Science.gov

Sample records for gray-body interchange factor

  1. Effect of gray-body interchange factor and radiating temperature on the thermal response of the DT-18 shipping container

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.C.; Feldman, M.R.

    1992-02-01

    Some concerns and questions have been raised regarding the values of the DT-18 package surface emissivity, the emissivity of the B-1023 furnace used for thermal testing of DOE shipping packages, and the furnace radiating temperature that should be employed during thermal tests. In order for the thermal tests performed at the Y-12 Plan in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to comply with the regulations specified in 10 CFR 71, it must be shown that a specific amount of heat is added to the package during the test. Therefore, a method of thermal analytical modeling was developed to calculate the quantity of heat energy input to which a DT-18 package is exposed during hypothetical accident scenario testing. Parametric studies involving the gray-body interchange factor (which embodies both the package and furnace emissivities) and the furnace radiating temperature were then performed, and the effects of these two variables on the net total heat received by a DT-18 package were determined. Based on the analyses presented in this report, simple guidelines and recommendations are made to order to ensure that thermal testing in the B-1023 furnace complies with federal regulations. Data are presented which allow the determination of an appropriate furnace surface temperature (800--850{degrees}C) based on the value of the gray-body interchange factor. The second alternative to ensure regulatory compliance involves allowing the DT-18 package to remain in the 800{degrees}C furnace for an additional amount of time (determined from presented data) beyond the required 30-min period.

  2. Scattering coefficients and gray-body factor for 1D BEC acoustic black holes: Exact results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, Alessandro; Balbinot, Roberto; Anderson, Paul R.

    2016-03-01

    A complete set of exact analytic solutions to the mode equation is found in the region exterior to the acoustic horizon for a class of 1D Bose-Einstein condensate acoustic black holes. From these, analytic expressions for the scattering coefficients and gray-body factor are obtained. The results are used to verify previous predictions regarding the behaviors of the scattering coefficients and gray-body factor in the low-frequency limit.

  3. Gray-body factor and infrared divergences in 1D BEC acoustic black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Paul R.; Balbinot, Roberto; Fabbri, Alessandro; Parentani, Renaud

    2014-11-01

    It is shown that the gray-body factor for a one-dimensional elongated Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) acoustic black hole with one horizon does not vanish in the low-frequency (ω →0 ) limit. This implies that the analog Hawking radiation is dominated by the emission of an infinite number (1/ω ) of soft phonons in contrast with the case of a Schwarzschild black hole where the gray-body factor vanishes as ω →0 and the spectrum is not dominated by low-energy particles. The infrared behaviors of certain correlation functions are also discussed.

  4. Low frequency gray-body factors and infrared divergences: Rigorous results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Paul R.; Fabbri, Alessandro; Balbinot, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    Formal solutions to the mode equations for both spherically symmetric black holes and Bose-Einstein condensate acoustic black holes are obtained by writing the spatial part of the mode equation as a linear Volterra integral equation of the second kind. The solutions work for a massless minimally coupled scalar field in the s -wave or zero angular momentum sector for a spherically symmetric black hole and in the longitudinal sector of a one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate acoustic black hole. These solutions are used to obtain in a rigorous way analytic expressions for the scattering coefficients and gray-body factors in the zero frequency limit. They are also used to study the infrared behaviors of the symmetric two-point function and two functions derived from it: the point-split stress-energy tensor for the massless minimally coupled scalar field in Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime and the density-density correlation function for a Bose-Einstein condensate acoustic black hole.

  5. Radiant-interchange Configuration Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, D C :; Morgan, W R

    1952-01-01

    A study is presented of the geometric configuration factors required for computing radiant heat transfer between opaque surfaces separated by a nonabsorbing medium and various methods of determining the configuration factors are discussed. Configuration-factor solutions available in the literature have been checked and the more complicated equations are presented as families of curves. Cases for point, line, and finite-area sources are worked out over a wide range of geometric proportions. These cases include several new configurations involving rectangles, triangles, and cylinders of finite length which are integrated and tabulated. An analysis is presented, in which configuration factors are employed of the radiant heat transfer to the rotor blades of a typical gas turbine under different conditions of temperature and pressure. (author)

  6. Volume interchange factors for hypersonic vehicle wake radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, D. K.; Babikian, D. S.

    1987-01-01

    Volume interchange factors are shown to be convenient in modeling the radiative processes in the wake of a hypersonic vehicle. Use of the factors facilitates calculating not just the radiative heating rates on afterbody surfaces but also the radiative de-excitation rates from stimulated emission and re-excitation rates from absorption in rarefied nonequilibrium flows. Sample calculations of volume interchange factors are presented for volume configurations modeling wake elements, and the numerical results are compared to limiting approximations to clarify the operation of the emission, transmission, and absorption processes.

  7. Planetary Interchange of Bioactive Material: Probability Factors and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Benton C.

    2001-02-01

    It is now well-accepted that both lunar and martian materials are represented in the meteorite collections. Early suggestions that viable organisms might survive natural transport between planets have not yet been thoroughly examined. The concept of Planetary Interchange of Bioactive Material (PIBM) is potentially relevant to the conditions under which life originated. PIBM has been also invoked to infer that the potential danger to Earth from martian materials is non-existent, an inference with, however, many pitfalls. Numerous impediments to efficient transfer of viable organisms exist. In this work, the lethality of space radiation during long transients and the biasing of launched objects toward materials unlikely to host abundant organisms are examined and shown to reduce the likelihood of successful transfer by orders of magnitude. It is also shown that martian meteorites studied to date assuredly have been subjected to sterilizing levels of ionizing radiation in space. PIBM considerations apply to both the solar system locale(s) of the origin of life and to the applicability of planetary protection protocols to preserve the biospheres of planetary bodies, including our own.

  8. Interstate Highway Interchanges Reshape Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Henry E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Highway interchanges offer rural counties practically ready-made sites for development, but some interchanges offer better development opportunities than others. A study of a Kentucky interchange identified seven factors that make a difference in development, including traffic volume, distance to an urban area, ruggedness of terrain, and sale of…

  9. Temperature measurement and accuracy of bi-colored radiometer applying pseudo gray-body approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Inagaki, Terumi; Okamoto, Yoshizo; Fan, Z.; Kurokawa, Katashi

    1994-12-31

    It is necessary to obtain a true surface radiation temperature not including reflection energy, because the influence of reflection energy on measured images of a surface radiation temperature is comparatively large on a metal surface. In general, there are two ways to eliminate reflection energy and to specify a true temperature. One of the most typical methods is the analytical method obtaining a true surface temperature after measuring a true emissivity using infrared radiometer. Another one is on the basis of the bi-colored method applying pseudo gray-body approximation, in which a true surface temperature can be acquired after eliminating emissivity on a surface with the aid of radiation energy possessing various detection wave lengths. The surface temperature measurement using bi-colored radiometer combined with pseudo gray-body approximation has not been discussed yet. Therefore, in the present study, the authors will propose and investigate its bi-colored temperature measurement based on a power law description of energy for various detection wave lengths. And then its applicability and accuracy on temperature measurement will also be estimated as follows.

  10. Multiband fiber optic radiometry for measuring the temperature and emissivity of gray bodies of low or high emissivity.

    PubMed

    Sade, Sharon; Katzir, Abraham

    2004-03-20

    Infrared fiber optic radiometry was used for noncontact thermometry of gray bodies whose temperature was close to room temperature (40-70 degrees C). We selected three gray bodies, one with high emissivity (epsilon = 0.97), one with medium emissivity (epsilon = 0.71), and one with low emissivity (epsilon = 0.025). We carried out optimization calculations and measurements for a multiband fiber optic radiometer that consisted of a silver halide (AgClBr) infrared-transmitting fiber, a dual-band cooled infrared detector, and a set of 18 narrowband infrared filters that covered the 2-14-microm spectral range. We determined the optimal spectral range, the optimal number of filters to be used, and the optimal chopping scheme. Using these optimal conditions, we performed measurements of the three gray bodies and obtained an accuracy of better than 1 degrees C for body temperature and for room temperature. An accuracy of 0.03 was obtained for body emissivity.

  11. Tether Technology Interchange Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, James K. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This is a compilation of 25 papers presented at a tether technical interchange meeting in Huntsville, AL, on September 9-10, 1997. After each presentation, a technical discussion was held to clarify and expand the salient points. A wide range of subjects was covered including tether dynamics, electrodynamics, space power generation, plasma physics, ionospheric physics, towing tethers, tethered reentry schemes, and future tether missions.

  12. Interchangeable spline reference guide

    SciTech Connect

    Dolin, R.M.

    1994-05-01

    The WX-Division Integrated Software Tools (WIST) Team evolved from two previous committees, First was the W78 Solid Modeling Pilot Project`s Spline Subcommittee, which later evolved into the Vv`X-Division Spline Committee. The mission of the WIST team is to investigate current CAE engineering processes relating to complex geometry and to develop methods for improving those processes. Specifically, the WIST team is developing technology that allows the Division to use multiple spline representations. We are also updating the contour system (CONSYS) data base to take full advantage of the Division`s expanding electronic engineering process. Both of these efforts involve developing interfaces to commercial CAE systems and writing new software. The WIST team is comprised of members from V;X-11, -12 and 13. This {open_quotes}cross-functional{close_quotes} approach to software development is somewhat new in the Division so an effort is being made to formalize our processes and assure quality at each phase of development. Chapter one represents a theory manual and is one phase of the formal process. The theory manual is followed by a software requirements document, specification document, software verification and validation documents. The purpose of this guide is to present the theory underlying the interchangeable spline technology and application. Verification and validation test results are also presented for proof of principal.

  13. Ideal magnetohydrodynamic interchanges in low density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Yimin; Goel, Deepak; Hassam, A.B.

    2005-03-01

    The ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations are usually derived under the assumption V{sub A}<interchange instabilities in 'line-tied' slab geometry as well as to centrifugally confined plasmas. It is found that interchange growth rates are reduced by a factor of 1+V{sub A}{sup 2}/c{sup 2}, corresponding to a larger effective mass resulting from the extra electromagnetic momentum. Line tying is unaffected.

  14. Third SEI Technical Interchange: Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Given here are the proceedings of the 3rd Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Technical Interchange. Topics covered include the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), the Lunar Resource Mapper, lunar rovers, lunar habitat concepts, lunar shelter construction analysis, thermoelectric nuclear power systems for SEI, cryogenic storage, a space network for lunar communications, the moon as a solar power satellite, and off-the-shelf avionics for future SEI missions.

  15. Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Five contributors discuss the following topics: bringing comics to life through readers theatre, peer tutoring to improve word attack and comprehension skills, using storytelling to increase reading comprehension skills on Okinawa, beginning reading in Italy, and using remedial reading students as tutors for younger students. (FL)

  16. Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Offers suggestions from eight contributors, including (1) activities for speedy readers, (2) conducting a "reading roundup," (3) improving children's math vocabulary, (4) teaching syllabication, (5) displaying student work, and (6) ideas for parents of beginning readers. (FL)

  17. Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Offers suggestions from six contributors regarding a variety of classroom activities, including the use of high interest-low vocabulary books with gifted and average readers, an exercise in sequencing, a Halloween project to improve students' grammar, a technique to improve students' dictionary skills, and methods for helping students write books.…

  18. Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Contains suggestions from six contributors, including the use of parents as an audience for beginning readers; outdoor activities to motivate readers; word order recognition exercise; a books-by-mail library service for rural students; using remedial students to read to younger children; and a language arts/social studies project. (FL)

  19. Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Six contributors suggest ways to (1) improve handwriting, (2) help children choose reading materials, (3) develop sight vocabulary, (4) use phonics with ESL learners, (5) use Uninterrupted Sustained Silent Reading, and (6) teach reading comprehension. (FL)

  20. Renewable Generation Effect on Net Regional Energy Interchange: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Diakov, Victor; Brinkman, Gregory; Denholm, Paul; Jenkin, Thomas; Margolis, Robert

    2015-07-30

    Using production-cost model (PLEXOS), we simulate the Western Interchange (WECC) at several levels of the yearly renewable energy (RE) generation, between 13% and 40% of the total load for the year. We look at the overall energy exchange between a region and the rest of the system (net interchange, NI), and find it useful to examine separately (i) (time-)variable and (ii) year-average components of the NI. Both contribute to inter-regional energy exchange, and are affected by wind and PV generation in the system. We find that net load variability (in relatively large portions of WECC) is the leading factor affecting the variable component of inter-regional energy exchange, and the effect is quantifiable: higher regional net load correlation with the rest of the WECC lowers net interchange variability. Further, as the power mix significantly varies between WECC regions, effects of ‘flexibility import’ (regions ‘borrow’ ramping capability) are also observed.

  1. Weakening of magnetohydrodynamic interchange instabilities by Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Benilov, E. S.; Hassam, A. B.

    2008-02-15

    Alfven waves, made to propagate along an ambient magnetic field and polarized transverse to a gravitational field g, with wave amplitude stratified along g, are shown to reduce the growth rate of interchange instability by increasing the effective inertia by a factor of 1+(B{sub y}{sup '}/B{sub z}k{sub z}){sup 2}, where B{sub z} is the ambient magnetic field, k{sub z} is the wavenumber, and B{sub y}{sup '} is the wave amplitude shear. Appropriately placed Alfven wave power could thus be used to enhance the stability of interchange and ballooning modes in tokamaks and other interchange-limited magnetically confined plasmas.

  2. Interchange of entire communities: microbial community coalescence.

    PubMed

    Rillig, Matthias C; Antonovics, Janis; Caruso, Tancredi; Lehmann, Anika; Powell, Jeff R; Veresoglou, Stavros D; Verbruggen, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Microbial communities are enigmatically diverse. We propose a novel view of processes likely affecting microbial assemblages, which could be viewed as the Great American Interchange en miniature: the wholesale exchange among microbial communities resulting from moving pieces of the environment containing entire assemblages. Incidental evidence for such 'community coalescence' is accumulating, but such processes are rarely studied, likely because of the absence of suitable terminology or a conceptual framework. We provide the nucleus for such a conceptual foundation for the study of community coalescence, examining factors shaping these events, links to bodies of ecological theory, and we suggest modeling approaches for understanding coalescent communities. We argue for the systematic study of community coalescence because of important functional and applied consequences.

  3. Geoscience terminology for data interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    Workgroups formed by the Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Information (CGI), a Commission of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) have been developing vocabulary resources to promote geoscience information exchange. The Multilingual Thesaurus Working Group (MLT) was formed in 2003 to continue work of the Multhes working group of the 1990s. The Concept Definition Task Group was formed by the CGI Interoperability Working Group in 2007 to develop concept vocabularies for populating GeoSciML interchange documents. The CGI council has determined that it will be more efficient and effective to merge the efforts of these groups and has formed a new Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG, http://www.cgi-iugs.org/tech_collaboration/geoscience_terminology_working_group.html). Each GTWG member will be expected to shepherd one or more vocabularies. There are currently 31 vocabularies in the CGI portfolio, developed for GeoSciML interchange documents (e.g. see http://resource.geosciml.org/ 201202/). Vocabulary development in both groups has been conducted first by gathering candidate terms in Excel spreadsheets because these are easy for text editing and review. When the vocabulary is mature, it is migrated into SKOS, an RDF application for encoding concepts with identifiers, definitions, source information, standard thesaurus type relationships, and language-localized labels. Currently there are 30 vocabularies still required for GeoSciML v3, and 38 proposed vocabularies for use with EarthResourceML (https://www.seegrid.csiro.au/wiki/CGIModel/EarthResourceML). In addition, a project to develop a lithogenetic map unit vocabulary to use for regional geologic map integration using OGC web map services is underway. Considerable work remains to be done to integrate multilingual geoscience terms developed by the MLT Working Group with existing CGI vocabularies to provide multilingual support, and to make the thesaurus compiled by the

  4. VLBI Data Interchange Format (VDIF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Alan; Kettenis, Mark; Phillips, Chris; Sekido, Mamoru

    2010-01-01

    One important outcome of the 7th International e-VLBI Workshop in Shanghai in June 2008 was the creation of a task force to study and recommend a universal VLBI data format that is suitable for both on-the-wire e-VLBI data transfer, as well as direct disk storage. This task force, called the VLBI Data Interchange Format (VDIF) Task Force, is the first part of a two-part effort, the second of which will address standardization of e-VLBI data-transmission-protocols. The formation of the VDIF Task Force was prompted particularly by increased e-VLBI activity and the difficulties encountered when data arrive at a correlator in different formats from various instruments in various parts of the world. The task force created a streaming packetized data format that may be used for real-time and non-realtime e-VLBI, as well as direct disk storage. The data may contain multiple channels of time-sampled data with an arbitrary number of channels, arbitrary #bits/sample up to 32, and real or complex data; data rates in excess of 100 Gbps are supported. Each data packet is completely self-identifying via a short header, and data may be decoded without reference to any external information. The VDIF task force has completed its work, and the VDIF standard was ratified at the 2009 e-VLBI workshop in Madrid.

  5. Plan Execution Interchange Language (PLEXIL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estlin, Tara; Jonsson, Ari; Pasareanu, Corina; Simmons, Reid; Tso, Kam; Verma, Vandi

    2006-01-01

    Plan execution is a cornerstone of spacecraft operations, irrespective of whether the plans to be executed are generated on board the spacecraft or on the ground. Plan execution frameworks vary greatly, due to both different capabilities of the execution systems, and relations to associated decision-making frameworks. The latter dependency has made the reuse of execution and planning frameworks more difficult, and has all but precluded information sharing between different execution and decision-making systems. As a step in the direction of addressing some of these issues, a general plan execution language, called the Plan Execution Interchange Language (PLEXIL), is being developed. PLEXIL is capable of expressing concepts used by many high-level automated planners and hence provides an interface to multiple planners. PLEXIL includes a domain description that specifies command types, expansions, constraints, etc., as well as feedback to the higher-level decision-making capabilities. This document describes the grammar and semantics of PLEXIL. It includes a graphical depiction of this grammar and illustrative rover scenarios. It also outlines ongoing work on implementing a universal execution system, based on PLEXIL, using state-of-the-art rover functional interfaces and planners as test cases.

  6. Magnetic curvature effects on plasma interchange turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Liao, X.; Sun, C. K.; Ou, W.; Liu, D.; Gui, G.; Wang, X. G.

    2016-06-01

    The magnetic curvature effects on plasma interchange turbulence and transport in the Z-pinch and dipole-like systems are explored with two-fluid global simulations. By comparing the transport levels in the systems with a different magnetic curvature, we show that the interchange-mode driven transport strongly depends on the magnetic geometry. For the system with large magnetic curvature, the pressure and density profiles are strongly peaked in a marginally stable state and the nonlinear evolution of interchange modes produces the global convective cells in the azimuthal direction, which lead to the low level of turbulent convective transport.

  7. Resistive interchange modes and plasma flow structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paccagnella, Roberto

    2011-10-01

    Interchange modes are ubiquitous in magnetic confinement systems and are likely to determine or influence their transport properties. For example a good agreement between theory predictions for linear interchange modes and experimental results has been found recently in a Reverse Field Pinch device. In this work a set of magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) equations that describe the dynamical evolution for the pressure driven interchange modes in a magnetic confinement system are studied. Global and local solutions relevant for tokamaks and Reversed Field Pinches (RFPs) configurations are considered. The emphasis is especially in the characterization of the plasma flow structures associated with the dominant modes.

  8. Interchange mode excited by trapped energetic ions

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Seiya

    2015-07-15

    The kinetic energy principle describing the interaction between ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes with trapped energetic ions is revised. A model is proposed on the basis of the reduced ideal MHD equations for background plasmas and the bounce-averaged drift-kinetic equation for trapped energetic ions. The model is applicable to large-aspect-ratio toroidal devices. Specifically, the effect of trapped energetic ions on the interchange mode in helical systems is analyzed. Results show that the interchange mode is excited by trapped energetic ions, even if the equilibrium states are stable to the ideal interchange mode. The energetic-ion-induced branch of the interchange mode might be associated with the fishbone mode in helical systems.

  9. Limit Interchange and L'Hopital's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecker, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional application of these two calculus staples is stretched here, somewhat recreationally, but also to raise solid questions about the role of limit interchange in analysis--without, however, delving any deeper than first-year Calculus.

  10. Laboratory arc furnace features interchangeable hearths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. L.; Kruger, O. L.

    1967-01-01

    Laboratory arc furnace using rapidly interchangeable hearths gains considerable versatility in casting so that buttons or special shaped castings can be produced. It features a sight glass for observation.

  11. Quark interchange model of baryon interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Maslow, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The strong interactions at low energy are traditionally described by meson field theories treating hadrons as point-like particles. Here a mesonic quark interchange model (QIM) is presented which takes into account the finite size of the baryons and the internal quark structure of hadrons. The model incorporates the basic quark-gluon coupling of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the MIT bag model for color confinement. Because the quark-gluon coupling constant is large and it is assumed that confinement excludes overlap of hadronic quark bags except at high momenta, a non-perturbative method of nuclear interactions is presented. The QIM allows for exchange of quark quantum numbers at the bag boundary between colliding hadrons mediated at short distances by a gluon exchange between two quarks within the hadronic interior. This generates, via a Fierz transformation, an effective space-like t channel exchange of color singlet (q anti-q) states that can be identified with the low lying meson multiplets. Thus, a one boson exchange (OBE) model is obtained that allows for comparison with traditional phenomenological models of nuclear scattering. Inclusion of strange quarks enables calculation of YN scattering. The NN and YN coupling constants and the nucleon form factors show good agreement with experimental values as do the deuteron low energy data and the NN low energy phase shifts. Thus, the QIM provides a simple model of strong interactions that is chirally invariant, includes confinement and allows for an OBE form of hadronic interaction at low energies and momentum transfers.

  12. ISO/IEC's image interchange facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Christof; Hofmann, Georg R.

    1992-04-01

    This paper gives a technical description of the Image Interchange Facility (IIF), which comprises both a formate definition and a functional gateway specification. IIF is a part of the first International Image Processing and Interchange Standard (IPI), which is under elaboration by ISO/IEC JTC1/SC24. This paper reflects the related committee work performed up until January 1992. Considering the deficiencies and drawbacks of existing formats and current practices in exchanging digital images, the need for a new and more general approach to image interchange can be seen. This paper describes the requirements and design principles of the IIF data format and the IIF gateway. Furthermore, it explains the relation to the reference model for open communication (OSI) as well as the relation to the other parts of the IPI standard.

  13. Bioboxes: standardised containers for interchangeable bioinformatics software.

    PubMed

    Belmann, Peter; Dröge, Johannes; Bremges, Andreas; McHardy, Alice C; Sczyrba, Alexander; Barton, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Software is now both central and essential to modern biology, yet lack of availability, difficult installations, and complex user interfaces make software hard to obtain and use. Containerisation, as exemplified by the Docker platform, has the potential to solve the problems associated with sharing software. We propose bioboxes: containers with standardised interfaces to make bioinformatics software interchangeable.

  14. Bioboxes: standardised containers for interchangeable bioinformatics software.

    PubMed

    Belmann, Peter; Dröge, Johannes; Bremges, Andreas; McHardy, Alice C; Sczyrba, Alexander; Barton, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Software is now both central and essential to modern biology, yet lack of availability, difficult installations, and complex user interfaces make software hard to obtain and use. Containerisation, as exemplified by the Docker platform, has the potential to solve the problems associated with sharing software. We propose bioboxes: containers with standardised interfaces to make bioinformatics software interchangeable. PMID:26473029

  15. Focus on Nutrition. MCH Program Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    This issue of the "MCH Program Interchange" describes selected materials and publications in maternal and child health (MCH) nutrition services and programs. The materials were developed by or are available from federal agencies, state and local public health agencies, and voluntary and professional organizations. The information is intended to…

  16. Online Social Interchange, Discord, and Knowledge Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanuka, Heather; Anderson, Terry

    1998-01-01

    Presents the results of an exploratory multi-method evaluation study and transcript analysis of an online forum. Highlights include use of a constructivist interaction analysis model to help understand and assess online learning; social interchange; and social discord and knowledge construction. (Author/LRW)

  17. Interchange of Data Bases. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Rita G.; And Others

    This report describes the methods, developed by the American Institute of Physics in cooperation with Engineering Index, Inc., by which both organizations could reduce costs by eliminating duplication of keyboarding and indexing. The three sets of problems that confronted the interchange of their data bases (classification and indexing, formats,…

  18. ERIC Users' Interchange, February 1988-March 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC User's Interchange, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The Interchange newsletter is prepared semiannually by the staff of Access ERIC in order to communicate matters of interest to users of the ERIC database and of other ERIC products and services. The newsletter disseminates a broad spectrum of information pertaining to ERIC, including: price changes, microfiche products, ERIC Clearinghouse news,…

  19. Electronic Data Interchange: Selected Issues and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigand, Rolf T.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes electronic data interchange (EDI) as the application-to-application exchange of business documents in a computer-readable format. Topics discussed include EDI in various industries, EDI in finance and banking, organizational impacts of EDI, future EDI markets and organizations, and implications for information resources management.…

  20. Multifluid MHD Simulation of Saturn's Interchange Fingers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, N.; Rajendar, A.; Paty, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Saturn's magnetosphere exhibits rich dynamics that have only become apparent through recent missions such as the Cassini mission currently in progress. Examining local time variations in the magnetosphere has shown some interesting phenomena. One of the primary expressions of the dynamics we observe in Saturn's magnetosphere are plasma interchange fingers. These fingers carry hot plasma from the outer magnetosphere to the inner magnetosphere to balance magnetic flux lost due to outward radial transport of cold dense plasma sourced from the neutral cloud. This process leads to a mixing of hot and cold plasma throughout the magnetosphere. Understanding how mass interchange fingers form and quantifying how the plasma they contain is heated and transported will be important for understanding other dynamic processes occurring in the magnetosphere. In this study, we will be using our existing multifluid simulation of Saturn's magnetosphere in combination with data from the Cassini mission in order to investigate the formation of plasma interchange fingers and their dynamics. Our results will be compared with observations as well as previous modeling studies of Saturn's interchange fingers.

  1. 77 FR 46258 - Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... CFR Part 235 RIN 7100-AD 63 Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing AGENCY: Board of Governors of the... (Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing) that govern adjustments to debit card interchange transaction... methods. An issuer must notify its payment card networks annually that it complies with the Board's...

  2. Mammalian evolution and the great american interchange.

    PubMed

    Marshall, L G; Webb, S D; Sepkoski, J J; Raup, D M

    1982-03-12

    A reciprocal and apparently symmetrical interchange of land mammals between North and South America began about 3 million years ago, after the appearance of the Panamanian land bridge. The number of families of land mammals in South America rose from 32 before the interchange to 39 after it began, and then back to 35 at present. An equivalent number of families experienced a comparable rise and decline in North America during the same interval. These changes in diversity are predicted by the MacArthur-Wilson species equilibrium theory. The greater number of North American genera (24) initially entering South America than the reverse (12) is predicted by the proportions of reservoir genera on the two continents. However, a later imbalance caused by secondary immigrants (those which evolved from initial immigrants) is not expected from equilibrium theory.

  3. Fuel Interchangeability Considerations for Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, D.H.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years domestic natural gas has experienced a considerable growth in demand particularly in the power generation industry. However, the desire for energy security, lower fuel costs and a reduction in carbon emissions has produced an increase in demand for alternative fuel sources. Current strategies for reducing the environmental impact of natural gas combustion in gas turbine engines used for power generation experience such hurdles as flashback, lean blow-off and combustion dynamics. These issues will continue as turbines are presented with coal syngas, gasified coal, biomass, LNG and high hydrogen content fuels. As it may be impractical to physically test a given turbine on all of the possible fuel blends it may experience over its life cycle, the need to predict fuel interchangeability becomes imperative. This study considers a number of historical parameters typically used to determine fuel interchangeability. Also addressed is the need for improved reaction mechanisms capable of accurately modeling the combustion of natural gas alternatives.

  4. Peripheral Equipment Interchanges Bytes Of Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, Robert B.

    1990-01-01

    Method for conversion of data formats between incompatible computers reduces conversion time by 80 percent. Transposes high and low bytes of word so data from computer A match storage format of computer B. Two interface circuit boards convert data. Such boards ordinarily used for communication between computers. In format-conversion application, cable connecting boards modified so high-8-bit and low-8-bit data lines interchanged with result data words in proper format for computer B.

  5. A reference model for scientific information interchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reich, Lou; Sawyer, Don; Davis, Randy

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of an Information Interchange Reference Model (IIRM) currently being developed by individuals participating in the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Panel 2, the Planetary Data Systems (PDS), and the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS). This is an ongoing research activity and is not an official position by these bodies. This reference model provides a framework for describing and assessing current and proposed methodologies for information interchange within and among the space agencies. It is hoped that this model will improve interoperability between the various methodologies. As such, this model attempts to address key information interchange issues as seen by the producers and users of space-related data and to put them into a coherent framework. Information is understood as the knowledge (e.g., the scientific content) represented by data. Therefore, concern is not primarily on mechanisms for transferring data from user to user (e.g., compact disk read-only memory (CD-ROM), wide-area networks, optical tape, and so forth) but on how information is encoded as data and how the information content is maintained with minimal loss or distortion during transmittal. The model assumes open systems, which means that the protocols or methods used should be fully described and the descriptions publicly available. Ideally these protocols are promoted by recognized standards organizations using processes that permit involvement by those most likely to be affected, thereby enhancing the protocol's stability and the likelihood of wide support.

  6. Interchange Reconnection in a Turbulent Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappazzo, A. F.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Servidio, S.; Velli, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection at the interface between coronal holes and loops, so-called interchange reconnection, can release the hotter, denser plasma from magnetically confined regions into the heliosphere, contributing to the formation of the highly variable slow solar wind. In the prevailing ``standard'' view the interchange process is thought to develop in null points (with B=0) preferably at the apex of streamers or pseudo-streamers, near Y and X-points, from where slow solar wind flows would originate. This standard model does not meet recent observations of slow wind streams from the edges of active regions, that suggest that slow streams are not limited to apex-regions near neutral points (B=0). Furthermore in order to account for the slow wind diffusion (~ 30 degrees) observed in situ around the Heliospheric Current Sheet, within the standard model framework one has to posit that the slow wind would originate from a small fraction, with a complex topology, of the whole coronal hole-loop boundary, namely narrow channels (supposedly at observationally sub-resolution scales) linking coronal holes. However, coronal heating models, with magnetic field lines shuffled by convective motions, show that reconnection can occur continuously in unipolar magnetic field regions with no neutral points. We propose that a similar alternate interchange mechanism operating near boundaries between open and closed regions induces a continual stochastic rearrangement of connectivity everywhere along the open-closed boundary. We examine a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model of a simplified unipolar interface region between open and closed corona. This boundary is not stationary, becomes fractal, and field lines change connectivity continuously, becoming alternatively open and closed. This model suggests that slow wind may originate everywhere along coronal loop-hole boundaries, a possibility that has major implications for coronal heating and models of the slow solar wind, and accounts

  7. Interchange Reconnection and Coronal Hole Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmondson, J. K.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Lynch, B. J.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of magnetic reconnection between open and closed field, (often referred to as "interchange" reconnection), on the dynamics and topology of coronal hole boundaries. The most important and most prevalent 3D topology of the interchange process is that of a small-scale bipolar magnetic field interacting with a large-scale background field. We determine the evolution of such a magnetic topology by numerical solution of the fully 3D MHD equations in spherical coordinates. First, we calculate the evolution of a small-scale bipole that initially is completely inside an open field region and then is driven across a coronal hole boundary by photospheric motions. Next the reverse situation is calculated in which the bipole is initially inside the closed region and driven toward the coronal hole boundary. In both cases we find that the stress imparted by the photospheric motions results in deformation of the separatrix surface between the closed field of the bipole and the background field, leading to rapid current sheet formation and to efficient reconnection. When the bipole is inside the open field region, the reconnection is of the interchange type in that it exchanges open and closed field. We examine, in detail, the topology of the field as the bipole moves across the coronal hole boundary, and find that the field remains well-connected throughout this process. Our results imply that open flux cannot penetrate deeply into the closed field region below a helmet streamer and, hence, support the quasi-steady models in which open and closed flux remain topologically distinct. Our results also support the uniqueness hypothesis for open field regions as postulated by Antiochos et al. We discuss the implications of this work for coronal observations. Subject Headings: Sun: corona Sun: magnetic fields Sun: reconnection Sun: coronal hole

  8. Nuclear Propulsion Technical Interchange Meeting, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Propulsion Technical Interchange Meeting (NP-TIM-92) was sponsored and hosted by the Nuclear Propulsion Office at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The purpose of the meeting was to review the work performed in fiscal year 1992 in the areas of nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion technology development. These proceedings are a compilation of the presentations given at the meeting (many of the papers are presented in outline or viewgraph form). Volume 1 covers the introductory presentations and the system concepts and technology developments related to nuclear thermal propulsion.

  9. Interchangeable breech lock for glove boxes

    SciTech Connect

    Lemonds, David Preston

    2015-11-24

    A breech lock for a glove box is provided that may be used to transfer one or more items into the glove box. The breech lock can be interchangeably installed in place of a plug, glove, or other device in a port or opening of a glove box. Features are provided to aid the removal of items from the breech lock by a gloved operator. The breech lock can be reused or, if needed, can be replaced with a plug, glove, or other device at the port or opening of the glove box.

  10. A drift model of interchange instability

    SciTech Connect

    Benilov, E. S.; Power, O. A.

    2007-08-15

    A set of asymptotic equations is derived, describing the dynamics of the flute mode in a magnetized plasma with cold ions, under a 'local' approximation (i.e., near a particular point). The asymptotic set is then used to calculate the growth rate of interchange instability in the slab model. It is shown that, unlike the magnetohydrodynamic ordering, the drift one allows instability to occur for either sign of the pressure gradient (i.e., for both 'bad' and 'good' curvature of the magnetic field). It is also demonstrated that finite beta gives rise to an extra instability that does not exist in the small-beta limit.

  11. Biotic interchange between the Indian subcontinent and mainland Asia through time.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Sebastian; Morley, Robert J; Plath, Martin; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Li, Jia-Tang

    2016-07-04

    Biotic interchange after the connection of previously independently evolving floras and faunas is thought to be one of the key factors that shaped global biodiversity as we see it today. However, it was not known how biotic interchange develops over longer time periods of several million years following the secondary contact of different biotas. Here we present a novel method to investigate the temporal dynamics of biotic interchange based on a phylogeographical meta-analysis by calculating the maximal number of observed dispersal events per million years given the temporal uncertainty of the underlying time-calibrated phylogenies. We show that biotic influx from mainland Asia onto the Indian subcontinent after Eocene continental collision was not a uniform process, but was subject to periods of acceleration, stagnancy and decrease. We discuss potential palaeoenvironmental causes for this fluctuation.

  12. Biotic interchange between the Indian subcontinent and mainland Asia through time

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Sebastian; Morley, Robert J.; Plath, Martin; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Li, Jia-Tang

    2016-01-01

    Biotic interchange after the connection of previously independently evolving floras and faunas is thought to be one of the key factors that shaped global biodiversity as we see it today. However, it was not known how biotic interchange develops over longer time periods of several million years following the secondary contact of different biotas. Here we present a novel method to investigate the temporal dynamics of biotic interchange based on a phylogeographical meta-analysis by calculating the maximal number of observed dispersal events per million years given the temporal uncertainty of the underlying time-calibrated phylogenies. We show that biotic influx from mainland Asia onto the Indian subcontinent after Eocene continental collision was not a uniform process, but was subject to periods of acceleration, stagnancy and decrease. We discuss potential palaeoenvironmental causes for this fluctuation. PMID:27373955

  13. Biotic interchange between the Indian subcontinent and mainland Asia through time.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Sebastian; Morley, Robert J; Plath, Martin; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Li, Jia-Tang

    2016-01-01

    Biotic interchange after the connection of previously independently evolving floras and faunas is thought to be one of the key factors that shaped global biodiversity as we see it today. However, it was not known how biotic interchange develops over longer time periods of several million years following the secondary contact of different biotas. Here we present a novel method to investigate the temporal dynamics of biotic interchange based on a phylogeographical meta-analysis by calculating the maximal number of observed dispersal events per million years given the temporal uncertainty of the underlying time-calibrated phylogenies. We show that biotic influx from mainland Asia onto the Indian subcontinent after Eocene continental collision was not a uniform process, but was subject to periods of acceleration, stagnancy and decrease. We discuss potential palaeoenvironmental causes for this fluctuation. PMID:27373955

  14. A Cross-Classified CFA-MTMM Model for Structurally Different and Nonindependent Interchangeable Methods.

    PubMed

    Koch, Tobias; Schultze, Martin; Jeon, Minjeong; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W; Praetorius, Anna-Katharina; Eid, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Multirater (multimethod, multisource) studies are increasingly applied in psychology. Eid and colleagues (2008) proposed a multilevel confirmatory factor model for multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) data combining structurally different and multiple independent interchangeable methods (raters). In many studies, however, different interchangeable raters (e.g., peers, subordinates) are asked to rate different targets (students, supervisors), leading to violations of the independence assumption and to cross-classified data structures. In the present work, we extend the ML-CFA-MTMM model by Eid and colleagues (2008) to cross-classified multirater designs. The new C4 model (Cross-Classified CTC[M-1] Combination of Methods) accounts for nonindependent interchangeable raters and enables researchers to explicitly model the interaction between targets and raters as a latent variable. Using a real data application, it is shown how credibility intervals of model parameters and different variance components can be obtained using Bayesian estimation techniques. PMID:26881958

  15. Interchange instability of the Earth's plasmapause

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, T.S. ); Wolf, R.A.; Hill, T.W. )

    1990-10-01

    The authors reexamine the stability of low-frequency electrostatic waves with k {center dot} B = O at the plasmapause, using an extension of the procedure of Richmond (1973), an approach that is based on computing individual particle motions and includes the line-tying effect of the ionosphere. They derive expressions for the complex frequency as a function of wave number. The effect of the polarization (inertial) current accompanying the wave is included in an approximate way. The instabilities caused by the sharp change in plasma pressure at the plasmapause, but its growth rate is limited by ionospheric conductivity and, for very short wavelengths, by the inertia of the magnetospheric particles. The growth rate generally increases with decreasing ripple wavelength, until that wavelength becomes small compared to the thickness of the plasmapause. The ring current (hot and warm plasma) particles suppress wave growth significantly only for long wavelengths. According to the linear analysis, an interchange ripple with wavelength {approx lt} 2,000 km that forms on a sharp plasmapause ({approx lt} 0.1 R{sub E}) should grow by {approx gt} 10 e folds as it traverses the nightside of the Earth. This result is consistent with Richmond's (1973) conclusion that the interchange instability limits the thickness of the plasmapause on the nightside of the Earth.

  16. Analysis of genome rearrangement by block-interchanges.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chin Lung; Lin, Ying Chih; Huang, Yen Lin; Tang, Chuan Yi

    2007-01-01

    Block-interchanges are a new kind of genome rearrangements that affect the gene order in a chromosome by swapping two nonintersecting blocks of genes of any length. More recently, the study of such rearrangements is becoming increasingly important because of its applications in molecular evolution. Usually, this kind of study requires to solve a combinatorial problem, called the block-interchange distance problem, which is to find a minimum number of block-interchanges between two given gene orders of linear/circular chromosomes to transform one gene order into another. In this chapter, we shall introduce the basics of block-interchange rearrangements and permutation groups in algebra that are useful in analyses of genome rearrangements. In addition, we shall present a simple algorithm on the basis of permutation groups to efficiently solve the block-interchange distance problem, as well as ROBIN, a web server for the online analyses of block-interchange rearrangements.

  17. Internet-based data interchange with XML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerst, Karl; Schmidt, Thomas

    2000-12-01

    In this paper, a complete concept for Internet Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) - a well-known buzzword in the area of logistics and supply chain management to enable the automation of the interactions between companies and their partners - using XML (eXtensible Markup Language) will be proposed. This approach is based on Internet and XML, because the implementation of traditional EDI (e.g. EDIFACT, ANSI X.12) is mostly too costly for small and medium sized enterprises, which want to integrate their suppliers and customers in a supply chain. The paper will also present the results of the implementation of a prototype for such a system, which has been developed for an industrial partner to improve the current situation of parts delivery. The main functions of this system are an early warning system to detect problems during the parts delivery process as early as possible, and a transport following system to pursue the transportation.

  18. Technical Report Interchange Through Synchronized OAI Caches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xiaming; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Tang, Rong; Padshah, Mohammad Imran; Roncaglia, George; Rocker, JoAnne; Nelson, Michael; vonOfenheim, William; Luce, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The Technical Report Interchange project is a cooperative experimental effort between NASA Langley Research Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Air Force Research Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory and Old Dominion University to allow for the integration of technical reports. This is accomplished using the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) and having each site cache the metadata from the other participating sites. Each site also implements additional software to ingest the OAI-PMH harvested metadata into their native digital library (DL). This allows the users at each site to see an increased technical report collection through the familiar DL interfaces and tale advantage of whatever valued added are provided by the native DL.

  19. INTERCHANGE RECONNECTION IN A TURBULENT CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Rappazzo, A. F.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D.; Servidio, S.; Velli, M.

    2012-10-10

    Magnetic reconnection at the interface between coronal holes and loops, the so-called interchange reconnection, can release the hotter, denser plasma from magnetically confined regions into the heliosphere, contributing to the formation of the highly variable slow solar wind. The interchange process is often thought to develop at the apex of streamers or pseudo-streamers, near Y- and X-type neutral points, but slow streams with loop composition have been recently observed along fanlike open field lines adjacent to closed regions, far from the apex. However, coronal heating models, with magnetic field lines shuffled by convective motions, show that reconnection can occur continuously in unipolar magnetic field regions with no neutral points: photospheric motions induce a magnetohydrodynamic turbulent cascade in the coronal field that creates the necessary small scales, where a sheared magnetic field component orthogonal to the strong axial field is created locally and can reconnect. We propose that a similar mechanism operates near and around boundaries between open and closed regions inducing a continual stochastic rearrangement of connectivity. We examine a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model of a simplified interface region between open and closed corona threaded by a strong unipolar magnetic field. This boundary is not stationary, becomes fractal, and field lines change connectivity continuously, becoming alternatively open and closed. This model suggests that slow wind may originate everywhere along loop-coronal-hole boundary regions and can account naturally and simply for outflows at and adjacent to such boundaries and for the observed diffusion of slow wind around the heliospheric current sheet.

  20. Interchange Reconnection in a Turbulent Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappazzo, A. F.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D.; Servidio, S.; Velli, M.

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection at the interface between coronal holes and loops, the so-called interchange reconnection, can release the hotter, denser plasma from magnetically confined regions into the heliosphere, contributing to the formation of the highly variable slow solar wind. The interchange process is often thought to develop at the apex of streamers or pseudo-streamers, near Y- and X-type neutral points, but slow streams with loop composition have been recently observed along fanlike open field lines adjacent to closed regions, far from the apex. However, coronal heating models, with magnetic field lines shuffled by convective motions, show that reconnection can occur continuously in unipolar magnetic field regions with no neutral points: photospheric motions induce a magnetohydrodynamic turbulent cascade in the coronal field that creates the necessary small scales, where a sheared magnetic field component orthogonal to the strong axial field is created locally and can reconnect. We propose that a similar mechanism operates near and around boundaries between open and closed regions inducing a continual stochastic rearrangement of connectivity. We examine a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model of a simplified interface region between open and closed corona threaded by a strong unipolar magnetic field. This boundary is not stationary, becomes fractal, and field lines change connectivity continuously, becoming alternatively open and closed. This model suggests that slow wind may originate everywhere along loop-coronal-hole boundary regions and can account naturally and simply for outflows at and adjacent to such boundaries and for the observed diffusion of slow wind around the heliospheric current sheet.

  1. 48 CFR 227.676 - Foreign patent interchange agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Foreign patent interchange... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Foreign License and Technical Assistance Agreements 227.676 Foreign patent interchange agreements. (a)...

  2. 48 CFR 227.676 - Foreign patent interchange agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foreign patent interchange... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Foreign License and Technical Assistance Agreements 227.676 Foreign patent interchange agreements. (a)...

  3. 48 CFR 227.676 - Foreign patent interchange agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign patent interchange... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Foreign License and Technical Assistance Agreements 227.676 Foreign patent interchange agreements. (a)...

  4. 48 CFR 227.676 - Foreign patent interchange agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Foreign patent interchange... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Foreign License and Technical Assistance Agreements 227.676 Foreign patent interchange agreements. (a)...

  5. 48 CFR 227.676 - Foreign patent interchange agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foreign patent interchange... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Foreign License and Technical Assistance Agreements 227.676 Foreign patent interchange agreements. (a)...

  6. Novel Theory of Energetic-Ion-Induced Interchange Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Seiya

    2015-06-01

    On the basis of a kinetic energy principle, it is shown that the interchange mode in helical systems is excited by trapped energetic ions, where the ideal interchange mode is stable. The mode has a rotation frequency comparable to precession drift frequencies of trapped energetic ions. The theory explains how to apply the fishbone mode theory originally developed in tokamaks to helical systems.

  7. The GuideLine Interchange Format

    PubMed Central

    Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Gennari, John H.; Murphy, Shawn N.; Jain, Nilesh L.; Tu, Samson W.; Oliver, Diane E.; Pattison-Gordon, Edward; Greenes, Robert A.; Shortliffe, Edward H.; Barnett, G. Octo

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To allow exchange of clinical practice guidelines among institutions and computer-based applications. Design: The GuideLine Interchange Format (GLIF) specification consists of the GLIF model and the GLIF syntax. The GLIF model is an object-oriented representation that consists of a set of classes for guideline entities, attributes for those classes, and data types for the attribute values. The GLIF syntax specifies the format of the test file that contains the encoding. Methods: Researchers from the InterMed Collaboratory at Columbia University, Harvard University (Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital), and Stanford University analyzed four existing guideline systems to derive a set of requirements for guideline representation. The GLIF specification is a consensus representation developed through a brainstorming process. Four clinical guidelines were encoded in GLIF to assess its expressivity and to study the variability that occurs when two people from different sites encode the same guideline. Results: The encoders reported that GLIF was adequately expressive. A comparison of the encodings revealed substantial variability. Conclusion: GLIF was sufficient to model the guidelines for the four conditions that were examined. GLIF needs improvement in standard representation of medical concepts, criterion logic, temporal information, and uncertainty. PMID:9670133

  8. Flute-interchange stability in a hot electron plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Several topics in the kinetic stability theory of flute-interchange modes in a hot electron plasma are discussed. The stability analysis of the hot-electron, curvature-driven flute-interchange mode, previously performed in a slab geometry, is extended to a cylindrical plasma. The cold electron concentration necessary for stability differs substantially from previous criteria. The inclusion of a finite temperature background plasma in the stability analysis results in an ion curvature-driven flute-interchange mode which may be stabilized by either hot-electron diamagnetic effects, hot-electron plasma density, or finite (ion) Larmor radius effects.

  9. Graybody Factors and Infrared Divergences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Paul; Fabbri, Alessandro; Balbinot, Roberto; Parentani, Renaud

    2015-04-01

    A method of computing the gray-body factors for static spherically symmetric and BEC acoustic black holes using a Volterra integral equation is given. The results are used to investigate infrared divergences in the particle number, two-point function, point-split stress-energy tensor and density-density correlation function. Infrared divergences in the particle number and two-point function occur if the gray-body factor approaches a nonzero constant in the zero frequency limit, as happens for Schwarzschild-de Sitter black holes and BEC acoustic black holes. However, no infrared divergences occur in the point-split stress-energy tensor or the density-density correlation function. Supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. PHY-0856050 and PHY-1308325.

  10. Interchangeability of vortex-breakdown types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosaka, M.; Kikuchi, M.; Hirano, K.; Yuge, T.; Inoue, H.

    In order to investigate the connection between the bubble and the spiral form of vortex breakdown, experiments were conducted: an external disturbance in the form of an azimuthally spinning waveform was imposed in a pipe. The azimuthal wave number was varied by adjusting the phase difference among four oscillating pistons mounted circumferentially on the pipe. By imposing a disturbance of zero azimuthal wave number, a spiral was transformed into a bubble, and this occurred only for selective piston frequencies; the vortex breakdown which altered from the spiral to the bubble moved upstream, where it remained as a bubble as long as the external disturbance remained. Once the disturbance was removed, the bubble returned to a spiral. By imposing a disturbance of azimuthal wave number +1 (the first circumferential mode rotating in the same direction as the mean swirl), a bubble was transformed into a spiral for selective piston frequencies, and the spiral moved downstream. These preferred frequencies were found to be the same as the unexcited frequencies observed in the spiral in its natural state. As long as the external disturbance was imposed, the breakdown altered from the bubble to the spiral remained as a spiral; once the disturbance was removed, the spiral reverted to a bubble. By imposing a disturbance with azimuthal wave number -1 (the first circumferential mode rotating in the opposite direction to the mean swirl), no change was detected in either a bubble or a spiral. By imposing a disturbance with azimuthal wave number 2 (the second circumferential mode), for selective piston frequencies a bubble was transformed into what appears to be the so-called two-tailed type. Thus, it appears that hydrodynamic instability plays a role in interchanging vortex breakdown types, and a comparison with available stability theories is discussed.

  11. Advanced logic gates for ultrafast network interchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammed N.

    1995-08-01

    By overcoming speed bottlenecks from electronic switching as well as optical/electronic conversions, all-optical logic gates can permit further exploitation of the nearly 40 THz of bandwidth available from optical fibers. We focus on the use of optical solitons and all-optical logic gates to implement ultrafast ``interchanges'' or switching nodes on packet networks with speeds of 100 Gbit/s or greater. For example, all-optical logic gates have been demonstrated with speeds up to 200 Gbit/s, and they may be used to decide whether to add or drop a data packet. The overall goal of our effort is to demonstrate the key enabling technologies and their combination for header processing in 100 Gbit/s, time-division-multiplexed, packed switched networks. Soliton-based fiber logic gates are studied with the goal of combining attractive features of soliton-dragging logic gates, nonlinear loop mirrors, and erbium-doped fiber amplifiers to design logic gates with optimum switching energy, contrast ratio, and timing sensitivity. First, the experimental and numerical work studies low-latency soliton logic gates based on frequency shifts associated with cross-phase modulation. In preliminary experiments, switching in 15 m long low-birefringent fibers has been demonstrated with a contrast ratio of 2.73:1. Using dispersion-shifted fiber in the gate should lower the switching energy and improve the contrast ratio. Next, the low-birefringent fiber can be cross-spliced and wrapped into a nonlinear optical loop mirror to take advantage of mechanisms from both soliton dragging and loop mirrors. The resulting device can have low switching energy and a timing window that results from a combination of soliton dragging and the loop mirror mechanisms.

  12. AFL and FRL: abstraction and representation for field interchange.

    PubMed

    Tsafnat, Guy; Cloherty, Shaun L; Lambert, Tim D

    2004-01-01

    The holy grail of biomedical modelling is an integrated model of the entire human body. To this end, research groups around the world need to interchange experimental data, models and model results. A good interchange will have an efficient representation for storage and sharing and will have tools for modelling, data verification, authoring, data conversions and so on. A field is a spatially varying properly. In this paper we present the abstract field layer (AFL) and the field representation language (FRL). The AFL provides the field abstraction together with a set of common field operations. The FRL provides an efficient means for field representation and storage. We show how fields can be used to interchange information between modelling systems and between modelling and visualisation systems. We are currently developing a software system that composes multiple single cell solvers to create a tissue solver. PMID:17271571

  13. The formation of blobs from a pure interchange process

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, P.; Sovinec, C. R.; Hegna, C. C.

    2015-02-15

    In this work, we focus on examining a pure interchange process in a shear-less slab configuration as a prototype mechanism for blob formation. We employ full magnetohydrodynamic simulations to demonstrate that the blob-like structures can emerge through the nonlinear development of a pure interchange instability originating from a pedestal-like transition region. In the early nonlinear stage, filamentary structures develop and extend in the direction of the effective gravity. The blob-like structures appear when the radially extending filaments break off and disconnect from the core plasma. The morphology and the dynamics of these filaments and blobs vary dramatically with a sensitive dependence on the dissipation mechanisms in the system and the initial perturbation. Despite the complexity in morphology and dynamics, the nature of the entire blob formation process in the shear-less slab configuration remains strictly interchange without involving any change in magnetic topology.

  14. A Video Analysis of Use of the New 'Concussion Interchange Rule' in the National Rugby League.

    PubMed

    Gardner, A J; Iverson, G L; Stanwell, P; Moore, T; Ellis, J; Levi, C R

    2016-04-01

    The National Rugby League (NRL) in Australia introduced a new 'concussion interchange rule' (CIR) in 2014, whereby a player suspected of having sustained a concussion can be removed from play, and assessed, without an interchange being tallied against the player's team. We conducted a video analysis, describing player and injury characteristics, situational factors, concussion signs, and return to play for each "CIR" event for the 2014 season. There were 167 reported uses of the CIR. Apparent loss of consciousness/unresponsiveness was observed in 32% of cases, loss of muscle tone in 54%, clutching the head in 70%, unsteadiness of gait in 66%, and a vacant stare in 66%. More than half of the players who were removed under the CIR returned to play later in the same match (57%). Most incidences occurred from a hit up (62%) and occurred during a tackle where the initial contact was with the upper body (80%). The new concussion interchange rule has been used frequently during the first season of its implementation. In many cases, there appeared to be video evidence of injury but the athlete was cleared to return to play. More research is needed on the usefulness of video review for identifying signs of concussive injury.

  15. Generation of periodic signatures at Saturn through Titan's interaction with the centrifugal interchange instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winglee, R. M.; Kidder, A.; Harnett, E.; Ifland, N.; Paty, C.; Snowden, D.

    2013-07-01

    The origin of the periodicities in the radio, plasma, and magnetic fields of Saturn has long been debated. Given the high degree of alignment of Saturn's dipole with its rotation axis, no strong rotational periodicities are expected. However, Cassini data demonstrated the existence of such periodicities not only in Saturn's kilometric radio emissions (SKR) but in the plasma and magnetic field signatures. It is shown that the development of the centrifugal interchange instability that originates from mass loading from the Enceladus torus contains information about the planetary rotation period. However, the planetary period is masked by high-frequency components of the instability. The presence of Titan is shown to damp the high-frequency components and enables the fundamental frequency near the planetary rotation frequency to grow at the expense of the high-frequency components. As a result, the interchange instability is seen to change from one where five to seven large interchange fingers dominate to one where there are about three which cause the modulation of magnetospheric parameters near the planetary period. This modulation includes the movement of the magnetopause, the injection of energetic particles into the inner magnetosphere and the plasma density at high latitudes, both of which control SKR. Controlling factors on the frequency include Titan's drag on the plasma sheet which produces asymmetries between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, solar wind conditions, and the density of the Enceladus plasma torus. The resultant magnetic perturbations are shown to have similar size and frequency as that seen in Cassini data.

  16. Regulation of the centrifugal interchange cycle in Saturn's inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidder, A.; Winglee, R. M.; Harnett, E. M.

    2009-02-01

    Multifluid modeling of Saturn's magnetosphere produces the first numerical simulation showing the development of hot, tenuous plasma from the plasma sheet interchanging with cold, denser plasma from the inner magnetosphere. Individual injection events are seen regularly by Cassini, but with a single observation it is impossible to determine the global distribution. Multifluid simulations enable us to characterize the growth and development of not merely one injection event but show that it is a global process dependent on both the plasma distribution of ions from Enceladus and forcing by solar wind conditions. Development of the interchange arises in a fashion similar to a Rayleigh-Taylor instability, except that the heavy ions are being driven outward not by gravity but by centrifugal forces. Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) parallel to the planetary magnetic field reduces centrifugal forcing, whereas antiparallel IMF increases the forcing, by altering the bowl-like shape of the plasma sheet. However, the interchange instability also develops under normally quiet parallel IMF conditions when the mass loading of the Enceladus torus is increased. The total number of interchange events is 1-2 higher for the antiparallel case versus the increased mass case. Interchange develops in the vicinity of 7 RS, and once the fingers of cold plasma reach ~12-14 RS (close to the inner edge of the plasma sheet) they spread in the azimuthal direction, because of the fact that the magnetic field is too weak to keep the fingers solidly locked in rotation. The derived energy characteristics of the interchanging plasma are shown to be consistent with Cassini data.

  17. Cassini evidence for rapid interchange transport at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rymer, A. M.; Mauk, B. H.; Hill, T. W.; André, N.; Mitchell, D. G.; Paranicas, C.; Young, D. T.; Smith, H. T.; Persoon, A. M.; Menietti, J. D.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Coates, A. J.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2009-12-01

    During its tour Cassini has observed numerous plasma injection events in Saturn's inner magnetosphere. Here, we present a case study of one "young" plasma bubble observed when Cassini was in the equatorial plane. The bubble was observed in the equatorial plane at ˜7 Saturn radii from Saturn and had a maximum azimuthal extent of ˜0.25 Rs (Rs=Saturn radius ˜60330 km). We show that the electron density inside the event is lower by a factor ˜3 and the electron temperature higher by over an order of magnitude compared to its surroundings. The injection contains slightly increased magnetic field magnitude of 49 nT compared with a background field of 46 nT. Modelling of pitch angle distributions inside the plasma bubble and measurements of plasma drift provide a novel way to estimate that the bubble originated between 9< L<11 and had an average radial propagation speed of ˜260+60/-70 km s -1. An independent estimate of the speed of the injection following theoretical work of Pontius et al. [1986. Steady State Plasma transport in a Corotation-Dominated Magnetosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett. 13(11), 1097-1100] based on the mass per unit flux gives a maximum radial propagation speeds of 140 km s -1. These results are similar to those found by Thorne et al. [1997. Galileo evidence for rapid interchange transport in the Io torus. Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2131] for one event observed in Jupiter's magnetosphere near Io. We therefore suggest this is evidence of the same process operating at both planets.

  18. Gender and Pupil Performance. Interchange 70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinklin, Teresa; Croxford, Linda; Ducklin, Alan; Frame, Barbara

    This study examined factors that influence the relative academic attainment of males and females and how good performance by both genders can be achieved. The study involved a review of literature and policy documents, statistical analysis of official data, a questionnaire survey of local authorities, and case studies of six secondary schools in…

  19. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU 3) Technical Interchange Meeting: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU III) Technical Interchange Meeting, February 11-12, 1999, hosted by the Lockheed Martin Astronautics Waterton Facility, Denver, Colorado. Administration and publication support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Department at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  20. 46 CFR 535.305 - Equipment interchange agreements-exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment interchange agreements-exemption. 535.305 Section 535.305 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF...

  1. Mosholu Parkway overpass at the Mosholu Parkway interchange, looking northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Mosholu Parkway overpass at the Mosholu Parkway interchange, looking northeast. This is the last bridge on the Henry Hudson Parkway and 0.5 mile from its terminus at the Westchester County line. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  2. Knowledge Representation Standards and Interchange Formats for Causal Graphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throop, David R.; Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land

    2005-01-01

    In many domains, automated reasoning tools must represent graphs of causally linked events. These include fault-tree analysis, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), planning, procedures, medical reasoning about disease progression, and functional architectures. Each of these fields has its own requirements for the representation of causation, events, actors and conditions. The representations include ontologies of function and cause, data dictionaries for causal dependency, failure and hazard, and interchange formats between some existing tools. In none of the domains has a generally accepted interchange format emerged. The paper makes progress towards interoperability across the wide range of causal analysis methodologies. We survey existing practice and emerging interchange formats in each of these fields. Setting forth a set of terms and concepts that are broadly shared across the domains, we examine the several ways in which current practice represents them. Some phenomena are difficult to represent or to analyze in several domains. These include mode transitions, reachability analysis, positive and negative feedback loops, conditions correlated but not causally linked and bimodal probability distributions. We work through examples and contrast the differing methods for addressing them. We detail recent work in knowledge interchange formats for causal trees in aerospace analysis applications in early design, safety and reliability. Several examples are discussed, with a particular focus on reachability analysis and mode transitions. We generalize the aerospace analysis work across the several other domains. We also recommend features and capabilities for the next generation of causal knowledge representation standards.

  3. Sample interchange of MST radar data from the Urbana radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowhill, S. A.; Rennier, A.

    1984-01-01

    As a first step in interchange of data from the Urbana mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar, a sample tape has been prepared in 9-track 1600-bpi IBM format. It includes all Urbana data for April 1978 (the first month of operation of the radar). The 300-ft tape contains 260 h of typical mesospheric power and line-of-sight velocity data.

  4. 75 FR 81721 - Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... programs and reloadable, general-use prepaid cards not marketed or labeled as a gift card or certificate...., supermarkets and card-not-present transactions) \\13\\ to gain increased acceptance in those markets. Until 2003... System 12 CFR Part 235 Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal...

  5. NASA/DOD Flight Experiments Technical Interchange Meeting Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the Flight Experiments Technical Interchange Meeting held in Monterey California, October 5-9, 1992. Technical sessions 4 through 8 addressing space structures, propulsion, space power systems, space environments and effects, and space operations are covered. Many of the papers are presented in outline and viewgraph form.

  6. Arctic warming will promote Atlantic-Pacific fish interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisz, M. S.; Broennimann, O.; Grønkjær, P.; Møller, P. R.; Olsen, S. M.; Swingedouw, D.; Hedeholm, R. B.; Nielsen, E. E.; Guisan, A.; Pellissier, L.

    2015-03-01

    Throughout much of the Quaternary Period, inhospitable environmental conditions above the Arctic Circle have been a formidable barrier separating most marine organisms in the North Atlantic from those in the North Pacific. Rapid warming has begun to lift this barrier, potentially facilitating the interchange of marine biota between the two seas. Here, we forecast the potential northward progression of 515 fish species following climate change, and report the rate of potential species interchange between the Atlantic and the Pacific via the Northwest Passage and the Northeast Passage. For this, we projected niche-based models under climate change scenarios and simulated the spread of species through the passages when climatic conditions became suitable. Results reveal a complex range of responses during this century, and accelerated interchange after 2050. By 2100 up to 41 species could enter the Pacific and 44 species could enter the Atlantic, via one or both passages. Consistent with historical and recent biodiversity interchanges, this exchange of fish species may trigger changes for biodiversity and food webs in the North Atlantic and North Pacific, with ecological and economic consequences to ecosystems that at present contribute 39% to global marine fish landings.

  7. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) for Libraries and Publishers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santosuosso, Joe

    1992-01-01

    Defines electronic data interchange (EDI) as the exchange of data between computer systems without human intervention or interpretation. Standards are discussed; and the implementation of EDI in libraries and the serials publishing community in the areas of orders and acquisitions, claims, and invoice processing is described. (LRW)

  8. The Implications of a Mixed Media Network for Information Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, John W.

    A mixed media network for information interchange is what we are always likely to have. Amid the current permutations of the storage and distribution media we see the emergence of two trends -- toward the common denominators of electronic display on the TV system and of digital processing and control. The economic implications of a mixed network…

  9. Electronic Data Interchange: Using Technology to Exchange Transcripts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John T.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Florida Automated System for Transferring Educational Records (FASTER) project, which permits the electronic exchange of student transcripts; uses of similar electronic data interchange (EDI) programs in other states; and the national SPEEDE/ExPRESS project, which uses a standard format for transferring electronic transcripts.…

  10. On Ideal Stability of Cylindrical Localized Interchange Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Umansky, M V

    2007-05-15

    Stability of cylindrical localized ideal pressure-driven interchange plasma modes is revisited. Converting the underlying eigenvalue problem into the form of the Schroedinger equation gives a new simple way of deriving the Suydam stability criterion and calculating the growth rates of unstable modes. Near the marginal stability limit the growth rate is exponentially small and the mode has a double-peak structure.

  11. Extended MHD Study of Interchange Modes in Spheromaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Eric C.

    Extended MHD effects on pressure driven interchange modes are studied in decaying spheromak equilibria. Equilibria at conditions relevant to high temperature SSPX [Hooper et al., Nucl. Fus. 1999] discharges are ideal interchange unstable. Extended MHD introduces drifts which have a stabilizing effect, reducing the linear growth rate, on the high-n modes. However, extended MHD has a mixed effect on the low-n modes. The low- n modes have the greatest impact on confinement. In some cases extended MHD is destabilizing, increasing the growth rate, while in other cases extended MHD is stabilizing. A cylindrical screw-pinch model that approximates decaying spheromaks, is studied to better understand the lack of stabilization on the low- n modes. The extended MHD effects reduce the growth rate at small Hall parameter, but a second instability exists at finite Hall parameter. The second mode grows at a rate comparable to the MHD interchange mode. The diamagnetic heat flux has an important stabilizing effect, delaying the onset of the second mode. In calculations that neglect the diamagnetic heat flux, the second mode is dominant at experimentally relevant Hall parameters, and its growth rate exceeds the MHD growth rate. However, including the diamagnetic heat flux delays the onset of the second mode. Here significant stabilization is observed at experiential conditions for Suydam parameters D s<1. This is four times the marginal ideal stable condition. An extended MHD dispersion relation for the gravitational interchange mode [Zhu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 2008] is analyzed to understand the nature of the second instability. The inclusion of the two-fluid Ohm's law introduces an ion drift wave. The ion drift wave can interact with the gravitational interchange mode producing a second instability.

  12. Rules and Norms: Requirements for Rule Interchange Languages in the Legal Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Thomas F.; Governatori, Guido; Rotolo, Antonino

    In this survey paper we summarize the requirements for rule interchange languages for applications in the legal domain and use these requirements to evaluate RuleML, SBVR, SWRL and RIF. We also present the Legal Knowledge Interchange Format (LKIF), a new rule interchange format developed specifically for applications in the legal domain.

  13. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procedures for Interchange of National Forest... Interests § 644.409 Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands. (a) General. The interchange of national forest lands is accomplished in three steps: first, agreement must be reached between the...

  14. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Procedures for Interchange of National Forest... Interests § 644.409 Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands. (a) General. The interchange of national forest lands is accomplished in three steps: first, agreement must be reached between the...

  15. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedures for Interchange of National Forest... Interests § 644.409 Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands. (a) General. The interchange of national forest lands is accomplished in three steps: first, agreement must be reached between the...

  16. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Procedures for Interchange of National Forest... Interests § 644.409 Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands. (a) General. The interchange of national forest lands is accomplished in three steps: first, agreement must be reached between the...

  17. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Procedures for Interchange of National Forest... Interests § 644.409 Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands. (a) General. The interchange of national forest lands is accomplished in three steps: first, agreement must be reached between the...

  18. 42 CFR 84.80 - Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. 84...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.80 Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. Approvals shall not... or respirator component which is designed or constructed to permit the interchangeable use of...

  19. 42 CFR 84.80 - Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. 84...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.80 Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. Approvals shall not... or respirator component which is designed or constructed to permit the interchangeable use of...

  20. 42 CFR 84.80 - Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. 84...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.80 Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. Approvals shall not... or respirator component which is designed or constructed to permit the interchangeable use of...

  1. XAFS Data Interchange: A single spectrum XAFS data file format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravel, B.; Newville, M.

    2016-05-01

    We propose a standard data format for the interchange of XAFS data. The XAFS Data Interchange (XDI) standard is meant to encapsulate a single spectrum of XAFS along with relevant metadata. XDI is a text-based format with a simple syntax which clearly delineates metadata from the data table in a way that is easily interpreted both by a computer and by a human. The metadata header is inspired by the format of an electronic mail header, representing metadata names and values as an associative array. The data table is represented as columns of numbers. This format can be imported as is into most existing XAFS data analysis, spreadsheet, or data visualization programs. Along with a specification and a dictionary of metadata types, we provide an application-programming interface written in C and bindings for programming dynamic languages.

  2. An interchangeable-cathode vacuum arc plasma source.

    PubMed

    Olson, David K; Peterson, Bryan G; Hart, Grant W

    2010-01-01

    A simplified vacuum arc design [based on metal vapor vacuum arc (MeVVA) concepts] is employed as a plasma source for a study of a (7)Be non-neutral plasma. The design includes a mechanism for interchanging the cathode source. Testing of the plasma source showed that it is capable of producing on the order of 10(12) charges at confinable energies using a boron-carbide disk as the cathode target. The design is simplified from typical designs for lower energy and lower density applications by using only the trigger spark rather than the full vacuum arc in high current ion beam designs. The interchangeability of the cathode design gives the source the ability to replace only the source sample, simplifying use of radioactive materials in the plasma source. The sample can also be replaced with a completely different conductive material. The design can be easily modified for use in other plasma confinement or full MeVVA applications.

  3. XAFS Data Interchange: A single spectrum XAFS data file format

    PubMed Central

    Ravel, B.; Newville, M.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a standard data format for the interchange of XAFS data. The XAFS Data Interchange (XDI) standard is meant to encapsulate a single spectrum of XAFS along with relevant metadata. XDI is a text-based format with a simple syntax which clearly delineates metadata from the data table in a way that is easily interpreted both by a computer and by a human. The metadata header is inspired by the format of an electronic mail header, representing metadata names and values as an associative array. The data table is represented as columns of numbers. This format can be imported as is into most existing XAFS data analysis, spreadsheet, or data visualization programs. Along with a specification and a dictionary of metadata types, we provide an application-programming interface written in C and bindings for programming dynamic languages. PMID:27499797

  4. Vorticity scaling and intermittency in drift-interchange plasma turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Dura, P. D.; Hnat, B.; Robinson, J.; Dendy, R. O.

    2012-09-15

    The effects of spatially varying magnetic field strength on the scaling properties of plasma turbulence, modelled by an extended form of Hasegawa-Wakatani model, are investigated. We study changes in the intermittency of the velocity, density, and vorticity fields, as functions of the magnetic field inhomogeneity C=-{partial_derivative} ln B/{partial_derivative}x. While the velocity fluctuations are always self-similar and their scaling is unaffected by the value of C, the intermittency levels in density and vorticity change with parameter C, reflecting morphological changes in the coherent structures due to the interchange mechanism. Given the centrality of vorticity in conditioning plasma transport, this result is of interest in scaling the results of transport measurements and simulations in tokamak edge plasmas, where drift-interchange turbulence in the presence of a magnetic field gradient is likely to occur.

  5. Theory of semicollisional drift-interchange modes in cylindrical plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hahm, T.S.; Chen, L.

    1985-01-01

    Resistive interchange instabilities in cylindrical plasmas are studied, including the effects of electron diamagnetic drift, perpendicular resistivity, and plasma compression. The analyses are pertinent to the semicollisional regime where the effective ion gyro-radius is larger than the resistive layer width. Both analytical and numerical results show that the modes can be completely stabilized by the perpendicular plasma transport. Ion sound effects, meanwhile, are found to be negligible in the semicollisional regime.

  6. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1982-03-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV.

  7. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU II) Technical Interchange Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, David (Compiler); Saunders, Stephen R. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains extended abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU II) Technical Interchange Meeting, November 18-19, 1997, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Texas. Included are topics which include: Extraterrestrial resources, in situ propellant production, sampling of planetary surfaces, oxygen production, water vapor extraction from the Martian atmosphere, gas generation, cryogenic refrigeration, and propellant transport and storage.

  8. XML-Based SHINE Knowledge Base Interchange Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan; Tikidjian, Raffi

    2008-01-01

    The SHINE Knowledge Base Interchange Language software has been designed to more efficiently send new knowledge bases to spacecraft that have been embedded with the Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE) tool. The intention of the behavioral model is to capture most of the information generally associated with a spacecraft functional model, while specifically addressing the needs of execution within SHINE and Livingstone. As such, it has some constructs that are based on one or the other.

  9. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Technical Interchange Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Technical Interchange Meeting, February 4-5, 1997, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Texas. Abstracts are arranged in order of presentation at the meetings, with corresponding page numbers shown in the enclosed agenda. Logistics, administration, and publication support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Department at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  10. Residual turbulence from velocity shear stabilized interchange instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, C. P.; Hassam, A. B.

    2013-01-15

    The stabilizing effect of velocity shear on the macroscopic, broad bandwidth, ideal interchange instability is studied in linear and nonlinear regimes. A 2D dissipative magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code is employed to simulate the system. For a given flow shear, V Prime , linear growth rates are shown to be suppressed to below the shear-free level at both the small and large wavelengths. With increasing V Prime , the unstable band in wavenumber-space shrinks so that the peak growth results for modes that correspond to relatively high wavenumbers, on the scale of the density gradient. In the nonlinear turbulent steady state, a similar turbulent spectrum obtains, and the convection cells are roughly circular. In addition, the density fluctuation level and the degree of flattening of the initial inverted density profile are found to decrease as V Prime increases; in fact, unstable modes are almost completely stabilized and the density profile reverts to laminar when V Prime is a few times the classic interchange growth rate. Moreover, the turbulent particle flux diminishes with increasing velocity shear such that all the flux is carried by the classical diffusive flux in the asymptotic limit. The simulations are compared with measurements of magnetic fluctuations from the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment, MCX, which investigated interchange modes in the presence of velocity shear. The experimental spectral data, taken in the plasma edge, are in general agreement with the numerical data obtained in higher viscosity simulations for which the level of viscosity is chosen consistent with MCX Reynolds numbers at the edge. In particular, the residual turbulence in both cases is dominated by elongated convection cells. Finally, concomitant Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in the system are also examined. Complete stability to interchanges is obtained only in the parameter space wherein the generalized Rayleigh inflexion theorem is satisfied.

  11. Therapeutic Interchange of Clevidipine For Sodium Nitroprusside in Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Joseph E.; Thomas, Zachariah; Lee, David; Moskowitz, David M.; Nemeth, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Background: Generic price inflation has resulted in rising acquisition costs for sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an agent historically described as the drug of choice for the treatment of perioperative hypertension in cardiac surgery. Purpose: To describe the implementation and cost avoidance achieved by utilizing clevidipine as an alternative to SNP in cardiac surgery patients at a 520-bed community teaching hospital that performs more than 300 cardiac surgeries each year. Methods: A multidisciplinary team inclusive of anesthesiologists, intensivists, pharmacists, and surgeons collaborated to develop a therapeutic interchange for SNP in cardiac surgery patients. Consistent with current guidelines for therapeutic interchange, the goal was to encourage a less expensive alternative that was demonstrated to be at least therapeutically equivalent to SNP based on data derived from clinical trials published in peer-reviewed literature. A comprehensive literature review identified clevidipine as an alternative to SNP for perioperative hypertension in cardiac surgery. Nicardipine was considered as well, but was not chosen as a substitute due to lack of strong evidence and comparative data with SNP. Results: Clevidipine was implemented successfully in our cardiac surgery patients and will result in a net cost avoidance of approximately $300,000 in 2016. This is thought to be driven largely by the difference in acquisition cost between clevidipine and SNP. The operating room in our institution no longer keeps SNP stocked in anesthesia trays as a result of the success of our interchange. No requests have been made to return to the SNP standard. Conclusion: Through effective communication and multidisciplinary collaboration, our institution was able to develop an evidence-based and effective therapeutic interchange program for SNP. PMID:27757002

  12. 78 FR 39436 - Temporary Closure of I-65 (I-70/I-65 South Split Interchange to I-70/I-65 North Split Interchange...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Temporary Closure of I-65 (I-70/I-65 South Split Interchange to I-70/I-65 North Split Interchange) in the City of Indianapolis AGENCIES: Federal Highway Administration... (INDOT) has requested FHWA approval of INDOT's proposed plan to close a 2-mile portion of I- 65...

  13. Reconnection and interchange instability in the near magnetotail

    DOE PAGES

    Birn, Joachim; Liu, Yi -Hsin; Daughton, William; Hesse, Michael; Schindler, Karl

    2015-07-16

    This paper provides insights into the possible coupling between reconnection and interchange/ballooning in the magnetotail related to substorms and flow bursts. The results presented are largely based on recent simulations of magnetotail dynamics, exploring onset and progression of reconnection. 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations with different tail deformation demonstrate a clear boundary between stable and unstable cases depending on the amount of deformation, explored up to the real proton/electron mass ratio. The evolution prior to onset, as well as the evolution of stable cases, are governed by the conservation of integral flux tube entropy S as imposed in ideal MHD, maintainingmore » a monotonic increase with distance downtail. This suggests that ballooning instability in the tail should not be expected prior to the onset of tearing and reconnection. 3-D MHD simulations confirm this conclusion, showing no indication of ballooning prior to reconnection, if the initial state is ballooning stable. The simulation also shows that, after imposing resistivity necessary to initiate reconnection, the reconnection rate and energy release initially remain slow. However, when S becomes reduced from plasmoid ejection and lobe reconnection, forming a negative slope in S as a function of distance from Earth, the reconnection rate and energy release increase drastically. The latter condition has been shown to be necessary for ballooning/interchange instability, and the cross-tail structures that develop subsequently in the MHD simulation are consistent with such modes. The simulations support a concept in which tail activity is initiated by tearing instability but significantly enhanced by the interaction with ballooning/interchange enabled by plasmoid loss and lobe reconnection.« less

  14. Reconnection and interchange instability in the near magnetotail

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, Joachim; Liu, Yi -Hsin; Hesse, Michael

    2015-07-16

    This paper provides insights into the possible coupling between reconnection and interchange/ballooning in the magnetotail related to substorms and flow bursts. The results presented are largely based on recent simulations of magnetotail dynamics, exploring onset and progression of reconnection. 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations with different tail deformation demonstrate a clear boundary between stable and unstable cases depending on the amount of deformation, explored up to the real proton/electron mass ratio. The evolution prior to onset, as well as the evolution of stable cases, are governed by the conservation of integral flux tube entropy S as imposed in ideal MHD, maintaining a monotonic increase with distance downtail. This suggests that ballooning instability in the tail should not be expected prior to the onset of tearing and reconnection. 3-D MHD simulations confirm this conclusion, showing no indication of ballooning prior to reconnection, if the initial state is ballooning stable. The simulation also shows that, after imposing resistivity necessary to initiate reconnection, the reconnection rate and energy release initially remain slow. However, when S becomes reduced from plasmoid ejection and lobe reconnection, forming a negative slope in S as a function of distance from Earth, the reconnection rate and energy release increase drastically. The latter condition has been shown to be necessary for ballooning/interchange instability, and the cross-tail structures that develop subsequently in the MHD simulation are consistent with such modes. The simulations support a concept in which tail activity is initiated by tearing instability but significantly enhanced by the interaction with ballooning/interchange enabled by plasmoid loss and lobe reconnection.

  15. Effects of radial motion on interchange injections at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranicas, C.; Thomsen, M. F.; Achilleos, N.; Andriopoulou, M.; Badman, S. V.; Hospodarsky, G.; Jackman, C. M.; Jia, X.; Kennelly, T.; Khurana, K.; Kollmann, P.; Krupp, N.; Louarn, P.; Roussos, E.; Sergis, N.

    2016-01-01

    Charged particle injections are regularly observed in Saturn's inner magnetosphere by Cassini. They are attributed to an ongoing process of flux-tube interchange driven by the strong centrifugal force associated with Saturn's rapid rotation. Numerical simulations suggest that these interchange injections can be associated with inward flow channels, in which plasma confined to a narrow range of longitudes moves radially toward the planet, gaining energy, while ambient plasma in the adjacent regions moves more slowly outward. Most previous analyses of these events have neglected this radial motion and inferred properties of the events under the assumption that they appear instantaneously at the spacecraft's L-shell and thereafter drift azimuthally. This paper describes features of injections that can be related to their radial motion prior to observation. We use a combination of phase space density profiles and an updated version of a test-particle model to quantify properties of the injection. We are able to infer the longitudinal width of the injection, the radial travel time from its point of origin, and the starting L shell of the injection. We can also predict which energies can remain inside the channel during the radial transport. To highlight the effects of radial propagation at a finite speed, we focus on those interchange injections without extensive features of azimuthal dispersion. Injections that have traveled radially for one or more hours prior to observation would have been initiated at a different local time than that of the observation. Finally, we describe an injection where particles have drifted azimuthally into a flow channel prior to observation by Cassini.

  16. Reconnection and interchange instability in the near magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birn, Joachim; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Daughton, William; Hesse, Michael; Schindler, Karl

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides insights into the possible coupling between reconnection and interchange/ballooning in the magnetotail related to substorms and flow bursts. The results presented are largely based on recent simulations of magnetotail dynamics, exploring onset and progression of reconnection. 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations with different tail deformation demonstrate a clear boundary between stable and unstable cases depending on the amount of deformation, explored up to the real proton/electron mass ratio. The evolution prior to onset, as well as the evolution of stable cases, are governed by the conservation of integral flux tube entropy S as imposed in ideal MHD, maintaining a monotonic increase with distance downtail. This suggests that ballooning instability in the tail should not be expected prior to the onset of tearing and reconnection. 3-D MHD simulations confirm this conclusion, showing no indication of ballooning prior to reconnection, if the initial state is ballooning stable. The simulation also shows that, after imposing resistivity necessary to initiate reconnection, the reconnection rate and energy release initially remain slow. However, when S becomes reduced from plasmoid ejection and lobe reconnection, forming a negative slope in S as a function of distance from Earth, the reconnection rate and energy release increase drastically. The latter condition has been shown to be necessary for ballooning/interchange instability, and the cross-tail structures that develop subsequently in the MHD simulation are consistent with such modes. The simulations support a concept in which tail activity is initiated by tearing instability but significantly enhanced by the interaction with ballooning/interchange enabled by plasmoid loss and lobe reconnection.

  17. System comprising interchangeable electronic controllers and corresponding methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Glen F. (Inventor); Salazar, George A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A system comprising an interchangeable electronic controller is provided with programming that allows the controller to adapt a behavior that is dependent upon the particular type of function performed by a system or subsystem component. The system reconfigures the controller when the controller is moved from one group of subsystem components to another. A plurality of application programs are provided by a server from which the application program for a particular electronic controller is selected. The selection is based on criteria such as a subsystem component group identifier that identifies the particular type of function associated with the system or subsystem group of components.

  18. Directory interchange format manual, version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Directory Interchange Format (DIF) is a data structure used to exchange directory level information about data sets among information systems. The format consists of a number of fields that describe the attributes of a directory entry and text blocks that contain a descriptive summary of and references for the directory entry. All fields and the summary are preceded by labels identifying their contents. All values are ASCII character strings. The structure is intended to be flexible, allowing for future changes in the contents of directory entries.

  19. Boundary induced amplification and nonlinear instability of interchange modes

    SciTech Connect

    Bagaipo, Jupiter; Hassam, A. B.

    2013-02-15

    It is shown that small distortions on the boundaries are amplified in the core of a magnetized plasma if the system is close to marginal stability for the ideal magnetohydrodynamic interchange mode. It is also shown that such marginal systems can be nonlinearly unstable. The combination of boundary amplification and nonlinearity is shown to result in a nonlinear instability. The induced instability is highly sensitive to the boundary in that, if the fractional deviation from marginality is a small parameter b, the system can go unstable from fractional boundary distortions of O(b{sup 3/2}).

  20. Interchange instability in finite conductivity accelerated plasma arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourouis, M.; Huerta, M. A.; Rodriguez-Trelles, F.

    1993-01-01

    A first order perturbation expansion of the MHD equations is used to study the growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor or interchange instability in accelerated plasma arcs. The mode equation is fourth-order, due to the inclusion of finite conductivity. It is solved numerically to yield results that are an improvement over previous work. The growth rates are less than in the infinite conductivity model. As in previous work the growth rates in typical rail launcher situations are large enough to permit full development of the instability.

  1. Assessing Interchangeability at Cluster-Levels with Multiple-Informant Data

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhehui; Breslau, Joshua; Gardiner, Joseph C.; Chen, Qiaoling; Breslau, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Studies examining the relationship between neighborhood social disorder and health often rely on multiple informants. Such studies assume interchangeability of the latent constructs derived from multiple-informant data. Existing methods examining this assumption do not clearly delineate the uncertainty at individual levels from that at neighborhood levels. We propose a multi-level variance component factor model that allows this delineation. Data come from a survey of a representative sample of children born between 1983 and 1985 in the inner city of Detroit and nearby middle-class suburbs. Results indicate that the informant-level models tend to exaggerate the effect of places due to differences between persons. Our evaluations of different methodologies lead to the recommendation of the multi-level variance component factor model whenever multiple-informant reports can be aggregated at a neighborhood level. PMID:24038232

  2. Signatures of interchange reconnection: STEREO, ACE and Hinode observations combined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D.; Rouillard, A. P.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Démoulin, P.; Harra, L. K.; Lavraud, B.; Davies, J. A.; Opitz, A.; Luhmann, J. G.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Galvin, A. B.

    2009-10-01

    Combining STEREO, ACE and Hinode observations has presented an opportunity to follow a filament eruption and coronal mass ejection (CME) on 17 October 2007 from an active region (AR) inside a coronal hole (CH) into the heliosphere. This particular combination of "open" and closed magnetic topologies provides an ideal scenario for interchange reconnection to take place. With Hinode and STEREO data we were able to identify the emergence time and type of structure seen in the in-situ data four days later. On the 21st, ACE observed in-situ the passage of an ICME with "open" magnetic topology. The magnetic field configuration of the source, a mature AR located inside an equatorial CH, has important implications for the solar and interplanetary signatures of the eruption. We interpret the formation of an "anemone" structure of the erupting AR and the passage in-situ of the ICME being disconnected at one leg, as manifested by uni-directional suprathermal electron flux in the ICME, to be a direct result of interchange reconnection between closed loops of the CME originating from the AR and "open" field lines of the surrounding CH.

  3. Directory interchange format manual, version 4.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Directory Interchange Format (DIF) is a data structure used to exchange directory-level information about data sets among information systems. In general the format consists of a number of fields that describe the attributes of a directory entry and text blocks that contain a descriptive summary of and references for the directory entry. All fields and the summary are preceded by labels identifying their contents. All values are ASCII character strings. The structure is intended to be flexible, allowing for future changes in the contents of directory entries. The manual is structured as follows: section 1 is a general description of what constitutes a directory entry; section 2 describes the content of the individual fields within the data structure, together with some examples. Also included in the six appendices is a description of the syntax used within the examples; samples of the directory interchange format applied to different data sets; the allowable discipline keywords; a current list of valid location keywords; a list of allowable parameter keywords; a list of acronyns and a glossary of terms used; and a description of the Standard Formatted Data Unit header, which may be added to the front of a DIF file to identify the file as a registered standard format.

  4. FUEL INTERCHANGEABILITY FOR LEAN PREMIXED COMBUSTION IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Don Ferguson; Geo. A. Richard; Doug Straub

    2008-06-13

    In response to environmental concerns of NOx emissions, gas turbine manufacturers have developed engines that operate under lean, pre-mixed fuel and air conditions. While this has proven to reduce NOx emissions by lowering peak flame temperatures, it is not without its limitations as engines utilizing this technology are more susceptible to combustion dynamics. Although dependent on a number of mechanisms, changes in fuel composition can alter the dynamic response of a given combustion system. This is of particular interest as increases in demand of domestic natural gas have fueled efforts to utilize alternatives such as coal derived syngas, imported liquefied natural gas and hydrogen or hydrogen augmented fuels. However, prior to changing the fuel supply end-users need to understand how their system will respond. A variety of historical parameters have been utilized to determine fuel interchangeability such as Wobbe and Weaver Indices, however these parameters were never optimized for today’s engines operating under lean pre-mixed combustion. This paper provides a discussion of currently available parameters to describe fuel interchangeability. Through the analysis of the dynamic response of a lab-scale Rijke tube combustor operating on various fuel blends, it is shown that commonly used indices are inadequate for describing combustion specific phenomena.

  5. Ion composition in interchange injection events in Saturn's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, M. F.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Wilson, R. J.; Andriopoulou, M.; Crary, F. J.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Jackman, C. M.; Jia, X.; Khurana, K. K.; Paranicas, C.; Roussos, E.; Sergis, N.; Tokar, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    Interchange injection events are commonly observed by the Cassini spacecraft in the region between about 6 and 12 Rs (1 Rs = 60,268 km) and even frequently beyond. In this study, 13 examples of interchange injection events are identified in Cassini/Cassini Plasma Spectrometer data under special conditions such that time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectra could be obtained from entirely within the events. Using the TOF data to separate the main ion species H+, H2+, and W+, approximate densities of each species are calculated under the assumption that all distributions were isotropic. The light-ion density ratios, H2+/H+, in the injection events are not discernibly different from those ratios in control intervals from the ambient plasma. However, the water-group ratio, W+/H+, is significantly lower than ambient. The comparison of the measured density ratios with the range of values observed throughout Saturn's magnetosphere indicates that the values of W+/H+ that are as low as those observed within the injection events are found primarily beyond L~14 (where L is the equatorial crossing distance, in Saturn radius, of a dipole field line), indicating that the injection events are delivering plasma from the outer magnetosphere at times traveling at least 6 Rs.

  6. Deep water X-mas tree standardization -- Interchangeability approach

    SciTech Connect

    Paula, M.T.R.; Paulo, C.A.S.; Moreira, C.C.

    1995-12-31

    Aiming the rationalization of subsea operations to turn the production of oil and gas more economical and reliable, standardization of subsea equipment interfaces is a tool that can play a very important role. Continuing the program initiated some years ago, Petrobras is now harvesting the results from the first efforts. Diverless guidelineless subsea Christmas trees from four different suppliers have already been manufactured in accordance to the standardized specification. Tests performed this year in Macae (Campos Basin onshore base), in Brazil, confirmed the interchangeability among subsea Christmas trees, tubing hangers, adapter bases and flowline hubs of different manufacturers. This interchangeability, associated with the use of proven techniques, results in operational flexibility, savings in rig time and reduction in production losses during workovers. By now, 33 complete sets of subsea Christmas trees have already been delivered and successfully tested. Other 28 sets are still being manufactured by the four local suppliers. For the next five years, more than a hundred of these trees will be required for the exploration of the new discoveries. This paper describes the standardized equipment, the role of the operator in an integrated way of working with the manufacturers on the standardization activities, the importance of a frank information flow through the involved companies and how a simple manufacturing philosophy, with the use of construction jigs, has proved to work satisfactorily.

  7. Diversification, biotic interchange, and the universal trade-off hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Tilman, David

    2011-09-01

    Competition theory predicts that multispecies coexistence requires that species have traits that fall on the same interspecific trade-off surface. Fossil records for mollusks, mammals, trees, and other taxa show that with rare exception, ecologically similar species have coexisted for a million years or more after interchange between formerly isolated realms. This coexistence suggests the possibility, termed the universal trade-off hypothesis, that ecologically similar species of different realms have been bound to the same interspecific trade-off surface despite millions of years of independent evolution. Such persistence fails to support the biogeographic superiority hypothesis, which posits that genetic drift, recombination, mutation, and selection would cause taxa of one realm to gain superiority over those of another realm during long periods of isolation. Analysis of the lengths of time that species have persisted once in contact suggests that the trade-off surfaces of realms differed by <0.1% at the time of interchange. This implies that macroevolutionary patterns of differentiation and speciation within and between realms were more likely the movement of traits on a common trade-off surface rather than directional selection achieved without compensatory trade-offs and costs. The existence of transrealm trade-offs, should further work support this possibility, has deep implications for ecology and evolution.

  8. Uncertainty-based Estimation of the Secure Range for ISO New England Dynamic Interchange Adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Etingov, Pavel V.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Wu, Di; Hou, Zhangshuan; Sun, Yannan; Maslennikov, S.; Luo, Xiaochuan; Zheng, T.; George, S.; Knowland, T.; Litvinov, E.; Weaver, S.; Sanchez, E.

    2014-04-14

    The paper proposes an approach to estimate the secure range for dynamic interchange adjustment, which assists system operators in scheduling the interchange with neighboring control areas. Uncertainties associated with various sources are incorporated. The proposed method is implemented in the dynamic interchange adjustment (DINA) tool developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for ISO New England. Simulation results are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Interchange and Infernal Fishbone Modes in Plasmas with Tangentially Injected Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesnichenko; Ya.I.; Marchenko; V.S.; White; R.B.

    2006-01-01

    New energetic particle mode instabilities of fishbone type are predicted. The considered instabilities are driven by the circulating energetic ions. They can arise in plasmas of tokamaks and spherical tori with weak magnetic shear in the wide core region and strong shear at the periphery, provided that the central safety factor is close to the ratio m/n, where m and n are the poloidal mode number and toroidal mode number, respectively. The instability with m = n = 1 has interchange-like spatial structure, whereas the structure of instabilities with m/n > 1 is similar to that of the infernal MHD mode (except for the region in vicinity of the local Alfvén resonance).

  10. HST Super Lightweight Interchangeable Carrier (SLIC) Static Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, William V.

    2008-01-01

    The HST Super Light Weight Interchangeable Carrier Static Test program calls for a total of 15 load cases with an average of 9 simultaneous push/pull locations per load case. This testing program represents the most complex static test ever attempted at Goddard Space Flight Center. Many unique multi-pull fixtures were designed to apply the simultaneous loading. Additionally, a total of 600 channels of data required processing for each loadcase. A total of 1100 separate strain gages were installed on SLIC. A team of 15 trained technicians were needed to apply test loads via mechanical hand pumps for several load cases. All 15 load cases were successfully conducted within 15 weeks. The ManTech team successfully tested all SLIC 1200 interface clips to the required testing loads. Several unique designs were needed to address testing challenges as loadline interference, Payload Safety, payload flexibility and opposing load applications.

  11. Interchangeable end effector tools utilized on the protoflight manipulator arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A subset of teleoperator and effector tools was designed, fabricated, delivered and successfully demonstrated on the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) protoflight manipulator arm (PFMA). The tools delivered included a rotary power tool with interchangeable collets and two fluid coupling mate/demate tools; one for a Fairchild coupling and the other for a Purolator coupling. An electrical interface connector was also provided for the rotary power tool. A tool set, from which the subset was selected, for performing on-orbit satellite maintenance was identified and conceptionally designed. Maintenance requirements were synthesized, evaluated and prioritized to develop design requirements for a set of end effector tools representative of those needed to provide on-orbit maintenance of satellites to be flown in the 1986 to 2000 timeframe.

  12. Guidelines for Provision and Interchange of Geothermal Data Assets

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-07-03

    The US Department of Energy Office of Geothermal Technologies (OGT) is funding and overseeing the development of the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS), a distributed information system providing access to integrated data in support of, and generated in, all phases of geothermal development. NGDS is being built in an open paradigm and will employ state-of-the-art informatics approaches and capabilities to advance the state of geothermal knowledge in the US. This document presents guidelines related to provision and interchange of data assets in the context of the National Geothermal Data System. It identifies general specifications for NGDS catalog metadata and data content, and provides specific instructions for preparation and submission of data assets by OGT-funded projects.

  13. An Ensemble Approach for Forecasting Net Interchange Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Vlachopoulou, Maria; Gosink, Luke J.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Ferryman, Thomas A.; Zhou, Ning; Tong, Jianzhong

    2013-09-01

    The net interchange schedule (NIS) is the sum of the transactions (MW) between an ISO/RTO and its neighbors. Effective forecasting of the submitted NIS can improve grid operation efficiency. This paper applies a Bayesian model averaging (BMA) technique to forecast submitted NIS. As an ensemble approach, the BMA method aggregates different forecasting models in order to improve forecasting accuracy and consistency. In this study, the BMA method is compared to two alternative approaches: a stepwise regression method and an artificial neural network (ANN) trained for NIS forecasting. In our comparative analysis, we use field measurement data from the Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Maryland (PJM) Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) to train and test each method. Our preliminary results indicate that ensemble-based methods can provide more accurate and consistent NIS forecasts in comparison to non-ensemble alternate methods.

  14. SCHIP: Statistics for Chromosome Interphase Positioning Based on Interchange Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vives, Sergi; Loucas, Bradford; Vazquez, Mariel; Brenner, David J.; Sachs, Rainer K.; Hlatky, Lynn; Cornforth, Michael; Arsuaga, Javier

    2005-01-01

    he position of chromosomes in the interphase nucleus is believed to be associated with a number of biological processes. Here, we present a web-based application that helps analyze the relative position of chromosomes during interphase in human cells, based on observed radiogenic chromosome aberrations. The inputs of the program are a table of yields of pairwise chromosome interchanges and a proposed chromosome geometric cluster. Each can either be uploaded or selected from provided datasets. The main outputs are P-values for the proposed chromosome clusters. SCHIP is designed to be used by a number of scientific communities interested in nuclear architecture, including cancer and cell biologists, radiation biologists and mathematical/computational biologists.

  15. Interchange of electronic design through VHDL and EIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Richard M.

    1987-10-01

    The need for both robust and unambiguous electronic designs is a direct requirement of the astonishing growth in design and manufacturing capability during recent years. In order to manage the plethora of designs, and have the design data both interchangeable and interoperable, the Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) program is developing two major standards for the electronic design community. The VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is designed to be the lingua franca for transmission of design data between designers and their environments. The Engineering Information System (EIS) is designed to ease the integration of data betweeen diverse design automation systems. This paper describes the rationale for the necessity for these two standards and how they provide a synergistic expressive capability across the macrocosm of design environments.

  16. Transport scaling in interchange-driven toroidal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, Paolo; Rogers, B. N.

    2009-06-15

    Two-dimensional fluid simulations of a simple magnetized torus are presented, in which the vertical and toroidal components of the magnetic field create helicoidal field lines that terminate on the upper and lower walls of the plasma chamber. The simulations self-consistently evolve the full radial profiles of the electric potential, density, and electron temperature in the presence of three competing effects: the cross-field turbulent transport driven by the interchange instability, parallel losses to the upper and lower walls, and the input of particles and heat by external plasma sources. Considering parameter regimes in which equilibrium ExB shear flow effects are weak, we study the dependence of the plasma profiles--in particular the pressure profile scale length--on the parameters of the system. Analytical scalings are obtained that show remarkable agreement with the simulations.

  17. Possible Improvements of the ACE Diversity Interchange Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Etingov, Pavel V.; Zhou, Ning; Makarov, Yuri V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; McManus, Bart; Loutan, Clyde

    2010-07-26

    North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) grid is operated by about 131 balancing authorities (BA). Within each BA, operators are responsible for managing the unbalance (caused by both load and wind). As wind penetration levels increase, the challenges of managing power variation increases. Working independently, balancing area with limited regulating/load following generation and high wind power penetration faces significant challenges. The benefits of BA cooperation and consolidation increase when there is a significant wind energy penetration. To explore the benefits of BA cooperation, this paper investigates ACE sharing approach. A technology called ACE diversity interchange (ADI) is already in use in the western interconnection. A new methodology extending ADI is proposed in the paper. The proposed advanced ADI overcoming some limitations existing in conventional ADI. Simulations using real statistical data of CAISO and BPA have shown high performance of the proposed advanced ADI methodology.

  18. Interchange of electronic design through VHDL and EIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    The need for both robust and unambiguous electronic designs is a direct requirement of the astonishing growth in design and manufacturing capability during recent years. In order to manage the plethora of designs, and have the design data both interchangeable and interoperable, the Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) program is developing two major standards for the electronic design community. The VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is designed to be the lingua franca for transmission of design data between designers and their environments. The Engineering Information System (EIS) is designed to ease the integration of data betweeen diverse design automation systems. This paper describes the rationale for the necessity for these two standards and how they provide a synergistic expressive capability across the macrocosm of design environments.

  19. The Harang reversal and the interchange stability of the magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, Shinichi; Gkioulidou, Matina; Wang, Chih-Ping; Wolf, Richard A.

    2016-04-01

    The present study addresses steady convection in the plasma sheet in terms of the interchange stability with special attention to the Harang reversal. The closure of the tail current with a field-aligned current (FAC) results from the divergence/convergence of the pressure gradient current. If the magnetotail is in a steady state, the associated change of local plasma pressure p has to balance with its advective change. Accordingly, for adiabatic transport, the flux tube entropy parameter pVγ increases and decreases along the convection path in regions corresponding to downward and upward FACs, respectively. This requirement, along with the condition for the interchange stability imposes an important constraint on the direction of convection especially in the regions of downward FACs. It is deduced that for the dusk cell, the convection in the downward R2 current has to be directed azimuthally duskward, which follows the sunward, possibly dawnward deflected, convection in the region of the premidnight upward R1 current. This duskward turn of convection takes place in the vicinity of the R1-R2 demarcation, and it presumably corresponds to the Harang reversal. For the dawn cell the convection in the postmidnight downward R1 current has to deflect dawnward, and then it proceeds sunward in the upward R2 current. The continuity of the associated ionospheric currents consistently reproduces the assumed FAC distribution. The proposed interrelationships between the convection and FACs are also verified with a quasi-steady plasma sheet configuration and convection reproduced by a modified Rice Convection Model with force balance.

  20. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest...

  1. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest...

  2. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest...

  3. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest...

  4. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest...

  5. The Place of Community-Based Learning in Higher Education: A Case Study of Interchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardwick, Louise

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on one strand of community engagement: community-based learning for students. It considers in particular Interchange as a case study. Interchange is a registered charity based in, but independent of, a department in a Higher Education Institution. It brokers between undergraduate research/work projects and Voluntary Community…

  6. Finite Larmor radius assisted velocity shear stabilization of the interchange instability in magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ng Sheungwah; Hassam, A.B.

    2005-06-15

    Finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects, originally shown to stabilize magnetized plasma interchange modes at short wavelength, are shown to assist velocity shear stabilization of long wavelength interchanges. It is shown that the FLR effects result in stabilization with roughly the same efficacy as the stabilization from dissipative (resistive and viscous) effects found earlier.

  7. Compressibility effect on magnetic-shear-localized ideal magnetohydrodynamic interchange instability

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Sangeeta; Callen, J.D.; Hegna, C.C.

    2005-08-15

    Eigenmode analysis of a magnetic-shear-localized ideal magnetohydrodynamic interchange instability in the presence of plasma compressibility indicates the marginal stability criterion (D{sub I}=1/4) is not affected by the compressibility effects. Above the marginal stability criterion, plasma compressibility causes a significant reduction in the growth rate of an ideal interchange instability.

  8. What Kind of International Interchange Is Beneficial? Experiences of Taiwanese Indigenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shan-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Because of globalization, international interchanges among indigenes in every country have become more frequent. Influenced by international multicultural trends, Taiwan's government not only supports indigenous populations to revive their traditional cultures, but also encourages the promotion of the international interchange activities among…

  9. Structural Characteristics of Computer-Mediated Language: A Comparative Analysis of InterChange Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Kwang-Kyu

    1996-01-01

    Compares one form of synchronous computer-mediated communication, Daedalus InterChange, with analogous spoken and written corpora. Finds that the InterChange discourse mode is not merely intermediate between speaking and writing; rather the electronic medium uniquely fosters some behaviors and inhibits others, in support of the view that physical…

  10. 75 FR 38606 - Temporary Closure of I-70 (I-70/I-465 West Leg Interchange to the I-70/I-65 South Split...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Federal Highway Administration Temporary Closure of I-70 (I-70/I-465 West Leg Interchange to the I-70/I-65...-70 (from the I-70/I-465 west leg interchange to the I-70/I-65 south split interchange) on October 7... leg interchange to the I-70/I-65 south split interchange) on October 7, 2010, for a 12-hour...

  11. Intermittent versus Continuous Incremental Field Tests: Are Maximal Variables Interchangeable?

    PubMed

    Carminatti, Lorival J; Possamai, Carlos A P; de Moraes, Marcelo; da Silva, Juliano F; de Lucas, Ricardo D; Dittrich, Naiandra; Guglielmo, Luiz G A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare physiological responses derived from an incremental progressive field test with a constant speed test i.e. intermittent versus continuous protocol. Two progressive maximum tests (Carminatti`s test (T-CAR) and the Vameval test (T-VAM)), characterized by increasing speed were used. T-CAR is an intermittent incremental test, performed as shuttle runs; while T-VAM is a continuous incremental test performed on an athletic track. Eighteen physically active, healthy young subjects (21.9 ± 2.0 years; 76.5 ± 8.6 kg, 1.78 ± 0.08 m, 11.2 ± 5.4% body fat), volunteered for this study. Subjects performed four different maximum test sessions conducted in the field: two incremental tests and two time to exhaustion tests (TTE) at peak test velocities (PV). No significant differences were found for PV (T-CAR = 15.6 ± 1.2; T-VAM = 15.5 ± 1.3 km·h(-1)) and maximal HR (T-CAR = 195 ± 11; T- VAM = 194 ± 14 bpm). During TTE, there were no significant differences for HR (TTET-CAR and TTET-VAM = 192 ± 12 bpm). However, there was a significant difference in TTE (p = 0.04) (TTET-CAR = 379 ± 84, TTET-VAM = 338 ± 58 s) with a low correlation (r = 0.41). The blood lactate concentration measured at the end of the TTE tests, showed no significant difference (TTET-CAR = 13.2 ± 2.4 vs. TTET-VAM = 12.9 ± 2.4 mmol·l(-1)). Based on the present findings, it is suggested that the maximal variables derived from T-CAR and T-VAM can be interchangeable in the design of training programs. Key pointsT-CAR is an intermittent shuttle run test that predicts the maximal aerobic speed with accuracy, hence, test results could be interchangeable with continuous straight-line tests.T-CAR provides valid field data for evaluating aerobic fitness.In comparison with T-VAM, T-CAR may be a more favourable way to prescribe intermittent training using a shuttle-running protocol.

  12. Use of data description languages in the interchange of data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pignede, M.; Real-Planells, B.; Smith, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is developing Standards for the interchange of information between systems, including those operating under different environments. The objective is to perform the interchange automatically, i.e. in a computer interpretable manner. One aspect of the concept developed by CCSDS is the use of a separate data description to specify the data being transferred. Using the description, data can then be automatically parsed by the receiving computer. With a suitably expressive Data Description Language (DDL), data formats of arbitrary complexity can be handled. The advantages of this approach are: (1) that the description need only be written and distributed once to all users, and (2) new software does not need to be written for each new format, provided generic tools are available to support writing and interpretation of descriptions and the associated data instances. Consequently, the effort of 'hard coding' each new format is avoided and problems of integrating multiple implementations of a given format by different users are avoided. The approach is applicable in any context where computer parsable description of data could enhance efficiency (e.g. within a spacecraft control system, a data delivery system or an archive). The CCSDS have identified several candidate DDL's: EAST (Extended Ada Subset), TSDN (Transfer Syntax Data Notation) and MADEL (Modified ASN.1 as a Data Description Language -- a DDL based on the Abstract Syntax Notation One - ASN.1 - specified in the ISO/IEC 8824). This paper concentrates on ESA's development of MADEL. ESA have also developed a 'proof of concept' prototype of the required support tools, implemented on a PC under MS-DOS, which has successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the approach, including the capability within an application of retrieving and displaying particular data elements, given its MADEL description (i.e. a data description written in MADEL). This paper outlines

  13. RCM simulation of interchange transport in Saturn's inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, T. W.; Liu, X.; Sazykin, S. Y.; Wolf, R.

    2013-12-01

    Numerical simulations with the Rice Convection Model have been used to study the radial transport of plasma in Saturn's inner magnetosphere (L < 12) where the magnetic field is dominated by the planetary dipole. This transport occurs through a time-variable pattern of wider outflow channels containing cool, dense plasma from interior sources, alternating with narrower inflow channels containing hot, tenuous plasma from the outer magnetosphere. The 'smoking gun' of this interchange transport process is the pervasive presence of V-shaped injection/dispersion signatures in linear energy-time spectrograms that are observed by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) on every pass through the inner magnetosphere. Using observed hot plasma distributions at L~12 as input, we have now successfully simulated these V-shaped signatures. We will show these simulation results and compare them with observed signatures. We will also describe future improvements to the model including relaxing the dipole-field assumption, thus enabling us to simulate local-time asymmetries imposed by the outer magnetosphere and tail.

  14. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M. J.; Ling, D. C.; Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-08-15

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10{sup −7} T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K.

  15. The interchange instability in high-latitude plasma blobs

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, P.K.; Huba, J.D. )

    1987-04-01

    The stability of high-latitude plasma density enhancements (blobs) is analyzed with regard to the interchange mode (driven by neutral wind or equilibrium transverse electric field acting on the density gradient at the walls of the blobs). The effects arising from the finite parallel length of the blobs along the magnetic field lines are included in the analysis. Plasma regions of differing collisionalities, to which the blobs extend in altitude, are considered. The authors find that the finite parallel blob size results in a modest reduction in the growth rates of the small ({approx lt}1 km) and intermediate (1-10 km) scale sizes but severely reduces the growth rates for the large scale sizes (> 10 km) for the observed parallel blob lengths ({approximately}300-600 km). Further, it is found that the instability growth rates show a moderate reduction at higher altitudes (where ion-inertial effects may be dominant over the ion-neutral collisional effects). Thus the E{times} B instability is considered a plausible candidate for the scintillation-causing irregularities (1-10 km) associated with the high-latitude blobs.

  16. Interchange instability in high-latitude plasma blobs. Memorandum report

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, P.K.; Huba, J.D.

    1986-12-30

    The stability of high-latitude plasma-density enhancements (blobs) is analyzed with regard to the interchange model (driven by a neutral wind or transverse electric field acting on the density gradient at the walls of the blobs). The effects arising from the finite parallel length of the blobs along the magnetic field lines are included in the analysis. Plasma regions of differing collisionalities, to which the blobs extend in altitude, are considered. It was found that the finite-parallel blob size results in a modest reduction in the growth rates of the small somewhat < 1 km) and intermediate (1-10 km) scale sizes, but severely reduces the growth rates, for the large scale sizes (> 10 kms) for the observed parallel blob lengths (approx. 300-600 kms). Further, it is found that the instability growth rates show a moderate reduction at higher altitudes (where ion-inertial effects may be dominant over the ion-neutral collisional effects). Thus, the E x B instability is considered a plausible candidate for the scintillation causing irregularities (1-10 kms) associated with the high-latitude blobs.

  17. Stabilization of numerical interchange in spectral-element magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovinec, C. R.

    2016-08-01

    Auxiliary numerical projections of the divergence of flow velocity and vorticity parallel to magnetic field are developed and tested for the purpose of suppressing unphysical interchange instability in magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The numerical instability arises with equal-order C0 finite- and spectral-element expansions of the flow velocity, magnetic field, and pressure and is sensitive to behavior at the limit of resolution. The auxiliary projections are motivated by physical field-line bending, and coercive responses to the projections are added to the flow-velocity equation. Their incomplete expansions are limited to the highest-order orthogonal polynomial in at least one coordinate of the spectral elements. Cylindrical eigenmode computations show that the projections induce convergence from the stable side with first-order ideal-MHD equations during h-refinement and p-refinement. Hyperbolic and parabolic projections and responses are compared, together with different methods for avoiding magnetic divergence error. The projections are also shown to be effective in linear and nonlinear time-dependent computations with the NIMROD code Sovinec et al. [17], provided that the projections introduce numerical dissipation.

  18. Relation between Turbulence Suppression and Flow Shear for Interchange Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentle, Kenneth; Rowan, William; Williams, Chad; Li, Bo

    2013-10-01

    The Helimak is an approximation to the infinite cylindrical slab with a size large compared with turbulence transverse scale lengths, but with open field lines of finite length. Interchange modes are the dominant instability. Radially-segmented isolated end plates allow application of radial electric fields. Above a threshold in applied voltage, the fractional turbulent amplitude is greatly reduced. Reductions are observed for both bias polarities over a broad range of collisionality and parallel connection length. Simultaneous measurements of the ion flow velocity profile are made by Doppler spectroscopy of the argon plasma ion. Turbulence reductions are weakly correlated with reductions in radial correlation length, but neither turbulence levels nor turbulence reductions are correlated with velocity flow shear. No evidence of zonal flows has been found. The turbulence - density and potential fluctuations, is compared with simulations from a two-fluid model for this geometry, which also show turbulence stabilization with bias without increased shear. Work supported by the Department of Energy OFES DE-FG02-04ER54766.

  19. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M J; Ling, D C; Chi, C C; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-08-01

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10(-7) T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La(2/3)Ca(1/3)MnO3 thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K. PMID:25173276

  20. Tetrasulfur, S4: rotational spectrum, interchange tunneling, and geometrical structure.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M C; Thorwirth, S; Gottlieb, C A; Thaddeus, P

    2004-07-01

    The rotational spectrum of S4 has been observed for the first time in an electrical discharge through sulfur vapor. Two techniques have been used: Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy and long-path millimeter-wave absorption spectroscopy. Small, but systematic shifts of the measured transition frequencies of the normal isotopic species indicate that S4 has C2v symmetry but with a low-lying transition state of D2h symmetry, yielding interchange tunneling at 14.1(2) kHz in its ground vibrational state. From the rotational constants of the normal and the single 34S isotopic species, an experimental (r0) structure has been derived: S4 is a singlet planar trapezoid with a terminal bond length of 1.899(7) A, a central bond of 2.173(32) A, and an S-S-S angle of 103.9(8) degrees. Like thiozone (S3), S4 is a candidate for detection in the atmosphere of the Jovian moon Io and in other astronomical sources. PMID:15260588

  1. The Nonlinear Stationary State of Simple Interchange Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentle, Kenneth; Rowan, W. L.; Williams, C. B.; Brookman, M. W.

    2014-10-01

    The Helimak is an approximation to the infinite cylindrical slab with a size large compared with turbulence transverse scale lengths, but with open field lines of finite length. Interchange modes are the dominant instability. Radially-segmented isolated end plates allow application of radial electric fields to modify the plasma flow transverse to B and the radial equilibrium gradient. Measurements of the ion flow velocity profile are made by Doppler spectroscopy of the argon plasma ion. The level of non-linearly saturated turbulence has been measured over a wide range of collisionality, parallel connection length, and flow pattern, but none of the processes found effective for setting the level of saturated turbulence for the weaker turbulence in the plasma interior are found applicable. Quasi-linear theory is inconsistent with the observations, zonal flows are not observed, and local flow shear does not correlate with local turbulence level. Weak correlations are found between turbulence level and radial correlation length for some restricted data subsets, but no broad correlation or predictive power exists. Work supported by the Department of Energy OFES DE-FG02-04ER54766.

  2. Herbicide interchange between a stream and the adjacent alluvial aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.; Squillace, P.

    1994-01-01

    Herbicide interchange between a stream and the adjacent alluvial aquifer and quantification of herbicide bank storage during high streamflow were investigated at a research site on the Cedar River flood plain, 10 km southeast of Cedar Rapids, Iowa. During high streamflow in March 1990, alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor were detected at concentrations above background in water from wells as distant as 20, 50, and 10 m from the river's edge, respectively. During high streamflow in May 1990, alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor were detected at concentrations above background as distant as 20, 50, 10, and 20 m from the river's edge, respectively. Herbicide bank storage took place during high streamflow when hydraulic gradients were from the river to the alluvial aquifer and the laterally infiltrating river water contained herbicide concentrations larger than background concentrations in the aquifer. The herbicide bank storage can be quantified by multiplying herbicide concentration by the "effective area" that a well represented and an assumed porosity of 0.25. During March 1990, herbicide bank storage values were calculated to be 1.7,79, and 4.0 mg/m for alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor, respectively. During May 1990, values were 7.1, 54, 11, and 19 mg/m for alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor, respectively. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

  3. An harmonised vocabulary for communicating and interchanging biofilms experimental results.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ana Margarida; Pereira, Maria Olívia; Azevedo, Nuno F; Lourenço, Anália

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm studies are at the crossroads of Biology, Chemistry, Medicine, Material Science and Engineering, among other fields. Data harmonisation in Biofilms is therefore crucial to allow for researchers to collaborate, interchange, understand, and replicate studies at an inter-laboratory and inter-domain scale. The international Minimum Information About a Biofilms Experiment initiative has prepared a set of guidelines for documenting biofilms experiments and data, namely the minimum information checklist. This paper goes a step forward and describes a new ontology for the broad description of biofilm experiments and data. In such an interdisciplinary context we chose to rely on a common integration framework provided by a foundational ontology that facilitates the addition and extension of various sub-domain modules, and the consistent integration of terminology extracted from several existing ontologies, e.g. EXPO and ChEBI. The community is participating actively in the production of this resource, and it is already used by public biofilms-centred databases, such as BiofOmics, and bioinformatics tools, such as the Biofilms Experiment Workbench. This practical validation serves the purpose of disseminating the controlled vocabulary among researchers and identifying current limitations, glitches, and inconsistencies. Information branches will be added, extended or refactored according to user feedback and group discussions. PMID:25339083

  4. Format for Interchange and Display of 3D Terrain Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul; Powell, Mark; Vona, Marsette; Norris, Jeffrey; Morrison, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Visible Scalable Terrain (ViSTa) is a software format for production, interchange, and display of three-dimensional (3D) terrain data acquired by stereoscopic cameras of robotic vision systems. ViSTa is designed to support scalability of data, accuracy of displayed terrain images, and optimal utilization of computational resources. In a ViSTa file, an area of terrain is represented, at one or more levels of detail, by coordinates of isolated points and/or vertices of triangles derived from a texture map that, in turn, is derived from original terrain images. Unlike prior terrain-image software formats, ViSTa includes provisions to ensure accuracy of texture coordinates. Whereas many such formats are based on 2.5-dimensional terrain models and impose additional regularity constraints on data, ViSTa is based on a 3D model without regularity constraints. Whereas many prior formats require external data for specifying image-data coordinate systems, ViSTa provides for the inclusion of coordinate-system data within data files. ViSTa admits highspeed loading and display within a Java program. ViSTa is designed to minimize file sizes and maximize compressibility and to support straightforward reduction of resolution to reduce file size for Internet-based distribution.

  5. Using electronic data interchange to report product quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, Donald F.; Frank, Donald T.

    1993-03-01

    The Product Quality Deficiency Report (PQDR) is a Department of Defense form that identifies deficiencies in the manufacture, repair, or procurement of materiel. It may be used by DoD employees or contractors to identify defects at any point in the item's life. DoD generates nearly 75,000 such deficiency reports each year. In most cases, when a defect is identified, Standard Form (SF) 368 is completed and sent to the activity managing the contract under which the materiel was procured. That activity, usually in conjunction with the contractor, investigates the complaint, attempts to determine a cause and a corrective action, and must make some disposition of the defective materiel. The process is labor- and paper-intensive and time-consuming. Technology can reduce the costs of the process and at the same time improve timeliness by electronically exchanging discrepancy data between activities. Electronic data interchange (EDI) is one technology for electronically passing PQDR data. It is widely used in industry and increasingly within DoD. DMRD 941 defines DoD's commitment to use EDI and cites the PQDR and other discrepancy reports as early candidates for EDI. In this report, we describe how EDI can be linked to changes in PQDR processing practices to provide further improvements.

  6. Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting 2: SSP TIM 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Jim; Hawk, Clark W.

    1998-01-01

    The 2nd Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting (SSP TIM 2) was conducted September 21st through 24th with the first part consisting of a Plenary session. The summary results of this Plenary session are contained in part one of this report. The attendees were then organized into Working Breakout Sessions and Integrated Product Team (IPT) Sessions for the purpose of conducting in-depth discussions in specific topic areas and developing a consensus as to appropriate study plans and actions to be taken. The Second part covers the Plenary Summary Session, which contains the summary results of the Working Breakout Sessions and IPT Sessions. The appendix contains the list of attendees. The ob'jective was to provide an update for the study teams and develop plans for subsequent study activities. This SSP TIM 2 was initiated and the results reported electronically over the Internet. The International Space Station (ISS) could provide the following opportunities for conducting research and technology (R&T) which are applicable to SSP: (1) Automation and Robotics, (2) Advanced Power Generation, (3) Advanced Power Management & Distribution (PMAD), (4) Communications Systems and Networks, (5) Energy Storage, (6) In Space Propulsion (ISP), (7) Structural Dynamics and Control, and Assembly and (8) Wireless Power Transmission.

  7. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M J; Ling, D C; Chi, C C; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-08-01

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10(-7) T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La(2/3)Ca(1/3)MnO3 thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K.

  8. 75 FR 62919 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Route 250 Bypass Interchange... the Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road project in the City of Charlottesville, Virginia... approvals for the following project in the State of Virginia: Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire...

  9. Evaluation of cardiac output by 5 arterial pulse contour techniques using trend interchangeability method

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Marc-Olivier; Diouf, Momar; de Wilde, Robert B.P.; Dupont, Hervé; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Lorne, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiac output measurement with pulse contour analysis is a continuous, mini-invasive, operator-independent, widely used, and cost-effective technique, which could be helpful to assess changes in cardiac output. The 4-quadrant plot and the polar plot have been described to compare the changes between 2 measurements performed under different conditions, and the direction of change by using different methods of measurements. However, the 4-quadrant plot and the polar plot present a number of limitations, with a risk of misinterpretation in routine clinical practice. We describe a new trend interchangeability method designed to objectively define the interchangeability of each change of a variable. Using the repeatability of the reference method, we classified each change as either uninterpretable or interpretable and then as either noninterchangeable, in the gray zone or interchangeable. An interchangeability rate can then be calculated by the number of interchangeable changes divided by the total number of interpretable changes. In this observational study, we used this objective method to assess cardiac output changes with 5 arterial pulse contour techniques (Wesseling's method, LiDCO, PiCCO, Hemac method, and Modelflow) in comparison with bolus thermodilution technique as reference method in 24 cardiac surgery patients. A total of 172 cardiac output variations were available from the 199 data points: 88 (51%) were uninterpretable, according to the first step of the method. The second step of the method, based on the 84 (49%) interpretable variations, showed that only 18 (21%) to 30 (36%) variations were interchangeable regardless of the technique used. None of pulse contour cardiac output technique could be interchangeable with bolus thermodilution to assess changes in cardiac output using the trend interchangeability method in cardiac surgery patients. Future studies may consider using this method to assess interchangeability of changes between different

  10. Evaluation of cardiac output by 5 arterial pulse contour techniques using trend interchangeability method.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Marc-Olivier; Diouf, Momar; Wilde, Robert B P de; Dupont, Hervé; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Lorne, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac output measurement with pulse contour analysis is a continuous, mini-invasive, operator-independent, widely used, and cost-effective technique, which could be helpful to assess changes in cardiac output. The 4-quadrant plot and the polar plot have been described to compare the changes between 2 measurements performed under different conditions, and the direction of change by using different methods of measurements. However, the 4-quadrant plot and the polar plot present a number of limitations, with a risk of misinterpretation in routine clinical practice. We describe a new trend interchangeability method designed to objectively define the interchangeability of each change of a variable. Using the repeatability of the reference method, we classified each change as either uninterpretable or interpretable and then as either noninterchangeable, in the gray zone or interchangeable. An interchangeability rate can then be calculated by the number of interchangeable changes divided by the total number of interpretable changes. In this observational study, we used this objective method to assess cardiac output changes with 5 arterial pulse contour techniques (Wesseling's method, LiDCO, PiCCO, Hemac method, and Modelflow) in comparison with bolus thermodilution technique as reference method in 24 cardiac surgery patients. A total of 172 cardiac output variations were available from the 199 data points: 88 (51%) were uninterpretable, according to the first step of the method. The second step of the method, based on the 84 (49%) interpretable variations, showed that only 18 (21%) to 30 (36%) variations were interchangeable regardless of the technique used. None of pulse contour cardiac output technique could be interchangeable with bolus thermodilution to assess changes in cardiac output using the trend interchangeability method in cardiac surgery patients. Future studies may consider using this method to assess interchangeability of changes between different methods

  11. Kinetic and resistive effects on interchange instabilities for a cylindrical model spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Hammett, G.W.; Tang, W.M.

    1983-04-01

    The stabilizing influence of diamagnetic drift effects on ideal and resistive interchange modes is investigated. A resistive-ballooning-mode equation is derived using a kinetic theory approach and is applied to a cylindrical model spheromak equilibrium. It is found that these kinetic effects can significantly improve the ..beta.. limits for collisionless interchange stability. For the resistive modes, the diamagnetic drift terms lead to growth rates which scale linearly with resistivity and are considerably reduced in magnitude. However, the resistive interchange growth rates estimated for near-term spheromak parameters remain significant.

  12. Interchange Slip-Running Reconnection and Sweeping SEP-Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, S.; Aulanier, G.; Pariat, E.; Klein, K.-L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new model to explain how particles, accelerated at a reconnection site that is not magnetically connected to the Earth, could eventually propagate along the well-connected open flux tube. Our model is based on the results of a low-beta resistive magnetohydrodynamics simulation of a three-dimensional line-tied and initially current-free bipole, that is embedded in a non-uniform open potential field. The topology of this configuration is that of an asymmetric coronal null-point, with a closed fan surface and an open outer spine. When driven by slow photospheric shearing motions, field lines, initially fully anchored below the fan dome, reconnect at the null point, and jump to the open magnetic domain. This is the standard interchange mode as sketched and calculated in 2D. The key result in 3D is that, reconnected open field lines located in the vicinity of the outer spine, keep reconnecting continuously, across an open quasi-separatrix layer, as previously identified for non-open-null-point reconnection. The apparent slipping motion of these field lines leads to form an extended narrow magnetic flux tube at high altitude. Because of the slip-running reconnection, we conjecture that if energetic particles would be travelling through, or be accelerated inside, the diffusion region, they would be successively injected along continuously reconnecting field lines that are connected farther and farther from the spine. At the scale of the full Sun, owing to the super-radial expansion of field lines below 3 solar radius, such energetic particles could easily be injected in field lines slipping over significant distances, and could eventually reach the distant flux tube that is well-connected to the Earth.

  13. Morphology of Interchange-Driven Injections in Saturn's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranicas, C.; Achilleos, N.; Andriopoulou, M.; Badman, S. V.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Jia, X.; Jackman, C. M.; Khurana, K. K.; Krupp, N.; Louarn, P.; Roussos, E.; Sergis, N.; Thomsen, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    As Cassini passes close to Saturn during its regular orbits, evidence of particle injections can often be found in many different data sets (including MAG, CAPS, MIMI, and RPWS). One reason injections are easily visible in Saturn's inner magnetosphere is that the circumplanetary neutral gas distribution can reduce the intensities of some charged particles. For example, energetic ions can be lost from the system following charge exchange with neutrals and energetic electrons can lose energy in collisions with gas and dust. Injections in the inner magnetosphere are believed to be flux tube interchange events that are part of a larger circulation system in which cold dense plasma flows outward carrying magnetic flux with it. The closed magnetic flux is ultimately returned to the inner magnetosphere in the form of injections of rapidly moving hotter but lighter flux tubes from the middle magnetosphere. In this presentation, we will look at injections from the perspective of multiple Cassini data sets. Some features of these structures have already been identified in the literature from one or more data sets. For example, the tendency for injections to appear as enhancements (depressions) in magnetic field strength at low (high) magnetic latitude has been documented (Andre et al. 2007). Furthermore, that flux tube bundles seem to narrow in spatial extent in the equatorial plane in the higher magnetic field region has also been described. Here, we will look at selected structures distributed in radial distance and latitude as a step toward generalizing their characteristics at various locations. We will consider issues such as the magnetic signature in the field components, the typical wave signatures, the energy range of the injection, and the presence of isolated features versus multiple features occurring simultaneously. We will also discuss observational issues, such as when each instrument is optimally suited to detect injections, and how this relates to their

  14. Geothermal Energy and the Eastern US: Fifth technical information interchange meeting, Minutes

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    The technical interchange meeting documented here is the fifth meeting where people interested in geothermal energy in the Eastern US have met to interchange technical information. These meetings are intended to assist all in the difficult task of balancing time and effort in doing their assigned jobs and keeping track of what others are doing in similar or related tasks. All of the aforementioned meetings have served their intended purpose and further regional and national meetings are sure to follow.

  15. The electromagnetic interchange mode in a partially ionized collisional plasma. [spread F region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, M. K.; Kennel, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    A collisional electromagnetic dispersion relation is derived from two-fluid theory for the interchange mode coupled to the Alfven, acoustic, drift and entropy modes in a partially ionized plasma. The fundamental electromagnetic nature of the interchange model is noted; coupling to the intermediate Alfven mode is strongly stabilizing for finite k sub z. Both ion viscous and ion-neutral stabilization are included, and it was found that collisions destroy the ion finite Larmor radius cutoff at short perpendicular wavelengths.

  16. Improving Area Control Error Diversity Interchange (ADI) Program by Incorporating Congestion Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ning; Etingov, Pavel V.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Guttromson, Ross T.; McManus, Bart

    2010-04-30

    The area control error (ACE) determines how much a balancing authority (BA) needs to move its regulating units to meet mandatory control performance standard requirements. Regulation is an expensive resource that could cost several hundred million dollars a year for a BA. The amount of regulation needed in a system is increasing with more intermittent generation resources added to the system. The ACE diversity interchange (ADI) program provides a tool for reducing the regulation requirement by combining ACEs from several participating BAs followed by sharing the total ACE among all participating balancing areas. The effect is achieved as a result of the low statistical correlation between the original ACEs of participating BAs. A rule-based ADI approach has already been put into practice in the US Western Interconnection. The degree of actual ACE sharing is artificially limited because of the unknown redistribution of power flows and possible system congestion (these factors are not monitored in the existing ADI). This paper proposes a two-step linear programming (LP) ADI approach that incorporates congestion constraints. In the first step of the proposed LP ADI, the line transmission limits are enforced by setting up corresponding constraints. In the second step, the business fairness is pursued. Simulation is performed to compare the properties of the proposed LP ADI and the existing rule-based ADI. Favorable features, such as avoiding line limit violations and increasing the degree of possible ACE sharing, are observed for the proposed LP ADI.

  17. Equivalence and interchangeability of narrow therapeutic index drugs in organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Atholl

    2013-10-01

    The calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), ciclosporin and tacrolimus, are the mainstay of immunosuppression in solid organ transplantation. Generic formulations of these drugs are now available. With increasing pressure on healthcare budgets and the consequent need to match health expectations to available resources, substitution with a generic product appears an attractive option to reduce costs. Approval of generic products differs from innovator drugs, and narrow therapeutic index drugs (NTIs; including CNIs) bring their own particular considerations. With NTIs, small variations in drug exposure could result in reduced immunosuppression or drug toxicity with potentially adverse effects on patient outcomes. NTIs are subject to stricter regulatory approval versus many other generic drugs. However, different generic formulations may still not necessarily be therapeutically equivalent in individuals, raising the possibility of significant differences in exposure between products. Although regional recommendations vary, many guidelines emphasise the need for NTI drug substitution to be initiated by the transplant physician, thus ensuring careful therapeutic monitoring and reduced negative patient impact. The need for therapeutic monitoring during generic substitution has important implications for the overall costs of generic treatment as these costs have to be factored in to the potential savings made from using generic formulations. The reduced acquisition costs of generic products may not necessarily translate into lower overall healthcare costs. This article examines the issue of equivalence and interchangeability of NTI drugs used in organ transplantation, the implications of the approval process for generic drugs on treatment efficacy and safety, and the effective management of substitutions between products.

  18. Equivalence and interchangeability of narrow therapeutic index drugs in organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Atholl

    2013-01-01

    The calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), ciclosporin and tacrolimus, are the mainstay of immunosuppression in solid organ transplantation. Generic formulations of these drugs are now available. With increasing pressure on healthcare budgets and the consequent need to match health expectations to available resources, substitution with a generic product appears an attractive option to reduce costs. Approval of generic products differs from innovator drugs, and narrow therapeutic index drugs (NTIs; including CNIs) bring their own particular considerations. With NTIs, small variations in drug exposure could result in reduced immunosuppression or drug toxicity with potentially adverse effects on patient outcomes. NTIs are subject to stricter regulatory approval versus many other generic drugs. However, different generic formulations may still not necessarily be therapeutically equivalent in individuals, raising the possibility of significant differences in exposure between products. Although regional recommendations vary, many guidelines emphasise the need for NTI drug substitution to be initiated by the transplant physician, thus ensuring careful therapeutic monitoring and reduced negative patient impact. The need for therapeutic monitoring during generic substitution has important implications for the overall costs of generic treatment as these costs have to be factored in to the potential savings made from using generic formulations. The reduced acquisition costs of generic products may not necessarily translate into lower overall healthcare costs. This article examines the issue of equivalence and interchangeability of NTI drugs used in organ transplantation, the implications of the approval process for generic drugs on treatment efficacy and safety, and the effective management of substitutions between products. PMID:24089632

  19. Complex stability and dynamic subunit interchange modulates the disparate activities of the yeast moonlighting proteins Hal3 and Vhs3

    PubMed Central

    Abrie, J. Albert; Molero, Cristina; Ariño, Joaquín; Strauss, Erick

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hal3 and Vhs3 are moonlighting proteins, acting both as inhibitors of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase Ppz1 and as subunits (together with Cab3) of the unique heterotrimeric phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase (PPCDC) enzyme of Hemiascomycetous yeast. Both these roles are essential: PPCDC catalyses the third step of coenzyme A biosynthesis, while Ppz1 inhibition is required for regulation of monovalent cation homeostasis. However, the mechanisms by which these proteins’ disparate activities are regulated are not well understood. The PPCDC domains (PDs) of Hal3, Vhs3 and Cab3 constitute the minimum requirement for these proteins to show both PPCDC activity and, in the case of Hal3 and Vhs3, to bind to Ppz1. Using these PD proteins as a model system to study the possibility of dynamic interchange between these roles, we provide evidence that Hal3 binds Ppz1 as a monomer (1:1 stoichiometry), requiring it to de-oligomerize from its usual homo- and heterotrimeric states (the latter having PPCDC activity). This de-oligomerization is made possible by structural features that set Hal3 apart from Vhs3, increasing its ability to undergo monomer exchange. These findings suggest that oligomer interchange may be a significant factor in the functional regulation of these proteins and their various unrelated (moonlighting) functions. PMID:26514574

  20. Characteristics of magnetic island formation due to resistive interchange instability in helical plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, R.; Matsumoto, Y.; Itagaki, M.; Oikawa, S.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Sato, M.

    2014-05-15

    Focusing attention on the magnetic island formation, we investigate the characteristics of the resistive interchange magnetohydrodynamics instabilities, which would limit a high beta operational regime in helical type fusion reactors. An introduction of a new index, i.e., the ratio of the magnetic fluctuation level to the radial displacement, enables us to make a systematic analysis on the magnetic island formation in the large helical device-like plasmas during the linear growth phase; (i) the interchange instability with the second largest growth rate makes the magnetic island larger than that with the largest growth rate when the amplitude of the radial displacement in both cases is almost the same as each other; (ii) applied to a typical tearing instability, the index is smaller than that for the interchange instability with the second largest growth rate.

  1. Interaction between static magnetic islands and interchange modes in a straight heliotron plasma with high resistivity

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Kinya; Ichiguchi, Katsuji; Ohyabu, Nobuyoshi

    2010-06-15

    Fundamental mechanism of the nonlinear interaction between static magnetic islands generated by an external field and a resistive interchange mode is investigated in a straight heliotron plasma with high resistivity by using a numerical method based on the reduced magnetohydrodynamics equations. The behavior of the magnetic islands is examined at the steady state after the nonlinear saturation of the interchange mode. The width and the phase of the magnetic islands are changed by the mode evolution. These changes are almost determined by the linear combination of the two perturbed poloidal magnetic fluxes, the flux imposed externally and the flux attributed to the interchange mode, in spite of the fact that the changes result from the nonlinear process. It is also obtained that the amount of the local change of the pressure at the resonant surface in the saturation state depends on the phase of the static magnetic islands.

  2. Automatic 3D high-fidelity traffic interchange modeling using 2D road GIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-03-01

    3D road models are widely used in many computer applications such as racing games and driving simulations. However, almost all high-fidelity 3D road models were generated manually by professional artists at the expense of intensive labor. There are very few existing methods for automatically generating 3D high-fidelity road networks, especially for those existing in the real world. Real road network contains various elements such as road segments, road intersections and traffic interchanges. Among them, traffic interchanges present the most challenges to model due to their complexity and the lack of height information (vertical position) of traffic interchanges in existing road GIS data. This paper proposes a novel approach that can automatically produce 3D high-fidelity road network models, including traffic interchange models, from real 2D road GIS data that mainly contain road centerline information. The proposed method consists of several steps. The raw road GIS data are first preprocessed to extract road network topology, merge redundant links, and classify road types. Then overlapped points in the interchanges are detected and their elevations are determined based on a set of level estimation rules. Parametric representations of the road centerlines are then generated through link segmentation and fitting, and they have the advantages of arbitrary levels of detail with reduced memory usage. Finally a set of civil engineering rules for road design (e.g., cross slope, superelevation) are selected and used to generate realistic road surfaces. In addition to traffic interchange modeling, the proposed method also applies to other more general road elements. Preliminary results show that the proposed method is highly effective and useful in many applications.

  3. Positional interchanges influence the physical and technical match performance variables of elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Schuth, G; Carr, G; Barnes, C; Carling, C; Bradley, P S

    2016-01-01

    Positional variation in match performance is well established in elite soccer but no information exists on players switching positions. This study investigated the influence of elite players interchanging from one position to another on physical and technical match performance. Data were collected from multiple English Premier League (EPL) seasons using a computerised tracking system. After adhering to stringent inclusion criteria, players were examined across several interchanges: central-defender to fullback (CD-FB, n = 11, 312 observations), central-midfielder to wide-midfielder (CM-WM, n = 7, 171 observations), wide-midfielder to central-midfielder (WM-CM, n = 7, 197 observations) and attacker to wide-midfielder (AT-WM, n = 4, 81 observations). Players interchanging from CD-FB covered markedly more high-intensity running and sprinting distance (effect size [ES]: -1.56 and -1.26), lost more possessions but made more final third entries (ES: -1.23 and -1.55). Interchanging from CM-WM and WM-CM resulted in trivial to moderate differences in both physical (ES: -0.14-0.59 and -0.21-0.39) and technical performances (ES: -0.48-0.64 and -0.36-0.54). Players interchanging from AT-WM demonstrated a moderate difference in high-intensity running without possession (ES: -0.98) and moderate-to-large differences in the number of clearances, tackles and possessions won (ES: -0.77, -1.16 and -1.41). The data demonstrate that the physical and technical demands vary greatly from one interchange to another but utility players seem able to adapt to these positional switches. PMID:26700131

  4. Electromagnetic interchange-like mode and zonal flow in electron-magnetohydrodynamic plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, Nikhil; Horiuchi, Ritoku

    2006-10-15

    A numerical simulation of the nonlinear state of interchange instability associated with electron inertia in an unmagnetized plasma is studied. It is shown that a self-consistent sheared transverse electron current flow is generated due to nonlinear mechanisms. This zonal flow can reduce the growth rate of the magnetic interchange-like instability and reach a steady state. The zonal flow generation mechanisms are discussed by truncated Fourier mode representation. In the truncated model, three mode equations are considered that have an exact analytic solution that matches well with the numerical solution. The effect of different boundary conditions in such investigations is also discussed.

  5. The electromagnetic interchange mode in a partly-ionized collisional plasma. [in F region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, M. K.; Kennel, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    A collisional electromagnetic dispersion relation is derived from two-fluid theory for the interchange mode coupled to the Alfven, acoustic, drift, and entropy modes in a partially ionized plasma. The fundamental electromagnetic nature of the interchange mode is noted: coupling to the intermediate Alfven mode is strongly stabilizing for finite perturbations of the magnetic field. Both ion-viscous and ion-neutral stabilization are included; and it is found that collisions destroy the FLR (finite Larmor radius) cutoff at short perpendicular wavelengths.

  6. The Interchangeability of Plasma and Whole Blood Metal Ion Measurement in the Monitoring of Metal on Metal Hips

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Ibrahim A.; Rogers, Joanne; King, Amanda Christina; Clutton, Juliet; Winson, Daniel; John, Alun

    2015-01-01

    One hundred and twenty six paired samples of plasma and whole blood were measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique for metal ions analysis to determine a relationship between them. There was a significant difference between the mean plasma and whole blood concentrations of both cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) (p < 0.0001 for both Co and Cr). The mean ratio between plasma and whole blood Cr and Co was 1.56 (range: 0.39–3.85) and 1.54 (range: 0.64–18.26), respectively, but Bland and Altman analysis illustrated that this relationship was not universal throughout the range of concentrations. There was higher variability at high concentrations for both ions. We conclude that both these concentrations should not be used interchangeably and conversion factors are unreliable due to concentration dependent variability. PMID:26798516

  7. First North American fossil monkey and early Miocene tropical biotic interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, Jonathan I.; Woodruff, Emily D.; Wood, Aaron R.; Rincon, Aldo F.; Harrington, Arianna R.; Morgan, Gary S.; Foster, David A.; Montes, Camilo; Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Jud, Nathan A.; Jones, Douglas S.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2016-05-01

    New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are a diverse part of modern tropical ecosystems in North and South America, yet their early evolutionary history in the tropics is largely unknown. Molecular divergence estimates suggest that primates arrived in tropical Central America, the southern-most extent of the North American landmass, with several dispersals from South America starting with the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama 3-4 million years ago (Ma). The complete absence of primate fossils from Central America has, however, limited our understanding of their history in the New World. Here we present the first description of a fossil monkey recovered from the North American landmass, the oldest known crown platyrrhine, from a precisely dated 20.9-Ma layer in the Las Cascadas Formation in the Panama Canal Basin, Panama. This discovery suggests that family-level diversification of extant New World monkeys occurred in the tropics, with new divergence estimates for Cebidae between 22 and 25 Ma, and provides the oldest fossil evidence for mammalian interchange between South and North America. The timing is consistent with recent tectonic reconstructions of a relatively narrow Central American Seaway in the early Miocene epoch, coincident with over-water dispersals inferred for many other groups of animals and plants. Discovery of an early Miocene primate in Panama provides evidence for a circum-Caribbean tropical distribution of New World monkeys by this time, with ocean barriers not wholly restricting their northward movements, requiring a complex set of ecological factors to explain their absence in well-sampled similarly aged localities at higher latitudes of North America.

  8. First North American fossil monkey and early Miocene tropical biotic interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, Jonathan I.; Woodruff, Emily D.; Wood, Aaron R.; Rincon, Aldo F.; Harrington, Arianna R.; Morgan, Gary S.; Foster, David A.; Montes, Camilo; Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Jud, Nathan A.; Jones, Douglas S.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2016-05-01

    New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are a diverse part of modern tropical ecosystems in North and South America, yet their early evolutionary history in the tropics is largely unknown. Molecular divergence estimates suggest that primates arrived in tropical Central America, the southern-most extent of the North American landmass, with several dispersals from South America starting with the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama 3–4 million years ago (Ma). The complete absence of primate fossils from Central America has, however, limited our understanding of their history in the New World. Here we present the first description of a fossil monkey recovered from the North American landmass, the oldest known crown platyrrhine, from a precisely dated 20.9-Ma layer in the Las Cascadas Formation in the Panama Canal Basin, Panama. This discovery suggests that family-level diversification of extant New World monkeys occurred in the tropics, with new divergence estimates for Cebidae between 22 and 25 Ma, and provides the oldest fossil evidence for mammalian interchange between South and North America. The timing is consistent with recent tectonic reconstructions of a relatively narrow Central American Seaway in the early Miocene epoch, coincident with over-water dispersals inferred for many other groups of animals and plants. Discovery of an early Miocene primate in Panama provides evidence for a circum-Caribbean tropical distribution of New World monkeys by this time, with ocean barriers not wholly restricting their northward movements, requiring a complex set of ecological factors to explain their absence in well-sampled similarly aged localities at higher latitudes of North America.

  9. First North American fossil monkey and early Miocene tropical biotic interchange.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Jonathan I; Woodruff, Emily D; Wood, Aaron R; Rincon, Aldo F; Harrington, Arianna R; Morgan, Gary S; Foster, David A; Montes, Camilo; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Jud, Nathan A; Jones, Douglas S; MacFadden, Bruce J

    2016-05-12

    New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are a diverse part of modern tropical ecosystems in North and South America, yet their early evolutionary history in the tropics is largely unknown. Molecular divergence estimates suggest that primates arrived in tropical Central America, the southern-most extent of the North American landmass, with several dispersals from South America starting with the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama 3-4 million years ago (Ma). The complete absence of primate fossils from Central America has, however, limited our understanding of their history in the New World. Here we present the first description of a fossil monkey recovered from the North American landmass, the oldest known crown platyrrhine, from a precisely dated 20.9-Ma layer in the Las Cascadas Formation in the Panama Canal Basin, Panama. This discovery suggests that family-level diversification of extant New World monkeys occurred in the tropics, with new divergence estimates for Cebidae between 22 and 25 Ma, and provides the oldest fossil evidence for mammalian interchange between South and North America. The timing is consistent with recent tectonic reconstructions of a relatively narrow Central American Seaway in the early Miocene epoch, coincident with over-water dispersals inferred for many other groups of animals and plants. Discovery of an early Miocene primate in Panama provides evidence for a circum-Caribbean tropical distribution of New World monkeys by this time, with ocean barriers not wholly restricting their northward movements, requiring a complex set of ecological factors to explain their absence in well-sampled similarly aged localities at higher latitudes of North America. PMID:27096364

  10. First North American fossil monkey and early Miocene tropical biotic interchange.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Jonathan I; Woodruff, Emily D; Wood, Aaron R; Rincon, Aldo F; Harrington, Arianna R; Morgan, Gary S; Foster, David A; Montes, Camilo; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Jud, Nathan A; Jones, Douglas S; MacFadden, Bruce J

    2016-05-12

    New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are a diverse part of modern tropical ecosystems in North and South America, yet their early evolutionary history in the tropics is largely unknown. Molecular divergence estimates suggest that primates arrived in tropical Central America, the southern-most extent of the North American landmass, with several dispersals from South America starting with the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama 3-4 million years ago (Ma). The complete absence of primate fossils from Central America has, however, limited our understanding of their history in the New World. Here we present the first description of a fossil monkey recovered from the North American landmass, the oldest known crown platyrrhine, from a precisely dated 20.9-Ma layer in the Las Cascadas Formation in the Panama Canal Basin, Panama. This discovery suggests that family-level diversification of extant New World monkeys occurred in the tropics, with new divergence estimates for Cebidae between 22 and 25 Ma, and provides the oldest fossil evidence for mammalian interchange between South and North America. The timing is consistent with recent tectonic reconstructions of a relatively narrow Central American Seaway in the early Miocene epoch, coincident with over-water dispersals inferred for many other groups of animals and plants. Discovery of an early Miocene primate in Panama provides evidence for a circum-Caribbean tropical distribution of New World monkeys by this time, with ocean barriers not wholly restricting their northward movements, requiring a complex set of ecological factors to explain their absence in well-sampled similarly aged localities at higher latitudes of North America.

  11. 42 CFR 84.80 - Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. 84.80 Section 84.80 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  12. 42 CFR 84.80 - Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. 84.80 Section 84.80 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  13. 78 FR 18666 - Agency Information Collection Activities; New Information Collection: Lease and Interchange of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... Docket Management System published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; New Information Collection: Lease and Interchange of Vehicles AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  14. N-231 High Reynolds Number Channel I is a blowdown Facility that utilizes interchangeable test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    N-231 High Reynolds Number Channel I is a blowdown Facility that utilizes interchangeable test sections and nozzles. The facility provides experimental support for the fluid mechanics research, including experimental verification of aerodynamic computer codes and boundary-layer and airfoil studies that require high Reynolds number simulation. (Tunnel 1)

  15. 22 CFR 501.3 - Noncompetitive interchange between Civil Service and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Executive Order 11219 (3 CFR 1964-65 Comp. p. 303) provides for the noncompetitive appointment of present or... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Noncompetitive interchange between Civil Service and Foreign Service. 501.3 Section 501.3 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS...

  16. 22 CFR 501.3 - Noncompetitive interchange between Civil Service and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Executive Order 11219 (3 CFR 1964-65 Comp. p. 303) provides for the noncompetitive appointment of present or... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Noncompetitive interchange between Civil Service and Foreign Service. 501.3 Section 501.3 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS...

  17. 22 CFR 501.3 - Noncompetitive interchange between Civil Service and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Executive Order 11219 (3 CFR 1964-65 Comp. p. 303) provides for the noncompetitive appointment of present or... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Noncompetitive interchange between Civil Service and Foreign Service. 501.3 Section 501.3 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS...

  18. 22 CFR 501.3 - Noncompetitive interchange between Civil Service and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Executive Order 11219 (3 CFR 1964-65 Comp. p. 303) provides for the noncompetitive appointment of present or... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Noncompetitive interchange between Civil Service and Foreign Service. 501.3 Section 501.3 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF...

  19. 22 CFR 501.3 - Noncompetitive interchange between Civil Service and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Executive Order 11219 (3 CFR 1964-65 Comp. p. 303) provides for the noncompetitive appointment of present or... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Noncompetitive interchange between Civil Service and Foreign Service. 501.3 Section 501.3 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS...

  20. A numerical study of the 3D random interchange and random loop models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barp, Alessandro; Barp, Edoardo Gabriele; Briol, François-Xavier; Ueltschi, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    We have studied numerically the random interchange model and related loop models on the three-dimensional cubic lattice. We have determined the transition time for the occurrence of long loops. The joint distribution of the lengths of long loops is Poisson-Dirichlet with parameter 1 or \\frac{1}{2}.

  1. The Use of Electronic Data Interchange under the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhinehart, Paul T.

    1996-01-01

    When used in managing college student records, electronic data interchange allows electronic student records to be fed directly into a receiving institution's database instead of being sent by mail. Although the process offers many clear advantages, one important question that must be addressed is how students' privacy will be protected under a…

  2. Living and Learning for International Interchange: A Sourcebook for Housing Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiff, Richard F., Ed.

    This sourcebook is designed to enable college residence hall staff to address more effectively the unique problems, needs, and concerns of foreign students. It provides numerous ideas for promoting international interchange, including examples of international living centers, curricula, programs, and resources for staff training and development.…

  3. Fluency Effects in Recognition Memory: Are Perceptual Fluency and Conceptual Fluency Interchangeable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanska, Meredith; Olds, Justin M.; Westerman, Deanne L.

    2014-01-01

    On a recognition memory test, both perceptual and conceptual fluency can engender a sense of familiarity and elicit recognition memory illusions. To date, perceptual and conceptual fluency have been studied separately but are they interchangeable in terms of their influence on recognition judgments? Five experiments compared the effect of…

  4. Superthermal Electron Energy Interchange in the Ionosphere-Plasmasphere System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Glocer, A.; Liemohn, M. W.; Himwich, E. W.

    2013-01-01

    A self-consistent approach to superthermal electron (SE) transport along closed field lines in the inner magnetosphere is used to examine the concept of plasmaspheric transparency, magnetospheric trapping, and SE energy deposition to the thermal electrons. The dayside SE population is generated both by photoionization of the thermosphere and by secondary electron production from impact ionization when the photoelectrons collide with upper atmospheric neutral particles. It is shown that a self-consistent approach to this problem produces significant changes, in comparison with other approaches, in the SE energy exchange between the plasmasphere and the two magnetically conjugate ionospheres. In particular, plasmaspheric transparency can vary by a factor of two depending on the thermal plasma content along the field line and the illumination conditions of the two conjugate ionospheres. This variation in plasmaspheric transparency as a function of thermal plasma and ionospheric conditions increases with L-shell, as the field line gets longer and the equatorial pitch angle extent of the fly-through zone gets smaller. The inference drawn from these results is that such a self-consistent approach to SE transport and energy deposition should be included to ensure robustness in ionosphere-magnetosphere modeling networks.

  5. Analysis of circular genome rearrangement by fusions, fissions and block-interchanges

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chin Lung; Huang, Yen Lin; Wang, Tsui Ching; Chiu, Hsien-Tai

    2006-01-01

    Background Analysis of genomes evolving via block-interchange events leads to a combinatorial problem of sorting by block-interchanges, which has been studied recently to evaluate the evolutionary relationship in distance between two biological species since block-interchange can be considered as a generalization of transposition. However, for genomes consisting of multiple chromosomes, their evolutionary history should also include events of chromosome fusions and fissions, where fusion merges two chromosomes into one and fission splits a chromosome into two. Results In this paper, we study the problem of genome rearrangement between two genomes of circular and multiple chromosomes by considering fusion, fission and block-interchange events altogether. By use of permutation groups in algebra, we propose an O MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBamrtHrhAL1wy0L2yHvtyaeHbnfgDOvwBHrxAJfwnaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaWaaeGaeaaakeaaimaacqWFoe=taaa@383D@(n2) time algorithm to efficiently compute and obtain a minimum series of fusions, fissions and block-interchanges required to transform one circular multi-chromosomal genome into another, where n is the number of genes shared by the two studied genomes. In addition, we have implemented this algorithm as a web server, called FFBI, and have also applied it to analyzing by gene orders the whole genomes of three human Vibrio pathogens, each with multiple and circular chromosomes, to infer their evolutionary relationships. Consequently, our experimental results coincide well with our previous results obtained using the chromosome-by-chromosome comparisons by landmark orders between any two Vibrio chromosomal sequences as well as using the traditional comparative analysis of 16S rRNA sequences. Conclusion FFBI is a useful tool for the bioinformatics analysis of circular

  6. Several benthic species can be used interchangeably in integrated sediment quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Romero, A; Khosrovyan, A; Del Valls, T A; Obispo, R; Serrano, F; Conradi, M; Riba, I

    2013-06-01

    The selection of the best management option for contaminated sediments requires the biological assessment of sediment quality using bioindicator organisms. There have been comparisons of the performance of different test species when exposed to naturally occurring sediments. However, more research is needed to determine their suitability to be used interchangeably. The sensitivity of two amphipod species (Ampelisca brevicornis and Corophium volutator) to sediments collected from four different commercial ports in Spain was tested. For comparison the lugworm, Arenicola marina, which is typically used for bioaccumulation testing, was also tested. Chemical analyses of the sediments were also conducted. All species responded consistently to the chemical exposure tests, although the amphipods, as expected, were more sensitive than the lugworm. It was found that C. volutator showed higher vulnerability than A.brevicornis. It was concluded that the three species can be used interchangeably in the battery of tests for integrated sediment quality assessment. PMID:23531332

  7. Modulation of thermal conductivity in kinked silicon nanowires: phonon interchanging and pinching effects.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jin-Wu; Yang, Nuo; Wang, Bing-Shen; Rabczuk, Timon

    2013-04-10

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the reduction of the thermal conductivity by kinks in silicon nanowires. The reduction percentage can be as high as 70% at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the reduction is also calculated. By calculating phonon polarization vectors, two mechanisms are found to be responsible for the reduced thermal conductivity: (1) the interchanging effect between the longitudinal and transverse phonon modes and (2) the pinching effect, that is, a new type of localization, for the twisting and transverse phonon modes in the kinked silicon nanowires. Our work demonstrates that the phonon interchanging and pinching effects, induced by kinking, are brand-new and effective ways in modulating heat transfer in nanowires, which enables the kinked silicon nanowires to be a promising candidate for thermoelectric materials.

  8. Fluctuation-induced shear flow and energy transfer in plasma interchange turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Li, B.; Sun, C. K.; Wang, X. Y.; Zhou, A.; Wang, X. G.; Ernst, D. R.

    2015-11-15

    Fluctuation-induced E × B shear flow and energy transfer for plasma interchange turbulence are examined in a flux-driven system with both closed and open magnetic field lines. The nonlinear evolution of interchange turbulence shows the presence of two confinement regimes characterized by low and high E × B flow shear. In the first regime, the large-scale turbulent convection is dominant and the mean E × B shear flow is at a relatively low level. By increasing the heat flux above a certain threshold, the increased turbulent intensity gives rise to the transfer of energy from fluctuations to mean E × B flows. As a result, a transition to the second regime occurs, in which a strong mean E × B shear flow is generated.

  9. Ion finite Larmor radius effects on the interchange instability in an open system

    SciTech Connect

    Katanuma, I.; Sato, S.; Okuyama, Y.; Kato, S.; Kubota, R.

    2013-11-15

    A particle simulation of an interchange instability was performed by taking into account the ion finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects. It is found that the interchange instability with large FLR grows in two phases, that is, linearly growing phase and the nonlinear phase subsequent to the linear phase, where the instability grows exponentially in both phases. The linear growth rates observed in the simulation agree well with the theoretical calculation. The effects of FLR are usually taken in the fluid simulation through the gyroviscosity, the effects of which are verified in the particle simulation with large FLR regime. The gyroviscous cancellation phenomenon observed in the particle simulation causes the drifts in the direction of ion diamagnetic drifts.

  10. Transition from drift to interchange instabilities in an open magnetic field line configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Poli, F. M.; Ricci, P.; Fasoli, A.; Podesta, M.

    2008-03-15

    The transition from a regime dominated by drift instabilities to a regime dominated by pure interchange instabilities is investigated and characterized in the simple magnetized toroidal device TORPEX [TORoidal Plasma EXperiment, A. Fasoli et al., Phys. of Plasmas 13, 055906 (2006)]. The magnetic field lines are helical, with a dominant toroidal component and a smaller vertical component. Instabilities with a drift character are observed in the favorable curvature region, on the high field side with respect to the maximum of the background density profile. For a limited range of values of the vertical field they coexist with interchange instabilities in the unfavorable curvature region, on the plasma low field side. With increasing vertical magnetic field magnitude, a gradual transition between the two regimes is observed on the low field side, controlled by the value of the field line connection length. The observed transition follows the predictions of a two-fluid linear model.

  11. Interchange and Flow Velocity Shear Instabilities in the Presence of Finite Larmor Radius Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Mishin, E.; Genoni, T.; Rose, D.; Mehlhorn, T.

    2014-09-01

    Ionospheric irregularities cause scintillations of electromagnetic signals that can severely affect navigation and transionospheric communication, in particular during Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs) events. However, the existing ionospheric models do not describe density irregularities with typical scales of several ion Larmor radii that affect UHF and L bands. These irregularities can be produced in the process of nonlinear evolution of interchange or flow velocity shear instabilities. The model of nonlinear development of these instabilities based on two-fluid hydrodynamic description with inclusion of finite Larmor radius effects will be presented. The derived nonlinear equations will be numerically solved by using the code Flute, which was originally developed for High Energy Density applications and modified to describe interchange and flow velocity shear instabilities in the ionosphere. The high-resolution simulations will be driven by the ambient conditions corresponding to the AFRL C/NOFS satellite low-resolution data during EPBs.

  12. Device interchangeability on anterior chamber depth and white-to-white measurements: a thorough literature review

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Vicent, Alberto; Pérez-Vives, Cari; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa; García-Lázaro, Santiago; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We have reviewed a set of recently published studies that compared the anterior chamber depth (ACD) and/or white-to-white (WTW) distance obtained by means of different measuring devices. Since some of those studies reached contradictory conclusions regarding device interchangeability, this review was carried out in attempting to clarify which clinical devices can or cannot be considered as interchangeable in clinical practice to measure ACD and/or WTW distance, among these devices: A-scan, ultrasound biomicroscopy, Orbscan and Orbscan II (Bausch&Lomb Surgical Inc., San Dimas, California, USA), Pentacam and Pentacam HR (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany), Galilei (Ziemer, Switzerland), Visante optical coherence tomography (Visante OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, California, USA), IOLMaster (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany), and Lenstar LS 900/Biograph (Haag-Streit AG, Koeniz, Switzerland/Alcon Laboratories Inc., Ft Worth, Texas, USA). PMID:27500117

  13. Computational study of ion cyclotron frequency stabilization of the m = 1 interchange mode in mirror geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Myra, J.R.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Francis, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    A cylindrical plasma model is used to study the stabilizing effect of electromagnetic ion cyclotron frequency range (ICRF) waves on the m = 1 magnetohydrodynamic interchange mode. The fast wave eigenmodes of the column and the near-field antenna pattern are calculated numerically for a diffuse plasma profile when ..omega..>..cap omega../sub i/. The resulting ponderomotive force and sideband contributions to global interchange stability are then determined using a rigid shift trial function. For far-field stabilization it is verified that the direct ponderomotive and sideband contributions cancel exactly as the conducting wall supporting the fast wave eigenmode moves out to infinity. The near-field stabilization effect is related numerically to the driven k/sub parallel/ spectrum of the waves and their radial profiles. The numerical model is employed to calculate threshold ICRF wave amplitudes for the stabilization experiments in the Phaedrus tandem mirror (Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1955 (1983)).

  14. SPRING: a tool for the analysis of genome rearrangement using reversals and block-interchanges.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying Chih; Lu, Chin Lung; Liu, Ying-Chuan; Tang, Chuan Yi

    2006-07-01

    SPRING (http://algorithm.cs.nthu.edu.tw/tools/SPRING/) is a tool for the analysis of genome rearrangement between two chromosomal genomes using reversals and/or block-interchanges. SPRING takes two or more chromosomes as its input and then computes a minimum series of reversals and/or block-interchanges between any two input chromosomes for transforming one chromosome into another. The input of SPRING can be either bacterial-size sequences or gene/landmark orders. If the input is a set of chromosomal sequences then the SPRING will automatically search for identical landmarks, which are homologous/conserved regions shared by all input sequences. In particular, SPRING also computes the breakpoint distance between any pair of two chromosomes, which can be used to compare with the rearrangement distance to confirm whether they are correlated or not. In addition, SPRING shows phylogenetic trees that are reconstructed based on the rearrangement and breakpoint distance matrixes.

  15. THEMIS observation of Kinetic Ballooning/Interchange Waves in the High Bz Plasma Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, Evgeny V.; Nakamura, Rumi; Kubyshkina, Marina V.; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; A, Sergeev, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Using THEMIS observations of plasma sheet oscillations with kinetic ballooning/interchange instability (BICI) signatures, we investigate the properties of the waves when a high background plasma sheet Bz is seen. We find that such waves are in a better agreement with the existing kinetic simulations. Using adapted Tsyganenko models, we also show conjugate all-sky camera observations in the course of the development of the waves.

  16. Observation of Centrifugally Driven Interchange Instabilities in a Plasma Confined by a Magnetic Dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, B.; Maslovsky, D.; Mauel, M.E.

    2005-05-06

    Centrifugally driven interchange instabilities are observed in a laboratory plasma confined by a dipole magnetic field. The instabilities appear when an equatorial mesh is biased to drive a radial current that causes rapid axisymmetric plasma rotation. The observed instabilities are quasicoherent in the laboratory frame of reference; they have global radial mode structures and low azimuthal mode numbers, and they are modified by the presence of energetic, magnetically confined electrons. Results from a self-consistent nonlinear simulation reproduce the measured mode structures.

  17. A Multi-Fluid Study of the Centrifugal Interchange Cycle in Saturn's Inner Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidder, A. R.; Winglee, R. M.

    2007-12-01

    Centrifugal interchange is a process widely observed by the Cassini spacecraft in Saturn's inner magnetosphere. A 3D multi-fluid global model of the Kronian magnetosphere shows that Saturn's gravity, magnetic field, and convection electric field modulate the growth of this interchange process. The model is used to quantify both components: the inward injections and the outward-moving outwelling of the interchange cycle. The model shows finger-like injections of hot tenuous plasma alternating between cooler spiral arm regions of denser plasma. These features are ubiquitous in the equatorial plane between 5-12 RS and persist for several hours, though their generation is dependent on the prevailing conditions in both the inner magnetosphere and the solar wind forcing. Using a distributed Enceladus source of water group ions, and altering its concentration relative to the ionospheric ions, we see that a relative concentration of heavier ions affects the extent and definition of the finger- like cool, dense outwelling plasma. Additionally, the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) can modulate the size of the fingers. Results address the radial velocity, ion and electron densities, magnetic and electric fields in these injection regions, as well as the time and spatial scales on which they persist. Model spectrograms are compared to the bulk parameters observed by Cassini.

  18. A standardized SOA for clinical data interchange in a cardiac telemonitoring environment.

    PubMed

    Gazzarata, Roberta; Vergari, Fabio; Cinotti, Tullio Salmon; Giacomini, Mauro

    2014-11-01

    Care of chronic cardiac patients requires information interchange between patients' homes, clinical environments, and the electronic health record. Standards are emerging to support clinical information collection, exchange and management and to overcome information fragmentation and actors delocalization. Heterogeneity of information sources at patients' homes calls for open solutions to collect and accommodate multidomain information, including environmental data. Based on the experience gained in a European Research Program, this paper presents an integrated and open approach for clinical data interchange in cardiac telemonitoring applications. This interchange is supported by the use of standards following the indications provided by the national authorities of the countries involved. Taking into account the requirements provided by the medical staff involved in the project, the authors designed and implemented a prototypal middleware, based on a service-oriented architecture approach, to give a structured and robust tool to congestive heart failure patients for their personalized telemonitoring. The middleware is represented by a health record management service, whose interface is compliant to the healthcare services specification project Retrieve, Locate and Update Service standard (Level 0), which allows communication between the agents involved through the exchange of Clinical Document Architecture Release 2 documents. Three performance tests were carried out and showed that the prototype completely fulfilled all requirements indicated by the medical staff; however, certain aspects, such as authentication, security and scalability, should be deeply analyzed within a future engineering phase. PMID:25014978

  19. Excitation of the centrifugally driven interchange instability in a plasma confined by a magnetic dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, B.; Maslovsky, D.; Mauel, M.E.; Waksman, J.

    2005-05-15

    The centrifugally driven electrostatic interchange instability is excited for the first time in a laboratory magnetoplasma. The plasma is confined by a dipole magnetic field, and the instability is excited when an equatorial mesh is biased to induce a radial current that creates rapid axisymmetric plasma rotation. The observed instabilities appear quasicoherent in the lab frame of reference; they have global radial mode structures and low azimuthal mode numbers, and they are modified by the presence of energetic, magnetically confined electrons. The mode structure is measured using a multiprobe correlation technique as well as a novel 96-point polar imaging diagnostic which measures particle flux along field lines that map to the pole. Interchange instabilities caused by hot electron pressure are simultaneously observed at the hot electron drift frequency. Adjusting the hot electron fraction {alpha} modifies the stability as well as the structures of the centrifugally driven modes. In the presence of larger fractions of energetic electrons, m=1 is observed to be the dominant mode. For faster rotating plasmas containing fewer energetic electrons, m=2 dominates. Results from a self-consistent nonlinear simulation reproduce the measured mode structures in both regimes. The low azimuthal mode numbers seen in the experiment and simulation can also be interpreted with a local, linear dispersion relation of the electrostatic interchange instability. Drift resonant hot electrons give the instability a real frequency, inducing stabilizing ion polarization currents that preferentially suppress high-m modes.

  20. Computational study of ICRF stabilization of the m = 1 interchange mode in mirror geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Myra, J.R.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Francis, G.L.

    1986-05-01

    A cylindrical plasma model is used to study the stabilizing effect of electromagnetic ICRF waves on the m = 1 magnetohydrodynamic interchange mode. The fast wave eigenmodes of the column and the near field antenna pattern are calculated numerically for a diffuse plasma profile when w > ..cap omega../sub i/. The resulting ponderomotive force and sideband contributions to global interchange stability are then determined using a rigid shift trial function. For far field stabilization it is verified that the direct ponderomotive and sideband contributions to global interchange stability are then determined using a rigid shift trial function. For far field stabilization it is verified that the direct ponderomotive and sideband contributions cancel exactly as the conducting wall supporting the fast wave eigenmode moves out to infinity. The near field stabilization effect is related numerically to the driven k/sub parallel/ spectrum of the waves and their radial profiles. The numerical model is employed to calculate threshold ICRF wave amplitudes for the stabilization experiments in the Phaedrus tandem mirror.

  1. Diode Temperature Sensor Curve Estimation and Interchangeability for Non-Standard Excitation Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courts, S. S.; Yeager, C. J.; Krause, J. K.

    2006-04-01

    Diode temperature sensors' wide temperature range and interchangeability to a standard curve has led to their widespread use in the cryogenic industry. The standard curve for a given model is generated from the calibration of hundreds of diodes from that specific model lot. This is an expensive process and is usually carried out for only one excitation current, typically 10 μA, chosen as a trade off between self-heating at lower temperature and signal-to-noise ratio. There are many applications, however, where either the temperature range is limited or a higher signal-to-noise ratio is desired. It's useful in these cases to use a larger excitation current. Given the non-linear diode I-V characteristics, the results for the diode response and interchangeability at the standard curve cannot be arbitrarily generalized to other excitation currents. This research examined eleven diode Lake Shore Cryotronics model DT-670-SD temperature sensors. Calibration data for these devices were taken at twenty temperatures ranging from 2 K to 325 K and at seven excitation currents ranging from 1 μA to 1 mA. These data were analyzed to determine the effect of excitation current on the interchangeability as a function of temperature. A method for estimating the standard curve at nonstandard excitation currents is presented.

  2. Transitions in the Lives of Children and Young People: Resilience Factors. Interchange 78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Tony; Blackburn, Sarah

    This report draws upon an extensive review of the international literature on resilience to describe effective strategies in health, education, and social work for helping children to cope with periods of transition through promoting resilience. The report takes a broad view of childrens transitions, meaning any episode where children have to cope…

  3. Chemical and nuclear emergencies: Interchanging lessons learned from planning and accident experience

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, V.; Sorensen, J.H.; Rogers, G.O.

    1989-01-01

    Because the goal of emergency preparedness for both chemical and nuclear hazards is to reduce human exposure to hazardous materials, this paper examines the interchange of lessons learned from emergency planning and accident experience in both industries. While the concerns are slightly different, sufficient similarity is found for each to draw implications from the others experience. Principally the chemical industry can learn from the dominant planning experience associated with nuclear power plants, while the nuclear industry can chiefly learn from the chemical industry's accident experience. 23 refs.

  4. Ideal magnetohydrodynamic theory for localized interchange modes in toroidal anisotropic plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Tonghui; Zheng, L. J.; Wan, B. N.; Sun, Y.; Shen, B.; Qian, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    Ideal magnetohydrodynamic theory for localized interchange modes is developed for toroidal plasmas with anisotropic pressure. The work extends the existing theories of Johnson and Hastie [Phys. Fluids 31, 1609 (1988)], etc., to the low n mode case, where n is the toroidal mode number. Also, the plasma compressibility is included, so that the coupling of the parallel motion to perpendicular one, i.e., the so-called apparent mass effect, is investigated in the anisotropic pressure case. The singular layer equation is obtained, and the generalized Mercier's criterion is derived.

  5. Virtual Airspace Modeling and Simulation (VAMS) Project First Technical Interchange Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, Robert; Kille, Robert; Kirsten, Richard; Rigterink, Paul; Sielski, Henry; Gratteau, Melinda F. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    A three-day NASA Virtual Airspace and Modeling Project (VAMS) Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) was held at the NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, CA. on May 21 through May 23,2002. The purpose of this meeting was to share initial concept information sponsored by the VAMS Project. An overall goal of the VAMS Project is to develop validated, blended, robust and transition-able air transportation system concepts over the next five years that will achieve NASA's long-term Enterprise Aviation Capacity goals. This document describes the presentations at the TIM, their related questions and answers, and presents the TIM recommendations.

  6. Pressure driven tearing and interchange modes in the reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paccagnella, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the magneto-hydro-dynamic stability of pressure driven modes in the reversed field pinch has been analyzed. It is shown that at low and intermediate β's, i.e., typically for values below 20-25%, the tearing parity is dominant, while only at very high β, well above the achieved experimental values, at least part of the modes are converted to ideal interchange instabilities. Before their transition to ideal instabilities, according to their Lundquist number scaling, they can be classified as resistive-g modes.

  7. Second NASA Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM): Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box (TTB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeil, D. A.; Mankins, J. C.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS), a spreadsheet analysis tool suite, applies parametric equations for sizing and lifecycle cost estimation. Performance, operation, and programmatic data used by the equations come from a Technology Tool Box (TTB) database. In this second TTB Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM), technologists, system model developers, and architecture analysts discussed methods for modeling technology decisions in spreadsheet models, identified specific technology parameters, and defined detailed development requirements. This Conference Publication captures the consensus of the discussions and provides narrative explanations of the tool suite, the database, and applications of ATLAS within NASA s changing environment.

  8. Resistive Interchange Modes Destabilized by Helically Trapped Energetic Ions in a Helical Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, X. D.; Toi, K.; Osakabe, M.; Ohdachi, S.; Ido, T.; Tanaka, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshinuma, M.; Ogawa, K.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Isobe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Ozaki, T.; Sakakibara, S.; Seki, R.; Shimizu, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Tsuchiya, H.

    2015-04-01

    A new bursting m =1 /n =1 instability (m ,n : poloidal and toroidal mode numbers) with rapid frequency chirping down has been observed for the first time in a helical plasma with intense perpendicular neutral beam injection. This is destabilized in the plasma peripheral region by resonant interaction between helically trapped energetic ions and the resistive interchange mode. A large radial electric field is induced near the edge due to enhanced radial transport of the trapped energetic ions by the mode, and leads to clear change in toroidal plasma flow, suppression of microturbulence, and triggering an improvement of bulk plasma confinement.

  9. NASA Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM): Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeil, D. A.; Craig, D. A.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this Technical Interchange Meeting was to increase the quantity and quality of technical, cost, and programmatic data used to model the impact of investing in different technologies. The focus of this meeting was the Technology Tool Box (TTB), a database of performance, operations, and programmatic parameters provided by technologists and used by systems engineers. The TTB is the data repository used by a system of models known as the Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS). This report describes the result of the November meeting, and also provides background information on ATLAS and the TTB.

  10. Assessing the value of laboratory electronic data interchange in the department of veterans affairs.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Colene M; Rudin, Robert S; Johnston, Douglas S; Pan, Eric C

    2010-01-01

    We modeled the adoption, costs and monetezied benefits of the Department of Veterans Affairs' (VA's) internally developed Laboratory Electronic Data Interchange (LEDI) application from 2001-2007. LEDI provides standards-based electronic exchange of laboratory data and secure transmission of laboratory test orders and results. Once the initial development and installation costs were accounted for, LEDI likely produced value for the VA in savings of laboratory staff time for test ordering and results processing. We estimate that the VA needed to realize 20 percent of projected labor saving to recover its investment in LEDI. PMID:21346944

  11. Pressure driven tearing and interchange modes in the reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Paccagnella, R.

    2013-01-15

    In this work, the magneto-hydro-dynamic stability of pressure driven modes in the reversed field pinch has been analyzed. It is shown that at low and intermediate {beta}'s, i.e., typically for values below 20-25%, the tearing parity is dominant, while only at very high {beta}, well above the achieved experimental values, at least part of the modes are converted to ideal interchange instabilities. Before their transition to ideal instabilities, according to their Lundquist number scaling, they can be classified as resistive-g modes.

  12. The Great American Biotic Interchange: Dispersals, Tectonics, Climate, Sea Level and Holding Pens

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The biotic and geologic dynamics of the Great American Biotic Interchange are reviewed and revised. Information on the Marine Isotope Stage chronology, sea level changes as well as Pliocene and Pleistocene vegetation changes in Central and northern South America add to a discussion of the role of climate in facilitating trans-isthmian exchanges. Trans-isthmian land mammal exchanges during the Pleistocene glacial intervals appear to have been promoted by the development of diverse non-tropical ecologies. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10914-010-9144-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21125025

  13. Perineurial differentiation in interchange grafts of rat peripheral nerve and spinal root.

    PubMed Central

    Radek, A; Thomas, P K; King, R H

    1986-01-01

    The differentiation of the perineurium has been examined in replacement nerve grafts in which segments of the third lumbar dorsal root and the peroneal division of the sciatic nerve of rats were excised and resutured into the gaps. This was compared with perineurial differentiation in interchange grafts in which segments of peroneal nerve were grafted into the third lumbar dorsal root and vice versa. It was concluded that not only the origin of the graft but also the local tissue environment is important in determining the morphological outcome, the latter having the predominant influence. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3693073

  14. The free energy in a class of quantum spin systems and interchange processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björnberg, J. E.

    2016-07-01

    We study a class of quantum spin systems in the mean-field setting of the complete graph. For spin S = 1/2, the model is the Heisenberg ferromagnet, and for general spin S ∈ 1/2 N, it has a probabilistic representation as a cycle-weighted interchange process. We determine the free energy and the critical temperature (recovering results by Tóth and by Penrose when S = 1/2). The critical temperature is shown to coincide (as a function of S) with that of the q = 2S + 1 state classical Potts model, and the phase transition is discontinuous when S ≥ 1.

  15. A longitudinal multilevel CFA-MTMM model for interchangeable and structurally different methods

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Tobias; Schultze, Martin; Eid, Michael; Geiser, Christian

    2014-01-01

    One of the key interests in the social sciences is the investigation of change and stability of a given attribute. Although numerous models have been proposed in the past for analyzing longitudinal data including multilevel and/or latent variable modeling approaches, only few modeling approaches have been developed for studying the construct validity in longitudinal multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) measurement designs. The aim of the present study was to extend the spectrum of current longitudinal modeling approaches for MTMM analysis. Specifically, a new longitudinal multilevel CFA-MTMM model for measurement designs with structurally different and interchangeable methods (called Latent-State-Combination-Of-Methods model, LS-COM) is presented. Interchangeable methods are methods that are randomly sampled from a set of equivalent methods (e.g., multiple student ratings for teaching quality), whereas structurally different methods are methods that cannot be easily replaced by one another (e.g., teacher, self-ratings, principle ratings). Results of a simulation study indicate that the parameters and standard errors in the LS-COM model are well recovered even in conditions with only five observations per estimated model parameter. The advantages and limitations of the LS-COM model relative to other longitudinal MTMM modeling approaches are discussed. PMID:24860515

  16. Local regulation of interchange turbulence in a dipole-confined plasma torus using current-collection feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, T. M. Mauel, M. E. Worstell, M. W.

    2015-05-15

    Turbulence in plasma confined by a magnetic dipole is dominated by interchange fluctuations with complex dynamics and short spatial coherence. We report the first use of local current-collection feedback to modify, amplify, and suppress these fluctuations. The spatial extent of turbulence regulation is limited to a correlation length near the collector. Changing the gain and phase of collection results in power either extracted from or injected into the turbulence. The measured plasma response shows some agreement with calculations of the linear response of global interchange-like MHD and entropy modes to current-collection feedback.

  17. Carnivorans at the Great American Biotic Interchange: new discoveries from the northern neotropics.

    PubMed

    Forasiepi, Analia M; Soibelzon, Leopoldo H; Gomez, Catalina Suarez; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Quiroz, Luis I; Jaramillo, Carlos; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2014-11-01

    We report two fossil procyonids, Cyonasua sp. and Chapalmalania sp., from the late Pliocene of Venezuela (Vergel Member, San Gregorio Formation) and Colombia (Ware Formation), respectively. The occurrence of these pre-Holocene procyonids outside Argentina and in the north of South America provides further information about the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). The new specimens are recognized in the same monophyletic group as procyonids found in the southern part of the continent, the "Cyonasua group," formed by species of Cyonasua and Chapalmalania. The phylogenetic analysis that includes the two new findings support the view that procyonids dispersed from North America in two separate events (initially, previous to the first major migration wave-GABI 1-and then within the last major migration wave-GABI 4-). This involved reciprocal lineage migrations from North to South America, and included the evolution of South American endemic forms.

  18. Pd/Cu site interchange in UCu{sub 5-x}Pd{sub x}

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, C.H.; Bauer, E.D.; Maple, M.B.; Chau, R.; Kwei, G.H.

    2001-07-11

    Although Pd/Cu site interchange in the non-Fermi liquid (NFL) material UCu{sub 4}Pd has been observed, the relationship between this disorder and the NFL behavior remains unclear. In order to better compare to the UCu{sub 5-x}Pd{sub x} phase diagram, they report results from Pd K edge x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) experiments on this series (x = 0.3-1.5) that determine the fraction of Pd atoms on the nominally Cu (16e) sites, s. They find that for these unannealed samples, s is at least 17% for all the samples measured, even for x < 1.0, although it does climb monotonically beyond its minimum at x = 0.7. These data are compared to changes in the lattice parameter as a function of x.

  19. Interchange instability in the inner magnetosphere associated with geosynchronous particle flux decreases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazykin, S.; Wolf, R. A.; Spiro, R. W.; Gombosi, T. I.; De Zeeuw, D. L.; Thomsen, M. F.

    2002-05-01

    We simulate the inner magnetosphere during the magnetic storm of September 25, 1998 using the Rice Convection Model with boundary fluxes estimated from geosynchronous data. Model results indicate development of an interchange-like instability in the dusk-to-midnight sector, producing ripple structures in the plasma density, swirls in the subauroral ionospheric electric field pattern, and undulations near the equatorward edge of the diffuse aurora. We suggest that these disturbances might be observable whenever a strong main-phase ring-current injection is followed by a major, sustained decrease in the plasma energy density at geosynchronous orbit, a circumstance that will also produce rapid decay of the storm-time ring current.

  20. Neuronal Prediction of Opponent’s Behavior during Cooperative Social Interchange in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Haroush, Keren; Williams, Ziv M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY A cornerstone of successful social interchange is the ability to anticipate each other’s intentions or actions. While generating these internal predictions is essential for constructive social behavior, their single neuronal basis and causal underpinnings are unknown. Here, we discover specific neurons in the primate dorsal anterior cingulate that selectively predict an opponent’s yet unknown decision to invest in their common good or defect and distinct neurons that encode the monkey’s own current decision based on prior outcomes. Mixed population predictions of the other was remarkably near optimal compared to behavioral decoders. Moreover, disrupting cingulate activity selectively biased mutually beneficial interactions between the monkeys but, surprisingly, had no influence on their decisions when no net-positive outcome was possible. These findings identify a group of other-predictive neurons in the primate anterior cingulate essential for enacting cooperative interactions and may pave a way toward the targeted treatment of social behavioral disorders. PMID:25728667

  1. Nonlinear evolution of the resistive interchange mode in the cylindrical spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    DeLucia, J.; Jardin, S.C.

    1984-02-01

    Results are presented of a study of various aspects of the single helicity nonlinear development of the resistive interchange mode in the cylindrical spheromak. A formulation of the helically symmetric resistive MHD equations that partially separates the ideal MHD characteristics is developed. Mode saturation can occur due to the quasilinear flattening of the pressure profile in the vicinity of the mode rational surface. However, this saturation process is defeated when the plasma overheats and in regions of the plasma where the shear is low. Finite fluid compression has significant, and optimistic, consequences on the long-term nonlinear behavior of this mode. For a tearing mode stable cylindrical spheromak equilibrium configuration with an axial beta value of 6%, complete overlap of the m = 1 islands occurs in about 3% of the resistive skin time for a magnetic Reynold's number of S = 10/sup 5/. For typical parameters of the S-1 device at Princeton, this time corresponds to nearly one-millisecond.

  2. Net Interchange Schedule Forecasting of Electric Power Exchange for RTO/ISOs

    SciTech Connect

    Ferryman, Thomas A.; Haglin, David J.; Vlachopoulou, Maria; Yin, Jian; Shen, Chao; Tuffner, Francis K.; Lin, Guang; Zhou, Ning; Tong, Jianzhong

    2012-07-26

    Neighboring independent system operators (ISOs) exchange electric power to enable efficient and reliable operation of the grid. Net interchange (NI) schedule is the sum of the transactions (in MW) between an ISO and its neighbors. Effective forecasting of the amount of actual NI can improve grid operation efficiency. This paper presents results of a preliminary investigation into various methods of prediction that may result in improved prediction accuracy. The methods studied are linear regression, forward regression, stepwise regression, and support vector machine (SVM) regression. The work to date is not yet conclusive. The hope is to explore the effectiveness of other prediction methods and apply all methods to at least one new data set. This should enable more confidence in the conclusions.

  3. NASA's Single-Pilot Operations Technical Interchange Meeting: Proceedings and Findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comerford, Doreen; Brandt, Summer L.; Lachter, Joel B.; Wu, Shu-Chieh; Mogford, Richard H.; Battiste, Vernol; Johnson, Walter W.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center and Langley Research Center are jointly investigating issues associated with potential concepts, or configurations, in which a single pilot might operate under conditions that are currently reserved for a minimum of two pilots. As part of early efforts, NASA Ames Research Center hosted a technical interchange meeting in order to gain insight from members of the aviation community regarding single-pilot operations (SPO). The meeting was held on April 10-12, 2012 at NASA Ames Research Center. Professionals in the aviation domain were invited because their areas of expertise were deemed to be directly related to an exploration of SPO. NASA, in selecting prospective participants, attempted to represent various relevant sectors within the aviation domain. Approximately 70 people representing government, academia, and industry attended. A primary focus of this gathering was to consider how tasks and responsibilities might be re-allocated to allow for SPO.

  4. Asymmetric coupled interchange-ballooning dynamics during magnetic reconnection in the solar wind driven magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Ehab; Horton, W.; Hatch, D. R.; Agullo, O.; Muraglia, M.; Benkadda, S.; InstituteFusion Studies Collaboration; PIIM/CNRS, AMU, Marseille, France Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Fast reconnection in the magnetosphere and the geomagnetic tail involves electron scale dynamics that includes the electron inertial scale length on the inner scale and the ion gyroradius on the outer scale. New forms of the partial differential equations for the electric and magnetic field during the fast interchange dynamics. Typical data is that of the fast reconnection with dominant electron heating reported in the Nakamura et al. from CLUSTER data. New formulas extend to smaller scales the previous simulations of Horton et al. [2007] for this event by including more electron dynamics and heating. 3D-simulations and movies of the dynamics are presented. Supported by US-DoE grant to UT and CNRS grant to AMU.

  5. Anderson Localization from the Berry-Curvature Interchange in Quantum Anomalous Hall Systems.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zhenhua; Han, Yulei; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Deng, Xinzhou; Jiang, Hua; Yang, Shengyuan A; Wang, Jian; Niu, Qian

    2016-07-29

    We theoretically investigate the localization mechanism of the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in the presence of spin-flip disorders. We show that the QAHE stays quantized at weak disorders, then enters a Berry-curvature mediated metallic phase at moderate disorders, and finally goes into the Anderson insulating phase at strong disorders. From the phase diagram, we find that at the charge neutrality point although the QAHE is most robust against disorders, the corresponding metallic phase is much easier to be localized into the Anderson insulating phase due to the interchange of Berry curvatures carried, respectively, by the conduction and valence bands. In the end, we provide a phenomenological picture related to the topological charges to better understand the underlying physical origin of the QAHE Anderson localization. PMID:27517785

  6. Anderson Localization from the Berry-Curvature Interchange in Quantum Anomalous Hall Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Zhenhua; Han, Yulei; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Deng, Xinzhou; Jiang, Hua; Yang, Shengyuan A.; Wang, Jian; Niu, Qian

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically investigate the localization mechanism of the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in the presence of spin-flip disorders. We show that the QAHE stays quantized at weak disorders, then enters a Berry-curvature mediated metallic phase at moderate disorders, and finally goes into the Anderson insulating phase at strong disorders. From the phase diagram, we find that at the charge neutrality point although the QAHE is most robust against disorders, the corresponding metallic phase is much easier to be localized into the Anderson insulating phase due to the interchange of Berry curvatures carried, respectively, by the conduction and valence bands. In the end, we provide a phenomenological picture related to the topological charges to better understand the underlying physical origin of the QAHE Anderson localization.

  7. The Effect of Interchange Rotation Period and Number on Australian Football Running Performance.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Paul G; Wisbey, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Montgomery, PG, and Wisbey, B. The effect of interchange rotation period and number on Australian Football running performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1890-1897, 2016-To determine the effect of on-field rotation periods and total number of game rotations on Australian Football running performance, elite Australian Football players (n = 21, mean ± SD; 23.2 ± 1.7 years; 183.5 ± 3.7 cm; 83.2 ± 4.5 kg) had Global Positioning System game data from 22 rounds divided into a total of 692 on-field playing periods. These periods were allocated into time blocks of 2:00-minute increments, with the log transformed percentage differences in running performance (m·min) between blocks analyzed by effect size and meaningful differences. A total of 7,730 game rotation and associated average m·min combinations collected over 3 Australian Football seasons were also assessed by effect size and meaningful differences. Running capacity decreases after 5:00 minutes by ∼3% for each 2:00 minutes of on-field time up to 9:00 minutes, with variable responses between positions up to 6.7% for nomadic players. For each rotation less than 6 per game, clear small-to-moderate decreases up to 3.6% in running capacity occurred per rotation. To maintain a high level of running capacity, shorter on-field periods are more effective in Australian Football; however, players and coaches should be aware that with interchange restriction, slightly longer on-field periods achieve similar results. PMID:27328273

  8. Structure and consequences of the kinetic ballooning/interchange instability in the magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchett, P. L.; Coroniti, F. V.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract<p label="1">The structure and dynamical consequences of the kinetic ballooning/<span class="hlt">interchange</span> instability (BICI) that can be excited in the curved magnetic geometry characteristic of the terrestrial plasma sheet are investigated by means of three-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations. Compared with earlier studies that considered a single Bz minimum configuration with an extremely large midtail field, additional simulations are performed in which this maximum is reduced to a more realistic value, the dependence on the values of the plasma beta and of the mass and temperature ratios mi/me and Ti/Te is investigated, and the limiting case of a constant Bz profile is examined. The general properties of the BICI modes are found to be unaltered by these changes. Significantly, the BICI excitation is found not to require an explicit tailward magnetic field gradient; it appears to be sufficient for the entropy to decrease with distance down the tail. The BICI wavelength varies inversely with Bz, and the eigenmodes are strongly field aligned with parallel electron flows comparable to the ion thermal velocity. In the edge of the plasma sheet, the oscillations in Bx and Bz have comparable magnitude. Once excited, the growth of the modes is robust and leads to the formation of intense <span class="hlt">interchange</span> heads that propagate earthward. When the equatorial plasma beta is on the order of 500 or higher, the Bz field can be driven southward in the wake of the heads. This results in the onset of localized magnetic reconnection and a violent disruption of the plasma sheet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-29/pdf/2011-19199.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-29/pdf/2011-19199.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 45649 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on I-5: Fern Valley <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Project: Jackson County, OR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-29</p> <p>... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on I-5: Fern Valley <span class="hlt">Interchange</span>... the meaning of 23 U.S.C. 139(l)(1). The actions relate to a proposed highway project, I-5: Fern Valley... Administration, 530 Center Street, NE., Suite 420, Salem, Oregon 97301, Telephone: (503) 316-2559. The I-5:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120013163','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120013163"><span id="translatedtitle">Boiling eXperiment Facility (BXF) Fluid Toxicity Technical <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Meeting (TIM) with the Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sheredy, William A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A Technical <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> meeting was held between the payload developers for the Boiling eXperiment Facility (BXF) and the NASA Safety Review Panel concerning operational anomaly that resulted in overheating one of the fluid heaters, shorted a 24VDC power supply and generated Perfluoroisobutylene (PFiB) from Perfluorohexane.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title22-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title22-vol2-sec501-9.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title22-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title22-vol2-sec501-9.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">22 CFR 501.9 - <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of FSOs between Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of FSOs between Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies. 501.9 Section 501.9 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING... Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies. Foreign Service Officers (FSOs)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title22-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title22-vol2-sec501-9.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title22-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title22-vol2-sec501-9.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">22 CFR 501.9 - <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of FSOs between Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of FSOs between Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies. 501.9 Section 501.9 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING... Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies. Foreign Service Officers (FSOs)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title22-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title22-vol2-sec501-9.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title22-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title22-vol2-sec501-9.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">22 CFR 501.9 - <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of FSOs between Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of FSOs between Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies. 501.9 Section 501.9 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING... Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies. Foreign Service Officers (FSOs)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title22-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title22-vol2-sec501-9.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title22-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title22-vol2-sec501-9.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">22 CFR 501.9 - <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of FSOs between Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of FSOs between Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies. 501.9 Section 501.9 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING... Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies. Foreign Service Officers (FSOs)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title22-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title22-vol2-sec501-9.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title22-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title22-vol2-sec501-9.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">22 CFR 501.9 - <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of FSOs between Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of FSOs between Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies. 501.9 Section 501.9 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING... Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies. Foreign Service Officers (FSOs)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 63.501 - Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contents of applications to sever physical... Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of traffic... application is to be addressed; (c) Nature of the proposed change; (d) Identification of community or part...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 63.501 - Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of traffic with another carrier. 63.501 Section 63.501 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) EXTENSION OF LINES, NEW LINES, AND...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 63.501 - Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contents of applications to sever physical... Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of traffic... application is to be addressed; (c) Nature of the proposed change; (d) Identification of community or part...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 63.501 - Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contents of applications to sever physical... Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of traffic... application is to be addressed; (c) Nature of the proposed change; (d) Identification of community or part...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 63.501 - Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contents of applications to sever physical... Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of traffic... application is to be addressed; (c) Nature of the proposed change; (d) Identification of community or part...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-08-22/pdf/2013-20500.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-08-22/pdf/2013-20500.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 52232 - 2013 Temporary Closure of I-65 (I-70/I-65 South Split <span class="hlt">Interchange</span>) in the City of Indianapolis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-08-22</p> <p>... restricted area but, currently using I-65 and the local street system to reach their ultimate destinations... Federal Highway Administration 2013 Temporary Closure of I-65 (I-70/I-65 South Split <span class="hlt">Interchange</span>) in the... close a 2-mile portion of I-65 in Indiana (from I-70/I-65 south split <span class="hlt">interchange</span> to I-70/I-65...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Seating&pg=3&id=EJ959487','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Seating&pg=3&id=EJ959487"><span id="translatedtitle">Attention <span class="hlt">Interchanges</span> at Story-Time: A Case Study from a Deaf and Hearing Twin Pair Acquiring Swedish Sign Language in Their Deaf Family</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cramer-Wolrath, Emelie</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This case study longitudinally analyzes and describes the changes of attentional expressions in <span class="hlt">interchanges</span> between a pair of fraternal twins, 1 deaf and 1 hearing, from the age of 10-40 months, and their Deaf family members. The video-observed attentional expressions of initiating and reestablishing <span class="hlt">interchange</span> were grouped in 5 functional…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-08-16/pdf/2010-20092.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-08-16/pdf/2010-20092.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 50038 - Temporary Closure of I-70 (I-70/I-465 West Leg <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> to the I-70/I-65 South Split...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-08-16</p> <p>... Federal Highway Administration Temporary Closure of I-70 (I-70/I-465 West Leg <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> to the I-70/I-65... Department of Transportation (INDOT) to temporarily close a segment of I-70 (from the I-70/I-465 west leg... temporary closure of a segment of I-70 in Indiana (from the I-70/I-465 west leg <span class="hlt">interchange</span> to the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRA..11311214Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRA..11311214Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Rice Convection Model simulation of the 18 April 2002 sawtooth event and evidence for <span class="hlt">interchange</span> instability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, J.; Toffoletto, F. R.; Wolf, R. A.; Sazykin, S.; Spiro, R. W.; Brandt, P. C.; Henderson, M. G.; Frey, H. U.</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>We present the results of a Rice Convection Model (RCM) simulation of the 18 April 2002 sawtooth event. This event occurred as a series of quasi-periodic substorms during fairly stable solar wind conditions. It is modeled by (1) prescribing a solar-wind-driven magnetic field model (T01_s) augmented by additional current loops representing the magnetic effects of the substorm current wedge and (2) by carefully specifying a substorm-phase-dependent plasma distribution at the RCM outer boundary at 8 Re such that a hot and attenuated plasma distribution is used after every substorm onset. The set of input parameters was adjusted to make the simulation results agree with the primary signatures of the sawtooth event, specifically the sequence of magnetic field stretching and dipolarization observed by the GOES spacecraft and the associated sharp increases and gradual decreases in the flux of energetic protons measured by the LANL/Synchronous Orbit Plasma Analyzer (SOPA) instruments on other geosynchronous spacecrafts. The results suggest the important role that higher temperature and lower density plasma-sheet plasma plays in producing flux enhancements at geosynchronous orbit. The results also confirm that induction electric fields associated with magnetic field collapse after substorm onsets can serve as a likely mechanism for the energization of particles up to 25 keV. Synthetic high-energy neutral atom images are compared with IMAGE/HENA measurements for 10-60 keV hydrogen atoms. Magnetic field dipolarization over a large range of local time resulted in a dramatic reduction in the plasma entropy parameter PV5/3 on the boundary. The simulation indicates that the ring current intensified 10-20 minutes after every onset, associated with the injection of low PV5/3 flux tubes through the boundary. The low PV5/3 plasma also produced an <span class="hlt">interchange</span> convection in the inner magnetosphere, which drives Birkeland currents in a quasi-periodic upward-downward pattern with a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24354756','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24354756"><span id="translatedtitle">Small portable <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> imager of fluorescence for fluorescence guided surgery and research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Okusanya, Olugbenga T; Madajewski, Brian; Segal, Erin; Judy, Brendan F; Venegas, Ollin G; Judy, Ryan P; Quatromoni, Jon G; Wang, May D; Nie, Shuming; Singhal, Sunil</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Fluorescence guided surgery (FGS) is a developing field of surgical and oncologic research. Practically, FGS has shown useful applications in urologic surgery, benign biliary surgery, colorectal cancer liver metastasis resection, and ovarian cancer debulking. Most notably in in cancer surgery, FGS allows for the clear delineation of cancerous tissue from benign tissue. FGS requires the utilization of a fluorescent contrast agent and an intraoperative fluorescence imaging device (IFID). Currently available IFIDs are expensive, unable to work with multiple fluorophores, and can be cumbersome. This study aims to describe the development and utility of a small, cost-efficient, and <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> IFID made from commercially available components. Extensive research was done to design and construct a light-weight, portable, and cost-effective IFID. We researched the capabilities, size, and cost of several camera types and eventually decided on a near-infrared (NIR) charged couple device (CCD) camera for its overall profile. The small portable <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> imager of fluorescence (SPIIF) is a "scout" IFID system for FGS. The main components of the SPIIF are a NIR CCD camera with an articulating light filter. These components and a LED light source with an attached heat sink are mounted on a small metal platform. The system is connected to a laptop by a USB 2.0 cable. Pixielink © software on the laptop runs the system by controlling exposure time, gain, and image capture. After developing the system, we evaluated its utility as an IFID. The system weighs less than two pounds and can cover a large area. Due to its small size, it is easily made sterile by covering it with any sterile plastic sheet. To determine the system's ability to detect fluorescent signal, we used the SPIIF to detect indocyanine green under ex and in-vivo conditions and fluorescein under ex-vivo conditions. We found the SPIIF was able to detect both ICG and fluorescein under different depths of a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4134767','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4134767"><span id="translatedtitle">Small Portable <span class="hlt">Interchangeable</span> Imager of Fluorescence for Fluorescence Guided Surgery and Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Okusanya, Olugbenga T.; Madajewski, Brian; Segal, Erin; Judy, Brendan F.; Venegas, Ollin G.; Judy, Ryan P.; Quatromoni, Jon G.; Wang, May D.; Nie, Shuming; Singhal, Sunil</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Fluorescence guided surgery (FGS) is a developing field of surgical and oncologic research. Practically, FGS has shown useful applications in urologic surgery, benign biliary surgery, colorectal cancer liver metastasis resection, and ovarian cancer debulking. Most notably in in cancer surgery, FGS allows for the clear delineation of cancerous tissue from benign tissue. FGS requires the utilization of a fluorescent contrast agent and an intraoperative fluorescence imaging device (IFID). Currently available IFIDs are expensive, unable to work with multiple fluorophores, and can be cumbersome. This study aims to describe the development and utility of a small, cost-efficient, and <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> IFID made from commercially available components. Extensive research was done to design and construct a light-weight, portable, and cost-effective IFID. We researched the capabilities, size, and cost of several camera types and eventually decided on a near-infrared (NIR) charged couple device (CCD) camera for its overall profile. The small portable <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> imager of fluorescence (SPIIF) is a “scout” IFID system for FGS. The main components of the SPIIF are a NIR CCD camera with an articulating light filter. These components and a LED light source with an attached heat sink are mounted on a small metal platform. The system is connected to a laptop by a USB 2.0 cable. Pixielink © software on the laptop runs the system by controlling exposure time, gain, and image capture. After developing the system, we evaluated its utility as an IFID. The system weighs less than two pounds and can cover a large area. Due to its small size, it is easily made sterile by covering it with any sterile plastic sheet. To determine the system’s ability to detect fluorescent signal, we used the SPIIF to detect indocyanine green under ex and in-vivo conditions and fluorescein under ex-vivo conditions. We found the SPIIF was able to detect both ICG and fluorescein under different depths of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812459N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812459N"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional consequences of a biotic <span class="hlt">interchange</span>: insights from the Lessepsian invasion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nawrot, Rafal; Albano, Paolo G.; Chattopadhyay, Devapriya; Zuschin, Martin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The fossil record provides ample evidence of large-scale biotic <span class="hlt">interchanges</span> and their pervasive effects on regional biotas, but mechanisms controlling such events are difficult to decipher in deep time. Massive invasion of Indo-Pacific species into the Mediterranean Sea triggered by the opening of the Suez Canal offers a unique opportunity to examine the ecological consequences of breaking down biogeographic barriers. We developed an extensive database of taxonomic composition, body size and ecological characteristics of the Red Sea and Mediterranean bivalve fauna in order to link biotic selectivity of the invasion process with its effects on the recipient biota. Shallow-water occurrence and presence outside the tropical zone in other regions are the strongest predictors of the successful transition through the Suez Canal. Subsequent establishment of alien species in the Mediterranean Sea correlates with early arrival and preference for hard substrates. Finally, large-bodied species and hard-bottom dwellers are over-represented among the invasive aliens that have reached the spread stage and impose a strong impact on native communities. Although body size is important only at the last invasion stage, alien species are significantly larger compared to native Mediterranean bivalves. This reflects biogeographic difference in the body-size distributions of the source and recipient species pools related to the recent geological history of the Mediterranean Sea. Contrary to the general expectations on the effects of temperature on average body size, continued warming of the Mediterranean Sea accelerates the entry of tropical aliens and thus indirectly leads to increase in the proportion of large-bodied species in local communities and the regional biota. Invasion-driven shifts in species composition are stronger in hard-substrate communities, which host a smaller pool of incumbent species and are more susceptible to the establishment of newcomers. Analogous differences</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4565160','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4565160"><span id="translatedtitle">Microfluidic impact printer with <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> cartridges for versatile non-contact multiplexed micropatterning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ding, Yuzhe; Huang, Eric; Lam, Kit S.; Pan, Tingrui</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Biopatterning has been increasingly used for well-defined cellular microenvironment, patterned surface topology, and guided biological cues; however, it meets additional challenges on biocompatibility, temperature and chemical sensitivity and limited reagent volume. In this paper, we target at combining the desired features from the non-contact inkjet printing and the dot-matrix impact printing to establish a versatile multiplexed micropatterning platform, referred to as Microfluidic Impact Printer (MI-Printer), for emerging biomedical applications. Using this platform, we can achieve the distinct features of no cross-contamination, minute volume manipulation with minimal dead volume, high-throughput and biocompatible printing process, multiplexed patterning with automatic alignment, printing availability for complex medium (cell suspension or colloidal solutions), <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span>/disposable microfluidic cartridge design with out-of-cleanroom microfabrication, simple printing system assembly and configuration, all highly desirable towards biological applications. Specifically, the printing resolution of the MI-printer platform has been experimentally characterized and theoretically analyzed. Printed droplets with 80µm in diameter have been repeatedly obtained. Furthermore, two unique features of MI-printer platform, multiplexed printing and self-alignment printing, have been successfully experimentally demonstrated (less than 10µm misalignment). In addition, combinatorial patterning and biological patterning, which utilizes the multiplexed and self-alignment printing nature of the MI-printer, have been devised to demonstrate the applicability of this robust printing technique for emerging biomedical applications. PMID:23525299</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26810193','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26810193"><span id="translatedtitle">Biosolids reduction by the oxic-settling-anoxic process: Impact of sludge <span class="hlt">interchange</span> rate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Semblante, Galilee U; Hai, Faisal I; Bustamante, Heriberto; Guevara, Nelly; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The impact of sludge <span class="hlt">interchange</span> rate (SIR) on sludge reduction by oxic-settling-anoxic (OSA) process was investigated. The sludge yield of an OSA system (a sequencing batch reactor, SBR, integrated with external anoxic reactors) was compared to that of a control (an SBR attached to a single-pass aerobic digester). SIR (%) is the percentage by volume of sludge returned from the external reactor into the main bioreactor of the OSA, and was varied from 0% to 22%. OSA achieved greater sludge reduction when fed with unsettled sewage (sCOD=113mg/L) rather than settled sewage (sCOD=60mg/L). The SIR of 11% resulted in the highest OSA performance. At the optimum SIR, higher volatile solids destruction and nitrification/denitrification (i.e., conversion of destroyed volatile solids into inert forms) were observed in the external anoxic and intermittently aerated (i.e., aerobic/anoxic) reactors, respectively. Denitrification in the aerobic/anoxic reactor was inefficient without SIR. Effluent quality and sludge settleability of the main SBR were unaffected by SIR. PMID:26810193</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990051031','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990051031"><span id="translatedtitle">Summary of Work for Joint Research <span class="hlt">Interchanges</span> with DARWIN Integrated Product Team</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hesselink, Lambertus</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The intent of Stanford University's SciVis group is to develop technologies that enabled comparative analysis and visualization techniques for simulated and experimental flow fields. These techniques would then be made available un- der the Joint Research <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> for potential injection into the DARWIN Workspace Environment (DWE). In the past, we have focused on techniques that exploited feature based comparisons such as shock and vortex extractions. Our current research effort focuses on finding a quantitative comparison of general vector fields based on topological features. Since the method relies on topological information, grid matching an@ vector alignment is not needed in the comparison. This is often a problem with many data comparison techniques. In addition, since only topology based information is stored and compared for each field, there is a significant compression of information that enables large databases to be quickly searched. This report will briefly (1) describe current technologies in the area of comparison techniques, (2) will describe the theory of our new method and finally (3) summarize a few of the results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990041450','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990041450"><span id="translatedtitle">Summary of Work for Joint Research <span class="hlt">Interchanges</span> with DARWIN Integrated Product Team 1998</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hesselink, Lambertus</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The intent of Stanford University's SciVis group is to develop technologies that enabled comparative analysis and visualization techniques for simulated and experimental flow fields. These techniques would then be made available under the Joint Research <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> for potential injection into the DARWIN Workspace Environment (DWE). In the past, we have focused on techniques that exploited feature based comparisons such as shock and vortex extractions. Our current research effort focuses on finding a quantitative comparison of general vector fields based on topological features. Since the method relies on topological information, grid matching and vector alignment is not needed in the comparison. This is often a problem with many data comparison techniques. In addition, since only topology based information is stored and compared for each field, there is a significant compression of information that enables large databases to be quickly searched. This report will briefly (1) describe current technologies in the area of comparison techniques, (2) will describe the theory of our new method and finally (3) summarize a few of the results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4850808','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4850808"><span id="translatedtitle">Can higher end tonometers be used <span class="hlt">interchangeably</span> in routine clinical practice?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Patel, Kunjan Jayantilal; Jain, Saurabh P; Kapadia, Priti R; Patel, Nikunj V; Patel, Saurabh; Patel, Vikas</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Context: Precise intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement is important in glaucoma practise. Various instruments are available today to accurately measure IOP. Thus, the question arises about which instrument to use and whether all of them can be used <span class="hlt">interchangeably</span>. Aims: To assess the agreement between noncontact tonometer (NCT), rebound tonometer (RBT), Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), and dynamic contour tonometer (DCT) in measuring IOP. Subjects and Methods: 499 eyes of 250 patients were evaluated during a period of 24 months from September 2010 to August 2012 and measurement of IOP by NCT, RBT, GAT, and DCT was done in the given sequence. The agreement was assessed by use of the Bland–Altman plot keeping GAT as a gold standard technique. Results: The mean IOP value of NCT, RBT, GAT, and DCT was 15.9 ± 5.5, 15.9 ± 5.8, 15.9 ± 4.9, and 16.0 ± 4.7 mm of Hg, respectively. The limits of agreement of GAT with DCT, NCT, and RBT were found to be +5.4 to −5.2, −4.7 to +4.6, and −5.2 to +5.1 mm of Hg, respectively. Conclusions: A positive and strong correlation was found between newer tonometers and GAT, but the limit of agreement was clinically unacceptable. The use of a single tonometer should be practised at a glaucoma clinic for a patient at each follow-up. PMID:27050348</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JInst..11C2009S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JInst..11C2009S"><span id="translatedtitle">Developments of frequency comb microwave reflectometer for the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> mode observations in LHD plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Soga, R.; Tokuzawa, T.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Tanaka, K.; Yamada, I.; Inagaki, S.; Kasuya, N.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We have upgraded the multi-channel microwave reflectometer system which uses a frequency comb as a source and measure the distribution of the density fluctuation caused by magneto-hydro dynamics instability. The previous multi-channel system was composed of the Ka-band, and the U-band system has been developed. Currently, the U-band system has eight frequency channels, which are 43.0, 45.0, 47.0, 49.0, 51.0, 53.0, 55.0, and 57.0 GHz, in U-band. Before the installation to the Large Helical Device (LHD), several tests for understanding the system characteristics, which are the phase responsibility, the linearity of output signal, and others, have been carried out. The in situ calibration in LHD has been done for the cross reference. In the neutral beam injected plasma experiments, we can observe the density fluctuation of the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> mode and obtain the radial distribution of fluctuation amplitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.P53B..07H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.P53B..07H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Injection and Drift Dispersion of Hot Plasma in Saturn's Magnetosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hill, T. W.; Burch, J. L.; Crary, F. J.; Thomsen, M. F.; Delapp, D.; Rymer, A. M.; Coates, A. J.; Young, D. T.; Bolton, S. J.; Sittler, E. C.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>During the first pass of the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft through Saturn's magnetosphere, the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) observed several intermittent occurrences of multi-keV ions and electrons superimposed on a cooler (10 - 100 eV) background plasma. These events are tentatively interpreted as signatures of centrifugally driven <span class="hlt">interchange</span> motions that inject isolated flux tubes of hot tenuous plasma toward Saturn, similar to injection events reported at Jupiter by the Galileo spacecraft. Both ions and electrons show evidence of energy-time dispersion resulting from adiabatic (gradient-curvature) drift relative to the partially corotating plasma frame of reference. Rotation converts a longitude structure in the rotating frame into a temporal structure in the spacecraft frame. Ions (electrons) drift eastward (westward) relative to the rotating frame with a speed proportional to thermal energy. Thus ions (electrons) display a negative (positive) slope in an energy-time spectrogram. The magnitude of the slope is a measure of the elapsed time since injection. Such events are observed both inbound and outbound in a radial range L = 6 - 10, and are frequently associated with narrow but deep density cavities in the cooler background plasma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24584134','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24584134"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing safety and immunogenicity of post-exposure prophylaxis following <span class="hlt">interchangeability</span> of rabies vaccines in humans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ravish, Hardanahalli S; Sudarshan, Mysore K; Madhusudana, Shampur N; Annadani, Rachana R; Narayana, Doddabele H Ashwath; Belludi, Ashwin Y; Anandaiah, Gangaboraiah; Vijayashankar, Veena</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Rabies post exposure prophylaxis with cell culture vaccines by either intramuscular route or intradermal route spans over a period of one month. World Health Organization recommends completing post exposure prophylaxis against rabies with the same cell culture or embryonated egg rabies vaccine and with same route of administration and any deviation from this shall be an exception. In the present study, the safety and immunogenicity of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis was studied prospectively in 90 animal bite cases that had <span class="hlt">interchangeability</span> of rabies vaccines either by route of administration or brand/type and such changes had occurred due to logistical/financial problems. Among them, 47 had change in route of administration from intramuscular to intradermal or vice versa and 43 had change in the brand/type of cell culture rabies vaccine. All of them had category III rabies exposure and received equine rabies immunoglobulin along with the rabies vaccine. None of the study subjects had any adverse reactions. The rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers was assessed by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test and all the vaccinees had titers ≥0.5 IU per mL on day 14 which is considered as adequate for protection against rabies. Thus, the present study showed that, rabies post-exposure prophylaxis was safe and immunogenic despite changes in the route of administration and brand/type of rabies vaccine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26398861','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26398861"><span id="translatedtitle">Identical but not <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span>: Preschoolers view owned objects as non-fungible.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McEwan, Stephanie; Pesowski, Madison L; Friedman, Ori</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Owned objects are typically viewed as non-fungible-they cannot be freely <span class="hlt">interchanged</span>. We report three experiments (total N=312) demonstrating this intuition in preschool-aged children. In Experiment 1, children considered an agent who takes one of two identical objects and leaves the other for a peer. Children viewed this as acceptable when the agent took his own item, but not when he took his peer's item. In Experiment 2, children considered scenarios where one agent took property from another. Children said the victim could take back her own property from the perpetrator, but that she could not take an identical object belonging to the perpetrator. Finally, in Experiment 3A and 3B, children considered scenarios where a teacher could give a child either of two objects to play with-an object that the child had recently played with, or another object that looked the same. Children were more likely to say that the teacher should give the object recently played with when it belonged to the child, compared with when it belonged to the teacher. These findings are informative about the basis of judgments that property is non-fungible, and about young children's representation of ownership rights. They show that children's representation of ownership rights is not limited to principles protecting owners from being deprived. Our findings instead suggest that ownership rights are viewed as pertaining to individual objects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSM51E4294H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSM51E4294H"><span id="translatedtitle">The Role of Electron Density on the <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Instability at Saturn</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kennelly, T.; Thomsen, M. F.; Persoon, A. M.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Achilleos, N. A.; Andriopoulou, M.; Badman, S. V.; Jackman, C. M.; Jia, X.; Khurana, K. K.; Krupp, N.; Louarn, P.; Paranicas, C.; Roussos, E.; Sergis, N.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Interchange</span> events, where "injections" of hotter, less dense plasma moves inward to return the magnetic flux carried outward by the colder, more dense plasma in rapidly rotating magnetospheres, are detected at Saturn by Cassini on almost every orbit that encounters the inner and middle (<15 Rs) magnetosphere. Significant changes can occur in the number of injection events and their location (L shell) between inbound and outbound passes on a given orbit (over a several hour time span). Furthermore, changes are observed between orbits for the same local time sampling (over tens of days). Similar changes between inbound and outbound passes, and between orbits have been observed in the electron density values measured by Cassini. We examine the period in 2010 when Cassini was in near equatorial orbits with the inbound period between L of 4.5 and 10 primarily in the midnight sector and the outbound period was near noon. Using Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) and Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI) data we determine the occurrence of injection events, their signature in a wide range of energies (eV to MeV), and examine their relationship with the electron density determined from the upper hybrid resonance emission measured by the Radio and Plasma Wave Science instrument.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4332249','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4332249"><span id="translatedtitle">Telomeres and centromeres have <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> roles in promoting meiotic spindle formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fennell, Alex; Fernández-Álvarez, Alfonso; Tomita, Kazunori</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Telomeres and centromeres have traditionally been considered to perform distinct roles. During meiotic prophase, in a conserved chromosomal configuration called the bouquet, telomeres gather to the nuclear membrane (NM), often near centrosomes. We found previously that upon disruption of the fission yeast bouquet, centrosomes failed to insert into the NM at meiosis I and nucleate bipolar spindles. Hence, the trans-NM association of telomeres with centrosomes during prophase is crucial for efficient spindle formation. Nonetheless, in approximately half of bouquet-deficient meiocytes, spindles form properly. Here, we show that bouquet-deficient cells can successfully undergo meiosis using centromere–centrosome contact instead of telomere–centrosome contact to generate spindle formation. Accordingly, forced association between centromeres and centrosomes fully rescued the spindle defects incurred by bouquet disruption. Telomeres and centromeres both stimulate focal accumulation of the SUN domain protein Sad1 beneath the centrosome, suggesting a molecular underpinning for their shared spindle-generating ability. Our observations demonstrate an unanticipated level of <span class="hlt">interchangeability</span> between the two most prominent chromosomal landmarks. PMID:25688135</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhPl...13j2104P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhPl...13j2104P"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental characterization of drift-<span class="hlt">interchange</span> instabilities in a simple toroidal plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poli, F. M.; Brunner, S.; Diallo, A.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Labit, B.; Müller, S. H.; Plyushchev, G.; Podestà, M.</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>Low frequency electrostatic instabilities are investigated on TORPEX [Fasoli, Labit, McGrath, Müller, Podestà, and Poli, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 48, 119 (2003)], a toroidal device for basic plasma physics experiments with a toroidal magnetic field 100mT and a small vertical magnetic field (⩽4mT). A two-dimensional (2D) profile of the frequency and amplitude of density and potential fluctuations is reconstructed using electrostatic probes with high space and time resolution. The measured phase velocity, corrected for the Doppler shift induced by the E×B drift, is consistent with the electron diamagnetic drift velocity. The local dispersion relation, measured along and across the magnetic field, is in agreement with the predictions of a linear kinetic slab model for drift waves. Unstable modes are generated in regions of unfavorable curvature, where the pressure gradient is colinear with the magnetic field gradient. It is demonstrated that the curvature of the magnetic field lines is essential for driving the observed instabilities, which are therefore identified as drift-<span class="hlt">interchange</span> modes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26691957','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26691957"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinical Data <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Standards Consortium Standardization of Biobank Data: A Feasibility Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sato, Izumi; Kawasaki, Yohei; Ide, Kazuki; Sakakibara, Iori; Konomura, Keiko; Yamada, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yasuhiro</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The National Center Biobank Network (NCBN), consisting of six national centers (NCs) for advanced and specialized medical care, was launched in Japan in 2012 to collect biological specimens and health-related data. The common data formats of the six NCs, however, are not widely known outside the NCs. Therefore, we investigated whether the data elements collected by the NCBN could be made to conform to the international standards of the Clinical Data <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Standards Consortium (CDISC). We attempted to map the NCBN data elements (202 items) onto the Study Data Tabulation Model (SDTM), a set of CDISC standards on the submission format of electronic clinical data approved by the Food and Drug Administration. The results showed that all 202 items of the NCBN data could be mapped onto the SDTM and fulfilled 50%-70% of the required items of each domain specified in the SDTM. We concluded that, while the standardization of biobank data according to the CDISC standards is possible, there is a need to consider whether additional items must be included in the NCBN and to have experts familiar with the CDISC standards review the standardization needs. PMID:26691957</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21294255','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21294255"><span id="translatedtitle">Pressure-driven, resistive magnetohydrodynamic <span class="hlt">interchange</span> instabilities in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Li, C. K.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Seguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.; Landen, O. L.; Town, R. P. J.; Betti, R.; Knauer, J. P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Soures, J. M.</p> <p>2009-07-15</p> <p>Recent experiments using proton backlighting of laser-foil interactions provide unique opportunities for studying magnetized plasma instabilities in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas. Time-gated proton radiograph images indicate that the outer structure of a magnetic field entrained in a hemispherical plasma bubble becomes distinctly asymmetric after the laser turns off. It is shown that this asymmetry is a consequence of pressure-driven, resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) <span class="hlt">interchange</span> instabilities. In contrast to the predictions made by ideal MHD theory, the increasing plasma resistivity after laser turn-off allows for greater low-mode destabilization (m>1) from reduced stabilization by field-line bending. For laser-generated plasmas presented herein, a mode-number cutoff for stabilization of perturbations with m>{approx}[8{pi}{beta}(1+D{sub m}k{sub perpendicular}{sup 2}{gamma}{sub max}{sup -1})]{sup 1/2} is found in the linear growth regime. The growth is measured and is found to be in reasonable agreement with model predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20860283','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20860283"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental characterization of drift-<span class="hlt">interchange</span> instabilities in a simple toroidal plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Poli, F. M.; Brunner, S.; Diallo, A.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Labit, B.; Mueller, S. H.; Plyushchev, G.; Podesta, M.</p> <p>2006-10-15</p> <p>Low frequency electrostatic instabilities are investigated on TORPEX [Fasoli, Labit, McGrath, Mueller, Podesta, and Poli, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 48, 119 (2003)], a toroidal device for basic plasma physics experiments with a toroidal magnetic field 100 mT and a small vertical magnetic field ({<=}4 mT). A two-dimensional (2D) profile of the frequency and amplitude of density and potential fluctuations is reconstructed using electrostatic probes with high space and time resolution. The measured phase velocity, corrected for the Doppler shift induced by the ExB drift, is consistent with the electron diamagnetic drift velocity. The local dispersion relation, measured along and across the magnetic field, is in agreement with the predictions of a linear kinetic slab model for drift waves. Unstable modes are generated in regions of unfavorable curvature, where the pressure gradient is colinear with the magnetic field gradient. It is demonstrated that the curvature of the magnetic field lines is essential for driving the observed instabilities, which are therefore identified as drift-<span class="hlt">interchange</span> modes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21868027','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21868027"><span id="translatedtitle">Inadvertent <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of electrocardiogram limb lead connections: analysis of predicted consequences part II: double interconnection errors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rowlands, Derek J</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Limb lead connection errors are known to be very common in clinical practice. The consequences of all possible single limb lead interconnection errors were analyzed in an earlier publication (J Electrocardiology 2008;41:84-90). With a single limb lead interconnection error, 6 combinations of limb lead connections are possible. Two of these combinations give rise to records in which the limb lead morphology is uninterpretable. Such records show a "flat line" in lead II or III. Three of the errors give rise to records that are fully interpretable once the specific interconnection error has been identified (although one of the errors cannot reliably be recognized in the absence of a previous record for comparison). One of the errors produces no change in the electrocardiogram recording. In all cases, the precordial leads are interpretable, although there are very minor changes in the voltages. This communication predicts the changes in limb lead appearances consequent upon all possible double limb lead <span class="hlt">interchanges</span> and illustrates these with records electively taken with such double interconnection errors. There are only 3 possible double limb lead interconnection errors. In 2 of the possible combinations, interpretation of the limb leads is impossible, and each of these errors gives rise to a flat line in lead I. In the third combination, the record is fully interpretable once the abnormality has been identified. In all 3 types, the precordial leads are interpretable, although there are very minor changes in the voltages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1999APS..DPPCP1101U&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1999APS..DPPCP1101U&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of shear flow formation between resonant and non-resonant resistive <span class="hlt">interchange</span> modes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Unemura, T.; Hamaguchi, S.; Wakatani, M.</p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p>It is known that the poloidal shear flow is produced from the nonlinear resistive <span class="hlt">interchange</span> modes(A. Hasegawa and M. Wakatani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59) 1581 (1987)(B.A. Carreras and V. E. Lynch, Phys. Fluids B 5) 1795 (1993). Since the non-resonant resistive modes also become unstable(K. Ichiguchi, Y. Nakamura and M. Wakatani, Nucl. Fusion 31) 2073 (1991), the nonlinear behavior is compared between the resonant and non-resonant modes from the point of view of poloidal flow formation. For understanding the difference, we studied single helicity (m,n)=(3,2) mode in a cylindrical geometry.Rotational transform profile, ι(r), was changed. First, we assumed ι(r)=0.51+0.39r^2, and increased ι(0). This change represents a finite beta effect in currentless stellarators. When the resonant surface exists with ι(r_s)=2/3, the poloidal flow are created near the resonant surface. And, in the case when no resonant surface exists but ι_min ~ 2/3, the non-resonant (3,2) mode grows and poloidal shear flow is also generated; however, the magnitude decreases sharply with the increase of ι_min.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ASPC..290..105K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ASPC..290..105K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Method in Compressible Magnetized Couette Flow: Magnetorotational and Magnetoconvective Instabilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kazanas, D.; Christodoulou, D.; Contopoulos, J.</p> <p></p> <p>We obtain the general form of the axisymmetric stability criteria in a magnetized, compressible Couette flow using a variational principle, the so-called <span class="hlt">interchange</span> method, which we applied successfully in the incompressible case in the past. This formulation accounts for the simultaneous presence of gravity, rotation, entropy and density gradients, a toroidal magnetic field and a weak axial magnetic field in its initial equilibrium state. The crucial aspect of the method is its explicit implementation of the relevant conservation laws in the computation of the "free energy" of the system in its original equilibrium. As in the incompressilbe case, the presence of an axial field invalidates the conservation laws of angular momentum and azimuthal magnetic flux, introducing instead isorotation and axial current conservation along field lines. The stability criteria are therefore markedly different depending on whether an axial magnetic field is present. In limiting cases our formulation transparently recovers the convective and Parker instability criteria, as well as those of Newcomb and Terkovnikov pertaining to rotating magnetized plasmas derived through the implementation of much more laborious techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993STIN...9428874.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993STIN...9428874."><span id="translatedtitle">DOD Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> (EDI) in contracting report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-12-01</p> <p>Use of Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> (EDI) to support Department of Defense (DoD) procurement processes has been under consideration for some time. A 1988 Deputy Secretary of Defense memo calls for maximum use of EDI, based on 10 years of DoD EDI investigation and experiments. In 1990, Defense Management Review Decision 941 stated, 'The strategic goal of DoD's current efforts is to provide the department with the capability to initiate, conduct, and maintain its external business related transactions and internal logistics, contracting, and financial activities without requiring the use of hard copy media.' The EC in Contracting PAT membership reflected a broad cross section of Military Services and Defense Agencies working on a full-time basis for 60 days. The diversity of the EC in Contracting PAT ensured that the needs and concerns of all DoD components were addressed during the creation of the report. The resultant plan, therefore, represents a comprehensive approach for implementing EC throughout the DoD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1695863','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1695863"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of disease and health between the Old and New Worlds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Berlinguer, G</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A review of the five centuries since Columbus discovered America helps us understand the mutual contributions of the Old and the New Worlds to the history of diseases and their treatment. It also shows the consequences of this "mutual discovery" as they are currently emerging in the fields of health, culture, and the environment. To evaluate the multiple aspects of the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> between the Old and New Worlds, this paper discusses the following: the causes of the rapid decline of the original American populations; the diffusion of communicable diseases between the two civilizations; the health consequences of nutritional changes on both sides of the Atlantic; drug addictions, as they developed through the centuries and as they exist today; the ways diseases were and are evaluated, prevented, diagnosed, and treated; and the mutual impact of different models of health services. Arguing that a major global change following the discovery of America was the transition from isolation of the two worlds to communication, and, more recently, to global interdependence, the paper also discusses some problems of bioethical relevance and the possible impact of new epidemics. Finally, it suggests that a critical analysis of the past may help stimulate future cooperation and solidarity. PMID:1384365</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23525299','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23525299"><span id="translatedtitle">Microfluidic impact printer with <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> cartridges for versatile non-contact multiplexed micropatterning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ding, Yuzhe; Huang, Eric; Lam, Kit S; Pan, Tingrui</p> <p>2013-05-21</p> <p>Biopatterning has been increasingly used for well-defined cellular microenvironment, patterned surface topology, and guided biological cues; however, it meets challenges on biocompatibility, thermal and chemical sensitivity, as well as limited availability of reagents. In this paper, we aim at combining the desired features from non-contact inkjet printing and dot-matrix impact printing to establish a versatile multiplexed micropatterning platform, referred to as Microfluidic Impact Printer (MI-Printer), for emerging biomedical applications. Using this platform, we can achieve the distinct features of no cross-contamination, sub-microliter ink loading with a minimal dead volume, high-throughput printing, biocompatible non-contact processing, sequential patterning with self-alignment, wide adaptability for complex media (e.g., cell suspension or colloidal solutions), <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span>/disposable cartridge design, and simple assembly and configuration, all highly desirable towards laboratory-based research and development. Specifically, the printing resolution of the MI-printer platform has been experimentally characterized and theoretically analysed. Optimal printing resolution of 80 μm has been repeatedly obtained. Furthermore, two useful functions of the MI-printer, multiplexed printing and combinatorial printing, have been experimentally demonstrated with less than 10 μm misalignment. Moreover, molecular and biological patterning, utilizing the multiplexed and combinatorial printing, has been implemented to illustrate the utility of this versatile printing technique for emerging biomedical applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23860294','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23860294"><span id="translatedtitle">Match intensity and pacing strategies in rugby league: an examination of whole-game and <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> players, and winning and losing teams.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Black, Georgia M; Gabbett, Tim J</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>There is currently limited information on whether pacing occurs during rugby league match play. In addition, to date no research has investigated whether pacing strategies differ between winning and losing teams. This study investigated the pacing strategies of whole-game and <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> rugby league players. Furthermore, we investigated the pacing strategies of winning and losing teams. Fifty-two rugby league players, from a sample of 11 teams competing in a semi-elite competition, underwent global positioning system analysis. Performances were divided into match quartiles for whole-game and <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> players. Total distance, including low- and high-speed distances, and repeated high-intensity effort bouts were recorded. The total distance and low-speed distance covered across all quartiles of the match, but specifically quartiles 1 and 8, were greater for <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> players than whole-game players. The match outcome differentially affected the pacing strategies of whole-game and <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> players. Whole-game players from winning teams set a higher pacing strategy than whole-game players from losing teams (effect size [ES] = 1.03 ± 0.77, 96%, very likely), whereas <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> players from losing teams demonstrated a greater "end-spurt" than <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> players from winning teams (ES = 0.60 ± 0.52, 96%, very likely). The pacing strategies of <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> players were higher than whole-game players, irrespective of playing position. The results of this study suggest that pacing strategies differ between <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> and whole-game rugby league players. Furthermore, our results demonstrate a different pacing strategy between winning and losing teams. These findings suggest that physical preparation for rugby league matches, and recovery from these matches, should be individualized for whole-game and <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> players. Finally, performing physically intense training on a regular basis is likely to develop the physical and mental qualities required to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22300174','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22300174"><span id="translatedtitle">Scattering of electromagnetic waves by vortex density structures associated with <span class="hlt">interchange</span> instability: Analytical and large scale plasma simulation results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Lundberg, J.; Paraschiv, I.; Mehlhorn, T. A.</p> <p>2014-05-15</p> <p>The presence of plasma turbulence can strongly influence propagation properties of electromagnetic signals used for surveillance and communication. In particular, we are interested in the generation of low frequency plasma density irregularities in the form of coherent vortex structures. <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> or flute type density irregularities in magnetized plasma are associated with Rayleigh-Taylor type instability. These types of density irregularities play an important role in refraction and scattering of high frequency electromagnetic signals propagating in the earth ionosphere, in high energy density physics, and in many other applications. We will discuss scattering of high frequency electromagnetic waves on low frequency density irregularities due to the presence of vortex density structures associated with <span class="hlt">interchange</span> instability. We will also present particle-in-cell simulation results of electromagnetic scattering on vortex type density structures using the large scale plasma code LSP and compare them with analytical results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhPl...21e2309S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhPl...21e2309S"><span id="translatedtitle">Scattering of electromagnetic waves by vortex density structures associated with <span class="hlt">interchange</span> instability: Analytical and large scale plasma simulation results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Lundberg, J.; Paraschiv, I.; Mehlhorn, T. A.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The presence of plasma turbulence can strongly influence propagation properties of electromagnetic signals used for surveillance and communication. In particular, we are interested in the generation of low frequency plasma density irregularities in the form of coherent vortex structures. <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> or flute type density irregularities in magnetized plasma are associated with Rayleigh-Taylor type instability. These types of density irregularities play an important role in refraction and scattering of high frequency electromagnetic signals propagating in the earth ionosphere, in high energy density physics, and in many other applications. We will discuss scattering of high frequency electromagnetic waves on low frequency density irregularities due to the presence of vortex density structures associated with <span class="hlt">interchange</span> instability. We will also present particle-in-cell simulation results of electromagnetic scattering on vortex type density structures using the large scale plasma code LSP and compare them with analytical results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21282103','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21282103"><span id="translatedtitle">Observation of a critical pressure gradient for the stabilization of <span class="hlt">interchange</span> modes in simple magnetized toroidal plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Federspiel, L.; Labit, B.; Ricci, P.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Theiler, C.</p> <p>2009-09-15</p> <p>The existence of a critical pressure gradient needed to drive the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> instability is experimentally demonstrated in the simple magnetized torus TORoidal Plasma EXperiment [A. Fasoli et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 055902 (2006)]. This gradient is reached during a scan in the neutral gas pressure p{sub n}. Around a critical value for p{sub n}, depending on the magnetic configuration and on the injected rf power, a small increase in the neutral gas pressure triggers a transition in the plasma behavior. The pressure profile is locally flattened, stabilizing the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> mode observed at lower neutral gas densities. The measured value for the critical gradient is close to the linear theory estimate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910015300','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910015300"><span id="translatedtitle">Cryogenic mechanisms for scanning and <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of the Fabry-Perot interferometers in the ISO long wavelength spectrometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Davis, G. R.; Furniss, I.; Patrick, T. J.; Sidey, R. C.; Towlson, W. A.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) is an ESA cornerstone mission for infrared astronomy. Schedules for launch in 1993, its four scientific instruments will provide unprecedented sensitivity and spectral resolution at wavelengths which are inaccessible using ground-based techniques. One of these, the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS), will operate in the 45 to 180 micron region (Emery et. al., 1985) and features two Fabry-Perot interferometers mounted on an <span class="hlt">interchange</span> mechanism. The entire payload module of the spacecraft, comprising the 60 cm telescope and the four focal plane instruments, is maintained at 2 to 4 K by an onboard supply of liquid helium. The mechanical design and testing of the cryogenic interferometer and <span class="hlt">interchange</span> mechanisms are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSM51E2595P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSM51E2595P"><span id="translatedtitle">All-sky imager observations near footprints of plasma sheet waves with kinetic ballooning-<span class="hlt">interchange</span> signatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Panov, E. V.; Nakamura, R.; Sergeev, V. A.; Baumjohann, W.; Kubyshkina, M. V.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We collected several THEMIS observations of plasma sheet oscillations with kinetic ballooning/<span class="hlt">interchange</span> instability (BICI) signatures. Using an adapted model to find the location of THEMIS footprints, we identified all-sky imager (ASI) observations that may be associated with the waves. The ASI observations reveal a reach activity often being diffuse patchy aurora. We investigate the brightness and motion of the auroral patches and compare them with the BICI activity in the plasma sheet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Hugo&id=EJ1005111','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Hugo&id=EJ1005111"><span id="translatedtitle">Racism, the Left and Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Some Observations on the Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren <span class="hlt">Interchange</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cole, Mike</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren <span class="hlt">interchange</span> covered a wide range of issues that are important for twenty-first century socialists. In this article, the author concentrates on two of them: first, Gur-Ze'ev's charge that critical pedagogy is part of the "new anti-Semitism"; second, his critique of McLaren's support for Hugo Chavez and the Bolivarian model of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040074180','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040074180"><span id="translatedtitle">Lapin Data <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Among Database, Analysis and Display Programs Using XML-Based Text Files</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The purpose was to investigate and evaluate the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of application- specific data among multiple programs each carrying out part of the analysis and design task. This has been carried out previously by creating a custom program to read data produced by one application and then write that data to a file whose format is specific to the second application that needs all or part of that data. In this investigation, data of interest is described using the XML markup language that allows the data to be stored in a text-string. Software to transform output data of a task into an XML-string and software to read an XML string and extract all or a portion of the data needed for another application is used to link two independent applications together as part of an overall design effort. This approach was initially used with a standard analysis program, Lapin, along with standard applications a standard spreadsheet program, a relational database program, and a conventional dialog and display program to demonstrate the successful sharing of data among independent programs. See Engineering Analysis Using a Web-Based Protocol by J.D. Schoeffler and R.W. Claus, NASA TM-2002-211981, October 2002. Most of the effort beyond that demonstration has been concentrated on the inclusion of more complex display programs. Specifically, a custom-written windowing program organized around dialogs to control the interactions have been combined with an independent CAD program (Open Cascade) that supports sophisticated display of CAD elements such as lines, spline curves, and surfaces and turbine-blade data produced by an independent blade design program (UD0300).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050041622','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050041622"><span id="translatedtitle">Lapin Data <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Among Database, Analysis and Display Programs Using XML-Based Text Files</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of grant NCC3-966 was to investigate and evaluate the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of application-specific data among multiple programs each carrying out part of the analysis and design task. This has been carried out previously by creating a custom program to read data produced by one application and then write that data to a file whose format is specific to the second application that needs all or part of that data. In this investigation, data of interest is described using the XML markup language that allows the data to be stored in a text-string. Software to transform output data of a task into an XML-string and software to read an XML string and extract all or a portion of the data needed for another application is used to link two independent applications together as part of an overall design effort. This approach was initially used with a standard analysis program, Lapin, along with standard applications a standard spreadsheet program, a relational database program, and a conventional dialog and display program to demonstrate the successful sharing of data among independent programs. Most of the effort beyond that demonstration has been concentrated on the inclusion of more complex display programs. Specifically, a custom-written windowing program organized around dialogs to control the interactions have been combined with an independent CAD program (Open Cascade) that supports sophisticated display of CAD elements such as lines, spline curves, and surfaces and turbine-blade data produced by an independent blade design program (UD0300).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4412061','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4412061"><span id="translatedtitle">Transcriptional activity of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta Holobiont: molecular evidence for metabolic <span class="hlt">interchange</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fiore, Cara L.; Labrie, Micheline; Jarett, Jessica K.; Lesser, Michael P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Compared to our understanding of the taxonomic composition of the symbiotic microbes in marine sponges, the functional diversity of these symbionts is largely unknown. Furthermore, the application of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic techniques to functional questions on sponge host-symbiont interactions is in its infancy. In this study, we generated a transcriptome for the host and a metatranscriptome of its microbial symbionts for the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, from the Caribbean. In combination with a gene-specific approach, our goals were to (1) characterize genetic evidence for nitrogen cycling in X. muta, an important limiting nutrient on coral reefs (2) identify which prokaryotic symbiont lineages are metabolically active and, (3) characterize the metabolic potential of the prokaryotic community. Xestospongia muta expresses genes from multiple nitrogen transformation pathways that when combined with the abundance of this sponge, and previous data on dissolved inorganic nitrogen fluxes, shows that this sponge is an important contributor to nitrogen cycling biogeochemistry on coral reefs. Additionally, we observed significant differences in gene expression of the archaeal amoA gene, which is involved in ammonia oxidation, between coral reef locations consistent with differences in the fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen previously reported. In regards to symbiont metabolic potential, the genes in the biosynthetic pathways of several amino acids were present in the prokaryotic metatranscriptome dataset but in the host-derived transcripts only the catabolic reactions for these amino acids were present. A similar pattern was observed for the B vitamins (riboflavin, biotin, thiamin, cobalamin). These results expand our understanding of biogeochemical cycling in sponges, and the metabolic <span class="hlt">interchange</span> highlighted here advances the field of symbiont physiology by elucidating specific metabolic pathways where there is high potential for host</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996ApJ...462..865C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996ApJ...462..865C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Method in Incompressible Magnetized Couette Flow: Structural and Magnetorotational Instabilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Christodoulou, Dimitris M.; Contopoulos, John; Kazanas, Demosthenes</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>In view of its importance to astrophysical problems involving magnetized accretion disks and outflows in stars, we analyze the stability of incompressible, magnetized Couette flow to axisymmetric perturbations. We use an energy variational principle, the so-called <span class="hlt">interchange</span> or Chandrasekhar's method, to derive the relevant stability criteria. This method is equivalent to the free-energy formalism that we have recently introduced to describe hydrodynamical instabilities in rotating, self-gravitating systems. In its implementation, all the applicable conservation laws are explicitly taken into account during the variations of the free-energy function. Thus we show that a purely toroidal magnetic field Bφ, which does not harm the conservation of circulation by imposing the additional conservation of azimuthal magnetic flux, leads to structural stability in Couette flow: the stability properties of the unmagnetized flow are recovered in the limit Bφ→0. In contrast, an axial-field component BZ, however small, destroys the conservation laws of circulation and azimuthal magnetic flux by imposing isorotation and conservation of the axial current along field lines. This radical change leads to a different stability criterion that implies structural instability, i.e., the stability properties of the flow with BZ ≡ 0 are not recovered in the limit BZ→0 irrespective of the presence of rotation and/or a toroidal-field component. We discuss the relevance of our results for magnetized accretion flows and for outflows around stars and compact objects in active galactic nuclei. We also provide an application to thin accretion disks in Keplerian rotation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9865038','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9865038"><span id="translatedtitle">The SNOMED DICOM microglossary: controlled terminology resource for data <span class="hlt">interchange</span> in biomedical imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bidgood, W D</p> <p>1998-11-01</p> <p>This paper describes an authoritative, non-proprietary information resource that provides an efficient mechanism for embedding specialized clinical knowledge into the design of healthcare telecommunications systems. The resource marries two types of data <span class="hlt">interchange</span> standards, a message/electronic-document standard and a terminology standard. In technical terms, it is part protocol and part database. Industry, academia, professional specialty societies, and the federal government participated in its development. The development of multi-specialty content has broadly engaged biomedical domain experts to an unprecedented degree in voluntary, non-proprietary message/document-standards development. The resource is the SNOMED DICOM Microglossary (SDM), a message-terminology (or document-content) mapping resource. The message/electronic-document standard is DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine). The terminology standard is SNOMED, (Systematized Nomenclature of Human and Veterinary Medicine). The SDM specifies the mapping of multi-specialty imaging terminology from SNOMED to DICOM data elements. DICOM provides semantic constraints and a framework for discourse that are lacking in SNOMED. Thus the message standard and the computer-based terminology both depend upon and complete each other. The combination is synergistic. By substitution of different templates of specialty terminology from the SDM, a generic message template, such as the DICOM Visible Light (Color Diagnostic) Image or the DICOM Structured Reporting specification can be reconfigured for diverse applications. Professional societies, with technical assistance from the College of American Pathologists, contribute and maintain their portions of the terminology, and can use SDM templates and term lists in clinical practice guidelines for the structure and content of computer-based patient records.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ApJ...803...68Y&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ApJ...803...68Y&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Reconnection Forced by the Filament Eruption Inside a Pseudo-streamer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Jiayan; Jiang, Yunchun; Xu, Zhe; Bi, Yi; Hong, Junchao</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We present rare observational signatures of <span class="hlt">interchange</span> reconnection (IR) forced by the filament eruption inside a pseudo-streamer (PS). The PS was centered above a positive-polarity region bounded by two negative-polarity coronal holes (CHs), and thus its base contained two polarity inversion lines and a pair of loop arcades where two filaments were harbored. In white-light coronagraph data from two different views, it showed up as a fan-shaped structure consisting of fine rays and a coronal streamer. Followed by a two-ribbon flare and a coronal mass ejection, one of the filaments and its overlying arcade erupted away from the nearby CH and flew over the other arcade to interact with the PS's remote CH. As a result, distinct ribbon-like remote brightenings formed along the remote CH boundary and were connected to the positive-polarity flare ribbon by a loop system, but the nearby open-field region largely remained unchanged except that compact brightenings and a following small coronal dimming appeared close to one end of the erupted filament. In combination with the coronal magnetic configuration that derived from the potential-field source-surface model, these observations can be interpreted as follows: the erupting field was first deflected and guided by the nearby CH's open field and then reconnected with the oppositely oriented open field of the remote CH, during which both the closed field bridging the erupted filament and the remoter CH's open field were transported in the opposite direction. The observations thus supported the idea that PSs provide favorable environments for IR to take place and remote brightenings along their CH boundaries represent a credible IR signature on the solar surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ApJ...586..372C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ApJ...586..372C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Method in Compressible Magnetized Couette Flow: Magnetorotational and Magnetoconvective Instabilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Christodoulou, Dimitris M.; Contopoulos, John; Kazanas, Demosthenes</p> <p>2003-03-01</p> <p>We obtain the general forms of the axisymmetric stability criteria in a magnetized compressible Couette flow using an energy variational principle, the so-called <span class="hlt">interchange</span> or Chandrasekhar's method, which we applied successfully in the incompressible case. This formulation accounts for the simultaneous presence of gravity, rotation, a toroidal magnetic field, a weak axial magnetic field, entropy gradients, and density gradients in the initial equilibrium state. The power of the method lies in its simplicity, which allows us to derive extremely compact and physically clear expressions for the relevant stability criteria despite the inclusion of so many physical effects. In the implementation of the method, all the applicable conservation laws are explicitly taken into account during the variations of a quantity with dimensions of energy that we call the ``free-energy function.'' As in the incompressible case, the presence of an axial field invalidates the conservation laws of angular momentum and azimuthal magnetic flux and introduces instead isorotation and axial current conservation along field lines. Our results are therefore markedly different depending on whether an axial magnetic field is present, and they generalize in two simple expressions all previously known, partial stability criteria for the appearance of magnetorotational instability. Furthermore, the coupling between magnetic tension and buoyancy and its influence to the dynamics of nonhomoentropic magnetized flows become quite clear from our results. In the limits of plane-parallel atmospheres and homoentropic flows, our formulation easily recovers the stability criteria for suppression of convective and Parker instabilities, as well as some related special cases studied over 40 years ago by Newcomb and Tserkovnikov via laborious variational techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9147E..51C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9147E..51C"><span id="translatedtitle">A format standard for efficient <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of high-contrast direct imaging science products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choquet, Élodie; Vigan, Arthur; Soummer, Rémi; Chauvin, Gaël.; Pueyo, Laurent; Perrin, Marshall D.; Hines, Dean C.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The present and next few years will see the arrival of several new coronagraphic instruments dedicated to the detection and characterization of planetary systems. These ground- and space-based instruments (Gemini/GPI, VLT/SPHERE, Subaru/ CHARIS, JWST NIRCam and MIRI coronagraphs among others), will provide a large number of new candidates, through multiple nearby-star surveys and will complete and extend those acquired with current generation instruments (Palomar P1640, VLT/NACO, Keck, HST). To optimize the use of the wealth of data, including non-detection results, the science products of these instruments will require to be shared among the community. In the long term such data exchange will significantly ease companion confirmations, planet characterization via different type of instruments (integral field spectrographs, polarimetric imagers, etc.), and Monte-Carlo population studies from detection and non-detection results. In this context, we initiated a collaborative effort between the teams developing the data reduction pipelines for SPHERE, GPI, and the JWST coronagraphs, and the ALICE (Archival Legacy Investigations of Circumstellar Environment) collaboration, which is currently reprocessing all the HST/NICMOS coronagraphic surveys. We are developing a standard format for the science products generated by high-contrast direct imaging instruments (reduced image, sensitivity limits, noise image, candidate list, etc.), that is directly usable for astrophysical investigations. In this paper, we present first results of this work and propose a preliminary format adopted for the science product. We call for discussions in the high-contrast direct imaging community to develop this effort, reach a consensus and finalize this standard. This action will be critical to enable data <span class="hlt">interchange</span> and combination in a consistent way between several instruments and to stiffen the scientific production in the community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24179174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24179174"><span id="translatedtitle">Beta tubulin isoforms are not <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> for rescuing impaired radial migration due to Tubb3 knockdown.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saillour, Yoann; Broix, Loïc; Bruel-Jungerman, Elodie; Lebrun, Nicolas; Muraca, Giuseppe; Rucci, Julien; Poirier, Karine; Belvindrah, Richard; Francis, Fiona; Chelly, Jamel</p> <p>2014-03-15</p> <p>Over the last years, the critical role of cytoskeletal proteins in cortical development including neuronal migration as well as in neuronal morphology has been well established. Inputs from genetic studies were provided through the identification of several mutated genes encoding either proteins associated with microtubules (DCX, LIS1, KIF2A, KIF5C, DYNC1H1) or tubulin subunits (TUBA1A, TUBB2B, TUBB5 and TUBG1), in malformations of cortical development (MCD). We also reported the identification of missense mutations in TUBB3, the postmitotic neuronal specific tubulin, in six different families presenting either polymicrogyria or gyral disorganization in combination with cerebellar and basal ganglial abnormalities. Here, we investigate further the association between TUBB3 mutations and MCDs by analyzing the consequences of Tubb3 knockdown on cortical development in mice. Using the in utero-electroporation approach, we demonstrate that Tubb3 knockdown leads to delayed bipolar morphology and radial migration with evidence, suggesting that the neuronal arrest is a transient phenomenon overcome after birth. Silenced blocked cells display a round-shape and decreased number of processes and a delay in the acquisition of the bipolar morphology. Also, more Tbr2 positive cells are observed, although less cells express the proliferation marker Ki67, suggesting that Tubb3 inactivation might have an indirect effect on intermediate progenitor proliferation. Furthermore, we show by rescue experiments the non-<span class="hlt">interchangeability</span> of other beta-tubulins which are unable to rescue the phenotype. Our study highlights the critical and specific role of Tubb3 on the stereotyped morphological changes and polarization processes that are required for initiating radial migration to the cortical plate. PMID:24179174</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000038369','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000038369"><span id="translatedtitle">Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) Technical <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Meeting 2 (SERT TIM 2)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Howell, Joe; Sanders, Clark W.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The University of Alabama in Huntsville's (UAH) Propulsion Research Center hosted the Space Solar Power Exploratory Research & Technology (SERT) Technical <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Meeting TIM) 2 in Huntsville, Alabama December 7-10. 1999 with 126 people in attendance. The SERT program includes both competitively procured activities. which are being implemented through a portfolio of focused R&D investments--with the maximum leveraging of existing resources inside and outside NASA. and guided by these system studies. Axel Roth. Director of the Flight Projects Directorate NASA MSFC, welcomed the SERT TIM 2 participants and challenged them to develop the necessary technologies and demonstrations that will lead to Space Solar Power (SSP) International implementation. Joe Howell, NASA MSFC, reiterated the SERT TIM 2 objectives: 1) Refining and modeling systems approaches for the utilization of SSP concepts and technologies, ranging, from the near-term e.g. for space science, exploration and commercial space applications to the far-term (e. g. SSP for terrestrial markets), including systems concepts, technology, infrastructure (i.g., transportation), and economics. 2) Conducting technology research, development and demonstration activities to produce "proof- of-concept" validation of critical SSP elements for both the nearer and farther-term applications. 3) Initiating partnerships Nationality and Internationally that could be expanded, as appropriate, to pursue later SSP technology and applications (e.g., space science. colonization, etc.). Day one began with the NASA Centers presenting their SERT activities summary since SERT TIM 1 and wound up with a presentation by Masahiro Mori, NASDA titled "NASDA In-house Study for SSP". Demonstration for the Near-Term. Day two began with the SERT Systems Studies and Analysis reports resulting from NRA 8-23 followed by presentations of SERT Technology Demonstrations reports resulting from NRA 8-23. Day two closed with John Mankins presentation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMIN52B..07R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMIN52B..07R"><span id="translatedtitle">Geoscience terminology for data <span class="hlt">interchange</span>: the CGI Geoscience Terminology Work Group (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Richard, S. M.; Gtwg, G.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>. Petersburg, Russia in June, 2013. The group decided on workflow procedures and discussed technology for vocabulary accessibility, which is still a problem. Eleven new vocabularies were adopted to add to the current portfolio of 31 vocabularies developed for GeoSciML <span class="hlt">interchange</span> documents. Additional vocabularies are under development for GeoSciML v3, and EarthResourceML https://www.seegrid.csiro.au/wiki/CGIModel/EarthResourceML. Other outstanding work items include integrating multilingual geoscience terms developed by the MLT Working Group with existing CGI vocabularies to provide multilingual support, establishing existing vocabularies in a permanent repository under stewardship of the GTWG, and documenting policies for vocabulary management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=43825','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=43825"><span id="translatedtitle">Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus infection by agents that interfere with thiol-disulfide <span class="hlt">interchange</span> upon virus-receptor interaction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ryser, H J; Levy, E M; Mandel, R; DiSciullo, G J</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The cell surface of mammalian cells is capable of reductively cleaving disulfide bonds of exogenous membrane-bound macromolecules (for instance, the interchain disulfide of diphtheria toxin), and inhibiting this process with membrane-impermeant sulfhydryl reagents prevents diphtheria toxin cytotoxicity. More recently it was found that the same membrane function can be inhibited by bacitracin, an inhibitor of protein disulfide-isomerase (PDI), and by monoclonal antibodies against PDI, suggesting that PDI catalyzes a thiol-disulfide <span class="hlt">interchange</span> between its thiols and the disulfides of membrane-bound macromolecules. We provide evidence that the same reductive process plays a role in the penetration of membrane-bound human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and show that HIV infection of human lymphoid cells is markedly inhibited by the membrane-impermeant sulfhydryl blocker 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), by bacitracin, and by anti-PDI antibodies. The results imply that HIV and its target cell engage in a thiol-disulfide <span class="hlt">interchange</span> mediated by PDI and that the reduction of critical disulfides in viral envelope glycoproteins may be the initial event that triggers conformational changes required for HIV entry and cell infection. These findings suggest additional approaches to impede cell infection by HIV. PMID:8183947</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21769908','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21769908"><span id="translatedtitle">Reciprocation and <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of grooming, agonistic support, feeding tolerance, and aggression in semi-free-ranging Barbary macaques.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carne, Charlotte; Wiper, Sue; Semple, Stuart</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Evidence from a range of primate species indicates that grooming can be exchanged either for itself or for other rank-related "commodities," such as agonistic support, feeding tolerance, or reduced aggression. Patterns of exchange behavior have been found to vary considerably between species, and understanding the causes of this variation is central to the study of the evolution of primate social systems. It is, therefore, essential that exchange behavior is examined in a wide range of species and settings. This article is the first to explore the reciprocation and <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of grooming in the Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus). We collected focal data on semi-free-ranging adult female Barbary macaques at Trentham Monkey Forest, England, and analyzed dyadic data using Generalized Linear Mixed Models. We found evidence for the reciprocal exchange of grooming and for the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of grooming for agonistic support and tolerance while feeding. There was no evidence that grooming was traded for a reduction in aggression; indeed, we found a positive relationship between aggression given and grooming received. This may reflect the "extortion" of grooming from subordinates by dominant animals. These results will facilitate comparative analyses of exchange behavior by adding to the current database a new species, characterized by a different social style from those macaque species previously investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMSH31B..05R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMSH31B..05R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Reconnection and Slow Solar Wind Formation at the boundaries of open field regions in the Solar Corona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rappazzo, A. F.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Servidio, S.; Velli, M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Interchange</span> reconnection, i.e., magnetic reconnection at the interface between open and closed corona, is thought to contribute to the formation of the slowsolar wind, since it can inject the hotter and denserplasma from closed regions into the heliosphere,and account for the different slow wind composition (thatis similar to the plasma of closed regions) respectto the fast wind. The <span class="hlt">interchange</span> process has mostly been investigatedfor magnetic field lines with opposite polarity and null points, either for the case of counterdirected loops (e.g., Fisk et al. 1999, Fisk and Schwadron 2001), or in correspondence of null points at the apex of streamers or pseudo-streamers (e.g., Wang et al. 1998,Edmondson et al. 2010, Del Zanna et al. 2011).Magnetic reconnection can certainly occur in these configurations,but they occupy a very small volume of the corona. On the other hand component magnetic reconnection at the boundarybetween coronal holes and streamers or pseudo-streamers hasreceived less attention, even though it can occur aroundthe entire extension of such boundaries. Magnetic reconnection is at the basis of Parker'snanoflare scenario for the heating of coronal loops.Modeling such regions in cartesian geometry with a strongguide field, it has been shown numerically that photosphericmotions induce a magnetic fieldcomponent orthogonal to the strong axial field characterizedby the presence of many current sheets, where the field lines are locally oppositely directed, and can reconnect (Einaudi et al. 1996; Dmitruk and Gomez 1997).The reconnection of the orthogonal component of the magneticfield leads to a change of connectivity of the field linesof the total magnetic field that connect one photospheric boundaryto the other. We have shown that a similar <span class="hlt">interchange</span> mechanismcan operate in and around the boundaries between open and closedregions inducing a continual stochastic rearrangement of connectivityeverywhere along the open-closed boundary (Rappazzo et al. 2012</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/231389','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/231389"><span id="translatedtitle">Summary of geotechnical services for the proposed Route 24/580/980 <span class="hlt">interchange</span> improvement in Oakland, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tabatabaie, A.; Majchrzak, M.</p> <p>1996-02-01</p> <p>This report presents a summary of the geotechnical services in connection with the proposed Route 24/580/980 <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Improvement in Oakland, California. The purpose of the work was to provide drilling equipment and personnel to log test borings, collect soils samples, testing of excess soil cutting for environmental concerns and disposal of excess soils cutting. A field investigation was conducted from September 7 through September 26, 1995. The field work consisted of drilling 7 borings (B-1 through B-7) at the approximate locations shown on the Boring Location Map provided by CALTRANS. These borings extended to approximately 200 feet below the ground surface. This project is part of a CALTRANS earthquake retrofit project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhPl...23f2319G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhPl...23f2319G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of fast electrons on the stability of resistive <span class="hlt">interchange</span> modes in the TJ-II stellarator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>García, L.; Ochando, M. A.; Carreras, B. A.; Carralero, D.; Hidalgo, C.; van Milligen, B. Ph.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>In this paper, we report on electromagnetic phenomena in low-β plasmas at the TJ-II stellarator, controlled by external heating. To understand the observations qualitatively, we introduce a simple modification of the standard resistive MHD equations, to include the potential impact of fast electrons on instabilities. The dominant instabilities of the modeling regime are resistive <span class="hlt">interchange</span> modes, and calculations are performed in a configuration with similar characteristics as the TJ-II stellarator. The main effect of the trapping of fast electrons by magnetic islands induced by MHD instabilities is to increase the magnetic component of the fluctuations, changing the character of the instability to tearing-like and modifying the frequency of the modes. These effects seem to be consistent with some of the experimental observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JSPST..72..190U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JSPST..72..190U"><span id="translatedtitle">LUMIX DMC-G1 - New Pleasantness of the Camera with <span class="hlt">Interchangeable</span> Lenses That G1 Provides -</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ueda, Hiroshi; Hataji, Shinji; Morishita, Seiki; Inoue, Yoshiyuki</p> <p></p> <p>Panasonic introduced in October 2008 the "LUMIX DMC-G1", which is adopting the Micro Four Thirds standard. This camera was a hot topic from the time of the announcement in September and after the sales start it was highly evaluated not only due to its small size and light weight, but also due to the compact camera like easy operation realized by the mirror-less construction and due to the performance, which is on the same level like conventional consumer SLR cameras. Within this chapter we will explain about the technology behind the high-speed AF, which was seen as difficult to realize in a system based on Live View, and the high resolution Live View Finder, as well as about the new challenge of color variations, presented for the first time for an <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> lens camera.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRA..113.2106C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRA..113.2106C"><span id="translatedtitle">Residual strahls in solar wind electron dropouts: Signatures of magnetic connection to the Sun, disconnection, or <span class="hlt">interchange</span> reconnection?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crooker, N. U.; Pagel, C.</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>A recent assessment of suprathermal electron heat flux dropouts (HFDs) in the solar wind eliminated 90% as possible signatures of field lines disconnected from the Sun at both ends (Pagel et al., 2005b). The primary reason for elimination was the presence of a residual field-aligned strahl presumably signaling field lines connected to the Sun. Using high-time-resolution data from the Wind spacecraft, this paper tests whether the residual strahls were an artifact of averaging over pitch angle distributions (PADs) with and without strahls. An automated search for PADs without strahls (flat PADs) yields an occurrence rate of only 14% within HFDs, but a detailed case study shows that these flat PADs are imbedded within intervals of nearly flat PADs, that is, PADS with residual strahls that cannot be artifacts of averaging. An attractive alternative is that the residual strahls result from intermixing of originally back-scattered fluxes (haloes) of unequal intensities on field lines that have either disconnected or <span class="hlt">interchange</span> reconnected at the Sun. A reevaluation of reported streaming of higher-energy electrons in HFDs suggests a similar cause. While the high-time-resolution data show high variability of PAD profiles within HFDs, this paper reopens the possibility that a substantial fraction signal disconnection or <span class="hlt">interchange</span> reconnection. Estimated occurrence rates of fields having undergone these processes based upon published HFD rates are of the same order of magnitude as the surprisingly low values of ~1-5% recently predicted by a model of a balanced heliospheric flux budget (Owens and Crooker, 2007).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100015558&hterms=residual+value&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dresidual%2Bvalue','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100015558&hterms=residual+value&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dresidual%2Bvalue"><span id="translatedtitle">Residual Strahls in Solar Wind Electron Dropouts: Signatures of Magnetic Connection to the Sun, Disconnection, or <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Reconnection?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Crooker, N. U.; Pagel, C.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A recent assessment of suprathermal electron heat flux dropouts (HFDs) in the solar wind eliminated 90% as possible signatures of field lines disconnected from the Sun at both ends (Pagel et al., 2005b). The primary reason for elimination was the presence of a residual field-aligned strahl presumably signaling field lines connected to the Sun. Using high-time-resolution data from the Wind spacecraft, this paper tests whether the residual strahls were an artifact of averaging over pitch angle distributions (PADs) with and without strahls. An automated search for PADs without strahls (flat PADs) yields an occurrence rate of only 14% within HFDs, but a detailed case study shows that these flat PADs are imbedded within intervals of nearly flat PADs, that is, PADS with residual strahls that cannot be artifacts of averaging. An attractive alternative is that the residual strahls result from intermixing of originally back-scattered fluxes (haloes) of unequal intensities on field lines that have either disconnected or <span class="hlt">interchange</span> reconnected at the Sun. A reevaluation of reported streaming of higher-energy electrons in HFDs suggests a similar cause. While the high-time-resolution data show high variability of PAD profiles within HFDs, this paper reopens the possibility that a substantial fraction signal disconnection or <span class="hlt">interchange</span> reconnection. Estimated occurrence rates of fields having undergone these processes based upon published HFD rates are of the same order of magnitude as the surprisingly low values of 1-5% recently predicted by a model of a balanced heliospheric flux budget (Owens and Crooker, 2007).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ClinicalTrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01972802','CLINICALTRIALS'); return false;" href="https://ClinicalTrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01972802"><span id="translatedtitle">International Cancer of the Head and Neck, Genetics and Environment (<span class="hlt">InterCHANGE</span>) Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/screen/SimpleSearch">ClinicalTrials.gov</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-29</p> <p>Evaluate the Association Between Certain Environmental Exposures (e.g. Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Drinking, Betel Nut Chewing…) and Head and Neck Cancers; Assess the Effect of Genetic <span class="hlt">Factors</span>, Including Both SNP and Copy Number Variation (CNV) Through Analysis of Both Main Effect and Gene-gene Interaction</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=space+AND+program&pg=6&id=EJ1078879','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=space+AND+program&pg=6&id=EJ1078879"><span id="translatedtitle">Teacher Mobility and Transnational, "British World" Space: The League of the Empire's "<span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of Home and Dominion Teachers", 1907-1931</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Crutchley, Jody</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This article explores the experiences of teachers who participated in the League of the Empire's "<span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of Home and Dominion Teachers" scheme through a tripartite approach to "British World" space. First, it identifies the mechanisms through which exchanges were established. It analyses the patterns of teacher mobility…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23763238','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23763238"><span id="translatedtitle">Supportive <span class="hlt">interchanges</span> and face-work as 'protective talk' in an online self-harm support forum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sharkey, Siobhan; Smithson, Janet; Hewis, Elaine; Jones, Ray; Emmens, Tobit; Ford, Tamsin; Owens, Christabel</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Within a context of concern about inappropriate advice-giving online, we examined how young people who self-harm behave online, and how professionals might engage with them. We use Discourse Analysis to focus on participant interactions (posts)from a forum's crisis/support rooms, and highlight the prevalence of disclaimers, hedges, questions and tags in the young people's online interactions. We use the concept of face-work as a framework to help understand interactions in the forum SharpTalk. The findings demonstrate the use of a range of mitigation devices, and suggest that the young people orientate to a 'protective' line in their supportive interactions. These findings echo Goffman's (1967) 'supportive <span class="hlt">interchanges</span>' in that the young people's online interactions may help to preserve face, in an emotionally complex setting, whose vulnerable members also need 'protective'and sensitive support. Taking this 'line' may enable members to create a more open and trusting context for support, and to remain in a forum which they find both helpful and challenging. In light of concerns about online support, the findings provide a new perspective on online peer-support for young people who self-harm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSM41J..04H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSM41J..04H"><span id="translatedtitle">Plasma Transport in Saturn's Inner Magnetosphere: Transition from Small-scale to Large-scale <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Convection Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hill, T. W.; Jaggi, A.; Sazykin, S. Y.; Wolf, R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Rice Convection Model simulations of plasma transport in Saturn's inner magnetosphere (2 < L < 12) with an imposed source of cool plasma distributed in the range 5 < L < 10 typically exhibit a chaotic <span class="hlt">interchange</span> convection pattern with narrow outflow channels of cool dense plasma interspersed with even narrower inflow channels of hot tenuous plasma from the outer magnetosphere. We have now extended these simulations to a larger range of L (2 < L < 20) and to much longer simulation times, T ~ 1000 hours ~ 20 circulation time scales. At times greater than a few circulation time scales the simulations reveal a new type of behavior in the outer region, with many narrow fingers coalescing to form fewer but broader outflow fingers. The Fourier spectrum of the azimuthal convection structure, initially dominated by azimuthal wavenumbers m ~ 20 - 40, becomes dominated instead by wavenumbers m ~ 1. Work is in progress to understand this behavior at an analytical level, and to investigate its possible role in producing spin-periodic phenomena in Saturn's otherwise symmetric magnetosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1983/0878b/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1983/0878b/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A U.S. Geological Survey Data Standard (Specifications for representation of geographic point locations for information <span class="hlt">interchange</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>,</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>This standard establishes uniform formats for geographic point location data. Geographic point location refers to the use of a coordinate system to define the position of a point that may be on, above, or below the Earth's surface. It provides a means for representing these data in digital form for the purpose of <span class="hlt">interchanging</span> information among data systems and improving clarity and accuracy of interpersonal communications. This document is an expansion and clarification of National Bureau of Standards FIPS PUB 70, issued October 24, 1980. There are minor editorial changes, plus the following additions and modifications: (I) The representation of latitude and longitude using radian measure was added. (2) Alternate 2 for Representation of Hemispheric Information was deleted. (3) Use of the maximum precision for all numerical values was emphasized. The Alternate Representation of Precision was deleted. (4) The length of the zone representation for the State Plane Coordinate System was standardized. (5) The term altitude was substituted for elevation throughout to conform with international usage. (6) Section 3, Specifications for Altitude Data, was expanded and upgraded significantly to the same level of detail as for the horizontal values. (7) A table delineating the coverage of Universal Transverse Mercator zones and the longitudes of the Central Meridians was added and the other tables renumbered. (8) The total length of the representation of point location data at maximum precision was standardized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21747299','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21747299"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">interchangeability</span> of global positioning system and semiautomated video-based performance data during elite soccer match play.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harley, Jamie A; Lovell, Ric J; Barnes, Christopher A; Portas, Matthew D; Weston, Matthew</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>In elite-level soccer, player motion characteristics are commonly generated from match play and training situations using semiautomated video analysis systems and global positioning system (GPS) technology, respectively. Before such data are used collectively to quantify global player load, it is necessary to understand both the level of agreement and direction of bias between the systems so that specific interventions can be made based on the reported results. The aim of this report was to compare data derived from both systems for physical match performances. Six elite-level soccer players were analyzed during a competitive match using semiautomated video analysis (ProZone® [PZ]) and GPS (MinimaxX) simultaneously. Total distances (TDs), high speed running (HSR), very high speed running (VHSR), sprinting distance (SPR), and high-intensity running distance (HIR; >4.0 m·s(-1)) were reported in 15-minute match periods. The GPS reported higher values than PZ did for TD (GPS: 1,755.4 ± 245.4 m; PZ: 1,631.3 ± 239.5 m; p < 0.05); PZ reported higher values for SPR and HIR than GPS did (SPR: PZ, 34.1 ± 24.0 m; GPS: 20.3 ± 15.8 m; HIR: PZ, 368.1 ± 129.8 m; GPS: 317.0 ± 92.5 m; p < 0.05). Caution should be exercised when using match-load (PZ) and training-load (GPS) data <span class="hlt">interchangeably</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4283609','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4283609"><span id="translatedtitle">Neotropical mammal diversity and the Great American Biotic <span class="hlt">Interchange</span>: spatial and temporal variation in South America's fossil record</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Carrillo, Juan D.; Forasiepi, Analía; Jaramillo, Carlos; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The vast mammal diversity of the Neotropics is the result of a long evolutionary history. During most of the Cenozoic, South America was an island continent with an endemic mammalian fauna. This isolation ceased during the late Neogene after the formation of the Isthmus of Panama, resulting in an event known as the Great American Biotic <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> (GABI). In this study, we investigate biogeographic patterns in South America, just before or when the first immigrants are recorded and we review the temporal and geographical distribution of fossil mammals during the GABI. We performed a dissimilarity analysis which grouped the faunal assemblages according to their age and their geographic distribution. Our data support the differentiation between tropical and temperate assemblages in South America during the middle and late Miocene. The GABI begins during the late Miocene (~10–7 Ma) and the putative oldest migrations are recorded in the temperate region, where the number of GABI participants rapidly increases after ~5 Ma and this trend continues during the Pleistocene. A sampling bias toward higher latitudes and younger records challenges the study of the temporal and geographic patterns of the GABI. PMID:25601879</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/78-1029/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/78-1029/"><span id="translatedtitle">Quality of the water in Borrow Ponds near a major highway <span class="hlt">interchange</span>, Dade County, Florida, October-November 1977</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Beaven, T.R.; McPherson, Benjamin F.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Water, bottom sediment, and aquatic plants were sampled from ponds near a major south Florida highway <span class="hlt">interchange</span> to document concentrations of selected constituents in an aquatic environment near heavy vehicular traffic. Generally, concentrations of constituents were within the range expected in an uncontaminated environment in south Florida. However, concentrations did exceed south Florida background levels or Environmental Protection Agency criteria in a few cases. Two trace elements--chromium (20 micrograms per liter) in ponded surface water and lead (500 micrograms per gram) in bottom sediment--exceeded background levels. Concentrations of dieldrin (22 micrograms per kilogram) and polychlorinated biphenyls (53 micrograms per kilogram) also exceed background levels in bottom sediment. The concentration of phenol (23 micrograms per liter) in ground water exceeded Environmental Protection Agency quality criteria by 22 micrograms per liter, but was within the background range for south Florida. Ten metals were detected in the cattail or algal samples, but only iron, manganese, and zinc were in higher concentrations than those in the bottom sediment. (Woodard-USGS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PhDT.......114M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PhDT.......114M"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermoset recycling via high-pressure high-temperature sintering: Revisiting the effect of <span class="hlt">interchange</span> chemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morin, Jeremy Edward</p> <p></p> <p> and between particles. The technique of high-pressure high-temperature sintering has worked on all types of thermoset materials. Typical mechanical properties for sintered SBR powder rubber are as follows: 1.3 MPa 100% Modulus, 12.0 MPa Tensile Strength and 300% Elongation at Break. The goal of this research is two-fold. First, to gain an understanding of the variables that control the process of high-pressure high-temperature sintering. Second, to study the <span class="hlt">factors</span> governing the mechanism of fusion with the hope of controlling and exploiting this process so that tires can be recycled to produce high quality and high-value added products.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NucFu..56a6002D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NucFu..56a6002D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Resistive <span class="hlt">interchange</span> mode destabilized by helically trapped energetic ions and its effects on energetic ions and bulk plasma in a helical plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Du, X. D.; Toi, K.; Ohdachi, S.; Osakabe, M.; Ido, T.; Tanaka, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshinuma, M.; Ogawa, K.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Akiyama, T.; Isobe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Ozaki, T.; Sakakibara, S.; Seki, R.; Shimizu, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Tsuchiya, H.; the LHD Experiment Group</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A resistive <span class="hlt">interchange</span> mode of the m=1/n=1 structure (m , n : poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively) with a bursting character and rapid frequency chirping in the range less than 10 kHz is observed for the first time in the edge region of the net current-free, low beta LHD (Large Helical Device) plasmas during high power injection of perpendicular neutral beams. The mode resonates with the precession motion of helically trapped energetic ions (EPs), following the resonant condition. The radial mode structure is recognized to be similar to that of the pressure-driven resistive <span class="hlt">interchange</span> mode, of which radial displacement eigenfunction quite localizes around the mode rational surface, and evolves into an odd-type (or island-type) during the late of frequency chirping phase. This beam driven mode is excited when the beta value of helically trapped EPs exceeds a certain threshold. This instability is thought to be a new branch of resistive <span class="hlt">interchange</span> mode destabilized by the trapped energetic ions. The radial transport, i.e. redistribution and losses, of helically trapped energetic ions induced by the mode transiently generates significant radial electric field near the plasma peripheral region. The large shear of thus generated radial electric field is thought to contribute to the observed suppression of micro-turbulence and transient increases of the temperature of fully ionized carbon impurity ions and electron density, suggesting improvement of bulk plasma confinement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10165333','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10165333"><span id="translatedtitle">Ground-motion variability resulting from the January 17, 1994, M = 6.6 Northridge earthquake at the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> between highways 14 and I-5 in the northern San Fernando Valley</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hutchings, L.; Jarpe, S.; Kasameyer, P.; McCallen, D.; Heuze, F.; Lewis, P.; Cullen, J.</p> <p>1994-02-04</p> <p>Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory responded to the 17 January 1994, Northridge earthquake by sending an information gathering team to observe and study the collapse of the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> between highways 14 and I-5 in the northern San Fernando Valley. This field team examined the structural failure at the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> and the surface soil conditions, and they installed high-grain RefTek seismic recorders to record aftershocks. We recorded aftershocks for two weeks. Analyses of aftershock recordings in this report illustrate the degree of differential support motion for this site, and the higher than expected ground motion from an earthquake of this size and distance. We used the aftershock recordings of small earthquakes as empirical Green`s functions and synthesized strong ground motion at three sites in the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> area. Results presented here are based on an assumption that the geology of the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> area remained linear in its response to the main event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Converter&pg=5&id=EJ505473','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Converter&pg=5&id=EJ505473"><span id="translatedtitle">Hypertext <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Using ICA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rada, Roy; And Others</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Discusses extended ICA (Integrated Chameleon Architecture), a public domain toolset for generating text-to-hypertext translators. A system called SGML-MUCH has been developed using E-ICA (Extended Integrated Chameleon Architecture) and is presented as a case study with converters for the hypertext systems MUCH, Guide, Hyperties, and Toolbook.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940032342&hterms=full-text&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dfull-text','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940032342&hterms=full-text&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dfull-text"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic document <span class="hlt">interchange</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Erwin, Jim</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The operational impact of various storage formats related to electronic publishing of documents in the NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program is discussed. Questions are raised about the development of full text, surrogate, and hybrid storage formats. It appears that the eventual configuration will contain a mix of storage formats based on user demand.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3022606','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3022606"><span id="translatedtitle">Low endemism, continued deep-shallow <span class="hlt">interchanges</span>, and evidence for cosmopolitan distributions in free-living marine nematodes (order Enoplida)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background Nematodes represent the most abundant benthic metazoa in one of the largest habitats on earth, the deep sea. Characterizing major patterns of biodiversity within this dominant group is a critical step towards understanding evolutionary patterns across this vast ecosystem. The present study has aimed to place deep-sea nematode species into a phylogenetic framework, investigate relationships between shallow water and deep-sea taxa, and elucidate phylogeographic patterns amongst the deep-sea fauna. Results Molecular data (18 S and 28 S rRNA) confirms a high diversity amongst deep-sea Enoplids. There is no evidence for endemic deep-sea lineages in Maximum Likelihood or Bayesian phylogenies, and Enoplids do not cluster according to depth or geographic location. Tree topologies suggest frequent <span class="hlt">interchanges</span> between deep-sea and shallow water habitats, as well as a mixture of early radiations and more recently derived lineages amongst deep-sea taxa. This study also provides convincing evidence of cosmopolitan marine species, recovering a subset of Oncholaimid nematodes with identical gene sequences (18 S, 28 S and cox1) at trans-Atlantic sample sites. Conclusions The complex clade structures recovered within the Enoplida support a high global species richness for marine nematodes, with phylogeographic patterns suggesting the existence of closely related, globally distributed species complexes in the deep sea. True cosmopolitan species may additionally exist within this group, potentially driven by specific life history traits of Enoplids. Although this investigation aimed to intensively sample nematodes from the order Enoplida, specimens were only identified down to genus (at best) and our sampling regime focused on an infinitesimal small fraction of the deep-sea floor. Future nematode studies should incorporate an extended sample set covering a wide depth range (shelf, bathyal, and abyssal sites), utilize additional genetic loci (e.g. mtDNA) that are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23837645','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23837645"><span id="translatedtitle">Unimolecular isomerization of CH2FCD2Cl via the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of Cl and F atoms: assignment of the threshold energy to the 1,2-dyotropic rearrangement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tucker, Mary K; Rossabi, Samuel M; McClintock, Corey E; Heard, George L; Setser, D W; Holmes, Bert E</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>The room-temperature gas-phase recombination of CH2F and CD2Cl radicals was used to prepare CH2FCD2Cl molecules with 91 kcal mol(-1) of vibrational energy. Three unimolecular processes are in competition with collisional deactivation of CH2FCD2Cl; HCl and DF elimination to give CHF═CD2 and CH2═CDCl plus isomerization to give CH2ClCD2F by the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of F and Cl atoms. The Cl/F <span class="hlt">interchange</span> reaction was observed, and the rate constant was assigned from measurement of CHCl═CD2 as a product, which is formed by HF elimination from CH2ClCD2F. These experiments plus previously published results from chemically activated CH2ClCH2F and electronic structure and RRKM calculations for the kinetic-isotope effects permit assignment of the three rate constants for CH2FCD2Cl (and for CH2ClCD2F). The product branching ratio for the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> reaction versus elimination is 0.24 ± 0.04. Comparison of the experimental rate constant with the RRKM calculated rate constant permitted the assignment of a threshold energy of 62 ± 3 kcal mol(-1) for this type-1 dyotropic rearrangement. On the basis of electronic structure calculations, the nature of the transition state for the rearrangement reaction is discussed. The radical recombination reactions in the chemical system also generate vibrationally excited CD2ClCD2Cl and CH2FCH2F molecules, and the rate constants for DCl and HF elimination were measured in order to confirm that the photolysis of CD2ClI and (CH2F)2CO mixtures was giving reliable data for CH2FCD2Cl. PMID:23837645</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/698728','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/698728"><span id="translatedtitle">Differentiation and <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of harlequin duck populations within the North Pacific. Restoration project 97161: Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project -- Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Goatcher, B.; Zwiefelhofer, D.; Lanctot, R.; Talbot, S.; Pierson, B.</p> <p>1999-04-01</p> <p>Concerns about constraints to harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) population recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill led biologists to ask whether birds in different molting and wintering areas belong to genetically distinct and, thus, demographically independent population segments. Genetic markers, which differed in mode of inheritance (two sex-linked Z-specific microsatellite loci, four biparentally inherited microsatellite loci and maternally inherited mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid sequences), were used to evaluate the degree of genetic differentiation among wintering areas within Prince William Sound, Alaska Peninsula (Katmai National Park) and Kodiak Archipelago (Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge). The authors also used colored leg bands to detect population <span class="hlt">interchange</span> within and among these regions. The authors` genetic results show that differences in genotype frequencies among wintering locations within Alaska were low and non-significant for all three classes of markers. An analysis of genetic samples collected throughout the West Coast of North America revealed significant structuring at larger geographic scales. No <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of banded birds was observed among regions and movements within regions were uncommon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4672245','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4672245"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchangeability</span> of Electrocardiography and Blood Pressure Measurement for Determining Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability in Free-Moving Domestic Pigs in Various Behavioral Contexts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Krause, Annika; Tuchscherer, Armin; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study assessed the <span class="hlt">interchangeability</span> between heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) measures derived from a series of interbeat intervals (IBIs) recorded via electrocardiogram (ECG) and intra-arterial blood pressure (BP) in various behavioral contexts. Five minutes of simultaneously recorded IBIs from ECG and BP signals in 11 female domestic pigs during resting, feeding, and active behavior were analyzed. Comparisons were made for measures of HR, the standard deviation of IBIs, and the root mean of the squared distances of subsequent IBIs derived from ECG and BP signals for each behavior category using statistical procedures with different explanatory power [linear regression, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Bland and Altman plots, and analysis of variance (ANOVA)]. Linear regression showed a strong relationship for HR during all behaviors and for HRV during resting. Excellent ICCs [lower 95% confidence intervals (CI) >0.75] and narrow limits of agreement in all behavior categories were found for HR. ICCs for HRV reached the critical lower 95% CI value of 0.75 only during resting. Using Bland and Altman plots, HRV agreement was unacceptable for all of the behavior categories. ANOVA showed significant differences between the methods in terms of HRV. BP systematically overestimated HRV compared with ECG. Our findings reveal that HR data recorded via BP agree well those recorded using ECG independently of the activity of the subject, whereas ECG and BP cannot be used <span class="hlt">interchangeably</span> in the context of HRV in free-moving domestic pigs. PMID:26664979</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16429961','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16429961"><span id="translatedtitle">Data <span class="hlt">interchange</span> standards in healthcare IT--computable semantic interoperability: now possible but still difficult, do we really need a better mousetrap?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mead, Charles N</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The following article on HL7 Version 3 will give readers a glimpse into the significant differences between "what came before"--that is, HL7 Version 2.x--and "what today and the future will bring," which is the HL7 Version 3 family of data <span class="hlt">interchange</span> specifications. The difference between V2.x and V3 is significant, and it exists because the various stakeholders in the HL7 development process believe that the increased depth, breadth, and, to some degree, complexity that characterize V3 are necessary to solve many of today's and tomorrow's increasingly wide, deep and complex healthcare information data <span class="hlt">interchange</span> requirements. Like many healthcare or technology discussions, this discussion has its own vocabulary of somewhat obscure, but not difficult, terms. This article will define the minimum set that is necessary for readers to appreciate the relevance and capabilities of HL7 Version 3, including how it is different than HL7 Version 2. After that, there will be a brief overview of the primary motivations for HL7 Version 3 in the presence of the unequivocal success of Version 2. In this context, the article will give readers an overview of one of the prime constructs of Version 3, the Reference Information Model (RIM). There are 'four pillars that are necessary but not sufficient to obtain computable semantic interoperability." These four pillars--a cross-domain information model; a robust data type specification; a methodology for separating domain-specific terms from, as well as binding them to, the common model; and a top-down <span class="hlt">interchange</span> specification methodology and tools for using 1, 2, 3 and defining Version 3 specification--collectively comprise the "HL7 Version 3 Toolkit." Further, this article will present a list of questions and answers to help readers assess the scope and complexity of the problems facing healthcare IT today, and which will further enlighten readers on the "reality" of HL7 Version 3. The article will conclude with a "pseudo</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16429961','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16429961"><span id="translatedtitle">Data <span class="hlt">interchange</span> standards in healthcare IT--computable semantic interoperability: now possible but still difficult, do we really need a better mousetrap?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mead, Charles N</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The following article on HL7 Version 3 will give readers a glimpse into the significant differences between "what came before"--that is, HL7 Version 2.x--and "what today and the future will bring," which is the HL7 Version 3 family of data <span class="hlt">interchange</span> specifications. The difference between V2.x and V3 is significant, and it exists because the various stakeholders in the HL7 development process believe that the increased depth, breadth, and, to some degree, complexity that characterize V3 are necessary to solve many of today's and tomorrow's increasingly wide, deep and complex healthcare information data <span class="hlt">interchange</span> requirements. Like many healthcare or technology discussions, this discussion has its own vocabulary of somewhat obscure, but not difficult, terms. This article will define the minimum set that is necessary for readers to appreciate the relevance and capabilities of HL7 Version 3, including how it is different than HL7 Version 2. After that, there will be a brief overview of the primary motivations for HL7 Version 3 in the presence of the unequivocal success of Version 2. In this context, the article will give readers an overview of one of the prime constructs of Version 3, the Reference Information Model (RIM). There are 'four pillars that are necessary but not sufficient to obtain computable semantic interoperability." These four pillars--a cross-domain information model; a robust data type specification; a methodology for separating domain-specific terms from, as well as binding them to, the common model; and a top-down <span class="hlt">interchange</span> specification methodology and tools for using 1, 2, 3 and defining Version 3 specification--collectively comprise the "HL7 Version 3 Toolkit." Further, this article will present a list of questions and answers to help readers assess the scope and complexity of the problems facing healthcare IT today, and which will further enlighten readers on the "reality" of HL7 Version 3. The article will conclude with a "pseudo</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12359518','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12359518"><span id="translatedtitle">Biosynthetic studies on the tropane alkaloid hyoscyamine in Datura stramonium; hyoscyamine is stable to in vivo oxidation and is not derived from littorine via a vicinal <span class="hlt">interchange</span> process.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Patterson, Stephen; O'Hagan, David</p> <p>2002-10-01</p> <p>The conversion of littorine to hyoscyamine has been investigated by feeding deuterium labelled (RS)-[2-(2)H]-, [3, 3-(2)H(2)]-, [2, 3, 3-(2)H(3)]- phenyllactic acids to transformed root cultures of Datura stramonium. Isolation and GC-MS analyses of the isotope incorporation into the resultant hyoscyamine does not support the involvement of a vicinal <span class="hlt">interchange</span> process operating during the isomerisation of littorine to hyoscyamine. Additionally a metabolism study with [1'-13C, 3', 3'-(2)H(2)]-hyoscyamine has established that the alkaloid is metabolically stable at C-3' with no evidence for a reversible in vivo oxidation process to the corresponding aldehyde. The data do not support an S-adenosy-L-methionine (SAM 5)/co-enzyme-B(12) mediated process for the isomerisation of littorine to hyoscyamine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1215517','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1215517"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical Study of Velocity Shear Stabilization of 3D and Theoretical Considerations for Centrifugally Confined Plasmas and Other <span class="hlt">Interchange</span>-Limited Fusion Concepts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hassam, Adil</p> <p>2015-09-21</p> <p>We studied the feasibility of resonantly driving GAMs in tokamaks. A numerical simulation was carried out and showed the essential features and limitations. It was shown further that GAMs can damp by phase-mixing, from temperature gradients, or nonlinear detuning, thus broadening the resonance. Experimental implications of this were quantified. Theoretical support was provided for the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment, funded in a separate grant by DOE. Plasma diamagnetism from supersonic rotation was established. A theoretical model was built to match the data. Additional support to the experiment in terms of numerical simulation of the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> turbulence was provided. Spectra from residual turbulence on account of velocity shear suppression were obtained and compared favorably to experiment. A new drift wave, driven solely by the thermal force, was identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/321401','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/321401"><span id="translatedtitle">Selected heavy metals and other constituents in soil and stormwater runoff at the Interstate 95 <span class="hlt">interchange</span> near Atlee, Virginia, April 1993--May 1997</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Speiran, G.K.</p> <p>1998-12-31</p> <p>Concentrations of the heavy metals copper, lead, and zinc, and other constituents, were measured in soil and runoff before and after construction of a stormwater detention basin at the Interstate 95-State Route 656 <span class="hlt">interchange</span> near Atlee, VA, from April 1993 through May 1997. The spatial and vertical distribution of heavy metals in soil indicate that the paved traffic lanes of the interstate highway are a source of the metals. Concentrations of the metals in soil decrease with increasing soil depth below the ground surface and with increasing distance from the highway lanes. Of the three metals for which samples were analyzed, lead was generally present at the greatest concentration, and copper was at the lowest concentration in the soil.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JEI....22a3017J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JEI....22a3017J"><span id="translatedtitle">Image encryption schemes for joint photographic experts group and graphics <span class="hlt">interchange</span> format formats based on three-dimensional baker with compound chaotic sequence generator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ji, Shiyu; Tong, Xiaojun; Zhang, Miao</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We propose several methods to transplant the compound chaotic image encryption scheme with permutation based on three-dimensional (3-D) baker onto image formats such as the joint photographic experts group (JPEG) and graphics <span class="hlt">interchange</span> format (GIF). The new methods avert the discrete cosine transform and quantization, which result in floating point precision loss, and succeed to encrypt and decrypt JPEG images lossless. The ciphered JPEG images generated by our solution own much better randomness than most other existing schemes. Our proposed method for GIF keeps the property of animation successfully. The security test results indicate the proposed methods have high security, and the speed of our algorithm is faster than classical solutions. Since JPEG and GIF image formats are popular contemporarily, we show that the prospect of chaotic image encryption is promising.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SPIE.2435..394K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SPIE.2435..394K"><span id="translatedtitle">Utilizing the Signal <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Format (SIGIF) standard to interface a Signal Archive and Communications System (SACS) with a Picture Archive and Communications System (PACS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Keyes, John A.; Bretz, James F.</p> <p>1995-05-01</p> <p>Looking to the medical environment of the 21st Century, this paper describes the use of the signal <span class="hlt">interchange</span> format (SIGIF) standard to integrate the data collected by biological signal monitoring systems with systems from other parts of a hospital or research facility. This paper covers three parts of this process. The first is the signal archive and communications system (SACS) which collects the data directly from a patient, the second part covers the signal <span class="hlt">interchange</span> format standard which is used to communicate data from the SACS to a picture archive and communications system (PACS), and the last part covers the changes to a PACS. The concept of a signal archive and communications system was presented at the 1993 IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Conference as part of a paper by Joao Paulo Cunha. This paper attempts to define a specific architecture for a SACS and describe changes to published descriptions of a PACS required to complete the PACS/SACS interface. For over 15 years the use of computerized signal collections systems have been commonly accepted as part of hospital and research environments. Each manufacture has devised a unique, and usually proprietary, method of storing that information. During that time, very little has been done to provide a common standard so this information could be communicated to another computer. This has resulted in millions of miles of hard copy printouts being stored in patient records. The radiology departments have had the same problem; however, they solved the problem with the ACR/NEMA DICOM standard. The SIGIF standard is being presented as an equivalent standard to solve the communications problem for biological signal data. This paper presents a new step in the integration of bio-signal collection systems with other hospital data processing systems. The concept being presented for the first time in this paper is to convent signal information into the DICOM image format. Each pixel of the image will</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21244059','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21244059"><span id="translatedtitle">Unimolecular reactions in the CF3CH2Cl ↔ CF2ClCH2F system: isomerization by <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of Cl and F atoms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Enstice, Erin C; Duncan, Juliana R; Setser, D W; Holmes, Bert E</p> <p>2011-02-17</p> <p>The recombination of CF(2)Cl and CH(2)F radicals was used to prepare CF(2)ClCH(2)F* molecules with 93 ± 2 kcal mol(-1) of vibrational energy in a room temperature bath gas. The observed unimolecular reactions in order of relative importance were: (1) 1,2-ClH elimination to give CF(2)═CHF, (2) isomerization to CF(3)CH(2)Cl by the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of F and Cl atoms and (3) 1,2-FH elimination to give E- and Z-CFCl═CHF. Since the isomerization reaction is 12 kcal mol(-1) exothermic, the CF(3)CH(2)Cl* molecules have 105 kcal mol(-1) of internal energy and they can eliminate HF to give CF(2)═CHCl, decompose by rupture of the C-Cl bond, or isomerize back to CF(2)ClCH(2)F. These data, which provide experimental rate constants, are combined with previously published results for chemically activated CF(3)CH(2)Cl* formed by the recombination of CF(3) and CH(2)Cl radicals to provide a comprehensive view of the CF(3)CH(2)Cl* ↔ CF(2)ClCH(2)F* unimolecular reaction system. The experimental rate constants are matched to calculated statistical rate constants to assign threshold energies for the observed reactions. The models for the molecules and transition states needed for the rate constant calculations were obtained from electronic structures calculated from density functional theory. The previously proposed explanation for the formation of CF(2)═CHF in thermal and infrared multiphoton excitation studies of CF(3)CH(2)Cl, which was 2,2-HCl elimination from CF(3)CH(2)Cl followed by migration of the F atom in CF(3)CH, should be replaced by the Cl/F <span class="hlt">interchange</span> reaction followed by a conventional 1,2-ClH elimination from CF(2)ClCH(2)F. The unimolecular reactions are augmented by free-radical chemistry initiated by reactions of Cl and F atoms in the thermal decomposition of CF(3)CH(2)Cl and CF(2)ClCH(2)F. PMID:21244059</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/967719','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/967719"><span id="translatedtitle">NEW GUN CAPABILITY WITH <span class="hlt">INTERCHANGABLE</span> BARRELS TO INVESTIGATE LOW VELOCITY IMPACT REGIMES AT THE LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY HIGH EXPLOSIVES APPLICATIONS FACILITY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vandersall, K S; Behn, A; Gresshoff, M; Jr., L F; Chiao, P I</p> <p>2009-09-16</p> <p>A new gas gun capability is being activated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories located in the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF). The single stage light gas (dry air, nitrogen, or helium) gun has <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> barrels ranging from 25.4 mm to 76.2 mm in diameter with 1.8 meters in length and is being fabricated by Physics Applications, Inc. Because it is being used for safety studies involving explosives, the gun is planned for operation inside a large enclosed firing tank, with typical velocities planned in the range of 10-300 m/s. Three applications planned for this gun include: low velocity impact of detonator or detonator/booster assemblies with various projectile shapes, the Steven Impact test that involves impact initiation of a cased explosive target, and the Taylor impact test using a cylindrical explosive sample impacted onto a rigid anvil for fracture studies of energetic materials. A highlight of the gun features, outline on work in progress for implementing this capability, and discussion of the planned areas of research will be included.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JSAES..23....1R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JSAES..23....1R"><span id="translatedtitle">Biochronology and biostratigraphy of the Uquía Formation (Pliocene early Pleistocene, NW Argentina) and its significance in the Great American Biotic <span class="hlt">Interchange</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reguero, M. A.; Candela, A. M.; Alonso, R. N.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The Uquía Formation crops out in the Quebrada de Humahuaca in Jujuy province, Eastern Cordillera, NW Argentina. This unit is composed of a sequence of fluviatile sediments and water-laid air-fall tuff beds; it is approximately 260 m thick and unconformably overlain by Pleistocene conglomerates and Quaternary alluvium. The sediments have been folded into a syncline and broken by several faults that generally trend northwest-southeast. Following Castellanos stratigraphy, we characterize three units (Lower, Middle, and Upper) of the Uquía Formation. Biochronologically, the Lower Unit is assigned to the late Chapadmalalan, the Middle Unit ("Uquian fauna") to the late Vorohuean and Sanandresian, and the Upper Unit to the Ensenadan. Biostratigraphic evidence provides a calibration of important biochronologic events in the Great American Biotic <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> (GABI), namely, the first appearances of Erethizon, Hippidion, and proboscideans at 2.5 Ma (late Pliocene) in South America. Geological and paleobiological evidence suggest that during the late Pliocene, the area could have been a wide intermountain valley at 1400-1700 m elevation, with a more humid environment than that of the present day and some wet-dry seasonality that permitted the coexistence of forest and open areas. Uquian mammals also indicate that northwestern Argentina and the Pampean region have represented distinct biogeographical areas since at least the late Pliocene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1800681','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1800681"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchangeable</span> but Essential Functions of SNX1 and SNX2 in the Association of Retromer with Endosomes and the Trafficking of Mannose 6-Phosphate Receptors▿ †</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rojas, Raul; Kametaka, Satoshi; Haft, Carol R.; Bonifacino, Juan S.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The retromer is a cytosolic/peripheral membrane protein complex that mediates the retrieval of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in mammalian cells. Previous studies showed that the mammalian retromer comprises three proteins, named Vps26, Vps29, and Vps35, plus the sorting nexin, SNX1. There is conflicting evidence, however, as to whether a homologous sorting nexin, SNX2, is truly a component of the retromer. In addition, the nature of the subunit interactions and assembly of the mammalian retromer complex are poorly understood. We have addressed these issues by performing biochemical and functional analyses of endogenous retromers in the human cell line HeLa. We found that the mammalian retromer complex consists of two autonomously assembling subcomplexes, namely, a Vps26-Vps29-Vps35 obligate heterotrimer and a SNX1/2 alternative heterodimer or homodimer. The association of Vps26-Vps29-Vps35 with endosomes requires the presence of either SNX1 or SNX2, whereas SNX1/2 can be recruited to endosomes independently of Vps26-Vps29-Vps35. We also found that the presence of either SNX1 or SNX2 is essential for the retrieval of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor to the TGN. These observations indicate that the mammalian retromer complex assembles by sequential association of SNX1/2 and Vps26-Vps29-Vps35 subcomplexes on endosomal membranes and that SNX1 and SNX2 play <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> but essential roles in retromer structure and function. PMID:17101778</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4714951','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4714951"><span id="translatedtitle">Standardizing data exchange for clinical research protocols and case report forms: An assessment of the suitability of the Clinical Data <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Standards Consortium (CDISC) Operational Data Model (ODM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huser, Vojtech; Sastry, Chandan; Breymaier, Matthew; Idriss, Asma; Cimino, James J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Efficient communication of a clinical study protocol and case report forms during all stages of a human clinical study is important for many stakeholders. An electronic and structured study representation format that can be used throughout the whole study life-span can improve such communication and potentially lower total study costs. The most relevant standard for representing clinical study data, applicable to unregulated as well as regulated studies, is the Operational Data Model (ODM) in development since 1999 by the Clinical Data <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Standards Consortium (CDISC). ODM's initial objective was exchange of case report forms data but it is increasingly utilized in other contexts. An ODM extension called Study Design Model, introduced in 2011, provides additional protocol representation elements. Using a case study approach, we evaluated ODM's ability to capture all necessary protocol elements during a complete clinical study lifecycle in the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health. ODM offers the advantage of a single format for institutions that deal with hundreds or thousands of concurrent clinical studies and maintain a data warehouse for these studies. For each study stage, we present a list of gaps in the ODM standard and identify necessary vendor or institutional extensions that can compensate for such gaps. The current version of ODM (1.3.2) has only partial support for study protocol and study registration data mainly because it is outside the original development goal. ODM provides comprehensive support for representation of case report forms (in both the design stage and with patient level data). Inclusion of requirements of observational, non-regulated or investigator-initiated studies (outside Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation) can further improve future revisions of the standard. PMID:26188274</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160006047','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160006047"><span id="translatedtitle">Summary Report for the Technical <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Meeting on Development of Baseline Material Properties and Design Guidelines for In-Space Manufacturing Activities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Prater, T. J.; Bean, Q. A.; Werkheiser, N. J.; Johnston, M. M.; Ordonez, E. A.; Ledbetter, F. E.; Risdon, D. L.; Stockman, T. J.; Sandridge, S. K. R.; Nelson, G. M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the Agency as a whole are currently engaged in a number of in-space manufacturing (ISM) activities that have the potential to reduce launch costs, enhance crew safety, and provide the capabilities needed to undertake long-duration spaceflight. The recent 3D Printing in Zero-G experiment conducted on board the International Space Station (ISS) demonstrated that parts of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic can be manufactured in microgravity using fused deposition modeling (FDM). This project represents the beginning of the development of a capability that is critical to future NASA missions. Current and future ISM activities will require the development of baseline material properties to facilitate design, analysis, and certification of materials manufactured using in-space techniques. The purpose of this technical <span class="hlt">interchange</span> meeting (TIM) was to bring together MSFC practitioners and experts in materials characterization and development of baseline material properties for emerging technologies to advise the ISM team as we progress toward the development of material design values, standards, and acceptance criteria for materials manufactured in space. The overall objective of the TIM was to leverage MSFC's shared experiences and collective knowledge in advanced manufacturing and materials development to construct a path forward for the establishment of baseline material properties, standards development, and certification activities related to ISM. Participants were asked to help identify research and development activities that will (1) accelerate acceptance and adoption of ISM techniques among the aerospace design community; (2) benefit future NASA programs, commercial technology developments, and national needs; and (3) provide opportunities and avenues for further collaboration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26188274','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26188274"><span id="translatedtitle">Standardizing data exchange for clinical research protocols and case report forms: An assessment of the suitability of the Clinical Data <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Standards Consortium (CDISC) Operational Data Model (ODM).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huser, Vojtech; Sastry, Chandan; Breymaier, Matthew; Idriss, Asma; Cimino, James J</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Efficient communication of a clinical study protocol and case report forms during all stages of a human clinical study is important for many stakeholders. An electronic and structured study representation format that can be used throughout the whole study life-span can improve such communication and potentially lower total study costs. The most relevant standard for representing clinical study data, applicable to unregulated as well as regulated studies, is the Operational Data Model (ODM) in development since 1999 by the Clinical Data <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Standards Consortium (CDISC). ODM's initial objective was exchange of case report forms data but it is increasingly utilized in other contexts. An ODM extension called Study Design Model, introduced in 2011, provides additional protocol representation elements. Using a case study approach, we evaluated ODM's ability to capture all necessary protocol elements during a complete clinical study lifecycle in the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health. ODM offers the advantage of a single format for institutions that deal with hundreds or thousands of concurrent clinical studies and maintain a data warehouse for these studies. For each study stage, we present a list of gaps in the ODM standard and identify necessary vendor or institutional extensions that can compensate for such gaps. The current version of ODM (1.3.2) has only partial support for study protocol and study registration data mainly because it is outside the original development goal. ODM provides comprehensive support for representation of case report forms (in both the design stage and with patient level data). Inclusion of requirements of observational, non-regulated or investigator-initiated studies (outside Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation) can further improve future revisions of the standard. PMID:26188274</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26188274','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26188274"><span id="translatedtitle">Standardizing data exchange for clinical research protocols and case report forms: An assessment of the suitability of the Clinical Data <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Standards Consortium (CDISC) Operational Data Model (ODM).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huser, Vojtech; Sastry, Chandan; Breymaier, Matthew; Idriss, Asma; Cimino, James J</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Efficient communication of a clinical study protocol and case report forms during all stages of a human clinical study is important for many stakeholders. An electronic and structured study representation format that can be used throughout the whole study life-span can improve such communication and potentially lower total study costs. The most relevant standard for representing clinical study data, applicable to unregulated as well as regulated studies, is the Operational Data Model (ODM) in development since 1999 by the Clinical Data <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Standards Consortium (CDISC). ODM's initial objective was exchange of case report forms data but it is increasingly utilized in other contexts. An ODM extension called Study Design Model, introduced in 2011, provides additional protocol representation elements. Using a case study approach, we evaluated ODM's ability to capture all necessary protocol elements during a complete clinical study lifecycle in the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health. ODM offers the advantage of a single format for institutions that deal with hundreds or thousands of concurrent clinical studies and maintain a data warehouse for these studies. For each study stage, we present a list of gaps in the ODM standard and identify necessary vendor or institutional extensions that can compensate for such gaps. The current version of ODM (1.3.2) has only partial support for study protocol and study registration data mainly because it is outside the original development goal. ODM provides comprehensive support for representation of case report forms (in both the design stage and with patient level data). Inclusion of requirements of observational, non-regulated or investigator-initiated studies (outside Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation) can further improve future revisions of the standard.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22246898','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22246898"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Compliance Analysis for PPP to bridge the gap between SEA and EIA: Lessons from the Turcot <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> reconstruction in Montréal, Québec</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thompson, Undiné-Celeste Marsan, Jean-François Fournier-Peyresblanques, Bastien Forgues, Chantal Ogaa, Anita Jaeger, Jochen A.G.</p> <p>2013-09-15</p> <p> concrete projects “on the ground”. CAPPP can be used as a tool for comparative analysis in decision-making situations at various scales. CAPPP is a fairly straight-forward method that can be used by policy makers, EIA experts, and members of the general public alike. Highlights: ► We investigated the level of harmonization between SEA, plans, policies and programmes and EIA projects. ► We created a new methodology: the goal compliance analysis (GCA). ► We tested it on an ongoing project, the Turcot <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> in Montreal, Canada. ► The method is straight-forward and can be used by policy makers, EIA experts, and members of the general public alike.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9663937','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9663937"><span id="translatedtitle">A protein disulfide-thiol <span class="hlt">interchange</span> protein with NADH: protein disulfide reductase (NADH oxidase) activity as a molecular target for low levels of exposure to organic solvents in plant growth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morré, D J</p> <p>1998-05-01</p> <p>A number of solvents including ethyl, amyl, butyl, octyl and benzyl alcohols, ethylene glycol, ethyl acetate, acetone, diethyl ether, propylene oxide, rho-dioxane, benzene, xylene, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride stimulate the growth of plants or plant parts at low concentrations and inhibit at high concentrations. These same solvents, at low dilutions, stimulate the activity of a growth-related protein disulfide-thiol <span class="hlt">interchange</span> protein (TIP) with NADH: protein disulfide reductase (NADH oxidase) (NOX) activity with plasma membrane vesicles isolated from elongating regions cut from dark grown seedlings of soybeans. Based on these and other findings, we suggest the TIP/NOX protein to be the molecular target of the biological effects of low levels of exposure (hormesis) involved in the stimulation of plant growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5787178','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5787178"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of pollutants between groundwater and mineral strata as applied to waste chemical dumps and 'in situ' coal gasification sites. Completion report, 1 October 1979-30 September 1980</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Manahan, S.E.; Tobben, P.; Gale, R.; Hoeffner, S.; Bornhop, D.</p> <p>1981-03-15</p> <p>The overall objective of this research was to study the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of pollutants between minerals and groundwater produced as leachate from waste chemical dumps and as a by-product of in situ (underground) coal gasification. Particular emphasis was placed upon the development of methods to evaluate the chemical interaction between contaminated groundwaters and specific solids so that these methods could be applied to specific situations which other investigators might need to study. Of particular importance was the development of methods to obtain chemical data which in turn can be used to provide meaningful bases for modelling groundwater contamination. Water contaminated by vapor from laboratory-simulated in situ coal gasification was employed as a model polluted water. The solids used to sorb organics from this waster were subbituminous coal, non-activated coal char, activated coal char, and coal ash.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24041630','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24041630"><span id="translatedtitle">Are erlotinib and gefitinib <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span>, opposite or complementary for non-small cell lung cancer treatment? Biological, pharmacological and clinical aspects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bronte, Giuseppe; Rolfo, Christian; Giovannetti, Elisa; Cicero, Giuseppe; Pauwels, Patrick; Passiglia, Francesco; Castiglia, Marta; Rizzo, Sergio; Vullo, Francesca Lo; Fiorentino, Eugenio; Van Meerbeeck, Jan; Russo, Antonio</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Gefitinib and erlotinib are the two anti-epidermal growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) approved for treatment of advanced NSCLC patients. These drugs target one of the most important pathways in lung carcinogenesis and are able to exploit the phenomenon of 'oncogene addiction', with different efficacy according to EGFR gene mutational status in tumor samples. Gefitinib has been approved only for EGFR mutation bearing patients regardless the line of treatment, while erlotinib is also indicated in patients without EGFR mutation who undergo second- or third-line treatment. Some studies evaluated the main differences between these drugs both for direct comparison and to improve their sequential use. In particular, toxicity profile resulted partially different, and these observations may be explained by several molecular and pharmacokinetic features. Therefore, this review integrates preclinical data with clinical evidences of TKIs to guide the optimization of currently available treatments in advanced NSCLC patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPSJ...85j4711Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPSJ...85j4711Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Intra- versus Inter-dimer Charge Inhomogeneity in the Triangular Lattice Compounds of β'-Cs[Pd(dmit)2]2: A Degree of Freedom Characteristic of an <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of Energy Levels in the Molecular Orbitals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamamoto, Takashi; Tamura, Masafumi; Yakushi, Kyuya; Kato, Reizo</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We have carried out the complete analyses of the C=C stretching modes in the vibrational spectra in the triangular lattice of β'-Cs[Pd(dmit)2]2 in order to solve the puzzling phenomenon that the ground state is neither spin frustration nor anti-ferromagnetic state but octamerization. We found that both charge-rich and charge-poor dimers are non-centrosymmetric dimers with the inhomogeneous charges. Because the energy levels of HOMO and LUMO are <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> due to the tight dimerization, the cooperative interaction between the inter-site Coulomb repulsions and the valence-bond formation operates within and between dimers, those which contribute to the inter-dimer and intra-dimer charge separations, respectively. Octamer is the minimal unit under both cooperative interactions. In the high-temperature phase of β'-Cs[Pd(dmit)2]2, the competition between octamerization and tetramerization is observed because of the suppression of the intra-dimer cooperative interaction. The competition between two different states indicates the degree of freedom characteristic of the molecular orbital due to the tight dimerization. The cooperative interactions of the various X[Pd(dmit)2]2 salts are quantitatively evaluated from the C=C stretching modes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24010742','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24010742"><span id="translatedtitle">Etiology of obesity: two "key issues" and other emerging <span class="hlt">factors</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Serra-Majem, Lluis; Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>The current obesity epidemic is known to have coincided with profound societal changes involving both physical activity levels and food consumption patterns as well as demographic and cultural changes affecting the conduct of human beings in various ways. On the other hand, obesity is a complex and multifactorial chronic disease that usually becomes manifest in child hood and adolescence. Its origin is a genetic and environmental <span class="hlt">interchange</span>, of which environmental or behavioral <span class="hlt">factors</span> play the most important role, stemming from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. Still and all, it is rather simplistic to assume that obesity is only due to excessive consumption and/or deficient physical activity levels. Currently, various lines of investigation have been initiated that evaluate the determinants of obesity, of which nutrigenomics and gut microbiota deserve special attention.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3022943','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3022943"><span id="translatedtitle">Yeast peptide pheromones, a-<span class="hlt">factor</span> and alpha-<span class="hlt">factor</span>, activate a common response mechanism in their target cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bender, A; Sprague, G F</p> <p>1986-12-26</p> <p>We show that in yeast the cell type specificity of pheromone response is determined solely by the species of receptor that a cell synthesizes. The two receptor-pheromone interactions are functionally <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> and involve the creation of a common intracellular signal. In particular, we find that provision of a-<span class="hlt">factor</span> receptor or alpha-<span class="hlt">factor</span> receptor in mat alpha 1 mutants, which normally do not express either receptor or any other a- or alpha-specific products, allows response to the appropriate pheromone. Moreover, provision of a-<span class="hlt">factor</span> receptor in a cells lacking alpha-<span class="hlt">factor</span> receptor restores mating competence to those cells. Finally, an aspect of pheromone response that is normally unique to a-<span class="hlt">factor</span> action on alpha cells--increased transcription from the alpha-specific STE3 gene--can also be observed following alpha-<span class="hlt">factor</span> treatment of pseudo-a cells (mat alpha 2 ste3 ste13), special mutants that respond to alpha-<span class="hlt">factor</span> and also have an active STE3 promoter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930017762','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930017762"><span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear Propulsion Technical <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Meeting, volume 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of the meeting was to review the work performed in fiscal year 1992 in the areas of nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion technology development. These proceedings are an accumulation of the presentations provided at the meeting along with annotations provided by authors. The proceedings cover system concepts, technology development, and system modeling for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). The test facilities required for the development of the nuclear propulsion systems are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27442414','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27442414"><span id="translatedtitle">Biosimilar medical products - licensing, pharmacovigilance and <span class="hlt">interchangeability</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grozdanova, Aleksandra; Netkovska, Katerina Ancevska; Sterjev, Zoran; Naumovska, Zorica; Zarevski, Rubin; Dimovski, Aleksandar; Suturkova, Ljubica</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The use of biological medicine has significantly increased in recent decades and has made substantial contributions to improving the effectiveness of therapies in many diseases. The expiration of patents of biological innovative medicines enables copies of those drugs called similar biological products (biosimilars) to be approved by regulatory authorities and to enter in clinical use. Biosimilars are comparable but not identical and are not a generic version of the innovator biological product. Although biosimilars undergo rigorous characterization as well as clinical studies to prove their safety and effectiveness, specific regulatory requirements for registration apply in the case of biosimilars. They are highly complex molecules and small changes in the production process can have major implications in its safety and effectiveness profile. The availability of biosimilars enhances competition, with the potential to improve patient access to biological medicines and to contribute to the financial sustainability of healthcare systems. In order to be certain that a biosimilar reaches its potential in clinical use, an intensive pharmacovigilance monitoring system must be established in order to prove the true similarity between the original biologic and its biosimilar. There is a need for further guidance and resolution of the ongoing discussions on biosimilar labelling, naming, pharmacovigilance and substitution in order to ensure effective and appropriate use of biosimilars in clinical practice. PMID:27442414</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=tv+AND+advertising&pg=3&id=ED374246','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=tv+AND+advertising&pg=3&id=ED374246"><span id="translatedtitle">Marketing Means Business. <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> No. 28.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Macleod, Ann; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>A project examined information currently made available by colleges of further education in Scotland to users and the marketing strategies used. Thirty-eight of 45 colleges completed a questionnaire on current marketing practice. Other activities included focus groups and interviews with students and members of the general public and a postal…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27332158','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27332158"><span id="translatedtitle">Studying the HIT-Complexity <span class="hlt">Interchange</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuziemsky, Craig E; Borycki, Elizabeth M; Kushniruk, Andre W</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The design and implementation of health information technology (HIT) is challenging, particularly when it is being introduced into complex settings. While complex adaptive system (CASs) can be a valuable means of understanding relationships between users, HIT and tasks, much of the existing work using CASs is descriptive in nature. This paper addresses that issue by integrating a model for analyzing task complexity with approaches for HIT evaluation and systems analysis. The resulting framework classifies HIT-user tasks and issues as simple, complicated or complex, and provides insight on how to study them. PMID:27332158</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=stirling&pg=3&id=ED469200','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=stirling&pg=3&id=ED469200"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the Matrix Project. <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> 77.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McIvor, Gill; Moodie, Kristina</p> <p></p> <p>The Matrix Project is a program that has been established in central Scotland with the aim of reducing the risk of offending and anti-social behavior among vulnerable children. The project provides a range of services to children between eight and 11 years of age who are at risk in the local authority areas of Clackmannanshire, Falkirk and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940009832','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940009832"><span id="translatedtitle">AXAF FITS standard for ray trace <span class="hlt">interchange</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hsieh, Paul F.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A standard data format for the archival and transport of x-ray events generated by ray trace models is described. Upon review and acceptance by the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) Software Systems Working Group (SSWG), this standard shall become the official AXAF data format for ray trace events. The Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) is well suited for the purposes of the standard and was selected to be the basis of the standard. FITS is both flexible and efficient and is also widely used within the astronomical community for storage and transfer of data. In addition, software to read and write FITS format files are widely available. In selecting quantities to be included within the ray trace standard, the AXAF Mission Support team, Science Instruments team, and the other contractor teams were surveyed. From the results of this survey, the following requirements were established: (1) for the scientific needs, each photon should have associated with it: position, direction, energy, and statistical weight; the standard must also accommodate path length (relative phase), and polarization. (2) a unique photon identifier is necessary for bookkeeping purposes; (3) a log of individuals, organizations, and software packages that have modified the data must be maintained in order to create an audit trail; (4) a mechanism for extensions to the basic kernel should be provided; and (5) the ray trace standard should integrate with future AXAF data product standards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10108638','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10108638"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic data <span class="hlt">interchange</span>: a strategic approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Davidson, M; Scott, S</p> <p>1991-02-01</p> <p>The potential of EDI is virtually unlimited, but the success of any EDI initiative hinges on its ability to directly support strategies that achieve your institution's business objectives. At its most fundamental level, EDI technology automates current business practices, speeding up the exchange of business information. This application of EDI most often is found in a hospital's material management department. But EDI integrated internally within a hospital and externally with suppliers and vendors has the potential to go beyond simple automation and to transform processes. This is where the full value of EDI can be realized. No matter which level of EDI participation hospital management decides is appropriate to fulfill its business objectives and strategies, EDI will affect the entire institution's exchange of information with its internal and external audiences. The question management must answer is: Will the hospital's EDI strategy be offensive and managed, or defensive and reactive? Today's environment leaves no room for a "no-strategy" EDI option. The options are either to proactively shape EDI, or reactively play catch-up. EDI can work for you. Adequately developing an EDI game plan in support of your business objectives and calling on your suppliers and other trading partners to work with you will ensure EDI is an asset to your facility. PMID:10108638</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=input+AND+output+AND+device&pg=2&id=EJ304456','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=input+AND+output+AND+device&pg=2&id=EJ304456"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of Arabic in Computerized Information <span class="hlt">Interchange</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Aman, Mohammed M.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Identifies technical and linguistic problems associated with use of Arabic in input and output devices and describes efforts to introduce a unified code for the Arabic language (CODAR-U/FD). The Hydriyya Method, requirements for Arabic terminals suitable for library use, manufacturers of bilingual terminals, and Arabization of software are…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993sao..reptR....H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993sao..reptR....H"><span id="translatedtitle">AXAF FITS standard for ray trace <span class="hlt">interchange</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hsieh, Paul F.</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>A standard data format for the archival and transport of x-ray events generated by ray trace models is described. Upon review and acceptance by the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) Software Systems Working Group (SSWG), this standard shall become the official AXAF data format for ray trace events. The Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) is well suited for the purposes of the standard and was selected to be the basis of the standard. FITS is both flexible and efficient and is also widely used within the astronomical community for storage and transfer of data. In addition, software to read and write FITS format files are widely available. In selecting quantities to be included within the ray trace standard, the AXAF Mission Support team, Science Instruments team, and the other contractor teams were surveyed. From the results of this survey, the following requirements were established: (1) for the scientific needs, each photon should have associated with it: position, direction, energy, and statistical weight; the standard must also accommodate path length (relative phase), and polarization. (2) a unique photon identifier is necessary for bookkeeping purposes; (3) a log of individuals, organizations, and software packages that have modified the data must be maintained in order to create an audit trail; (4) a mechanism for extensions to the basic kernel should be provided; and (5) the ray trace standard should integrate with future AXAF data product standards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000545.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000545.htm"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factor</span> XII (Hageman <span class="hlt">factor</span>) deficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... takes longer than normal to clot in a test tube. <span class="hlt">Factor</span> XII deficiency is a rare inherited disorder. Symptoms There are usually no symptoms. Exams and Tests <span class="hlt">Factor</span> XII deficiency is most often found when ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150003409','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150003409"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of Parachute Joint <span class="hlt">Factors</span> using Seam and Joint Testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mollmann, Catherine</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper details the methodology for determining the joint <span class="hlt">factor</span> for all parachute components. This method has been successfully implemented on the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) for the NASA Orion crew module for use in determining the margin of safety for each component under peak loads. Also discussed are concepts behind the joint <span class="hlt">factor</span> and what drives the loss of material strength at joints. The joint <span class="hlt">factor</span> is defined as a "loss in joint strength...relative to the basic material strength" that occurs when "textiles are connected to each other or to metals." During the CPAS engineering development phase, a conservative joint <span class="hlt">factor</span> of 0.80 was assumed for each parachute component. In order to refine this <span class="hlt">factor</span> and eliminate excess conservatism, a seam and joint testing program was implemented as part of the structural validation. This method split each of the parachute structural joints into discrete tensile tests designed to duplicate the loading of each joint. Breaking strength data collected from destructive pull testing was then used to calculate the joint <span class="hlt">factor</span> in the form of an efficiency. Joint efficiency is the percentage of the base material strength that remains after degradation due to sewing or interaction with other components; it is used <span class="hlt">interchangeably</span> with joint <span class="hlt">factor</span> in this paper. Parachute materials vary in type-mainly cord, tape, webbing, and cloth -which require different test fixtures and joint sample construction methods. This paper defines guidelines for designing and testing samples based on materials and test goals. Using the test methodology and analysis approach detailed in this paper, the minimum joint <span class="hlt">factor</span> for each parachute component can be formulated. The joint <span class="hlt">factors</span> can then be used to calculate the design <span class="hlt">factor</span> and margin of safety for that component, a critical part of the design verification process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5030816','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5030816"><span id="translatedtitle">Molecular Dynamics Simulations of <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Xa: Insight into Conformational Transition of its Binding Subsites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Singh, Narender; Briggs, James M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Protein flexibility and conformational diversity is well known to be a key characteristic of the function of many proteins. Human blood coagulation proteins have multiple substrates, and various protein-protein interactions are required for the smooth functioning of the coagulation cascade to maintain blood hemostasis. To address how a protein may cope with multiple interactions with its structurally diverse substrates and the accompanied structural changes that may drive these changes, we studied human <span class="hlt">Factor</span> X. We employed 20 ns of molecular dynamics (MD) and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations on two different conformational forms of <span class="hlt">Factor</span> X, open and closed, and observed an <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> conformational transition from one to another. This work also demonstrates the roles of various aromatic residues involved in aromatic-aromatic interactions which make this dynamic transition possible. PMID:18680100</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26700680','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26700680"><span id="translatedtitle">The function and regulation of the GATA <span class="hlt">factor</span> ELT-2 in the C. elegans endoderm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wiesenfahrt, Tobias; Berg, Janette Y; Osborne Nishimura, Erin; Robinson, Adam G; Goszczynski, Barbara; Lieb, Jason D; McGhee, James D</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>ELT-2 is the major regulator of genes involved in differentiation, maintenance and function of C. elegans intestine from the early embryo to mature adult. elt-2 responds to overexpression of the GATA transcription <span class="hlt">factors</span> END-1 and END-3, which specify the intestine, as well as to overexpression of the two GATA <span class="hlt">factors</span> that are normally involved in intestinal differentiation, ELT-7 and ELT-2 itself. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions, how ELT-2 levels are maintained throughout development or how such systems respond to developmental perturbations. Here, we analyse elt-2 gene regulation through transgenic reporter assays, ELT-2 ChIP and characterisation of in vitro DNA-protein interactions. Our results indicate that elt-2 is controlled by three discrete regulatory regions conserved between C. elegans and C. briggsae that span >4 kb of 5' flanking sequence. These regions are superficially <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> but have quantitatively different enhancer properties, and their combined activities indicate inter-region synergies. Their regulatory activity is mediated by a small number of conserved TGATAA sites that are largely <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> and interact with different endodermal GATA <span class="hlt">factors</span> with only modest differences in affinity. The redundant molecular mechanism that forms the elt-2 regulatory network is robust and flexible, as loss of end-3 halves ELT-2 levels in the early embryo but levels fully recover by the time of hatching. When ELT-2 is expressed under the control of end-1 regulatory elements, in addition to its own endogenous promoter, it can replace the complete set of endoderm-specific GATA <span class="hlt">factors</span>: END-1, END-3, ELT-7 and (the probably non-functional) ELT-4. Thus, in addition to controlling gene expression during differentiation, ELT-2 is capable of specifying the entire C. elegans endoderm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5237455','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5237455"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth <span class="hlt">factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Golde, D.W.; Herschman, H.R.; Lusis, A.J.; Groopman, J.E.</p> <p>1980-05-01</p> <p>Humoral regulation of somatic and hematopoietic cell growth has been intensely investigated during the past decade. Growth hormone is unique because it regulates the size of the person within the constraints of the genetic program. The somatomedins and insulin growth <span class="hlt">factors</span> are low molecular weight polypeptides believed to mediate some functions of growth hormone. Epithelial growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> and nerve growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> are well-characterized polypeptides that influence the growth and differentiation of epithelial and neural tissues and interact with specific cell surface receptors. The hematopoietins are a family of polypeptide hormones that specifically regulate the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells giving rise to erythrocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, megakaryocytes, and B and T lymphocytes. Platelet-derived growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> modulates the proliferation of fibroblasts in vitro and may have a role in the development of atherosclerosis and myelofibrosis. New knowledge on the biochemistry and physiology of growth <span class="hlt">factors</span> will probably have a substantial impact on our understanding of human diseases involving abnormal cell growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27260827','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27260827"><span id="translatedtitle">Interpretation: a confounding <span class="hlt">factor</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gupta, Mohit</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>With reference to the article "Passive euthanasia in India: a critique", authored by Ms Rohini Shukla and published online on August 5, 2015, I would like to make a few comments and highlight the following points. First, the author notes that Section 309 IPC has been decriminalised. This is not so since there has neither been any amendment to the IPC, nor has any ordinance been passed regarding the matter. Attempting suicide is still an offence in India. Second, the author observes that withholding life support is an act of omission and withdrawing life support is an act of commission and the terms have been used <span class="hlt">interchangeably</span> by the Hon'ble Court, although there is a subtle difference between the two terms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=second+AND+language+AND+gender&pg=5&id=EJ1089179','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=second+AND+language+AND+gender&pg=5&id=EJ1089179"><span id="translatedtitle">Examining the Language <span class="hlt">Factor</span> in Mathematics Assessments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kan, Adnan; Bulut, Okan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study investigates whether word problems and mathematically expressed items can be used <span class="hlt">interchangeably</span> regardless of their linguistic complexities. A sample of sixth grade students was given two forms of a mathematics assessment. The first form included mathematics items with mathematical terms, expressions, and equations whereas the second…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16325936','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16325936"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative protein profiling identifies elongation <span class="hlt">factor</span>-1beta and tryparedoxin peroxidase as <span class="hlt">factors</span> associated with metastasis in Leishmania guyanensis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Walker, John; Acestor, Nathalie; Gongora, Rafael; Quadroni, Manfredo; Segura, Iris; Fasel, Nicolas; Saravia, Nancy G</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>Parasites of the Leishmania Viannia subgenus are major causative agents of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL), a disease characterised by parasite dissemination (metastasis) from the original cutaneous lesion to form debilitating secondary lesions in the nasopharyngeal mucosa. We employed a protein profiling approach to identify potential metastasis <span class="hlt">factors</span> in laboratory clones of L. (V.) guyanensis with stable phenotypes ranging from highly metastatic (M+) through infrequently metastatic (M+/M-) to non-metastatic (M-). Comparison of the soluble proteomes of promastigotes by two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed two abundant protein spots specifically associated with M+ and M+/M- clones (Met2 and Met3) and two others exclusively expressed in M- parasites (Met1 and Met4). The association between clinical disease phenotype and differential expression of Met1-Met4 was less clear in L. Viannia strains from mucosal (M+) or cutaneous (M-) lesions of patients. Identification of Met1-Met4 by biological mass spectrometry (LC-ES-MS/MS) and bioinformatics revealed that M+ and M- clones express distinct acidic and neutral isoforms of both elongation <span class="hlt">factor</span>-1 subunit beta (EF-1beta) and cytosolic tryparedoxin peroxidase (TXNPx). This <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of isoforms may relate to the mechanisms by which the activities of EF-1beta and TXNPx are modulated, and/or differential post-translational modification of the gene product(s). The multiple metabolic functions of EF-1 and TXNPx support the plausibility of their participation in parasite survival and persistence and thereby, metastatic disease. Both polypeptides are active in resistance to chemical and oxidant stress, providing a basis for further elucidation of the importance of antioxidant defence in the pathogenesis underlying MCL. PMID:16325936</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4205592','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4205592"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of bovine prothrombin, <span class="hlt">factor</span> IX (Christmas <span class="hlt">factor</span>), and <span class="hlt">factor</span> X (Stuart <span class="hlt">factor</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fujikawa, K; Coan, M H; Enfield, D L; Titani, K; Ericsson, L H; Davie, E W</p> <p>1974-02-01</p> <p>A comparison has been made of the electrophoretic behavior, chemical composition, amino-terminal sequence, and immunological properties of bovine prothrombin, <span class="hlt">factor</span> IX (Christmas <span class="hlt">factor</span>), and <span class="hlt">factor</span> X (Stuart <span class="hlt">factor</span>). Some immunological crossreactivity was found between the antibody to prothrombin and <span class="hlt">factor</span> X although prothrombin and <span class="hlt">factor</span> X differ substantially in amino-acid and carbohydrate composition. Considerable amino-acid sequence homology was found in the amino-terminal portion of prothrombin, <span class="hlt">factor</span> IX, and the light chain of <span class="hlt">factor</span> X. These data provide further evidence to support the hypothesis that at least three of the vitamin K-dependent clotting <span class="hlt">factors</span> have evolved from a common ancestral gene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000550.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000550.htm"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factor</span> V deficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... in blood plasma. These proteins are called blood coagulation <span class="hlt">factors</span>. <span class="hlt">Factor</span> V deficiency is caused by a ... Gailani D, Neff AT. Rare coagulation <span class="hlt">factor</span> deficiencies. In: ... HE, Weitz JI, Anastasi J, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4522568','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4522568"><span id="translatedtitle">Collapsing <span class="hlt">factors</span> in multitrait-multimethod models: examining consequences of a mismatch between measurement design and model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Geiser, Christian; Bishop, Jacob; Lockhart, Ginger</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Models of confirmatory <span class="hlt">factor</span> analysis (CFA) are frequently applied to examine the convergent validity of scores obtained from multiple raters or methods in so-called multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) investigations. Many applications of CFA-MTMM and similarly structured models result in solutions in which at least one method (or specific) <span class="hlt">factor</span> shows non-significant loading or variance estimates. Eid et al. (2008) distinguished between MTMM measurement designs with <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> (randomly selected) vs. structurally different (fixed) methods and showed that each type of measurement design implies specific CFA-MTMM measurement models. In the current study, we hypothesized that some of the problems that are commonly seen in applications of CFA-MTMM models may be due to a mismatch between the underlying measurement design and fitted models. Using simulations, we found that models with M method <span class="hlt">factors</span> (where M is the total number of methods) and unconstrained loadings led to a higher proportion of solutions in which at least one method <span class="hlt">factor</span> became empirically unstable when these models were fit to data generated from structurally different methods. The simulations also revealed that commonly used model goodness-of-fit criteria frequently failed to identify incorrectly specified CFA-MTMM models. We discuss implications of these findings for other complex CFA models in which similar issues occur, including nested (bifactor) and latent state-trait models. PMID:26283977</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/836809','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/836809"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of human prothrombin, <span class="hlt">factor</span> IX (Christmas <span class="hlt">factor</span>), <span class="hlt">factor</span> X (Stuart <span class="hlt">factor</span>), and protein S.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Di Scipio, R G; Hermodson, M A; Yates, S G; Davie, E W</p> <p>1977-02-22</p> <p>Human prothrombin, <span class="hlt">factor</span> IX, and <span class="hlt">factor</span> X have been idolated in high yield and characterized as the their amino-terminal sequence, molecular weight, amino acid composition, and migration in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. An additional human plasma protein, called protein S, has also been purified and its properties have been compared with those of prothrombin, <span class="hlt">factor</span> IX, and <span class="hlt">factor</span> X. Prothrombin (mol wt 72 000), <span class="hlt">factor</span> IX (mol wt 57 000), and protein S (mol wt 69 000) are single-chain glycoproteins, while <span class="hlt">factor</span> X (mol wt 59 000) is a glycoprotein composed of two polypeptide chains held together by a disulfide bond(s). The amino-terminal sequence of the light chain of human <span class="hlt">factor</span> X is homologous with prothrombin, <span class="hlt">factor</span> IX, and protein S. The heavy chain of human <span class="hlt">factor</span> X is slightly larger than the heavy chain of bovine <span class="hlt">factor</span> X and differs from bovine <span class="hlt">factor</span> X in its amino-terminal sequence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20827568','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20827568"><span id="translatedtitle">Critical <span class="hlt">factors</span> influencing hospitals' adoption of HL7 version 2 standards: an empirical investigation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Chi-Hung; Lin, I-Chun; Roan, Jin-Sheng; Yeh, Jehn-Shan</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Industry predictions focus on future e-hospitals that will integrate all stakeholders into a seamless network, allowing data to be shared. The Health Level Seven (HL7) is a standard for the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of data within the healthcare industry. It simplifies communication interfaces and allows the interoperability among heterogeneous applications. Although the benefits of adopting HL7 are well known, only a few hospitals in Taiwan have actually adopted it. What are the reasons behind the hospitals' lack of intention to adopt HL7? Most prior studies on HL7 have focused on technical issues and general overlooked the managerial side. This has caused a lack of understanding of <span class="hlt">factors</span> influencing hospitals' decision on HL7 adoption. In fact, main reasons behind a hospital's decision on whether to adopt an innovative technology are more often related to organizational than purely technical issues. Hence, we pay our attention to these organizational considerations over HL7 adoption. Based on the Innovation Diffusion Theory, we proposed a research model to explore the critical <span class="hlt">factors</span> influencing Taiwan hospitals' adoption intention of HL7. 472 questionnaires were distributed to all accredited hospitals in Taiwan and 122 were returned. The valid response rate was 25.21% (119). <span class="hlt">Factor</span> analysis, logistic regression and Pearson Chi-square test were conducted to verify the research model. The results showed that environmental pressure, top management attitude towards HL7, staff's technology capability, system integrity, and hospital's scale were critical <span class="hlt">factors</span> influencing hospitals' intention on whether to adopt HL7. The research findings provided the government, the healthcare industry, the hospital administrators and the academia with practical and theoretical references. These <span class="hlt">factors</span> should be considered in planning promotion plan to encourage hospital adoption of HL7. This study also opens up a new research direction as well as a new viewpoint, and consequentially</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868213','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868213"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchangeable</span> whole-body and nose-only exposure system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Cannon, William C.; Allemann, Rudolph T.; Moss, Owen R.; Decker, Jr., John R.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>An exposure system for experimental animals includes a container for a single animal which has a double wall. The animal is confined within the inner wall. Gaseous material enters a first end, flows over the entire animal, then back between the walls and out the first end. The system also includes an arrangement of valve-controlled manifolds for supplying gaseous material to, and exhausting it from, the containers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7273103','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7273103"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchangeable</span> whole-body and nose-only exposure system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Cannon, W.C.; Allemann, R.T.; Moss, O.R.; Decker, J.R. Jr.</p> <p>1992-03-31</p> <p>An exposure system for experimental animals includes a container for a single animal which has a double wall. The animal is confined within the inner wall. Gaseous material enters a first end, flows over the entire animal, then back between the walls and out the first end. The system also includes an arrangement of valve-controlled manifolds for supplying gaseous material to, and exhausting it from, the containers. 6 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=overpopulation&pg=5&id=ED329442','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=overpopulation&pg=5&id=ED329442"><span id="translatedtitle">Population Education <span class="hlt">Interchange</span>. Volume 17, Numbers 1-4, 1988.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Crews, Kimberly A.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The four issues of this volume are each concerned with a specific topic in population studies. Issue number 1 , "Demographic Illiteracy," indicates that U.S. students are not aware of world population growth patterns. The information is taken from the Second International Science Study, 1983. An annotated list of 16 population studies resources is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=acls&pg=5&id=EJ145583','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=acls&pg=5&id=EJ145583"><span id="translatedtitle">Individuality of Item Interpretation in <span class="hlt">Interchangeable</span> ACL Scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fiske, Donald W.; Barack, Leonard I.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The diversity among interpretations of single items in personality questionnaires has been noted previously. Using adjectives from the Adjective Check List (ACL), the study sought evidence bearing on these questions: Does such diversity make the responses to an item not comparable across subjects? If so, what are the implications for scores based…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017833','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017833"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Energy <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> in the Electron Diffuse Aurora</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Khazanov, George V.; Glocer, Alex; Himwich, E. W.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The diffuse aurora has recently been shown to be a major contributor of energy flux into the Earth's ionosphere. Therefore, a comprehensive theoretical analysis is required to understand its role in energy redistribution in the coupled ionosphere-magnetosphere system. In previous theoretical descriptions of precipitated magnetospheric electrons (E is approximately 1 keV), the major focus has been the ionization and excitation rates of the neutral atmosphere and the energy deposition rate to thermal ionospheric electrons. However, these precipitating electrons will also produce secondary electrons via impact ionization of the neutral atmosphere. This paper presents the solution of the Boltzman-Landau kinetic equation that uniformly describes the entire electron distribution function in the diffuse aurora, including the affiliated production of secondary electrons (E greater than 600 eV) and their ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling processes. In this article, we discuss for the first time how diffuse electron precipitation into the atmosphere and the associated secondary electron production participate in ionosphere-magnetosphere energy redistribution.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=us+AND+life+AND+expectancy&pg=3&id=ED123133','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=us+AND+life+AND+expectancy&pg=3&id=ED123133"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchange</span>. Population Education Newsletter. Volume 5, Number 3.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Seltzer, Judith; Fletcher, Carol</p> <p></p> <p>This publication is designed to introduce the interdisciplinary nature of population information to educators and centers of population education activity, provide classroom activity suggestions, and to review developments in the effort to infuse population issues into U.S. secondary schools. The publication provides a forum for information and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED419063.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED419063.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Youth Work with Vulnerable Young People. <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> No. 51.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Powney, Janet; Furlong, Andy; Cartmel, Fred; Hall, Stuart</p> <p></p> <p>Research was conducted in Scotland to evaluate the effectiveness of youth work with vulnerable young people, primarily between the ages of 13 and 16. Four complementary methods were adopted: (1) a survey of secondary school students; (2) a series of focus group interviews with young people with experience of youth work; (3) interviews with…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-20/pdf/2011-16860.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-20/pdf/2011-16860.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 43477 - Debit Card <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Fees and Routing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-20</p> <p>... routing procedures. \\4\\ The Board reported preliminary survey results in the proposed rule (See 75 FR... published elsewhere in the Federal Register. \\6\\ See 75 FR 81742-81743 (Dec. 28, 2010). The Board requested... fraud.\\21\\ \\21\\ These percentages may differ from those noted in the Board's proposal (See 75 FR...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED070692.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED070692.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchange</span>. Population Education Newsletter. Volume 1, Number 1.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Population Reference Bureau, Inc., Washington, DC.</p> <p></p> <p>This bi-monthly newsletter is designed to provide information to teachers, curriculum supervisors, and administrators on the most recent developments in the growing effort to introduce population issues into formal school curricula, primarily at the middle and secondary school levels. This initial issue summarizes the activities of 1971-1972…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED445692.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED445692.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">ERIC Users' <span class="hlt">Interchange</span>, September 1993-Spring/Summer 2000.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>ERIC Users' Interchange, 2000</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>This newsletter is prepared semiannually by the staff of Access ERIC in order to communicate matters of interest to users of the ERIC database and of other ERIC products and services. The newsletter disseminates a broad spectrum of information pertaining to ERIC, including price changes, microfiche products, ERIC clearinghouse news, search…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Serendipity&pg=3&id=EJ868270','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Serendipity&pg=3&id=EJ868270"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchanges</span>: The Value of Book Collecting for Research and Teaching</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Whitburn, Merrill D.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>When the author became a professor with interests in literature, composition, technical communication, speech, and rhetoric, he little anticipated the extent to which book collecting could affect research and teaching, but his finds increasingly enlightened him. As he gravitated toward composition, technical communication, speech, and rhetoric in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED414616.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED414616.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Exclusions and In-school Alternatives. <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> No. 47.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Munn, Pamela; Cullen, Mairi Ann; Johnstone, Margaret; Lloyd, Gwynedd</p> <p></p> <p>In the United Kingdom, exclusion from school is the most serious sanction a school can use in response to disruptive behavior. There has been continuing concern about the rising numbers of exclusions in the United Kingdom as a whole; however, little has been known about the situation in Scotland. This report presents findings of a study that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-20/pdf/2011-16861.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-20/pdf/2011-16861.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 43393 - Debit Card <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Fees and Routing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-20</p> <p>... is returned to the merchant via the reverse path, usually within seconds of the authorization request...\\ 75 FR 81724-26, 81740-42 (Dec. 28, 2010). \\24\\ http://www.federalreserve.gov/paymentsystems/files... proposed Regulation II (75 FR 81725 (Dec. 28, 2010)) because several networks subsequently...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992srsi.rept.....C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992srsi.rept.....C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchangeable</span> end effector tools utilized on the PFMA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cody, Joe; Carroll, John; Crow, George; Gierow, Paul; Littles, Jay; Maness, Michael; Morrison, Jim</p> <p>1992-02-01</p> <p>An instrumented task board, used for measuring forces applied by the Protoflight Manipulator Arm (PFMA) to the task board, was fabricated and delivered to Marshall Space Flight Center. SRS Technologies phased out the existing IBM compatible data acquisition system, used with a instrumented task board, and integrated the force measuring electronic hardware in with the Macintosh II data acquisition system. The purpose of this change was to acquire all data with the same time tag, allowing easier and more accurate data reduction in addition to real-time graphics. A three-dimensional optical position sensing system for determining the location of the PFMA's end effect or in reference to the center of the instrumented task board was also designed and delivered under. An improved task board was fabricated which included an improved instrumented beam design. The modified design of the task board improved the force/torque measurement system by increasing the sensitivity, reliability, load range and ease of maintenance. A calibration panel for the optical position system was also designed and fabricated. The calibration method developed for the position sensors enhanced the performance of the sensors as well as simplified the installation and calibration procedures required. The modifications made under this effort expanded the capabilities of the task board system. The system developed determines the arm's position relative to the task board and measures the signals to the joints resulting from the operator's control signals in addition to the task board forces. The software and hardware required to calculate and record the position of the PFMA during the performance of tasks with the instrumented task board were defined, designed and delivered to MSFC. PFMA joint input signals can be measured from a breakout box to evaluate the sensitivity or response of the arm operation to control commands. The data processing system provides the capability for post processing of time-history graphics and plots of the PFMA positions, the operator's actions, and the PFMA servo reactions in addition to realtime force and position sensor data presentation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=266895','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=266895"><span id="translatedtitle">Data access and <span class="hlt">interchange</span> in agronomic and natural resources management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Challenges related to agriculture and natural resource management have never been greater. Comprehensive agronomic and natural resources data relevant to climate change, food security, bioenergy, and sustainable water supply are rare and in demand. Data used for policy development must be rigorous...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6438487','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6438487"><span id="translatedtitle">Data <span class="hlt">interchange</span> standards for biotechnology: Issues and alternatives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McCarthy, J.L.</p> <p>1990-06-01</p> <p>This report outlines a framework for discussion of what aspects of biotechnical information might be good candidates for guidelines or standards, what existing data exchange standards might be appropriate building blocks upon which to build, and what procedural mechanisms might be appropriate for adoption of such guidelines or standards. It builds on experience from other scientific communities which have already benefitted from development of discipline-specific data exchange standards. 33 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED427284.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED427284.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Accelerating Reading Attainment: The Effectiveness of Synthetic Phonics. <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> 57.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Watson, Joyce E.; Johnston, Rhona S.</p> <p></p> <p>Conducted in three phases, a study examined the teaching of reading in the early stages of primary school. The study was done by a research team from the University of St. Andrews School of Psychology, Scotland. Phase one explored methods of teaching reading and spelling in a sample of 12 schools within one Education Authority. Phase two examined…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=riddell&pg=6&id=ED361982','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=riddell&pg=6&id=ED361982"><span id="translatedtitle">Specific Learning Difficulties: Policy, Practice and Provision. <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> No. 18.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Riddell, Sheila; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>This paper summarizes a 1990 Scottish study exploring the views of parents, professionals, and voluntary organizations concerning services for children with specific learning difficulties (SLD). It specifically addressed the questions of: (1) to what degree pupils with SLD are a group with distinctive difficulties and needs; (2) how learning…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=translation+AND+linguistic+AND+terminology&pg=2&id=EJ518956','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=translation+AND+linguistic+AND+terminology&pg=2&id=EJ518956"><span id="translatedtitle">E-TIF: An Electronic Terminology <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Format.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Melby, Alan</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Emphasizes the importance of terminology in an age of machine-based translation systems. Discusses differences between lexicography and terminology. Concludes with an argument for a new system based on the Text Encoding Initiative-based notions of elements and attributes. (CFR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160009078','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160009078"><span id="translatedtitle">ISS Payload Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The ISS Payload Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span> Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span>. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span> requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span> requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span> challenges for hardware operability issues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/659613','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/659613"><span id="translatedtitle">Activation of human <span class="hlt">factor</span> IX (Christmas <span class="hlt">factor</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Di Scipio, R G; Kurachi, K; Davie, E W</p> <p>1978-06-01</p> <p>Human <span class="hlt">Factor</span> IX (Christmas <span class="hlt">factor</span>) is a single-chain plasma glycoprotein (mol wt 57,000) that participates in the middle phase of the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It is present in plasma as a zymogen and is converted to a serine protease, <span class="hlt">Factor</span> IXabeta, by <span class="hlt">Factor</span> XIa (activated plasma thromboplastin antecedent) in the presence of calcium ions. In the activation reaction, two internal peptide bonds are hydrolyzed in <span class="hlt">Factor</span> IX. These cleavages occur at a specific arginyl-alanine peptide bond and a specific arginyl-valine peptide bond. This results in the release of an activation peptide (mol wt approximately equal to 11,000) from the internal region of the precursor molecule and the generation of <span class="hlt">Factor</span> IXabeta (mol wt approximately equal to 46,000). <span class="hlt">Factor</span> IXabeta is composed of a light chain (mol wt approximately equal to 18,000) and a heavy chain (mol wt approximately equal to 28,000), and these chains are held together by a disulfide bond(s). The light chain originates from the amino terminal portion of the precursor molecule and has an amino terminal sequence of Tyr-Asn-Ser-Gly-Lys. The heavy chain originates from the carboxyl terminal region of the precursor molecule and contains an amino terminal sequence of Val-Val-Gly-Gly-Glu. The heavy chain of <span class="hlt">Factor</span> IXabeta also contains the active site sequence of Phe-Cys-Ala-Gly-Phe-His-Glu-Gly-Arg-Asp-Ser-Cys-Gln-Gly-Asp-SER-Gly-Gly-Pro. The active site serine residue is shown in capital letters. <span class="hlt">Factor</span> IX is also converted to <span class="hlt">Factor</span> IXaalpha by a protease from Russell's viper venom. This activation reaction, however, occurs in a single step and involves only the cleavage of the internal arginyl-valine peptide bond. Human <span class="hlt">Factor</span> IXabeta was inhibited by human antithrombin III by the formation of a one-to-one complex of enzyme and inhibitor. In this reaction, the inhibitor was tightly bound to the heavy chain of the enzyme. These data indicate that the mechanism of activation of human <span class="hlt">Factor</span> IX and its</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000548.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000548.htm"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factor</span> VII deficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... may be done include: Partial thromboplastin time ( PTT ) Plasma <span class="hlt">factor</span> VII activity Prothrombin time ( PT ) Mixing study ... controlled by getting intravenous (IV) infusions of normal plasma, concentrates of <span class="hlt">factor</span> VII, or genetically produced (recombinant) ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Fibonacci&pg=7&id=EJ332003','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Fibonacci&pg=7&id=EJ332003"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factoring</span> Polynomials and Fibonacci.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schwartzman, Steven</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the <span class="hlt">factoring</span> of polynomials and Fibonacci numbers, offering several challenges teachers can give students. For example, they can give students a polynomial containing large numbers and challenge them to <span class="hlt">factor</span> it. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2077253','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2077253"><span id="translatedtitle">Crystal structure of human intrinsic <span class="hlt">factor</span>: Cobalamin complex at 2.6-Å resolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mathews, F. S.; Gordon, M. M.; Chen, Z.; Rajashankar, K. R.; Ealick, S. E.; Alpers, D. H.; Sukumar, N.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The structure of intrinsic <span class="hlt">factor</span> (IF) in complex with cobalamin (Cbl) was determined at 2.6-Å resolution. The overall fold of the molecule is that of an α6/α6 barrel. It is a two-domain protein, and the Cbl is bound at the interface of the domains in a base-on conformation. Surprisingly, two full-length molecules, each comprising an α- and a β-domain and one Cbl, and two truncated molecules with only an α- domain are present in the same asymmetric unit. The environment around Cbl is dominated by uncharged residues, and the sixth coordinate position of Co2+ is empty. A detailed comparison between the IF-B12 complex and another Cbl transport protein complex, trans-Cbl-B12, has been made. The pH effect on the binding of Cbl analogues in transport proteins is analyzed. A possible basis for the lack of <span class="hlt">interchangeability</span> of human and rat IF receptors is presented. PMID:17954916</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5973..101G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5973..101G"><span id="translatedtitle">Recombinant modular transporters on the basis of epidermal growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> for targeted intracellular delivery of photosensitizers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gilyazova, Dinara G.; Rosenkranz, Andrey A.; Gulak, Pavel V.; Lunin, Vladimir G.; Sergienko, Olga V.; Grin, Mikhail A.; Mironov, Andrey F.; Rubin, Andrey B.; Sobolev, Alexander S.</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>The search for new pharmaceuticals has raised interest in locally-acting drugs which act over short distances within the cell, and for which different cell compartments have different sensitivities. Thus, photosensitizers used in anti-cancer therapy should be transported to the most sensitive subcellular compartments where their action is most pronounced. Earlier, we described the effects of bacterially expressed modular recombinant transporters for photosensitizers comprising a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone as an internalizable, cell-specific ligand, an optimized nuclear localization sequence, an Escherichia coli hemoglobin-like protein as a carrier, and an endosomolytic amphipathic polypeptide. These transporters delivered photosensitizers into the murine melanoma cells nuclei to result in cytotoxic effects 2 orders of magnitude greater than those of nonmodified photosensitizers. Here we describe new transporters possessing the same modules except for a ligand that is replaced with epidermal growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> specific for other cancer cell types. The new transporter modules retained their functional activities within the chimera, this transporter delivered photosensitizers into the human carcinoma cells nuclei to result in photocytotoxic effects almost 3 orders of magnitude greater than those of nonmodified photosensitizers. The obtained results show that ligand modules of such transporters are <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span>, meaning that they can be tailored for particular applications.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=value+AND+latents&pg=6&id=EJ962272','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=value+AND+latents&pg=6&id=EJ962272"><span id="translatedtitle">Multilevel Mixture <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Varriale, Roberta; Vermunt, Jeroen K.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Factor</span> analysis is a statistical method for describing the associations among sets of observed variables in terms of a small number of underlying continuous latent variables. Various authors have proposed multilevel extensions of the <span class="hlt">factor</span> model for the analysis of data sets with a hierarchical structure. These Multilevel <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Models (MFMs)…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=urbano&pg=3&id=EJ673994','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=urbano&pg=3&id=EJ673994"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Simplicity Index.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Proposes an index for assessing the degree of <span class="hlt">factor</span> simplicity in the context of principal components and exploratory <span class="hlt">factor</span> analysis. The index does not depend on the scale of the <span class="hlt">factors</span>, and its maximum and minimum are related only to the degree of simplicity in the loading matrix. (SLD)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920056049&hterms=1583&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231583','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920056049&hterms=1583&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231583"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerostructural safety <span class="hlt">factor</span> criteria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Verderaime, V.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The present modification of the conventional safety <span class="hlt">factor</span> method for aircraft structures evaluation involves the expression of deterministic safety <span class="hlt">factors</span> in probabilistic tolerance limit ratios; these are found to involve a total of three <span class="hlt">factors</span> that control the interference of applied and resistive stress distributions. The deterministic expression is extended so that it may furnish a 'relative ultimate safety' index that encompasses all three distribution <span class="hlt">factors</span>. Operational reliability is developed on the basis of the applied and the yield stress distribution interferences. Industry standards are suggested to be derivable from <span class="hlt">factor</span> selections that are based on the consequences of failure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4242469','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4242469"><span id="translatedtitle">Bayesian Exploratory <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Conti, Gabriella; Frühwirth-Schnatter, Sylvia; Heckman, James J.; Piatek, Rémi</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated <span class="hlt">factor</span> models and simultaneously determines the number of <span class="hlt">factors</span>, the allocation of each measurement to a unique <span class="hlt">factor</span>, and the corresponding <span class="hlt">factor</span> loadings. Classical identification criteria are applied and integrated into our Bayesian procedure to generate models that are stable and clearly interpretable. A Monte Carlo study confirms the validity of the approach. The method is used to produce interpretable low dimensional aggregates from a high dimensional set of psychological measurements. PMID:25431517</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E1287I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E1287I"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of a range of extreme environmental <span class="hlt">factors</span> on tripartite lichen Peltigera aphthosa thallus viability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Irina, Insarova; Dyakov, Max; Ptushenko, Vasiliy; Shtaer, Oksana</p> <p></p> <p>Lichens are symbiotic organisms consisting of at least two genetic different partners: a heterotrophic fungus (mycobiont) and a phototrophic alga or cyanobacterium (photobiont). Lichens are ubiquitous at global scale. These symbiotic organisms represent the dominant type of “vegetation” at 8 - 10% of land (Larson, 1987). Abiotic stress’ resistance is notable for lichens among all eukaryotes. Lichens are often called “extremophiles” for their ability to acclimate the most severe environmental conditions. These features allow regarding lichens as a group of organisms which is potentially able to keep viability under open space conditions and to survive within Mars-like atmosphere types. The research presented was carried out in the network of spacecraft Bion-1 experiments involving the investigation of physiological and ultrastructural changes in biological objects survivable under open space conditions. Similar researches were already conducted on bipartite lichen species. The most attention was paid to the influence of UV and other space radiation types on lichen viability in those works. Thus we have taken tripartite lichen Peltigera aphthosa as a main research object and temperature fluctuations from extremely high to extremely low values in accordance to solar and umbral orbit sides - for the main extreme environmental <span class="hlt">factors</span>. These <span class="hlt">factors</span> were the less studied in previous works. During the research the influence of incubation under anaerobic conditions, multi-time effects of high and low temperatures and their <span class="hlt">interchange</span> on respiratory metabolism, photosynthetic apparatus condition and the ultrastructure of P. aphthosa thalli was assessed. The data obtained demonstrate that activity either mycobiont or photobiont in tripartite lichen Peltigera aphthosa keep near unchanged under influence of all stress <span class="hlt">factors</span> explored on dry thalli.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvD..86b3532B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvD..86b3532B"><span id="translatedtitle">New scale <span class="hlt">factor</span> measure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bousso, Raphael</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The computation of probabilities in an eternally inflating universe requires a regulator or “measure.” The scale <span class="hlt">factor</span> time measure truncates the Universe when a congruence of timelike geodesics has expanded by a fixed volume <span class="hlt">factor</span>. This definition breaks down if the generating congruence is contracting—a serious limitation that excludes from consideration gravitationally bound regions such as our own. Here we propose a closely related regulator which is well defined in the entire spacetime. The new scale <span class="hlt">factor</span> cutoff restricts to events with a scale <span class="hlt">factor</span> below a given value. Since the scale <span class="hlt">factor</span> vanishes at caustics and crunches, this cutoff always includes an infinite number of disconnected future regions. We show that this does not lead to divergences. The resulting measure combines desirable features of the old scale <span class="hlt">factor</span> cutoff and of the light-cone time cutoff, while eliminating some of the disadvantages of each.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010866','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010866"><span id="translatedtitle">Analytic Couple Modeling Introducing Device Design <span class="hlt">Factor</span>, Fin <span class="hlt">Factor</span>, Thermal Diffusivity <span class="hlt">Factor</span>, and Inductance <span class="hlt">Factor</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A set of convenient thermoelectric device solutions have been derived in order to capture a number of <span class="hlt">factors</span> which are previously only resolved with numerical techniques. The concise conversion efficiency equations derived from governing equations provide intuitive and straight-forward design guidelines. These guidelines allow for better device design without requiring detailed numerical modeling. The analytical modeling accounts for <span class="hlt">factors</span> such as i) variable temperature boundary conditions, ii) lateral heat transfer, iii) temperature variable material properties, and iv) transient operation. New dimensionless parameters, similar to the figure of merit, are introduced including the device design <span class="hlt">factor</span>, fin <span class="hlt">factor</span>, thermal diffusivity <span class="hlt">factor</span>, and inductance <span class="hlt">factor</span>. These new device <span class="hlt">factors</span> allow for the straight-forward description of phenomenon generally only captured with numerical work otherwise. As an example a device design <span class="hlt">factor</span> of 0.38, which accounts for thermal resistance of the hot and cold shoes, can be used to calculate a conversion efficiency of 2.28 while the ideal conversion efficiency based on figure of merit alone would be 6.15. Likewise an ideal couple with efficiency of 6.15 will be reduced to 5.33 when lateral heat is accounted for with a fin <span class="hlt">factor</span> of 1.0.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=factors+NOT+probability&pg=6&id=EJ945603','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=factors+NOT+probability&pg=6&id=EJ945603"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploratory Bi-<span class="hlt">Factor</span> Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jennrich, Robert I.; Bentler, Peter M.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Bi-<span class="hlt">factor</span> analysis is a form of confirmatory <span class="hlt">factor</span> analysis originally introduced by Holzinger. The bi-<span class="hlt">factor</span> model has a general <span class="hlt">factor</span> and a number of group <span class="hlt">factors</span>. The purpose of this article is to introduce an exploratory form of bi-<span class="hlt">factor</span> analysis. An advantage of using exploratory bi-<span class="hlt">factor</span> analysis is that one need not provide a specific…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2924025','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2924025"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> of schizoid personality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Raine, A; Allbutt, J</p> <p>1989-02-01</p> <p>The increasing use of schizoid personality scales with normals has led to a number of validation studies, but to date there are no published analyses of the factorial structure of these scales. This study presents results of <span class="hlt">factor</span> analyses of schizoid personality scales in an initial attempt to delineate their factorial structure. Questionnaires were administered to 114 male and female undergraduates and <span class="hlt">factor</span> analysed using Varimax, Quartimax, and Oblique rotations. A two-<span class="hlt">factor</span> varimax solution yielded a first <span class="hlt">factor</span> accounting for 49 per cent of total unrotated variance with high (0.70 to 0.91) loadings from Hallucinatory predisposition, Perceptual aberration, Schizophrenism, STA and STB scales, and was interpreted as reflecting a general <span class="hlt">factor</span> of schizoid personality disorder. Psychoticism and Social anhedonia loaded on a second <span class="hlt">factor</span> accounting for 20 per cent of the variance which was uncorrelated (r = 0.09) with <span class="hlt">factor</span> 1. This <span class="hlt">factor</span> solution was closely replicated using quartimax and oblimin rotation criteria. It is concluded that Social anhedonia and Psychoticism represent a separate dimension from other scales which reflect the more positive features of schizoid personality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED010193.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED010193.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">FACTORS</span> AFFECTING PITCH DISCRIMINATION.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>BERGAN, JOHN R.</p> <p></p> <p>EFFECTS OF TONAL MEMORY OF TWO KINDS OF <span class="hlt">FACTORS</span> WERE STUDIED. THE <span class="hlt">FACTORS</span> WERE (1) THE CHARACTERISTICS OF STIMULI PRESENTED TO THE SUBJECT IN A PITCH IDENTIFICATION TASK, AND (2) THOSE EFFECTING THE RESPONSE THAT THE SUBJECT MAKES IN SUCH A TASK. FIVE HYPOTHESES WERE ADVANCED FOR STUDY. THE UNDERLYING ASSUMPTION WAS THAT THERE ARE IMPORTANT…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950017172','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950017172"><span id="translatedtitle">Block LU <span class="hlt">factorization</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Demmel, James W.; Higham, Nicholas J.; Schreiber, Robert S.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Many of the currently popular 'block algorithms' are scalar algorithms in which the operations have been grouped and reordered into matrix operations. One genuine block algorithm in practical use is block LU <span class="hlt">factorization</span>, and this has recently been shown by Demmel and Higham to be unstable in general. It is shown here that block LU <span class="hlt">factorization</span> is stable if A is block diagonally dominant by columns. Moreover, for a general matrix the level of instability in block LU <span class="hlt">factorization</span> can be founded in terms of the condition number kappa(A) and the growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> for Gaussian elimination without pivoting. A consequence is that block LU <span class="hlt">factorization</span> is stable for a matrix A that is symmetric positive definite or point diagonally dominant by rows or columns as long as A is well-conditioned.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16358596','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16358596"><span id="translatedtitle">[Vascular <span class="hlt">factors</span> in dementia].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bidzan, Leszek</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Cerebrovascular <span class="hlt">factors</span> are a common cause of dementia or contribute to cognitive decline in other dementias. Studies showing that cerebrovascular <span class="hlt">factors</span> are the risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> for neurodegenerative dementias, especially Alzheimer's disease. Practically all neurodegenerative dementias have a vascular component that reduces cerebral perfusion and has great impact on the clinical picture. Recent data support the view that the neurodegenerative process is caused by cerebrovascular mechanisms. The results showed that patients with vascular cognitive impairment have a typical clinical picture. Various important non-cognitive features are caused by cerebrovascular <span class="hlt">factors</span> and are associated with a more rapid course of illness. On the other hand the term vascular diseases or cerebrovascular <span class="hlt">factors</span> include a variety of vascular pathologies. PMID:16358596</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3583136','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3583136"><span id="translatedtitle">Risk <span class="hlt">Factors</span> for Tuberculosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Narasimhan, Padmanesan; Wood, James; MacIntyre, Chandini Raina; Mathai, Dilip</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk <span class="hlt">factors</span>. Exogenous <span class="hlt">factors</span> play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key <span class="hlt">factors</span>. Similarly endogenous <span class="hlt">factors</span> lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnutrition, and young age), emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral <span class="hlt">factors</span> are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these <span class="hlt">factors</span> along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli. PMID:23476764</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10668978','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10668978"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> signalling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Laat, S W; Boonstra, J; Defize, L H; Kruijer, W; van der Saag, P T; Tertoolen, L G; van Zoelen, E J; den Hertog, J</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Signalling between cells in the developing vertebrate embryo is essential for normal embryonic development. In the mid 1970's, signal transduction research started at the Hubrecht Laboratory with special emphasis on analysis of the signalling mechanisms that direct cell proliferation and differentiation. The introduction of in vitro model systems contributed tremendously to the success of the signal transduction research at the Hubrecht Laboratory. Initially neuroblastoma cell lines, and later embryonal carcinoma and embryonal stem cells played an important role in identification of the molecular key players in developmental signalling. For instance, embryonal carcinoma cells were used to identify and characterise polypeptide growth <span class="hlt">factors</span>. Growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> signalling research was extended to analysis of growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> receptor activation. Moreover, the second messenger systems that are linked to growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> receptors were studied, as well as the nuclear responses to growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> receptor activation. Finally, the role of growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> signalling in differentiation was established using embryonal carcinoma cells. Here, we will review work that was characteristic for the growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> receptor signalling research that was done at the Hubrecht Laboratory between 1980 and the early 1990's.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20030767','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20030767"><span id="translatedtitle">Conundrums with uncertainty <span class="hlt">factors</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cooke, Roger</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>The practice of uncertainty <span class="hlt">factors</span> as applied to noncancer endpoints in the IRIS database harkens back to traditional safety <span class="hlt">factors</span>. In the era before risk quantification, these were used to build in a "margin of safety." As risk quantification takes hold, the safety <span class="hlt">factor</span> methods yield to quantitative risk calculations to guarantee safety. Many authors believe that uncertainty <span class="hlt">factors</span> can be given a probabilistic interpretation as ratios of response rates, and that the reference values computed according to the IRIS methodology can thus be converted to random variables whose distributions can be computed with Monte Carlo methods, based on the distributions of the uncertainty <span class="hlt">factors</span>. Recent proposals from the National Research Council echo this view. Based on probabilistic arguments, several authors claim that the current practice of uncertainty <span class="hlt">factors</span> is overprotective. When interpreted probabilistically, uncertainty <span class="hlt">factors</span> entail very strong assumptions on the underlying response rates. For example, the <span class="hlt">factor</span> for extrapolating from animal to human is the same whether the dosage is chronic or subchronic. Together with independence assumptions, these assumptions entail that the covariance matrix of the logged response rates is singular. In other words, the accumulated assumptions entail a log-linear dependence between the response rates. This in turn means that any uncertainty analysis based on these assumptions is ill-conditioned; it effectively computes uncertainty conditional on a set of zero probability. The practice of uncertainty <span class="hlt">factors</span> is due for a thorough review. Two directions are briefly sketched, one based on standard regression models, and one based on nonparametric continuous Bayesian belief nets. PMID:20030767</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070016634&hterms=Holden&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DHolden','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070016634&hterms=Holden&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DHolden"><span id="translatedtitle">Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span> in the Design of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Whitmore, Mihriban; Byrne, Vicky; Holden, Kritina</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>NASA s Space Exploration vision for humans to venture to the moon and beyond provides interesting human <span class="hlt">factors</span> opportunities and challenges. The Human Engineering group at NASA has been involved in the initial phases of development of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Orion. Getting involved at the ground level, Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span> engineers are beginning to influence design; this involvement is expected to continue throughout the development lifecycle. The information presented here describes what has been done to date, what is currently going on, and what is expected in the future. During Phase 1, prior to the contract award to Lockheed Martin, the Human Engineering group was involved in generating requirements, conducting preliminary task analyses based on interviews with subject matter experts in all vehicle systems areas, and developing preliminary concepts of operations based on the task analysis results. In addition, some early evaluations to look at CEV net habitable volume were also conducted. The program is currently in Phase 2, which is broken down into design cycles, including System Readiness Review, Preliminary Design Review, and Critical Design Review. Currently, there are ongoing Human Engineering Technical <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Meetings being held with both NASA and Lockheed Martin in order to establish processes, desired products, and schedules. Multiple design trades and quick-look evaluations (e.g. display device layout and external window size) are also in progress. Future Human Engineering activities include requirement verification assessments and crew/stakeholder evaluations of increasing fidelity. During actual flights of the CEV, the Human Engineering group is expected to be involved in in-situ testing and lessons learned reporting, in order to benefit human space flight beyond the initial CEV program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22156552','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22156552"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factorizations</span> in finite groups</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kulikov, Viktor S</p> <p>2013-02-28</p> <p>A necessary condition for uniqueness of <span class="hlt">factorizations</span> of elements of a finite group G with <span class="hlt">factors</span> belonging to a union of some conjugacy classes of G is given. This condition is sufficient if the number of <span class="hlt">factors</span> belonging to each conjugacy class is big enough. The result is applied to the problem on the number of irreducible components of the Hurwitz space of degree d marked coverings of P{sup 1} with given Galois group G and fixed collection of local monodromies. Bibliography: 9 titles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21322517','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21322517"><span id="translatedtitle">Graviton emission from simply rotating Kerr-de Sitter black holes: Transverse traceless tensor graviton modes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Doukas, Jason; Cho, H. T.; Cornell, A. S.; Naylor, Wade</p> <p>2009-08-15</p> <p>In this article we present results for tensor graviton modes (in seven dimensions and greater, n{>=}3) for <span class="hlt">gray-body</span> <span class="hlt">factors</span> of Kerr-de Sitter black holes and for Hawking radiation from simply rotating (n+4)-dimensional Kerr black holes. Although there is some subtlety with defining the Hawking temperature of a Kerr-de Sitter black hole, we present some preliminary results for emissions assuming the standard Hawking normalization and a Bousso-Hawking-like normalization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000549.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000549.htm"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factor</span> II deficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... blood. It leads to problems with blood clotting (coagulation). <span class="hlt">Factor</span> II is also known as prothrombin. ... blood clots form. This process is called the coagulation cascade. It involves special proteins called coagulation, or ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780028214&hterms=bacterial+growth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dbacterial%2Bgrowth','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780028214&hterms=bacterial+growth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dbacterial%2Bgrowth"><span id="translatedtitle">New microbial growth <span class="hlt">factor</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bok, S. H.; Casida, L. E., Jr.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A screening procedure was used to isolate from soil a Penicillium sp., two bacterial isolates, and a Streptomyces sp. that produced a previously unknown microbial growth <span class="hlt">factor</span>. This <span class="hlt">factor</span> was an absolute growth requirement for three soil bacteria. The Penicillium sp. and one of the bacteria requiring the <span class="hlt">factor</span>, an Arthrobacter sp., were selected for more extensive study concerning the production and characteristics of the growth <span class="hlt">factor</span>. It did not seem to be related to the siderochromes. It was not present in soil extract, rumen fluid, or any other medium component tested. It appears to be a glycoprotein of high molecular weight and has high specific activity. When added to the diets for a meadow-vole mammalian test system, it caused an increased consumption of diet without a concurrent increase in rate of weight gain.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3845430','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3845430"><span id="translatedtitle">Rheumatoid <span class="hlt">Factors</span>: Clinical Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Castelli, Roberto</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Rheumatoid <span class="hlt">factors</span> are antibodies directed against the Fc region of immunoglobulin G. First detected in patients with rheumatoid arthritis 70 years ago, they can also be found in patients with other autoimmune and nonautoimmune conditions, as well as in healthy subjects. Rheumatoid <span class="hlt">factors</span> form part of the workup for the differential diagnosis of arthropathies. In clinical practice, it is recommended to measure anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and rheumatoid <span class="hlt">factors</span> together because anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies alone are only moderately sensitive, and the combination of the two markers improves diagnostic accuracy, especially in the case of early rheumatoid arthritis. Furthermore, different rheumatoid <span class="hlt">factor</span> isotypes alone or in combination can be helpful when managing rheumatoid arthritis patients, from the time of diagnosis until deciding on the choice of therapeutic strategy. PMID:24324289</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4063214','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4063214"><span id="translatedtitle">Automated <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Slice Sampling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tibbits, Matthew M.; Groendyke, Chris; Haran, Murali; Liechty, John C.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms offer a very general approach for sampling from arbitrary distributions. However, designing and tuning MCMC algorithms for each new distribution, can be challenging and time consuming. It is particularly difficult to create an efficient sampler when there is strong dependence among the variables in a multivariate distribution. We describe a two-pronged approach for constructing efficient, automated MCMC algorithms: (1) we propose the “<span class="hlt">factor</span> slice sampler”, a generalization of the univariate slice sampler where we treat the selection of a coordinate basis (<span class="hlt">factors</span>) as an additional tuning parameter, and (2) we develop an approach for automatically selecting tuning parameters in order to construct an efficient <span class="hlt">factor</span> slice sampler. In addition to automating the <span class="hlt">factor</span> slice sampler, our tuning approach also applies to the standard univariate slice samplers. We demonstrate the efficiency and general applicability of our automated MCMC algorithm with a number of illustrative examples. PMID:24955002</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990117007','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990117007"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerospace Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jordan, Kevin</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The following contains the final report on the activities related to the Cooperative Agreement between the human <span class="hlt">factors</span> research group at NASA Ames Research Center and the Psychology Department at San Jose State University. The participating NASA Ames division has been, as the organization has changed, the Aerospace Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span> Research Division (ASHFRD and Code FL), the Flight Management and Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span> Research Division (Code AF), and the Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span> Research and Technology Division (Code IH). The inclusive dates for the report are November 1, 1984 to January 31, 1999. Throughout the years, approximately 170 persons worked on the cooperative agreements in one capacity or another. The Cooperative Agreement provided for research personnel to collaborate with senior scientists in ongoing NASA ARC research. Finally, many post-MA/MS and post-doctoral personnel contributed to the projects. It is worth noting that 10 former cooperative agreement personnel were hired into civil service positions directly from the agreements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/vwf/tab/test','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/vwf/tab/test"><span id="translatedtitle">von Willebrand <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Test</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Platelet Count , Platelet Function Tests , Complete Blood Count , Coagulation <span class="hlt">Factor</span> VIII , PT , PTT At a Glance Test ... a protein , one of several components of the coagulation system that work together to stop bleeding and ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20304701','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20304701"><span id="translatedtitle">WRKY transcription <span class="hlt">factors</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rushton, Paul J; Somssich, Imre E; Ringler, Patricia; Shen, Qingxi J</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>WRKY transcription <span class="hlt">factors</span> are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants and form integral parts of signalling webs that modulate many plant processes. Here, we review recent significant progress in WRKY transcription <span class="hlt">factor</span> research. New findings illustrate that WRKY proteins often act as repressors as well as activators, and that members of the family play roles in both the repression and de-repression of important plant processes. Furthermore, it is becoming clear that a single WRKY transcription <span class="hlt">factor</span> might be involved in regulating several seemingly disparate processes. Mechanisms of signalling and transcriptional regulation are being dissected, uncovering WRKY protein functions via interactions with a diverse array of protein partners, including MAP kinases, MAP kinase kinases, 14-3-3 proteins, calmodulin, histone deacetylases, resistance proteins and other WRKY transcription <span class="hlt">factors</span>. WRKY genes exhibit extensive autoregulation and cross-regulation that facilitates transcriptional reprogramming in a dynamic web with built-in redundancy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1067339','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1067339"><span id="translatedtitle">FGF growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> analogs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua; Takahashi, Kazuyuki</p> <p>2012-07-24</p> <p>The present invention provides a fibroblast growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhyA..390.2531L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhyA..390.2531L"><span id="translatedtitle">Interest rates <span class="hlt">factor</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Sangwook; Kim, Min Jae; Kim, Soo Yong</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Interdependence of the interest rates of the US, the UK, and Japan is analyzed in this work by means of spectral analysis and network methods. A predominant effective <span class="hlt">factor</span> in the interest rate market is which country floats a bond issue, and a minor effective <span class="hlt">factor</span> is time to maturity of bonds. Power-law cross-correlation among different countries is analyzed by the detrended cross-correlation analysis method. Long-range cross-correlation is found between the first <span class="hlt">factors</span> of interest rate, while there is no cross-correlation between some of the second <span class="hlt">factors</span>. The tail dependency is indicated by tail indices from Archimedean copulas, including an empirical copula. In contrast to other pairs, the US-UK first <span class="hlt">factor</span> pair has tail dependencies in both the upper-tail and lower-tail. Dynamic properties of interest rate are modeled by a stochastic volatility model. The properties of mean reverting and volatility clustering are observed and reflected in this model. The proposed simulation method combines the dependence structures and the <span class="hlt">factor</span> dynamics model; it simultaneously describes the interest rates of different countries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/711853','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/711853"><span id="translatedtitle">Purification and characterization of an abnormal <span class="hlt">factor</span> IX (Christmas <span class="hlt">factor</span>) molecule. <span class="hlt">Factor</span> IX Chapel Hill.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chung, K S; Madar, D A; Goldsmith, J C; Kingdon, H S; Roberts, H R</p> <p>1978-11-01</p> <p>Human <span class="hlt">Factor</span> IX (Christmas <span class="hlt">factor</span>) was isolated from the plasma of a patient with mild hemophilia B. The patient's plasma contained 5% <span class="hlt">Factor</span> IX clotting activity but 100% <span class="hlt">Factor</span> IX antigenic activity as determined by immunological assays, which included inhibitor neutralization and a radioimmunoassay for <span class="hlt">Factor</span> IX. This abnormal <span class="hlt">Factor</span> IX is called <span class="hlt">Factor</span> IX Chapel Hill (<span class="hlt">Factor</span> IXCH). Both normal <span class="hlt">Factor</span> IX and <span class="hlt">Factor</span> IXCH have tyrosine as the NH2-terminal amino acid. The two proteins have a similar molecular weight, a similar amino acid analysis, the same number of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues (10 gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues), and a similar carbohydrate content. Both exist as a single-chain glycoprotein in plasma. The major difference between normal <span class="hlt">Factor</span> IX and <span class="hlt">Factor</span> IXCH is that the latter exhibits delayed activation to <span class="hlt">Factor</span> IXa in the presence of <span class="hlt">Factor</span> XIa and Ca2+. Thus, <span class="hlt">Factor</span> IXCH differs from other previously described abnormal <span class="hlt">Factor</span> IX molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4856970','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4856970"><span id="translatedtitle">ConBind: motif-aware cross-species alignment for the identification of functional transcription <span class="hlt">factor</span> binding sites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lelieveld, Stefan H.; Schütte, Judith; Dijkstra, Maurits J.J.; Bawono, Punto; Kinston, Sarah J.; Göttgens, Berthold; Heringa, Jaap; Bonzanni, Nicola</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated by transcription <span class="hlt">factors</span> (TFs) binding to promoter as well as distal enhancers. TFs recognize short, but specific binding sites (TFBSs) that are located within the promoter and enhancer regions. Functionally relevant TFBSs are often highly conserved during evolution leaving a strong phylogenetic signal. While multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a potent tool to detect the phylogenetic signal, the current MSA implementations are optimized to align the maximum number of identical nucleotides. This approach might result in the omission of conserved motifs that contain <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> nucleotides such as the ETS motif (IUPAC code: GGAW). Here, we introduce ConBind, a novel method to enhance alignment of short motifs, even if their mutual sequence similarity is only partial. ConBind improves the identification of conserved TFBSs by improving the alignment accuracy of TFBS families within orthologous DNA sequences. Functional validation of the Gfi1b + 13 enhancer reveals that ConBind identifies additional functionally important ETS binding sites that were missed by all other tested alignment tools. In addition to the analysis of known regulatory regions, our web tool is useful for the analysis of TFBSs on so far unknown DNA regions identified through ChIP-sequencing. PMID:26721389</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26721389','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26721389"><span id="translatedtitle">ConBind: motif-aware cross-species alignment for the identification of functional transcription <span class="hlt">factor</span> binding sites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lelieveld, Stefan H; Schütte, Judith; Dijkstra, Maurits J J; Bawono, Punto; Kinston, Sarah J; Göttgens, Berthold; Heringa, Jaap; Bonzanni, Nicola</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated by transcription <span class="hlt">factors</span> (TFs) binding to promoter as well as distal enhancers. TFs recognize short, but specific binding sites (TFBSs) that are located within the promoter and enhancer regions. Functionally relevant TFBSs are often highly conserved during evolution leaving a strong phylogenetic signal. While multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a potent tool to detect the phylogenetic signal, the current MSA implementations are optimized to align the maximum number of identical nucleotides. This approach might result in the omission of conserved motifs that contain <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> nucleotides such as the ETS motif (IUPAC code: GGAW). Here, we introduce ConBind, a novel method to enhance alignment of short motifs, even if their mutual sequence similarity is only partial. ConBind improves the identification of conserved TFBSs by improving the alignment accuracy of TFBS families within orthologous DNA sequences. Functional validation of the Gfi1b + 13 enhancer reveals that ConBind identifies additional functionally important ETS binding sites that were missed by all other tested alignment tools. In addition to the analysis of known regulatory regions, our web tool is useful for the analysis of TFBSs on so far unknown DNA regions identified through ChIP-sequencing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=data+AND+structure&pg=6&id=EJ890287','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=data+AND+structure&pg=6&id=EJ890287"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factor</span> Loading Estimation Error and Stability Using Exploratory <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sass, Daniel A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Exploratory <span class="hlt">factor</span> analysis (EFA) is commonly employed to evaluate the <span class="hlt">factor</span> structure of measures with dichotomously scored items. Generally, only the estimated <span class="hlt">factor</span> loadings are provided with no reference to significance tests, confidence intervals, and/or estimated <span class="hlt">factor</span> loading standard errors. This simulation study assessed <span class="hlt">factor</span> loading…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930081016','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930081016"><span id="translatedtitle">A load <span class="hlt">factor</span> formula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Miller, Roy G</p> <p>1927-01-01</p> <p>The ultimate test of a load <span class="hlt">factor</span> formula is experience. The chief advantages of a semi rational formula over arbitrary <span class="hlt">factors</span> are that it fairs in between points of experience and it differentiates according to variables within a type. Structural failure of an airplane apparently safe according to the formula would call for a specific change in the formula. The best class of airplanes with which to check a load <span class="hlt">factor</span> formula seems to be those which have experienced structural failure. Table I comprises a list of the airplanes which have experienced failure in flight traceable to the wing structure. The load <span class="hlt">factor</span> by formula is observed to be greater than the designed strength in each case, without a single exception. Table II comprises the load <span class="hlt">factor</span> by formula with the designed strength of a number of well-known service types. The formula indicates that by far the majority of these have ample structural strength. One case considered here in deriving a suitable formula is that of a heavy load carrier of large size and practically no reserve power.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22278313','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22278313"><span id="translatedtitle">Antiretroviral restriction <span class="hlt">factors</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hatziioannou, Theodora; Bieniasz, Paul D</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Studies of retroviruses have been instrumental in revealing the existence of an array of antiviral proteins, or restriction <span class="hlt">factors</span>, and the mechanisms by which they function. Some restriction <span class="hlt">factors</span> appear to specifically inhibit retrovirus replication, while others have a broader antiviral action. Here, we briefly review current understanding of the mechanisms by which several such proteins exert antiviral activity. We also discuss how retroviruses have evolved to evade or antagonize antiviral proteins, including through the action of viral accessory proteins. Restriction <span class="hlt">factors</span>, their viral targets and antagonists have exerted evolutionary pressure on each other, resulting in specialization and barriers to cross-species transmission. Potentially, this recently revealed intrinsic system of antiviral immunity might be mobilized for therapeutic benefit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1178377','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1178377"><span id="translatedtitle">Geothermal Plant Capacity <span class="hlt">Factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The capacity <span class="hlt">factors</span> recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity <span class="hlt">factor</span> is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity <span class="hlt">factor</span> is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/166450','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/166450"><span id="translatedtitle">Electromagnetic nucleon form <span class="hlt">factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bender, A.; Roberts, C.D.; Frank, M.R.</p> <p>1995-08-01</p> <p>The Dyson-Schwinger equation framework is employed to obtain expressions for the electromagnetic nucleon form <span class="hlt">factor</span>. In generalized impulse approximation the form <span class="hlt">factor</span> depends on the dressed quark propagator, the dressed quark-photon vertex, which is crucial to ensuring current conservation, and the nucleon Faddeev amplitude. The approach manifestly incorporates the large space-like-q{sup 2} renormalization group properties of QCD and allows a realistic extrapolation to small space-like-q{sup 2}. This extrapolation allows one to relate experimental data to the form of the quark-quark interaction at small space-like-q{sup 2}, which is presently unknown. The approach provides a means of unifying, within a single framework, the treatment of the perturbative and nonperturbative regimes of QCD. The wealth of experimental nucleon form <span class="hlt">factor</span> data, over a large range of q{sup 2}, ensures that this application will provide an excellent environment to test, improve and extend our approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810010133','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810010133"><span id="translatedtitle">DSN human <span class="hlt">factors</span> project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chafin, R. L.; Martin, T. H.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The project plan was to hold focus groups to identify the <span class="hlt">factors</span> influencing the ease of use characteristics of software and to bond the problem. A questionnaire survey was conducted to evaluate those <span class="hlt">factors</span> which were more appropriately measured with that method. The performance oriented <span class="hlt">factors</span> were analyzed and relationships hypothesized. The hypotheses were put to test in the experimental phase of the project. In summary, the initial analysis indicates that there is an initial performance effect favoring computer controlled dialogue but the advantage fades fast as operators become experienced. The user documentation style is seen to have a significant effect on performance. The menu and prompt command formats are preferred by inexperienced operators. The short form mnemonic is least favored. There is no clear best command format but the short form mnemonic is clearly the worst.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1160234','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1160234"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-<span class="hlt">factor</span> authentication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G</p> <p>2014-10-21</p> <p>Detection and deterrence of spoofing of user authentication may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a hardware device for authenticating a user of the hardware device. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes an internal physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a PUF value. Combining logic is coupled to receive the PUF value, combines the PUF value with one or more other authentication <span class="hlt">factors</span> to generate a multi-<span class="hlt">factor</span> authentication value. A key generator is coupled to generate a private key and a public key based on the multi-<span class="hlt">factor</span> authentication value while a decryptor is coupled to receive an authentication challenge posed to the hardware device and encrypted with the public key and coupled to output a response to the authentication challenge decrypted with the private key.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2869336','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2869336"><span id="translatedtitle">Psychological <span class="hlt">Factors</span> in Asthma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Asthma has long been considered a condition in which psychological <span class="hlt">factors</span> have a role. As in many illnesses, psychological variables may affect outcome in asthma via their effects on treatment adherence and symptom reporting. Emerging evidence suggests that the relation between asthma and psychological <span class="hlt">factors</span> may be more complex than that, however. Central cognitive processes may influence not only the interpretation of asthma symptoms but also the manifestation of measurable changes in immune and physiologic markers of asthma. Furthermore, asthma and major depressive disorder share several risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> and have similar patterns of dysregulation in key biologic systems, including the neuroendocrine stress response, cytokines, and neuropeptides. Despite the evidence that depression is common in people with asthma and exerts a negative impact on outcome, few treatment studies have examined whether improving symptoms of depression do, in fact, result in better control of asthma symptoms or improved quality of life in patients with asthma. PMID:20525122</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-9804659&hterms=clinical+trials&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dclinical%2Btrials','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-9804659&hterms=clinical+trials&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dclinical%2Btrials"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factor</span> D Enzyme</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The trauma caused by the open heart surgery often triggers massive inflammation because the immune system overreacts. <span class="hlt">Factor</span> D, the protein which plays a key role in the biological steps that activate this immune response prevents the imune system from inappropriately rurning out of control, allowing the patient to recover more rapidly. <span class="hlt">Factor</span> D blockers, with their great potential to alleviate the complication of inflammation associated with heart surgery, are now being developed for clinical trials. These new drugs, developed from space research, should be commercially available as soon as year 2001.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3439975','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3439975"><span id="translatedtitle">The Transcription <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Encyclopedia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Here we present the Transcription <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription <span class="hlt">factors</span> (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130 mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written and vetted by experts in the field. TFe is available at http://www.cisreg.ca/tfe. PMID:22458515</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22458515','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22458515"><span id="translatedtitle">The transcription <span class="hlt">factor</span> encyclopedia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yusuf, Dimas; Butland, Stefanie L; Swanson, Magdalena I; Bolotin, Eugene; Ticoll, Amy; Cheung, Warren A; Zhang, Xiao Yu Cindy; Dickman, Christopher T D; Fulton, Debra L; Lim, Jonathan S; Schnabl, Jake M; Ramos, Oscar H P; Vasseur-Cognet, Mireille; de Leeuw, Charles N; Simpson, Elizabeth M; Ryffel, Gerhart U; Lam, Eric W-F; Kist, Ralf; Wilson, Miranda S C; Marco-Ferreres, Raquel; Brosens, Jan J; Beccari, Leonardo L; Bovolenta, Paola; Benayoun, Bérénice A; Monteiro, Lara J; Schwenen, Helma D C; Grontved, Lars; Wederell, Elizabeth; Mandrup, Susanne; Veitia, Reiner A; Chakravarthy, Harini; Hoodless, Pamela A; Mancarelli, M Michela; Torbett, Bruce E; Banham, Alison H; Reddy, Sekhar P; Cullum, Rebecca L; Liedtke, Michaela; Tschan, Mario P; Vaz, Michelle; Rizzino, Angie; Zannini, Mariastella; Frietze, Seth; Farnham, Peggy J; Eijkelenboom, Astrid; Brown, Philip J; Laperrière, David; Leprince, Dominique; de Cristofaro, Tiziana; Prince, Kelly L; Putker, Marrit; del Peso, Luis; Camenisch, Gieri; Wenger, Roland H; Mikula, Michal; Rozendaal, Marieke; Mader, Sylvie; Ostrowski, Jerzy; Rhodes, Simon J; Van Rechem, Capucine; Boulay, Gaylor; Olechnowicz, Sam W Z; Breslin, Mary B; Lan, Michael S; Nanan, Kyster K; Wegner, Michael; Hou, Juan; Mullen, Rachel D; Colvin, Stephanie C; Noy, Peter John; Webb, Carol F; Witek, Matthew E; Ferrell, Scott; Daniel, Juliet M; Park, Jason; Waldman, Scott A; Peet, Daniel J; Taggart, Michael; Jayaraman, Padma-Sheela; Karrich, Julien J; Blom, Bianca; Vesuna, Farhad; O'Geen, Henriette; Sun, Yunfu; Gronostajski, Richard M; Woodcroft, Mark W; Hough, Margaret R; Chen, Edwin; Europe-Finner, G Nicholas; Karolczak-Bayatti, Magdalena; Bailey, Jarrod; Hankinson, Oliver; Raman, Venu; LeBrun, David P; Biswal, Shyam; Harvey, Christopher J; DeBruyne, Jason P; Hogenesch, John B; Hevner, Robert F; Héligon, Christophe; Luo, Xin M; Blank, Marissa Cathleen; Millen, Kathleen Joyce; Sharlin, David S; Forrest, Douglas; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Zhao, Chunyan; Mishima, Yuriko; Sinha, Satrajit; Chakrabarti, Rumela; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Sladek, Frances M; Bradley, Philip H; Wasserman, Wyeth W</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Here we present the Transcription <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription <span class="hlt">factors</span> (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130 mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written and vetted by experts in the field. TFe is available at http://www.cisreg.ca/tfe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5349801','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5349801"><span id="translatedtitle">Peptide growth <span class="hlt">factors</span>, part A</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barnes, D.; Sirbasku, D.A.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>This book contains information on the following topics: Epidermal Growth <span class="hlt">Factor</span>;Transforming Growth <span class="hlt">Factors</span>;Bone and Cartilage Growth <span class="hlt">Factors</span>;Somatomedin/Insulin-Like Growth <span class="hlt">Factors</span>;Techniques for the Study of Growth <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Activity;Assays, Phosphorylation, and Surface Membrane Effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230129-radiation-view-factor-shadowing','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230129-radiation-view-factor-shadowing"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiation View <span class="hlt">Factor</span> With Shadowing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p>1992-02-24</p> <p>FACET calculates the radiation geometric view <span class="hlt">factor</span> (alternatively called shape <span class="hlt">factor</span>, angle <span class="hlt">factor</span>, or configuration <span class="hlt">factor</span>) between surfaces for axisymmetric, two-dimensional planar and three-dimensional geometries with interposed third surface obstructions. FACET was developed to calculate view <span class="hlt">factors</span> as input data to finite element heat transfer analysis codes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22image+analysis%22&pg=7&id=EJ026017','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22image+analysis%22&pg=7&id=EJ026017"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factor</span> Analysis and Counseling Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Weiss, David J.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Topics discussed include <span class="hlt">factor</span> analysis versus cluster analysis, analysis of Q correlation matrices, ipsativity and <span class="hlt">factor</span> analysis, and tests for the significance of a correlation matrix prior to application of <span class="hlt">factor</span> analytic techniques. Techniques for <span class="hlt">factor</span> extraction discussed include principal components, canonical <span class="hlt">factor</span> analysis, alpha…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040201530','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040201530"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mount, Frances; Foley, Tico</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span> Engineering, often referred to as Ergonomics, is a science that applies a detailed understanding of human characteristics, capabilities, and limitations to the design, evaluation, and operation of environments, tools, and systems for work and daily living. Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span> is the investigation, design, and evaluation of equipment, techniques, procedures, facilities, and human interfaces, and encompasses all aspects of human activity from manual labor to mental processing and leisure time enjoyments. In spaceflight applications, human <span class="hlt">factors</span> engineering seeks to: (1) ensure that a task can be accomplished, (2) maintain productivity during spaceflight, and (3) ensure the habitability of the pressurized living areas. DSO 904 served as a vehicle for the verification and elucidation of human <span class="hlt">factors</span> principles and tools in the microgravity environment. Over six flights, twelve topics were investigated. This study documented the strengths and limitations of human operators in a complex, multifaceted, and unique environment. By focusing on the man-machine interface in space flight activities, it was determined which designs allow astronauts to be optimally productive during valuable and costly space flights. Among the most promising areas of inquiry were procedures, tools, habitat, environmental conditions, tasking, work load, flexibility, and individual control over work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4782561','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4782561"><span id="translatedtitle">ERYTHROPOIETIC <span class="hlt">FACTOR</span> PURIFICATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>White, W.F.; Schlueter, R.J.</p> <p>1962-05-01</p> <p>A method is given for purifying and concentrating the blood plasma erythropoietic <span class="hlt">factor</span>. Anemic sheep plasma is contacted three times successively with ion exchange resins: an anion exchange resin, a cation exchange resin at a pH of about 5, and a cation exchange resin at a pH of about 6. (AEC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.cancer.org/cancer/thyroidcancer/detailedguide/thyroid-cancer-risk-factors','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.cancer.org/cancer/thyroidcancer/detailedguide/thyroid-cancer-risk-factors"><span id="translatedtitle">Thyroid Cancer Risk <span class="hlt">Factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... and radiation fallout from power plant accidents or nuclear weapons. Having had head or neck radiation treatments in childhood is a risk <span class="hlt">factor</span> for ... should be done using the lowest dose of radiation that still provides a clear ... from nuclear weapons or power plant accidents. For instance, thyroid ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=GDCS&pg=6&id=EJ363000','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=GDCS&pg=6&id=EJ363000"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factor</span> Analysis and AIC.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Akaike, Hirotugu</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) was introduced to extend the method of maximum likelihood to the multimodel situation. Use of the AIC in <span class="hlt">factor</span> analysis is interesting when it is viewed as the choice of a Bayesian model; thus, wider applications of AIC are possible. (Author/GDC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5040023','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5040023"><span id="translatedtitle">Introduction to human <span class="hlt">factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Winters, J.M.</p> <p>1988-03-01</p> <p>Some background is given on the field of human <span class="hlt">factors</span>. The nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is discussed, some costs are identified, ideal attributes of graceful system interfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indicated why it's not easy to fix the problems. (LEW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18770653','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18770653"><span id="translatedtitle">Common conversion <span class="hlt">factors</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-05-01</p> <p>This appendix presents tables of some of the more common conversion <span class="hlt">factors</span> for units of measure used throughout Current Protocols manuals, as well as prefixes indicating powers of ten for SI units. Another table gives conversions between temperatures on the Celsius (Centigrade) and Fahrenheit scales. PMID:18770653</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230095-inelastic-scattering-form-factors','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230095-inelastic-scattering-form-factors"><span id="translatedtitle">Inelastic Scattering Form <span class="hlt">Factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>ATHENA-IV computes form <span class="hlt">factors</span> for inelastic scattering calculations, using single-particle wave functions that are eigenstates of motion in either a Woods-Saxon potential well or a harmonic oscillator well. Two-body forces of Gauss, Coulomb, Yukawa, and a sum of cut-off Yukawa radial dependences are available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5243406','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5243406"><span id="translatedtitle">Peptide growth <span class="hlt">factors</span>, part B</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barnes, D.; Sirbasku, D.A.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>This book discusses the following topics: Platelet-Derived Growth <span class="hlt">Factor</span>;Nerve and Glial Growth <span class="hlt">Factors</span>;PC12 Pheochromocytoma Cells;Techniques for the Study of Growth <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Activity;Genetic Approaches and Biological Effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25456681','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25456681"><span id="translatedtitle">[Streptococcus pyogenes pathogenic <span class="hlt">factors</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bidet, Ph; Bonacorsi, S</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The pathogenicity of ß-hemolytic group A streptococcus (GAS) is particularly diverse, ranging from mild infections, such as pharyngitis or impetigo, to potentially debilitating poststreptococcal diseases, and up to severe invasive infections such as necrotizing fasciitis or the dreaded streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. This variety of clinical expressions, often radically different in individuals infected with the same strain, results from a complex interaction between the bacterial virulence <span class="hlt">factors</span>, the mode of infection and the immune system of the host. Advances in comparative genomics have led to a better understanding of how, following this confrontation, GAS adapts to the immune system's pressure, either peacefully by reducing the expression of certain virulence <span class="hlt">factors</span> to achieve an asymptomatic carriage, or on the contrary, by overexpressing them disproportionately, resulting in the most severe forms of invasive infection. PMID:25456681</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..94e6002L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..94e6002L"><span id="translatedtitle">Analytic pion form <span class="hlt">factor</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lomon, Earle L.; Pacetti, Simone</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The pion electromagnetic form <span class="hlt">factor</span> and two-pion production in electron-positron collisions are simultaneously fitted by a vector dominance model evolving to perturbative QCD at large momentum transfer. This model was previously successful in simultaneously fitting the nucleon electromagnetic form <span class="hlt">factors</span> (spacelike region) and the electromagnetic production of nucleon-antinucleon pairs (timelike region). For this pion case dispersion relations are used to produce the analytic connection of the spacelike and timelike regions. The fit to all the data is good, especially for the newer sets of timelike data. The description of high-q2 data, in the timelike region, requires one more meson with ρ quantum numbers than listed in the 2014 Particle Data Group review.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1617389','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1617389"><span id="translatedtitle">Precipitating <span class="hlt">factors</span> of asthma.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, T H</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Asthma is characterised by bronchial hyperresponsiveness. This feature of the asthmatic diathesis predisposes patients to wheezing in response to a number of different <span class="hlt">factors</span>. These precipitating <span class="hlt">factors</span> include specific allergen acting via sensitised mediator cells through an IgE-dependent mechanism. There are irritants which may work through a non-specific manner, or stimuli such as exercise and hyperventilation, which probably also act through mediator release via a non-IgE-dependent manner. The mechanism whereby physical stimuli such as exercise induce bronchoconstriction is of interest, because it increases the context in which the mast cell may participate in acute asthmatic bronchoconstriction. Respiratory infections also commonly provoke asthma, especially in infants and may, indeed, precipitate the asthmatic state itself. Finally, drugs can often trigger asthma attacks and the mechanisms of asthma precipitated by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin have been the subject of recent research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890047078&hterms=night-vision+goggles+superimposed&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dnight-vision%2Bgoggles%2Bsuperimposed','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890047078&hterms=night-vision+goggles+superimposed&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dnight-vision%2Bgoggles%2Bsuperimposed"><span id="translatedtitle">Helicopter human <span class="hlt">factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hart, Sandra G.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The state-of-the-art helicopter and its pilot are examined using the tools of human-<span class="hlt">factors</span> analysis. The significant role of human error in helicopter accidents is discussed; the history of human-<span class="hlt">factors</span> research on helicopters is briefly traced; the typical flight tasks are described; and the noise, vibration, and temperature conditions typical of modern military helicopters are characterized. Also considered are helicopter controls, cockpit instruments and displays, and the impact of cockpit design on pilot workload. Particular attention is given to possible advanced-technology improvements, such as control stabilization and augmentation, FBW and fly-by-light systems, multifunction displays, night-vision goggles, pilot night-vision systems, night-vision displays with superimposed symbols, target acquisition and designation systems, and aural displays. Diagrams, drawings, and photographs are provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890017020','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890017020"><span id="translatedtitle">Human <span class="hlt">factors</span> workplace considerations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Haines, Richard F.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Computer workstations assume many different forms and play different functions today. In order for them to assume the effective interface role which they should play they must be properly designed to take into account the ubiguitous human <span class="hlt">factor</span>. In addition, the entire workplace in which they are used should be properly configured so as to enhance the operational features of the individual workstation where possible. A number of general human <span class="hlt">factors</span> workplace considerations are presented. This ongoing series of notes covers such topics as achieving comfort and good screen visibility, hardware issues (e.g., mouse maintenance), screen symbology features (e.g., labels, cursors, prompts), and various miscellaneous subjects. These notes are presented here in order to: (1) illustrate how one's workstation can be used to support telescience activities of many other people working within an organization, and (2) provide a single complete set of considerations for future reference.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3755..113C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3755..113C"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth <span class="hlt">factors</span> for nanobacteria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ciftcioglu, Neva; Kajander, E. Olavi</p> <p>1999-12-01</p> <p>Nanobacteria are novel microorganisms recently isolated from fetal bovine serum and blood of cows and humans. These coccoid, gram negative bacteria in alpha-2 subgroup of Proteobacteria grow slowly under mammalian cell culture conditions but not in common media for microbes. Now we have found two different kinds of culture supplement preparations that improve their growth and make them culturable in the classical sense. These are supernatant fractions of conditioned media obtained from 1 - 3 months old nanobacteria cultures and from about a 2 weeks old Bacillus species culture. Both improved multiplication and particle yields and the latter increased their resistance to gentamicin. Nanobacteria cultured with any of the methods shared similar immunological property, structure and protein pattern. The growth supporting <span class="hlt">factors</span> were heat-stabile and nondialyzable, and dialysis improved the growth promoting action. Nanobacteria formed stony colonies in a bacteriological medium supplemented with the growth <span class="hlt">factors</span>. This is an implication that nanobacterial growth is influenced by pre-existing bacterial flora.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65598&keyword=web+AND+designs&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=69221117&CFTOKEN=21003163','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65598&keyword=web+AND+designs&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=69221117&CFTOKEN=21003163"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">FACTORS</span> INFLUENCING THE DESIGN OF BIOACCUMULATION <span class="hlt">FACTOR</span> AND BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION <span class="hlt">FACTOR</span> FIELD STUDIES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A series of modeling simulations were performed to develop an understanding of the underlying <span class="hlt">factors</span> and principles involved in developing field sampling designs for measuring bioaccumulation <span class="hlt">factors</span> (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation <span class="hlt">factors</span> (BSAFs. These simulations reveal...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=61142&keyword=Designing+AND+environmental+AND+field+AND+studies&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78791452&CFTOKEN=35309740','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=61142&keyword=Designing+AND+environmental+AND+field+AND+studies&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78791452&CFTOKEN=35309740"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">FACTORS</span> INFLUENCING THE DESIGN OF BIOACCUMULATION <span class="hlt">FACTOR</span> AND BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION <span class="hlt">FACTOR</span> FIELD STUDIES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>General guidance for designing field studies to measure bioaccumulation <span class="hlt">factors</span> (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation <span class="hlt">factors</span> (BSAFs) is not available. To develop such guidance, a series of modeling simulations were performed to evaluate the underlying <span class="hlt">factors</span> and principles th...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/975645','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/975645"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factorization</span> of simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barrett, C. L.; Mortveit, H. S.; Reidys, C. M.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A simulation is collection of agents that, according to some schedule, are making decisions based on information about other agents in that collection. In this paper we present a class of dynamical systems called Sequential Dynamical Systems (SDS) that was developed to capture these key features of computer simulations. Here, as an example of the use of SDS, we demonstrate how one can obtain information about a simulation by a <span class="hlt">factorization</span> into smaller simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5752348','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5752348"><span id="translatedtitle">Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span> Review Plan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R.</p> <p>1985-12-01</p> <p>''Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span>'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human <span class="hlt">factors</span> conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human <span class="hlt">factors</span> engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/834525','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/834525"><span id="translatedtitle">Nucleon Electromagnetic Form <span class="hlt">Factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kees de Jager</p> <p>2004-08-01</p> <p>Although nucleons account for nearly all the visible mass in the universe, they have a complicated structure that is still incompletely understood. The first indication that nucleons have an internal structure, was the measurement of the proton magnetic moment by Frisch and Stern (1933) which revealed a large deviation from the value expected for a point-like Dirac particle. The investigation of the spatial structure of the nucleon, resulting in the first quantitative measurement of the proton charge radius, was initiated by the HEPL (Stanford) experiments in the 1950s, for which Hofstadter was awarded the 1961 Nobel prize. The first indication of a non-zero neutron charge distribution was obtained by scattering thermal neutrons off atomic electrons. The recent revival of its experimental study through the operational implementation of novel instrumentation has instigated a strong theoretical interest. Nucleon electro-magnetic form <span class="hlt">factors</span> (EMFFs) are optimally studied through the exchange of a virtual photon, in elastic electron-nucleon scattering. The momentum transferred to the nucleon by the virtual photon can be selected to probe different scales of the nucleon, from integral properties such as the charge radius to scaling properties of its internal constituents. Polarization instrumentation, polarized beams and targets, and the measurement of the polarization of the recoiling nucleon have been essential in the accurate separation of the charge and magnetic form <span class="hlt">factors</span> and in studies of the elusive neutron charge form <span class="hlt">factor</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=eating+AND+disorder&pg=7&id=EJ766076','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=eating+AND+disorder&pg=7&id=EJ766076"><span id="translatedtitle">Risk <span class="hlt">Factors</span> for Eating Disorders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The authors review research on risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk <span class="hlt">factor</span> over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> and biological <span class="hlt">factors</span> have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1635..377A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1635..377A"><span id="translatedtitle">From compatible <span class="hlt">factorization</span> to near-compatible <span class="hlt">factorization</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aldiabat, Raja'i.; Ibrahim, Haslinda</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A compatible <span class="hlt">factorization</span> of order ν, is an ν× ν-1/2 array in which the entries in row i form a near-one-<span class="hlt">factor</span> with focus i, and the triples associated with the rows contain no repetitions. In this paper, we aim to amend this compatible <span class="hlt">factorization</span> so that we can display ν(ν-1)/2 - 2ν/3 triples with the minimum repeated triples. Throughout this paper we propose a new type of <span class="hlt">factorization</span> called near-compatible <span class="hlt">factorization</span>. First, we present the compatible <span class="hlt">factorization</span> towards developing a near-compatible <span class="hlt">factorization</span>. Second, we discuss briefly the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of near-compatible <span class="hlt">factorization</span>. Then, we exemplify the construction for case ν = 9 as a groundwork in developing near-compatible <span class="hlt">factorization</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2909227','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2909227"><span id="translatedtitle">Milestones and Impact <span class="hlt">Factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Environmental Health has just received its first Impact <span class="hlt">Factor</span> by Thomson ISI. At a level of 2.48, this achievement is quite satisfactory and places Environmental Health in the top 25% of environmental science journals. When the journal was launched in 2002, it was still unclear whether the Open Access publishing model could be made into a viable commercial enterprise within the biomedical field. During the past eight years, Open Access journals have become widely available, although still covering only about 15% of journal titles. Major funding agencies and institutions, including prominent US universities, now require that researchers publish in Open Access journals. Because of the profound role of scientific journals for the sharing of results and communication between researchers, the advent of Open Access may be of as much significance as the transition from handwriting to printing via moveable type. As Environmental Health is an electronic Open Access journal, the numbers of downloads at the journal website can be retrieved. The top-20 list of articles most frequently accessed shows that all of them have been downloaded over 10,000 times. Back in 2002, the first article published was accessed only 49 times during the following month. A year later, the server had over 1,000 downloads per month, and now the total number of monthly downloads approaches 50,000. These statistics complement the Impact <span class="hlt">Factor</span> and confirm the viability of Open Access in our field of research. The advent of digital media and its decentralized mode of distribution - the internet - have dramatically changed the control and financing of scientific information dissemination, while facilitating peer review, accelerating editorial handling, and supporting much needed transparency. Both the meaning and means of "having an impact" are therefore changing, as will the degree and way in which scientific journals remain "<span class="hlt">factors</span>" in that impact. PMID:20615249</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/114580','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/114580"><span id="translatedtitle">Neutron quality <span class="hlt">factor</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>Both the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) have recommended that the radiation quality weighting <span class="hlt">factor</span> for neutrons (Q{sub n}, or the corresponding new modifying <span class="hlt">factor</span>, w{sub R}) be increased by a value of two for most radiation protection practices. This means an increase in the recommended value for Q{sub n} from a nominal value of 10 to a nominal value of 20. This increase may be interpreted to mean that the biological effectiveness of neutrons is two times greater than previously thought. A decision to increase the value of Q{sub n} will have a major impact on the regulations and radiation protection programs of Federal agencies responsible for the protection of radiation workers. Therefore, the purposes of this report are: (1) to examine the general concept of {open_quotes}quality <span class="hlt">factor</span>{close_quotes} (Q) in radiation protection and the rationale for the selection of specific values of Q{sub n}; and (2) to make such recommendations to the Federal agencies, as appropriate. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive review of the scientific literature on the biological effects of neutrons, with the aim of defending a particular value for Q{sub n}. Rather, the working group examined the technical issues surrounding the current recommendations of scientific advisory bodies on this matter, with the aim of determining if these recommendations should be adopted by the Federal agencies. Ultimately, the group concluded that there was no compelling basis for a change in Q{sub n}. The report was prepared by Federal scientists working under the auspices of the Science Panel of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/166444','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/166444"><span id="translatedtitle">Electromagnetic pion form <span class="hlt">factor</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Roberts, C.D.</p> <p>1995-08-01</p> <p>A phenomenological Dyson-Schwinger/Bethe-Salpeter equation approach to QCD, formalized in terms of a QCD-based model field theory, the Global Color-symmetry Model (GCM), was used to calculate the generalized impulse approximation contribution to the electromagnetic pion form <span class="hlt">factor</span> at space-like q{sup 2} on the domain [0,10] GeV{sup 2}. In effective field theories this form <span class="hlt">factor</span> is sometimes understood as simply being due to Vector Meson Dominance (VMD) but this does not allow for a simple connection with QCD where the VMD contribution is of higher order than that of the quark core. In the GCM the pion is treated as a composite bound state of a confined quark and antiquark interacting via the exchange of colored vector-bosons. A direct study of the quark core contribution is made, using a quark propagator that manifests the large space-like-q{sup 2} properties of QCD, parameterizes the infrared behavior and incorporates confinement. It is shown that the few parameters which characterize the infrared form of the quark propagator may be chosen so as to yield excellent agreement with the available data. In doing this one directly relates experimental observables to properties of QCD at small space-like-q{sup 2}. The incorporation of confinement eliminates endpoint and pinch singularities in the calculation of F{sub {pi}}(q{sup 2}). With asymptotic freedom manifest in the dressed quark propagator the calculation yields q{sup 4}F{sub {pi}}(q{sup 2}) = constant, up to [q{sup 2}]- corrections, for space-like-q{sup 2} {approx_gt} 35 GeV{sup 2}, which indicates that soft, nonperturbative contributions dominate the form <span class="hlt">factor</span> at presently accessible q{sup 2}. This means that the often-used <span class="hlt">factorization</span> Ansatz fails in this exclusive process. A paper describing this work was submitted for publication. In addition, these results formed the basis for an invited presentation at a workshop on chiral dynamics and will be published in the proceedings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020080993','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020080993"><span id="translatedtitle">Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Jack is an advanced human <span class="hlt">factors</span> software package that provides a three dimensional model for predicting how a human will interact with a given system or environment. It can be used for a broad range of computer-aided design applications. Jack was developed by the computer Graphics Research Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania with assistance from NASA's Johnson Space Center, Ames Research Center and the Army. It is the University's first commercial product. Jack is still used for academic purposes at the University of Pennsylvania. Commercial rights were given to Transom Technologies, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/903060','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/903060"><span id="translatedtitle">Nucleon elastic form <span class="hlt">factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>D. Day</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>The nucleon form <span class="hlt">factors</span> are still the subject of active investigation even after an experimental effort spanning 50 years. This is because they are of critical importance to our understanding of the electromagnetic properties of nuclei and provide a unique testing ground for QCD motivated models of nucleon structure. Progress in polarized beams, polarized targets and recoil polarimetry have allowed an important and precise set of data to be collected over the last decade. I will review the experimental status of elastic electron scattering from the nucleon along with an outlook for future progress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..955..911G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..955..911G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> Affecting Internal Blast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Granholm, R. H.; Sandusky, H. W.; Felts, J. E.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Internal blast refers to explosion effects in confined spaces, which are dominated by the heat output of the explosive. Theoretical temperatures and pressures may not be reached due to heat losses and incomplete gas mixing. Gas mixing can have the largest effect, potentially reducing peak quasi-static pressure by a <span class="hlt">factor</span> of two due to lack of thermal equilibrium between products and atmosphere in the space, separate from the effect of incomplete combustion of excess fuel when that atmosphere is air. Chamber and test geometry affect gas mixing, which has been inferred through temperature and pressure measurements and compared to calculations. Late-time combustion is observed for TNT compared to HMX.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26893084','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26893084"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhanced target <span class="hlt">factor</span> analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rostami, Akram; Abdollahi, Hamid; Maeder, Marcel</p> <p>2016-03-10</p> <p>Target testing or target <span class="hlt">factor</span> analysis, TFA, is a well-established soft analysis method. TFA answers the question whether an independent target test vector measured at the same wavelengths as the collection of spectra in a data matrix can be excluded as the spectrum of one of the components in the system under investigation. Essentially, TFA cannot positively prove that a particular test spectrum is the true spectrum of one of the components, it can, only reject a spectrum. However, TFA will not reject, or in other words TFA will accept, many spectra which cannot be component spectra. Enhanced Target <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Analysis, ETFA addresses the above problem. Compared with traditional TFA, ETFA results in a significantly narrower range of positive results, i.e. the chance of a false positive test result is dramatically reduced. ETFA is based on feasibility testing as described in Refs. [16-19]. The method has been tested and validated with computer generated and real data sets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17430914','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17430914"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> regulating cheese shreddability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Childs, J L; Daubert, C R; Stefanski, L; Foegeding, E A</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Two sets of cheeses were evaluated to determine <span class="hlt">factors</span> that affect shred quality. The first set of cheeses was made up of 3 commercial cheeses, Monterey Jack, Mozzarella, and process. The second set of cheeses was made up of 3 Mozzarella cheeses with varying levels of protein and fat at a constant moisture content. A shred distribution of long shreds, short shreds, and fines was obtained by shredding blocks of cheese in a food processor. A probe tack test was used to directly measure adhesion of the cheese to a stainless-steel surface. Surface energy was determined based on the contact angles of standard liquids, and rheological characterization was done by a creep and recovery test. Creep and recovery data were used to calculate the maximum and initial compliance and retardation time. Shredding defects of fines and adhesion to the blade were observed in commercial cheeses. Mozzarella did not adhere to the blade but did produce the most fines. Both Monterey Jack and process cheeses adhered to the blade and produced fines. Furthermore, adherence to the blade was correlated positively with tack energy and negatively with retardation time. Mozzarella cheese, with the highest fat and lowest protein contents, produced the most fines but showed little adherence to the blade, even though tack energy increased with fat content. Surface energy was not correlated with shredding defects in either group of cheese. Rheological properties and tack energy appeared to be the key <span class="hlt">factors</span> involved in shredding defects. PMID:17430914</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890010519','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890010519"><span id="translatedtitle">SARSCEST (human <span class="hlt">factors</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Parsons, H. Mcilvaine</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>People interact with the processes and products of contemporary technology. Individuals are affected by these in various ways and individuals shape them. Such interactions come under the label 'human <span class="hlt">factors</span>'. To expand the understanding of those to whom the term is relatively unfamiliar, its domain includes both an applied science and applications of knowledge. It means both research and development, with implications of research both for basic science and for development. It encompasses not only design and testing but also training and personnel requirements, even though some unwisely try to split these apart both by name and institutionally. The territory includes more than performance at work, though concentration on that aspect, epitomized in the derivation of the term ergonomics, has overshadowed human <span class="hlt">factors</span> interest in interactions between technology and the home, health, safety, consumers, children and later life, the handicapped, sports and recreation education, and travel. Two aspects of technology considered most significant for work performance, systems and automation, and several approaches to these, are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10795334','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10795334"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> in risk perception</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sjoberg</p> <p>2000-02-01</p> <p>Risk perception is a phenomenon in search of an explanation. Several approaches are discussed in this paper. Technical risk estimates are sometimes a potent <span class="hlt">factor</span> in accounting for perceived risk, but in many important applications it is not. Heuristics and biases, mainly availability, account for only a minor portion of risk perception, and media contents have not been clearly implicated in risk perception. The psychometric model is probably the leading contender in the field, but its explanatory value is only around 20% of the variance of raw data. Adding a <span class="hlt">factor</span> of "unnatural risk" considerably improves the psychometric model. Cultural Theory, on the other hand, has not been able to explain more than 5-10% of the variance of perceived risk, and other value scales have similarly failed. A model is proposed in which attitude, risk sensitivity, and specific fear are used as explanatory variables; this model seems to explain well over 30-40% of the variance and is thus more promising than previous approaches. The model offers a different type of psychological explanation of risk perception, and it has many implications, e.g., a different approach to the relationship between attitude and perceived risk, as compared with the usual cognitive analysis of attitude. PMID:10795334</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24144498','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24144498"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing <span class="hlt">factors</span> causing severe injuries in crashes of high-deck buses in long-distance driving on freeways.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chu, Hsing-Chung</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>High-deck buses that have a higher center of gravity traveling at an excessive speed have a higher likelihood of causing serious and fatal accidents when drivers lose control of the vehicle. In addition, drivers who suffer from fatigue in long-distance driving increase the likelihood of serious accident. This paper examines the effects of risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> contributing to severe crashes associated with high-deck buses used for long-distance driving on freeways. An ordered logit and latent class models are used to examine significant <span class="hlt">factors</span> on the severity of injuries in crashes related to high-deck buses. Driver fatigue, drivers or passengers not wearing a seat belt, reckless driving, drunk driving, crashes occurred between midnight and dawn, and crashes occurred at <span class="hlt">interchange</span> ramps were found to significantly affect the severity of injuries in crashes involving high-deck buses. Safety policies to prevent severe injuries in crashes involving high deck buses used for long-distance runs on freeways include: (1) restricting drivers from exceeding the limit of daily driving hours and mandating sufficient rest breaks; (2) installing an automatic sleep-warning device in the vehicle; (3) drivers with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome or sleep disorders should be tested and treated before they are allowed to perform long hours of driving tasks; (4) educating the public or even amending the seatbelt legislation to require all passengers to wear a seat belt and thus reduce the chance of ejection from a high-deck bus and prevent serious injuries in a crash while traveling at a higher speed on freeways. PMID:24144498</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16631316','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16631316"><span id="translatedtitle">Pathophysiological <span class="hlt">factors</span> underlying heatstroke.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yan, You-E; Zhao, Yong-Qi; Wang, Hui; Fan, Ming</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Heatstroke is a life-threatening illness characterized by an elevated core body temperature (>40 degrees C) and dysfunction of central nervous system, which results in delirium, convulsions, or coma. Despite adequate hypothermia or other care-therapy, heatstroke is often fatal. On the basis of our knowledge of the pathophysiology on heatstroke, we hypothesized that heatstroke is a form of hyperthermia associated with the acute physiological alterations, the cytotoxicity of heat, systemic inflammatory response, oxidative damage and attenuated heat-shock response leading to a syndrome of multi-organ dysfunction. In view of above-mentioned situation, the physiological <span class="hlt">factors</span> underlying heatstroke and the corresponding possible therapeutic strategies to avert the complications of this disorder would be summarized in this review so as to provide some therapeutic guidelines for heatstroke. Heatstroke is a very complicated process. Acute physiological alterations, such as low arterial hypotension, intracranial hypertension, cerebral hypoperfusion, cerebral ischemia, and increased intracellular metabolism rate, occurred while exposed to a high ambient temperature. Hyperpyrexia caused cytotoxicity, resulting the degradation and aggregation of extensive intracellular proteins, influencing the change of membrane stability and fluidity, damaging the transmembrane transport of protein and the function of surface receptor, and inducing different cytoskeletal changes. Heatstroke resembles sepsis in many aspects, and endotoxemia and cytokines may be implicated in its pathogenesis. The concentration of interleukin-6 was positively correlated with the severity of heatstroke. The excessive accumulation of cytotoxic free radicals and oxidative damage may occur in the brain tissues during the genesis and development of heatstroke. The circulatory shock and cerebral ischemia resultant from heatstroke correlated closely with the free radicals (especially free radicals of peroxide and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21167590','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21167590"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factorization</span> and non-<span class="hlt">factorization</span> in diffractive hard scattering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Berera, Arjun</p> <p>1997-04-20</p> <p><span class="hlt">Factorization</span>, in the sense defined for inclusive hard scattering, is discussed for diffractive hard scattering. A <span class="hlt">factorization</span> theorem similar to its inclusive counterpart is presented for diffractive DIS. For hadron-hadron diffractive hard scattering, in contrast to its inclusive counterpart, the expected breakdown of <span class="hlt">factorization</span> is discussed. Cross section estimates are given from a simple field theory model for non-<span class="hlt">factorizing</span> double-pomeron-exchange (DPE) dijet production with and without account for Sudakov suppression.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5038586','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5038586"><span id="translatedtitle">Pediatric rhinitis risk <span class="hlt">factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ji, Yaofeng; Liu, Yin; Yang, Na</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Rhinitis is a common global disorder that impacts on the quality of life of the sufferer and caregivers. Treatment for pediatric rhinitis is empirical and does not include a detailed history of the allergy triggers or allergy testing. Thus, allergen avoidance advice is not tailored to the child's sensitivities, which may result in adenoid hypertrophy. However, infant onset rhinitis, especially its relationship with respiratory viruses, remains to be further clarified. Rhinitis basically involves inflammation of the upper nasal lining, presenting typically with symptoms of runny nose (rhinorrhea), nasal blockage, and/or sneezing. While not typically fatal, it does impose significant health, psychological, and monetary burden to its sufferers, and is thus considered a global health problem. Previous findings showed that immunotherapy had significant clinical efficacy in children with allergic rhinitis. The present review article aims to highlight recent perspectives pertaining to the rhinitis risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> especially in pediatric patients. PMID:27698737</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890047060&hterms=wiener&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dwiener','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890047060&hterms=wiener&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dwiener"><span id="translatedtitle">Human <span class="hlt">factors</span> in aviation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wiener, Earl L. (Editor); Nagel, David C. (Editor)</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The fundamental principles of human-<span class="hlt">factors</span> (HF) analysis for aviation applications are examined in a collection of reviews by leading experts, with an emphasis on recent developments. The aim is to provide information and guidance to the aviation community outside the HF field itself. Topics addressed include the systems approach to HF, system safety considerations, the human senses in flight, information processing, aviation workloads, group interaction and crew performance, flight training and simulation, human error in aviation operations, and aircrew fatigue and circadian rhythms. Also discussed are pilot control; aviation displays; cockpit automation; HF aspects of software interfaces; the design and integration of cockpit-crew systems; and HF issues for airline pilots, general aviation, helicopters, and ATC.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23245971','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23245971"><span id="translatedtitle">Psychosomatic <span class="hlt">factors</span> in pruritus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tey, Hong Liang; Wallengren, Joanna; Yosipovitch, Gil</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Pruritus and psyche are intricately and reciprocally related, with psychophysiological evidence and psychopathological explanations helping us to understand their complex association. Their interaction may be conceptualized and classified into 3 groups: pruritic diseases with psychiatric sequelae, pruritic diseases aggravated by psychosocial <span class="hlt">factors</span>, and psychiatric disorders causing pruritus. Management of chronic pruritus is directed at treating the underlying causes and adopting a multidisciplinary approach to address the dermatologic, somatosensory, cognitive, and emotional aspects. Pharmcotherapeutic agents that are useful for chronic pruritus with comorbid depression and/or anxiety comprise selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, mirtazapine, tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline and doxepin), and anticonvulsants (gabapentin, pregabalin); the role of neurokinin receptor-1 antagonists awaits verification. Antipsychotics are required for treating itch and formication associated with schizophrenia and delusion of parasitosis (including Morgellons disease). PMID:23245971</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5192412','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5192412"><span id="translatedtitle">Exposure <span class="hlt">factors</span> handbook</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Konz, J.J.; Lisi, K.; Friebele, E.; Dixon, D.A.</p> <p>1989-07-01</p> <p>The document provides a summary of the available data on various <span class="hlt">factors</span> used in assessing human exposure including drinking-water consumption, consumption rates of broad classes of food including fruits, vegetables, beef, dairy products, and fish; soil ingestion; inhalation rate; skin area; lifetime; activity patterns; and body weight. Additionally, a number of specific exposure scenarios are identified with recommendations for default values to use when site-specific data are not available. The basic equations using these parameters to calculate exposure levels are also presented for each scenario. Default values are presented as ranges from typical to reasonable worst case and as frequency distributions where appropriate data were available. Finally, procedures for assessing the uncertainties in exposure assessments are also presented with illustrative examples. These procedures include qualitative and quantitative methods such as Monte Carlo and sensitivity analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/895918','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/895918"><span id="translatedtitle">Nucleon Electromagnetic Form <span class="hlt">Factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Marc Vanderhaeghen; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form <span class="hlt">factors</span> in the last decade, and the quality of the data has greatly improved by performing double polarization experiments, in comparison with previous unpolarized data. Here we review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton, and neutron, obtained at JLab, MAMI, and MIT-Bates. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high-precision experiments will be discussed, including the recent progress in the determination of the valence quark generalized parton distributions of the nucleon, as well as the steady rate of improvements made in the lattice QCD calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/232638','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/232638"><span id="translatedtitle">Pion form <span class="hlt">factor</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ryong Ji, C.; Pang, A.; Szczepaniak, A.</p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p>It is pointed out that the correct criterion to define the legal PQCD contribution to the exclusive processes in the lightcone perturbative expansion should be based on the large off-shellness of the lightcone energy in the intermediate states. In the lightcone perturbative QCD calculation of the pion form <span class="hlt">factor</span>, the authors find that the legal PQCD contribution defined by the lightcone energy cut saturates in the smaller Q{sup 2} region compared to that defined by the gluon four-momentum square cut. This is due to the contribution by the highly off-energy-shell gluons in the end point regions of the phase space, indicating that the gluon four-momentum-square cut may have cut too much to define the legal PQCD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23245971','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23245971"><span id="translatedtitle">Psychosomatic <span class="hlt">factors</span> in pruritus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tey, Hong Liang; Wallengren, Joanna; Yosipovitch, Gil</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Pruritus and psyche are intricately and reciprocally related, with psychophysiological evidence and psychopathological explanations helping us to understand their complex association. Their interaction may be conceptualized and classified into 3 groups: pruritic diseases with psychiatric sequelae, pruritic diseases aggravated by psychosocial <span class="hlt">factors</span>, and psychiatric disorders causing pruritus. Management of chronic pruritus is directed at treating the underlying causes and adopting a multidisciplinary approach to address the dermatologic, somatosensory, cognitive, and emotional aspects. Pharmcotherapeutic agents that are useful for chronic pruritus with comorbid depression and/or anxiety comprise selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, mirtazapine, tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline and doxepin), and anticonvulsants (gabapentin, pregabalin); the role of neurokinin receptor-1 antagonists awaits verification. Antipsychotics are required for treating itch and formication associated with schizophrenia and delusion of parasitosis (including Morgellons disease).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3690364','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3690364"><span id="translatedtitle">Psychosomatic <span class="hlt">factors</span> in pruritus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tey, Hong Liang; Wallengren, Joanna; Yosipovitch, Gil</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Pruritus and psyche are intricately and reciprocally related, with psychophysiological evidence and psychopathological explanations helping us to understand their complex association. Their interaction may be conceptualized and classified into 3 groups: pruritic diseases with psychiatric sequelae, pruritic diseases aggravated by psychosocial <span class="hlt">factors</span>, and psychiatric disorders causing pruritus. Management of chronic pruritus is directed at treating the underlying causes and adopting a multidisciplinary approach to address the dermatologic, somatosensory, cognitive, and emotional aspects. Pharmcotherapeutic agents that are useful for chronic pruritus with comorbid depression and/or anxiety comprise selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, mirtazapine, tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline and doxepin), and anticonvulsants (gabapentin, pregabalin); the role of neurokinin receptor-1 antagonists awaits verification. Antipsychotics are required for treating itch and formication associated with schizophrenia and delusion of parasitosis (including Morgellons disease). PMID:23245971</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080004193','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080004193"><span id="translatedtitle">Unity power <span class="hlt">factor</span> converter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wester, Gene W. (Inventor)</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A unity power <span class="hlt">factor</span> converter capable of effecting either inversion (dc-to-dc) or rectification (ac-to-dc), and capable of providing bilateral power control from a DC source (or load) through an AC transmission line to a DC load (or source) for power flow in either direction, is comprised of comparators for comparing the AC current i with an AC signal i.sub.ref (or its phase inversion) derived from the AC ports to generate control signals to operate a switch control circuit for high speed switching to shape the AC current waveform to a sine waveform, and synchronize it in phase and frequency with the AC voltage at the AC ports, by selectively switching the connections to a series inductor as required to increase or decrease the current i.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5038586','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5038586"><span id="translatedtitle">Pediatric rhinitis risk <span class="hlt">factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ji, Yaofeng; Liu, Yin; Yang, Na</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Rhinitis is a common global disorder that impacts on the quality of life of the sufferer and caregivers. Treatment for pediatric rhinitis is empirical and does not include a detailed history of the allergy triggers or allergy testing. Thus, allergen avoidance advice is not tailored to the child's sensitivities, which may result in adenoid hypertrophy. However, infant onset rhinitis, especially its relationship with respiratory viruses, remains to be further clarified. Rhinitis basically involves inflammation of the upper nasal lining, presenting typically with symptoms of runny nose (rhinorrhea), nasal blockage, and/or sneezing. While not typically fatal, it does impose significant health, psychological, and monetary burden to its sufferers, and is thus considered a global health problem. Previous findings showed that immunotherapy had significant clinical efficacy in children with allergic rhinitis. The present review article aims to highlight recent perspectives pertaining to the rhinitis risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> especially in pediatric patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020022523&hterms=human+night+vision&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dhuman%2Bnight%2Bvision','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020022523&hterms=human+night+vision&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dhuman%2Bnight%2Bvision"><span id="translatedtitle">Helicopter Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hart, Sandra G.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Even under optimal conditions, helicopter flight is a most demanding form of human-machine interaction, imposing continuous manual, visual, communications, and mental demands on pilots. It is made even more challenging by small margins for error created by the close proximity of terrain in NOE flight and missions flown at night and in low visibility. Although technology advances have satisfied some current and proposed requirements, hardware solutions alone are not sufficient to ensure acceptable system performance and pilot workload. However, human <span class="hlt">factors</span> data needed to improve the design and use of helicopters lag behind advances in sensor, display, and control technology. Thus, it is difficult for designers to consider human capabilities and limitations when making design decisions. This results in costly accidents, design mistakes, unrealistic mission requirements, excessive training costs, and challenge human adaptability. NASA, in collaboration with DOD, industry, and academia, has initiated a program of research to develop scientific data bases and design principles to improve the pilot/vehicle interface, optimize training time and cost, and maintain pilot workload and system performance at an acceptable level. Work performed at Ames, and by other research laboratories, will be reviewed to summarize the most critical helicopter human <span class="hlt">factors</span> problems and the results of research that has been performed to: (1) Quantify/model pilots use of visual cues for vehicle control; (2) Improve pilots' performance with helmet displays of thermal imagery and night vision goggles for situation awareness and vehicle control; (3) Model the processes by which pilots encode maps and compare them to the visual scene to develop perceptually and cognitively compatible electronic map formats; (4) Evaluate the use of spatially localized auditory displays for geographical orientation, target localization, radio frequency separation; (5) Develop and flight test control</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2812235','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2812235"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidermal growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> receptor not equal to nerve growth <span class="hlt">factor</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Williams, L R</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>I am perplexed by the authors' complete lack of definition of neurotrophic <span class="hlt">factors</span>. The agents Butcher and Woolf want to blame are neurite promoting <span class="hlt">factors</span>, not neurotrophic <span class="hlt">factors</span>. Treatment of Alzheimer's disease with NGF antagonists might instead exacerbate the death of both basal forebrain neurons and their cortical target neurons, accelerating the progress of dementia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=matrix&pg=4&id=EJ1084509','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=matrix&pg=4&id=EJ1084509"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factor</span> Rotation and Standard Errors in Exploratory <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zhang, Guangjian; Preacher, Kristopher J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this article, we report a surprising phenomenon: Oblique CF-varimax and oblique CF-quartimax rotation produced similar point estimates for rotated <span class="hlt">factor</span> loadings and <span class="hlt">factor</span> correlations but different standard error estimates in an empirical example. Influences of <span class="hlt">factor</span> rotation on asymptotic standard errors are investigated using a numerical…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19650828','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19650828"><span id="translatedtitle">The Bordetella type III secretion system effector BteA contains a conserved N-terminal motif that guides bacterial virulence <span class="hlt">factors</span> to lipid rafts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>French, Christopher T; Panina, Ekaterina M; Yeh, Sylvia H; Griffith, Natasha; Arambula, Diego G; Miller, Jeff F</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The Bordetella type III secretion system (T3SS) effector protein BteA is necessary and sufficient for rapid cytotoxicity in a wide range of mammalian cells. We show that BteA is highly conserved and functionally <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> between Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis. The identification of BteA sequences required for cytotoxicity allowed the construction of non-cytotoxic mutants for localization studies. BteA derivatives were targeted to lipid rafts and showed clear colocalization with cortical actin, ezrin and the lipid raft marker GM1. We hypothesized that BteA associates with the cytoplasmic face of lipid rafts to locally modulate host cell responses to Bordetella attachment. B. bronchiseptica adhered to host cells almost exclusively to GM1-enriched lipid raft microdomains and BteA colocalized to these same sites following T3SS-mediated translocation. Disruption of lipid rafts with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin protected cells from T3SS-induced cytotoxicity. Localization to lipid rafts was mediated by a 130-amino-acid lipid raft targeting domain at the N-terminus of BteA, and homologous domains were identified in virulence <span class="hlt">factors</span> from other bacterial species. Lipid raft targeting sequences from a T3SS effector (Plu4750) and an RTX-type toxin (Plu3217) from Photorhabdus luminescens directed fusion proteins to lipid rafts in a manner identical to the N-terminus of BteA. PMID:19650828</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009HydJ...17..767V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009HydJ...17..767V"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental <span class="hlt">factors</span> controlling the spatiotemporal distribution of microbial communities in a coastal, sandy aquifer system (Doñana, southwest Spain)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Velasco Ayuso, Sergio; Acebes, Pablo; López-Archilla, Ana Isabel; Montes, Carlos; Guerrero, María Del Carmen</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>Currently, aquifers are considered to be ecosystems that <span class="hlt">interchange</span> materials and energy with other systems located in their surroundings. The aquifer system of Doñana (southwest Spain) has been studied over recent decades from a hydrogeological point of view, although nothing is known about its biological or ecological aspects. In order to describe the general characteristics of its microbial communities, bacterial abundance, cell biomass, bacterial biomass and microbial activities of functional groups were investigated by sampling, over a 2-year period, 13 wells located in the vicinity of four very productive shallow lakes in the most superficial part of this coastal, sandy aquifer system. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated differences in abundance and biomass variables among sampling locations, seasons and sampling locations × seasons. Principal component analysis showed that temperature and dissolved oxygen appeared to be the most important <span class="hlt">factors</span> controlling the temporal variability of microbial communities. Hydrological connectivity between surface water and groundwater was important in the control of the spatiotemporal distribution of microbial communities. Due to this hydrological connection, the aquifer system and the wetlands constitute a unique entity, a unique ecosystem, called the “hydroecosystem”, where microbial communities could play a central ecological role.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pregnancy&pg=7&id=EJ995951','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pregnancy&pg=7&id=EJ995951"><span id="translatedtitle">Phonological Awareness: <span class="hlt">Factors</span> of Influence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental <span class="hlt">factors</span>. This study aims to identify <span class="hlt">factors</span> that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent <span class="hlt">factors</span>, birth and pregnancy,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1056424.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1056424.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factor</span> Analysis of Intern Effectiveness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Womack, Sid T.; Hannah, Shellie Louise; Bell, Columbus David</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Four <span class="hlt">factors</span> in teaching intern effectiveness, as measured by a Praxis III-similar instrument, were found among observational data of teaching interns during the 2010 spring semester. Those <span class="hlt">factors</span> were lesson planning, teacher/student reflection, fairness & safe environment, and professionalism/efficacy. This <span class="hlt">factor</span> analysis was as much of a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://epi.grants.cancer.gov/rfab/','NCI'); return false;" href="https://epi.grants.cancer.gov/rfab/"><span id="translatedtitle">Risk <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Assessment Branch (RFAB)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.cancer.gov">Cancer.gov</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Risk <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk <span class="hlt">factor</span> metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> in the population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=conceptual+AND+combination&pg=3&id=EJ929721','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=conceptual+AND+combination&pg=3&id=EJ929721"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factor</span> Analysis via Components Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bentler, Peter M.; de Leeuw, Jan</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>When the <span class="hlt">factor</span> analysis model holds, component loadings are linear combinations of <span class="hlt">factor</span> loadings, and vice versa. This interrelation permits us to define new optimization criteria and estimation methods for exploratory <span class="hlt">factor</span> analysis. Although this article is primarily conceptual in nature, an illustrative example and a small simulation show…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bias+AND+guidelines&pg=5&id=EJ296143','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bias+AND+guidelines&pg=5&id=EJ296143"><span id="translatedtitle">The Estimation of <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Indeterminacy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Budescu, David V.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The degree of indeterminacy of the <span class="hlt">factor</span> score estimates is biased and can lead to erroneous conclusion regarding the nature of the results. The magnitude of this bias is illustrated and guidelines for describing <span class="hlt">factor</span> analytic studies using <span class="hlt">factor</span> scores are offered. (Author/PN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=231404&keyword=General+AND+Electric&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=80548731&CFTOKEN=15538161','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=231404&keyword=General+AND+Electric&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=80548731&CFTOKEN=15538161"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantification of Emission <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Uncertainty</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Emissions <span class="hlt">factors</span> are important for estimating and characterizing emissions from sources of air pollution. There is no quantitative indication of uncertainty for these emission <span class="hlt">factors</span>, most <span class="hlt">factors</span> do not have an adequate data set to compute uncertainty, and it is very difficult...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16674011','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16674011"><span id="translatedtitle">Uterine <span class="hlt">factors</span> and infertility.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sanders, Barry</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>A literature review was performed to explore the available information regarding the association of uterine <span class="hlt">factors</span>--intrauterine adhesions, uterine septa, uterine myomas and endometrial polyps--with infertility and reproductive loss. The literature was reviewed also to ascertain evidence that treatment of these abnormalities improves fertility. A MEDLINE search was performed to identify the relevant publications in the English-language literature. There is minimal published evidence to demonstrate that intrauterine adhesions lead to infertility or pregnancy loss, but the literature does contain several observational series that demonstrate successful fertility, with term pregnancy rates ranging from 32% to 87% following hysteroscopic division of intrauterine adhesions. The evidence supporting a direct link between a septate uterus and reproductive loss/infertility is derived from the results of metroplasty. Several case series demonstrated a reduction in the spontaneous abortion rate, from 91% to 17%, on average, after hysteroscopic metroplasty. Furthermore, following metroplasty, the mean pregnancy rate in previously infertile patients is 47%. Little has been written regarding the association of endometrial polyps and infertility. One study did demonstrate a pregnancy rate of 78% after hysteroscopic polypectomy as compared to 42% in infertile patients with normal endometrial cavities. The literature that associates myomas with infertility/reproductive loss is more extensive but quite controversial. Evidence from the in vitro fertilization literature suggests that only those myomas that distort the endometrial cavity impair fertility. Pregnancy rates approximating 50% are achieved with myomectomy by laparotomy, laparoscopy or hysteroscopy.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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