symmetric beamsplitter from one input port, the photon distribution for the two output ports has the form of Bernouli Binormial, with highest probability at equal partition (N/2 at one outport and N/2 at the other). However, injection of a single photon state at the other input port can dramatically change the photon distribution at the outputs, resulting in zero probability at equal partition. Such a strong deviation from classical particle theory stems from quantum probability amplitude cancellation. The effect persists even if the N-photon state is replaced by an arbitrary state of light. A special case is the coherent state which corresponds to homodyne detection of a single photon state and can lead to the measurement of the wave function of a single photon state.
Solid State Quantum Computer in Silicon
2008-09-30
Clark and A.S. Dzurak, “Bias spectroscopy and simultaneous single-electron transistor charge state detection of Si:P double dots”, Nanotechnology...19, 265201 (2008). A. Morello and L.J. de Jongh, “Dynamics and thermalization of the nuclear spin bath in the single-molecule magnet Mn12-ac: Test for...Vacuum Society of Australia Congress, Melbourne, Australia, 21–23/11/2007. P. Spizzirri, "An EPR on the Activation of Low Energy Phosphorus Ions
Quantum gravity, CPT symmetry and entangled states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mavromatos, Nick E.
2012-03-01
In this talk I discuss the potential rôle of quantumgravity space-time foam on an induced intrinsic violation of CPT symmetry, resulting in (perturbatively weak) modifications of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlations in entangled particle states of neutral mesons. For specific models of foam, inspired from String theory, the modifications may be falsifiable at the current upgrade of the DAΦNE detector in Frascati NL. Advantages of neutral Kaons over other neutral mesons (e.g. B-mesons) for the possible detection of the phenomenon, are outlined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daoud, M.; Ahl Laamara, R.
2012-07-01
We give the explicit expressions of the pairwise quantum correlations present in superpositions of multipartite coherent states. A special attention is devoted to the evaluation of the geometric quantum discord. The dynamics of quantum correlations under a dephasing channel is analyzed. A comparison of geometric measure of quantum discord with that of concurrence shows that quantum discord in multipartite coherent states is more resilient to dissipative environments than is quantum entanglement. To illustrate our results, we consider some special superpositions of Weyl-Heisenberg, SU(2) and SU(1,1) coherent states which interpolate between Werner and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states.
Stability of quantum-dot excited-state laser emission under simultaneous ground-state perturbation
Kaptan, Y. Herzog, B.; Schöps, O.; Kolarczik, M.; Woggon, U.; Owschimikow, N.; Röhm, A.; Lingnau, B.; Lüdge, K.; Schmeckebier, H.; Arsenijević, D.; Bimberg, D.; Mikhelashvili, V.; Eisenstein, G.
2014-11-10
The impact of ground state amplification on the laser emission of In(Ga)As quantum dot excited state lasers is studied in time-resolved experiments. We find that a depopulation of the quantum dot ground state is followed by a drop in excited state lasing intensity. The magnitude of the drop is strongly dependent on the wavelength of the depletion pulse and the applied injection current. Numerical simulations based on laser rate equations reproduce the experimental results and explain the wavelength dependence by the different dynamics in lasing and non-lasing sub-ensembles within the inhomogeneously broadened quantum dots. At high injection levels, the observed response even upon perturbation of the lasing sub-ensemble is small and followed by a fast recovery, thus supporting the capacity of fast modulation in dual-state devices.
State-Selective Excitation of Quantum Systems via Geometrical Optimization.
Chang, Bo Y; Shin, Seokmin; Sola, Ignacio R
2015-09-08
We lay out the foundations of a general method of quantum control via geometrical optimization. We apply the method to state-selective population transfer using ultrashort transform-limited pulses between manifolds of levels that may represent, e.g., state-selective transitions in molecules. Assuming that certain states can be prepared, we develop three implementations: (i) preoptimization, which implies engineering the initial state within the ground manifold or electronic state before the pulse is applied; (ii) postoptimization, which implies engineering the final state within the excited manifold or target electronic state, after the pulse; and (iii) double-time optimization, which uses both types of time-ordered manipulations. We apply the schemes to two important dynamical problems: To prepare arbitrary vibrational superposition states on the target electronic state and to select weakly coupled vibrational states. Whereas full population inversion between the electronic states only requires control at initial time in all of the ground vibrational levels, only very specific superposition states can be prepared with high fidelity by either pre- or postoptimization mechanisms. Full state-selective population inversion requires manipulating the vibrational coherences in the ground electronic state before the optical pulse is applied and in the excited electronic state afterward, but not during all times.
Tunable quantum beam splitters for coherent manipulation of a solid-state tripartite qubit system.
Sun, Guozhu; Wen, Xueda; Mao, Bo; Chen, Jian; Yu, Yang; Wu, Peiheng; Han, Siyuan
2010-08-10
Coherent control of quantum states is at the heart of implementing solid-state quantum processors and testing quantum mechanics at the macroscopic level. Despite significant progress made in recent years in controlling single- and bi-partite quantum systems, coherent control of quantum wave function in multipartite systems involving artificial solid-state qubits has been hampered due to the relatively short decoherence time and lack of precise control methods. Here we report the creation and coherent manipulation of quantum states in a tripartite quantum system, which is formed by a superconducting qubit coupled to two microscopic two-level systems (TLSs). The avoided crossings in the system's energy-level spectrum due to the qubit-TLS interaction act as tunable quantum beam splitters of wave functions. Our result shows that the Landau-Zener-Stückelberg interference has great potential in precise control of the quantum states in the tripartite system.
Engineering of a quantum state by time-dependent decoherence-free subspaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, S. L.
2015-03-01
We apply the time-dependent decoherence-free subspace theory to a Markovian open quantum system in order to present a proposal for a quantum-state engineering program. By quantifying the purity of the quantum state, we verify that the quantum-state engineering process designed via our method is completely unitary within any total engineering time. Even though the controls on the open quantum system are not perfect, the asymptotic purity is still robust. Owing to its ability to completely resist decoherence and the lack of restraint in terms of the total engineering time, our proposal is suitable for multitask quantum-state engineering program. Therefore, this proposal is not only useful for achieving the quantum-state engineering program experimentally, it also helps us build both a quantum simulation and quantum information equipment in reality.
Minimum error discrimination between similarity-transformed quantum states
Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Sufiani, R.; Mazhari Khiavi, Y.
2011-07-15
Using the well-known necessary and sufficient conditions for minimum error discrimination (MED), we extract an equivalent form for the MED conditions. In fact, by replacing the inequalities corresponding to the MED conditions with an equivalent but more suitable and convenient identity, the problem of mixed state discrimination with optimal success probability is solved. Moreover, we show that the mentioned optimality conditions can be viewed as a Helstrom family of ensembles under some circumstances. Using the given identity, MED between N similarity transformed equiprobable quantum states is investigated. In the case that the unitary operators are generating a set of irreducible representation, the optimal set of measurements and corresponding maximum success probability of discrimination can be determined precisely. In particular, it is shown that for equiprobable pure states, the optimal measurement strategy is the square-root measurement (SRM), whereas for the mixed states, SRM is not optimal. In the case that the unitary operators are reducible, there is no closed-form formula in the general case, but the procedure can be applied in each case in accordance to that case. Finally, we give the maximum success probability of optimal discrimination for some important examples of mixed quantum states, such as generalized Bloch sphere m-qubit states, spin-j states, particular nonsymmetric qudit states, etc.
Magnetic resonance force microscopy and a solid state quantum computer.
Pelekhov, D. V.; Martin, I.; Suter, A.; Reagor, D. W.; Hammel, P. C.
2001-01-01
A Quantum Computer (QC) is a device that utilizes the principles of Quantum Mechanics to perform computations. Such a machine would be capable of accomplishing tasks not achievable by means of any conventional digital computer, for instance factoring large numbers. Currently it appears that the QC architecture based on an array of spin quantum bits (qubits) embedded in a solid-state matrix is one of the most promising approaches to fabrication of a scalable QC. However, the fabrication and operation of a Solid State Quantum Computer (SSQC) presents very formidable challenges; primary amongst these are: (1) the characterization and control of the fabrication process of the device during its construction and (2) the readout of the computational result. Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (MRFM)--a novel scanning probe technique based on mechanical detection of magnetic resonance-provides an attractive means of addressing these requirements. The sensitivity of the MRFM significantly exceeds that of conventional magnetic resonance measurement methods, and it has the potential for single electron spin detection. Moreover, the MRFM is capable of true 3D subsurface imaging. These features will make MRFM an invaluable tool for the implementation of a spin-based QC. Here we present the general principles of MRFM operation, the current status of its development and indicate future directions for its improvement.
Metal-to-insulator switching in quantum anomalous Hall states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kou, Xufeng; Pan, Lei; Wang, Jing; Fan, Yabin; Choi, Eun Sang; Lee, Wei-Li; Nie, Tianxiao; Murata, Koichi; Shao, Qiming; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Wang, Kang L.
2015-10-01
After decades of searching for the dissipationless transport in the absence of any external magnetic field, quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) was recently achieved in magnetic topological insulator films. However, the universal phase diagram of QAHE and its relation with quantum Hall effect (QHE) remain to be investigated. Here, we report the experimental observation of the giant longitudinal resistance peak and zero Hall conductance plateau at the coercive field in the six quintuple-layer (Cr0.12Bi0.26Sb0.62)2Te3 film, and demonstrate the metal-to-insulator switching between two opposite QAHE plateau states up to 0.3 K. Moreover, the universal QAHE phase diagram is confirmed through the angle-dependent measurements. Our results address that the quantum phase transitions in both QAHE and QHE regimes are in the same universality class, yet the microscopic details are different. In addition, the realization of the QAHE insulating state unveils new ways to explore quantum phase-related physics and applications.
Metal-to-insulator switching in quantum anomalous Hall states
Kou, Xufeng; Pan, Lei; Wang, Jing; Fan, Yabin; Choi, Eun Sang; Lee, Wei -Li; Nie, Tianxiao; Murata, Koichi; Shao, Qiming; Zhang, Shou -Cheng; Wang, Kang L.
2015-10-07
After decades of searching for the dissipationless transport in the absence of any external magnetic field, quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) was recently achieved in magnetic topological insulator films. However, the universal phase diagram of QAHE and its relation with quantum Hall effect (QHE) remain to be investigated. Here, we report the experimental observation of the giant longitudinal resistance peak and zero Hall conductance plateau at the coercive field in the six quintuple-layer (Cr_{0.12}Bi_{0.26}Sb_{0.62})_{2}Te_{3} film, and demonstrate the metal-to-insulator switching between two opposite QAHE plateau states up to 0.3 K. Moreover, the universal QAHE phase diagram is confirmed through the angle-dependent measurements. Our results address that the quantum phase transitions in both QAHE and QHE regimes are in the same universality class, yet the microscopic details are different. Additionally, the realization of the QAHE insulating state unveils new ways to explore quantum phase-related physics and applications.
Metal-to-insulator switching in quantum anomalous Hall states
Kou, Xufeng; Pan, Lei; Wang, Jing; ...
2015-10-07
After decades of searching for the dissipationless transport in the absence of any external magnetic field, quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) was recently achieved in magnetic topological insulator films. However, the universal phase diagram of QAHE and its relation with quantum Hall effect (QHE) remain to be investigated. Here, we report the experimental observation of the giant longitudinal resistance peak and zero Hall conductance plateau at the coercive field in the six quintuple-layer (Cr0.12Bi0.26Sb0.62)2Te3 film, and demonstrate the metal-to-insulator switching between two opposite QAHE plateau states up to 0.3 K. Moreover, the universal QAHE phase diagram is confirmed through themore » angle-dependent measurements. Our results address that the quantum phase transitions in both QAHE and QHE regimes are in the same universality class, yet the microscopic details are different. Additionally, the realization of the QAHE insulating state unveils new ways to explore quantum phase-related physics and applications.« less
Quantum-state transfer from an ion to a photon.
Stute, A; Casabone, B; Brandstätter, B; Friebe, K; Northup, T E; Blatt, R
2013-03-01
One model for quantum networks(1,2) is based on the probabilistic measurement of two photons, each entangled with a distant node, e.g., an atom or atomic ensemble(3-7). A second, deterministic model transfers information directly from an atom onto a cavity photon, which carries it to a second node(8), as recently demonstrated with neutral atoms(9). In both cases, the challenge is to transfer information efficiently while preserving coherence. Here, following the second scheme, we map the quantum state of an ion onto a photon within an optical cavity. Using an ion enables deterministic state initialization(10,11), while the cavity provides coherent coupling to a well-defined output mode(12-15). Although it is often assumed that a cavity-based quantum interface requires the strong-coupling regime, we show transfer fidelities of 92% in the presence of non-negligible decoherence and characterize the interplay between fidelity and efficiency. Our time-independent mapping process offers a promising route toward ion-based quantum networks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castro, E.; Gómez, R.; Ladera, C. L.; Zambrano, A.
2013-11-01
Among many applications quantum weak measurements have been shown to be important in exploring fundamental physics issues, such as the experimental violation of the Heisenberg uncertainty relation and the Hardy paradox, and have also technological implications in quantum optics, quantum metrology and quantum communications, where the precision of the measurement is as important as the precision of quantum state preparation. The theory of weak measurement can be formulated using the pre-and post-selected quantum systems, as well as using the weak measurement operator formalism. In this work, we study the quantum discord (QD) of quasi-Werner mixed states based on bipartite entangled coherent states using the weak measurements operator, instead of the projective measurement operators. We then compare the quantum discord for both kinds of measurement operators, in terms of the entanglement quality, the latter being measured using the concept of concurrence. It's found greater quantum correlations using the weak measurement operators.
Effects of Number Scaling on Entangled States in Quantum Mechanics
Benioff, Paul
2016-05-19
A summary of number structure scaling is followed by a description of the effects of number scaling in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. The description extends earlier work to include the effects on the states of two or more interacting particles. Emphasis is placed on the effects on entangled states. The resulting scaling field is generalized to describe the effects on these states. It is also seen that one can use fiber bundles with fibers associated with single locations of the underlying space to describe the effects of scaling on arbitrary numbers of particles.
Numerical analysis of decoy state quantum key distribution protocols
Harrington, Jim W; Rice, Patrick R
2008-01-01
Decoy state protocols are a useful tool for many quantum key distribution systems implemented with weak coherent pulses, allowing significantly better secret bit rates and longer maximum distances. In this paper we present a method to numerically find optimal three-level protocols, and we examine how the secret bit rate and the optimized parameters are dependent on various system properties, such as session length, transmission loss, and visibility. Additionally, we show how to modify the decoy state analysis to handle partially distinguishable decoy states as well as uncertainty in the prepared intensities.
Generating and protecting correlated quantum states under collective dephasing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carnio, Edoardo G.; Buchleitner, Andreas; Gessner, Manuel
2016-07-01
We study the collective dephasing process of a system of non-interacting atomic qubits, immersed in a spatially uniform magnetic field of fluctuating intensity. The correlation properties of bipartite states are analysed based on a geometric representation of the state space. Particular emphasis is put on the dephasing-assisted generation of states with a high correlation rank, which can be related to discord-type correlations and allow for direct applications in quantum information theory. Finally we study the conditions that ensure the robustness of initial entanglement and discuss the phenomenon of time-invariant entanglement.
Quantum state readout of individual quantum dots by electrostatic force detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyahara, Yoichi; Roy-Gobeil, Antoine; Grutter, Peter
2017-02-01
Electric charge detection by atomic force microscopy (AFM) with single-electron resolution (e-EFM) is a promising way to investigate the electronic level structure of individual quantum dots (QDs). The oscillating AFM tip modulates the energy of the QDs, causing single electrons to tunnel between QDs and an electrode. The resulting oscillating electrostatic force changes the resonant frequency and damping of the AFM cantilever, enabling electrometry with a single-electron sensitivity. Quantitative electronic level spectroscopy is possible by sweeping the bias voltage. Charge stability diagram can be obtained by scanning the AFM tip around the QD. e-EFM technique enables to investigate individual colloidal nanoparticles and self-assembled QDs without nanoscale electrodes. e-EFM is a quantum electromechanical system where the back-action of a tunneling electron is detected by AFM; it can also be considered as a mechanical analog of admittance spectroscopy with a radio frequency resonator, which is emerging as a promising tool for quantum state readout for quantum computing. In combination with the topography imaging capability of the AFM, e-EFM is a powerful tool for investigating new nanoscale material systems which can be used as quantum bits.
Experimental test of state-independent quantum contextuality of an indivisible quantum system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Meng; Huang, Yun-Feng; Cao, Dong-Yang; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Liu, Bi-Heng; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2014-05-01
Since the quantum mechanics was born, quantum mechanics was argued among scientists because the differences between quantum mechanics and the classical physics. Because of this, some people give hidden variable theory. One of the hidden variable theory is non-contextual hidden variable theory, and KS inequalities are famous in non-contextual hidden variable theory. But the original KS inequalities have 117 directions to measure, so it is almost impossible to test the KS inequalities in experiment. However bout two years ago, Sixia Yu and C.H. Oh point out that for a single qutrit, we only need to measure 13 directions, then we can test the KS inequalities. This makes it possible to test the KS inequalities in experiment. We use the polarization and the path of single photon to construct a qutrit, and we use the half-wave plates, the beam displacers and polar beam splitters to prepare the quantum state and finish the measurement. And the result prove that quantum mechanics is right and non-contextual hidden variable theory is wrong.
Superposition states for quantum nanoelectronic circuits and their nonclassical properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Jeong Ryeol
2016-09-01
Quantum properties of a superposition state for a series RLC nanoelectronic circuit are investigated. Two displaced number states of the same amplitude but with opposite phases are considered as components of the superposition state. We have assumed that the capacitance of the system varies with time and a time-dependent power source is exerted on the system. The effects of displacement and a sinusoidal power source on the characteristics of the state are addressed in detail. Depending on the magnitude of the sinusoidal power source, the wave packets that propagate in charge(q)-space are more or less distorted. Provided that the displacement is sufficiently high, distinct interference structures appear in the plot of the time behavior of the probability density whenever the two components of the wave packet meet together. This is strong evidence for the advent of nonclassical properties in the system, that cannot be interpretable by the classical theory. Nonclassicality of a quantum system is not only a beneficial topic for academic interest in itself, but its results can be useful resources for quantum information and computation as well.
Quantum-State-Resolved Ion-Molecule Chemistry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Gary; Yang, Tiangang; Campbell, Wesley; Hudson, Eric
2016-05-01
We propose a method to achieve quantum-state-resolved ion-molecule chemistry by utilizing cryogenic buffer gas cooling techniques and a combination of ion imaging and mass spectrometry of targets in an RF Paul trap. Cold molecular species produced by a cryogenic buffer gas beam (CBGB) are introduced to target ion species in an linear quadrupole trap (LQT) where ion imaging techniques and time of flight mass spectrometry (ToF) are then used to observe the target ions and the charged reaction products [1,2]. By taking advantage of the large ion-neutral interaction cross sections and characteristically long ion trap lifetimes, we can utilize the precision control over quantum states allowed by an ion trap to resolve state-to-state quantum chemical reactions without high-density molecular sample production, well within proposed capabilities. The combination of these two very general cold species production techniques allows for production and observation of a broad range of ion-neutral reactions. We initially plan to study chemical reactions between sympathetically cooled carbon ions (via laser cooled beryllium ions) with buffer gas cooled water. This work is supported by the US Air Force Office of Scientific Research.
Patterns of gravity induced aggregate migration during casting of fluid concretes
Spangenberg, J.; Roussel, N.; Hattel, J.H.; Sarmiento, E.V.; Zirgulis, G.; Geiker, M.R.
2012-12-15
In this paper, aggregate migration patterns during fluid concrete castings are studied through experiments, dimensionless approach and numerical modeling. The experimental results obtained on two beams show that gravity induced migration is primarily affecting the coarsest aggregates resulting in a decrease of coarse aggregates volume fraction with the horizontal distance from the pouring point and in a puzzling vertical multi-layer structure. The origin of this multi layer structure is discussed and analyzed with the help of numerical simulations of free surface flow. Our results suggest that it finds its origin in the non Newtonian nature of fresh concrete and that increasing casting rate shall decrease the magnitude of gravity induced particle migration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Yong-Su; Kwon, Osung; Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Heonoh; Choi, Sang-Kyung; Park, Hee Su; Kim, Yoon-Ho
2011-08-01
Spatial interference of quantum mechanical particles exhibits a fundamental feature of quantum mechanics. A two-mode entangled state of N particles known as N00N state can give rise to non-classical interference. We report the first experimental observation of a three-photon N00N state exhibiting Young's double-slit type spatial quantum interference. Compared to a single-photon state, the three-photon entangled state generates interference fringes that are three times denser. Moreover, its interference visibility of 0.49 +/- 0.09 is well above the limit of 0.1 for spatial super-resolution of classical origin. The demonstration of spatial quantum interference by a N00N state composed of more than two photons represents an important step towards applying quantum entanglement to technologies such as lithography and imaging.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuen, H. P.; Shapiro, J. H.
1978-01-01
To determine the ultimate performance limitations imposed by quantum effects, it is also essential to consider optimum quantum-state generation. Certain 'generalized' coherent states of the radiation field possess novel quantum noise characteristics that offer the potential for greatly improved optical communications. These states have been called two-photon coherent states because they can be generated, in principle, by stimulated two-photon processes. The use of two-photon coherent state (TCS) radiation in free-space optical communications is considered. A simple theory of quantum state propagation is developed. The theory provides the basis for representing the free-space channel in a quantum-mechanical form convenient for communication analysis. The new theory is applied to TCS radiation.
An Immune Quantum Communication Model for Dephasing Noise Using Four-Qubit Cluster State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Rui-jin; Li, Dong-fen; Qin, Zhi-guang
2016-01-01
Quantum secure communication of dephasing in the presence of noise is a hot spot in research in the field of quantum secure communication. Quantum steganography aims is to transfer secret information in public quantum channel. But because effect of annealing phase noise, quantum states which is need to transfer easily delayed or changed. So, quantum steganography is very meaning apply to transmit secret information covertly in quantum noisy channels. The article introduced dephasing noise impact on the physics of quantum state, through the theoretical research, construct the logic of quantum states to back the phase noise immunity, and construct the decoherence free subspace, It can guarantees fidelity secret information exchange through quantum communication model in a noisy environment.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Imbriale, W. A.; Moore, M.; Rochblatt, D. J.; Veruttipong, W.
1995-01-01
At the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) Goldstone Complex, a 34-meter- diameter beam-waveguide antenna, DSS-13, was constructed in 1988-1990 and has become an integral part of an advanced systems program and a test bed for technologies being developed to introduce Ka-band (32 GHz) frequencies into the DSN. A method for compensating the gravity- induced structural deformations in this large antenna is presented.
Generation of a sub-Poissonian state with quantum high- and low-pass filters
Wang Haibo; Li Yongmin; Odate, Satoru; Kobayashi, Takayoshi
2005-07-15
We introduce a quantum component, the quantum high- and low-pass filter, and analyze its output characteristic. It is shown that a quantum bandpass filter can be achieved by using passive linear optics and projection measurements. Furthermore, we show that the sub-Poissonian state can be generated by using a cascaded quantum low-pass filter and high-pass filter.
Broken-Symmetry Quantum Hall States in Twisted Bilayer Graphene
Kim, Youngwook; Park, Jaesung; Song, Intek; Ok, Jong Mok; Jo, Younjung; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniquchi, Takashi; Choi, Hee Cheul; Lee, Dong Su; Jung, Suyong; Kim, Jun Sung
2016-01-01
Twisted bilayer graphene offers a unique bilayer two-dimensional-electron system where the layer separation is only in sub-nanometer scale. Unlike Bernal-stacked bilayer, the layer degree of freedom is disentangled from spin and valley, providing eight-fold degeneracy in the low energy states. We have investigated broken-symmetry quantum Hall (QH) states and their transitions due to the interplay of the relative strength of valley, spin and layer polarizations in twisted bilayer graphene. The energy gaps of the broken-symmetry QH states show an electron-hole asymmetric behaviour, and their dependence on the induced displacement field are opposite between even and odd filling factor states. These results strongly suggest that the QH states with broken valley and spin symmetries for individual layer become hybridized via interlayer tunnelling, and the hierarchy of the QH states is sensitive to both magnetic field and displacement field due to charge imbalance between layers. PMID:27905496
Local State and Sector Theory in Local Quantum Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ojima, Izumi; Okamura, Kazuya; Saigo, Hayato
2016-06-01
We define a new concept of local states in the framework of algebraic quantum field theory (AQFT). Local states are a natural generalization of states and give a clear vision of localization in the context of QFT. In terms of them, we can find a condition from which follows automatically the famous DHR selection criterion in DHR-DR theory. As a result, we can understand the condition as consequences of physically natural state preparations in vacuum backgrounds. Furthermore, a theory of orthogonal decomposition of completely positive (CP) maps is developed. It unifies a theory of orthogonal decomposition of states and order structure theory of CP maps. Using it, localized version of sectors is formulated, which gives sector theory for local states with respect to general reference representations.
Distillation of nonstabilizer states for universal quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duclos-Cianci, Guillaume; Svore, Krysta M.
2013-10-01
Magic-state distillation is a fundamental technique for realizing fault-tolerant universal quantum computing and produces high-fidelity Clifford eigenstates, called magic states, which can be used to implement the non-Clifford π/8 gate. We propose an efficient protocol for distilling other nonstabilizer states that requires only Clifford operations, measurement, and magic states. One critical application of our protocol is efficiently and fault-tolerantly implementing arbitrary, non-Clifford, single-qubit rotations in, on average, constant online circuit depth and polylogarithmic (in precision) offline resource cost, resulting in significant improvements over state-of-the-art decomposition techniques. Finally, we show that our protocol is robust to noise in the resource states.
Broken-Symmetry Quantum Hall States in Twisted Bilayer Graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Youngwook; Park, Jaesung; Song, Intek; Ok, Jong Mok; Jo, Younjung; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniquchi, Takashi; Choi, Hee Cheul; Lee, Dong Su; Jung, Suyong; Kim, Jun Sung
2016-12-01
Twisted bilayer graphene offers a unique bilayer two-dimensional-electron system where the layer separation is only in sub-nanometer scale. Unlike Bernal-stacked bilayer, the layer degree of freedom is disentangled from spin and valley, providing eight-fold degeneracy in the low energy states. We have investigated broken-symmetry quantum Hall (QH) states and their transitions due to the interplay of the relative strength of valley, spin and layer polarizations in twisted bilayer graphene. The energy gaps of the broken-symmetry QH states show an electron-hole asymmetric behaviour, and their dependence on the induced displacement field are opposite between even and odd filling factor states. These results strongly suggest that the QH states with broken valley and spin symmetries for individual layer become hybridized via interlayer tunnelling, and the hierarchy of the QH states is sensitive to both magnetic field and displacement field due to charge imbalance between layers.
Quantum cryptography using coherent states: Randomized encryption and key generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corndorf, Eric
With the advent of the global optical-telecommunications infrastructure, an increasing number of individuals, companies, and agencies communicate information with one another over public networks or physically-insecure private networks. While the majority of the traffic flowing through these networks requires little or no assurance of secrecy, the same cannot be said for certain communications between banks, between government agencies, within the military, and between corporations. In these arenas, the need to specify some level of secrecy in communications is a high priority. While the current approaches to securing sensitive information (namely the public-key-cryptography infrastructure and deterministic private-key ciphers like AES and 3DES) seem to be cryptographically strong based on empirical evidence, there exist no mathematical proofs of secrecy for any widely deployed cryptosystem. As an example, the ubiquitous public-key cryptosystems infer all of their secrecy from the assumption that factoring of the product of two large primes is necessarily time consuming---something which has not, and perhaps cannot, be proven. Since the 1980s, the possibility of using quantum-mechanical features of light as a physical mechanism for satisfying particular cryptographic objectives has been explored. This research has been fueled by the hopes that cryptosystems based on quantum systems may provide provable levels of secrecy which are at least as valid as quantum mechanics itself. Unfortunately, the most widely considered quantum-cryptographic protocols (BB84 and the Ekert protocol) have serious implementation problems. Specifically, they require quantum-mechanical states which are not readily available, and they rely on unproven relations between intrusion-level detection and the information available to an attacker. As a result, the secrecy level provided by these experimental implementations is entirely unspecified. In an effort to provably satisfy the cryptographic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Aihan; Wang, Jiwei
2016-12-01
In this paper, a new scheme of quantum information splitting (8QIS) by using five-qubit state and GHZ-state as quantum channel is proposed. The sender Alice performs Bell-state measurements (BSMs) on her qubit-pairs respectively,then tells her measurement result to the receivers Bob. If Bob wants to reconstruct the original states, he must cooperates with the controller Charlie, that Charlie performs two single particle measurement on his qubits and tells Bob the results. According to Alice's and Bob's results, Bob can reconstruct the initial state by applying appropriate unitary operation.
Coherent states and parasupersymmetric quantum mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Debergh, Nathalie
1992-01-01
It is well known that Parafermi and Parabose statistics are natural extensions of the usual Fermi and Bose ones, enhancing trilinear (anti)commutation relations instead of bilinear ones. Due to this generalization, positive parameters appear: the so-called orders of paraquantization p (= 1, 2, 3, ...) and h sub 0 (= 1/2, 1, 3/2, ...), respectively, the first value leading in each case to the usual statistics. The superpostion of the parabosonic and parafermionic operators gives rise to parasupermultiplets for which mixed trilinear relations have already been studied leading to two (nonequivalent) sets: the relative Parabose and the relative Parafermi ones. For the specific values p = 1 = 2h sub 0, these sets reduce to the well known supersymmetry. Coherent states associated with this last model have been recently put in evidence through the annihilation operator point of view and the group theoretical approach or displacement operator context. We propose to realize the corresponding studies within the new context p = 2 = 2h sub 0, being then directly extended to any order of paraquantization.
Quantum frequency up-conversion of continuous variable entangled states
Liu, Wenyuan; Wang, Ning; Li, Zongyang; Li, Yongmin
2015-12-07
We demonstrate experimentally quantum frequency up-conversion of a continuous variable entangled optical field via sum-frequency-generation process. The two-color entangled state initially entangled at 806 and 1518 nm with an amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 3.2 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 3.1 dB is converted to a new entangled state at 530 and 1518 nm with the amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 1.7 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 1.8 dB. Our implementation enables the observation of entanglement between two light fields spanning approximately 1.5 octaves in optical frequency. The presented scheme is robust to the excess amplitude and phase noises of the pump field, making it a practical building block for quantum information processing and communication networks.
Quantum memory receiver for superadditive communication using binary coherent states
Klimek, Aleksandra; Jachura, Michał; Wasilewski, Wojciech; Banaszek, Konrad
2016-01-01
We propose a simple architecture based on multimode quantum memories for collective readout of classical information keyed using a pair coherent states, exemplified by the well-known binary phase shift keying format. Such a configuration enables demonstration of the superadditivity effect in classical communication over quantum channels, where the transmission rate becomes enhanced through joint detection applied to multiple channel uses. The proposed scheme relies on the recently introduced idea to prepare Hadamard sequences of input symbols that are mapped by a linear optical transformation onto the pulse position modulation format [Guha, S. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2011, 106, 240502]. We analyze two versions of readout based on direct detection and an optional Dolinar receiver which implements the minimum-error measurement for individual detection of a binary coherent state alphabet. PMID:27695200
Bidirectional imperfect quantum teleportation with a single Bell state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiktenko, E. O.; Popov, A. A.; Fedorov, A. K.
2016-06-01
We present a bidirectional modification of the standard one-qubit teleportation protocol, where both Alice and Bob transfer noisy versions of their qubit states to each other by using single Bell state and auxiliary (trigger) qubits. Three schemes are considered: the first where the actions of parties are governed by two independent quantum random triggers, the second with single random trigger, and the third as a mixture of the first two. We calculate the fidelities of teleportation for all schemes and find a condition on correlation between trigger qubits in the mixed scheme which allows us to overcome the classical fidelity boundary of 2/3. We apply the Choi-Jamiolkowski isomorphism to the quantum channels obtained in order to investigate an interplay between their ability to transfer the information, entanglement-breaking property, and auxiliary classical communication needed to form correlations between trigger qubits. The suggested scheme for bidirectional teleportation can be realized by using current experimental tools.
Edge-state blockade of transport in quantum dot arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benito, Mónica; Niklas, Michael; Platero, Gloria; Kohler, Sigmund
2016-03-01
We propose a transport blockade mechanism in quantum dot arrays and conducting molecules based on an interplay of Coulomb repulsion and the formation of edge states. As a model we employ a dimer chain that exhibits a topological phase transition. The connection to a strongly biased electron source and drain enables transport. We show that the related emergence of edge states is manifest in the shot noise properties as it is accompanied by a crossover from bunched electron transport to a Poissonian process. For both regions we develop a scenario that can be captured by a rate equation. The resulting analytical expressions for the Fano factor agree well with the numerical solution of a full quantum master equation.
Cornering Gapless Quantum States via Their Torus Entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Witczak-Krempa, William; Hayward Sierens, Lauren E.; Melko, Roger G.
2017-02-01
The entanglement entropy (EE) has emerged as an important window into the structure of complex quantum states of matter. We analyze the universal part of the EE for gapless systems on tori in 2D and 3D, denoted by χ . Focusing on scale-invariant systems, we derive general nonperturbative properties for the shape dependence of χ and reveal surprising relations to the EE associated with corners in the entangling surface. We obtain closed-form expressions for χ in 2D and 3D within a model that arises in the study of conformal field theories (CFTs), and we use them to obtain Ansätze without fitting parameters for the 2D and 3D free boson CFTs. Our numerical lattice calculations show that the Ansätze are highly accurate. Finally, we discuss how the torus EE can act as a fingerprint of exotic states such as gapless quantum spin liquids, e.g., Kitaev's honeycomb model.
Quantum frequency up-conversion of continuous variable entangled states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wenyuan; Wang, Ning; Li, Zongyang; Li, Yongmin
2015-12-01
We demonstrate experimentally quantum frequency up-conversion of a continuous variable entangled optical field via sum-frequency-generation process. The two-color entangled state initially entangled at 806 and 1518 nm with an amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 3.2 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 3.1 dB is converted to a new entangled state at 530 and 1518 nm with the amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 1.7 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 1.8 dB. Our implementation enables the observation of entanglement between two light fields spanning approximately 1.5 octaves in optical frequency. The presented scheme is robust to the excess amplitude and phase noises of the pump field, making it a practical building block for quantum information processing and communication networks.
Bulk entanglement spectrum reveals quantum criticality within a topological state.
Hsieh, Timothy H; Fu, Liang
2014-09-05
A quantum phase transition is usually achieved by tuning physical parameters in a Hamiltonian at zero temperature. Here, we show that the ground state of a topological phase itself encodes critical properties of its transition to a trivial phase. To extract this information, we introduce an extensive partition of the system into two subsystems both of which extend throughout the bulk in all directions. The resulting bulk entanglement spectrum has a low-lying part that resembles the excitation spectrum of a bulk Hamiltonian, which allows us to probe a topological phase transition from a single wave function by tuning either the geometry of the partition or the entanglement temperature. As an example, this remarkable correspondence between the topological phase transition and the entanglement criticality is rigorously established for integer quantum Hall states.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnston, John D.; Blandino, Joseph R.; McEvoy, Kiley C.
2004-01-01
The development of gossamer space structures such as solar sails and sunshields presents many challenges due to their large size and extreme flexibility. The post-deployment structural geometry exhibited during ground testing may significantly depart from the in-space configuration due to the presence of gravity-induced deformations (gravity sag) of lightly preloaded membranes. This paper describes a study carried out to characterize gravity sag in two subscale gossamer structures: a single quadrant from a 2 m, 4 quadrant square solar sail and a 1.7 m membrane layer from a multi-layer sunshield The behavior of the test articles was studied over a range of preloads and in several orientations with respect to gravity. An experimental study was carried out to measure the global surface profiles using photogrammetry, and nonlinear finite element analysis was used to predict the behavior of the test articles. Comparison of measured and predicted surface profiles shows that the finite dement analysis qualitatively predicts deformed shapes comparable to those observed in the laboratory. Quantitatively, finite element analysis predictions for peak gravity-induced deformations in both test articles were within 10% of measured values. Results from this study provide increased insight into gravity sag behavior in gossamer structures, and demonstrates the potential to analytically predict gravity-induced deformations to within reasonable accuracy.
Wu, Jin-Lei; Ji, Xin; Zhang, Shou
2017-01-01
We propose a dressed-state scheme to achieve shortcuts to adiabaticity in atom-cavity quantum electrodynamics for speeding up adiabatic two-atom quantum state transfer and maximum entanglement generation. Compared with stimulated Raman adiabatic passage, the dressed-state scheme greatly shortens the operation time in a non-adiabatic way. By means of some numerical simulations, we determine the parameters which can guarantee the feasibility and efficiency both in theory and experiment. Besides, numerical simulations also show the scheme is robust against the variations in the parameters, atomic spontaneous emissions and the photon leakages from the cavity.
Dissipative dynamics of a quantum two-state system in presence of nonequilibrium quantum noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mann, Niklas; Brüggemann, Jochen; Thorwart, Michael
2016-12-01
We analyze the real-time dynamics of a quantum two-state system in the presence of nonequilibrium quantum fluctuations. The latter are generated by a coupling of the two-state system to a single electronic level of a quantum dot which carries a nonequilibrium tunneling current. We restrict to the sequential tunneling regime and calculate the dynamics of the two-state system, of the dot population, and of the nonequilibrium charge current on the basis of a diagrammatic perturbative method valid for a weak tunneling coupling. We find a nontrivial dependence of the relaxation and dephasing rates of the two-state system due to the nonequilibrium fluctuations which is directly linked to the structure of the unperturbed central system. In addition, a Heisenberg-Langevin-equation of motion allows us to calculate the correlation function of the nonequilibrium fluctuations. By this, we obtain a generalized nonequilibrium fluctuation relation which includes the equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation theorem in the limit of zero transport voltage. A straightforward extension to the case with a time-periodic ac voltage is shown.
Realignment criteria for recognizing multipartite entanglement of quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yan-Hua; Lu, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Guang-Bin; Shen, Shu-Qian
2017-04-01
By multiple realignments of density matrices, we present a new separability criterion for the multipartite quantum state, which includes the computable cross-norm or realignment criterion and the multipartite partial realignment criterion as special cases. An example is used to show that the new criterion can be more efficient than the corresponding multipartite realignment criteria given in Horodecki et al. (Open Syst Inf Dyn 13:103-111, 2006) and Shen et al. (Phys Rev A 92:042332, 2015).
Probing the quantumness of channels with mixed states
Haeseler, Hauke; Luetkenhaus, Norbert
2009-10-15
We present an alternative approach to the derivation of benchmarks for quantum channels, such as memory or teleportation channels. Using the concept of effective entanglement and the verification thereof, a testing procedure is derived which demands very few experimental resources. The procedure is generalized by allowing for mixed test states. By constructing optimized measure and reprepare channels, the benchmarks are found to be very tight in the considered experimental regimes.
Local unitary equivalence of quantum states and simultaneous orthogonal equivalence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jing, Naihuan; Yang, Min; Zhao, Hui
2016-06-01
The correspondence between local unitary equivalence of bipartite quantum states and simultaneous orthogonal equivalence is thoroughly investigated and strengthened. It is proved that local unitary equivalence can be studied through simultaneous similarity under projective orthogonal transformations, and four parametrization independent algorithms are proposed to judge when two density matrices on ℂd1 ⊗ ℂd2 are locally unitary equivalent in connection with trace identities, Kronecker pencils, Albert determinants and Smith normal forms.
Gravity-induced swirl of nanoparticles in microfluidics
Zhao, Chao; Oztekin, Alparslan
2013-01-01
Parallel flows of two fluids in microfluidic devices are used for miniaturized chemistry, physics, biology and bioengineering studies, and the streams are often considered to remain parallel. However, as the two fluids do not always have the same density, interface reorientation induced by density stratification is unavoidable. In this paper, flow characteristics of an aqueous polystyrene nanofluid and a sucrose-densified aqueous solution flowing parallel in microchannels are examined. Nanoparticles 100 nm in diameter are used in the study. The motion of the nanoparticles is simulated using the Lagrangian description and directly observed by a confocal microscope. Matched results are obtained from computational and empirical analysis. Although solution density homogenizes rapidly resulting from a fast diffusion of sucrose in water, the nanofluid is observed to rotate for an extended period. Angular displacement of the nanofluid depends on the ratio of gravitational force to viscous force, Re/Fr2, where Re is the Reynolds number and Fr is the Froude number. In the developing region at the steady state, the angular displacement is related to y/Dh, the ratio between distance from the inlet and the hydraulic diameter of the microfluidic channel. The development of nanofluid flow feature also depends on h/w, the ratio of microfluidic channel’s height to width. The quantitative description of the angular displacement of nanofluid will aid rational designs of microfluidic devices utilizing multistream, multiphase flows. PMID:24563612
Gravity-induced swirl of nanoparticles in microfluidics.
Zhao, Chao; Oztekin, Alparslan; Cheng, Xuanhong
2013-04-01
Parallel flows of two fluids in microfluidic devices are used for miniaturized chemistry, physics, biology and bioengineering studies, and the streams are often considered to remain parallel. However, as the two fluids do not always have the same density, interface reorientation induced by density stratification is unavoidable. In this paper, flow characteristics of an aqueous polystyrene nanofluid and a sucrose-densified aqueous solution flowing parallel in microchannels are examined. Nanoparticles 100 nm in diameter are used in the study. The motion of the nanoparticles is simulated using the Lagrangian description and directly observed by a confocal microscope. Matched results are obtained from computational and empirical analysis. Although solution density homogenizes rapidly resulting from a fast diffusion of sucrose in water, the nanofluid is observed to rotate for an extended period. Angular displacement of the nanofluid depends on the ratio of gravitational force to viscous force, Re/Fr(2), where Re is the Reynolds number and Fr is the Froude number. In the developing region at the steady state, the angular displacement is related to y/Dh, the ratio between distance from the inlet and the hydraulic diameter of the microfluidic channel. The development of nanofluid flow feature also depends on h/w, the ratio of microfluidic channel's height to width. The quantitative description of the angular displacement of nanofluid will aid rational designs of microfluidic devices utilizing multistream, multiphase flows.
Purification-based metric to measure the distance between quantum states and processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osán, Tristán M.; Lamberti, Pedro W.
2013-06-01
In this work we study the properties of a purification-based entropic metric for measuring the distance between both quantum states and quantum processes. This metric is defined as the square root of the entropy of the average of two purifications of mixed quantum states which maximize the overlap between the purified states. We analyze this metric and show that it satisfies many appealing properties, which suggest this metric is an interesting proposal for theoretical and experimental applications of quantum information.
Effective localization potential of quantum states in disordered media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcel, Filoche; Arnold, Douglas N.; David, Guy; Jerison, David; Mayboroda, Svitlana
The amplitude of localized quantum states in random or disordered media may exhibit long range exponential decay. We present here a theory that unveils the existence of a localization landscape that controls the amplitude of the eigenstates in any quantum system. For second order operators such as the Schrödinger operator, this localization landscape is simply the solution of a Dirichlet problem with uniform right-hand side. Moreover, we show that the reciprocal of this landscape plays the role of an effective potential which finely governs the confinement of the quantum states. In this picture, the boundaries of the localization subregions for low energy eigenfunctions correspond to the barriers of this effective potential, and the long range exponential decay characteristic of Anderson localization is explained as the consequence of multiple tunneling in the dense network of barriers created by this effective potential. Finally, we show that the Weyl's formula based on this potential turns out to be a remarkable approximation of the density of states for a large variety of systems, periodic or random, 1D, 2D, or 3D. NSF Grant DMS-1418805, ANR Grant GEOMETRYA ANR-12-BS01-0014, NSF Grant DMS-1069225, NSF CAREER Award DMS-1056004, NSF INSPIRE Grant.
Optimal control for perfect state transfer in linear quantum memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakao, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Naoki
2017-03-01
A quantum memory is a system that enables transfer, storage, and retrieval of optical quantum states by ON/OFF switching of the control signal in each stage of the memory. In particular, it is known that, for perfect transfer of a single-photon state, appropriate shaping of the input pulse is required. However, in general, such a desirable pulse shape has a complicated form, which would be hard to generate in practice. In this paper, for a wide class of linear quantum memory systems, we develop a method that reduces the complexity of the input pulse shape of a single photon while maintaining the perfect state transfer. The key idea is twofold; (i) the control signal is allowed to vary continuously in time to introduce an additional degree of freedom, and then (ii) an optimal control problem is formulated to design a simple-formed input pulse and the corresponding control signal. Numerical simulations are conducted for Λ-type atomic media and networked atomic ensembles, to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Resource theory of quantum states out of thermal equilibrium.
Brandão, Fernando G S L; Horodecki, Michał; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Renes, Joseph M; Spekkens, Robert W
2013-12-20
The ideas of thermodynamics have proved fruitful in the setting of quantum information theory, in particular the notion that when the allowed transformations of a system are restricted, certain states of the system become useful resources with which one can prepare previously inaccessible states. The theory of entanglement is perhaps the best-known and most well-understood resource theory in this sense. Here, we return to the basic questions of thermodynamics using the formalism of resource theories developed in quantum information theory and show that the free energy of thermodynamics emerges naturally from the resource theory of energy-preserving transformations. Specifically, the free energy quantifies the amount of useful work which can be extracted from asymptotically many copies of a quantum system when using only reversible energy-preserving transformations and a thermal bath at fixed temperature. The free energy also quantifies the rate at which resource states can be reversibly interconverted asymptotically, provided that a sublinear amount of coherent superposition over energy levels is available, a situation analogous to the sublinear amount of classical communication required for entanglement dilution.
Vibrational exciton mediated quantum state transfer: Simple model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pouthier, Vincent
2012-06-01
A communication protocol is proposed in which quantum state transfer is mediated by a vibrational exciton. We consider two distant molecular groups grafted on the sides of a one-dimensional lattice. These groups behave as two quantum computers where the information in encoded and received. The lattice plays the role of a communication channel along which the exciton propagates and interacts with a phonon bath. Special attention is paid to describing the system involving an exciton dressed by a single phonon mode. The Hamiltonian is thus solved exactly so that the relevance of the perturbation theory is checked. Within the nonadiabatic weak-coupling limit, it is shown that the system supports three quasidegenerate states that define the relevant paths followed by the exciton to tunnel between the computers. When the model parameters are judiciously chosen, constructive interferences take place between these paths. Phonon-induced decoherence is minimized and a high-fidelity quantum state transfer occurs over a broad temperature range.
Effect of carrier dynamics and temperature on two-state lasing in semiconductor quantum dot lasers
Korenev, V. V. Savelyev, A. V.; Zhukov, A. E.; Omelchenko, A. V.; Maximov, M. V.
2013-10-15
It is analytically shown that the both the charge carrier dynamics in quantum dots and their capture into the quantum dots from the matrix material have a significant effect on two-state lasing phenomenon in quantum dot lasers. In particular, the consideration of desynchronization in electron and hole capture into quantum dots allows one to describe the quenching of ground-state lasing observed at high injection currents both qualitatevely and quantitatively. At the same time, an analysis of the charge carrier dynamics in a single quantum dot allowed us to describe the temperature dependences of the emission power via the ground- and excited-state optical transitions of quantum dots.
Quantum state tomography and fidelity estimation via Phaselift
Lu, Yiping; Liu, Huan; Zhao, Qing
2015-09-15
Experiments of multi-photon entanglement have been performed by several groups. Obviously, an increase on the photon number for fidelity estimation and quantum state tomography causes a dramatic increase in the elements of the positive operator valued measures (POVMs), which results in a great consumption of time in measurements. In practice, we wish to obtain a good estimation of fidelity and quantum states through as few measurements as possible for multi-photon entanglement. Phaselift provides such a chance to estimate fidelity for entangling states based on less data. In this paper, we would like to show how the Phaselift works for six qubits in comparison to the data given by Pan’s group, i.e., we use a fraction of the data as input to estimate the rest of the data through the obtained density matrix, and thus goes beyond the simple fidelity analysis. The fidelity bound is also provided for general Schrödinger Cat state. Based on the fidelity bound, we propose an optimal measurement approach which could both reduce the copies and keep the fidelity bound gap small. The results demonstrate that the Phaselift can help decrease the measured elements of POVMs for six qubits. Our conclusion is based on the prior knowledge that a pure state is the target state prepared by experiments.
Decoy-state quantum key distribution with biased basis choice
Wei, Zhengchao; Wang, Weilong; Zhang, Zhen; Gao, Ming; Ma, Zhi; Ma, Xiongfeng
2013-01-01
We propose a quantum key distribution scheme that combines a biased basis choice with the decoy-state method. In this scheme, Alice sends all signal states in the Z basis and decoy states in the X and Z basis with certain probabilities, and Bob measures received pulses with optimal basis choice. This scheme simplifies the system and reduces the random number consumption. From the simulation result taking into account of statistical fluctuations, we find that in a typical experimental setup, the proposed scheme can increase the key rate by at least 45% comparing to the standard decoy-state scheme. In the postprocessing, we also apply a rigorous method to upper bound the phase error rate of the single-photon components of signal states. PMID:23948999
Graph State-Based Quantum Group Authentication Scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Longxia; Peng, Xiaoqi; Shi, Jinjing; Guo, Ying
2017-02-01
Motivated by the elegant structure of the graph state, we design an ingenious quantum group authentication scheme, which is implemented by operating appropriate operations on the graph state and can solve the problem of multi-user authentication. Three entities, the group authentication server (GAS) as a verifier, multiple users as provers and the trusted third party Trent are included. GAS and Trent assist the multiple users in completing the authentication process, i.e., GAS is responsible for registering all the users while Trent prepares graph states. All the users, who request for authentication, encode their authentication keys on to the graph state by performing Pauli operators. It demonstrates that a novel authentication scheme can be achieved with the flexible use of graph state, which can synchronously authenticate a large number of users, meanwhile the provable security can be guaranteed definitely.
Quantum state control and characterization in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myrskog, Stefan Henrik
In this dissertation I present experimental work on the measurement and manipulation of the center-of-mass motion of laser-cooled atoms. The first experiment described demonstrates cooling of an atom cloud by 'delta-kick cooling'. A thermal cloud of atoms in a vacuum expands ballistically, generating correlations between position and momentum. An appropriate momentum kick, proportional to position, results in slowing down all the atoms in the cloud. Through this technique a cloud of atoms can be cooled by greater than a factor of 10, preserving phase-space density, but decreasing the number density of atoms. By using laser-cooled atoms, it is also possible to confine atoms in potentials created by the AC-Stark shift of the atomic energy levels. Using interfering lasers to create the Stark shift, atoms are confined in a sinusoidal potential called an optical lattice. After preparing atoms in the lowest-energy band of the lattice, a spatial displacement can create coherent superpositions of many states of the potential. A combination of time delays and secondary displacements allows the measurement of the Q (Husimi) and W (Wigner) quasi-probability distributions, each of which completely characterizes the motional state of the atoms. Alternatively, a shallow lattice that only support two long-lived states can be used. The two-state system may be characterized with far fewer measurements, and furthermore, can be used as a model system for a qubit, a quantum representation of a single bit of information, useful for quantum computation. We demonstrate reconstruction of the density matrix in the 2-state system. The two-state system has be further used to characterize the physical action of an operation. By preparing a complete set of input density matrices we perform quantum process tomography for the intrinsic decoherence of the lattice, and two operations that correspond to single qubit rotations.
Quantum State Discrimination Using the Minimum Average Number of Copies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slussarenko, Sergei; Weston, Morgan M.; Li, Jun-Gang; Campbell, Nicholas; Wiseman, Howard M.; Pryde, Geoff J.
2017-01-01
In the task of discriminating between nonorthogonal quantum states from multiple copies, the key parameters are the error probability and the resources (number of copies) used. Previous studies have considered the task of minimizing the average error probability for fixed resources. Here we introduce a new state discrimination task: minimizing the average resources for a fixed admissible error probability. We show that this new task is not performed optimally by previously known strategies, and derive and experimentally test a detection scheme that performs better.
Quantum secret sharing using the d-dimensional GHZ state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Chen-Ming; Li, Zhi-Hui; Xu, Ting-Ting; Li, Yong-Ming
2017-03-01
We propose a quantum secret sharing scheme that uses an orthogonal pair of n-qudit GHZ states and local distinguishability. In the proposed protocol, the participants use an X-basis measurement and classical communication to distinguish between the two orthogonal states and reconstruct the original secret. We also present (2, n)-threshold and generalized restricted (2, n)-threshold schemes that enable any two cooperating players from two disjoint groups to always reconstruct the secret. Compared to the existing scheme by Rahaman and Parker (Phys Rev A 91:022330, 2015), the proposed scheme is more general and the access structure contains more authorized sets.
Maximizing the Divergence from a Hierarchical Model of Quantum States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weis, Stephan; Knauf, Andreas; Ay, Nihat; Zhao, Ming-Jing
2015-03-01
We study many-party correlations quantified in terms of the Umegaki relative entropy (divergence) from a Gibbs family known as a hierarchical model. We derive these quantities from the maximum-entropy principle which was used earlier to define the closely related irreducible correlation. We point out the differences between quantum states and probability vectors which exist in hierarchical models, in the divergence from a hierarchical model and in local maximizers of this divergence. The differences are, respectively, missing factorization, discontinuity and reduction of uncertainty. We discuss global maximizers of the mutual information of separable qubit states.
Moussa, Osama; Baugh, Jonathan; Ryan, Colm A; Laflamme, Raymond
2011-10-14
We report the implementation of a 3-qubit quantum error-correction code on a quantum information processor realized by the magnetic resonance of carbon nuclei in a single crystal of malonic acid. The code corrects for phase errors induced on the qubits due to imperfect decoupling of the magnetic environment represented by nearby spins, as well as unwanted evolution under the internal Hamiltonian. We also experimentally demonstrate sufficiently high-fidelity control to implement two rounds of quantum error correction. This is a demonstration of state-of-the-art control in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, a leading test bed for the implementation of quantum algorithms.
Coherent state excitons in anisotropic quantum dots: classical and quantum correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thilagam, A.
2012-06-01
We investigate the entanglement dynamics of excitons confined in two adjacent quantum dots, which we describe through their algebraic properties using \\mathfrak {su}(1,1) in the z-direction. We use two explicit forms of coherent states: the Perelomov and Barut-Girardello states to represent the electronic component of the excitonic state in the z-direction. Our results show that in a coherent state basis, the concurrence of an excitonic-qubit pair shows subtle variations which are dependent on the algebraic parameters of the \\mathfrak {su}(1,1) group. These variations also appear in the classical and quantum correlations, present in the qubit-qubit density matrix that is associated with the purely Förster-coupled excitonic-qubit pair. A brief discussion of a plausible experimental technique of detecting excitonic coherent states is provided. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’.
Comment on"Teleportation Protocol of Three-Qubit State Using Four-Qubit Quantum Channels"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Zhao-Hui; Zha, Xin-Wei; Yu, Yan
2016-11-01
Recently, Choudhury (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 10, 1007 2016), proposed a teleportation protocol of three-qubit state using four-qubit quantum channels.According to their scheme the three-qubit entangled states could be teleported by use of three simultaneous quantum channels of four-qubit cluster states. In this paper,we emphasize that the same three-qubit entangled states can be teleported perfectly by using only one quantum channel of four-qubit cluster states.
Fault-tolerant authenticated quantum dialogue using logical Bell states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Tian-Yu
2015-09-01
Two fault-tolerant authenticated quantum dialogue protocols are proposed in this paper by employing logical Bell states as the quantum resource, which combat the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively. The two proposed protocols each can accomplish the mutual identity authentication and the dialogue between two participants simultaneously and securely over one kind of collective noise channels. In each of two proposed protocols, the information transmitted through the classical channel is assumed to be eavesdroppable and modifiable. The key for choosing the measurement bases of sample logical qubits is pre-shared privately between two participants. The Bell state measurements rather than the four-qubit joint measurements are adopted for decoding. The two participants share the initial states of message logical Bell states with resort to the direct transmission of auxiliary logical Bell states so that the information leakage problem is avoided. The impersonation attack, the man-in-the-middle attack, the modification attack and the Trojan horse attacks from Eve all are detectable.
A New Quantum Proxy Multi-signature Scheme Using Maximally Entangled Seven-Qubit States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Hai-Jing; Zhang, Jia-Fu; Liu, Jian; Li, Zeng-You
2016-02-01
In this paper, we propose a new secure quantum proxy multi-signature scheme using seven-qubit entangled quantum state as quantum channels, which may have applications in e-payment system, e-government, e-business, etc. This scheme is based on controlled quantum teleportation. The scheme uses the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to guarantee its anonymity, verifiability, traceability, unforgetability and undeniability.
Floating Extended States in a Disordered Quantum Hall System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glozman, Igor
1995-01-01
Several recent experiments, on various GaAs systems, have shown that an insulating phase at B = 0 can undergo a phase transition to the quantum Hall liquid (QHL) phase in an applied magnetic field B. The transition was generally interpreted as being consistent with the global phase diagram (GPD) of the quantum Hall effect. While the GPD is parametrized in terms of disorder and magnetic field, another canonical theory treats the field-induced delocalization phenomenon in the context of "floating" energy levels. While the two theories are not inconsistent with each other, this thesis will present experimental evidence in direct support for the latter theory. it will be demonstrated conclusively that it is indeed the levitation (or floating) of a delocalized state (as B to 0) that underlies the delocalization transition. A complete understanding of the remarkable phenomenon clearly requires a reasonable microscopic picture. Toward this end, two recent theoretical papers have suggested that Landau level mixing is at the root of the experimentally observed levitation. In fact, it has already been shown numerically that the energy of the delocalized states can shift upward due to Landau level mixing. Experimentally, a similar determination, with respect to Landau level mixing, necessitates the examination of the density of states (DOS). In order to obtain the relevant DOS information, we have conducted a systematic study of the minimum conductivity in the vicinity of the insulator-quantum Hall liquid transition. Since, at low-temperatures, hopping between localized sates is the dominant conduction mechanism for a QHL state, the minimum in conductivity should directly reflect the minimum in the DOS. Experimental evidence will be presented, through an anomalous behavior of the conductivity minimum, that Landau level mixing is indeed important and directly associated with the floating of the delocalized states.
Dynamics of Photoexcited State of Semiconductor Quantum Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trivedi, Dhara J.
In this thesis, non-adiabatic molecular dynamics (NAMD) of excited states in semiconductor quantum dots are investigated. Nanoscale systems provide important opportunities for theory and computation for research because the experimental tools often provide an incomplete picture of the structure and/or function of nanomaterials, and theory can often fill in missing features crucial in understanding what is being measured. The simulation of NAMD is an indispensable tool for understanding complex ultrafast photoinduced processes such as charge and energy transfer, thermal relaxation, and charge recombination. Based on the state-of-the-art ab initio approaches in both the energy and time domains, the thesis presents a comprehensive discussion of the dynamical processes in quantum dots, ranging from the initial photon absorption to the final emission. We investigate the energy relaxation and transfer rates in pure and surface passivated quantum dots of different sizes. The study establishes the fundamental mechanisms of the electron and hole relaxation processes with and without hole traps. We develop and implement more accurate and efficient methods for NAMD. These methods are advantageous over the traditional ones when one encounters classically forbidden transitions. We also explore the effect of decoherence and non-adiabatic couplings on the dynamics. The results indicate significant influence on the accuracy and related computational cost of the simulated dynamics.
Quantum Cloning of an Unknown 2-Atom State via Entangled Cluster States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, L.-z.; Zhong, F.
2016-06-01
This paper presented a scheme for cloning a 2-atom state in the QED cavity with the help of Victor who is the state's preparer. The cloning scheme has two steps. In the first step, the scheme requires probabilistic teleportation of a 2-atom state that is unknown in advance, and uses a 4-atom cluster state as quantum channel. In the second step, perfect copies of the 2-atom entangled state may be realized with the assistance of Victor. The finding is that our scheme has two outstanding advantages: it is not sensitive to the cavity decay, and Bell state is easy to identify.
Hua, Ming; Tao, Ming-Jie; Deng, Fu-Guo
2016-01-01
We propose a quantum processor for the scalable quantum computation on microwave photons in distant one-dimensional superconducting resonators. It is composed of a common resonator R acting as a quantum bus and some distant resonators rj coupled to the bus in different positions assisted by superconducting quantum interferometer devices (SQUID), different from previous processors. R is coupled to one transmon qutrit, and the coupling strengths between rj and R can be fully tuned by the external flux through the SQUID. To show the processor can be used to achieve universal quantum computation effectively, we present a scheme to complete the high-fidelity quantum state transfer between two distant microwave-photon resonators and another one for the high-fidelity controlled-phase gate on them. By using the technique for catching and releasing the microwave photons from resonators, our processor may play an important role in quantum communication as well. PMID:26907366
Algorithmic Construction of Local Hidden Variable Models for Entangled Quantum States.
Hirsch, Flavien; Quintino, Marco Túlio; Vértesi, Tamás; Pusey, Matthew F; Brunner, Nicolas
2016-11-04
Constructing local hidden variable (LHV) models for entangled quantum states is a fundamental problem, with implications for the foundations of quantum theory and for quantum information processing. It is, however, a challenging problem, as the model should reproduce quantum predictions for all possible local measurements. Here we present a simple method for building LHV models, applicable to any entangled state and considering continuous sets of measurements. This leads to a sequence of tests which, in the limit, fully captures the set of quantum states admitting a LHV model. Similar methods are developed for local hidden state models. We illustrate the practical relevance of these methods with several examples.
Algorithmic Construction of Local Hidden Variable Models for Entangled Quantum States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirsch, Flavien; Quintino, Marco Túlio; Vértesi, Tamás; Pusey, Matthew F.; Brunner, Nicolas
2016-11-01
Constructing local hidden variable (LHV) models for entangled quantum states is a fundamental problem, with implications for the foundations of quantum theory and for quantum information processing. It is, however, a challenging problem, as the model should reproduce quantum predictions for all possible local measurements. Here we present a simple method for building LHV models, applicable to any entangled state and considering continuous sets of measurements. This leads to a sequence of tests which, in the limit, fully captures the set of quantum states admitting a LHV model. Similar methods are developed for local hidden state models. We illustrate the practical relevance of these methods with several examples.
Fault tolerance in parity-state linear optical quantum computing
Hayes, A. J. F.; Ralph, T. C.; Haselgrove, H. L.; Gilchrist, Alexei
2010-08-15
We use a combination of analytical and numerical techniques to calculate the noise threshold and resource requirements for a linear optical quantum computing scheme based on parity-state encoding. Parity-state encoding is used at the lowest level of code concatenation in order to efficiently correct errors arising from the inherent nondeterminism of two-qubit linear-optical gates. When combined with teleported error-correction (using either a Steane or Golay code) at higher levels of concatenation, the parity-state scheme is found to achieve a saving of approximately three orders of magnitude in resources when compared to the cluster state scheme, at a cost of a somewhat reduced noise threshold.
Quantum entanglement of locally excited states in Maxwell theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nozaki, Masahiro; Watamura, Naoki
2016-12-01
In 4 dimensional Maxwell gauge theory, we study the changes of (Rényi) entanglement entropy which are defined by subtracting the entropy for the ground state from the one for the locally excited states, generated by acting with gauge invariant local operators on the state. The changes for the operators which we consider in this paper reflect the electric-magnetic duality. The late-time value of changes can be interpreted in terms of electromagnetic quasi-particles. When the operator constructed of both electric and magnetic fields acts on the ground state, it shows that the operator acts on the late-time structure of quantum entanglement differently from free scalar fields.
Separable balls around the maximally mixed multipartite quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gurvits, Leonid; Barnum, Howard
2003-10-01
We show that for an m-partite quantum system, there is a ball of radius 2-(m/2-1) in Frobenius norm, centered at the identity matrix, of separable (unentangled) positive semidefinite matrices. This can be used to derive an ɛ below which mixtures of ɛ of any density matrix with 1-ɛ of the maximally mixed state will be separable. The ɛ thus obtained is exponentially better (in the number of systems) than existing results. This gives a number of qubits below which nuclear magnetic resonance with standard pseudopure-state preparation techniques can access only unentangled states; with parameters realistic for current experiments, this is 23 qubits (compared to 13 qubits via earlier results). A ball of radius 1 is obtained for multipartite states separable over the reals.
Nonlocal entanglement of coherent states, complementarity, and quantum erasure
Gerry, Christopher C.; Grobe, R.
2007-03-15
We describe a nonlocal method for generating entangled coherent states of a two-mode field wherein the field modes never meet. The proposed method is an extension of an earlier proposal [C. C. Gerry, Phys. Rev. A 59, 4095 (1999)] for the generation of superpositions of coherent states. A single photon injected into a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with cross-Kerr media in both arms coupling with two external fields in coherent states produces entangled coherent states upon detection at one of the output ports. We point out that our proposal can be alternatively viewed as a 'which path' experiment, and in the case of only one external field, we describe the implementation of a quantum eraser.
Selective protected state preparation of coupled dissipative quantum emitters
Plankensteiner, D.; Ostermann, L.; Ritsch, H.; Genes, C.
2015-01-01
Inherent binary or collective interactions in ensembles of quantum emitters induce a spread in the energy and lifetime of their eigenstates. While this typically causes fast decay and dephasing, in many cases certain special entangled collective states with minimal decay can be found, which possess ideal properties for spectroscopy, precision measurements or information storage. We show that for a specific choice of laser frequency, power and geometry or a suitable configuration of control fields one can efficiently prepare these states. We demonstrate this by studying preparation schemes for strongly subradiant entangled states of a chain of dipole-dipole coupled emitters. The prepared state fidelity and its entanglement depth is further improved via spatial excitation phase engineering or tailored magnetic fields. PMID:26549501
Quantum key agreement protocols with four-qubit cluster states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Ye-Feng; Ma, Wen-Ping
2015-09-01
Based on unitary operations and four-qubit cluster states, a two-party and a three-party quantum key agreement protocols are proposed, respectively, in this paper. The two-party protocol allows that each participant contributes equally to the agreement key by one party performing the unitary operations on two photons of a cluster state and another party performing the delayed measurement on the transformed cluster state. In the three-party scheme, each party can extract the other two parties' secret keys, respectively, encoded in the different photons of the same cluster state by performing the measurement with cluster basis and fairly generates the shared key. The security analysis shows that the two protocols can resist against both participant and outsider attacks. Furthermore, the two protocols also achieve high qubit efficiency.
Efficient numerical simulation of electron states in quantum wires
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kerkhoven, Thomas; Galick, Albert T.; Ravaioli, Umberto; Arends, John H.; Saad, Youcef
1990-01-01
A new algorithm is presented for the numerical simulation of electrons in a quantum wire as described by a two-dimensional eigenvalue problem for Schroedinger's equation coupled with Poisson's equation. Initially, the algorithm employs an underrelaxed fixed point iteration to generate an approximation which is reasonably close to the solution. Subsequently, this approximate solution is employed as an initial guess for a Jacobian-free implementation of an approximate Newton method. In this manner the nonlinearity in the model is dealt with effectively. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated in a set of numerical experiments which study the electron states on the cross section of a quantum wire structure based on III-V semiconductors at 4.2 and 77 K.
Experimental realization of equiangular three-state quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schiavon, Matteo; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo
2016-07-01
Quantum key distribution using three states in equiangular configuration combines a security threshold comparable with the one of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol and a quantum bit error rate (QBER) estimation that does not need to reveal part of the key. We implement an entanglement-based version of the Renes 2004 protocol, using only passive optic elements in a linear scheme for the positive-operator valued measure (POVM), generating an asymptotic secure key rate of more than 10 kbit/s, with a mean QBER of 1.6%. We then demonstrate its security in the case of finite key and evaluate the key rate for both collective and general attacks.
Wavelets and the squeezed states of quantum optics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Defacio, B.
1992-01-01
Wavelets are new mathematical objects which act as 'designer trigonometric functions.' To obtain a wavelet, the original function space of finite energy signals is generalized to a phase-space, and the translation operator in the original space has a scale change in the new variable adjoined to the translation. Localization properties in the phase-space can be improved and unconditional bases are obtained for a broad class of function and distribution spaces. Operators in phase space are 'almost diagonal' instead of the traditional condition of being diagonal in the original function space. These wavelets are applied to the squeezed states of quantum optics. The scale change required for a quantum wavelet is shown to be a Yuen squeeze operator acting on an arbitrary density operator.
Noise thresholds for optical cluster-state quantum computation
Dawson, Christopher M.; Nielsen, Michael A.; Haselgrove, Henry L.
2006-05-15
In this paper we do a detailed numerical investigation of the fault-tolerant threshold for optical cluster-state quantum computation. Our noise model allows both photon loss and depolarizing noise, as a general proxy for all types of local noise other than photon loss noise. We obtain a threshold region of allowed pairs of values for the two types of noise. Roughly speaking, our results show that scalable optical quantum computing is possible in the combined presence of both noise types, provided that the loss probability is less than 3x10{sup -3} and the depolarization probability is less than 10{sup -4}. Our fault-tolerant protocol involves a number of innovations, including a method for syndrome extraction known as telecorrection, whereby repeated syndrome measurements are guaranteed to agree. This paper is an extended version of Dawson et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 020501 (2006)].
Casimir-Polder shifts on quantum levitation states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crépin, P.-P.; Dufour, G.; Guérout, R.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.
2017-03-01
An ultracold atom above a horizontal mirror experiences quantum reflection from the attractive Casimir-Polder interaction, which holds it against gravity and leads to quantum levitation states. We analyze this system by using a Liouville transformation of the Schrödinger equation and a Langer coordinate adapted to problems with a classical turning point. Reflection on the Casimir-Polder attractive well is replaced by reflection on a repulsive wall, and the problem is then viewed as an ultracold atom trapped inside a cavity with gravity and Casimir-Polder potentials acting, respectively, as top and bottom mirrors. We calculate numerically Casimir-Polder shifts of the energies of the cavity resonances and propose an approximate treatment which is precise enough to discuss spectroscopy experiments aimed at tests of the weak-equivalence principle on antihydrogen. We also discuss the lifetimes by calculating complex energies associated with cavity resonances.
Efficient Biologically Inspired Photocell Enhanced by Delocalized Quantum States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Creatore, C.; Parker, M. A.; Emmott, S.; Chin, A. W.
2013-12-01
Artificially implementing the biological light reactions responsible for the remarkably efficient photon-to-charge conversion in photosynthetic complexes represents a new direction for the future development of photovoltaic devices. Here, we develop such a paradigm and present a model photocell based on the nanoscale architecture and molecular elements of photosynthetic reaction centers. Quantum interference of photon absorption and emission induced by the dipole-dipole interaction between molecular excited states guarantees an enhanced light-to-current conversion and power generation for a wide range of electronic, thermal, and optical parameters for optimized dipolar geometries. This result opens a promising new route for designing artificial light-harvesting devices inspired by biological photosynthesis and quantum technologies.
Entanglement of periodic states, the quantum Fourier transform, and Shor's factoring algorithm
Most, Yonatan; Biham, Ofer; Shimoni, Yishai
2010-05-15
The preprocessing stage of Shor's algorithm generates a class of quantum states referred to as periodic states, on which the quantum Fourier transform is applied. Such states also play an important role in other quantum algorithms that rely on the quantum Fourier transform. Since entanglement is believed to be a necessary resource for quantum computational speedup, we analyze the entanglement of periodic states and the way it is affected by the quantum Fourier transform. To this end, we derive a formula that evaluates the Groverian entanglement measure for periodic states. Using this formula, we explain the surprising result that the Groverian entanglement of the periodic states built up during the preprocessing stage is only slightly affected by the quantum Fourier transform.
Xu, Kebiao; Xie, Tianyu; Li, Zhaokai; Xu, Xiangkun; Wang, Mengqi; Ye, Xiangyu; Kong, Fei; Geng, Jianpei; Duan, Changkui; Shi, Fazhan; Du, Jiangfeng
2017-03-31
The adiabatic quantum computation is a universal and robust method of quantum computing. In this architecture, the problem can be solved by adiabatically evolving the quantum processor from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to that of a final one, which encodes the solution of the problem. Adiabatic quantum computation has been proved to be a compatible candidate for scalable quantum computation. In this Letter, we report on the experimental realization of an adiabatic quantum algorithm on a single solid spin system under ambient conditions. All elements of adiabatic quantum computation, including initial state preparation, adiabatic evolution (simulated by optimal control), and final state read-out, are realized experimentally. As an example, we found the ground state of the problem Hamiltonian S_{z}I_{z} on our adiabatic quantum processor, which can be mapped to the factorization of 35 into its prime factors 5 and 7.
Quantum teleportation from light beams to vibrational states of a macroscopic diamond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, P.-Y.; Huang, Y.-Y.; Yuan, X.-X.; Chang, X.-Y.; Zu, C.; He, L.; Duan, L.-M.
2016-05-01
With the recent development of optomechanics, the vibration in solids, involving collective motion of trillions of atoms, gradually enters into the realm of quantum control. Here, building on the recent remarkable progress in optical control of motional states of diamonds, we report an experimental demonstration of quantum teleportation from light beams to vibrational states of a macroscopic diamond under ambient conditions. Through quantum process tomography, we demonstrate average teleportation fidelity (90.6+/-1.0)%, clearly exceeding the classical limit of 2/3. The experiment pushes the target of quantum teleportation to the biggest object so far, with interesting implications for optomechanical quantum control and quantum information science.
Generation of multiphoton entangled quantum states by means of integrated frequency combs.
Reimer, Christian; Kues, Michael; Roztocki, Piotr; Wetzel, Benjamin; Grazioso, Fabio; Little, Brent E; Chu, Sai T; Johnston, Tudor; Bromberg, Yaron; Caspani, Lucia; Moss, David J; Morandotti, Roberto
2016-03-11
Complex optical photon states with entanglement shared among several modes are critical to improving our fundamental understanding of quantum mechanics and have applications for quantum information processing, imaging, and microscopy. We demonstrate that optical integrated Kerr frequency combs can be used to generate several bi- and multiphoton entangled qubits, with direct applications for quantum communication and computation. Our method is compatible with contemporary fiber and quantum memory infrastructures and with chip-scale semiconductor technology, enabling compact, low-cost, and scalable implementations. The exploitation of integrated Kerr frequency combs, with their ability to generate multiple, customizable, and complex quantum states, can provide a scalable, practical, and compact platform for quantum technologies.
Quantum teleportation from light beams to vibrational states of a macroscopic diamond
Hou, P.-Y.; Huang, Y.-Y.; Yuan, X.-X.; Chang, X.-Y.; Zu, C.; He, L.; Duan, L.-M.
2016-01-01
With the recent development of optomechanics, the vibration in solids, involving collective motion of trillions of atoms, gradually enters into the realm of quantum control. Here, building on the recent remarkable progress in optical control of motional states of diamonds, we report an experimental demonstration of quantum teleportation from light beams to vibrational states of a macroscopic diamond under ambient conditions. Through quantum process tomography, we demonstrate average teleportation fidelity (90.6±1.0)%, clearly exceeding the classical limit of 2/3. The experiment pushes the target of quantum teleportation to the biggest object so far, with interesting implications for optomechanical quantum control and quantum information science. PMID:27240553
Quantum teleportation from light beams to vibrational states of a macroscopic diamond.
Hou, P-Y; Huang, Y-Y; Yuan, X-X; Chang, X-Y; Zu, C; He, L; Duan, L-M
2016-05-31
With the recent development of optomechanics, the vibration in solids, involving collective motion of trillions of atoms, gradually enters into the realm of quantum control. Here, building on the recent remarkable progress in optical control of motional states of diamonds, we report an experimental demonstration of quantum teleportation from light beams to vibrational states of a macroscopic diamond under ambient conditions. Through quantum process tomography, we demonstrate average teleportation fidelity (90.6±1.0)%, clearly exceeding the classical limit of 2/3. The experiment pushes the target of quantum teleportation to the biggest object so far, with interesting implications for optomechanical quantum control and quantum information science.
Quantum teleportation of a polarization state with a complete bell state measurement.
Kim, Y H; Kulik, S P; Shih, Y
2001-02-12
We report a quantum teleportation experiment in which nonlinear interactions are used for the Bell state measurements. The experimental results demonstrate the working principle of irreversibly teleporting an unknown arbitrary polarization state from one system to another distant system by disassembling into and then later reconstructing from purely classical information and nonclassical EPR correlations. The distinct feature of this experiment is that all four Bell states can be distinguished in the Bell state measurement. Teleportation of a polarization state can thus occur with certainty in principle.
Binding Energy of Quantum Bound States in X-shaped Nanowire Intersection
2014-01-01
20] M. A. M. Versteegh, P. J. S. van Capel, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Ultrafast all-optical gated amplifier based on zno nanowire lasing,” Applied Physics...States in X-shaped Nanowire Intersection The question of the possible existence of the quantum bound states (localized states) due to special...geometries has been a long standing problem in quantum theory. Knowledge of quantum bound states in crossed nanowire system is very important in
On extremal quantum states of composite systems with fixed marginals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudolph, Oliver
2004-11-01
We study the convex set C(ρ1,ρ2) of all bipartite quantum states with fixed marginal states ρ1 and ρ2. The extremal states in this set have recently been characterized by Parthasarathy [Ann. Henri Poincaré (to appear), quant-ph/0307182]. Here we present an alternative necessary and sufficient condition for a state in C(ρ1,ρ2) to be extremal. Our approach is based on a canonical duality between bipartite states and a certain class of completely positive maps and has the advantage that it is easier to check and to construct explicit examples of extremal states. In dimension 2×2 we give a simple new proof for the fact that all extremal states in C(1/21,1/21) are precisely the projectors onto maximally entangled wave functions. We also prove that in higher dimension this does not hold and construct an explicit example of an extremal state in C(1/31,1/31) that is not maximally entangled. Generalizations of this result to higher dimensions are also discussed.
Conal representation of quantum states and non-trace-preserving quantum operations
Arrighi, Pablo; Patricot, Christophe
2003-10-01
We represent generalized density matrices of a d-complex dimensional quantum system as a subcone of a real pointed cone of revolution in R{sup d{sup 2}}, or indeed a Minkowskian cone in E{sup 1,d{sup 2}-1}. Generalized pure states correspond to certain future-directed lightlike vectors of E{sup 1,d{sup 2}-1}. This extension of the generalized Bloch sphere enables us to cater for non-trace-preserving quantum operations, and in particular to view the per-outcome effects of generalized measurements. We show that these consist of the product of an orthogonal transform about the axis of the cone of revolution and a positive real linear transform. We give detailed formulas for the one-qubit case and express the post-measurement states in terms of the initial-state vectors and measurement vectors. We apply these results in order to find the information gain versus disturbance trade-off in the case of two equiprobable pure states. Thus we recover Fuchs and Peres's formula in an elegant manner.
Collapsing a perfect superposition to a chosen quantum state without measurement.
Younes, Ahmed; Abdel-Aty, Mahmoud
2014-01-01
Given a perfect superposition of [Formula: see text] states on a quantum system of [Formula: see text] qubits. We propose a fast quantum algorithm for collapsing the perfect superposition to a chosen quantum state [Formula: see text] without applying any measurements. The basic idea is to use a phase destruction mechanism. Two operators are used, the first operator applies a phase shift and a temporary entanglement to mark [Formula: see text] in the superposition, and the second operator applies selective phase shifts on the states in the superposition according to their Hamming distance with [Formula: see text]. The generated state can be used as an excellent input state for testing quantum memories and linear optics quantum computers. We make no assumptions about the used operators and applied quantum gates, but our result implies that for this purpose the number of qubits in the quantum register offers no advantage, in principle, over the obvious measurement-based feedback protocol.
Probing quantum frustrated systems via factorization of the ground state.
Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2010-05-21
The existence of definite orders in frustrated quantum systems is related rigorously to the occurrence of fully factorized ground states below a threshold value of the frustration. Ground-state separability thus provides a natural measure of frustration: strongly frustrated systems are those that cannot accommodate for classical-like solutions. The exact form of the factorized ground states and the critical frustration are determined for various classes of nonexactly solvable spin models with different spatial ranges of the interactions. For weak frustration, the existence of disentangling transitions determines the range of applicability of mean-field descriptions in biological and physical problems such as stochastic gene expression and the stability of long-period modulated structures.
Bosonization, coherent states and semiclassical quantum Hall skyrmions.
Dutta, Sreedhar B; Shankar, R
2008-07-09
We bosonize (2+1)-dimensional fermionic theory using coherent states. The gauge-invariant subspace of boson-Chern-Simons Hilbert space is mapped to fermionic Hilbert space. This subspace is then equipped with a coherent state basis. These coherent states are labelled by a dynamic spinor field. The label manifold could be assigned a physical meaning in terms of density and spin density. A path-integral representation of the evolution operator in terms of these physical variables is given. The corresponding classical theory when restricted to LLL is described by spin fluctuations alone and is found to be the NLSM with Hopf term. The formalism developed here is suitable to study quantum Hall skyrmions semiclassically and/or beyond the hydrodynamic limit. The effects of Landau level mixing or the presence of slowly varying external fields can also be easily incorporated.
How to upload a physical quantum state into correlation space
Morimae, Tomoyuki
2011-04-15
In the framework of the computational tensor network [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 220503 (2007)], the quantum computation is performed in a virtual linear space called the correlation space. It was recently shown [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 050503 (2009)] that a state in a correlation space can be downloaded to the real physical space. In this paper, conversely, we study how to upload a state from a real physical space to the correlation space. After showing the impossibility of cloning a state between a real physical space and the correlation space, we propose a simple teleportation-like method of uploading. This method also enables the Gottesman-Chuang gate teleportation trick and entanglement swapping in the virtual-real hybrid setting. Furthermore, compared with the inverse of the downloading method by Cai et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 050503 (2009)], which also works to upload, the proposed uploading method has several advantages.
Grothendieck's constant and local models for noisy entangled quantum states
Acin, Antonio; Gisin, Nicolas; Toner, Benjamin
2006-06-15
We relate the nonlocal properties of noisy entangled states to Grothendieck's constant, a mathematical constant appearing in Banach space theory. For two-qubit Werner states {rho}{sub p}{sup W}=p|{psi}{sup -}><{psi}{sup -}|+(1-p)1/4, we show that there is a local model for projective measurements if and only if p{<=}1/K{sub G}(3), where K{sub G}(3) is Grothendieck's constant of order 3. Known bounds on K{sub G}(3) prove the existence of this model at least for p < or approx. 0.66, quite close to the current region of Bell violation, p{approx}0.71. We generalize this result to arbitrary quantum states.
Quantum quenches in the thermodynamic limit. II. Initial ground states.
Rigol, Marcos
2014-09-01
A numerical linked-cluster algorithm was recently introduced to study quantum quenches in the thermodynamic limit starting from thermal initial states [M. Rigol, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 170601 (2014)]. Here, we tailor that algorithm to quenches starting from ground states. In particular, we study quenches from the ground state of the antiferromagnetic Ising model to the XXZ chain. Our results for spin correlations are shown to be in excellent agreement with recent analytical calculations based on the quench action method. We also show that they are different from the correlations in thermal equilibrium, which confirms the expectation that thermalization does not occur in general in integrable models even if they cannot be mapped to noninteracting ones.
NOON states via a quantum walk of bound particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Compagno, Enrico; Banchi, Leonardo; Gross, Christian; Bose, Sougato
2017-01-01
Tight-binding lattice models allow the creation of bound composite objects which, in the strong-interacting regime, are protected against dissociation. We show that a local impurity in the lattice potential can generate a coherent split of an incoming bound particle wave packet which consequently produces a NOON state between the endpoints. This is nontrivial because, when finite lattices are involved, edge-localization effects render challenging their use for nonclassical state generation and information transfer. We derive an effective model to describe the propagation of bound particles in a Bose-Hubbard chain. We introduce local impurities in the lattice potential to inhibit localization effects and to split the propagating bound particle, thus enabling the generation of distant NOON states. We analyze how minimal engineering transfer schemes improve the transfer fidelity and we quantify the robustness to typical decoherence effects in optical lattice implementations. Our scheme potentially has an impact on quantum-enhanced atomic interferometry in a lattice.
Side Channel Passive Quantum Key Distribution with One Uninformative State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Guo-Dong; Zhou, Qing-Ping; Fang, Mao-Fa
2016-12-01
In most of quantum key distribution schemes, real random number generators are required on both sides for preparation and measurement bases choice. In this paper, via entangled photon pairs, we present a side channel passive quantum key distribution scheme, in which random number generator is unneeded on the receiver side. On the sender Alice side, along with massive of signal photons, small amount of uninformative photons are randomly sent to her partner Bob for eavesdropper-presence testing and error estimation. While on the other side channel, without using random number generator Bob do not actively measure the income signals randomly in two non-orthogonal bases. Instead, he just passively register photon click events, in two settled symmetric (i.e.X) bases, and the raw key(click events) is the probable outcomes of a special quantum measurement module constructed by Alice and Bob. Further, security analysis and formulas of security bounds for this scheme is also investigated under reasonable assumptions. Our work shows that the uninformative state employed in this paper is powerful to fight against eavesdropper Eve.
Side Channel Passive Quantum Key Distribution with One Uninformative State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Guo-Dong; Zhou, Qing-Ping; Fang, Mao-Fa
2017-03-01
In most of quantum key distribution schemes, real random number generators are required on both sides for preparation and measurement bases choice. In this paper, via entangled photon pairs, we present a side channel passive quantum key distribution scheme, in which random number generator is unneeded on the receiver side. On the sender Alice side, along with massive of signal photons, small amount of uninformative photons are randomly sent to her partner Bob for eavesdropper-presence testing and error estimation. While on the other side channel, without using random number generator Bob do not actively measure the income signals randomly in two non-orthogonal bases. Instead, he just passively register photon click events, in two settled symmetric (i.e. X) bases, and the raw key(click events) is the probable outcomes of a special quantum measurement module constructed by Alice and Bob. Further, security analysis and formulas of security bounds for this scheme is also investigated under reasonable assumptions. Our work shows that the uninformative state employed in this paper is powerful to fight against eavesdropper Eve.
Efficient optimal minimum error discrimination of symmetric quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Assalini, Antonio; Cariolaro, Gianfranco; Pierobon, Gianfranco
2010-01-01
This article deals with the quantum optimal discrimination among mixed quantum states enjoying geometrical uniform symmetry with respect to a reference density operator ρ0. It is well known that the minimal error probability is given by the positive operator-valued measure obtained as a solution of a convex optimization problem, namely a set of operators satisfying geometrical symmetry, with respect to a reference operator Π0 and maximizing Tr(ρ0Π0). In this article, by resolving the dual problem, we show that the same result is obtained by minimizing the trace of a semidefinite positive operator X commuting with the symmetry operator and such that X⩾ρ0. The new formulation gives a deeper insight into the optimization problem and allows to obtain closed-form analytical solutions, as shown by a simple but not trivial explanatory example. In addition to the theoretical interest, the result leads to semidefinite programming solutions of reduced complexity, allowing to extend the numerical performance evaluation to quantum communication systems modeled in Hilbert spaces of large dimension.
Ensembles of physical states and random quantum circuits on graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamma, Alioscia; Santra, Siddhartha; Zanardi, Paolo
2012-11-01
In this paper we continue and extend the investigations of the ensembles of random physical states introduced in Hamma [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.109.040502 109, 040502 (2012)]. These ensembles are constructed by finite-length random quantum circuits (RQC) acting on the (hyper)edges of an underlying (hyper)graph structure. The latter encodes for the locality structure associated with finite-time quantum evolutions generated by physical, i.e., local, Hamiltonians. Our goal is to analyze physical properties of typical states in these ensembles; in particular here we focus on proxies of quantum entanglement as purity and α-Renyi entropies. The problem is formulated in terms of matrix elements of superoperators which depend on the graph structure, choice of probability measure over the local unitaries, and circuit length. In the α=2 case these superoperators act on a restricted multiqubit space generated by permutation operators associated to the subsets of vertices of the graph. For permutationally invariant interactions the dynamics can be further restricted to an exponentially smaller subspace. We consider different families of RQCs and study their typical entanglement properties for finite time as well as their asymptotic behavior. We find that area law holds in average and that the volume law is a typical property (that is, it holds in average and the fluctuations around the average are vanishing for the large system) of physical states. The area law arises when the evolution time is O(1) with respect to the size L of the system, while the volume law arises as is typical when the evolution time scales like O(L).
Comparison of quantum discord and fully entangled fraction of two classes of d⊗ d^2 states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behdani, Javad; Akhtarshenas, Seyed Javad; Sarbishaei, Mohsen
2017-01-01
The quantumness of a generic state is the resource of many applications in quantum information theory, and it is interesting to survey the measures which are able to detect its trace in the properties of the state. In this work, we study the quantum discord and fully entangled fraction of two classes of bipartite states and compare their behaviors. These classes are complements to the d⊗ d Werner and isotropic states, in the sense that each class possesses the same purification as the corresponding complemental class of states. Our results show that maximally entangled mixed states are also maximally discordant states, leading to a generalization of the well-known fact that all maximally entangled pure states have also maximum quantum discord. Moreover, it is shown that the separability-entanglement boundary of a Werner or isotropic state is manifested as an inflection point in the diagram of quantum discord of the corresponding complemental state.
Towards a Model Selection Rule for Quantum State Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scholten, Travis; Blume-Kohout, Robin
Quantum tomography on large and/or complex systems will rely heavily on model selection techniques, which permit on-the-fly selection of small efficient statistical models (e.g. small Hilbert spaces) that accurately fit the data. Many model selection tools, such as hypothesis testing or Akaike's AIC, rely implicitly or explicitly on the Wilks Theorem, which predicts the behavior of the loglikelihood ratio statistic (LLRS) used to choose between models. We used Monte Carlo simulations to study the behavior of the LLRS in quantum state tomography, and found that it disagrees dramatically with Wilks' prediction. We propose a simple explanation for this behavior; namely, that boundaries (in state space and between models) play a significant role in determining the distribution of the LLRS. The resulting distribution is very complex, depending strongly both on the true state and the nature of the data. We consider a simplified model that neglects anistropy in the Fisher information, derive an almost analytic prediction for the mean value of the LLRS, and compare it to numerical experiments. While our simplified model outperforms the Wilks Theorem, it still does not predict the LLRS accurately, implying that alternative methods may be necessary for tomographic model selection. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE.
Quantum entropy and uncertainty for two-mode squeezed, coherent and intelligent spin states
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aragone, C.; Mundarain, D.
1993-01-01
We compute the quantum entropy for monomode and two-mode systems set in squeezed states. Thereafter, the quantum entropy is also calculated for angular momentum algebra when the system is either in a coherent or in an intelligent spin state. These values are compared with the corresponding values of the respective uncertainties. In general, quantum entropies and uncertainties have the same minimum and maximum points. However, for coherent and intelligent spin states, it is found that some minima for the quantum entropy turn out to be uncertainty maxima. We feel that the quantum entropy we use provides the right answer, since it is given in an essentially unique way.
Jack polynomial fractional quantum Hall states and their generalizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baratta, Wendy; Forrester, Peter J.
2011-02-01
In the study of fractional quantum Hall states, a certain clustering condition involving up to four integers has been identified. We give a simple proof that particular Jack polynomials with α=-(r-1)/(k+1), (r-1) and (k+1) relatively prime, and with partition given in terms of its frequencies by [n0k0k0k⋯0m] satisfy this clustering condition. Our proof makes essential use of the fact that these Jack polynomials are translationally invariant. We also consider nonsymmetric Jack polynomials, symmetric and nonsymmetric generalized Hermite and Laguerre polynomials, and Macdonald polynomials from the viewpoint of the clustering.
Quantum state holism: a case for holistic causation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Placek, Tomasz
I propose to interpret quantum state holism as a view concerning possibilities: the degree of possibility of a compound's outcome is not determined by the degrees of possibility of the components' outcomes. To analyze this proposal I sketch the modal framework of branching space-times with probabilities understood as weights of possibility. These probabilities serve to define holistic events. A holistic event produces its outcomes subluminally; yet the degree of possibility of its outcome is not determined by the degrees of possibility imposed by the event's components.
Local distinguishability of Dicke states in quantum secret sharing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jing-Tao; Xu, Gang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Sun, Xing-Ming; Jia, Heng-Yue
2017-03-01
We comprehensively investigate the local distinguishability of orthogonal Dicke states under local operations and classical communication (LOCC) from both qualitative and quantitative aspects. Based on our work, defects in the LOCC-quantum secret sharing (QSS) scheme can be complemented, and the information leakage can be quantified. For (k1 ,k2 , k , n)-threshold LOCC-QSS scheme, more intuitive formulas for unambiguous probability and guessing probability were established, which can be used for determining the parameter k1 and k2 directly.
A proactive quantum secret sharing scheme based on GHZ state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Huawang; Zhu, Xiaohua; Dai, Yuewei
2015-09-01
A proactive quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed, in which the participants can update their shadows periodically. In an updating period, one participant randomly generates the GHZ states and sends the particles to the other participants, and the participants update their shadows according to the measurement performed on the particles. After an updating period, each participant can change his shadow but the secret is changeless. The old shadows will be useless even if they have been stolen by the attacker. The proactive property is very useful to resist the mobile attacker.
Adame, J.; Warzel, S.
2015-11-15
In this note, we use ideas of Farhi et al. [Int. J. Quantum. Inf. 6, 503 (2008) and Quantum Inf. Comput. 11, 840 (2011)] who link a lower bound on the run time of their quantum adiabatic search algorithm to an upper bound on the energy gap above the ground-state of the generators of this algorithm. We apply these ideas to the quantum random energy model (QREM). Our main result is a simple proof of the conjectured exponential vanishing of the energy gap of the QREM.
Cytoplasmic streaming affects gravity-induced amyloplast sedimentation in maize coleoptiles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sack, F. D.; Leopold, A. C.
1985-01-01
Living maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptile cells were observed using a horizontal microscope to determine the interaction between cytoplasmic streaming and gravity-induced amyloplast sedimentation. Sedimentation is heavily influenced by streaming which may (1) hasten or slow the velocity of amyloplast movement and (2) displace the plastid laterally or even upwards before or after sedimentation. Amyloplasts may move through transvacuolar strands or through the peripheral cytoplasm which may be divided into fine cytoplasmic strands of much smaller diameter than the plastids. The results indicate that streaming may contribute to the dynamics of graviperception by influencing amyloplast movement.
The Structure of Bipartite Quantum States - Insights from Group Theory and Cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christandl, Matthias
2006-04-01
This thesis presents a study of the structure of bipartite quantum states. In the first part, the representation theory of the unitary and symmetric groups is used to analyse the spectra of quantum states. In particular, it is shown how to derive a one-to-one relation between the spectra of a bipartite quantum state and its reduced states, and the Kronecker coefficients of the symmetric group. In the second part, the focus lies on the entanglement of bipartite quantum states. Drawing on an analogy between entanglement distillation and secret-key agreement in classical cryptography, a new entanglement measure, `squashed entanglement', is introduced.
One-step implementation of the 1->3 orbital state quantum cloning machine via quantum Zeno dynamics
Shao Xiaoqiang; Wang Hongfu; Zhang Shou; Chen Li; Zhao Yongfang; Yeon, Kyu-Hwang
2009-12-15
We present an approach for implementation of a 1->3 orbital state quantum cloning machine based on the quantum Zeno dynamics via manipulating three rf superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) qubits to resonantly interact with a superconducting cavity assisted by classical fields. Through appropriate modulation of the coupling constants between rf SQUIDs and classical fields, the quantum cloning machine can be realized within one step. We also discuss the effects of decoherence such as spontaneous emission and the loss of cavity in virtue of master equation. The numerical simulation result reveals that the quantum cloning machine is especially robust against the cavity decay, since all qubits evolve in the decoherence-free subspace with respect to cavity decay due to the quantum Zeno dynamics.
Quantum Nondemolition Measurement of a Quantum Squeezed State Beyond the 3 dB Limit.
Lei, C U; Weinstein, A J; Suh, J; Wollman, E E; Kronwald, A; Marquardt, F; Clerk, A A; Schwab, K C
2016-09-02
We use a reservoir engineering technique based on two-tone driving to generate and stabilize a quantum squeezed state of a micron-scale mechanical oscillator in a microwave optomechanical system. Using an independent backaction-evading measurement to directly quantify the squeezing, we observe 4.7±0.9 dB of squeezing below the zero-point level surpassing the 3 dB limit of standard parametric squeezing techniques. Our measurements also reveal evidence for an additional mechanical parametric effect. The interplay between this effect and the optomechanical interaction enhances the amount of squeezing obtained in the experiment.
Quantum Nondemolition Measurement of a Quantum Squeezed State Beyond the 3 dB Limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, C. U.; Weinstein, A. J.; Suh, J.; Wollman, E. E.; Kronwald, A.; Marquardt, F.; Clerk, A. A.; Schwab, K. C.
2016-09-01
We use a reservoir engineering technique based on two-tone driving to generate and stabilize a quantum squeezed state of a micron-scale mechanical oscillator in a microwave optomechanical system. Using an independent backaction-evading measurement to directly quantify the squeezing, we observe 4.7 ±0.9 dB of squeezing below the zero-point level surpassing the 3 dB limit of standard parametric squeezing techniques. Our measurements also reveal evidence for an additional mechanical parametric effect. The interplay between this effect and the optomechanical interaction enhances the amount of squeezing obtained in the experiment.
Edge states and integer quantum Hall effect in topological insulator thin films.
Zhang, Song-Bo; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Shen, Shun-Qing
2015-08-25
The integer quantum Hall effect is a topological state of quantum matter in two dimensions, and has recently been observed in three-dimensional topological insulator thin films. Here we study the Landau levels and edge states of surface Dirac fermions in topological insulators under strong magnetic field. We examine the formation of the quantum plateaux of the Hall conductance and find two different patterns, in one pattern the filling number covers all integers while only odd integers in the other. We focus on the quantum plateau closest to zero energy and demonstrate the breakdown of the quantum spin Hall effect resulting from structure inversion asymmetry. The phase diagrams of the quantum Hall states are presented as functions of magnetic field, gate voltage and chemical potential. This work establishes an intuitive picture of the edge states to understand the integer quantum Hall effect for Dirac electrons in topological insulator thin films.
Quantum noise reduction using squeezed states in LIGO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dwyer, Sheila E.
Direct detection of gravitational waves will require earth based detectors to measure strains of the order 10-21, at frequencies of 100Hz, a sensitivity that has been accomplished with the initial generation of LIGO interferometric gravitational wave detectors. A new generation of detectors currently under construction is designed improve on the sensitivity of the initial detectors by about a factor of 10. The quantum nature of light will limit the sensitivity of these Advanced LIGO interferometers at most frequencies; new approaches to reducing the quantum noise will be needed to improve the sensitivity further. This quantum noise originates from the vacuum fluctuations that enter the unused port of the interferometer and interfere with the laser light. Vacuum fluctuations have the minimum noise allowed by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, DeltaX1 Delta X2 ≤ 1, where the two quadratures X 1 and X2 are non-commuting observables responsible for the two forms of quantum noise, shot noise and radiation pressure noise. By replacing the vacuum fluctuations entering the interferometer with squeezed states, which have lower noise in one quadrature than the vacuum state, we have reduced the shot noise of a LIGO interferometer. The sensitivity to gravitational waves measured during this experiment represents the best sensitivity achieved to date at frequencies above 200 Hz, and possibly the first time that squeezing has been measured in an interferometer at frequencies below 700 Hz. The possibility that injection of squeezed states could introduce environmental noise couplings that would degrade the crucial but fragile low frequency sensitivity of a LIGO interferometer has been a major concern in planning to implement squeezing as part of baseline interferometer operations. These results demonstrate that squeezing is compatible with the low frequency sensitivity of a full scale gravitational wave interferometer. We also investigated the limits to the level of squeezing
Quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping of matter qubits with coherent multiphoton states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torres, J. M.; Bernád, J. Z.; Alber, G.
2014-07-01
Protocols for probabilistic entanglement-assisted quantum teleportation and for entanglement swapping of material qubits are presented. They are based on a protocol for postselective Bell- state projection which is capable of projecting two material qubits onto a Bell state with the help of ancillary coherent multiphoton states and postselection by balanced homodyne photodetection. Provided this photonic postselection is successful, we explore the theoretical possibilities of realizing unit-fidelity quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping with 25% success probability. This photon-assisted Bell projection is generated by coupling almost resonantly the two material qubits to single modes of the radiation field in two separate cavities in a Ramsey-type interaction sequence and by measuring the emerged field states in a balanced homodyne detection scenario. As these quantum protocols require basic tools of quantum state engineering of coherent multiphoton states and balanced homodyne photodetection, they may offer interesting perspectives in particular for current quantum optical applications in quantum information processing.
Quantum communication for satellite-to-ground networks with partially entangled states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Na; Quan, Dong-Xiao; Pei, Chang-Xing; Yang-Hong
2015-02-01
To realize practical wide-area quantum communication, a satellite-to-ground network with partially entangled states is developed in this paper. For efficiency and security reasons, the existing method of quantum communication in distributed wireless quantum networks with partially entangled states cannot be applied directly to the proposed quantum network. Based on this point, an efficient and secure quantum communication scheme with partially entangled states is presented. In our scheme, the source node performs teleportation only after an end-to-end entangled state has been established by entanglement swapping with partially entangled states. Thus, the security of quantum communication is guaranteed. The destination node recovers the transmitted quantum bit with the help of an auxiliary quantum bit and specially defined unitary matrices. Detailed calculations and simulation analyses show that the probability of successfully transferring a quantum bit in the presented scheme is high. In addition, the auxiliary quantum bit provides a heralded mechanism for successful communication. Based on the critical components that are presented in this article an efficient, secure, and practical wide-area quantum communication can be achieved. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61072067 and 61372076), the 111 Project (Grant No. B08038), the Fund from the State Key Laboratory of Integrated Services Networks (Grant No. ISN 1001004), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant Nos. K5051301059 and K5051201021).
Effective Floquet-Gibbs states for dissipative quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shirai, Tatsuhiko; Thingna, Juzar; Mori, Takashi; Denisov, Sergey; Hänggi, Peter; Miyashita, Seiji
2016-05-01
A periodically driven quantum system, when coupled to a heat bath, relaxes to a non-equilibrium asymptotic state. In the general situation, the retrieval of this asymptotic state presents a rather non-trivial task. It was recently shown that in the limit of an infinitesimal coupling, using the so-called rotating wave approximation (RWA), and under strict conditions imposed on the time-dependent system Hamiltonian, the asymptotic state can attain the Gibbs form. A Floquet-Gibbs state is characterized by a density matrix which is diagonal in the Floquet basis of the system Hamiltonian with the diagonal elements obeying a Gibbs distribution, being parametrized by the corresponding Floquet quasi-energies. Addressing the non-adiabatic driving regime, upon using the Magnus expansion, we employ the concept of a corresponding effective Floquet Hamiltonian. In doing so we go beyond the conventionally used RWA and demonstrate that the idea of Floquet-Gibbs states can be extended to the realistic case of a weak, although finite system-bath coupling, herein termed effective Floquet-Gibbs states.
Quantum metrology including state preparation and readout times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dooley, Shane; Munro, William J.; Nemoto, Kae
2016-11-01
There is growing belief that the next decade will see the emergence of sensing devices based on the laws of quantum physics that outperform some of our current sensing devices. For example, in frequency estimation, using a probe prepared in an entangled state can, in principle, lead to a precision gain compared to a probe prepared in a separable state. Even in the presence of some forms of decoherence, it has been shown that the precision gain can increase with the number of probe particles N . Usually, however, the entangled and separable state preparation and readout times are assumed to be negligible. We find that a probe in a maximally entangled (GHZ) state can give an advantage over a separable state only if the entangled state preparation and readout times are lower than a certain threshold. When the probe system suffers dephasing, this threshold is much lower (and more difficult to attain) than it is for an isolated probe. Further, we find that in realistic situations the maximally entangled probe gives a precision advantage only up to some finite number of probe particles Ncutoff that is lower for a dephasing probe than it is for an isolated probe.
Ground and Excited State Spectra of a Quantum Dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stewart, D. R.; Sprinzak, D.; Patel, S. R.; Marcus, C. M.; Duruoz, C. I.; Harris, J. S.
1998-03-01
We present linear and nonlinear magnetoconductance measurements of the ground and excited state spectra for successive electron occupancy in a gate defined lateral quantum dot. Previous measurementsfootnote D.R. Stewart, D. Sprinzak, C.M. Marcus, C.I. Duruoz and J.S. Harris Jr., Science 278, (1997). showed a direct correlation between the mth excited state of the N-electron system and the ground state of the (N+m)-electron system for m up to 4, consistent to a large degree with a single-particle picture. Here we report quantitative deviations of the excited state spectra from the spectrum of ground state magnetoconductances, attributed to many-body interactions in the finite system of N ~200 electrons. We also describe the behaviour of anticrossings in the ground state magnetoconductances. We acknowledge the support of JSEP (DAAH04-94-G-0058), ARO (DAAH04-95-1-0331), ONR-YIP (N00014-94-1-0622) and the NSF-PECASE program. D.S. acknowledges the support of MINERVA grant.
Evolution of superpositions of quantum states through a level crossing
Torosov, B. T.; Vitanov, N. V.
2011-12-15
The Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg-Majorana (LZSM) model is widely used for estimating transition probabilities in the presence of crossing energy levels in quantum physics. This model, however, makes the unphysical assumption of an infinitely long constant interaction, which introduces a divergent phase in the propagator. This divergence remains hidden when estimating output probabilities for a single input state insofar as the divergent phase cancels out. In this paper we show that, because of this divergent phase, the LZSM model is inadequate to describe the evolution of pure or mixed superposition states across a level crossing. The LZSM model can be used only if the system is initially in a single state or in a completely mixed superposition state. To this end, we show that the more realistic Demkov-Kunike model, which assumes a hyperbolic-tangent level crossing and a hyperbolic-secant interaction envelope, is free of divergences and is a much more adequate tool for describing the evolution through a level crossing for an arbitrary input state. For multiple crossing energies which are reducible to one or more effective two-state systems (e.g., by the Majorana and Morris-Shore decompositions), similar conclusions apply: the LZSM model does not produce definite values of the populations and the coherences, and one should use the Demkov-Kunike model instead.
Fibonacci anyons from Abelian bilayer quantum Hall states.
Vaezi, Abolhassan; Barkeshli, Maissam
2014-12-05
The possibility of realizing non-Abelian statistics and utilizing it for topological quantum computation (TQC) has generated widespread interest. However, the non-Abelian statistics that can be realized in most accessible proposals is not powerful enough for universal TQC. In this Letter, we consider a simple bilayer fractional quantum Hall system with the 1/3 Laughlin state in each layer. We show that interlayer tunneling can drive a transition to an exotic non-Abelian state that contains the famous "Fibonacci" anyon, whose non-Abelian statistics is powerful enough for universal TQC. Our analysis rests on startling agreements from a variety of distinct methods, including thin torus limits, effective field theories, and coupled wire constructions. We provide evidence that the transition can be continuous, at which point the charge gap remains open while the neutral gap closes. This raises the question of whether these exotic phases may have already been realized at ν=2/3 in bilayers, as past experiments may not have definitively ruled them out.
Towards photonic quantum simulation of ground states of frustrated Heisenberg spin systems
Ma, Xiao-song; Dakić, Borivoje; Kropatschek, Sebastian; Naylor, William; Chan, Yang-hao; Gong, Zhe-xuan; Duan, Lu-ming; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip
2014-01-01
Photonic quantum simulators are promising candidates for providing insight into other small- to medium-sized quantum systems. Recent experiments have shown that photonic quantum systems have the advantage to exploit quantum interference for the quantum simulation of the ground state of Heisenberg spin systems. Here we experimentally characterize this quantum interference at a tuneable beam splitter and further investigate the measurement-induced interactions of a simulated four-spin system by comparing the entanglement dynamics using pairwise concurrence. We also study theoretically a four-site square lattice with next-nearest neighbor interactions and a six-site checkerboard lattice, which might be in reach of current technology. PMID:24394808
Towards photonic quantum simulation of ground states of frustrated Heisenberg spin systems.
Ma, Xiao-song; Dakić, Borivoje; Kropatschek, Sebastian; Naylor, William; Chan, Yang-hao; Gong, Zhe-xuan; Duan, Lu-ming; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip
2014-01-07
Photonic quantum simulators are promising candidates for providing insight into other small- to medium-sized quantum systems. Recent experiments have shown that photonic quantum systems have the advantage to exploit quantum interference for the quantum simulation of the ground state of Heisenberg spin systems. Here we experimentally characterize this quantum interference at a tuneable beam splitter and further investigate the measurement-induced interactions of a simulated four-spin system by comparing the entanglement dynamics using pairwise concurrence. We also study theoretically a four-site square lattice with next-nearest neighbor interactions and a six-site checkerboard lattice, which might be in reach of current technology.
Compensated Crystal Assemblies for Type-II Entangled Photon Generation in Quantum Cluster States
2010-03-01
multi-crystal sources, such as cluster states, entanglement swapping, and teleportation . 15. SUBJECT TERMS quantum , entangled photons, joint...entanglement swapping, and teleportation . Key Words: quantum , entangled photons, joint spectral function, spontaneous parametric downconversion 2...DATES COVERED (From - To) OCT 2009 – SEP 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE COMPENSATED CRYSTAL ASSEMBLIES FOR TYPE-II ENTANGLED PHOTO GENERATION IN QUANTUM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlini, A.; Hosoya, A.
2001-02-01
Grover's quantum algorithm for an unstructured search problem and the COUNT algorithm by Brassard et al. are generalized to the case when the initial state is arbitrarily and maximally entangled. This ansatz might be relevant with quantum subroutines, when the computational qubits and the environment are coupled, and in general when the control over the quantum system is partial.
Pure Gaussian states from quantum harmonic oscillator chains with a single local dissipative process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Shan; Woolley, Matthew J.; Petersen, Ian R.; Yamamoto, Naoki
2017-03-01
We study the preparation of entangled pure Gaussian states via reservoir engineering. In particular, we consider a chain consisting of (2\\aleph +1) quantum harmonic oscillators where the central oscillator of the chain is coupled to a single reservoir. We then completely parametrize the class of (2\\aleph +1) -mode pure Gaussian states that can be prepared by this type of quantum harmonic oscillator chain. This parametrization allows us to determine the steady-state entanglement properties of such quantum harmonic oscillator chains.
Spilling of electronic states in Pb quantum wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jałochowski, M.; Palotás, K.; Krawiec, M.
2016-01-01
Energy-dependent apparent step heights of two-dimensional ultrathin Pb islands grown on the Si(111)6 ×6 -Au surface have been investigated by a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy, first-principles density-functional theory, and the particle-in-a-box model calculations. The apparent step height shows the thickness- and energy-dependent oscillatory behaviors, which are directly related to the spilling of electron states into the vacuum exhibiting a quantum size effect. This has been unambiguously proven by extensive first-principles scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy simulations. An electronic contribution to the apparent step height is directly determined. At certain energies it reaches values as high as a half of the atomic contribution. The applicability of the particle-in-a-box model to the spilling of electron states is also discussed.
Geometry of quantum Hall states: Gravitational anomaly and transport coefficients
Can, Tankut; Laskin, Michael; Wiegmann, Paul B.
2015-11-15
We show that universal transport coefficients of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) can be understood as a response to variations of spatial geometry. Some transport properties are essentially governed by the gravitational anomaly. We develop a general method to compute correlation functions of FQH states in a curved space, where local transformation properties of these states are examined through local geometric variations. We introduce the notion of a generating functional and relate it to geometric invariant functionals recently studied in geometry. We develop two complementary methods to study the geometry of the FQHE. One method is based on iterating a Ward identity, while the other is based on a field theoretical formulation of the FQHE through a path integral formalism.
Warm dense iron equation of state from quantum molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sjostrom, Travis; Crockett, Scott
Through quantum molecular dynamics (QMD), utilizing both Kohn-Sham (orbital-based) and orbital-free density functional theory, we calculate the equation of state of warm dense iron in the density range 7-30 g/cm3 and temperatures from 1 to 100 eV. A critical examination of the iron pseudopotential is made, from which we find the previous QMD calculations of Wang et al. [Phys. Rev. E 89, 023101 (2014)] to be in error. Our results also significantly extend the ranges of density and temperature which are attempted in that prior work. We calculate the shock Hugoniot and find very good agreement with experimental results to pressures over 20 TPa. Additionally we have utilized the QMD results to generate a new SESAME tabular equation of state for fluid iron, accurate in the warm dense matter region, and also extending to much broader regions of density and temperature than can be accessed by the QMD alone.
Frequency tracking and parameter estimation for robust quantum state estimation
Ralph, Jason F.; Jacobs, Kurt; Hill, Charles D.
2011-11-15
In this paper we consider the problem of tracking the state of a quantum system via a continuous weak measurement. If the system Hamiltonian is known precisely, this merely requires integrating the appropriate stochastic master equation. However, even a small error in the assumed Hamiltonian can render this approach useless. The natural answer to this problem is to include the parameters of the Hamiltonian as part of the estimation problem, and the full Bayesian solution to this task provides a state estimate that is robust against uncertainties. However, this approach requires considerable computational overhead. Here we consider a single qubit in which the Hamiltonian contains a single unknown parameter. We show that classical frequency estimation techniques greatly reduce the computational overhead associated with Bayesian estimation and provide accurate estimates for the qubit frequency.
Maximal Adaptive-Decision Speedups in Quantum-State Readout
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Anjou, B.; Kuret, L.; Childress, L.; Coish, W. A.
2016-01-01
The average time T required for high-fidelity readout of quantum states can be significantly reduced via a real-time adaptive decision rule. An adaptive decision rule stops the readout as soon as a desired level of confidence has been achieved, as opposed to setting a fixed readout time tf . The performance of the adaptive decision is characterized by the "adaptive-decision speedup," tf/T . In this work, we reformulate this readout problem in terms of the first-passage time of a particle undergoing stochastic motion. This formalism allows us to theoretically establish the maximum achievable adaptive-decision speedups for several physical two-state readout implementations. We show that for two common readout schemes (the Gaussian latching readout and a readout relying on state-dependent decay), the speedup is bounded by 4 and 2, respectively, in the limit of high single-shot readout fidelity. We experimentally study the achievable speedup in a real-world scenario by applying the adaptive decision rule to a readout of the nitrogen-vacancy-center (NV-center) charge state. We find a speedup of ≈2 with our experimental parameters. In addition, we propose a simple readout scheme for which the speedup can, in principle, be increased without bound as the fidelity is increased. Our results should lead to immediate improvements in nanoscale magnetometry based on spin-to-charge conversion of the NV-center spin, and provide a theoretical framework for further optimization of the bandwidth of quantum measurements.
Studying the thermally entangled state of a three-qubit Heisenberg XX ring via quantum teleportation
Yeo, Ye
2003-08-01
We consider quantum teleportation as a tool to investigate the thermally entangled state of a three-qubit Heisenberg XX ring. Our investigation reveals interesting aspects of quantum entanglement not reflected by the pairwise thermal concurrence of the state. In particular, two mixtures of different pairs of W states, which result in the same concurrence, could yield very different average teleportation fidelities.
Two Ways of Robust Quantum Dialogue by Using Four-Qubit Cluster State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Rui-jin; Li, Dong-fen; Liu, Yao; Qin, Zhi-guang; Baagyere, Edward
2016-04-01
In this paper, we present a scheme for quantum dialogue by using a four-qubit cluster state as quantum channel.The scheme has two cases: Case 1, Sender Alice and receiver Bob share information using an orderly sequence of entangled state as quantum channel which was prepared by Alice. This case is achieved as follows: The two sides agreed to encode quantum state information, then Alice perform a bell state measurement for quantum information which has been encoded. This will convey the information to Bob, then Bob measuring his own qubits, through the analysis of the measurement results of Alice and Bob, Bob can obtain quantum information. For case 2, four-qubit cluster state and quantum state information is transmitted to form a total quantum system. In the Case 2 scenario, Alice and Bob perform bell state measurements for part of the qubits, and tell the measurement result to each other through the classical channel. Finally, according to the measurement result, Alice and Bob operate an appropriate unitary transformation, as a result, Alice's qubit will be renewed upon Bob's measurements, and also, Bob's qubit will be renewed upon Alice's measurements. Thus, a bidirectional quantum dialogue is achieved. After analysis, this scheme has high security by taking certain eavesdropping attacks into account. There is therefore a certain reference value to the realization of quantum dialogue.
Brunner, R; Akis, R; Ferry, D K; Kuchar, F; Meisels, R
2008-07-11
We discuss a quantum system coupled to the environment, composed of an open array of billiards (dots) in series. Beside pointer states occurring in individual dots, we observe sets of robust states which arise only in the array. We define these new states as bipartite pointer states, since they cannot be described in terms of simple linear combinations of robust single-dot states. The classical existence of bipartite pointer states is confirmed by comparing the quantum-mechanical and classical results. The ability of the robust states to create "offspring" indicates that quantum Darwinism is in action.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brunner, R.; Akis, R.; Ferry, D. K.; Kuchar, F.; Meisels, R.
2008-07-01
We discuss a quantum system coupled to the environment, composed of an open array of billiards (dots) in series. Beside pointer states occurring in individual dots, we observe sets of robust states which arise only in the array. We define these new states as bipartite pointer states, since they cannot be described in terms of simple linear combinations of robust single-dot states. The classical existence of bipartite pointer states is confirmed by comparing the quantum-mechanical and classical results. The ability of the robust states to create “offspring” indicates that quantum Darwinism is in action.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Yingfei; Lee, Ching Hua; Wen, Xueda; Cho, Gil Young; Ryu, Shinsei; Qi, Xiao-Liang
2016-09-01
In this paper, we study (2 +1 ) -dimensional quantum anomalous Hall states, i.e., band insulators with quantized Hall conductance, using exact holographic mapping. Exact holographic mapping is an approach to holographic duality which maps the quantum anomalous Hall state to a different state living in (3 +1 ) -dimensional hyperbolic space. By studying topological response properties and the entanglement spectrum, we demonstrate that the holographic dual theory of a quantum anomalous Hall state is a (3 +1 ) -dimensional topological insulator. The dual description enables a characterization of topological properties of a system by the quantum entanglement between degrees of freedom at different length scales.
Harsij, Zeynab Mirza, Behrouz
2014-12-15
A helicity entangled tripartite state is considered in which the degree of entanglement is preserved in non-inertial frames. It is shown that Quantum Entanglement remains observer independent. As another measure of quantum correlation, Quantum Discord has been investigated. It is explicitly shown that acceleration has no effect on the degree of quantum correlation for the bipartite and tripartite helicity entangled states. Geometric Quantum Discord as a Hilbert–Schmidt distance is computed for helicity entangled states. It is shown that living in non-inertial frames does not make any influence on this distance, either. In addition, the analysis has been extended beyond single mode approximation to show that acceleration does not have any impact on the quantum features in the limit beyond the single mode. As an interesting result, while the density matrix depends on the right and left Unruh modes, the Negativity as a measure of Quantum Entanglement remains constant. Also, Quantum Discord does not change beyond single mode approximation. - Highlights: • The helicity entangled states here are observer independent in non-inertial frames. • It is explicitly shown that Quantum Discord for these states is observer independent. • Geometric Quantum Discord is also not affected by acceleration increase. • Extending to beyond single mode does not change the degree of entanglement. • Beyond single mode approximation the degree of Quantum Discord is also preserved.
Detecting the quantum discord of an unknown state by a single observable
Zhang Chengjie; Oh, C. H.; Yu Sixia; Chen Qing
2011-09-15
We propose a single observable to witness the nonzero quantum discord of an unknown quantum state provided that we have four copies of the state. The expectation value of this observable provides a necessary and sufficient condition for the nonzero quantum discord in 2xN systems and a necessary condition in higher finite-dimensional bipartite systems. Furthermore, a nontrivial lower bound of the quantum discord can be obtained from this expectation value. The proposed observable can be experimentally measured in exactly the same way as the entanglement witness. Moreover, a quantum circuit is designed to determine the expectation value of our observable with four simultaneous local qubit measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scherer, Günther; Pietrzyk, Peter
formation. When mutants and wt only grown in the 1G centrifuge were compared the mutant leaves and cotyledons were smaller than in wt and hypocotyls were longer, but when the plants in µG for 12d were compared this difference was not found. Hence, gravity had an influence on leaf expansion and hypocotyl length in the mutant. The samples grown for 12d in 1G were kept in µG after 12d on due to a technical failure of the 1G centrifuge. They were retrieved about a year later. They had grown to full senescence and were preserved in a beautiful state as "straw". The observations on the root patterns by the astronaut photos at day 12 could be confirmed but plants had grown on and newer roots made coils just as the plants grown µG. Leaf sizes were different for wt and mutant. The most striking observation was that the mutants had developed small flower stems with a few flower buds but many flowers were incomplete, without the proper sepal or petal number or without gynaecium. The wild type plants had not developed any clear flower stem but only several malformed cell clumps shortly above the rosette. In ground laboratory experiments the mutants flower earlier which might explain why they developed flowers to some extent whereas the wt not at all. Microgravity might be a "stress" for flower formation. Taken together, several gravity-induced (or microgravity-induced) changes in differentiation occurred.
Yamaguchi, Makoto; Asano, Takashi; Noda, Susumu
2008-10-27
Solid-state cavity quantum-electrodynamics (QED) has great potential owing to advances such as coupled systems combining a nanocavity and a quantum dot (QD). These systems involve two photon-emission mechanisms: the Purcell effect in the weak coupling regime and vacuum Rabi-splitting in the strong coupling regime. In this paper, we describe a third emission mechanism based on the quantum anti-Zeno effect (AZE) induced by the pure-dephasing in a QD. This is significantly enhanced by the inherent characteristics of the nanocavity. This mechanism explains the origin of strong photon emission at a cavity mode largely detuned from a QD, previously considered a counterintuitive, prima facie non-energy-conserving, light-emission phenomenon. These findings could help in controlling the decay and emission characteristics of solid-state cavity QED, and developing solid-state quantum devices.
Quantum teleportation from light beams to vibrational states of a macroscopic diamond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Panyu; Huang, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Xinxing; Chang, Xiuying; Zu, Chong; He, Li; Duan, Luming; CenterQuantum Information, IIIS, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China Team; Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA Team
2016-05-01
Quantum teleportation is an unusual disembodied form of quantum information transfer through pre-shared entanglement and classical communication, which has found important applications for realization of various quantum technologies. It is of both fundamental interest and practical importance to push quantum teleportation towards macroscopic objects. With the recent development of optomechanics, the vibration in solids, involving collective motion of trillions of atoms, gradually enters into the realm of quantum control. Built on the recent remarkable progress in optical control of motional states in diamond, we report an experimental demonstration of quantum teleportation from light beams to vibrational states of a macroscopic diamond under ambient conditions. Through quantum state tomography, we demonstrate an average teleportation fidelity (90.6 +/- 1.0)%, exceeding the classical limit of 2/3. The experiment pushes the target of quantum teleportation to the biggest object so far, with interesting implications for quantum foundational studies, optomechanical quantum control and quantum information science. Center for Quantum Information, IIIS, Tsinghua University.