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  1. BIOLOGICAL INDICATOR DEVELOPMENT AND CLASSIFICATION FOR GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands are a valued aquatic resource that provide important ecological functions for the Great Lakes including serving as fish habitat, aquatic food web support, and nutrient and sediment retention from watersheds. Great Lakes resource managers need assessme...

  2. Hydrogeomorphic classification for Great Lakes coastal wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albert, Dennis A.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Ingram, Joel W.; Thompson, Todd A.

    2005-01-01

    A hydrogeomorphic classification scheme for Great Lakes coastal wetlands is presented. The classification is hierarchical and first divides the wetlands into three broad hydrogeomorphic systems, lacustrine, riverine, and barrier-protected, each with unique hydrologic flow characteristics and residence time. These systems are further subdivided into finer geomorphic types based on physical features and shoreline processes. Each hydrogeomorphic wetland type has associated plant and animal communities and specific physical attributes related to sediment type, wave energy, water quality, and hydrology.

  3. 2015 RFA for Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Monitoring Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Request for Applications solicits applications from eligible entities for a cooperative agreement to be awarded for a project to continue monitoring and assessment of Great Lakes coastal wetlands.

  4. Hydrogeomorphic and Anthropogenic Influences on Water Quality, Habitat, and Fish of Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands represent a dynamic interface between coastal watersheds and the open lake. Compared to the adjacent lakes, these wetlands have generally warmer water, reduced wave energy, shallow bathymetry, higher productivity, and structurally complex vegetated h...

  5. Human influences on water quality in Great Lakes coastal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Morrice, John A; Danz, Nicholas P; Regal, Ronald R; Kelly, John R; Niemi, Gerald J; Reavie, Euan D; Hollenhorst, Tom; Axler, Richard P; Trebitz, Anett S; Cotter, Anne M; Peterson, Gregory S

    2008-03-01

    A better understanding of relationships between human activities and water chemistry is needed to identify and manage sources of anthropogenic stress in Great Lakes coastal wetlands. The objective of the study described in this article was to characterize relationships between water chemistry and multiple classes of human activity (agriculture, population and development, point source pollution, and atmospheric deposition). We also evaluated the influence of geomorphology and biogeographic factors on stressor-water quality relationships. We collected water chemistry data from 98 coastal wetlands distributed along the United States shoreline of the Laurentian Great Lakes and GIS-based stressor data from the associated drainage basin to examine stressor-water quality relationships. The sampling captured broad ranges (1.5-2 orders of magnitude) in total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), total suspended solids (TSS), chlorophyll a (Chl a), and chloride; concentrations were strongly correlated with stressor metrics. Hierarchical partitioning and all-subsets regression analyses were used to evaluate the independent influence of different stressor classes on water quality and to identify best predictive models. Results showed that all categories of stress influenced water quality and that the relative influence of different classes of disturbance varied among water quality parameters. Chloride exhibited the strongest relationships with stressors followed in order by TN, Chl a, TP, TSS, and DIN. In general, coarse scale classification of wetlands by morphology (three wetland classes: riverine, protected, open coastal) and biogeography (two ecoprovinces: Eastern Broadleaf Forest [EBF] and Laurentian Mixed Forest [LMF]) did not improve predictive models. This study provides strong evidence of the link between water chemistry and human stress in Great Lakes coastal wetlands and can be used to inform management efforts to improve water

  6. DIEL OXYGEN-INDUCED MOVEMENT OF FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN A GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the importance of dissolved oxygen conditions in influencing daily ovement patterns of fishes in Great Lakes coastal wetlands, we sampled migrating fish assemblages from habitats with varying diurnal dissolved oxygen patterns in a Lake Superior coastal wetland during...

  7. Across Hydrological Interfaces from Coastal Watersheds to the Open Lake: Finding Landscape Signals in the Great Lakes Coastal Zone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade, our group has been working to bring coastal ecosystems into integrated basin-lakewide monitoring and assessment strategies for the Great Lakes. We have conducted a wide range of research on coastal tributaries, coastal wetlands, semi-enclosed embayments an...

  8. Progress in understanding the importance of coastal wetland nursery habitat to Great Lakes fisheries support

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands provide important habitat for Great Lakes fishes of all life stages. A literature review of ichthyoplankton surveys conducted in Great Lakes coastal wetlands found at least 82 species reported to be captured during the larval stage. Twenty of those sp...

  9. EPA Awards Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Grant to Central Michigan University to Monitor Coastal Wetlands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CHICAGO -- The U.S Environmental Protection Agency today announced that Central Michigan University in Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, has received a $10 million Great Lakes Restoration Initiative grant to monitor coastal wetlands around the Great Lakes basin over

  10. Factors affecting the evolution of coastal wetlands of the Laurential Great Lakes: an overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayer, T.; Edsall, T.; Munawar, M.

    2004-01-01

    Coastal wetlands play a pivotal role in the Great Lakes ecosystem. As buffer zones between the land and open waters of the Great Lakes, they perform a variety of essential functions providing both direct and indirect anthropogenic benefits. Geology, morphology and climate are the dominant variables that influence Laurentian Great Lakes wetland development. However, anthropogenic factors are the major contributors to alteration of natural wetland processes. This paper provides an overview of natural and anthropogenic factors important in Great Lakes coastal wetland development and provides statistical information describing the Great Lakes Basin. A brief description of wetlands classification and research issues is also presented.

  11. Hydrologic Factors Determining Linkages of Great Lake Coastal Wetlands to Watershed and Lake

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water can enter Great Lakes coastal wetlands (CWs) from both watershed and offshore sources. Identifying the relative contribution of these potential sources, and the spatial scale at which sources are influenced by human activities, are critical steps in wetland protection. We d...

  12. Watershed and Lake Influences on the Energetic Base of Coastal Wetland Food Webs across the Great Lakes Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript examines the responses of Great Lakes coastal wetland food webs to nutrient enrichment and identifies three classes of systems whose food webs respond differently. Or is that differentially? Anyway, coastal wetlands with relatively long hydraulic residence times ...

  13. Coastal processes influencing water quality at Great Lakes beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In a series of studies along the Great Lakes, U.S. Geological Survey scientists are examining the physical processes that influence concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and related pathogens at recreational beaches. These studies aim to estimate human health risk, improve management strategies, and understand the fate and transport of microbes in the nearshore area. It was determined that embayed beaches act as traps, accumulating Escherichia coli (E. coli) and other bacteria in the basin and even in beach sand. Further, shear stress and wave run-up could resuspend accumulated bacteria, leading to water-contamination events. These findings are being used to target beach design and circulation projects. In previous research, it was determined that E. coli followed a diurnal pattern, with concentrations decreasing throughout the day, largely owing to solar inactivation, but rebounding overnight. Studies at a Chicago beach identified the impact of wave-induced mass transport on this phenomenon, a finding that will extend our understanding of bacterial fate in the natural environment. In another series of studies, scientists examined the impact of river outfalls on bacteria concentrations, using mechanistic and empirical modeling. Through these studies, the models can indicate range and extent of impact, given E. coli concentration in the source water. These findings have been extended to extended lengths of coastlines and have been applied in beach management using empirical predictive modeling. Together, these studies are helping scientists identify and eliminate threats to human and coastal health.

  14. WETLAND MORPHOLOGIC AND BIOGEOGRAPHIC INFLUENCES ON ALGAL RESPONSES TO NUTRIENT LOADING IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are testing the influence of wetland morphology (protected vs. riverine) and biogeography (upper vs. lower Great Lakes) on algal responses to nutrients in Great Lakes Coastal wetlands. Principal components analysis using nutrient-specific GIS data was used to select sites wit...

  15. Status of the amphipod Diporeia ssp. in coastal waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diporeia has historically been the dominant benthic macroinvertebrate in deeper waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes, and its abundance has been proposed as an indicator of ecological condition. In 2010, the USEPA incorporated the Great Lakes into the National Coastal Condition A...

  16. Analysis of fish movements between Great Lakes coastal wetlands and near shore habitat via otolith microchemistry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands are unique habitats with physical connections with near shore environments. This facilitates the exchange of energy between habitats in a principle known as habitat coupling. Coupling can be facilitated by movements of consumers; however, wetland us...

  17. REMOTE DETECTION OF INVASSIVE AND OPPORTUNISTIC PLANT SPECIES IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive and opportunistic plant species have been associated with wetland disturbance. Increases in the abundance of plant species such as common reed (Phragmites australis) in coastal Great Lakes wetlands are hypothesized to occur with shifts toward drier hydrologic regimes, fr...

  18. REMOTE DETENTION OF INVASIVE AND OPPORTUNISTIC PLANT SPECIES IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive and opportunistic plant species have been associated with wetland disturbance. Increases in the abundance of plant species such as common reed (Phragmites australis) in coastal Great Lakes wetlands are hypothesized to occur with shifts toward drier hydrologic regimes, fr...

  19. Patterns in Habitat and Fish Assemblages within Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands and Implications for Sampling Design

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discerning fish - habitat associations at a variety of spatial scales is relevant to evaluating stressor responses and assessment protocols in Great Lakes coastal wetlands. NMDS ordination of electrofishing catch-per-effort data identified an overriding influence of geography an...

  20. Environmental Indicators for the Coastal Region of North American Great Lakes: Introduction and Prospectus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental indicators are benchmarks for the current conditions of the Great Lakes coastal region and provide measurable endpoints to assess the success of future management, conservation, protection, and restoration of this important resource.

  1. Coastal groundwater/surface-water interactions: a Great Lakes case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neff, Brian P.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Lundstrom, Scott C.

    2006-01-01

    Key similarities exist between marine and Great Lakes coastal environments. Water and nutrient fluxes across lakebeds in the Great Lakes are influenced by seiche and wind set-up and set-down, analogous to tidal influence in marine settings. Groundwater/surface-water interactions also commonly involve a saline-fresh water interface, although in the Great-Lakes cases, it is groundwater that is commonly saline and surface water that is fresh. Evapotranspiration also affects nearshore hydrology in both settings. Interactions between groundwater and surface water have recently been identified as an important component of ecological processes in the Great Lakes. Water withdrawals and the reversal of the groundwater/surface water seepage gradient are also common to many coastal areas around the Great Lakes. As compared to surface water, regional groundwater that discharges to western Lake Erie from Michigan is highly mineralized. Studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey at Erie State Game Area in southeastern Michigan, describe groundwater flow dynamics and chemistry, shallow lake-water chemistry, and fish and invertebrate communities. Results presented here provide an overview of recent progress of ongoing interdisciplinary studies of Great Lakes nearshore systems and describe a conceptual model that identifies relations among geologic, hydrologic, chemical, and biological processes in the coastal habitats of Lake Erie. This conceptual model is based on analysis of hydraulic head in piezometers at the study site and chemical analysis of deep and shallow coastal groundwater.

  2. Early Detection Monitoring for Vulnerable Great Lakes Coastal Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes harbors/embayments are vulnerable to introduction of aquatic invasive species. Monitoring is needed to inform on new introductions, as well as to track success of prevention programs intended to limit spread. We have completed a pilot field case study in the Duluth-...

  3. Assessment of suitable habitat for Phragmites australis (common reed) in the Great Lakes coastal zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson Mazur, Martha L.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Galbraith, David

    2014-01-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes, the invasive form of Phragmites australis (common reed) poses a threat to highly productive coastal wetlands and shorelines by forming impenetrable stands that outcompete native plants. Large, dominant stands can derail efforts to restore wetland ecosystems degraded by other stressors. To be proactive, landscape-level management of Phragmites requires information on the current spatial distribution of the species and a characterization of areas suitable for future colonization. Using a recent basin-scale map of this invasive plant’s distribution in the U.S. coastal zone of the Great Lakes, environmental data (e.g., soils, nutrients, disturbance, climate, topography), and climate predictions, we performed analyses of current and predicted suitable coastal habitat using boosted regression trees, a type of species distribution modeling. We also investigated differential influences of environmental variables in the upper lakes (Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron) and lower lakes (Lakes St. Clair, Erie, and Ontario). Basin-wide results showed that the coastal areas most vulnerable to Phragmites expansion were in close proximity to developed lands and had minimal topographic relief, poorly drained soils, and dense road networks. Elevated nutrients and proximity to agriculture also influenced the distribution of Phragmites. Climate predictions indicated an increase in suitable habitat in coastal Lakes Huron and Michigan in particular. The results of this study, combined with a publicly available online decision support tool, will enable resource managers and restoration practitioners to target and prioritize Phragmites control efforts in the Great Lakes coastal zone.

  4. USGS capabilities for interdisciplinary investigations in coastal and nearshore ecosystems of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Donna N.

    2002-01-01

    People choose to reside, work, and vacation in coastal areas of the Great Lakes because of the lakes' scenic beauty and their historic and cultural features. Great Lakes nearshore areas also constitute a valuable economic resource. Two million anglers added \\$1 billion to the region's economy in 1996. More than 300 million tons of goods were transported out of major Great Lakes ports at a value of \\$3 billion in 1996. A 1998 survey of Lake Erie beaches estimated contributions of $5 million per year to each local economy with a public beach. More than 70 million people yearly visit national, state and provincial parks in the Great Lakes area. Uncontrolled land development, recreational development, invasive species, climate change, water availability, and water-level changes and fluctuations lead a long list of current and potential issues in coastal and nearshore areas. To be effectively addressed, these complex issues require an interdisciplinary approach.

  5. INTEGRATING COASTAL SYSTEMS INTO LAKE-WIDE AND BASIN-WIDE ASSESSMENT DESIGNS FOR THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our results have highlighted assessment design approaches that are now being endorsed by several Great Lakes partnerships and adopted in emerging monitoring activities. Experience with synoptic approaches and coastal indicators is being broadly sought to enhance current and tradi...

  6. Fringe benefit: Value of restoring coastal wetlands for Great Lakes fisheries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fishery support is recognized as a valuable ecosystem service provided by Great Lakes coastal wetlands, but it is challenging to quantify because multiple species and habitats are involved. Recent studies indicate that coastal wetland area is proportional to fishery harvest among...

  7. LANDSCAPE-SCALE MONITORING OF AN OPPORTUNIST: PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS (CAV) STEUDEL IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes (LGL) are among the most fragmented ecosystems in the world, with a long history of human-induced disturbances, primarily as a result of agricultural conversions and hydrologic changes. A substantial number of remnant LGL coastal wet...

  8. A GIS APPROACH TO IDENTIFY AND CLASSIFY HYDROGEOMORPHIC TYPES OF COASTAL WETLANDS OF THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a need by Great Lakes managers to have a comprehensive inventory of the coastal wetland resources for monitoring and assessment. An electronic database and geographic information system (GIS) point coverage of coastal wetland locations along the U.S. shoreline have been ...

  9. FOOD WEB STRUCTURE AS A POTENTIAL INDICATOR OF NUTRIENT ENRICHMENT IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analyses of the food webs of Great Lakes coastal wetlands verify the role of algae as an energetic foundation, and also suggest that fundamental changes occur in response to both natural and anthropogenic influences. We analyzed coastal wetlands with a range of nutrient concentra...

  10. A Review of Selected Ecosystem Services Supplied by Coastal Wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant ecosystem services derive from the coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes even though they have undergone substantial declines since European settlement. Basin-wide, two-thirds of the original coastal wetlands have been lost, and the remaining 126,000 ha of US...

  11. LANDSCAPE-SCALE ECOLOGICAL FACTORS AND THEIR ROLE IN PLANT OPPORTUNISM OF GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes (USA and Canada) are among the most biologically diverse ecosystems of the world. However, since the 1970s the presence of opportunistic plant species such as common reed (Phragmites australis [Cav.] Steudel) have increased in Great ...

  12. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This book contains lesson plans that provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into elementary subjects. The book is divided into three subject areas: (1) History, which includes the origins of the Great Lakes, Great Lakes people, and shipwrecks; (2) Social Studies, which covers government, acid rain as a…

  13. Functional values of Great Lakes coastal wetlands: What we know and what we can be working towards

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality improvement, shoreline protection, carbon sequestration, and lake productivity subsidy are among the functional values commonly attributed to Great Lakes coastal wetlands (GLCWs). There is much less information concerning these than there is concerning habitat and f...

  14. Phase 2 development of Great Lakes algorithms for Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanis, Fred J.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted in the Great Lakes designed to evaluate the application of the NIMBUS-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). Atmospheric and water optical models were used to relate surface and subsurface measurements to satellite measured radiances. Absorption and scattering measurements were reduced to obtain a preliminary optical model for the Great Lakes. Algorithms were developed for geometric correction, correction for Rayleigh and aerosol path radiance, and prediction of chlorophyll-a pigment and suspended mineral concentrations. The atmospheric algorithm developed compared favorably with existing algorithms and was the only algorithm found to adequately predict the radiance variations in the 670 nm band. The atmospheric correction algorithm developed was designed to extract needed algorithm parameters from the CZCS radiance values. The Gordon/NOAA ocean algorithms could not be demonstrated to work for Great Lakes waters. Predicted values of chlorophyll-a concentration compared favorably with expected and measured data for several areas of the Great Lakes.

  15. Geographic, Anthropogenic and Habitat Influences on Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Fish Assemblages

    EPA Science Inventory

    We analyzed data from coastal wetlands across all five Laurentian Great Lakes to identify patterns in fish assemblages and relationships to local habitat, watershed condition, and regional setting. NMDS ordination of electrofishing catch-per-effort data revealed an overriding ge...

  16. NATURAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC FACTORS INFLUENCING FOOD WEB STRUCTURE IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are investigating factors governing the biological organization of Great Lakes coastal wetlands. Food web analyses using stable isotope techniques verify the role of algae as an energetic foundation, and also suggest that fundamental changes occur as a result of anthropogenic ...

  17. NUTRIENT AND HABITAT INDICATORS FOR CRITERIA DEVELOPMENT IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Mid-Continent Ecology Division is testing indicators and establishing stressor - response relationships to support development of nutrient and habitat criteria for Great Lakes coastal wetlands. Our focus is on water quality changes, food web shifts, and vegetation loss as ...

  18. Watershed Influences on Nearshore Waters Across the Entire US Great Lakes Coastal Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have combined three elements of observation to enable a comprehensive characterization of the Great Lakes nearshore that links nearshore conditions with their adjacent coastal watersheds. The three elements are: 1) a shore-parallel, high-resolution survey of the nearshore usin...

  19. Reconstructing fish movements between coastal wetland and nearshore habitats of the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of resources from multiple habitats has been shown to be important to the production of aquatic consumers. To quantify the support of Great Lakes coastal wetland (WL) and nearshore (NS) habitats to yellow perch, we used otolith microchemistry to trace movements between th...

  20. Coastal wetland support of Great Lakes fisheries: progress from concept to quantification.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fishery support is recognized as a valuable ecosystem service provided by aquatic systems but is harder to quantify than to describe conceptually. In this paper, we intersect data on fish inhabiting Great Lakes coastal wetlands with information on commercial and recreational har...

  1. Hydrogeomorphic factors and ecosystem responses in coastal wetlands of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keough, Janet R.; Thompson, Todd A.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    1999-01-01

    Gauging the impact of manipulative activities, such as rehabilitation or management, on wetlands requires having a notion of the unmanipulated condition as a reference. And understanding of the reference condition requires knowledge of dominant factors influencing ecosystem processes and biological communities. In this paper, we focus on natural physical factors (conditions and processes) that drive coastal wetland ecosystems of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Great Lakes coastal wetlands develop under conditions of large-lake hydrology and disturbance imposed at a hiearchy of spatial and temporal scales and contain biotic communities adapted to unstable and unpredictable conditions. Coastal wetlands are configured along a continuum of hydrogeomorphic types: open coastal wetlands, drowned river mouth and flooded delta wetlands, and protected wetlands, each developing distinct ecosystem propertics and biotic communities. Hydrogeomorphic factors associated with the lake and watershed operate at a hierarchy of scales: a) local and short-term (seiches and ice action), b) watershed / lakewide / annual (seasonal water-level change), and c) larger or year-to-year and longer (regional and/or greater than one-year). Other physical factors include the unique water quality features of each lake. The aim of this paper is to provide scientists and managers with a framework for considering regional and site-specific geomorphometry and a hierarchy of physical processes in planning management and conservation projects.

  2. Systematically variable planktonic carbon metabolism along a land-to-lake gradient in a Great Lakes coastal zone

    PubMed Central

    Weinke, Anthony D.; Kendall, Scott T.; Kroll, Daniel J.; Strickler, Eric A.; Weinert, Maggie E.; Holcomb, Thomas M.; Defore, Angela A.; Dila, Deborah K.; Snider, Michael J.; Gereaux, Leon C.; Biddanda, Bopaiah A.

    2014-01-01

    During the summers of 2002–2013, we measured rates of carbon metabolism in surface waters of six sites across a land-to-lake gradient from the upstream end of drowned river-mouth Muskegon Lake (ML) (freshwater estuary) to 19 km offshore in Lake Michigan (LM) (a Great Lake). Despite considerable inter-year variability, the average rates of gross production (GP), respiration (R) and net production (NP) across ML (604 ± 58, 222 ± 22 and 381 ± 52 µg C L−1 day−1, respectively) decreased steeply in the furthest offshore LM site (22 ± 3, 55 ± 17 and −33 ± 15 µg C L−1day−1, respectively). Along this land-to-lake gradient, GP decreased by 96 ± 1%, whereas R only decreased by 75 ± 9%, variably influencing the carbon balance along this coastal zone. All ML sites were consistently net autotrophic (mean GP:R = 2.7), while the furthest offshore LM site was net heterotrophic (mean GP:R = 0.4). Our study suggests that pelagic waters of this Great Lakes coastal estuary are net carbon sinks that transition into net carbon sources offshore. Reactive and dynamic estuarine coastal zones everywhere may contribute similarly to regional and global carbon cycles. PMID:25954055

  3. Systematically variable planktonic carbon metabolism along a land-to-lake gradient in a Great Lakes coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Weinke, Anthony D; Kendall, Scott T; Kroll, Daniel J; Strickler, Eric A; Weinert, Maggie E; Holcomb, Thomas M; Defore, Angela A; Dila, Deborah K; Snider, Michael J; Gereaux, Leon C; Biddanda, Bopaiah A

    2014-11-01

    During the summers of 2002-2013, we measured rates of carbon metabolism in surface waters of six sites across a land-to-lake gradient from the upstream end of drowned river-mouth Muskegon Lake (ML) (freshwater estuary) to 19 km offshore in Lake Michigan (LM) (a Great Lake). Despite considerable inter-year variability, the average rates of gross production (GP), respiration (R) and net production (NP) across ML (604 ± 58, 222 ± 22 and 381 ± 52 µg C L(-1) day(-1), respectively) decreased steeply in the furthest offshore LM site (22 ± 3, 55 ± 17 and -33 ± 15 µg C L(-1)day(-1), respectively). Along this land-to-lake gradient, GP decreased by 96 ± 1%, whereas R only decreased by 75 ± 9%, variably influencing the carbon balance along this coastal zone. All ML sites were consistently net autotrophic (mean GP:R = 2.7), while the furthest offshore LM site was net heterotrophic (mean GP:R = 0.4). Our study suggests that pelagic waters of this Great Lakes coastal estuary are net carbon sinks that transition into net carbon sources offshore. Reactive and dynamic estuarine coastal zones everywhere may contribute similarly to regional and global carbon cycles.

  4. Great Lakes: Great Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Sea Grant Inst., Albany, NY.

    This folder contains 12 fact sheets designed to improve the quality of gardens near the Great Lakes. The titles are: (1) "Your Garden and the Great Lakes"; (2) "Organic Gardening"; (3) "Fruit and Vegetable Gardening"; (4) "Composting Yard Wastes"; (5) "Herbicides and Water Quality"; (6)…

  5. Development of Great Lakes algorithms for the Nimbus-G coastal zone color scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanis, F. J.; Lyzenga, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    A series of experiments in the Great Lakes designed to evaluate the application of the Nimbus G satellite Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) were conducted. Absorption and scattering measurement data were reduced to obtain a preliminary optical model for the Great Lakes. Available optical models were used in turn to calculate subsurface reflectances for expected concentrations of chlorophyll-a pigment and suspended minerals. Multiple nonlinear regression techniques were used to derive CZCS water quality prediction equations from Great Lakes simulation data. An existing atmospheric model was combined with a water model to provide the necessary simulation data for evaluation of the preliminary CZCS algorithms. A CZCS scanner model was developed which accounts for image distorting scanner and satellite motions. This model was used in turn to generate mapping polynomials that define the transformation from the original image to one configured in a polyconic projection. Four computer programs (FORTRAN IV) for image transformation are presented.

  6. EPA Awards $10 Million Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Grant for Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Monitoring Program, SUNY Brockport Among the Project Partners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S Environmental Protection Agency today announced it has awarded a $10 million five-year grant to Central Michigan University to continue implementation of EPA's Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Monitoring Program. Central Michigan Univer

  7. Method for estimating materials fluxes from coastal wetlands into the Great Lakes, with an example from lake Erie. Technical bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Krieger, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    A method is presented in detail for the quantitative estimation of the flux of water and dissolved or suspended materials through coastal wetlands of the Great Lakes where the juncture of the wetland and lake is constricted by a narrow opening. Application of the method requires frequent (e.g., hourly or daily) data on atmospheric deposition, precipitation, evaporation, upstream discharges from tributaries, wetland water level changes, and water chemistry data at upstream and downstream locations, as well as a detailed knowledge of wetland depth-area and depth-volume relationships. Data collected during October 1989 are used to demonstrate the method.

  8. Stimulating a Great Lakes coastal wetland seed bank using portable cofferdams: implications for habitat rehabilitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kowalski, K.P.; Wilcox, D.A.; Wiley, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal wetland seed banks exposed by low lake levels or through management actions fuel the reestablishment of emergent plant assemblages (i.e., wetland habitat) critical to Great Lakes aquatic biota. This project explored the effectiveness of using portable, water-filled cofferdams as a management tool to promote the natural growth of emergent vegetation from the seed bank in a Lake Erie coastal wetland. A series of dams stretching approximately 450??m was installed temporarily to isolate hydrologically a 10-ha corner of the Crane Creek wetland complex from Lake Erie. The test area was dewatered in 2004 to mimic a low-water year, and vegetation sampling characterized the wetland seed bank response at low, middle, and high elevations in areas open to and protected from bird and mammal herbivory. The nearly two-month drawdown stimulated a rapid seed-bank-driven response by 45 plant taxa. Herbivory had little effect on plant species richness, regardless of the location along an elevation gradient. Inundation contributed to the replacement of immature emergent plant species with submersed aquatic species after the dams failed and were removed prematurely. This study revealed a number of important issues that must be considered for effective long-term implementation of portable cofferdam technology to stimulate wetland seed banks, including duration of dewatering, product size, source of clean water, replacement of damaged dams, and regular maintenance. This technology is a potentially important tool in the arsenal used by resource managers seeking to rehabilitate the functions and values of Great Lakes coastal wetland habitats.

  9. Detecting and Mapping Invasive Phragmites australis in the coastal Great Lakes with ALOS PALSAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeau-chavez, L. L.; Scarbrough, K.; Jenkins, L. K.; Riordan, K.; Powell, R. B.; Brooks, C.; Kowalski, K.; Carlson Mazur, M.; Huberty, B.

    2011-12-01

    Phragmites australis is a non-native invasive plant that can form dense monocultures, causing negative impacts on coastal Great Lakes wetlands by reducing ecosystem services including habitat and therefore, biological diversity. Through Great Lakes Restoration Initiative funding, ALOS PALSAR imagery is being used to map the invasive plant as it occurs in monoculture stands of the U.S. coastal Great Lakes wetlands. These invasive Phragmites maps are being used as part of a USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) and US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) program to identify major environmental drivers of invasive Phragmites distribution, to assess areas vulnerable to new invasion, and to provide this information to regional stakeholders through a decision support tool. The invasive Phragmites map is the first U.S. basin-wide map to be produced on the distribution of this species. Methods include maximum likelihood classification of multi-season ALOS PALSAR HH and HV polarization data. PALSAR is an L-band (23 cm wavelength) imaging radar sensor which is sensitive to differences in plant biomass and inundation patterns, allowing for the extraction of these tall (up to 15 m), high-density, high-biomass Phragmites wetland stands. To improve discrimination of Phragmites australis, the three date (spring, summer, fall) dataset is being used, which takes advantage of phenological changes in vegetation and inundation patterns over the seasons. Field collections of training and randomly selected validation data were conducted in spring summer and fall of 2010-11 to aid in the mapping and for accuracy assessment. The minimum mapping unit is 1/2 acre and thus all field sites were sampled at 1/2 acre units. All map products and field validation data will be complete by December 2011. Maps are being completed on a Lake basin basis. The first final map product was delivered for Lake Erie coastal wetlands to 10 km inland, with an overall map accuracy

  10. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This booklet introduces an environmental curriculum for use in a variety of elementary subjects. The lesson plans provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into the subjects of history, social studies, and environmental sciences. Each of these sections contains background information, discussion points, and a…

  11. Attenuation of landscape signals through the coastal zone: A basin-wide analysis for the US Great Lakes shoreline, circa 2002-2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compare statistical models developed to describe a) the relationship between watershed properties and Great Lakes coastal wetlands with b) the relationship developed between watershed properties and the Great Lakes nearshore. Using landscape metrics from the GLEI project (Dan...

  12. The effects of a Cattail invasion on a Great Lakes coastal marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowski, K.; Shattuck, S. C.; Tuchman, N. C.

    2005-05-01

    Great Lakes coastal marshes have been increasingly invaded by aggressive exotic plant species, such as the cattail Typha x glauca. T. x glauca has replaced much of the native plant community in Cheboygan Marsh, a coastal marsh on Lake Huron. Investigations done in this marsh during Summer 2004 addressed the T. x glauca invasion impacts on several ecosystem attributes. Multiple physical, chemical, and biological parameters were measured along transects extending from the native community through the T. x glauca-dominated vegetation zone. As expected, species diversity was much lower in the T. x glauca stands (d=0.14) than in the native community (d=0.82). The T. x glauca zone was found to have 2.2 times higher aboveground biomass and large accumulations of dead plant litter averaging 1.25m deep. Light intensities decreased 3-fold, and temperature at the sediment-water interface fell 5°C under these litter masses. T. x glauca was also found to retain 2 to 7 times higher levels of nitrogen in its associated sediments than the native community. Further research is being conducted to determine how nitrogen accumulates in the T. x glauca zone and if this change in nitrogen cycling dynamics facilitates its invasion success.

  13. A NEW TYPE OF "LAKE EFFECT"? - SEICHE-DRIVEN NUTRIENT INPUT TO A COASTAL GREAT LAKE ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Like tidal influx at the ocean-estuarine discontinuity, the action of seiches upon coastal ecosystems of large lakes is understudied and the complexity warrants an array of biological, chemical, and physical approaches.

  14. Using Stable Isotope Mixing in a Great Lakes Coastal Tributary to Determine Food Web Linkages in Young Fishes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objectives were to determine whether we can detect a stable isotope gradient along the river-Great Lake hydrologic continuum in a coastal river and use it to identify changes across this gradient in the food web supporting young-of-year (YOY) and juvenile fish production. We ...

  15. HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING, GPS, AND GIS APPLICATIONS IN OPPORTUNISTIC PLANT SPECIES MONITORING OF GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes (LGL) are among the most fragmented and disturbed ecosystems of the world, with a long history of human-induced disturbance. LGL wetlands have undergone losses in the biological diversity that coincides with an increase in the presen...

  16. Can a rapid underwater video approach enhance the benthic assessment capability of the National Coastal Condition Assessmentin the Great Lakes?

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the U.S. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) field survey in summer 2010, over 400 sites in the nearshore zone of the U.S. Great Lakes were sampled. As a supplement to core NCCA benthic taxonomy and sediment chemistry, underwater video images of the bottom condition ...

  17. EPA’s National Coastal Condition Assessment: Pilot research in Great Lakes connecting channels

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Office of Water’s 5-year cycles of national surveys of wetlands, lakes, rivers, and coastal areas help satisfy the assessment and antidegradation provisions of the Clean Water Act. Measuring extant conditions precedes measuring change in conditions. Surveys are chal...

  18. SHIFTS BETWEEN PERIPHYTON-AND PHYTOPLANKTON-BASED FOOD WEBS IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous studies have revealed the importance of algae as an energetic base for wetland food webs. Earlier carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses in a Lake Superior coastal wetland (Allouez Bay, WI) indicated that, despite the large amount of vascular plant biobass present, ...

  19. Fish assemblages, connectivity, and habitat rehabilitation in a diked Great Lakes coastal wetland complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kowalski, Kurt P.; Wiley, Michael J.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    Fish and plant assemblages in the highly modified Crane Creek coastal wetland complex of Lake Erie were sampled to characterize their spatial and seasonal patterns and to examine the implications of the hydrologic connection of diked wetland units to Lake Erie. Fyke netting captured 52 species and an abundance of fish in the Lake Erie–connected wetlands, but fewer than half of those species and much lower numbers and total masses of fish were captured in diked wetland units. Although all wetland units were immediately adjacent to Lake Erie, there were also pronounced differences in water quality and wetland vegetation between the hydrologically isolated and lake-connected wetlands. Large seasonal variations in fish assemblage composition and biomass were observed in connected wetland units but not in disconnected units. Reestablishment of hydrologic connectivity in diked wetland units would allow coastal Lake Erie fish to use these vegetated habitats seasonally, although connectivity does appear to pose some risks, such as the expansion of invasive plants and localized reductions in water quality. Periodic isolation and drawdown of the diked units could still be used to mimic intermediate levels of disturbance and manage invasive wetland vegetation.

  20. Improvement of Armor Stone Performance for Protection of Great Lakes Coastal Navigation Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakikhani, M.; Harrelson, D. W.

    2008-12-01

    Evaluating long-term performance and deterioration of armor stones are essential for maritime structures to protect harbors or navigable areas. Armor rocks are impacted by the natural elements such as seasonal weather, and repeated cycles of temperature (e.g., flowing water, wetting and drying, wave action, freeze and thaw, etc.). The rock's behavior in the field may vary greatly from the laboratory test results. The design process for the determination of armor stone sizes is complex and various factors must be considered in order to fully understand how the design parameters have an indirect effect on stone performance. Numerous investigators have studied to develop relationships for the minimum stable weight of a rubble-mound armor unit for given wave conditions. The main objective of this study has been to evaluate major factors affecting the armor stone durability. The effects of scaling on the test results of various samples of rock types used in Great Lakes coastal projects have been investigated. To consider the combined effects of environmental stresses on armor stone, testing have been done to evaluate the performance of stone subjected to both freezing and thawing and wetting and drying. The stone quarries and sites were evaluated and sampled to determine the stone sources, and their surrounding environments. Long-term performance or deterioration of armor stones have been quantitatively monitored and characterized by the changes in dimensions measured. A degradation numerical model has been developed that relates the laboratory test results to the modification of the mass distribution and reduction at the project site. The paper presentation will describe and illustrate the latest results and developed tools for the armor stone evaluations. We will introduce new approaches that may be used to evaluate the quality and durability with reference to breakage and integrity.

  1. Techniques for restoration of disturbed coastal wetlands of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, Douglas A.; Whillans, Thomas H.

    1999-01-01

    A long history of human-induced degradation of Great Lakes wetlands has made restoration a necessity, but the practice of wetland restoration is relatively new, especially in large lake systems. Therefore, we compiled tested methods and developed additional potential methods based on scientific understanding of Great Lakes wetland ecosytems to providc an overview of approaches for restoration. We addressed this challenge by focusing on four general fields of science: hydrology, sedimentology, chemistry, and biology. Hydrologic remediation methods include restoring hydrologic connections between diked and hydrologically altered wetlands and the lakes, restoring water tables lowered by ditching, and restoring natural variation in lake levels of regulated lakes Superior and Ontario. Sedimentological remediation methods include management of sediment input from uplands, removal or proper management of dams on tributary rivers, and restoration of protective barrier beaches and sand spits. Chemical remediation methods include reducing or eliminating inputs of contaminants from point and non-pont sources, natural sediment remediation by biodegradation and chemical degradation, and active sediment remediation by removal or byin situ treatment Biological remediation methods include control of non-target organisms, enhancing populations of target organisms, and enhancing habitat for target organisms. Some of these method were used in three major restoration projects (Metzger Marsh on Lake Erie and Cootes Paradise and Oshawa Second Marsh on Lake Ontario), which are described as case studies to show practical applications of wetland restoration in the Great Lakes. Successful restoration techniques that do not require continued manipulation must be founded in the basic tenets of ecology and should mimic natural processes. Success is demonstrated by the sustainability, productivity, nutrient-retention ability, invasibility, and biotic interactions within a restored wetland.

  2. RESEARCH ON WATER QUALITY AND BIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation is to 4th - 10th grade teachers participating in a NSF-funded, Sea-Grant led program for enhancing science curricula in schools by educating teachers about research and issues in some focal area (Great Lakes in this case). Background information provided on ecology ...

  3. Early Detection Monitoring Approaches for Non-indigenous Species in Vulnerable Great Lakes Coastal Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes harbors/embayments are vulnerable to introductions of non-indigenous species (NIS). Early detection of new NIS is desirable to allow for a timely management response, raising the question of how to accomplish this in a consistent, cost-effective manner. To that end, ...

  4. The Great Lakes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Great Lakes form the largest surface freshwater system on Earth. The U.S. and Canada work together to restore and protect the environment in the Great Lakes Basin. Top issues include contaminated sediments, water quality and invasive species.

  5. Great Lakes: Chemical Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1976-01-01

    The Tenth Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society met to assess current Chemical Research activity in the Great Lakes Basin, and addressed to the various aspects of the theme, Chemistry of the Great Lakes. Research areas reviewed included watershed studies, atmospheric and aquatic studies, and sediment studies. (BT)

  6. AN ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF INVASIVE AND AGRESSIVE PLANT SPECIES IN COASTAL WETLANDS OF THE LAURENTIAN GREAT LAKES: A COMBINED FIELD BASED AND REMOTE SENSING APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aquatic plant communities within coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes are among the most biologically diverse and productive systems of the world. Coastal wetlands have been especially impacted by landscape conversion and have undergone a marked decline in plant com...

  7. Tsunami history of an Oregon coastal lake reveals a 4600 yr record of great earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelsey, H.M.; Nelson, A.R.; Hemphill-Haley, E.; Witter, R.C.

    2005-01-01

    Bradley Lake, on the southern Oregon coastal plain, records local tsunamis and seismic shaking on the Cascadia subduction zone over the last 7000 yr. Thirteen marine incursions delivered landward-thinning sheets of sand to the lake from nearshore, beach, and dune environments to the west. Following each incursion, a slug of marine water near the bottom of the freshwater lake instigated a few-year-to-several-decade period of a brackish (??? 4??? salinity) lake. Four additional disturbances without marine incursions destabilized sideslopes and bottom sediment, producing a suspension deposit that blanketed the lake bottom. Considering the magnitude and duration of the disturbances necessary to produce Bradley Lake's marine incursions, a local tsunami generated by a great earthquake on the Cascadia subduction zone is the only accountable mechanism. Extreme ocean levels must have been at least 5-8 m above sea level, and the cumulative duration of each marine incursion must have been at least 10 min. Disturbances without marine incursions require seismic shaking as well. Over the 4600 yr period when Bradley Lake was an optimum tsunami recorder, tsunamis from Cascadia plate-boundary earthquakes came in clusters. Between 4600 and 2800 cal yr B.P., tsunamis occurred at the average frequency of ??? 3-4 every 1000 yr. Then, starting ???2800 cal yr B.P., there was a 930-1260 yr interval with no tsunamis. That gap was followed by a ???1000 yr period with 4 tsunamis. In the last millennium, a 670-750 yr gap preceded the A.D. 1700 earthquake and tsunami. The A.D. 1700 earthquake may be the first of a new cluster of plate-boundary earthquakes and accompanying tsunamis. Local tsunamis entered Bradley Lake an average of every 390 yr, whereas the portion of the Cascadia plate boundary that underlies Bradley Lake ruptured in a great earthquake less frequently, about once every 500 yr. Therefore, the entire length of the subduction zone does not rupture in every earthquake, and Bradley

  8. National Assessment of Historical Shoreline Change: A Pilot Study of Historical Coastal Bluff Retreat in the Great Lakes, Erie, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Malone, Shamus; Kratzmann, Meredith G.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal bluff retreat is a chronic problem along many high-relief coastlines in the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regard-ing trends and rates of bluff retreat. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To address these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards Project, conducted a pilot study of bluff retreat along the Lake Erie, Pa., coastline to assess the feasibility of undertaking a larger, multi-state analysis in the Great Lakes region. This report provides an overview of the pilot-study location and bluff geomorphology, the data sources and methodology, results of the analysis, and a discussion of the feasibility of undertaking a similar analysis along eroding bluffs in other Great Lakes states. This pilot study is part of an ongoing effort by the USGS to provide a comprehensive analysis of historical shoreline change and cliff and bluff retreat along open-ocean coastlines of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii, Alaska, and the Great Lakes. One purpose of the work is to develop standard, repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing coastal change so that systematic and consistent periodic updates of coastal erosion can be made nationally. Bluff-retreat evaluations are conducted by comparing the location of a historical bluff edge digitized from aerial photographs with those of recent bluff edges interpreted from both aerial photographs and lidar topographic surveys. The historical bluff edge is from 1938, whereas the more recent bluff edges are from 1998 and 2006 lidar data. Long-term (68-year) rates of retreat are calculated using the available bluff-edge data. The rates of retreat presented in this report represent conditions from the 1930s to 1998/2006, and are not intended for

  9. Mapping invasive Phragmites australis in the coastal Great Lakes with ALOS PALSAR satellite imagery for decision support

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bourgeau-Chavez, Laura L.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Carlson Mazur, Martha L.; Scarbrough, Kirk A.; Powell, Richard B.; Brooks, Colin N.; Huberty, Brian; Jenkins, Liza K.; Banda, Elizabeth C.; Galbraith, David M.; Laubach, Zachary M.; Riordan, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The invasive variety of Phragmites australis (common reed) forms dense stands that can cause negative impacts on coastal Great Lakes wetlands including habitat degradation and reduced biological diversity. Early treatment is key to controlling Phragmites, therefore a map of the current distribution is needed. ALOS PALSAR imagery was used to produce the first basin-wide distribution map showing the extent of large, dense invasive Phragmites-dominated habitats in wetlands and other coastal ecosystems along the U.S. shore of the Great Lakes. PALSAR is a satellite imaging radar sensor that is sensitive to differences in plant biomass and inundation patterns, allowing for the detection and delineation of these tall (up to 5 m), high density, high biomass invasive Phragmites stands. Classification was based on multi-season ALOS PALSAR L-band (23 cm wavelength) HH and HV polarization data. Seasonal (spring, summer, and fall) datasets were used to improve discrimination of Phragmites by taking advantage of phenological changes in vegetation and inundation patterns over the seasons. Extensive field collections of training and randomly selected validation data were conducted in 2010–2011 to aid in mapping and for accuracy assessments. Overall basin-wide map accuracy was 87%, with 86% producer's accuracy and 43% user's accuracy for invasive Phragmites. The invasive Phragmites maps are being used to identify major environmental drivers of this invader's distribution, to assess areas vulnerable to new invasion, and to provide information to regional stakeholders through a decision support tool.

  10. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  11. Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ron

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology…

  12. An Inventory and Classification of Coastal Wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    This inventory and classification of DRM/riverine coastal wetlands is needed for doing a probability based selection for assessments of this valued aquatic resource across large areas, e.g., by states for 305B reports of coastal wetland condition.

  13. EXOTIC AND INVASIVE AQUATIC PLANTS IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS: DISTRIBUTION AND RELATION TO WATERSHED LAND USE AND PLANT RICHNESS AND COVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript provides previously unavailable information to researchers and managers concerning exotic plants in the Great Lakes...This work arises out of our broader efforts to describe biota - habitat relationships in coastal wetlands, and as such falls under Aquatic Stresso...

  14. ALL THAT "PHRAG": BRINGING ENGINEERING, WETLAND ECOLOGY, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY TO BEAR ON THE QUESTION OF COMMON REED IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal wetlands are among the most fragmented and disturbed ecosystems and the Great Lakes are no exception. One possible result is the observed increase in the presence and dominance of invasive and other opportunistic plant species, such as the common reed (Phragmites australi...

  15. The Great Lakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seasons, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human…

  16. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  17. Developing Remote Sensing Products for Monitoring and Modeling Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Vulnerability to Climate Change and Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeau-Chavez, L. L.; Miller, M. E.; Battaglia, M.; Banda, E.; Endres, S.; Currie, W. S.; Elgersma, K. J.; French, N. H. F.; Goldberg, D. E.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2014-12-01

    Spread of invasive plant species in the coastal wetlands of the Great Lakes is degrading wetland habitat, decreasing biodiversity, and decreasing ecosystem services. An understanding of the mechanisms of invasion is crucial to gaining control of this growing threat. To better understand the effects of land use and climatic drivers on the vulnerability of coastal zones to invasion, as well as to develop an understanding of the mechanisms of invasion, research is being conducted that integrates field studies, process-based ecosystem and hydrological models, and remote sensing. Spatial data from remote sensing is needed to parameterize the hydrological model and to test the outputs of the linked models. We will present several new remote sensing products that are providing important physiological, biochemical, and landscape information to parameterize and verify models. This includes a novel hybrid radar-optical technique to delineate stands of invasives, as well as natural wetland cover types; using radar to map seasonally inundated areas not hydrologically connected; and developing new algorithms to estimate leaf area index (LAI) using Landsat. A coastal map delineating wetland types including monocultures of the invaders (Typha spp. and Phragmites austrailis) was created using satellite radar (ALOS PALSAR, 20 m resolution) and optical data (Landsat 5, 30 m resolution) fusion from multiple dates in a Random Forests classifier. These maps provide verification of the integrated model showing areas at high risk of invasion. For parameterizing the hydrological model, maps of seasonal wetness are being developed using spring (wet) imagery and differencing that with summer (dry) imagery to detect the seasonally wet areas. Finally, development of LAI remote sensing high resolution algorithms for uplands and wetlands is underway. LAI algorithms for wetlands have not been previously developed due to the difficulty of a water background. These products are being used to

  18. The Great Salt Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hassibe, W.R.; Keck, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    The western part of the conterminous United States is often thought of as being a desert without any large bodies of water. In the desert area of western Utah, however, lies Great Salt Lake, which in 1986 covered approximately 2,300 square miles and contained 30 million acre-feet of water (an acre-foot is the amount of water necessary to cover 1 acre of land with water 1 foot in depth or about 326,000 gallons). To emphasize its size, the Great Salt Lake is the largest lake west of the Mississippi River, larger than the states of Rhode Island and Delaware.

  19. USEPA RESEARCH ON FISH - HABITAT RELATIONSHIPS IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL MARSHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite numerous studies documenting fish use of particular habitat elements, the role of habitat mosaics in supporting wetland fishes is poorly understood. USEPA's Mid-Continent Ecology Division has initiated research to identify relationships of fish and habitat in coastal mars...

  20. The Great Lakes whitefish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Oosten, John; Elliot, Charles

    1942-01-01

    In every one of the Great Lakes- Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michigan, and Superior- the most valuable fishes are declining, and there is no evidence that this trend will be reversed. Under existing conditions of a diversity of regulations that vary between states and between the two countries, and with the present methods of fishing, the Great Lakes fisheries are doomed. This chapter deals with the common whitefish, a valuable species which many believe to be the next that will go unless positive action is forthcoming soon.

  1. Promoting species establishment in a phragmites-dominated great lakes coastal wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, M.L.; Kowalski, K.P.; Wilcox, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined efforts to promote species establishment and maintain diversity in a Phragmites-dominated wetland where primary control measures were underway. A treatment experiment was performed at Crane Creek, a drowned-river-mouth wetland in Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge along the shore of western Lake Erie. Following initial aerial spraying of Phragmites with glyphosate, this study tested combinations of cutting, raking, and additional hand spraying of Phragmites with glyphosate as methods to promote growth of other wetland species and increase plant diversity. Percent-cover vegetation data were collected in permanent plots before and after treatments, and follow-up sampling was performed the following year. Increased species richness, species emergence, and relative dominance of non-Phragmites taxa were used as measures of treatment success. We also examined treatment effects on Phragmites cover. Dimensionality of seedbank and soil properties was reduced using principal component analysis. With the exception of nitrogen, soil nutrients affected species establishment, non-Phragmites taxa dominance, and Phragmites cover. A more viable seedbank led to greater species emergence. Treatments had differential effects on diversity depending on elevation and resulting degree of hydrologic inundation. Whereas raking to remove dead Phragmites biomass was central to promoting species establishment in dry areas, spraying had a greater impact in continually inundated areas. For treatment success across elevations into the year following treatments, spraying in combination with cutting and raking had the greatest effect. The results of this study suggest that secondary treatments can produce a short-term benefit to the plant community in areas treated for Phragmites.

  2. Great Lakes Demonstration 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Representatives from CG Districts 1, 5 , 13, and 17  Enbridge Pipeline, Co.  EPA  National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)  Observers (CG...distances from the vessel‟s hull. (Figure 5 ) In that configuration, the recovery hose and hydraulic lines dragged across the surface of the nearby...No. CG-D-08-12 2. Government Accession Number 3. Recipient’s Catalog No. 4. Title and Subtitle Great Lakes Demonstration 2 Final Report 5

  3. Not so Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, “September of My Years” “Early Bird,” the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  4. Not so Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, "September of My Years;" "Early Bird," the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  5. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J. Iwan

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  6. Great Lakes Harbors Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-11-01

    Locally.assigned Library of Congress number: HE396 S25 U55 Nj 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side if necessary and identify by block number) 1. HARBORS 2... WATER TRANSPORTATION 3. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 4. GREAT LJAKES - 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on ie.er.se side It necesaty nd identify by blocA number) Harbor...Scope 2 DESCRIPTION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 3 Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Navigation System 2 4 Navigation Season 3 5 Water Levels 4 6 Tributary Area 6

  7. HYDROGEOMORPHIC PATTERNS IN COASTAL WETLANDS OF LAKE SUPERIOR: RELATIVE ROLE OF LAKE AND TRIBUTARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite the documented importance of hydrodynamics in influencing the structure and fundtion of Great Lakes coastal wetlands, systematic assessments of the hydrology of coastal wetlands are lacking. This paper addresses this gap by describing patterns in lake and tributary inputs...

  8. Anthropogenic Influences on Water Quality and Biota of Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands, with an Eye towards Criteria Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twin Ports Freshwater Folk is a group of folks in Duluth in the field of aquatics sciences and management that meets roughly monthly to network and hear about ongoing science projects. My talk to them will focus on how we might use the data collected from our Great Lakes wide we...

  9. Michigan: The Great Lakes State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Sandra Lee; La Luzerne-Oi, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Although Michigan is often called the "Wolverine State," its more common nickname is the "Great Lakes State." This name comes from the fact that Michigan is the only state in the United States that borders four of the five Great Lakes. Also referred to as the "Water Wonderland," Michigan has 11,000 additional lakes,…

  10. Can a Rapid Underwater Video Approach Enhance the Benthic Assessment Capability of the National Coastal Condition Assessment in the Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lietz, Julie E.; Kelly, John R.; Scharold, Jill V.; Yurista, Peder M.

    2015-06-01

    Over 400 sites were sampled in the nearshore of the U.S. Great Lakes during the U.S. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) field survey in summer 2010. Underwater video images were recorded in addition to routine NCCA benthic assessment measures. This paper has two objectives: (1) to develop a process to evaluate video performance with acceptance criteria, exploring reasons for poor images, and (2) to use acceptable videos in an example application with invasive mussels, evaluating the enhancement potential of video to supplement traditional grab sampling. A standard hierarchical protocol was developed to rank video performance based on quality and clarity. We determined controllable and uncontrollable factors affecting video performance. Moreover, specific thresholds limiting video were identified: >0.5/m for light extinction and >3.5 µg/L for chlorophyll a concentration. To demonstrate the utility and enhancement potential of video sampling, observed dreissenid presence from excellent (221 of 362 videos) videos was compared with NCCA benthic taxonomy, in the context of the statistically based NCCA survey. Including video increased the overall area estimate of the U.S. Great Lakes nearshore with invasive mussels by about 15 % compared to PONAR alone; 44 % (7570 km2) of the surveyed region had mussels. The proportion of the nearshore area having mussels varied from low (3.5 %) in Lake Superior to >50 % in the lower lakes. PONAR and video have unique strengths and weaknesses as sampling tools in the Great Lakes nearshore environment, but when paired were complimentary and thus provided a more thorough benthic condition assessment at lake and regional scales.

  11. Can a rapid underwater video approach enhance the benthic assessment capability of the national coastal condition assessment in the great lakes?

    PubMed

    Lietz, Julie E; Kelly, John R; Scharold, Jill V; Yurista, Peder M

    2015-06-01

    Over 400 sites were sampled in the nearshore of the U.S. Great Lakes during the U.S. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) field survey in summer 2010. Underwater video images were recorded in addition to routine NCCA benthic assessment measures. This paper has two objectives: (1) to develop a process to evaluate video performance with acceptance criteria, exploring reasons for poor images, and (2) to use acceptable videos in an example application with invasive mussels, evaluating the enhancement potential of video to supplement traditional grab sampling. A standard hierarchical protocol was developed to rank video performance based on quality and clarity. We determined controllable and uncontrollable factors affecting video performance. Moreover, specific thresholds limiting video were identified: >0.5/m for light extinction and >3.5 µg/L for chlorophyll a concentration. To demonstrate the utility and enhancement potential of video sampling, observed dreissenid presence from excellent (221 of 362 videos) videos was compared with NCCA benthic taxonomy, in the context of the statistically based NCCA survey. Including video increased the overall area estimate of the U.S. Great Lakes nearshore with invasive mussels by about 15% compared to PONAR alone; 44% (7570 km(2)) of the surveyed region had mussels. The proportion of the nearshore area having mussels varied from low (3.5%) in Lake Superior to >50% in the lower lakes. PONAR and video have unique strengths and weaknesses as sampling tools in the Great Lakes nearshore environment, but when paired were complimentary and thus provided a more thorough benthic condition assessment at lake and regional scales.

  12. Georeferencing the Large-Scale Aerial Photographs of a Great Lakes Coastal Wetland: A Modified Photogrammetric Method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Marilyn K.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Grapentine, Joel L.

    2010-01-01

    The geocontrol template method was developed to georeference multiple, overlapping analog aerial photographs without reliance upon conventionally obtained horizontal ground control. The method was tested as part of a long-term wetland habitat restoration project at a Lake Erie coastal wetland complex in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge. As in most coastal wetlands, annually identifiable ground-control features required to georeference photo-interpreted data are difficult to find. The geocontrol template method relies on the following four components: (a) an uncontrolled aerial photo mosaic of the study area, (b) global positioning system (GPS) derived horizontal coordinates of each photo’s principal point, (c) a geocontrol template created by the transfer of fiducial markings and calculated principal points to clear acetate from individual photographs arranged in a mosaic, and (d) the root-mean-square-error testing of the system to ensure an acceptable level of planimetric accuracy. Once created for a study area, the geocontrol template can be registered in geographic information system (GIS) software to facilitate interpretation of multiple images without individual image registration. The geocontrol template enables precise georeferencing of single images within larger blocks of photographs using a repeatable and consistent method.

  13. Linking a Large-Watershed Hydrogeochemical Model to a Wetland Community-Ecosystem Model to Estimate Plant Invasion Risk in the Coastal Great Lakes Region, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, W. S.; Bourgeau-Chavez, L. L.; Elgersma, K. J.; French, N. H. F.; Goldberg, D. E.; Hart, S.; Hyndman, D. W.; Kendall, A. D.; Martin, S. L.; Martina, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes region of the Upper Midwest, USA, agricultural and urban land uses together with high N deposition are contributing to elevated flows of N in rivers and groundwater to coastal wetlands. The functioning of coastal wetlands, which provide a vital link between land and water, are imperative to maintaining the health of the entire Great Lakes Basin. Elevated N inflows are believed to facilitate the spread of large-stature invasive plants (cattails and Phragmites) that reduce biodiversity and have complex effects on other ecosystem services including wetland N retention and C accretion. We enhanced the ILHM (Integrated Landscape Hydrology Model) to simulate the effects of land use on N flows in streams, rivers, and groundwater throughout the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. We used the hydroperiods and N loading rates simulated by ILHM as inputs to the Mondrian model of wetland community-ecosystem processes to estimate invasion risk and other ecosystem services in coastal wetlands around the Michigan coast. Our linked models produced threshold behavior in the success of invasive plants in response to N loading, with the threshold ranging from ca. 8 to 12 g N/m2 y, depending on hydroperiod. Plant invasions increased wetland productivity 3-fold over historically oligotrophic native communities, decreased biodiversity but slightly increased wetland N retention. Regardless of invasion, elevated N loading resulted in significantly enhanced rates of C accretion, providing an important region-wide mechanism of C storage. The linked models predicted a general pattern of greater invasion risk in the southern basins of lakes Michigan and Huron relative to northern areas. The basic mechanisms of invasion have been partially validated in our field mesocosms constructed for this project. The general regional patterns of increased invasion risk have been validated through our field campaigns and remote sensing conducted for this project.

  14. The Great Lakes Food Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Marjane L.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a play for students in grades four to nine that incorporates the scientific names, physical characteristics, feeding habits, interactions, and interdependence of the plants and animals that make up the Great Lakes food web to facilitate the learning of this complex system. Includes a Great Lakes food web chart. (AIM)

  15. Sanctuaries for lake trout in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Jon G.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Hartman, Wilbur L.

    1987-01-01

    Populations of lake trout, severely depleted in Lake Superior and virtually extirpated from the other Great Lakes because of sea lamprey predation and intense fishing, are now maintained by annual plantings of hatchery-reared fish in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario and parts of Lake Superior. The extensive coastal areas of the Great Lakes and proximity to large populations resulted in fishing pressure on planted lake trout heavy enough to push annual mortality associated with sport and commercial fisheries well above the critical level needed to reestablish self-sustaining stocks. The interagency, international program for rehabilitating lake trout includes controlling sea lamprey abundance, stocking hatchery-reared lake trout, managing the catch, and establishing sanctuaries where harvest is prohibited. Three lake trout sanctuaries have been established in Lake Michigan: the Fox Island Sanctuary of 121, 500 ha, in the Chippewa-Ottawa Treaty fishing zone in the northern region of the lake; the Milwaukee Reef Sanctuary of 160, 000 ha in midlake, in boundary waters of Michigan and Wisconsin; and Julian's Reef Sanctuary of 6, 500 ha, in Illinois waters. In northern Lake Huron, Drummond Island Sanctuary of 55, 000 ha is two thirds in Indian treaty-ceded waters in Michigan and one third in Ontario waters of Canada. A second sanctuary, Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef Sanctuary, in central Lake Huron contains 168, 000 ha. Sanctuary status for the Canadian areas remains to be approved by the Provincial government. In Lake Superior, sanctuaries protect the spawning grounds of Gull Island Shoal (70, 000 ha) and Devils Island Shoal (44, 000 ha) in Wisconsin's Apostle Island area. These seven sanctuaries, established by the several States and agreed upon by the States, Indian tribes, the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Province of Ontario, contribute toward solving an interjurisdictional fishery problem.

  16. TOXAPHENE STUDY OF GREAT LAKES TRIBUTARY SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Product is the paper "Pulp and Paper Mills as Sources of Toxaphene to Lake Superior and Northern Lake Michigan" published in the Journal of Great Lakes Research, 25(2):383-394 International Association of Great Lakes 1999.

  17. Integrating Climate Change into Great Lakes Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedman, S.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is now recognized as one of the greatest threats to the Great Lakes. Projected climate change impacts to the Great Lakes include increases in surface water and air temperature; decreases in ice cover; shorter winters, early spring, and longer summers; increased frequency of intense storms; more precipitation falling as rain in the winter; less snowfall; and variations in water levels, among other effects. Changing climate conditions may compromise efforts to protect and restore the Great Lakes ecosystem and may lead to irrevocable impacts on the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes. Examples of such potential impacts include the transformation of coastal wetlands into terrestrial ecosystems; reduced fisheries; increased beach erosion; change in forest species composition as species migrate northward; potential increase in toxic substance concentrations; potential increases in the frequency and extent of algal blooms; degraded water quality; and a potential increase in invasive species. The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, signed into law by President Obama in 2010, represents the commitment of the federal government to protect, restore, and maintain the Great Lakes ecosystem. The GLRI Action Plan, issued in February 2010, identifies five focus areas: - Toxic Substances and Areas of Concern - Invasive Species - Nearshore Health and Nonpoint Source Pollution - Habitat and Wildlife Protection and Restoration - Accountability, Education, Monitoring, Evaluation, Communication, and Partnerships The Action Plan recognizes that the projected impacts of climate change on the Great Lakes have implications across all focus areas and encourages incorporation of climate change considerations into GLRI projects and programs as appropriate. Under the GLRI, EPA has funded climate change-related work by states, tribes, federal agencies, academics and NGOs through competitive grants, state and tribal capacity grants, and Interagency

  18. Lake Buchannan, Great Dividing Range, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lake Buchannan, a small but blue and prominent in the center of the view, lies in the Great Dividing of Queensland, Australia (22.0S, 146.0E). The mountain range in this case is a low plateau of no more than 2,000 to 3,000 ft altitude. The interior is dry, mostly in pasture but the coastal zone in contrast, is wet tropical country where bananas and sugarcane are grown.

  19. The first US National Coastal Condition Assessment survey in the Great Lakes: Development of the GIS frame and exploration of spatial variation in nearshore water quality results

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive approach to assess conditions in the Great Lakes nearshore zone has been lacking for decades. We had the opportunity to conduct a pilot survey in Lake Erie (45 sites) in summer 2009 and to develop a full survey across the 5 lakes (~400 sites) as part of the US N...

  20. Modeling toxaphene behavior in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaoyan; Hopke, Philip K; Holsen, Thomas M; Crimmins, Bernard S

    2011-01-15

    Chlorinated camphenes, toxaphene, are persistent organic pollutants of concern in the Great Lakes since elevated concentrations are found in various media throughout the system. While concentrations have decreased since their peak values in the 1970s and 80s, recent measurements have shown that the rate of this decline in Lake Superior has decreased significantly. This modeling study focused on toxaphene cycling in the Great Lakes and was performed primarily to determine if elevated water and fish concentrations in Lake Superior can be explained by physical differences among the lakes. Specifically, the coastal zone model for persistent organic pollutants (CoZMo-POP), a fugacity-based multimedia fate model, was used to calculate toxaphene concentrations in the atmosphere, water, soil, sediment, and biota. The performance of the model was evaluated by comparing calculated and reported concentrations in these compartments. In general, simulated and observed concentrations agree within one order of magnitude. Both model results and observed values indicate that toxaphene concentrations have declined in water and biota since the 1980s primarily as the result of decreased atmospheric deposition rates. Overall the model results suggest that the CoZMo-POP2 model does a reasonable job in simulating toxaphene variations in the Great Lakes basin. The results suggest that the recent findings of higher toxaphene concentrations in Lake Superior can be explained by differences in the physical properties of the lake (primarily large volume, large residence time and cold temperatures) compared to the lower lakes and increased recent inputs are not needed to explain the measured values.

  1. An Integrated Set of Observations to Link Conditions of Great Lakes Nearshore Waters to their Coastal Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    We combine three elements for a comprehensive characterization that links nearshore conditions with coastal watershed disturbance metrics. The three elements are: 1) a shore-parallel, high-resolution nearshore survey using continuous in situ towed sensors; 2) a spatially-balanc...

  2. Physical constraints and the comparative ecology of coastal ecosystems across the US Great Lakes, with a coda, presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of my favorite papers by Scott Nixon (1988) was the story he build around the observation that marine fisheries yields were higher per unit area or per unit primary production than temperate lakes. The story, and the putative agent for the freshwater/marine difference, involv...

  3. Physical constraints and the comparative ecology of coastal ecosystems across the US Great Lakes, with a coda

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of my favorite papers by Scott Nixon (1988) was the story he build around the observation that marine fisheries yields were higher than temperate lakes. The putative agent for the freshwater/marine difference, involved a higher energy of mixing due to tides in marine environm...

  4. Great Lakes management: Ecological factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonzogni, W. C.; Robertson, A.; Beeton, A. M.

    1983-11-01

    Although attempts to improve the quality of the Great Lakes generally focus on chemical pollution, other factors are important and should be considered Ecological factors, such as invasion of the lakes by foreign species, habitat changes, overfishing, and random variations in organism populations, are especially influential. Lack of appreciation of the significance of ecological factors stems partly from the inappropriate application of the concept of eutrophication to the Great Lakes. Emphasis on ecological factors is not intended to diminish the seriousness of pollution, but rather to point out that more cost-effective management, as well as more realistic expectations of management efforts by the public, should result from an ecosystem management approach in which ecological factors are carefully considered.

  5. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  6. EPA Research Strengthens Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth, the Great Lakes (Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan, Ontario and Superior) are a source of economic prosperity, recreation and raw materials. Human activity, however, has resulted in pollution and other stressors. The Great Lakes curren...

  7. The Great Lakes' regional climate regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Noriyuki

    For the last couple of decades, the Great Lakes have undergone rapid surface warming. In particular, the magnitude of the summer surface-warming trends of the Great Lakes have been much greater than those of surrounding land (Austin and Colman, 2007). Among the Great Lakes, the deepest Lake Superior exhibited the strongest warming trend in its annual, as well as summer surface water temperature. We find that many aspects of this behavior can be explained in terms of the tendency of deep lakes to exhibit multiple regimes characterized, under the same seasonally varying forcing, by the warmer and colder seasonal cycles exhibiting different amounts of wintertime lake-ice cover and corresponding changes in the summertime lake-surface temperatures. In this thesis, we address the problem of the Great Lakes' warming using one-dimensional lake modeling to interpret diverse observations of the recent lake behavior. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  8. Exploiting Habitat and Gear Patterns for Efficient Detection of Rare and Non-native Benthos and Fish in Great Lakes Coastal ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is at present no comprehensive early-detection monitoring for exotic species in the Great Lakes, despite their continued arrival and impacts and recognition that early detection is key to effective management. We evaluated strategies for efficient early-detection monitorin...

  9. TOXAPHENE IN THE GREAT LAKES. (R825246)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the most current data for toxaphene in the water, sediments, and biota of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. Concentrations in water range from 1.1 ng/L in Lake Superior to 0.17 ng/L in Lake Ontario. Lake Superior has the highest water concentrati...

  10. Hindcast Wave Information for the Great Lakes. Lake Michigan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    has three major bathymetric regions, a southern, central, and northern basin. Depths over the lake are generally greater than 100 m with the...AD-A243 784 w,,v,,,,l,,,IWAVE INFORMATION STUDIES L OF US COASTLINES US AmWIS REPORT 24 HINDCAST WAVE INFORMATION FOR THE GREAT LAKES : LAKE MICHIGAN...October 1991 Final report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Hindcast Wave Information for the Great Lakes : Lake Michigan 6. AUTHOR(S) Jon M

  11. Great Lakes Education Booklet, 1990-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    This booklet integrates science, history, and environmental education to help students acquire a basic understanding of the importance of the Great Lakes located in the United States. The packet also contains a Great Lakes Basin resource map and a sand dune poster. These materials introduce students to a brief history of the lakes, the diversity…

  12. Monitoring change in Great Salt Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, David L.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Freeman, Michael L.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Carling, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake, only limited water quality monitoring has occurred historically. To change this, new monitoring stations and networks—gauges of lake level height and rate of inflow, moored buoys, and multiple lake-bottom sensors—will provide important information that can be used to make informed decisions regarding future management of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem.

  13. Near shore-wetland fish movements in the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Linkages of Great Lakes coastal wetlands and near shore habitats are under-explored, yet 90 species of fish are known to utilize wetlands for spawning and/or nursery habitat. The duration and frequency of wetland use for pelagic species with mobile adult stages is also poorly un...

  14. Area contingency plan: Eastern Great Lakes. (COTP Buffalo)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-30

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Eastern Great Lakes Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Buffalo Coastal Zone.

  15. Great Lakes nearshore-offshore: Distinct water quality regions

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared water quality of nearshore regions in the Laurentian Great Lakes to water quality in offshore regions. Sample sites for the nearshore region were from the US EPA National Coastal Condition Assessment and based on a criteria or sample-frame of within the 30-m depth co...

  16. ORGANIC CARBON AND SUSPENDED SEDIMENT DYNAMICS IN WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little is known about the influence of loading of sediment and organic carbon on coastal wetlands fringing the Laurentian Great Lakes. In conjunction with our studies of nutrient retention in coastal wetland ecosystems...

  17. Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Claramunt, Randall M.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Clapp, David; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Leonard, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) are a valuable resource, both within their native range in the North Pacific rim and in the Great Lakes basin. Understanding their value from a biological and economic perspective in the Great Lakes, however, requires an understanding of changes in the ecosystem and of management actions that have been taken to promote system stability, integrity, and sustainable fisheries. Pacific salmonine introductions to the Great Lakes are comprised mainly of Chinook salmon, coho salmon, and steelhead and have accounted for 421, 177, and 247 million fish, respectively, stocked during 1966-2007. Stocking of Pacific salmonines has been effective in substantially reducing exotic prey fish abundances in several of the Great Lakes (e.g., lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario). The goal of our evaluation was to highlight differences in management strategies and perspectives across the basin, and to evaluate policies for Pacific salmonine management in the Great Lakes. Currently, a potential conflict exists between Pacific salmonine management and native fish rehabilitation goals because of the desire to sustain recreational fisheries and to develop self-sustaining populations of stocked Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes. We provide evidence that suggests Pacific salmonines have not only become naturalized to the food webs of the Great Lakes, but that their populations (specifically Chinook salmon) may be fluctuating in concert with specific prey (i.e., alewives) whose populations are changing relative to environmental conditions and ecosystem disturbances. Remaining questions, however, are whether or not “natural” fluctuations in predator and prey provide enough “stability” in the Great Lakes food webs, and even more importantly, would a choice by managers to attempt to reduce the severity of predator-prey oscillations be antagonistic to native fish restoration efforts. We argue that, on each of the Great Lakes, managers are pursuing

  18. Directory of Great Lakes Education Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Joint Commission, Windsor (Ontario). Great Lakes Regional Office.

    The Great Lakes Science Advisory Board of the International Joint Commission surveyed several hundred educators and producers of educational programs. One of the results of the survey was the development of this directory, which is limited to materials and producers of materials dealing with the Great Lakes Basin ecosystem, environmental studies,…

  19. Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between the U.S. and Canada addresses critical environmental health issues in the Great Lakes region. It's a model of binational cooperation to protect water quality. It was first signed in 1972 and amended in 2012.

  20. Winter Lake Breezes near the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosman, Erik T.; Horel, John D.

    2016-05-01

    Case studies of lake breezes during wintertime cold air pools in Utah's Salt Lake Valley are examined. While summer breezes originating from the Great Salt Lake are typically deeper, of longer duration, and have higher wind speeds than winter breezes, the rate of inland penetration and cross-frontal temperature differences can be higher during the winter. The characteristics of winter breezes and the forcing mechanisms controlling them (e.g., snow cover, background flow, vertical stability profile, clouds, lake temperature, lake sheltering, and drainage pooling) are more complex and variable than those evident in summer. During the afternoon in the Salt Lake Valley, these lake breezes can lead to elevated pollution levels due to the transport of fine particle pollutants from over the Great Salt Lake, decreased vertical mixing depth, and increased vertical stability.

  1. Great Lakes rivermouth ecosystems: scientific synthesis and management implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, James H.; Trebitz, Anett S.; Steinman, Alan D.; Wiley, Michael J.; Carlson Mazur, Martha; Pebbles, Victoria; Braun, Heather A.; Seelbach, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    At the interface of the Great Lakes and their tributary rivers lies the rivermouths, a class of aquatic ecosystem where lake and lotic processes mix and distinct features emerge. Many rivermouths are the focal point of both human interaction with the Great Lakes and human impacts to the lakes; many cities, ports, and beaches are located in rivermouth ecosystems, and these human pressures often degrade key ecological functions that rivermouths provide. Despite their ecological uniqueness and apparent economic importance, there has been relatively little research on these ecosystems as a class relative to studies on upstream rivers or the open-lake waters. Here we present a synthesis of current knowledge about ecosystem structure and function in Great Lakes rivermouths based on studies in both Laurentian rivermouths, coastal wetlands, and marine estuarine systems. A conceptual model is presented that establishes a common semantic framework for discussing the characteristic spatial features of rivermouths. This model then is used to conceptually link ecosystem structure and function to ecological services provided by rivermouths. This synthesis helps identify the critical gaps in understanding rivermouth ecology. Specifically, additional information is needed on how rivermouths collectively influence the Great Lakes ecosystem, how human alterations influence rivermouth functions, and how ecosystem services provided by rivermouths can be managed to benefit the surrounding socioeconomic networks.

  2. Genetic diversity of Diporeia in the Great Lakes: comparison of Lake Superior to the other Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abundances of Diporeia have dropped drastically in the Great Lakes, except in Lake Superior, where data suggest that population counts actually have risen. Various ecological, environmental, or geographic hypotheses have been proposed to explain the greater abundance of Lake Supe...

  3. Dry Climate Disconnected the Laurentian Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, C. F. Michael; King, John W.; Blasco, Stefan M.; Brooks, Gregory R.; Coakley, John P.; Croley, Thomas E.; Dettman, David L.; Edwards, Thomas W. D.; Heil, Clifford W.; Hubeny, J. Bradford; Laird, Kathleen R.; McAndrews, John H.; McCarthy, Francine M. G.; Medioli, Barbara E.; Moore, Theodore C.; Rea, David K.; Smith, Alison J.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies have produced a new understanding of the hydrological history of North America's Great Lakes, showing that water levels fell several meters below lake basin outlets during an early postglacial dry climate in the Holocene (younger than 10,000 radiocarbon years, or about 11,500 calibrated or calendar years before present (B.P.)). Water levels in the Huron basin, for example, fell more than 20 meters below the basin overflow outlet between about 7900 and 7500 radiocarbon (about 8770-8290 calibrated) years B.P. Outlet rivers, including the Niagara River, presently falling 99 meters from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario (and hence Niagara Falls), ran dry. This newly recognized phase of low lake levels in a dry climate provides a case study for evaluating the sensitivity of the Great Lakes to current and future climate change.

  4. Great Lakes rivermouths: a primer for managers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul; Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Between the North American Great Lakes and their tributaries are the places where the confluence of river and lake waters creates a distinct ecosystem: the rivermouth ecosystem. Human development has often centered around these rivermouths, in part, because they provide a rich array of ecosystem services. Not surprisingly, centuries of intense human activity have led to substantial pressures on, and alterations to, these ecosystems, often diminishing or degrading their ecological functions and associated ecological services. Many Great Lakes rivermouths are the focus of intense restoration efforts. For example, 36 of the active Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) are rivermouths or areas that include one or more rivermouths. Historically, research of rivermouth ecosystems has been piecemeal, focused on the Great Lakes proper or on the upper reaches of tributaries, with little direct study of the rivermouth itself. Researchers have been divided among disciplines, agencies and institutions; and they often work independently and use disparate venues to communicate their work. Management has also been fragmented with a focus on smaller, localized, sub-habitat units and socio-political or economic elements, rather than system-level consideration. This Primer presents the case for a more holistic approach to rivermouth science and management that can enable restoration of ecosystem services with multiple benefits to humans and the Great Lakes ecosystem. A conceptual model is presented with supporting text that describes the structures and processes common to all rivermouths, substantiating the case for treating these ecosystems as an identifiable class.1 Ecological services provided by rivermouths and changes in how humans value those services over time are illustrated through case studies of two Great Lakes rivermouths—the St. Louis River and the Maumee River. Specific ecosystem services are identified in italics throughout this Primer and follow definitions described

  5. Animation: 'Great Lake' on Jupiter's Moon Europa

    NASA Video Gallery

    Data from a NASA planetary mission have provided scientists evidence of what appears to be a body of liquid water, equal in volume to the North American Great Lakes, beneath the icy surface of Jupi...

  6. BIODIVERSITY PATTERNS OF THE GREAT LAKES: THE NATIVE-NONINDIGENOUS SPECIES RICHNESS RELATIONSHIP AND COMMUNITY EVENNESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This PhD student is using fish data collected by EPA-MED along with data on other taxa collected by GLEI to examine questions relating to general biodiversity patterns in Great Lakes coastal wetlands.

  7. Remediation, restoration, revitalization (R2R2R): How Great Lakes communities benefit from AOC delisting

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Great Lakes, remediation and restoration activities in areas of concern (AOC) are providing economic and social benefits (“revitalization”) to coastal communities. However, there is a general lack of documentation and evaluation of benefits that have co...

  8. Ecosystem services in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinman, Alan D.; Cardinale, Bradley J; Munns Jr, Wayne R; Ogdahl, Mary E.; Allan, David J; Angadi, Ted; Bartlett, Sarah; Brauman, Kate; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Doss, Matt; Dupont, Diane; Johns, Annie; Kashian, Donna; Lupi, Frank; McIntyre, Peter B.; Miller, Todd; Moore, Michael P.; Muenich, Rebecca Logsdon; Poudel, Rajendra; Price, James; Provencher, Bill; Rea, Anne; Read, Jennifer; Renzetti, Steven; Sohngen, Brent; Washburn, Erica

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services across the entire Great Lakes basin is currently lacking and is needed to make informed management decisions. A greater appreciation and understanding of ecosystem services, including both use and non-use services, may have avoided misguided resource management decisions in the past that resulted in negative legacies inherited by future generations. Given the interest in ecosystem services and lack of a coherent approach to addressing this topic in the Great Lakes, a summit was convened involving 28 experts working on various aspects of ecosystem services in the Great Lakes. The invited attendees spanned a variety of social and natural sciences. Given the unique status of the Great Lakes as the world's largest collective repository of surface freshwater, and the numerous stressors threatening this valuable resource, timing was propitious to examine ecosystem services. Several themes and recommendations emerged from the summit. There was general consensus that: 1) a comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services throughout the Great Lakes is a desirable goal but would require considerable resources; 2) more spatially and temporally intensive data are needed to overcome our data gaps, but the arrangement of data networks and observatories must be well-coordinated; 3) trade-offs must be considered as part of ecosystem services analyses; and 4) formation of a Great Lakes Institute for Ecosystem Services, to provide a hub for research, meetings, and training is desirable. Several challenges also emerged during the summit, which are discussed.

  9. ERTS-1 views the Great Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, W. A.; Pease, S. R.

    1973-01-01

    The meteorological content of ERTS images, particularly mesoscale effects of the Great Lakes and air pollution dispersion is summarized. Summertime lake breeze frontal clouds and various winter lake-effect convection patterns and snow squalls are revealed in great detail. A clear-cut spiral vortex over southern Lake Michigan is related to a record early snow storm in the Chicago area. Marked cloud changes induced by orographic and frictional effects on Lake Michigan's lee shore snow squalls are seen. The most important finding, however, is a clear-cut example of alterations in cumulus convection by anthropogenic condensation and/or ice nuclei from northern Indiana steel mills during a snow squall situation. Jet aircraft condensation trails are also found with surprising frequency.

  10. ARE COASTAL WETLAND-LAKE LINKAGES IMPORTANT?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because coastal werlands typically comprise only a small percentage of the overall surface area in large lakes, an assumption has often been made that functional links between wetlands and the lake proper are of little significance. Recent investigations of functional linkages be...

  11. Great Lakes Energy-Water Model

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent

    2014-09-18

    The nexus between thermoelectric power production and water use is not uniform across the U.S., but rather differs according to regional physiography, demography, power plant fleet composition, and the transmission network. That is, in some regions water demand for thermoelectric production is relatively small while in other regions it represents the dominate use. The later is the case for the Great Lakes region, which has important implications for the water resources and aquatic ecology of the Great Lakes watershed. This is today, but what about the future? Projected demographic trends, shifting lifestyles, and economic growth coupled with the threat of global climate change and mounting pressure for greater U.S. energy security could have profound effects on the region’s energy future. Planning for such an uncertain future is further complicated by the fact that energy and environmental planning and regulatory decision-making is largely bifurcated in the region, with environmental and water resource concerns generally taken into account after new energy facilities and technologies have been proposed, or practices are already in place. Based on these confounding needs, the objective of this effort is to develop Great Lakes-specific methods and tools to integrate energy and water resource planning and thereby support the dual goals of smarter energy planning and development, and protection of Great Lakes water resources. Guiding policies for this planning are the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The desired outcome of integrated energy-water-aquatic resource planning is a more sustainable regional energy mix for the Great Lakes basin ecosystem.

  12. Energy and water in the Great Lakes.

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2011-11-01

    The nexus between thermoelectric power production and water use is not uniform across the U.S., but rather differs according to regional physiography, demography, power plant fleet composition, and the transmission network. That is, in some regions water demand for thermoelectric production is relatively small while in other regions it represents the dominate use. The later is the case for the Great Lakes region, which has important implications for the water resources and aquatic ecology of the Great Lakes watershed. This is today, but what about the future? Projected demographic trends, shifting lifestyles, and economic growth coupled with the threat of global climate change and mounting pressure for greater U.S. energy security could have profound effects on the region's energy future. Planning for such an uncertain future is further complicated by the fact that energy and environmental planning and regulatory decisionmaking is largely bifurcated in the region, with environmental and water resource concerns generally taken into account after new energy facilities and technologies have been proposed, or practices are already in place. Based on these confounding needs, the objective of this effort is to develop Great Lakes-specific methods and tools to integrate energy and water resource planning and thereby support the dual goals of smarter energy planning and development, and protection of Great Lakes water resources. Guiding policies for this planning are the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The desired outcome of integrated energy-water-aquatic resource planning is a more sustainable regional energy mix for the Great Lakes basin ecosystem.

  13. The reproductive toxicology of Great Lakes contaminants.

    PubMed Central

    Foster, W G

    1995-01-01

    The Great Lakes basin is characterized as a heavily populated and industrialized region in which a large number of environmental contaminants have been identified. Both the scientific community and the public have voiced concern that contaminants present in the Great Lakes may pose undue risk to human reproduction. Evidence from animal experiments, wildlife studies, and reports of occupational and accidental human exposures indicate that chemical contaminants can adversely affect reproduction. The purpose of this paper is to review the reproductive toxicity of some of the many contaminants known to be present in the Great Lakes. Since the number of chemicals present in the Great Lakes is far too great for each to be adequately reviewed here, discussion will be limited to those contaminants that have been identified in human serum, ovarian follicular fluid, and semen obtained from people residing in the Great Lakes region. It is concluded that a) the data at present is too limited to support the notion that reproduction, in the general population, has been impaired by exposure to chemicals present in the Great Lakes; b) the lack of data in some cases such as for hexachloroethane and 1,2,4-trichlobenzene does provide reason for concern and underscores the need for further research in this area; and c) the potential for a number of the compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT), to disrupt endocrine functions suggests that additive or synergistic effects of these compounds may already be causing adverse effects on reproduction in sensitive individuals, which needs to be explored. PMID:8635441

  14. Great Lakes Sinkholes: A Microbiogeochemical Frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddanda, Bopaiah A.; Nold, Stephen C.; Ruberg, Steven A.; Kendall, Scott T.; Sanders, T. Garrison; Gray, Jefferson J.

    2009-02-01

    Recent underwater explorations have revealed unique hot spots of biogeochemical activity at several submerged groundwater vents in Lake Huron, the third largest of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Fueled by venting groundwater containing high sulfate and low dissolved oxygen, these underwater ecosystems are characterized by sharp physical and chemical gradients and spectacularly colorful benthic mats that overlie carbon-rich sediments. Here, typical lake inhabitants such as fish and phytoplankton are replaced by communities dominated by microorganisms: bacteria and archaea that perform unique ecosystem functions. Shallow, sunlit sinkholes are dominated by photosynthetic microorganisms and processes, while food webs in deep aphotic sinkholes are supported primarily by chemosynthesis.

  15. Life in the Great Lakes. Earth Systems - Education Activities for Great Lakes Schools (ES-EAGLS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheaffer, Amy L., Ed.

    This activity book is part of a series designed to take a concept or idea from the existing school curriculum and develop it in the context of the Great Lakes using teaching approaches and materials appropriate for students in middle and high school. The theme of this book is life in the Great Lakes. Students learn about shorebird adaptations,…

  16. Great Lakes Environmental Issues. Earth Systems - Education Activities for Great Lakes Schools (ES-EAGLS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheaffer, Amy L., Ed.

    This activity book is part of a series designed to take a concept or idea from the existing school curriculum and develop it in the context of the Great Lakes using teaching approaches and materials appropriate for students in middle and high school. The subject of this book is environmental issues in the Great Lakes. Students learn about the…

  17. Toxaphene in Great Lakes biota and air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassmeyer, Susan Theresa

    1998-11-01

    Toxaphene is a complex mixture of at least 600 hexa- through decachlorinated bornanes and bornenes, which was used as an insecticide in the United States from the 1950's until 1982, when it was banned. Toxaphene is ubiquitous in the environment, probably because of its atmospheric transport away from areas of use. Toxaphene's complex nature makes accurate quantitation difficult. I have developed a computer program to automate quantitation, thus decreasing the time required for analysis while maintaining precise quantitation. I have shown that toxaphene in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) taken from Lake Superior have not decreased as they have in the four other Great Lakes from the time of the ban though 1992. This result could be due to three possibilities: ( a) There had been a food chain perturbation that made the 1982 concentrations unusually low. (b) The physical properties of Lake Superior make the loss rate significantly lower than the other Great Lakes. (c) There are current sources of toxaphene entering the Lake Superior basin. I analyzed an extended time series of lake trout from Lake Superior and from northern Lake Michigan to test the first two hypotheses. The concentrations of toxaphene have been constant in trout from Lake Superior since the late 1970's, so hypothesis a can be negated. The northern Lake Michigan samples did not decline as greatly as the southern basin samples, so hypothesis b can not be disproved. To determine the atmospheric deposition of toxaphene to Lake Superior, I analyzed air samples collected every twelve days for sixteen months at Eagle Harbor, Michigan. The concentrations of toxaphene in these samples are similar to those found in recent studies of air collected at Traverse City, MI., but significantly lower than samples taken at a land based site in southern Ontario in 1988 and 1989. This difference in concentration may (or may not) be due to differences in sampling times or locations or

  18. Projecting Future Water Levels of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennington, V.; Notaro, M.; Holman, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes are the largest freshwater system on Earth, containing 84% of North America's freshwater. The lakes are a valuable economic and recreational resource, valued at over 62 billion in annual wages and supporting a 7 billion fishery. Shipping, recreation, and coastal property values are significantly impacted by water level variability, with large economic consequences. Great Lakes water levels fluctuate both seasonally and long-term, responding to natural and anthropogenic climate changes. Due to the integrated nature of water levels, a prolonged small change in any one of the net basin supply components: over-lake precipitation, watershed runoff, or evaporation from the lake surface, may result in important trends in water levels. We utilize the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics's Regional Climate Model Version 4.5.6 to dynamically downscale three global global climate models that represent a spread of potential future climate change for the region to determine whether the climate models suggest a robust response of the Laurentian Great Lakes to anthropogenic climate change. The Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate Version 5 (MIROC5), the National Centre for Meteorological Research Earth system model (CNRM-CM5), and the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) project different regional temperature increases and precipitation change over the next century and are used as lateral boundary conditions. We simulate the historical (1980-2000) and late-century periods (2080-2100). Upon model evaluation we will present dynamically downscaled projections of net basin supply changes for each of the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  19. 78 FR 38725 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... Guard on matters relating to Great Lakes pilotage, including review of proposed Great Lakes...

  20. 46 CFR 42.05-40 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... St. Lawrence River shall be considered as a part of the Great Lakes. In addition, the Victoria Bridge... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Great Lakes. 42.05-40 Section 42.05-40 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-40 Great Lakes. (a) This term means the Great Lakes...

  1. 46 CFR 42.05-40 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... St. Lawrence River shall be considered as a part of the Great Lakes. In addition, the Victoria Bridge... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Great Lakes. 42.05-40 Section 42.05-40 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-40 Great Lakes. (a) This term means the Great Lakes...

  2. Natural remediation in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Kamrin, Michael A.; Hickey, James P.; Swindoll, C. Michael; Stahl, Ralph G.; Ells, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    Overall, the existence of stricter environmental laws during the last 30 years and a reduction in the manufacturing base in the Great Lakes has resulted in improvement in conditions in harbors, rivers, and nearshore waters. Problems remain, such as the inability to dredge certain harbors and remove sediments because of lack of disposal facilities for contaminated sediments. Because of the wide extent of of contaminated sediments in the Great Lakes, much work remains to be done to document the condition of contaminated areas and the degree to which remediation of these areas is occurring from biotic and abiotic natural processes.

  3. Native Great Lakes wolves were not restored.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Jennifer A; Wayne, Robert K

    2008-02-23

    Wolves from the Great Lakes area were historically decimated due to habitat loss and predator control programmes. Under the protection of the US Endangered Species Act, the population has rebounded to approximately 3000 individuals. We show that the pre-recovery population was dominated by mitochondrial DNA haplotypes from an endemic American wolf referred to here as the Great Lakes wolf. In contrast, the recent population is admixed, and probably derives also from the grey wolf (Canis lupus) of Old World origin and the coyote (Canis latrans). Consequently, the pre-recovery population has not been restored, casting doubt on delisting actions.

  4. The Great Lakes Runoff Intercomparison Project (GRIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronewold, A. D.; Fortin, V.; Fry, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    As a continuation of investments in the development of alternative methods for estimating major components of the Great Lakes water budget through the recently-completed International Joint Commission (IJC) International Upper Great Lakes Study (IUGLS), representatives from a variety of United States and Canadian agencies have formed a bi-national collaboration to assess alternative methods for modeling runoff within the Great Lakes basin. The project is based on assessing and comparing simulated runoff across the watersheds of both Lake Michigan and Lake Ontario, with an emphasis on understanding the different sources of data needed to support these models, and a comparison between both total runoff and estimated runoff at individual gauging stations. Models, or modeling frameworks (and contributing agencies) participating in the project include (but are not limited to) Analysis of Flows in Networks of Channels (or AFINCH, from USGS), the Community Hydrologic Prediction System (or CHPS, from NOAA's National Weather Service), the MESH system (from Environment Canada), the Large Basin Runoff Model (or LBRM, from NOAA's Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory) as well as a series of empirical methods for extrapolating historical gauge measurements to ungauged portions of each Lake basin. This presentation will also explore alternative methods for comparing runoff estimates over broad spatial scales, and for understanding potential sources of bias and uncertainty within and between these estimates. For models generating probabilistic estimates (i.e. with an explicit expression of uncertainty) we provide a comparison based on posterior predictive p-values (similar to rank histograms), an approach which, unlike conventional deterministic metrics, provides an indication of the relative importance of uncertainty in large-scale hydrological model assessment and how expressions of that uncertainty propagate into model-based water resources management planning

  5. DIATOM INDICATORS OF TOTAL PHOSPHORUS, SEDIMENTS, AND WATERSHED FOREST COVER IN LAKE MICHIGAN COASTAL, RIVERINE WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diatom assemblages are being investigated as response and diagnostic indicators as part of our Great Lakes coastal wetlands research designed to support the development of nutrient, habitat, and sediment criteria and to develop community- and landscape-level diagnostic indicator ...

  6. Global Change in the Great Lakes: Scenarios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Barbara K., Ed.; Rosser, Arrye R., Ed.

    The Ohio Sea Grant Education Program has produced this series of publications designed to help people understand how global change may affect the Great Lakes region. The possible implications of global change for this region of the world are explained in the hope that policymakers and individuals will be more inclined to make responsible decisions…

  7. Temperature Over Time at the Great Lakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Rick; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity in which water temperature is investigated in relation to water depth, weather patterns, land use, time of year, and other factors students choose to investigate with data collected from the Internet. Uses the Great Lakes as the setting for this investigation and examines how and why the temperature of a body of water changes…

  8. The Future of Great Lakes Rivermouth Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Lakes Rivermouth Collaboratory, a group of scientists and stakeholders representing academics, federal and state agencies, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are developing a conceptual model that draws upon existing data sources to synthesize the "state of the s...

  9. Great Lakes Environmental Education. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Joint Commission, Windsor (Ontario). Great Lakes Regional Office.

    The International Joint Commission report builds on a previous report to the Governments of the United States and Canada that recommended the Great Lakes (GL) States and Provinces incorporate the GL ecosystem as a priority topic in existing school curricula. This report begins by building an argument showing the need for environmental education…

  10. Seasonal and spatial patterns in coupled nitrification-denitrification rates in a large Great Lakes coastal system: The St. Louis River Estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic inputs of excess nitrogen (N) to aquatic systems are detrimental, but aquatic plants and sediments have the potential to mitigate N-loading. Sediment processes are driven by microbially mediated N-cycling. Coastal embayments purportedly play a significant role in N-...

  11. Aerosol Production from the Great Lakes Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slade, J. H.; Mwaniki, G.; Bertman, S. B.; Vanreken, T. M.; Shepson, P. B.

    2009-12-01

    It is well understood that oceans generate airborne particulate matter from mechanical processes such as sea spray and bubble bursting. These particles are primarily composed of salts and other nonvolatile inorganic material; however, the organic mass fraction can vary by location and the extent of biological activity. The size distributions of aerosols in these environments depend greatly on relative humidity with diameters ranging from typically several hundred nanometers to several micrometers. There has been much less discussion of particle formation from fresh water ecosystems, a hub for organic activity, and thus a more likely medium for organic aerosol production. We investigated particle formation over the Great Lakes during the summer of 2009 as a part of the Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions Experiments (CABINEX) at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) in Pellston, MI. With a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) aboard Purdue University’s Airborne Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (ALAR) for size-distribution analysis of accumulation-mode aerosol, we conducted vertical profiles above Lake Michigan and the UMBS deciduous forest, and transects across the peninsula between Lakes Michigan and Huron to study particle formation, transport, and deposition. Preliminary results reveal a well-mixed troposphere above the forest with a mode ~0.1 μm, while in several cases, the total particle concentration over Lake Michigan is an order of magnitude greater than over the forest. There is a consistent bimodal distribution of particle sizes over Lake Michigan the lowest of which is centered at ~0.025 μm, suggesting the possibility of new particle formation. This mode is consistent with the presence of breaking waves on the lake’s surface, and this mode and the vertical structure depend greatly on wind speed. We present here evidence for new particle production from breaking waves on fresh water lakes, and discuss the results

  12. EPA Report to Congress: Great Lakes Restoration Initiative is Accelerating Great Lakes Cleanup and Protection

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Chicago (July 28, 2015) - During its first five years, the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative implemented more than 2500 projects to improve water quality, clean up contaminated shoreline, protect and restore native habitat and species and prevent and cont

  13. Incidental oligotrophication of North American Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mary Anne; Fahnenstiel, Gary; Scavia, Donald

    2011-04-15

    Phytoplankton production is an important factor in determining both ecosystem stability and the provision of ecosystem goods and services. The expansive and economically important North American Great Lakes are subjected to multiple stressors and understanding their responses to those stresses is important for understanding system-wide ecological controls. Here we show gradual increases in spring silica concentration (an indicator of decreasing growth of the dominant diatoms) in all basins of Lakes Michigan and Huron (USA and Canadian waters) between 1983 and 2008. These changes indicate the lakes have undergone gradual oligotrophication coincident with and anticipated by nutrient management implementation. Slow declines in seasonal drawdown of silica (proxy for seasonal phytoplankton production) also occurred, until recent years, when lake-wide responses were punctuated by abrupt decreases, putting them in the range of oligotrophic Lake Superior. The timing of these dramatic production drops is coincident with expansion of populations of invasive dreissenid mussels, particularly quagga mussels, in each basin. The combined effect of nutrient mitigation and invasive species expansion demonstrates the challenges facing large-scale ecosystems and suggest the need for new management regimes for large ecosystems.

  14. Microseisms from the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, K. J.; Koper, K. D.; Burlacu, V.

    2014-12-01

    Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA We performed frequency-dependent polarization and power analysis on continuous ambient seismic energy recorded by broadband seismic stations that were part of the Utah Regional Seismic Network (UU) for the years of 2001-2013. The number of broadband seismometers increased from 10 to 28 in this time period. As expected, at all 28 stations the single and double frequency peaks caused by microseisms were observed in the range of 3-20 s. At four of the stations located around the Great Salt Lake (BGU, HVU, NOQ, and SPU) an additional noise peak was intermittently observed in the period range of 0.8-1.2 s. This noise peak was strongest at SPU, a station located on the tip of a peninsula jutting into the lake from the north, and weakest at NOQ, a station located a few kilometers south of the lake in the Oquirrh Mountains. The noise peaks occur in both daytime and nighttime, and have durations lasting from a couple of hours to multiple days. They occur more frequently in the spring, summer, and fall, and less commonly in the winter. The occurrences of noise peaks in the summer show a day night pattern and seem to reach a peak during the night. The time dependence of this 1-s seismic noise was compared to records of wind speed measured at 1-hr intervals from nearby meteorological stations run by the NWS, and to lake level gage height measurements made by the USGS. Correlations with wind speed and lake level were done for every month of the year in 2013. Results showed that the correlations with wind varied throughout the year from a high of 0.49 in November to a low of 0.20 in the month of January. The correlation with lake level also varied throughout the year and the strongest correlation was found in the month of December with a correlation of 0.43. While these correlation values are statistically significant, neither wind nor lake level can completely explain the seismic observations

  15. Beach science in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring beach waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, beach sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, beach managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “Beach Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes beaches and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.

  16. Meteotsunamis in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Bechle, Adam J.; Wu, Chin H.; Kristovich, David A. R.; Anderson, Eric J.; Schwab, David J.; Rabinovich, Alexander B.

    2016-01-01

    The generation mechanism of meteotsunamis, which are meteorologically induced water waves with spatial/temporal characteristics and behavior similar to seismic tsunamis, is poorly understood. We quantify meteotsunamis in terms of seasonality, causes, and occurrence frequency through the analysis of long-term water level records in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The majority of the observed meteotsunamis happen from late-spring to mid-summer and are associated primarily with convective storms. Meteotsunami events of potentially dangerous magnitude (height > 0.3 m) occur an average of 106 times per year throughout the region. These results reveal that meteotsunamis are much more frequent than follow from historic anecdotal reports. Future climate scenarios over the United States show a likely increase in the number of days favorable to severe convective storm formation over the Great Lakes, particularly in the spring season. This would suggest that the convectively associated meteotsunamis in these regions may experience an increase in occurrence frequency or a temporal shift in occurrence to earlier in the warm season. To date, meteotsunamis in the area of the Great Lakes have been an overlooked hazard. PMID:27883066

  17. Meteotsunamis in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechle, Adam J.; Wu, Chin H.; Kristovich, David A. R.; Anderson, Eric J.; Schwab, David J.; Rabinovich, Alexander B.

    2016-11-01

    The generation mechanism of meteotsunamis, which are meteorologically induced water waves with spatial/temporal characteristics and behavior similar to seismic tsunamis, is poorly understood. We quantify meteotsunamis in terms of seasonality, causes, and occurrence frequency through the analysis of long-term water level records in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The majority of the observed meteotsunamis happen from late-spring to mid-summer and are associated primarily with convective storms. Meteotsunami events of potentially dangerous magnitude (height > 0.3 m) occur an average of 106 times per year throughout the region. These results reveal that meteotsunamis are much more frequent than follow from historic anecdotal reports. Future climate scenarios over the United States show a likely increase in the number of days favorable to severe convective storm formation over the Great Lakes, particularly in the spring season. This would suggest that the convectively associated meteotsunamis in these regions may experience an increase in occurrence frequency or a temporal shift in occurrence to earlier in the warm season. To date, meteotsunamis in the area of the Great Lakes have been an overlooked hazard.

  18. Ballast Water Discharges into the Great Lakes from Overseas Vessels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Analysis of Ballast Water Discharges into the Great Lakes from Overseas Vessels from 2010 to 2013 - An assessment of the volume, location, and global port origins of ballast water discharges in the Great Lakes (May 2015).

  19. 75 FR 6354 - NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes Restoration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-ZC10 NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program... Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION... notice published in the Federal Register on January 19, 2010. That notice announced the NOAA Great...

  20. Proposed Great Salt Lake Basin Hydrologic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. P.; Tarboton, D. G.

    2004-12-01

    The dynamic physiography and population growth within the Great Salt Lake Basin provide the opportunity to observe climate and human-induced land-surface changes affecting water availability, water quality, and water use, thereby making the Great Salt Lake Basin a microcosm of contemporary water resource issues and an excellent site to pursue interdisciplinary and integrated hydrologic science. Important societal concerns center on: How do climate variability and human-induced landscape changes affect hydrologic processes, water quality and availability, and aquatic ecosystems over a range of scales? What are the resource, social, and economic consequences of these changes? The steep topography and large climatic gradients of the Great Salt Lake Basin yield hydrologic systems that are dominated by non-linear interactions between snow deposition and snow melt in the mountains, stream flow and groundwater recharge in the mid-elevations, and evaporative losses from the desert floor at lower elevations. Because the Great Salt Lake Basin terminates in a closed basin lake, it is uniquely suited to closing the water, solute, and sediment balances in a way that is rarely possible in a watershed of a size sufficient for coupling to investigations of atmospheric processes. Proposed infrastructure will include representative densely instrumented focus areas that will be nested within a basin-wide network, thereby quantifying fluxes, residence times, pathways, and storage volumes over a range of scales and land uses. The significant and rapid ongoing urbanization presents the opportunity for observations that quantify the interactions among hydrologic processes, human induced changes and social and economic dynamics. One proposed focus area will be a unique, highly instrumented mountain-to-basin transect that will quantify hydrologic processes extending from the mountain ridge top to the Great Salt Lake. The transect will range in elevation from about 1200 m to 3200 m, with a

  1. Lake Superior Coastal Wetland Fish Assemblages and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The role of the coastal margin and the watershed context in defining the ecology of even very large lakes is increasingly being recognized and examined. Coastal wetlands are both important contributors to the biodiversity and productivity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake-basin connection. We explored wetland-watershed connections and their relationship to wetland function and condition using data collected from 37 Lake Superior wetlands spanning a substantial geographic and geomorphic gradient. While none of these wetlands are particularly disturbed, there were nevertheless clear relationships between watershed landuse and wetland habitat and biota, and these varied consistently across wetland type categories that reflected the strength of connection to the watershed. For example, water clarity and vegetation structure complexity declined with decreasing percent natural land cover, and these effects were strongest in riverine wetlands (having generally large watersheds and tributary-dominated hydrology) and weakest in lagoon wetlands (having generally small watersheds and lake-dominate hydrology). Fish abundance and species richness both increased with decreasing percent natural land cover while species diversity decreased, and again the effect was strongest in riverine wetlands. Lagoonal wetlands, which lack any substantial tributary, consistently harbored the fewest species of fish and a composition different from the more watershed-lin

  2. Lake-level variability and water availability in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, Douglas A.; Thompson, Todd A.; Booth, Robert K.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we present recorded and reconstructed (pre-historical) changes in water levels in the Great Lakes, relate them to climate changes of the past, and highlight major water-availability implications for storage, coastal ecosystems, and human activities. 'Water availability,' as conceptualized herein, includes a recognition that water must be available for human and natural uses, but the balancing of how much should be set aside for which use is not discussed. The Great Lakes Basin covers a large area of North America. The lakes capture and store great volumes of water that are critical in maintaining human activities and natural ecosystems. Water enters the lakes mostly in the form of precipitation and streamflow. Although flow through the connecting channels is a primary output from the lakes, evaporation is also a major output. Water levels in the lakes vary naturally on timescales that range from hours to millennia; storage of water in the lakes changes at the seasonal to millennial scales in response to lake-level changes. Short-term changes result from storm surges and seiches and do not affect storage. Seasonal changes are driven by differences in net basin supply during the year related to snowmelt, precipitation, and evaporation. Annual to millennial changes are driven by subtle to major climatic changes affecting both precipitation (and resulting streamflow) and evaporation. Rebounding of the Earth's surface in response to loss of the weight of melted glaciers has differentially affected water levels. Rebound rates have not been uniform across the basin, causing the hydrologic outlet of each lake to rise in elevation more rapidly than some parts of the coastlines. The result is a long-term change in lake level with respect to shoreline features that differs from site to site. The reconstructed water-level history of Lake Michigan-Huron over the past 4,700 years shows three major high phases from 2,300 to 3,300, 1,100 to 2,000, and 0 to 800

  3. The Great Lakes. An Environmental Atlas and Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botts, Lee; Krushelnicki, Bruce

    This atlas was developed jointly by the Canadian and American governments, and is intended to provide an ecosystem approach to the understanding of the Great Lakes Basin. Chapter one provides an introduction to both the natural and cultural aspects of the Great Lakes. Chapter two, "Natural Processes in the Great Lakes," describes such…

  4. 78 FR 49544 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Request for applications. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard seeks applications for membership on the Great Lakes... of Homeland Security and the Coast Guard on matters relating to Great Lakes pilotage,...

  5. 78 FR 54264 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee management; notice of Federal Advisory Committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... the Great Lakes Pilotage regulations. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: GLPAC will...

  6. 76 FR 62085 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee... the Federal Register of October 4, 2011, a notice announcing a Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee... authority of the Great Lakes Pilotage program. If you have been adversely affected by the one-day delay...

  7. CHECKLIST OF DIATOMS FROM THE LAURENTIAN GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An updated diatom (Bacillariophyta) checklist for the Great Lakes has been completed (J. Great Lakes Res. 1999) and supplants the preliminary checklist (J. Great Lakes Res. 1978). The present list is effectively a 20-year update. The updated list is based upon: 1) the 1978 checkl...

  8. Mid Holocene lake level and shoreline behavior during the Nipissing phase of the upper Great Lakes at Alpena, Michigan, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, T.A.; Lepper, K.; Endres, A.L.; Johnston, J.W.; Baedke, S.J.; Argyilan, E.P.; Booth, R.K.; Wilcox, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Nipissing phase was the last pre-modern high-water stage of the upper Great Lakes. Represented as either a one- or two-peak highstand, the Nipissing occurred following a long-term lake-level rise. This transgression was primarily an erosional event with only the final stage of the transgression preserved as barriers, spits, and strandplains of beach ridges. South of Alpena, Michigan, mid to late Holocene coastal deposits occur as a strandplain between Devils Lake and Lake Huron. The landward part of this strandplain is a higher elevation platform that formed during the final stage of lake-level rise to the Nipissing peak. The pre-Nipissing shoreline transgressed over Devils Lake lagoonal deposits from 6.4 to 6.1. ka. The first beach ridge formed ~ 6. ka, and then the shoreline advanced toward Lake Huron, producing beach ridges about every 70. years. This depositional regression produced a slightly thickening wedge of sediment during a lake-level rise that formed 20 beach ridges. The rise ended at 4.5. ka at the Nipissing peak. This peak was short-lived, as lake level fell > 4. m during the following 500. years. During this lake-level rise and subsequent fall, the shoreline underwent several forms of shoreline behavior, including erosional transgression, aggradation, depositional transgression, depositional regression, and forced regression. Other upper Great Lakes Nipissing platforms indicate that the lake-level change observed at Alpena of a rapid pre-Nipissing lake-level rise followed by a slower rise to the Nipissing peak, and a post-Nipissing rapid lake-level fall is representative of mid Holocene lake level in the upper Great Lakes. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  9. 46 CFR 11.446 - Service requirements for master of Great Lakes and inland steam or motor vessels of not more than...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) An applicant holding a license or MMC endorsement as master of ocean, near coastal, or Great Lakes... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service requirements for master of Great Lakes and... Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.446 Service requirements for master of Great Lakes and...

  10. COASTAL WETLAND INSECT COMMUNITIES ALONG A TROPHIC GRADIENT IN GREEN BAY, LAKE MICHIGAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Insects of Great Lakes coastal wetlands have received little attention in spite of their importance in food webs and sensitivity to anthropogenic stressors. We characterized insect communities from four coastal wetlands that spanned the length of a trophic gradient in Green Bay d...

  11. ROV dives under Great Lakes ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolsenga, S.J.; Gannon, John E.; Kennedy, Gregory; Norton, D.C.; Herdendorf, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of the underside of ice have a wide variety of applications. Severe under-ice roughness can affect ice movements, rough under-ice surfaces can scour the bottom disturbing biota and man-made structures such as pipelines, and the flow rate of rivers is often affected by under-ice roughness. A few reported observations of the underside of an ice cover have been made, usually by cutting a large block of ice and overturning it, by extensive boring, or by remote sensing. Such operations are extremely labor-intensive and, in some cases, prone to inaccuracies. Remotely operated vehicles (ROV) can partially solve these problems. In this note, we describe the use, performance in a hostile environment, and results of a study in which a ROV was deployed under the ice in Lake Erie (North American Great Lakes).

  12. Forecasting Lake-Effect Snow in the Great Lakes Using NASA Satllite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cipullo, Michelle; Molthan, Andrew; Shafer, Jackie; Case, Jonathan; Jedlovec, Gary

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the forecast of the lake effect snow in the Great Lakes region using models and infrared estimates of Great Lake Surface Temperatures (GLSTs) from the MModerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on Terra and Aqua satellites, and other satellite data. This study analyzes Lake Erie and Lake Ontario which produce storm total snowfall ranged from 8-18 inches off of Lake Ontario and 10-12 inches off of Lake Erie for the areas downwind.

  13. Characterization of Lake Michigan coastal lakes using zooplankton assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Goodrich, Maria L.; Murphy, Paul C.; Davis, Bruce M.

    2004-01-01

    Zooplankton assemblages and water quality were examined bi-weekly from 17 April to 19 October 1998 in 11 northeastern Lake Michigan coastal lakes of similar origin but varied in trophic status and limnological condition. All lakes were within or adjacent to Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, Michigan. Zooplankton (principally microcrustaceans and rotifers) from triplicate Wisconsin net (80 I?m) vertical tows taken at each lake's deepest location were analyzed. Oxygen-temperature-pH-specific conductivity profiles and surface water quality were concurrently measured. Bray-Curtis similarity analysis showed small variations among sample replicates but large temporal differences. The potential use of zooplankton communities for environmental lake comparisons was evaluated by means of BIOENV (Primer 5.1) and principal component analyses. Zooplankton analyzed at the lowest identified taxonomic level yielded greatest sensitivity to limnological variation. Taxonomic and ecological aggregations of zooplankton data performed comparably, but less well than the finest taxonomic analysis. Secchi depth, chlorophyll a, and sulfate concentrations combined to give the best correlation with patterns of variation in the zooplankton data set. Principal component analysis of these variables revealed trophic status as the most influential major limnological gradient among the study lakes. Overall, zooplankton abundance was an excellent indicator of variation in trophic status.

  14. Early mortality syndrome in Great Lakes salmonines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, Dale C.; Brown, Scott B.; Fitzsimons, John D.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2005-01-01

    Early mortality syndrome (EMS) is the termused to describe an embryonic mortality affectingthe offspring of salmonines (coho salmonOnco-rhynchus kisutch, Chinook salmonOncorhynchustshawytscha, steelhead [anadromous rainbow troutOncorhynchus mykiss], brown troutSalmo trutta,and lake trout,Salvelinus namaycush) in LakesMichigan and Ontario and, to a lesser extent, LakesHuron and Erie (Marcquenski and Brown 1997).Clinical signs of EMS include loss of equilibrium,a spiral swimming pattern, lethargy, hyperexcit-ability, hemorrhage, and death between hatch andfirst feeding. Early mortality syndrome was ob-served as far back as the 1960s in Great Lakessalmonines (Marcquenski and Brown 1997; Fitz-simons et al. 1999) and is of concern because mor-tality has been high in recent years (Wolgamoodet al. 2005; all 2005 citations are this issue). Stocksof Atlantic salmonSalmo salarfrom the FingerLakes and the Baltic Sea also exhibit a similarearly life stage mortality, called Cayuga syndrome(Fisher et al. 1995) and M74 (Bo ̈ rjeson and Norr-gren 1997), respectively. Low egg thiamine levelsand enhanced survival following thiamine treat-ments are common characteristics of EMS, CayugaSyndrome, and M74 (Fitzsimons et al. 1999). Be-cause the deficiency does not appear to be the re-sult of inadequate dietary thiamine (Fitzsimons and Brown 1998), investigators have hypothesizedthat the presence of some thiaminolytic factors inthe diet may reduce the bioavailability of thiamine,either by destroying it or converting it to an in-active analog or thiamine antagonist (Fisher et al.1996; Fitzsimons et al. 1999).

  15. Drainage water phosphorus losses in the great lakes basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The great lakes are one of the most important fresh water resources on the planet. While forestry is a primary land use throughout much of the great lakes basin, there are portions of the basin, such as much of the land that drains directly to Lake Erie, that are primarily agricultural. The primary ...

  16. The Role of Ecological Research in Great Lakes Water Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    This talk will present some current ecological research in the Great Lakes. It will focus on how research examines aspects of water quality that relate to Basin-Lake and Human-Water interactions in the context of water sustainability issues for the Great Lakes.

  17. Utilization of a Marketing Strategy at Naval Regional Medical Center Great Lakes, Great Lakes, Illinois

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    22 Analysis of the Mare.....................22 Development of the Marketing Mix .. .......... 29 A Marketing Mix --Recommendations...problem. Marketing strategy, marketing mix and ultimately the marketing orientation will allow hospitals to persevere and possibly thrive in a somewhat...market are currently being met at Naval Regional Medical Center Great Lakes. The fourth objective is to demonstrate an appropriate marketing mix for

  18. The Great Lakes Hydrography Dataset: Consistent, binational watersheds for the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecosystem-based management of the Laurentian Great Lakes, which spans both the United States and Canada, is hampered by the lack of consistent binational watersheds for the entire Basin. Using comparable data sources and consistent methods we developed spatially equivalent waters...

  19. 75 FR 43021 - Stewardship of the Ocean, Our Coasts, and the Great Lakes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... stark reminder of how vulnerable our marine environments are, and how much communities and the Nation rely on healthy and resilient ocean and coastal ecosystems. America's stewardship of the ocean, our... that the ocean, our coasts, and the Great Lakes are healthy and resilient, safe and productive,...

  20. Aquatic invasive species early detection in the Great Lakes: Lessons concerning strategy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal systems are vulnerable to introduction of a wide variety of non-indigenous species (NIS), and the desire to effectively respond to future invaders is prompting efforts towards establishing a broad early-detection network. Such a network requires statistically...

  1. 2010 NCCA oligochaete trophic index results to inform benthic index development for the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 400 sites were sampled in the nearshore of the U.S. Great Lakes during the National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) field survey in summer 2010. To assess benthic ecological condition, 393 PONARs were attempted, and collected macroinvertebrates were identified and enume...

  2. Progress towards design elements for a Great Lakes-wide aquatic invasive species early detection network

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal systems are vulnerable to introduction of a wide variety of non-indigenous species (NIS), and the desire to effectively respond to future invaders is prompting efforts towards establishing a broad early-detection network. Such a network requires statistically...

  3. Understanding beach health throughout the Great Lakes -- continuing research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The overall mission of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Beach Health Initiative is to provide science-based information and methods that will allow beach managers to more accurately make beach closure and advisory decisions, understand the sources and physical processes affecting beach contaminants, and understand how science-based information can be used to mitigate and restore beaches and protect the public. The USGS, in collaboration with many Federal, State, and local agencies and universities, has conducted research on beach-health issues in the Great Lakes Region for more than a decade. The work consists of four science elements that align with the initiative's mission: real-time assessments of water quality; coastal processes; pathogens and source tracking; and data analysis, interpretation, and communication. The ongoing or completed research for each of these elements is described in this fact sheet.

  4. Base flow in the Great Lakes Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neff, B.P.; Day, S.M.; Piggott, A.R.; Fuller, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrograph separations were performed using the PART, HYSEP 1, 2, and 3, BFLOW and UKIH methods on 104,293 years of daily streamflow records from 3,936 streamflow-gaging stations in Ontario, Canada and the eight Great Lakes States of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin to estimate base-flow index (BFI) and base flow. BFI ranged an average of 0.24 BFI depending on which hydrograph-separation method was used. BFI data from 959 selected streamflow-gaging stations with a combined 28,784 years of daily streamflow data were used to relate BFI to surficial geology and the proportion of surface water within the gaged watersheds. This relation was then used to derive estimates of BFI throughout the Great Lakes, Ottawa River, and upper St. Lawrence River Basins at a scale of 8-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC) watersheds for the U.S. and tertiary watersheds in Canada. This process was repeated for each of the six hydrograph-separation methods used. When applied to gaged watersheds, model results predicted observed base flow within 0.2 BFI up to 94 percent of the time. Estimates of long-term (length of streamflow record) average annual streamflow in each HUC and tertiary watershed were calculated and used to determine average annual base flow from BFI estimates. Possibilities for future study based on results from this study include long-term trend analysis of base flow and improving the scale at which base-flow estimates can be made.

  5. Lake trout in the Great Lakes: Basin-wide stock collapse and binational restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Taylor, William W.; Ferreri, C. Paola

    1999-01-01

    The lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) was important to the human settlement of each of the Great Lakes, and underwent catastrophic collapses in each lake in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The timing of lake trout stock collapses were different in each lake, as were the causes of the collapses, and have been the subject of much scientific inquiry and debate. The purpose of this chapter is to summarize and review pertinent information relating historical changes in Great Lakes lake trout stocks, binational efforts to restore those stocks, and progress toward stock restoration. This presentation attempts to generalize patterns across the Great Lakes, rather than to focus within each lake. Lake specific analyses have been used to understand lake specific causes and effects, but there is continuing debate about some of these causes and effects. A basinwide review may suggest mechanisms for observed changes that are not evident by lake specific analysis.

  6. Great Lakes agreement calls for binational science priorities and action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    An amended Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA), signed by officials from Canada and the United States at a 7 September ceremony in Washington, D. C., will facilitate efforts by the two countries to “restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Waters of the Great Lakes.” The agreement calls on the countries to cooperate and collaborate; develop programs, practices, and technology necessary to better understand the Great Lakes Basin ecosystem; and eliminate or reduce environmental threats to Great Lakes waters. The amended GLWQA specifically calls for the establishment of “binational priorities for science and action to address current and future threats” to the quality of Great Lakes waters within 18 months. In addition, the agreement calls on the International Joint Commission (IJC) to establish a Great Lakes science advisory board.

  7. 77 FR 24729 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... recommendations to the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Coast Guard on matters relating to Great...

  8. 78 FR 5474 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... recommendations to the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Coast Guard on matters relating to Great...

  9. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    PubMed Central

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-01-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2

  10. 77 FR 2497 - Great Lakes Steamship Repower Incentive Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... powered by old, inefficient steam boilers. Voluntary replacement of these boilers with modern fuel... encourage owners of Great Lakes steamships to voluntarily replace their steam boilers with cleaner,...

  11. Genetic evaluation of a Great Lakes lake trout hatchery program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, K.S.; Scribner, K.T.; Bast, D.; Holey, M.E.; Burnham-Curtis, M. K.

    2005-01-01

    Efforts over several decades to restore lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in U.S. waters of the upper Great Lakes have emphasized the stocking of juveniles from each of six hatchery broodstocks. Retention of genetic diversity across all offspring life history stages throughout the hatchery system has been an important component of the restoration hatchery and stocking program. Different stages of the lake trout hatchery program were examined to determine how effective hatchery practices have been in minimizing the loss of genetic diversity in broodstock adults and in progeny stocked. Microsatellite loci were used to estimate allele frequencies, measures of genetic diversity, and relatedness for wild source populations, hatchery broodstocks, and juveniles. We also estimated the effective number of breeders for each broodstock. Hatchery records were used to track destinations of fertilized eggs from all spawning dates to determine whether adult contributions to stocking programs were proportional to reproductive effort. Overall, management goals of maintaining genetic diversity were met across all stages of the hatchery program; however, we identified key areas where changes in mating regimes and in the distribution of fertilized gametes and juveniles could be improved. Estimates of effective breeding population size (Nb) were 9-41% of the total number of adults spawned. Low estimates of Nb were primarily attributed to spawning practices, including the pooling of gametes from multiple males and females and the reuse of males. Nonrandom selection and distribution of fertilized eggs before stocking accentuated declines in effective breeding population size and increased levels of relatedness of juveniles distributed to different rearing facilities and stocking locales. Adoption of guidelines that decrease adult reproductive variance and promote more equitable reproductive contributions of broodstock adults to juveniles would further enhance management goals of

  12. Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway Regional Transportation Study; Great Lakes Area Industries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    Regional Transportation Study is an element of this planning process . The objective of the GL/SLS Regional Transportation Study is to develop an up-to-date...system performance and ability to process future cargo flows Evaluation of the performance and economic feasibility of improvements to increase the...section is organized as follows: Basic steelmaking processes Production centers in the U.S. and Canada The industry in the Great Lakes area. These

  13. Embryotoxicity of an extract from Great Lakes lake trout to rainbow trout and lake trout

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, P.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Aquatic ecosystems such as the Great Lakes are known to be contaminated with chemicals that are toxic to fish. However, the role of these contaminants in reproductive failures of fishes, such as lake trout recruitment, has remained controvertible. It was the objective to evaluate dioxin-like embryotoxicity of a complex mixture of chemicals and predict their potential to cause the lack of recruitment in Great Lakes lake trout. Graded doses of a complex environmental extract were injected into eggs of both rainbow trout and lake trout. The extract was obtained from whole adult lake trout collected from Lake Michigan in 1988. The extract was embryotoxic in rainbow trout, with LD50 values for Arlee strain and Erwin strain of 33 eggEQ and 14 eggEQ respectively. The LOAEL for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities in rainbow trout were 2, 2, and 4 eggEQ, respectively. Subsequent injections of the extract into lake trout eggs were likewise embryotoxic, with an LD50 value of 7 eggEQ. The LOAEL values for the extract in lake trout for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities were 0.1, 1, and 2 eggEQ, respectively. The current levels of contaminants in lake trout eggs are above the threshold for hemorrhaging and yolk-sac edema. The results also support the use of an additive model of toxicity to quantify PCDDs, PCDFs, Non-o-PCBs, and Mono-o-PCBs in relation to early life stage mortality in Lake Michigan lake trout.

  14. History of salmon in the Great Lakes, 1850-1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, John W.

    1973-01-01

    This history of the salmon in the Great Lakes describes the decline and extinction of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Lake Ontario in the 1800's; the failure to establish, by salmon culture, permanent or sizable populations of Atlantic or Pacific salmon in any of the Great Lakes in 1867-1965; and the success of the plantings of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytsha) in the Great Lakes, in 1966-70 -- particularly in Lake Michigan. Despite plantings of 5 million fry and fingerlings from Lake Ontario stocks in 1866-84, the native Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario became extinct in the late 1800's primarily because tributaries in which they spawned were blocked by mill dams. Plantings of 13 million chinook salmon and landlocked and anadromous forms of Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario and the other Great Lakes in 1873-1947 failed completely. The first species to develop a self-sustaining population was the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), which was planted in Lake Superior in 1956; however, it has not become abundant. A salmon fishery finally was established when 15 million coho salmon and 6 million chinook salmon were planted as smolt in the Great Lakes in 1966-70. In 1970, for example, 576,000 coho salmon (12% of those planted in 1969) were caught by anglers in Lake Michigan. Most weighed 5 to 10 pounds (2.3-4.5 kg). Sport fishing for salmon was fair in Lakes Superior and Huron, and poor in Lakes Erie and Ontario. By 1970, natural reproduction of coho, chinook, pink, and kokanee (O. nerka) salmon had occurred in some tributaries of one or more of the upper three Great Lakes. It is expected, however, that the sport fishery will continue to be supported almost entirely by planted fish.

  15. Lake whitefish diet, condition, and energy density in Lake Champlain and the lower four Great Lakes following dreissenid invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbst, Seth J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lantry, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis support some of the most valuable commercial freshwater fisheries in North America. Recent growth and condition decreases in Lake Whitefish populations in the Great Lakes have been attributed to the invasion of the dreissenid mussels, zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussels D. bugensis, and the subsequent collapse of the amphipod, Diporeia, a once-abundant high energy prey source. Since 1993, Lake Champlain has also experienced the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels, but in contrast to the Great Lakes, Diporeia were not historically abundant. We compared the diet, condition, and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain after the dreissenid mussel invasion to values for those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Lake Whitefish were collected using gill nets and bottom trawls, and their diets were quantified seasonally. Condition was estimated using Fulton's condition factor (K) and by determining energy density. In contrast to Lake Whitefish from some of the Great Lakes, those from Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish did not show a dietary shift towards dreissenid mussels, but instead fed primarily on fish eggs in spring, Mysis diluviana in summer, and gastropods and sphaeriids in fall and winter. Along with these dietary differences, the condition and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain were high compared with those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario after the dreissenid invasion, and were similar to Lake Whitefish from Lake Erie; fish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario consumed dreissenids, whereas fish from Lake Erie did not. Our comparisons of Lake Whitefish populations in Lake Champlain to those in the Great Lakes indicate that diet and condition of Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish were not negatively affected by the dreissenid mussel invasion.

  16. Snow From Great Lakes Covers Buffalo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On November 20, 2000, Buffalo, New York was blanketed by a late-autumn storm that left 25 inches of snow on the ground in a 24-hour period, most of it during the afternoon rush hour. Buffalo officials declared a state of emergency and New York National Guardsmen were called in to assist with clearing snow from roads. With the exception of essential vehicles or people retrieving stranded children, all driving was banned in the city. This SeaWiFS pass over the central United States and Canada depicts a source for all of the snow in Buffalo. Cold, dry Canadian air blowing toward the southeast picked up a lot of moisture from the relatively warm Great Lakes -- forming the clouds that lightened their loads over Buffalo. This image was acquired November 21, 2000, by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  17. 33 CFR 100.901 - Great Lakes annual marine events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Great Lakes annual marine events... REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.901 Great Lakes annual marine events. Permanent special local regulations are hereby established for the marine events listed in Table 1....

  18. 33 CFR 100.901 - Great Lakes annual marine events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Great Lakes annual marine events... REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.901 Great Lakes annual marine events. Permanent special local regulations are hereby established for the marine events listed in Table 1....

  19. 33 CFR 100.901 - Great Lakes annual marine events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Great Lakes annual marine events... REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.901 Great Lakes annual marine events. Permanent special local regulations are hereby established for the marine events listed in Table 1....

  20. 33 CFR 100.901 - Great Lakes annual marine events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Great Lakes annual marine events... REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.901 Great Lakes annual marine events. Permanent special local regulations are hereby established for the marine events listed in Table 1....

  1. Relative cancer risks of chemical contaminants in the great lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bro, Kenneth M.; Sonzogni, William C.; Hanson, Mark E.

    1987-08-01

    Anyone who drinks water or eats fish from the Great Lakes consumes potentially carcinogenic chemicals. In choosing how to respond to such pollution, it is important to put the risks these contaminants pose in perspective. Based on recent measurements of carcinogens in Great Lakes fish and water, calculations of lifetime risks of cancer indicate that consumers of sport fish face cancer risks from Great Lakes contaminants that are several orders of magnitude higher than the risks posed by drinking Great Lakes water. But drinking urban groundwater and breathing urban air may be as hazardous as frequent consumption of sport fish from the Great Lakes. Making such comparisons is difficult because of variation in types and quality of information available and in the methods for estimating risk. Much uncertainty pervades the risk assessment process in such areas as estimating carcinogenic potency and human exposure to contaminants. If risk assessment is to be made more useful, it is important to quantify this uncertainty.

  2. The hazards of tank ships and barges transporting petroleum products on the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Keillor, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A coastal management issue in the Great Lakes is the risk of oil spills from tank vessels operating during a proposed extended navigation season. A description of a tanker trip, analysis of oil spill statistics, and vessel casualty records reveal the nature of hazards faced by vessels engaged in the Great Lakes petroleum trade. Required use of Loran-C and fathometers, frequent maintenance dredging, and other measures could improve the safety of petroleum transport. Reduced fleet sizes should make inspection and introduction of safety improvements easier.

  3. Hierarchical multi-scale classification of nearshore aquatic habitats of the Great Lakes: Western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, J.E.; Castiglione, C.

    2010-01-01

    Classification is a valuable conservation tool for examining natural resource status and problems and is being developed for coastal aquatic habitats. We present an objective, multi-scale hydrospatial framework for nearshore areas of the Great Lakes. The hydrospatial framework consists of spatial units at eight hierarchical scales from the North American Continent to the individual 270-m spatial cell. Characterization of spatial units based on fish abundance and diversity provides a fish-guided classification of aquatic areas at each spatial scale and demonstrates how classifications may be generated from that framework. Those classification units then provide information about habitat, as well as biotic conditions, which can be compared, contrasted, and hierarchically related spatially. Examples within several representative coastal or open water zones of the Western Lake Erie pilot area highlight potential application of this classification system to management problems. This classification system can assist natural resource managers with planning and establishing priorities for aquatic habitat protection, developing rehabilitation strategies, or identifying special management actions.

  4. Influence of the African Great Lakes on the regional climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiery, Wim; Davin, Edouard; Panitz, Hans-Jürgen; Demuzere, Matthias; Lhermitte, Stef; van Lipzig, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    Although the African Great Lakes are important regulators for the East-African climate, their influence on atmospheric dynamics and the regional hydrological cycle remains poorly understood. We aim to assess this impact by conducting a regional climate model simulation which resolves individual lakes and explicitly computes lake temperatures. The regional climate model COSMO-CLM, coupled to a state-of-the-art lake parameterization scheme and land surface model, is used to dynamically downscale the COSMO-CLM CORDEX-Africa evaluation simulation to 7 km grid spacing for the period 1999-2008. Evaluation of the model reveals good performance compared to both in-situ and satellite observations, especially for spatio-temporal variability of lake surface temperatures and precipitation. Model integrations indicate that the four major African Great Lakes almost double precipitation amounts over their surface relative to a simulation without lakes, but hardly exert any influence on precipitation beyond their shores. The largest lakes also cool their near-surface air, this time with pronounced downwind influence. The lake-induced cooling happens during daytime, when the lakes absorb incoming solar radiation and inhibit upward turbulent heat transport. At night, when this heat is released, the lakes warm the near-surface air. Furthermore, Lake Victoria has profound influence on atmospheric dynamics and stability as it induces cellular motion with over-lake convective inhibition during daytime, and the reversed pattern at night. Overall, this study shows the added value of resolving individual lakes and realistically representing lake surface temperatures for climate studies in this region. Thiery, W., Davin, E., Panitz, H.-J., Demuzere, M., Lhermitte, S., van Lipzig, N.P.M., The impact of the African Great Lakes on the regional climate, J. Climate (in review).

  5. Great Lakes Climate and Water Movement. Earth Systems - Education Activities for Great Lakes Schools (ES-EAGLS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Heidi, Ed.; Sheaffer, Amy L., Ed.

    This activity book is part of a series designed to take a concept or idea from the existing school curriculum and develop it in the context of the Great Lakes using teaching approaches and materials appropriate for students in middle and high school. The theme of this book is Great Lakes climate and water movement. Students learn about land-sea…

  6. Land & Water Interactions in the Great Lakes. Earth Systems - Education Activities for Great Lakes Schools (ES-EAGLS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheaffer, Amy L., Ed.

    This activity book is part of a series designed to take a concept or idea from the existing school curriculum and develop it in the context of the Great Lakes using teaching approaches and materials appropriate for students in middle and high school. The subject of this book is land and water interactions. Students examine how the Great Lakes were…

  7. A spatial classification and database for management, research, and policy making: The Great Lakes aquatic habitat framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Lizhu; Riseng, Catherine M.; Mason, Lacey; Werhrly, Kevin; Rutherford, Edward; McKenna, James E.; Castiglione, Chris; Johnson, Lucinda B.; Infante, Dana M.; Sowa, Scott P.; Robertson, Mike; Schaeffer, Jeff; Khoury, Mary; Gaiot, John; Hollenhurst, Tom; Brooks, Colin N.; Coscarelli, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Managing the world's largest and most complex freshwater ecosystem, the Laurentian Great Lakes, requires a spatially hierarchical basin-wide database of ecological and socioeconomic information that is comparable across the region. To meet such a need, we developed a spatial classification framework and database — Great Lakes Aquatic Habitat Framework (GLAHF). GLAHF consists of catchments, coastal terrestrial, coastal margin, nearshore, and offshore zones that encompass the entire Great Lakes Basin. The catchments captured in the database as river pour points or coastline segments are attributed with data known to influence physicochemical and biological characteristics of the lakes from the catchments. The coastal terrestrial zone consists of 30-m grid cells attributed with data from the terrestrial region that has direct connection with the lakes. The coastal margin and nearshore zones consist of 30-m grid cells attributed with data describing the coastline conditions, coastal human disturbances, and moderately to highly variable physicochemical and biological characteristics. The offshore zone consists of 1.8-km grid cells attributed with data that are spatially less variable compared with the other aquatic zones. These spatial classification zones and their associated data are nested within lake sub-basins and political boundaries and allow the synthesis of information from grid cells to classification zones, within and among political boundaries, lake sub-basins, Great Lakes, or within the entire Great Lakes Basin. This spatially structured database could help the development of basin-wide management plans, prioritize locations for funding and specific management actions, track protection and restoration progress, and conduct research for science-based decision making.

  8. Long-term Bat Monitoring on Islands, Offshore Structures, and Coastal Sites in the Gulf of Maine, mid-Atlantic, and Great Lakes—Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Trevor; Pelletier, Steve; Giovanni, Matt

    2016-01-15

    This report summarizes results of a long-term regional acoustic survey of bat activity at remote islands, offshore structures, and coastal sites in the Gulf of Maine, Great Lakes, and mid-Atlantic coast.

  9. Nile perch: the great lake experiment.

    PubMed

    Ogutu-ohwayo, R

    1998-01-01

    In order to improve the fishery of Lake Victoria, a large predatory fish, the Nile perch (Lates niloticus), was introduced into the lake to feed on the smaller but abundant haplochromines, thereby producing a larger fish for food consumption. Originally the lake had a very high fish species diversity, dominated by more than 300 species of haplochromine cichlids; however, they were too small to be exploited for food. It took about 20 years for the population of the Nile perch in the lake to increase significantly. Although increased fish production has benefited riparian communities by providing revenue, employment, and food, the introduction of the Nile perch has also resulted in extinction and has transformed the lake ecosystem. In response to the concern caused by the introduction of the Nile perch, the deteriorating water quality, and the need to sustain the lucrative fishery, the governments of Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania have initiated the multisectoral Lake Victoria Environment Management Programme. Its goals are to control the loading of nutrients and contaminants into the lake, manage land use in the catchment area, manage the introduced fish species, conserve biodiversity, and control the spread of water hyacinths.

  10. Restoring the Great Lakes: DOI stories of success and partnership in implementing the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; ,; ,; ,; ,

    2013-01-01

    The Great Lakes are a monumentally unique national treasure containing nearly ninety-five percent of the United States' fresh surface water. Formed by receding glaciers, the Great Lakes support a thriving, resilient ecosystem rich with fish, wildlife, and abundant natural resources. The Great Lakes also support an array of commercial uses, including shipping, and provide a source of recreation, drinking water, and other critical services that drive the economy of the region and the Nation. Regrettably, activities such as clear cutting of mature forests, over-harvesting of fish populations, industrial pollution, invasive species, and agricultural runoffs have degraded these treasured lakes over the decades creating long-term impacts to the surrounding watershed. Fortunately, the people who live, work, and recreate in the region recognize the critical importance of a healthy Great Lakes ecosystem, and have come together to support comprehensive restoration. To stimulate and promote the goal of a healthy Great Lakes region, President Obama and Congress created the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) in 2009. This program provides the seed money to clean up legacy pollution, restore habitats, protect wildlife, combat invasive species, and address agricultural runoff in the Great Lakes watershed. At the same time GLRI promotes public outreach, education, accountability, and partnerships.

  11. Radionuclide partitioning across great lakes natural interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platford, R. F.; Joshi, S. R.

    1989-11-01

    Several water and surface microlayer samples from Lake St. Clair, the Niagara River, and the North Shore of Lake Ontario collected during 1983 1986 have been assayed for a variety of radionuclides. In addition, the foam accumulating in the pool just below Niagara Falls was also analyzed and found to be the most efficient aqueous phase collector of137Cs,210Pb, and226Ra. The order of radioisotope specific activities from highest to lowest is: Lake Ontario sediment, Niagara River suspended solids, Niagara River foam, surface microlayer water, and subsurface water. Radiological dose rates to the sediments from137Cs,226Ra, and228Th total about 5 mGy/y.

  12. Great Lakes Research Review, 1982. Appendices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    at Biologically Important Sites 092 C 212 U.TOR.,NWRI Organo -Metals in Lake Water 093 C 213 NWRI,GLFRB Characterization of Complexation in Lake Waters...Standard procedures need to be developed to assess the additive and synergistic effects in receiving waters of toxic materials from complex industrial...relationship between reductions in phosphorus loads from municipal sources and the ecosystem of the receiving water is complex and cannot be readily

  13. Flame retardants and legacy chemicals in Great Lakes' water.

    PubMed

    Venier, Marta; Dove, Alice; Romanak, Kevin; Backus, Sean; Hites, Ronald

    2014-08-19

    The Great Lakes have been the focus of extensive environmental research, but recent data on the aquatic concentrations of emerging compounds, such as flame retardants, are scarce. Water samples from 18 stations on the five Great Lakes were collected in 2011 and 2012 using XAD-2 resin adsorption and analyzed for PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, PAHs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and emerging flame retardants, including organophosphate flame retardants (OPEs). Total PCB concentrations ranged from 117 ± 18 pg/L in Lake Superior to 623 ± 113 pg/L in Lake Ontario. Among the organochlorine pesticides, the most abundant was dieldrin, with the highest average concentration of 99 ± 26 pg/L in Lake Erie, followed by p,p'-DDD with an average concentration of 37 ± 8 pg/L in Lake Ontario. Total PAH concentrations were higher in Lakes Erie and Ontario than in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Superior. Total PBDE concentrations were highest in Lake Ontario (227 ± 75 pg/L), and the most abundant congeners were BDE-47, BDE-99, and BDE-209. Total OPE concentrations ranged between 7.3 ± 4.5 ng/L in Lake Huron to 96 ± 43 ng/L in Lake Erie.

  14. The ecology of the coastal marshes of western Lake Erie: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Herdendorf, C.E.

    1987-02-01

    Lake Erie, the southernmost of the Laurentian Great Lakes, is narrow and relatively shallow in comparison to other Great Lakes. The lake experiences extreme water level fluctuations and storm energy restricts the development of wetlands to protected areas within embayments, lagoons, or behind barriers. However, coastal marshes of western Lake Erie fringe the shorelines of Michigan, Ohio, and Ontario and encompass an area of 268 km/sup 2/. This publication reviews the ecological data and information on the wetlands of Lake Erie, which are some of the more productive areas in the Great Lakes ecosystem. The geologic history of the Lake Erie leading to the development of wetlands, the present environment, and present wetland distribution are presented as background in the opening chapters. Biological information available for the Lake Erie wetlands is discussed in detail, and ecological processes contributing to the evolution of wetlands, biological production, and community organization in the wetlands are examined. A chapter on applied ecology addressing issues, such as wetland loss, values of wetlands to fish and wildlife, management, and future prospects for Lake Erie wetlands, completes the publication.

  15. EAARL coastal topography--North Shore, Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Fredericks, Xan; Wright, C.W.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Barras, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    This DVD contains lidar-derived coastal topography GIS datasets of a portion of the north shore of Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana. These datasets were acquired on February 28, March 1, and March 5, 2010.

  16. Origin and status of the Great Lakes wolf.

    PubMed

    Koblmüller, Stephan; Nord, Maria; Wayne, Robert K; Leonard, Jennifer A

    2009-06-01

    An extensive debate concerning the origin and taxonomic status of wolf-like canids in the North American Great Lakes region and the consequences for conservation politics regarding these enigmatic predators is ongoing. Using maternally, paternally and biparentally inherited molecular markers, we demonstrate that the Great Lakes wolves are a unique population or ecotype of gray wolves. Furthermore, we show that the Great Lakes wolves experienced high degrees of ancient and recent introgression of coyote and western gray wolf mtDNA and Y-chromosome haplotypes, and that the recent demographic bottleneck caused by persecution and habitat depletion in the early 1900s is not reflected in the genetic data.

  17. Importance of coastal change variables in determining vulnerability to sea- and lake-level change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, E.A.; Thieler, E.R.; Williams, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey began conducting scientific assessments of coastal vulnerability to potential future sea- and lake-level changes in 22 National Park Service sea- and lakeshore units. Coastal park units chosen for the assessment included a variety of geological and physical settings along the U.S. Atlantic, Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Caribbean, and Great Lakes shorelines. This research is motivated by the need to understand and anticipate coastal changes caused by accelerating sea-level rise, as well as lake-level changes caused by climate change, over the next century. The goal of these assessments is to provide information that can be used to make long-term (decade to century) management decisions. Here we analyze the results of coastal vulnerability assessments for several coastal national park units. Index-based assessments quantify the likelihood that physical changes may occur based on analysis of the following variables: tidal range, ice cover, wave height, coastal slope, historical shoreline change rate, geomorphology, and historical rate of relative sea- or lake-level change. This approach seeks to combine a coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, and it provides a measure of the system's potential vulnerability to the effects of sea- or lake-level change. Assessments for 22 park units are combined to evaluate relationships among the variables used to derive the index. Results indicate that Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico parks have the highest vulnerability rankings relative to other park regions. A principal component analysis reveals that 99% of the index variability can be explained by four variables: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, water-level change rate, and mean significant wave height. Tidal range, ice cover, and historical shoreline change are not as important when the index is evaluated at large spatial scales (thousands of kilometers

  18. Dreissenid mussels from the Great Lakes contain elevated thiaminase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillitt, D.E.; Riley, S.C.; Evans, A.N.; Nichols, S.J.; Zajicek, J.L.; Rinchard, J.; Richter, C.A.; Krueger, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at different depths and seasons, and from various locations in Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Huron. Here we present evidence that two dreissenid mussel species (Dreissena bugensis and D. polymorpha) contain thiaminase activity that is 5-100 fold greater than observed in Great Lakes fishes. Thiaminase activity in zebra mussels ranged from 10,600 to 47,900??pmol g- 1??min- 1 and activities in quagga mussels ranged from 19,500 to 223,800??pmol g- 1??min- 1. Activity in the mussels was greatest in spring, less in summer, and least in fall. Additionally, we observed greater thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at shallow depths compared to mussels collected at deeper depths. Dreissenids constitute a significant and previously unknown pool of thiaminase in the Great Lakes food web compared to other known sources of this thiamine (vitamin B1)-degrading enzyme. Thiaminase in forage fish of the Great Lakes has been causally linked to thiamine deficiency in salmonines. We currently do not know whether linkages exist between thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids and the thiaminase activities in higher trophic levels of the Great Lakes food web. However, the extreme thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids from the Great Lakes may represent a serious unanticipated negative effect of these exotic species on Great Lakes ecosystems.

  19. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory annual report, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Contents: non-indigenous species; pollutant effects; coordinated ecosystem research; climate variability global change in large lakes; marine hazards and water management research; green bay; nutrient enhanced coastal ocean productivity (necop); coastwatch; independent research projects; facilities and services; outreach activities; glerl seminars; FY 90 staff; FY 90 publications; and FY 90 presentations.

  20. HYDROGEOMORPHIC INFLUENCES ON MACROPHYTES AS HABITAT IN GREAT LAKES WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used rapid survey techniques to map saubmergerd, floating and emergent vegetation in 10 coastal wetlands of Lake Superior. Density and structure of plant beds in "bay," "main channel," and "side channel" areas was evaluated from cover indices and presence/dominance by growth f...

  1. LAKE-WETLAND LINKAGE AND PERIPHYTON DYNAMICS IN A LAKE SUPERIOR COASTAL WETLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tributaries feeding coastal wetlands along the Wisconsin shore of Lake Superior are generally depleted in inorganic nitrogen (TIN) relative to phosphorus (SRP), while Lake Superior is phosphorous depleted and relatively rich in TIN. Within wetlands, mixing of tributary and lake w...

  2. Fisheries Education: From the Great Lakes to the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne; Mayer, Victor J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are investigations related to fisheries education developed by the Ohio Sea Grant Education Office as a part of a series of Oceanic Education Activities for Great Lake Schools. The investigations discussed are "Yellow Perch in Lake Erie," which concerns fisheries management, and "It's Everyone's Sea: Or Is It," which…

  3. Partitioning potential fish yields from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loftus, D.H.; Olver, C.H.; Brown, Edward H.; Colby, P.J.; Hartman, Wilbur L.; Schupp, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    We proposed and implemented procedures for partitioning future fish yields from the Great Lakes into taxonomic components. These projections are intended as guidelines for Great Lakes resource managers and scientists. Attainment of projected yields depends on restoration of stable fish communities containing some large piscivores that will use prey efficiently, continuation of control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), and restoration of high-quality fish habitat. Because Great Lakes fish communities were harmonic before their collapse, we used their historic yield properties as part of the basis for projecting potential yields of rehabilitated communities. This use is qualified, however, because of possible inaccuracies in the wholly commercial yield data, the presence now of greatly expanded sport fisheries that affect yield composition and magnitude, and some possibly irreversible changes since the 1950s in the various fish communities themselves. We predict that total yields from Lakes Superior, Huron, and Ontario will be increased through rehabilitation, while those from Lakes Michigan and Erie will decline. Salmonines and coregonines will dominate future yields from the upper lakes. The Lake Erie fishery will continue to yield mostly rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), but the relative importance of percids, especially of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) will increase. In Lake Ontario, yields of salmonines will be increased. Managers will have to apply the most rigorous management strictures to major predator species.

  4. Nutrients in the Great Lakes. Teacher's Guide and Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brothers, Chris; And Others

    This teacher guide and student workbook set presents two learning activities, designed for fifth through ninth grade students, that concentrate on nutrients in the Great Lakes. In activity A, students simulate aquatic habitats using lake water and goldfish in glass jars and observe the effects of nutrient loading and nutrient limitation on aquatic…

  5. Survival of lake trout eggs and fry reared in water from the upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.; Edsall, Carol Cotant; Seelye, James G.

    1985-01-01

    As part of continuing studies of the reproductive failure of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan, we measured the survival of lake trout eggs and fry of different origins and reared in different environments. Eggs and milt were stripped from spawning lake trout collected in the fall of 1980 from southeastern Lake Michigan, northwestern Lake Huron, south central Lake Superior, and from hatchery brood stock. Eggs from all sources were incubated, and the newly hatched fry were reared for 139 days in lake water from each of the three upper Great Lakes and in well water. Survival of eggs to hatching at all sites was lowest for those from Lake Michigan (70% of fertilized eggs) and highest for eggs from Lake Superior (96%). Comparisons of incubation water from the different lakes indicated that hatching success of eggs from all sources was highest in Lake Huron water, and lowest in Lake Michigan water. The most notable finding was the nearly total mortality of fry from eggs of southeastern Lake Michigan lake trout. At all sites, the mean survival of Lake Michigan fry through 139 days after hatching was only 4% compared to near 50% for fry from the other three sources. In a comparison of the rearing sites, little influence of water quality on fry survival was found. Thus, the poor survival was associated with the source of eggs and sperm, not the water in which the fry were reared.

  6. Cyclopoid and harpacticoid copepods of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Reid, Janet W.; Lesko, Lynn T.; Selgeby, James H.

    1998-01-01

    Historical collections of cyclopoid and harpacticoid copepod crustaceans in the Great Lakes have mainly been based on samples taken with plankton nets in deeper waters (>5 m). Of the non-calanoid copepod species known from the Great Lakes, 58 or 64 live primarily on or in the sediments and rarely are collected in plankton samples. Because of their small size, they are rarely retained in the coarse sieves used to concentrate samples of benthic invertebrates. Thus, the abundance and distribution of most species of these two groups of copepods have never been adequately documented in the Great Lakes. We examined the stomach contents of small, bottom-feeding fishes such as slimy sculpin which feed on benthic copepods that live in deep, inaccessible rocky areas of the Great Lakes to collect some of the material. We also collected in shallow nearshore habitats, including wetlands. We present an annotated checklist of cyclopoid and harpacticoid copepods based on published records and our recent collections in the Great Lakes. We have added 14 species of cyclopoid copepods to the Great Lakes record, increasing the total to 30. Because we probably have accounted for most of the cyclopoid species, we provide a key to the identification of this group. We have added 19 species of harpacticoid copepods to the 15 previously known to the Great Lakes, and suspect that additional species remain to be discovered. In individual lakes, there were approximately as many species of cyclopoids as harpacticoids; the total number of species per lake ranged from 35 to 57. The most speciose genera were Bryocamptus (7), Canthocamptus (5), and Moraria (5) in the Harpacticoida, and Diacyclops (6) and Acanthocyclops (5) in the Cyclopoida. The origin of introduced species, our ability to classify copepod habitat, and the ecological significance of copepods are discussed.

  7. Great Lakes Construction/John Robichaud Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    R5 Great Lakes Construction/John Robichaud (the Company) is located in Monroe, Michigan. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Monroe, Michigan.

  8. User s Manual for Armor Stone Evaluation Model (ARMOR): Great Lakes Armor Stone Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    MCNP) Program Great Lakes Armor Stone Rapid Deterioration work unit ERDC TR-15-6 ii Abstract Protecting entrances to navigation channels or...resources of CHL and the District and/or Division. 1.2 Purpose of the study Protecting entrances to navigation channels, harbors, or other coastal...used as an optimizing tool to determine how oversized an armor stone should initially be to still provide the desired level of protection after the

  9. Great Salt Lake and Bonneville Salt Flats, UT, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This is a view of the Great Salt Lake and nearby Bonneville Salt Flats, UT, (41.0N, 112.5W). A railroad causeway divides the lake with a stark straight line changing the water level and chemistry of the lake as a result. Fresh water runoff enters from the south adding to the depth and reducing the salinity. The north half receives little frsh water and is more saline and shallow. The Bonnieville Salt Flats is the lakebed of a onetime larger lake.

  10. Species succession and fishery exploitation in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1968-01-01

    The species composition of fish in the Great Lakes has undergone continual change since the earliest records. Some changes were caused by enrichment of the environment, but others primarily by an intensive and selective fishery for certain species. Major changes related to the fishery were less frequent before the late 1930's than in recent years and involved few species. Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) were overexploited knowingly during the late 1800's because they interfered with fishing for preferred species; sturgeon were greatly reduced in all lakes by the early 1900's. Heavy exploitation accompanied sharp declines of lake herring (Leucichthys artedi) in Lake Erie during the 1920's and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Lake Huron during the 1930's. A rapid succession of fish species in Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior that started about 1940 has been caused by selective predation by the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) on native predatory species, and the resultant shifting emphasis of the fishery and species interaction as various species declined. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and burbot (Lota lota), the deepwater predators, were depleted first; this favored their prey, the chubs (Leucichthys spp.). The seven species of chubs were influenced differently according to differences in size. Fishing emphasis and predation by sea lampreys were selective for the largest species of chubs as lake trout and burbot declined. A single slow-growing chub, the bloater, was favored and increased, but as the large chubs declined the bloater was exploited by a new trawl fishery. The growth rate and size of the bloater increased, making it more vulnerable to conventional gillnet fishery and lamprey predation. This situation in Lakes Michigan and Huron favored the small alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) which had recently become established in the upper Great Lakes, and the alewife increased rapidly and dominated the fish stocks of the lakes. The successive

  11. Integrated measures of anthropogenic stress in the U.S. Great Lakes Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Danz, Nicholas; Niemi, Gerald; Regal, Ronald

    2007-05-15

    Using publicly available, pre-existing spatial datasets, we developed a geographic information system database of 86 variables related to five classes of anthropogenic stress in the U.S. Great Lakes basin: agriculture, atmospheric deposition, human population, land cover, and point source pollution. The original variables were quantified by a variety of data types over a broad range of spatial and classification resolutions. We summarized the original data for 762 watershed-based units that comprise the U.S. portion of the basin and then used principal components analysis to develop overall stress measures within each stress category. We developed a cumulative stress index by combining the first principal component from each of the five stress categories. Maps of the stress measures illustrate strong spatial patterns across the basin, with the greatest amount of stress occurring on the western shore of Lake Michigan, southwest Lake Erie, and southeastern Lake Ontario. We found strong relationships between the stress measures and characteristics of bird communities, fish communities, and water chemistry measurements from the coastal region. The stress measures are taken to represent the major threats to coastal ecosystems in the U.S. Great Lakes. Such regional-scale efforts are critical for understanding relationships between human disturbance and ecosystem response, and can be used to guide environmental decision-making at both regional and local scales.

  12. Wave Information Studies of US Coastlines: Hindcast Wave Information for the Great Lakes: Lake Superior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    SWAVE INFORMATION STUDIES OF US COASTLINES AD-A248 002 wsREPORT 23IIIE11I1K1E1E1 UIIE UL III HINDCAST WAVE INFORMATION FOR THE GREAT LAKES : LAKE ...Hindcast Wave Information for the Great Lakes : Lake Superior 6. AUTHOR(S) David B. Driver, Robin D. Reinhard, Jon M. Hubertz 7. PERFORMING...information is summarized for 95 locations along the shoreline of Lake Superior in four data products: percent occurrence tables, wave rose diagrams, mean and

  13. Trends in fishery management of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1970-01-01

    Some hope is returning for recovery of the fish stocks of the Great Lakes, which have been outstanding examples of abuse although they are the world's largest and most valuable freshwater fishery resource. The lakes and the fish in them have been under complete jurisdiction of sovereign nations and their subdivisions almost since the settlement of north-central North America, but ironically this control has not prevented their decadence. For the first time in the long history of the Great Lakes fishery, management measures have been taken to meliorate conditions that contributed to earlier difficulties.

  14. Assessment of differences in physical watershed characteristics between gaged and ungaged portions of the Great Lakes basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, T. S.; Fry, L. M.; Gronewold, A. D.; Kult, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Prediction of hydrologic response in ungaged basins often relies on regression relationships between physical watershed characteristics in gaged basins and either calibrated rainfall-runoff model parameters or model-independent hydrologic response indices (e.g. runoff, runoff ratio, baseflow index, etc.). Predictive skill using these types of modeling approaches may be compromised when watershed characteristics in the ungaged areas are substantially different from those in the gaged areas used to establish the regression relationships. In the case of the Great Lakes basin, regionalization may be complicated by characteristics unique to coastal regions. For example, coastal regions of the Great Lakes contain eight large urbanized metro areas (Milwaukee, Chicago, Detroit, Toledo, Cleveland, Windsor, Toronto, and Buffalo), unique coastal wetland areas, and distinctive meteorological conditions (e.g. lake effect snow). This research investigates the extent to which a set of physical watershed characteristics may vary between gaged (inland) and ungaged (coastal) portions of the Great Lakes basin and therefore complicate regionalization schemes. The work is conducted alongside development of a new regionalization scheme for simulating discharge to the Great Lakes.

  15. An investigation of historical lake-atmosphere interactions in the Great Lakes Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, Kathleen Danielle

    The Laurentian Great Lakes are a tremendous freshwater resource, holding approximately 20% of the world's unfrozen freshwater. With a combined surface area of 244,000 km2, the Great Lakes are constantly interacting with the overlying atmosphere through fluxes of heat, moisture, and momentum. In the current study, we explore interactions between the Great Lakes and overlying atmosphere using a combination of observational and modeling tools. Results based on historical observations indicate that over-lake precipitation from the Lake Superior watershed is associated with transient Rossby waves during each month of the year. Further analysis indicates the origin and path of these waves change with the background flow. During summer and early fall, the Pacific jet is relatively sharp and acts as a waveguide, such that Rossby wave trains traversing the Great Lakes region do not follow a great-circle path. While the atmosphere primarily dictates hydrology in the Great Lakes basin, each of the Great Lakes feeds back on the overlying atmosphere, ultimately influencing the local and regional climate. Historical observational and modeling studies support this claim; however, a consistent, long-term analysis of the impacts of the Great Lakes on climate has yet to be executed. In the current analysis, the influence of the Great Lakes on climate is assessed by comparing two decade-long regional climate simulations, with the lakes present or replaced by woodland. Model results indicate the Great Lakes dampen seasonal and daily surface air temperature ranges, alter the strength and track of synoptic systems, and modify atmospheric stability. Additional analysis based on output from the regional climate model indicates that seasonal fluctuations in atmospheric stability over Lake Superior influence the ratio of over-lake to over-land precipitation. Since the current operational technique used to estimate over-lake precipitation does not account for variations in atmospheric

  16. Perfluorinated compounds in fish from U.S. urban rivers and the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Leanne L; Snyder, Blaine D; Olsen, Anthony R; Kincaid, Thomas M; Wathen, John B; McCarty, Harry B

    2014-11-15

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have recently received scientific and regulatory attention due to their broad environmental distribution, persistence, bioaccumulative potential, and toxicity. Studies suggest that fish consumption may be a source of human exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids. Most PFC fish tissue literature focuses on marine fish and waters outside of the United States (U.S.). To broaden assessments in U.S. fish, a characterization of PFCs in freshwater fish was initiated on a national scale using an unequal probability design during the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 2008-2009 National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA) and the Great Lakes Human Health Fish Tissue Study component of the 2010 EPA National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA/GL). Fish were collected from randomly selected locations--164 urban river sites and 157 nearshore Great Lake sites. The probability design allowed extrapolation to the sampled population of 17,059 km in urban rivers and a nearshore area of 11,091 km(2) in the Great Lakes. Fillets were analyzed for 13 PFCs using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed that PFOS dominated in frequency of occurrence, followed by three other longer-chain PFCs (perfluorodecanoic acid, perfluoroundecanoic acid, and perfluorododecanoic acid). Maximum PFOS concentrations were 127 and 80 ng/g in urban river samples and Great Lakes samples, respectively. The range of NRSA PFOS detections was similar to literature accounts from targeted riverine fish sampling. NCCA/GL PFOS levels were lower than those reported by other Great Lakes researchers, but generally higher than values in targeted inland lake studies. The probability design allowed development of cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) to quantify PFOS concentrations versus the sampled population, and the application of fish consumption advisory guidance to the CDFs resulted in

  17. Federal Great Lakes fishery research objectives, priorities, and projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tait, Howard D.

    1973-01-01

    Fishery productivity of the Great Lakes has declined drastically since settlement of the area. Premium quality fishes of the Great Lakes such as whitefish, lake trout, and walleyes have been replaced by less desired species. This change is attributed to selective overfishing, pollution, and the extreme instability of fish populations. Sea lamprey predation is still a vexing problem but progress is being made in controlling this parasite. The federal fishery research program with headquarters in Ann Arbor, Michigan, has the objective of providing baseline information, needed in resource use decisions, about the fishes of the Great Lakes. Studies of the habitat requirements of fish are high priority. The program includes fish population assessments, studies of the effects of mercury and other contaminants on fish, thermal effects studies, and general investigation of the impact of engineering projects on Great Lakes fisheries. The work is closely coordinated with state and Canadian agencies through the Great Lakes Fishery Commission. Four small research vessels and four field stations are utilized with a staff of 90 and an annual budget of about $1.5 million.

  18. Influence of the Laurentian Great Lakes on Regional Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notaro, M.; Holman, K.; Zarrin, A.; Fluck, E.; Vavrus, S. J.; Bennington, V.

    2012-12-01

    The influence of the Laurentian Great Lakes on climate is assessed by comparing two decade-long simulations, with the lakes either included or excluded, using the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model Version 4. The Great Lakes dampen the variability in near-surface air temperature across the surrounding region, while reducing the amplitude of the diurnal cycle and annual cycle of air temperature. The impacts of the Great Lakes on the regional surface energy budget include an increase (decrease) in turbulent fluxes during the cold (warm) season and an increase in surface downward shortwave radiation flux during summer due to diminished atmospheric moisture and convective cloud amount. Changes in the hydrologic budget due to the presence of the Great Lakes include increases in evaporation and precipitation during October-March and decreases during May-August, along with springtime reductions in snowmelt-related runoff. Circulation responses consist of a regionwide decrease in sea-level pressure in autumn-winter and an increase in summer, with enhanced ascent and descent in the two seasons, respectively. The most pronounced simulated impact of the Great Lakes on synoptic systems traversing the basin is a weakening of cold-season anticyclones.

  19. Functional convergence among pelagic sculpins of Lake Baikal and deepwater ciscoes of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eshenroder, Randy L.; Sideleva, Valentina G.; Todd, Thomas N.

    1999-01-01

    The vast, well-oxygenated hypolimnia of Lake Baikal and the Great Lakes were both dominated by endemic planktivorous fishes. These dominants, two species of sculpins (Comephorus, Comephoridae) in Lake Baikal and six species of deepwater ciscoes (Coregonus, Salmonidae) in the Great Lakes, although distant taxonomically, have morphologies suggesting a surprising degree of functional convergence. Here it is proposed that the same two buoyancy-regulation strategies observed in Baikal sculpins also arose in the deepwater ciscoes of the Great Lakes. One strategy favors hydrostatic lift (generated by low specific gravity) and is characterized by fatter, larger-bodied fish with smaller paired fins; the second strategy favors hydrodynamic lift (generated by swimming) and is characterized by leaner, smaller-bodied fish with larger paired fins. Both types likely evolved to feed on a single species of ecologically analogous, vertically migrating macrozooplankter: Macrohectopus branickii in Lake Baikal and Mysis relicta in the Great Lakes. It is suggested that Coregonus did not diversify and proliferate in Lake Baikal as they did in the Great Lakes because by the time Coregonus colonized Lake Baikal, pelagic sculpins were already dominant.

  20. The influence of ice on southern Lake Michigan coastal erosion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, P.W.; Kempema, E.W.; Reimnitz, E.; McCormick, M.

    1994-01-01

    Coastal ice does not protect the coast but enhances erosion by displacing severe winter wave energy from the beach to the shoreface and by entraining and transporting sediment alongshore and offshore. Three aspects of winter ice in Lake Michigan were studied over a 3-year period and found to have an important influence on coastal sediment dynamics and the coastal sediment budget: (1) the influence of coastal ice on shoreface morphology, (2) the transport of littoral sediments by ice, and (3) the formation of anchor and underwater ice as a frequent and important event entraining and transporting sediment. The nearshore ice complex contains a sediment load (0.2 - 1.2 t/m of coast) that is roughly equivalent to the average amount of sand eroded from the coastal bluffs and to the amount of sand ice- rafted offshore to the deep lake basin each year. -from Authors

  1. Implications of hydrologic variability on the succession of plants in Great Lakes wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2004-01-01

    Primary succession of plant communities directed toward a climax is not a typical occurrence in wetlands because these ecological systems are inherently dependent on hydrology, and temporal hydrologic variability often causes reversals or setbacks in succession. Wetlands of the Great Lakes provide good examples for demonstrating the implications of hydrology in driving successional processes and for illustrating potential misinterpretations of apparent successional sequences. Most Great Lakes coastal wetlands follow cyclic patterns in which emergent communities are reduced in area or eliminated by high lake levels and then regenerated from the seed bank during low lake levels. Thus, succession never proceeds for long. Wetlands also develop in ridge and swale terrains in many large embayments of the Great Lakes. These formations contain sequences of wetlands of similar origin but different age that can be several thousand years old, with older wetlands always further from the lake. Analyses of plant communities across a sequence of wetlands at the south end of Lake Michigan showed an apparent successional pattern from submersed to floating to emergent plants as water depth decreased with wetland age. However, paleoecological analyses showed that the observed vegetation changes were driven largely by disturbances associated with increased human settlement in the area. Climate-induced hydrologic changes were also shown to have greater effects on plant-community change than autogenic processes. Other terms, such as zonation, maturation, fluctuations, continuum concept, functional guilds, centrifugal organization, pulse stability, and hump-back models provide additional means of describing organization and changes in vegetation; some of them overlap with succession in describing vegetation processes in Great Lakes wetlands, but each must be used in the proper context with regard to short- and long-term hydrologic variability.

  2. Dechlorane plus, a chlorinated flame retardant, in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Hoh, Eunha; Zhu, Lingyan; Hites, Ronald A

    2006-02-15

    A highly chlorinated flame retardant, Dechlorane Plus (DP), was detected and identified in ambient air, fish, and sediment samples from the Great Lakes region. The identity of this compound was confirmed by comparing its gas chromatographic retention times and mass spectra with those of authentic material. This compound exists as two gas chromatographically separable stereoisomers (syn and anti), the structures of which were characterized by one- and two-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance. DP was detected in most air samples, even at remote sites. The atmospheric DP concentrations were higher at the eastern Great Lakes sites (Sturgeon Point, NY, and Cleveland, OH) than those at the western Great Lakes sites (Eagle Harbor, MI, Chicago, IL, and Sleeping Bear Dunes, MI). Atthe Sturgeon Point site, DP concentrations once reached 490 pg/m3. DP atmospheric concentrations were comparable to those of BDE-209 at the eastern Great Lakes sites. DP was also found in sediment cores from Lakes Michigan and Erie. The peak DP concentrations were comparable to BDE-209 concentrations in the sediment core from Lake Erie butwere about 30 times lower than BDE-209 concentrations in the core from Lake Michigan. In the sediment cores, the DP concentrations peaked around 1975-1980, and the surficial concentrations were 10-80% of peak concentrations. Higher DP concentrations in air samples from Sturgeon Point, NY, and in the sediment core from Lake Erie suggest that DP's manufacturing facility in Niagara Falls, NY, may be a source. DP was also detected in archived fish (walleye) from Lake Erie, suggesting that this compound is, at least partially, bioavailable.

  3. CO2-Induced Acidification of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, G. A.; Phillips, J.; Bennington, V.; Bootsma, H. A.; Pilcher, D.; Sterner, R.; Urban, N. R.

    2013-12-01

    A number of studies indicate that air-water equilibration is the dominant control on pCO2 in several Great Lakes at annual timescales or longer. Assuming this is the case across all lakes at present and into the future, we show that pH will decline by 0.3-0.4 units through 2100 under a business-as-usual CO2 emission scenario. In a survey of the Great Lakes scientific community, 87% of respondents indicate that CO2-driven acidification is likely. The available pH data do not support these predicted trends, but limited sampling in an environment characterized by significant spatio-temporal variability, as well as significant measurement uncertainty, cast doubt on the ability of the historical pH record to resolve the predicted trends. Evaluation of the current sampling strategy using eddy-resolving numerical models of Lake Superior and Lake Michigan are key evidence that the current monitoring strategy is inadequate. In order to track long-term pH change and assess whether atmospheric CO2 will affect the Great Lakes like the oceans, a new approach to Great Lakes pH monitoring is required. Ecological impacts of CO2 acidification have not been studied for the Great Lakes, but potential effects can be gleaned from the literature. In addition, our qualitative and quantitative survey results suggest that processes such as fish recruitment, dreissenid mussel growth, and nutrient cycling may be sensitive to pH, but there is lack of consensus about the magnitude and overall significance of these effects.

  4. Patterns of organochlorine contamination in lake trout from Wisconsin waters of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Michael A.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Masnado, Robert G.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate spatial and temporal patterns of organochlorine contamination in lake trout from Wisconsin waters of the Great Lakes, we examined laboratory contaminant analysis data of muscle tissue samples from Lake Michigan (n=317) and Lake Superior (n=53) fish. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlordane, and dieldrin, reported as mg/kg wet weight in 620 mm to 640 mm mean length Lake Michigan lake trout, decreased over time. Mean total PCB concentration declined exponentially from 9.7 in 1975 to 1.9 in 1990. Total chlordane concentration declined 63 percent from 0.48 in 1983 to 0.18 in 1990, and dieldrin declined 52 percent during this same period, from 0.21 to 0.10. The bioaccumulation rate of PCBs is significantly lower for lake trout inhabiting Lake Michigan's midlake reef complex, compared to lake trout from the nearshore waters of western Lake Michigan. Organochlorine compound concentrations were greater in Lake Michigan lake trout than Lake Superior fish. Lake Superior lean lake trout and siscowet exhibited similar rates of PCB bioaccumulation despite major differneces in muscle tissue lipid content between the two subspecies. The lack of a significant difference in the PCB bioaccumulation rates of lean trout and siscowet suggests that lipid content may not be an important factor influencing PCB bioaccumulation in lake trout, within the range of lipid concentrations observed. Relative concentrations of the various organochlorine contaminants found in lake trout were highly correlated, suggesting similar mass balance processes for these compounds. Evidence presented revealing spatial and temporal patterns of organochlorine contamination may be of value in reestablishing self-sustaining populations of lake trout in Lake Michigan.

  5. Geochemical evolution of Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Naftz, D.L.; Spencer, R.J.; Oviatt, Charles G.

    2009-01-01

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL) of Utah, USA, is the largest saline lake in North America, and its brines are some of the most concentrated anywhere in the world. The lake occupies a closed basin system whose chemistry reflects solute inputs from the weathering of a diverse suite of rocks in its drainage basin. GSL is the remnant of a much larger lacustrine body, Lake Bonneville, and it has a long history of carbonate deposition. Inflow to the lake is from three major rivers that drain mountain ranges to the east and empty into the southern arm of the lake, from precipitation directly on the lake, and from minor groundwater inflow. Outflow is by evaporation. The greatest solute inputs are from calcium bicarbonate river waters mixed with sodium chloride-type springs and groundwaters. Prior to 1930 the lake concentration inversely tracked lake volume, which reflected climatic variation in the drainage, but since then salt precipitation and re-solution, primarily halite and mirabilite, have periodically modified lake-brine chemistry through density stratification and compositional differentiation. In addition, construction of a railway causeway has restricted circulation, nearly isolating the northern from the southern part of the lake, leading to halite precipitation in the north. These and other conditions have created brine differentiation, mixing, and fractional precipitation of salts as major factors in solute evolution. Pore fluids and diagenetic reactions have been identified as important sources and especially sinks for CaCO3, Mg, and K in the lake, depending on the concentration gradient and clays. ?? U.S. Geological Survey 2008.

  6. Thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs from the upper Great Lakes are related to maternal diet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, S.C.; Rinchard, J.; Ebener, M.P.; Tillitt, D.E.; Munkittrick, K.R.; Parrott, J.L.; Allen, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Thiamine deficiency is responsible for reproductive impairment in several species of salmonines in the Great lakes, and is thought to be caused by the consumption of prey containing thiaminase, a thiamine-degrading enzyme. Because thiaminase levels are extremely high in dreissenid mussels, fish that prey on them may be susceptible to thiamine deficiency. We determined thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis eggs from the upper Laurentian Great Lakes to assess the potential for thiamine deficiency and to determine if thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs were related to maternal diet. Mean thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs were highest in Lake Huron, intermediate in Lake Superior, and lowest in Lake Michigan. Some fish had thiamine concentrations below putative thresholds for lethal and sublethal effects in salmonines, suggesting that some larval lake whitefish may currently be at risk of at least sublethal effects of low thiamine concentrations, although thiamine thresholds are unknown for lake whitefish. Egg thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs were statistically significantly related to isotopic carbon signatures, suggesting that egg thiamine levels were related to maternal diet, but low egg thiamine concentrations did not appear to be associated with a diet of dreissenids. Egg thiamine concentrations were not statistically significantly related to multifunction oxidase induction, suggesting that lower egg thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish were not related to contaminant exposure.

  7. Great Lakes commercial fishing catch 1929-2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2016-01-01

    Since 1971 the Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC), formerly known as the National Fishery Center-Great Lakes (National Biological Service), the Great Lakes Fishery Laboratory (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)(FWS/GLFL), and the Ann Arbor Biological Laboratory (Bureau of Commercial Fisheries), have acted as repositories for the processing, reporting, and storage of U.S. Great Lakes commercial fishery statistics. The GLSC prepares annual summaries of these data for use by federal and state resource managers and other interested public and private organizations. The data collection system was organized in 1926 by Dr. John Van Oosten of the Bureau of Fisheries and was first put to use by the State of Michigan in 1927. Commercial fishermen licensed by that state were required to submit daily fishing reports indicating gear used and amount of catch. In succeeding years the system was improved and expanded until by 1950 all the Great Lakes states and the Province of Ontario, Canada, had similar systems.

  8. Great Lakes commercial fishing catches 1929-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Since 1971 the Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC), formerly known as the National Fishery Center-Great Lakes (National Biological Service), the Great Lakes Fishery Laboratory (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)(FWS/GLFL), and the Ann Arbor Biological Laboratory (Bureau of Commercial Fisheries), have acted as repositories for the processing, reporting, and storage of U.S. Great Lakes commercial fishery statistics. The GLSC prepares annual summaries of these data for use by federal and state resource managers and other interested public and private organizations. The data collection system was organized in 1926 by Dr. John Van Oosten of the Bureau of Fisheries and was first put to use by the State of Michigan in 1927. Commercial fishermen licensed by that state were required to submit daily fishing reports indicating gear used and amount of catch. In succeeding years the system was improved and expanded until by 1950 all the Great Lakes states and the Province of Ontario, Canada, had similar systems.

  9. Portion of the Great Lakes area as seen from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An oblique view of a portion of the Great Lakes (43.0N, 70.0W) area as seen from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. lake Erie is in the foreground; and Lake Ontario is in the background. The Niagara Falls area is in the center of the photograph. Portions of Pennsylvania, New York, and Ontario, Canada are visible, but under nearly complete snow cover. Major structural features, drainage patterns, road systems and the cities of Buffalo and Toronto are easily distinguished and actually enhanced by the snow. At the time this picture was taken, these two Great Lakes had no observable ice, although cloud formations partially mask the southern shores of the two bodies of water.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF NUTRIENT EXPOSURE AND BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE INDICATORS FOR LAKE MICHIGAN COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines how landscape-scale gradient affect sedimentation rates, nutrient exposure, and biological responses in Lake Michigan coastal wetlands, and assess indicators for these trends. Twenty riverine coastal wetlands in Lake Michigan (Herdendorf 1981) were selected t...

  11. 75 FR 34448 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Great Lakes Container Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Great Lakes Container Corporation... Lakes Container Corporation Superfund Site, located in Coventry Rhode Island with the settling parties...-1216. Comments should reference the Great Lakes Container Corporation Superfund Site, Coventry,...

  12. Species interactions of the alewife in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1970-01-01

    The alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) has caused serious problems in the Great Lakes for almost 100 years. It entered Lake Ontario in abundance via the Erie Canal during the 1860's when major piscivores were declining, and became the dominant species in the lake during the 1870's. The alewife subsequently spread throughout the Great Lakes and became the dominant species in Lakes Huron and Michigan as major piscivores declined. In lakes where it became extremely abundant, the shallow-water planktivores declined in the first decade after alewife establishment, the minor piscivores increased then declined in the second decade, and the deep-water planktivores declined in the third decade. The consequence has been a general reduction in fishery productivity. Rehabilitation will require extreme reduction of the alewife, and restoration of an interacting complex of deep- and shallow-water forage species, and minor and major piscivores, either by reestablishing species affected by the alewife, or by the introduction of new species that can thrive under the new ecological conditions of the lakes.

  13. Development of an Integrated Assessment of Great Lakes Using Towed in situ Sensor Technologies: Linking Nearshore Conditions with Adjacent Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal and nearshore regions of the US/Canadian Great Lakes have not been included in monitoring efforts in any regular, consistent, or comprehensive fashion. To address this need, we have been developing a survey strategy using towed in situ sensors to provide spatially-compreh...

  14. Reaching Regional and Local Learners via a Great Lakes MOOC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, M. E.; Ackerman, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Cooperative Institute of Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) took a regional approach to climate change education in a 4-week MOOC (Massive Open On-line Course) on the Changing Weather and Climate in the Great Lakes Region launched in February 2015. Featuring a different season each week, this Great Lakes MOOC includes lectures about seasonal weather conditions, observed changes, and societal impacts of regional climate change, as well as actions with co-benefits to slow future climate change. To better connect with learners, CIMSS facilitated 21 discussion groups at public libraries around Wisconsin each week. Participants discussed climate change impacts in their communities as well as strategies to mitigate climate change. Not surprisingly, initial survey results show library participants were more committed, engaged, climate literate, and community minded. This session will share lessons learned and survey results from the Great Lakes MOOC which remains open and accessible on Coursera through February 2016 at https://www.coursera.org/course/greatlakesclimate.

  15. Predicting Great Lakes fish yields: tools and constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, C.A.; Schupp, D.H.; Taylor, W.W.; Collins, J.J.; Hatch, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    Prediction of yield is a critical component of fisheries management. The development of sound yield prediction methodology and the application of the results of yield prediction are central to the evolution of strategies to achieve stated goals for Great Lakes fisheries and to the measurement of progress toward those goals. Despite general availability of species yield models, yield prediction for many Great Lakes fisheries has been poor due to the instability of the fish communities and the inadequacy of available data. A host of biological, institutional, and societal factors constrain both the development of sound predictions and their application to management. Improved predictive capability requires increased stability of Great Lakes fisheries through rehabilitation of well-integrated communities, improvement of data collection, data standardization and information-sharing mechanisms, and further development of the methodology for yield prediction. Most important is the creation of a better-informed public that will in turn establish the political will to do what is required.

  16. An operational all-weather Great Lakes ice information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedney, R. T.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of the NASA developed all-weather ice information system for the Great Lakes winter navigation program. The system utilizes an X-band side looking airborne radar (SLAR) for determining type, location, and areal distribution of the ice cover in the Great Lakes and an airborne, S band, down looking short pulse radar for obtaining ice thickness. Digitized SLAR data are relayed in real time via the NOAA-GOES satellite in geosynchronous orbit. The SLAR images along with hand drawn interpretative ice charts for various Great Lakes winter shipping areas are broadcast to facsimile recorders aboard vessles is the area via the MARAD marine VHF-FM radio network. These data assist such vessels in navigating both through and around the ice.

  17. Great Lakes fish consumption and reproductive outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, E.

    1989-01-01

    This epidemiological investigation determined prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), through contaminated fish consumption, and ascertained reproductive outcomes. Green Bay, Wisconsin was chosen as the study site because it was known for its environmental contamination of PCBs. These chemicals are environmentally stable and persistent, and tend to bioaccumulate up the food chain, with highest levels found in predatory sport fish from Lake Michigan. The Green Bay area provided a population with potential PCB exposure from sport fish consumption. Accidental poisoning incidents showed detrimental reproductive effects of high dose PCB exposures. A Michigan study found significant effects on birth weight and gestational age when mothers consumed two sport fish meals per month. This study population was drawn from women during their first prenatal visit at two Green Bay clinics during a one year period. 1,112 participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Maternal and cord blood samples were obtained for selected PCB serum analyses. Reproductive outcome measures were abstracted from hospital labor reports. Study results indicated that maternal consumption was correlated to maternal PCB serum levels. Regression techniques estimated significant exposure coefficients for subsets of two birth size parameters. Birth length was positively associated with PCB exposure in shorter mothers. Significant associations of PCB exposure and birth weight percentiles were estimated for two income groups in the urban residence/weight gain less than 34 pounds subset.

  18. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Antidegradation Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM Pt. 132, App. E Appendix E to Part 132—Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Antidegradation Policy Great Lakes States and...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Antidegradation Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM Pt. 132, App. E Appendix E to Part 132—Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Antidegradation Policy Great Lakes States and...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Antidegradation Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM Pt. 132, App. E Appendix E to Part 132—Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Antidegradation Policy Great Lakes States and...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Antidegradation Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM Pt. 132, App. E Appendix E to Part 132—Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Antidegradation Policy Great Lakes States and...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Antidegradation Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM Pt. 132, App. E Appendix E to Part 132—Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Antidegradation Policy Great Lakes States and...

  3. Volatile selenium flux from the great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz, X.; Johnson, W.P.; Oliver, W.A.; Naftz, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    The removal mechanisms that govern Se concentrations in the Great Salt Lake are unknown despite this terminal lake being an avian habitat of hemispheric importance. However, the volatilization flux of Se from the Great Salt Lake has not been previously measured due to challenges of analysis in this hypersaline environment This paper presents results from recent field studies examining the spatial distribution of dissolved volatile Se (areally and with depth) in the south arm (main body) of the Great Salt Lake. The analyses involved collection of dissolved volatile Se in a cryofocusing trap system via sparging with helium. The cryotrapped volatile Se was digested with nitric acid and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results show concentrations of dissolved volatile Se that increase with depth in the shallow brine, suggesting that phytoplankton in the open waters and bioherms in shallow sites (<4 m in depth) may be responsible for volatile Se production. Volatile Se flux to the atmosphere was determined using mass transport models corrected to simulate the highly saline environment of the south arm of the Great Salt Lake. The estimated annual flux of volatile Se was 1455 kg/year within a range from 560 to 3780 kg Se/year for the 95% confidence interval and from 970 to 2180 kg Se/year within the 68% confidence interval. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  4. Volatile selenium flux from the Great Salt Lake, Utah.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Ximena; Johnson, William P; Oliver, Wade A; Naftz, David L

    2009-01-01

    The removal mechanisms that govern Se concentrations in the Great Salt Lake are unknown despite this terminal lake being an avian habitat of hemispheric importance. However, the volatilization flux of Se from the Great Salt Lake has not been previously measured due to challenges of analysis in this hypersaline environment This paper presents results from recent field studies examining the spatial distribution of dissolved volatile Se (areally and with depth) in the south arm (main body) of the Great Salt Lake. The analyses involved collection of dissolved volatile Se in a cryofocusing trap system via sparging with helium. The cryotrapped volatile Se was digested with nitric acid and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS). Results show concentrations of dissolved volatile Se that increase with depth in the shallow brine, suggesting that phytoplankton in the open waters and bioherms in shallow sites (<4 m in depth) may be responsible for volatile Se production. Volatile Se flux to the atmosphere was determined using mass transport models corrected to simulate the highly saline environment of the south arm of the Great Salt Lake. The estimated annual flux of volatile Se was 1455 kg/year within a range from 560 to 3780 kg Se/year for the 95% confidence interval and from 970 to 2180 kg Se/year within the 68% confidence interval.

  5. An appraisal of management pathologies in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Chris; Krantzberg, Gail

    2012-02-01

    Recent research has produced broad application of the health concept to regional ecosystems, including the Great Lakes. The attention is warranted, as new and recurring stresses on the health of the Great Lakes undermine our understanding and hinder our ability to manage and restore critical ecological functions. There is widespread agreement that the Great Lakes are presently exhibiting symptoms of extreme stress and potentially irreversible and catastrophic damage. Historical command and control management has resulted simultaneously in environmental benefits to people and a loss of resilience in Great Lakes ecosystems. Surprising system responses often prompt further control, and the continued decline in resilience has been called the pathology of natural resource management. The pathology is also suggested to affect human systems of organization such as management authorities. We use published criteria of institutional pathologies and illustrate their occurrence in the Great Lakes with evidence of non-existent program evaluation, program incompatibility, lack of coordination among programs, authorities that establish and then abandon public participatory initiatives, and inappropriate choice of policy mechanisms or inadequate level of support for an appropriate mechanism (either of which creates disincentives for stakeholders). Learning is an element of resilience, as managed systems are inherently dynamic and our understanding is therefore always incomplete. Policy mechanisms that mimic learning techniques to improve understanding are therefore central to avoiding pathologies in management. But learning (individually or institutionally) can be threatening and very difficult, and its proper conduct necessarily involves a continuous process of feedback, interpretation, and reformulation. Double-loop learning processes that institutionalize learning in policy are recommended, as these will be required to overcome pathologies in management and maintain resilience

  6. U.S. EPA Announces 28 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Grants Totaling Over $12.5 Million to Restore Great Lakes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    US EPA Senior Advisor Cameron Davis today announced 28 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative grants for projects to restore and protect the Great Lakes. The grants, totaling more than $12.5 million, were announced at an event near Toledo, Ohio.

  7. Quantitative interpretation of Great Lakes remote sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shook, D. F.; Salzman, J.; Svehla, R. A.; Gedney, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses the quantitative interpretation of Great Lakes remote sensing water quality data. Remote sensing using color information must take into account (1) the existence of many different organic and inorganic species throughout the Great Lakes, (2) the occurrence of a mixture of species in most locations, and (3) spatial variations in types and concentration of species. The radiative transfer model provides a potential method for an orderly analysis of remote sensing data and a physical basis for developing quantitative algorithms. Predictions and field measurements of volume reflectances are presented which show the advantage of using a radiative transfer model. Spectral absorptance and backscattering coefficients for two inorganic sediments are reported.

  8. Total organochlorine content of fish from the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, W.H.; Andrews, P.; Conacher, H.B.; Rao, R.R.; Chatt, A. )

    1993-07-01

    Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were determined in several species of commercial fish from the Great Lakes and compared to the total organic chlorine determined by neutron activation analysis. The mean organochlorine contents ranged from 44 to 138 ppm (lipid basis) and were 5 to 72 times higher than the contents of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides. Marine fish also contained a large proportion of unidentified organic chlorine. The unknown material in the Great Lakes fish was found to chromatograph with the high molecular weight lipid fraction by gel permeation chromatography.

  9. Microplastics in 29 Great Lakes tributaries (2014-15)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven; Mason, Sherri A.

    2016-01-01

    This dataset describes the quantity and morphology of floating microplastics in 29 Great Lakes tributaries in 6 states. Samples were collected in spring 2014 – spring 2015. Each tributary was sampled three to four times, capturing low-flow and runoff-event conditions. Sampling and analysis methods are described in the .xml metadata file.These data are interpreted in a journal article: Baldwin, A.K., Corsi, S.R., and Mason, S.A., 2016, Plastic debris in 29 Great Lakes tributaries: Relations to watershed attributes and hydrology: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 50, no. 19, p. 10377–10385, doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b02917.

  10. The Great Lakes Runoff Intercomparison Project Phase 1: Lake Michigan (GRIP-M)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Lauren M.; Gronewold, Andrew D.; Fortin, Vincent; Buan, Steven; Clites, Anne H.; Luukkonen, Carol; Holtschlag, David; Diamond, Laura; Hunter, Timothy; Seglenieks, Frank; Durnford, Dorothy; Dimitrijevic, Milena; Subich, Christopher; Klyszejko, Erika; Kea, Kandace; Restrepo, Pedro

    2014-11-01

    We assembled and applied five models (one of which included three different configurations) to the Lake Michigan basin to improve our understanding of how differences in model skill at simulating total runoff to Lake Michigan relate to model structure, calibration protocol, model complexity, and assimilation (i.e. replacement of simulated discharge with discharge observations into historical simulations), and evaluate historical changes in runoff to Lake Michigan. We found that the performance among these models when simulating total runoff to the lake varied relatively little, despite variability in model structure, spatial representation, input data, and calibration protocol. Relatively simple empirical, assimilative models, including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) area ratio-based model (ARM) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Analysis of Flows in Networks of CHannels (AFINCH) model, represent efficient and effective approaches to propagating discharge observations into basin-wide (including gaged and ungaged areas) runoff estimates, and may offer an opportunity to improve predictive models for simulating runoff to the Great Lakes. Additionally, the intercomparison revealed that the median of the simulations from non-assimilative models agrees well with assimilative models, suggesting that using a combination of different methodologies may be an appropriate approach for estimating runoff into the Great Lakes. We then applied one assimilative model (ARM) to the Lake Michigan basin and found that there was persistent reduction in the amount of precipitation that becomes runoff following 1998, corresponding to a period of persistent low Lake Michigan water levels. The study was conducted as a first phase of the Great Lakes Runoff Intercomparison Project, a regional binational collaboration that aims to systematically and rigorously assess a variety of models currently used

  11. Reconstructing paleo lake levels from relict shorelines along the Upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baedke, Steve J.; Thompson, Todd A.; Johnston, John W.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2004-01-01

    Shorelines of the upper Great Lakes include many embayments that contain strandplains of beach ridges. These former shoreline positions of the lakes can be used to determine changes in the elevation of the lakes through time, and they also provide information on the warping of the ground surface that is occurring in the Great Lakes after the weight of glacial ice was removed. Relative lake-level hydrographs can be created by coring the beach ridges to determine the elevation of basal foreshore (swash zone) deposits in each ridge and by obtaining radiocarbon dates of basal wetland sediments between ridges to generate an age model for the ridges. Because the relative-level hydrographs are the combination of lake-level change and vertical ground movement (isostatic rebound), the rebound must be removed to produce a graph that shows only the physical limits and timing of past lake-level fluctuations referenced to a common outlet. More than 500 vibracores of beach-ridge sediments were collected at five sites along Lake Michigan and four sites along Lake Superior. The cores showed a sequence of dune deposits overlying foreshore deposits that, in turn, overlie upper shoreface deposits. The base of the foreshore deposits is coarser and more poorly sorted than an overlying and underlying sediment and represents the plunge-point sediments at the base of the swash zone. The plunge-point deposits are a close approximation of the elevation of the lake when the beach ridge formed. More than 150 radiocarbon ages of basal wetland sediments were collected to produce age models for the sites. Currently, age models exist for all Lake Michigan sites and one Lake Superior site. By combining the elevation data with the age models, six relative lake-level hydrographs were created for the upper Great Lakes. An iterative approach was used to remove rebound from the five Lake Michigan relative hydrographs and merge the graphs into a single hydrograph. The resultant hydrograph shows long

  12. Status of coregonine fishes in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleischer, Guy W.

    1992-01-01

    The post-glacial coregonine assemblage in the Great Lakes included several species of the genera Prosopium and Coregonus. Overfishing, habitat degradation, and competition with various exotic fish species severely reduced coregonine abundance and altered their distribution by the mid to latter part of the 20th century. Most of the original Coregonus species, some which were endemic to the Great Lakes, are now extinct or are extremely rare. The prevailing coregonines are mostly benthic and deep-water species, contrasted to the original assemblage dominated by pelagic, nearshore species. Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) populations have recovered and now support record fisheries in Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron. Bloaters (C. hoyi) have recovered to dominate the planktivorous fish community in Lake Michigan and are rapidly increasing in Lake Huron. The recent resurgence in some coregonine populations are linked to declines in exotic fish populations and favorable climatic changes. The reduced diversity of the coregonines may explain the dominance of the remaining species. The stability of this simplified coregonine community is uncertain but the existing coregonines have demonstrated resiliency.

  13. Use of egg traps to investigate lake trout spawning in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreiner, Donald R.; Bronte, Charles R.; Payne, N. Robert; Fitzsimons, John D.; Casselman, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Disk-shaped traps were used to examine egg deposition by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) at 29 sites in the Great Lakes. The main objectives were to; first, evaluate the disk trap as a device for sampling lake trout eggs in the Great Lakes, and second, summarize what has been learned about lake trout spawning through the use of disk traps. Of the 5,085 traps set, 60% were classified as functional when retrieved. Evidence of lake trout egg deposition was documented in each of the lakes studied at 14 of 29 sites. A total of 1,147 eggs were trapped. The percentage of traps functioning and catch per effort were compared among sites based on depth, timing of egg deposition, distance from shore, size of reef, and type of reef (artificial or natural). Most eggs were caught on small, shallow, protected reefs that were close to shore. Use of disk traps on large, shallow, unprotected offshore reefs or along unprotected shorelines was generally unsuccessful due to the effects of heavy wind and wave action. Making multiple lifts at short intervals, and retrieval before and re-deployment after storms are recommended for use in exposed areas. On large reefs, preliminary surveys to identify preferred lake trout spawning habitat may be required to deploy disk traps most effectively. Egg deposition by hatchery-reared fish was widespread throughout the Great Lakes, and the use of artificial structures by these fish was extensive.

  14. Evidence for early hunters beneath the Great Lakes

    PubMed Central

    O'Shea, John M.; Meadows, Guy A.

    2009-01-01

    Scholars have hypothesized that the poorly understood and rarely encountered archaeological sites from the terminal Paleoindian and Archaic periods associated with the Lake Stanley low water stage (10,000–7,500 BP) are lost beneath the modern Great Lakes. Acoustic and video survey on the Alpena-Amberley ridge, a feature that would have been a dry land corridor crossing the Lake Huron basin during this time period, reveals the presence of a series of stone features that match, in form and location, structures used for caribou hunting in both prehistoric and ethnographic times. These results present evidence for early hunters on the Alpena-Amberley corridor, and raise the possibility that intact settlements and ancient landscapes are preserved beneath Lake Huron. PMID:19506245

  15. Forecasting Lake-Effect Precipitation in the Great Lakes Region Using NASA Enhanced-Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cipullo, Michelle; Molthan, Andrew; Shafer, Jackie; Case, Jonathan; Jedlovec, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Lake-effect precipitation is common in the Great Lakes region, particularly during the late fall and winter. The synoptic processes of lake-effect precipitation are well understood by operational forecasters, but individual forecast events still present a challenge. Locally run, high resolution models can assist the forecaster in identifying the onset and duration of precipitation, but model results are sensitive to initial conditions, particularly the assumed surface temperature of the Great Lakes. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has created a Great Lakes Surface Temperature (GLST) composite, which uses infrared estimates of water temperatures obtained from the MODIS instrument aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites, other coarser resolution infrared data when MODIS is not available, and ice cover maps produced by the NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab (GLERL). This product has been implemented into the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model Environmental Modeling System (WRF-EMS), used within forecast offices to run local, high resolution forecasts. The sensitivity of the model forecast to the GLST product was analyzed with a case study of the Lake Effect Storm Echinacea, which produced 10 to 12 inches of snowfall downwind of Lake Erie, and 8 to 18 inches downwind of Lake Ontario from 27-29 January 2010. This research compares a forecast using the default Great Lakes surface temperatures from the Real Time Global sea surface temperature (RTG SST), in the WRF-EMS model to the enhanced NASA SPoRT GLST product to study forecast impacts. Results from this case study show that the SPoRT GLST contained less ice cover over Lake Erie and generally cooler water temperatures over Lakes Erie and Ontario. Latent and sensible heat fluxes over Lake Ontario were decreased in the GLST product. The GLST product decreased the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF), which can be correlated to the decrease in temperatures and heat

  16. Nourishment of perched sand dunes and the issue of erosion control in the Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, William M.

    1990-09-01

    Although limited in coverage, perched sand dunes situated on high coastal bluffs are considered the most prized of Great Lakes dunes. Grand Sable Dunes on Lake Superior and Sleeping Bear Dunes on Lake Michigan are featured attractions of national lakeshores under National Park Service management. The source of sand for perched dunes is the high bluff along their lakeward edge. As onshore wind crosses the bluff, flow is accelerated upslope, resulting in greatly elevated levels of wind stress over the slope brow. On barren, sandy bluffs, wind erosion is concentrated in the brow zone, and for the Grand Sable Bluff, it averaged 1 m3/yr per linear meter along the highest sections for the period 1973 1983. This mechanism accounts for about 6,500 m3 of sand nourishment to the dunefield annually and clearly has been the predominant mechanism for the long-term development of the dunefield. However, wind erosion and dune nourishment are possible only where the bluff is denuded of plant cover by mass movements and related processes induced by wave erosion. In the Great Lakes, wave erosion and bluff retreat vary with lake levels; the nourishment of perched dunes is favored by high levels. Lake levels have been relatively high for the past 50 years, and shore erosion has become a major environmental issue leading property owners and politicians to support lake-level regulation. Trimming high water levels could reduce geomorphic activity on high bluffs and affect dune nourishment rates. Locally, nourishment also may be influenced by sediment accumulation associated with harbor protection facilities and by planting programs aimed at stabilizing dunes.

  17. First record of Daphnia lumholtzi Sars in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muzinic, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    Adults of the cladoceran Daphnia lumholtzi, native to Australia, Africa, and parts of Asia, were first collected in August 1999 in Lake Erie. Individuals were collected near East Harbor State Park, Lakeside, Ohio from vertical plankton net tows. The average number of D. lumholtzi that were found (0.03/L) indicate that D. lumholtzi is beginning to establish itself in Lake Erie. The morphology of this Daphnia differs greatly from native species because of its elongated head and tail spine. This sighting is important because it acknowledges yet another exotic invader into the Great Lakes basin and it also shows that this, normally, warm water species continues to expand its range northward.

  18. Changes in depth occupied by Great Lakes lake whitefish populations and the influence of survey design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rennie, Michael D.; Weidel, Brian C.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Dunlob, Erin S.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding fish habitat use is important in determining conditions that ultimately affect fish energetics, growth and reproduction. Great Lakes lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) have demonstrated dramatic changes in growth and life history traits since the appearance of dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes, but the role of habitat occupancy in driving these changes is poorly understood. To better understand temporal changes in lake whitefish depth of capture (Dw), we compiled a database of fishery-independent surveys representing multiple populations across all five Laurentian Great Lakes. By demonstrating the importance of survey design in estimating Dw, we describe a novel method for detecting survey-based bias in Dw and removing potentially biased data. Using unbiased Dw estimates, we show clear differences in the pattern and timing of changes in lake whitefish Dw between our reference sites (Lake Superior) and those that have experienced significant benthic food web changes (lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario). Lake whitefish Dw in Lake Superior tended to gradually shift to shallower waters, but changed rapidly in other locations coincident with dreissenid establishment and declines in Diporeia densities. Almost all lake whitefish populations that were exposed to dreissenids demonstrated deeper Dw following benthic food web change, though a subset of these populations subsequently shifted to more shallow depths. In some cases in lakes Huron and Ontario, shifts towards more shallow Dw are occurring well after documented Diporeia collapse, suggesting the role of other drivers such as habitat availability or reliance on alternative prey sources.

  19. 75 FR 8728 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Guard Marine Safety Unit Cleveland, 1055 E. 9th Street, Cleveland, OH 44114, in the main conference room... this notice (USCG-2010-0125) in the Search box, and click ``Go.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr... available by searching on ``Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee'' at...

  20. 76 FR 61370 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... 20593, in conference room 51309. All visitors to Coast Guard Headquarters will have to pre-register to... notice, go to http://www.regulations.gov , and use ``USCG-2011-XXXX'' as your search term. ] A public... searching on ``Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee'' at http://www.fido.gov/facadatabase/ . Agenda...

  1. Great Lakes rivermouth ecosystems: scientific synthesis and management implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rivermouth ecosystems contribute to both the ecological dynamics and the human social networks that surround and depend on the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, understanding and management of these systems would be enhanced by viewing them with a new, holistic focus. Here, focu...

  2. GREAT LAKES BASIN LAND-COVER DATA: ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a consistent land-cover (LC) data set for the entire 480,000 km2 Great Lakes Basin (GLB). The acquisition of consistent LC data has proven difficult both within the US and across GLB political boundaries due to disparate...

  3. 77 FR 2472 - Great Lakes Steamship Repower Incentive Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... powered by old, inefficient steam boilers. Voluntary replacement of these boilers with modern fuel... voluntarily replace their steam boilers with cleaner, more fuel-efficient marine diesel engines (40 CFR 1043... the Great Lakes; twelve of these have boilers burning residual fuel oil and the thirteenth operates...

  4. Conceptual Model for Selenium Cycling in the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. P.; Conover, M. R.; Wurtsbaugh, W. A.; Adams, J.

    2006-12-01

    The conceptual model for Selenium cycling in the Great Salt Lake was developed to guide investigations in support of determining an open water selenium standard for the Great Salt Lake. The motivation to determine this particular selenium standard derives from public concern for a plan to allow disposal of reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate in the GSL, which would contain elevated concentrations of major and trace elements, including selenium. The development of an open water standard for selenium requires a working knowledge of the biological significance of existing selenium concentrations in the Great Salt Lake, as well as a working understanding of the likely changes of these concentrations over time given existing and proposed loads to the system. This working knowledge" is being represented in a conceptual model that accounts for selenium in various stocks" in the system (e.g. water, sediment, biota) and the flow" of selenium between stocks (e.g., precipitation and settling, volatilization, bioconcentration). It illustrates the critical pathway of selenium in the Great Salt Lake from water, to microorganisms, to brine shrimp and brine flies, to birds, and to their eggs. It also addresses the complexity of the GSL system: a) Spatially diverse, being comprised by four distinct bays and two layers, with major differences in salinity among their waters. b) Temporally dynamic, due to seasonal and inter-annual variations in runoff. The conceptual model is presently descriptive, but will serve as the basis for a semi-quantitative model that will be fed by data accumulated during subsequent investigations.

  5. A LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY ANALYSIS OF THE GREAT LAKES BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Natural Resources Canada: Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) are conducting a cooperative research landscape ecological study of the Great Lakes Basin. The analyses will include the areas located along the border of the Unit...

  6. Allocating Great Lakes forage bases in response to multiple demand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Edward H.; Busiahn, Thomas R.; Jones, Michael L.; Argyle, Ray L.; Taylor, William W.; Ferreri, C. Paola

    1999-01-01

    Forage base allocation, which has become an important issue because of major changes in the fish communities and fisheries of the Great Lakes since the 1950s is examined and documented in this chapter. Management initiatives that were used to address the issue, and supporting research and development that provided new or improved methods of field sampling and analysis are also highlighted.

  7. A REGIONAL ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE GREAT LAKES BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Natural Resources Canada: Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) are conducting a cooperative research landscape ecological study of the Great Lakes Basin. The analyses will include the areas located along the border of the Unit...

  8. Repeated Measures of Students' Marine and Great Lakes Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne; Mayer, Victor J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a longitudinal statewide study of Ohio fifth and ninth graders' knowledge about and attitude toward the oceans and Great Lakes. Results indicate a knowledge score increase except for humanities items. Among science items, earth science topics showed the greatest deficiencies, and oceanic attitudes declined over the period. (15…

  9. EPA Awards 15 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Grants Totaling Over $8 Million to Combat Invasive Species

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    15-OPA124 CHICAGO -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced the award of 15 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative grants totaling more than $8 million for projects to combat invasive species in the Great Lakes basin. These Great

  10. Out of the tropics: the Pacific, Great Basin lakes, and late Pleistocene water cycle in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyle, Mitchell; Heusser, Linda; Ravelo, Christina; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Barron, John; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Herbert, Timothy; Andreasen, Dyke

    2012-01-01

    The water cycle in the western U.S. changed dramatically over glacial cycles. In the last 20,000 years, higher precipitation caused desert lakes to form which have since dried out. Higher glacial precipitation is hypothesized to result from a southward shift of Pacific winter storm tracks. We compared Pacific Ocean data to lake levels from the interior west and found that Great Basin lake high stands are older than coastal wet periods at the same latitude. Westerly storms were not the source of high precipitation. Instead, air masses from the tropical Pacific were transported northward, bringing more precipitation into the Great Basin when coastal California was still dry. The changing climate during the deglaciation altered precipitation source regions and strongly affected the regional water cycle.

  11. Out of the tropics: the Pacific, Great Basin lakes, and late Pleistocene water cycle in the western United States.

    PubMed

    Lyle, Mitchell; Heusser, Linda; Ravelo, Christina; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Barron, John; Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Herbert, Timothy; Andreasen, Dyke

    2012-09-28

    The water cycle in the western United States changed dramatically over glacial cycles. In the past 20,000 years, higher precipitation caused desert lakes to form which have since dried out. Higher glacial precipitation has been hypothesized to result from a southward shift of Pacific winter storm tracks. We compared Pacific Ocean data to lake levels from the interior west and found that Great Basin lake high stands are older than coastal wet periods at the same latitude. Westerly storms were not the source of high precipitation. Instead, air masses from the tropical Pacific were transported northward, bringing more precipitation into the Great Basin when coastal California was still dry. The changing climate during the deglaciation altered precipitation source regions and strongly affected the regional water cycle.

  12. Assimilating a decade of hydrometeorological ship measurements across the North American Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fries, K. J.; Kerkez, B.

    2015-12-01

    We use a decade of measurements made by the Volunteer Observing Ships (VOS) program on the North American Great Lakes to derive spatial estimates of over-lake air temperature, sea surface temperature, dewpoint, and wind speed. This Lagrangian data set, which annually comprises over 200,000 point observations from over 80,000 ship reports across a 244,000 square kilometer study area, is assimilated using a Gaussian Process machine learning algorithm. This algorithm classifies a model for each hydrometeorological variable using a combination of latitudes, longitudes, seasons of the year, as well as predictions made by the National Digital Forecast Database (NDFD) and Great Lakes Coastal Forecasting System (GLCFS) operational models. We show that our data-driven method significantly improves the spatial and temporal estimation of overlake hydrometeorological variables, while simultaneously providing uncertainty estimates that can be used to improve historical and future predictions on dense spatial and temporal scales. This method stands to improve the prediction of water levels on the Great Lakes, which comprise over 90% of America's surface fresh water, and impact the lives of millions of people living in the basin.

  13. Area contingency plan western lake Superior Coastal zone. (COTP Duluth)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-15

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Western Lake Superior Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Duluth Coastal Zone.

  14. A thermal scanning study of coastal upwelling in Lake Superior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Green, T., III; Madding, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    The use of a thermal scanner to monitor the time evolution of the thermal structure of the coastal waters in Lake Superior during an upwelling event is described. Mosaics of thermal imagery from ten different times are described. Qualitative descriptions of the imagery give insight into the upwelling event. Recommendations for future use of a thermal scanner to monitor an upwelling event are discussed.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Mercury Accumulation in Lacustrine Sediments Across the Laurentian Great Lakes Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from 103 sediment cores from the Great Lakes and inland lakes of the Great Lakes airshed were compiled to examine and provide a synthesis of patterns of historical and recent changes in mercury (Hg) deposition. Limited data from the lower Laurentian Great Lakes shows a lega...

  16. Long-Term Variability of Satellite Lake Surface Water Temperatures in the Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierach, M. M.; Matsumoto, K.; Holt, B.; McKinney, P. J.; Tokos, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Great Lakes are the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth that approximately 37 million people depend upon for fresh drinking water, food, flood and drought mitigation, and natural resources that support industry, jobs, shipping and tourism. Recent reports have stated (e.g., the National Climate Assessment) that climate change can impact and exacerbate a range of risks to the Great Lakes, including changes in the range and distribution of certain fish species, increased invasive species and harmful algal blooms, declining beach health, and lengthened commercial navigation season. In this study, we will examine the impact of climate change on the Laurentian Great Lakes through investigation of long-term lake surface water temperatures (LSWT). We will use the ATSR Reprocessing for Climate: Lake Surface Water Temperature & Ice Cover (ARC-Lake) product over the period 1995-2012 to investigate individual and interlake variability. Specifically, we will quantify the seasonal amplitude of LSWTs, the first and last appearances of the 4°C isotherm (i.e., an important identifier of the seasonal evolution of the lakes denoting winter and summer stratification), and interpret these quantities in the context of global interannual climate variability such as ENSO.

  17. Perchlorate in The Great Lakes: Distribution, Isotopic Composition and Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, A.; Sturchio, N. C.; Jackson, W. A.; Guan, Y.; Eiler, J. M.; Hatzinger, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Concentrations, stable chlorine and oxygen isotopic compositions, and 36Cl abundances of perchlorate were investigated in the five Laurentian Great Lakes. Samples were collected during monitoring cruises in 2007 and 2008 of the U.S. EPA's RV Lake Guardian and in 2010 at the water supply intake of Marquette, MI on the southern shore of Lake Superior. Concentrations of perchlorate were measured by IC/MS/MS at 24 locations, including one or two depth profiles in each lake. Mean concentrations (μg/L) are: Superior, 0.06 × 0.01; Michigan, 0.10 × 0.01; Huron, 0.11 × 0.01; Erie, 0.08 × 0.01, and Ontario, 0.09 × 0.01. Concentration vs. depth is nearly constant in each lake, indicating well-mixed conditions. Perchlorate was extracted from near-surface water by passing 15,000 to 80,000 L of water through 1-L cartridges containing Purolite A530E bifunctional anion-exchange resin. In the laboratory, perchlorate was eluted from the resin, purified, and precipitated as a >99% pure crystalline phase. Milligram amounts were recovered from each lake. Chlorine and oxygen isotopic analyses were performed at Caltech using the Cameca 7f-GEO SIMS instrument, following validation of the SIMS method with analyses of USGS-37 and USGS-38 isotopic reference materials. Results indicate a relatively narrow range in δ37Cl values (+2.9 to +3.9 ‰) and a wider range in δ18O values (-4.0 to +4.1 ‰), with a general geographic trend of increasing δ18O from west to east. Oxygen-17 was measured at UIC using dual-inlet IRMS of O2 produced by decomposition of KClO4. Great Lakes perchlorate has mass-independent oxygen isotopic variations with positive Δ17O values (+1.6 ‰ to +2.7 ‰) divided into two distinct groups: Lake Superior (+2.7 ‰) and the other four lakes (~ +1.7 ‰). The isotopic data indicate that perchlorate is dominantly of natural origin, having stable isotopic compositions resembling those of perchlorate from pre-industrial groundwaters in the western USA. The 36Cl

  18. Genetic variability among lake whitefish from Isle Royale and the Upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stott, Wendylee; Todd, Thomas N.; Kallemeyn, Larry

    2004-01-01

    The coregonine fishes from Isle Royale National Park represent a unique group that has escaped the successional changes observed elsewhere in North America. Analysis of microsatellite DNA loci revealed significant genetic differences among samples of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) from Isle Royale, Lake Superior, and Lake Huron. The amount of genetic variation observed is consistent with that seen in other studies of whitefishes from North America. The lake whitefish from Isle Royale had previously been assigned sub-species status, but no evidence was found to support this. The effects of common ancestry and demographics both play a role in determining the relatedness of the populations. As with other fish species from Isle Royale and the upper Great Lakes, the lake whitefish have their origins in the Mississippi refugium.

  19. Geochemistry of Great Salt Lake, Utah I: Hydrochemistry since 1850

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, R.J.; Eugster, H.P.; Jones, B.F.; Rettig, S.L.

    1985-01-01

    The hydrochemistry of Great Salt Lake, Utah, has been defined for the historic period, 1850 through 1982, from published data combined with new observations. The water balance depends largely on river inflow, atmospheric precipitation onto the lake surface and evaporation. Input of the major solutes can best be accounted for by mixing dilute calcium-bicarbonate type river waters with NaCl-dominated hydrothermal springs. Prior to 1930, lake concentrations fluctuated inversely with lake volume in response to small climatic variations. Since then, salt precipitation and dissolution have significantly modified lake brine compositions and have led to density stratification and the formation of brine pockets of differing composition. Brine mixing has become an important component of brine evolution. We have used calculated evaporation curves with mineral precipitation and dissolution to clarify these processes. Pore fluids represent important storage for solutes. Solute profiles can be modeled by simple one-dimensional diffusion calculations. Short-term historic variations in lake composition affect shallow pore fluids in the upper 2 metres of sediment. ?? 1985.

  20. COMPARISON OF SIMPLE AND MULTIMETRIC DIATOM-BASED INDICES FOR GREAT LAKES COASTLINE DISTURBANCE(1).

    PubMed

    Reavie, Euan D; Kireta, Amy R; Kingston, John C; Sgro, Gerald V; Danz, Nicholas P; Axler, Richard P; Hollenhorst, Thomas P

    2008-06-01

    Because diatom communities are subject to the prevailing water quality in the Great Lakes coastal environment, diatom-based indices can be used to support coastal-monitoring programs and paleoecological studies. Diatom samples were collected from Great Lakes coastal wetlands, embayments, and high-energy sites (155 sites), and assemblages were characterized to the species level. We defined 42 metrics on the basis of autecological and functional properties of species assemblages, including species diversity, motile species, planktonic species, proportion dominant taxon, taxonomic metrics (e.g., proportion Stephanodiscoid taxa), and diatom-inferred (DI) water quality (e.g., DI chloride [Cl]). Redundant metrics were eliminated, and a diatom-based multimetric index (MMDI) to infer coastline disturbance was developed. Anthropogenic stresses in adjacent coastal watersheds were characterized using geographic information system (GIS) data related to agricultural and urban land cover and atmospheric deposition. Fourteen independent diatom metrics had significant regressions with watershed stressor data; these metrics were selected for inclusion in the MMDI. The final MMDI was developed as the weighted sum of the selected metric scores with weights based on a metric's ability to reflect anthropogenic stressors in the adjacent watersheds. Despite careful development of the multimetric approach, verification using a test set of sites indicated that the MMDI was not able to predict watershed stressors better than some of the component metrics. From this investigation, it was determined that simpler, more traditional diatom-based metrics (e.g., DI Cl, proportion Cl-tolerant species, and DI total phosphorus [TP]) provide superior prediction of overall stressor influence at coastal locales.

  1. Genetic assessment of strain-specific sources of lake trout recruitment in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Kevin S.; Scribner, Kim T.; Bennett, Kristine R.; Garzel, Laura M.; Burnham-Curtis, Mary K.

    2003-01-01

    Populations of wild lake trout Salvelinus namaycush have been extirpated from nearly all their historical habitats across the Great Lakes. Efforts to restore self-sustaining lake trout populations in U.S. waters have emphasized the stocking of coded-wire-tagged juveniles from six hatchery strains (Seneca Lake, Lewis Lake, Green Lake, Apostle Islands, Isle Royale, and Marquette) into vacant habitats. Strain-specific stocking success has historically been based on estimates of the survival and catch rates of coded-wire-tagged adults returning to spawning sites. However, traditional marking methods and estimates of relative strain abundance provide no means of assessing strain fitness (i.e., the realized contributions to natural recruitment) except by assuming that young-of-the-year production is proportional to adult spawner abundance. We used microsatellite genetic data collected from six hatchery strains with likelihood-based individual assignment tests (IA) and mixed-stock analysis (MSA) to identify the strain composition of young of the year recruited each year. We show that strain classifications based on IA and MSA were concordant and that the accuracy of both methods varied based on strain composition. Analyses of young-of-the-year lake trout samples from Little Traverse Bay (Lake Michigan) and Six Fathom Bank (Lake Huron) revealed that strain contributions differed significantly from estimates of the strain composition of adults returning to spawning reefs. The Seneca Lake strain contributed the majority of juveniles produced on Six Fathom Bank and more young of the year than expected within Little Traverse Bay. Microsatellite markers provided a method for accurately classifying the lake trout hatchery strains used for restoration efforts in the Great Lakes and for assessment of strain-specific reproductive success.

  2. Characterization and comparison of phytoplankton in selected lakes of five Great Lakes area national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith Becker; Whitman, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Phytoplankton species have been widely used as indicators of lake conditions, and they may be useful for detecting changes in overall lake condition. In an attempt to inventory and monitor its natural resources, the National Park Service wants to establish a monitoring program for aquatic resources in the Great Lakes Cluster National Parks. This study sought to establish baseline information on the phytoplankton and water chemistry of selected lakes in five national parks in a preliminary effort toward establishing a long-term monitoring program. Phytoplankton and water chemistry samples were collected from ten lakes in five national parks over a two-year period. A total of 176 taxa were identified during the study. Northern lakes generally had higher Shannon-Wiener diversity and clustered together in similarity. Lakes exhibited a south to north gradient of many water chemistry variables, with northern lakes having lower hardness, sulfate, turbidity, and temperature and higher dissolved oxygen. Chloride and sulfate concentrations were the variables that best explained variation among phytoplankton in the ten lakes. A monitoring plan will have to incorporate the differences among lakes, but by coordinating the effort, comparisons within and among parks and other regions will prove useful for determining environmental change.

  3. Plans and progress for building a Great Lakes fauna DNA ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DNA reference libraries provide researchers with an important tool for assessing regional biodiversity by allowing unknown genetic sequences to be assigned identities, while also providing a means for taxonomists to validate identifications. Expanding the representation of Great Lakes species in such reference libraries is an explicit component of research at EPA’s Mid-Continent Ecology Division. Our DNA reference library building efforts began in 2012 with the goal of providing barcodes for at least 5 specimens of each native and nonindigenous fish and aquatic invertebrate species currently present in the Great Lakes. The approach is to pull taxonomically validated specimen for sequencing from EPA led sampling efforts of adult/juvenile fish, larval fish, benthic macroinvertebrates, and zooplankton; while also soliciting aid from state and federal agencies for tissue from “shopping list” organisms. The barcodes we generate are made available through the publicly accessible BOLD (Barcode of Life) database, and help inform a planned Great Lakes biodiversity inventory. To date, our submissions to BOLD are limited to fishes; of the 88 fish species listed as being present within Lake Superior, roughly half were successfully barcoded, while only 22 species met the desired quota of 5 barcoded specimens per species. As we continue to generate genomic information from our collections and the taxonomic representations become more complete, we will continue to

  4. Integrated measures of anthropogenic stress in the U.S. Great lakes basin.

    PubMed

    Danz, Nicholas P; Niemi, Gerald J; Regal, Ronald R; Hollenhorst, Tom; Johnson, Lucinda B; Hanowski, JoAnn M; Axler, Richard P; Ciborowski, Jan J H; Hrabik, Thomas; Brady, Valerie J; Kelly, John R; Morrice, John A; Brazner, John C; Howe, Robert W; Johnston, Carol A; Host, George E

    2007-05-01

    Integrated, quantitative expressions of anthropogenic stress over large geographic regions can be valuable tools in environmental research and management. Despite the fundamental appeal of a regional approach, development of regional stress measures remains one of the most important current challenges in environmental science. Using publicly available, pre-existing spatial datasets, we developed a geographic information system database of 86 variables related to five classes of anthropogenic stress in the U.S. Great Lakes basin: agriculture, atmospheric deposition, human population, land cover, and point source pollution. The original variables were quantified by a variety of data types over a broad range of spatial and classification resolutions. We summarized the original data for 762 watershed-based units that comprise the U.S. portion of the basin and then used principal components analysis to develop overall stress measures within each stress category. We developed a cumulative stress index by combining the first principal component from each of the five stress categories. Maps of the stress measures illustrate strong spatial patterns across the basin, with the greatest amount of stress occurring on the western shore of Lake Michigan, southwest Lake Erie, and southeastern Lake Ontario. We found strong relationships between the stress measures and characteristics of bird communities, fish communities, and water chemistry measurements from the coastal region. The stress measures are taken to represent the major threats to coastal ecosystems in the U.S. Great Lakes. Such regional-scale efforts are critical for understanding relationships between human disturbance and ecosystem response, and can be used to guide environmental decision-making at both regional and local scales.

  5. Integrated Measures of Anthropogenic Stress in the U.S. Great Lakes Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danz, Nicholas P.; Niemi, Gerald J.; Regal, Ronald R.; Hollenhorst, Tom; Johnson, Lucinda B.; Hanowski, Joann M.; Axler, Richard P.; Ciborowski, Jan J. H.; Hrabik, Thomas; Brady, Valerie J.; Kelly, John R.; Morrice, John A.; Brazner, John C.; Howe, Robert W.; Johnston, Carol A.; Host, George E.

    2007-05-01

    Integrated, quantitative expressions of anthropogenic stress over large geographic regions can be valuable tools in environmental research and management. Despite the fundamental appeal of a regional approach, development of regional stress measures remains one of the most important current challenges in environmental science. Using publicly available, pre-existing spatial datasets, we developed a geographic information system database of 86 variables related to five classes of anthropogenic stress in the U.S. Great Lakes basin: agriculture, atmospheric deposition, human population, land cover, and point source pollution. The original variables were quantified by a variety of data types over a broad range of spatial and classification resolutions. We summarized the original data for 762 watershed-based units that comprise the U.S. portion of the basin and then used principal components analysis to develop overall stress measures within each stress category. We developed a cumulative stress index by combining the first principal component from each of the five stress categories. Maps of the stress measures illustrate strong spatial patterns across the basin, with the greatest amount of stress occurring on the western shore of Lake Michigan, southwest Lake Erie, and southeastern Lake Ontario. We found strong relationships between the stress measures and characteristics of bird communities, fish communities, and water chemistry measurements from the coastal region. The stress measures are taken to represent the major threats to coastal ecosystems in the U.S. Great Lakes. Such regional-scale efforts are critical for understanding relationships between human disturbance and ecosystem response, and can be used to guide environmental decision-making at both regional and local scales.

  6. Isolated history of the coastal plant Lathyrus japonicus (Leguminosae) in Lake Biwa, an ancient freshwater lake

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuki, Tatsuo; Kaneko, Yuko; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Lake Biwa is one of the world's few ancient lakes. Formed ∼4 million years ago, the lake harbours many coastal species that commonly inhabit seashores. The beach pea Lathyrus japonicus is a typical coastal species of this freshwater lake, but its inland populations are faced with the threat of extinction. Here, we investigated the phylogeographical and population structures of both inland and coastal populations of L. japonicus. We also elucidated the historical isolation of the Lake Biwa population. Methodology In total, 520 individuals from 50 L. japonicus populations were sampled throughout the species distribution in Japan. Chloroplast haplotyping using intergenic spacers psbA–trnH and atpI–atpH was performed to investigate the phylogeographical structure as well as the genetic diversity of L. japonicus. Six nuclear microsatellite markers were also used to analyse the population structure. Principal results Population structure analyses of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA) identified inland and coastal groups. Based on the genetic differentiation, inland populations exhibited a single cpDNA haplotype and significantly lower values of HS, AR and FIS than coastal populations. In addition to the presence of a bottleneck, the lack of gene flow among inland populations was supported by estimates of recent migration rates between subpopulations. Conclusions Our data revealed that inland populations have been isolated in Lake Biwa as ‘landlocked’ populations since the predecessor lake was isolated from sea. This was also seen in a previous study of Calystegia soldanella. However, the high genetic differentiation, accompanied by a lack of gene flow among the Lake Biwa populations (according to the BAYESASS+ analysis), contradicts the results with C. soldanella. We conclude that because of the presence of a bottleneck and low genetic diversity of the inland populations, self-sustaining population persistence may be difficult in

  7. HYDROLOGY OF COASTAL WETLANDS OF LAKE SUPERIOR: LAKE AND TRIBUTARY ROLES IN MIXING REGIME AND TURNOVER TIMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our work on coastal wetlands of western Lake Superior indicates that hydrological linkages to the lake and watershed are highly dynamic, with potentially significant implications for wetland ecosystem structure and function. Time series data on tributary discharges and seiche amp...

  8. HISTORICAL SNOW AMOUNTS IN THE LAKE EFFECT REGION OF LAKE SUPERIOR: EVIDENCE OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies (Levitus et al., .2000) suggest a warming of the world ocean over the past 50 years. This could be occurring in the Great Lakes also but thermal measurements are lacking. Historical trends in natural phenomena, such as the duration of ice cover on lakes, provide in...

  9. Dynamic Heights in the Great Lakes using OPUS Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, D. R.; Li, X.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. will be implementing new geometric and vertical reference frames in 2022 to replace the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88), respectively. Less emphasized is the fact that a new dynamic height datum will also be defined about the same time to replace the International Great Lakes Datum of 1985 (IGLD 85). IGLD 85 was defined concurrent with NAVD 88 and used the same geopotential values. This paper focuses on the use of an existing tool for determining geometric coordinates and a developing geopotential model as a means of determining dynamic heights. The Online Positioning User Service (OPUS) Projects (OP) is an online tool available from the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) for use in developing geometric coordinates from simultaneous observations at multiple sites during multiple occupations. With observations performed at the water level gauges throughout the Great Lakes, the geometric coordinates of the mean water level surface can be determined. NGS has also developed the xGEOID15B model from satellite, airborne and surface gravity data. Using the input geometric coordinates determined through OP, the geopotential values for the water surface at the water level stations around the Great Lakes were determined using the xGEOID15B model. Comparisons were made between water level sites for each Lake as well as to existing IGLD 85 heights. A principal advantage to this approach is the ability to generate new water level control stations using OP, while maintaining the consistency between orthometric and dynamic heights by using the same gravity field model. Such a process may provide a means for determining dynamic heights for a future Great Lakes Datum.

  10. Simulation of Heavy Lake-Effect Snowstorms across the Great Lakes Basin by RegCM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notaro, M.; Zarrin, A.; Vavrus, S. J.; Bennington, V.

    2013-12-01

    A historical simulation (1976-2002) of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model Version 4 (ICTP RegCM4), coupled to a one-dimensional lake model, is validated against observed lake ice cover and snowfall across the Great Lakes Basin. The model reproduces the broad temporal and spatial features of both variables in terms of spatial distribution, seasonal cycle, and interannual variability, including climatological characteristics of lake-effect snowfall, although the simulated ice cover is overly extensive largely due to the absence of lake circulations. A definition is introduced for identifying heavy lake-effect snowstorms in regional climate model output for all grid cells in the Great Lakes Basin, using criteria based on location, wind direction, lake ice cover, and snowfall. Simulated heavy lake-effect snowstorms occur most frequently downwind of the Great Lakes, particularly to the east of Lake Ontario and to the east and south of Lake Superior, and are most frequent in December-January. The mechanism for these events is attributed to an anticyclone over the central United States and related cold air outbreak for areas downwind of Lakes Ontario and Erie, in contrast to a nearby cyclone over the Great Lakes Basin and associated cold front for areas downwind of Lakes Superior, Huron, and Michigan. Projections of mid- and late-21st century lake-effect snowstorms in the Great Lakes Basin will be summarized, based on dynamically downscaled CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase Five) simulations.

  11. Coastal lake sediments reveal 5500 years of tsunami history in south central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, Philipp; Moernaut, Jasper; Van Daele, Maarten; Vandoorne, Willem; Pino, Mario; Urrutia, Roberto; De Batist, Marc

    2017-04-01

    We present an exceptionally long and continuous coastal lacustrine record of ∼5500 years from Lake Huelde on the west coast of Chiloé Island in south central Chile. The study area is located within the rupture zone of the giant 1960 CE Great Chilean Earthquake (MW 9.5). The subsequent earthquake-induced tsunami inundated Lake Huelde and deposited mud rip-up clasts, massive sand and a mud cap in the lake. Long sediment cores from 8 core sites within Lake Huelde reveal 16 additional sandy layers in the 5500 year long record. The sandy layers share sedimentological similarities with the deposit of the 1960 CE tsunami and other coastal lake tsunami deposits elsewhere. On the basis of general and site-specific criteria we interpret the sandy layers as tsunami deposits. Age-control is provided by four different methods, 1) 210Pb-dating, 2) the identification of the 137Cs-peak, 3) an infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) date and 4) 22 radiocarbon dates. The ages of each tsunami deposit are modelled using the Bayesian statistic tools of OxCal and Bacon. The record from Lake Huelde matches the 8 regionally known tsunami deposits from documented history and geological evidence from the last ∼2000 years without over- or underrepresentation. We extend the existing tsunami history by 9 tsunami deposits. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various sedimentary environments for tsunami deposition and preservation, e.g. we find that Lake Huelde is 2-3 times less sensitive to relative sea-level change in comparison to coastal marshes in the same region.

  12. The Younger Dryas phase of Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Miller, D.M.; McGeehin, J.P.; Zachary, C.; Mahan, S.

    2005-01-01

    Field investigations at the Public Shooting Grounds (a wildlife-management area on the northeastern shore of Great Salt Lake) and radiocarbon dating show that the Great Salt Lake rose to the Gilbert shoreline sometime between 12.9 and 11.2 cal ka. We interpret a ripple-laminated sand unit exposed at the Public Shooting Grounds, and dated to this time interval, as the nearshore sediments of Great Salt Lake deposited during the formation of the Gilbert shoreline. The ripple-laminated sand is overlain by channel-fill deposits that overlap in age (11.9-11.2 cal ka) with the sand, and by wetland deposits (11.1 to 10.5 cal ka). Consistent accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon ages were obtained from samples of plant fragments, including those of emergent aquatic plants, but mollusk shells from spring and marsh deposits yielded anomalously old ages, probably because of a variable radiocarbon reservoir effect. The Bonneville basin was effectively wet during at least part of the Younger Dryas global-cooling interval, however, conflicting results from some Great Basin locations and proxy records indicate that the regional effects of Younger Dryas cooling are still not well understood. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Concentrations of trace elements in Great Lakes fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucas, Henry F.; Edgington, David N.; Colby, Peter J.

    1970-01-01

    The concentration of 15 trace elements was determined by activation analysis of samples of whole fish and fish livers from three of the Great Lakes: Michigan, Superior, and Erie. The average concentrations of 7 elements in 19 whole fish from 3 species were as follows: uranium, 3 ppb (parts per billion); thorium, 6 ppb; cobalt, 28 ppb; cadmium, 94 ppb; arsenic, 16 ppb; chromium, 1 ppm; and copper, 1.3 ppm. The average concentrations of 8 elements in 40 liver samples from 10 species of fish were as follows: uranium, ~ 2 ppb; thorium, a?? 2 ppb; cobalt, 40 ppb; copper, 9 ppm; zinc, 30 ppm; bromine, 0.4 ppm; arsenic, 30 ppb; and cadmium, 0.4 ppm. Other elements observed in most of the samples were: antimony, 5-100 ppb; gold, 2-5 ppb; lanthanum, 1-20 ppb; rhenium, 0.5-5 ppb; rubidium, 0.06-4 ppm; and selenium, 0.1-2 ppb. Trace element concentrations varied with species and lake. Uranium and thorium varied with species, but not for the same species from different lakes. The levels of copper, cobalt, zinc, and bromine varied little between species and lakes. The concentration of cadmium, arsenic, and chromium varied between species and with species between lakes.

  14. Organophosphate Esters in Sediment of the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dandan; Guo, Jiehong; Wang, Yawei; Li, Zhuona; Liang, Kang; Corcoran, Margaret B; Hosseini, Soheil; Bonina, Solidea M C; Rockne, Karl J; Sturchio, Neil C; Giesy, John P; Liu, Jingfu; Li, An; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-02-07

    This is the first study on organophosphate ester (OPEs) flame retardants and plasticizers in the sediment of the Great Lakes. Concentrations of 14 OPEs were measured in three sediment cores and 88 Ponar surface grabs collected from Lakes Ontario, Michigan, and Superior of North America. The sum of these OPEs (Σ14OPEs) in Ponar grabs averaged 2.2, 4.7, and 16.6 ng g(-1) dw in Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Ontario, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated statistically significant associations between logarithm concentrations of Σ14OPEs as well as selected congeners in surface grab samples and sediment organic carbon content as well as a newly developed urban distance factor. Temporal trends observed in dated sediment cores from Lake Michigan demonstrated that the recent increase in depositional flux to sediment is dominated by chlorinated OPEs, particularly tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP), which has a doubling time of about 20 years. Downward diffusion within sediment may have caused vertical fractionation of OPEs over time. Two relatively hydrophilic OPEs including TCPP had much higher concentrations in sediment than estimated based on equilibria between water and sediment organic carbon. Approximately a quarter (17 tonnes) of the estimated total OPE burden (63 tonnes) in Lake Michigan resides in sediment, which may act as a secondary source releasing OPEs to the water column for years to come.

  15. A conceptual framework for Lake Michigan coastal/nearshore ecosystems, with application to Lake Michigan Lakewide Management Plan (LaMP) objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seelbach, Paul W.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Bunnell, David Bo; Haack, Sheridan K.; Rogers, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    The Lakewide Management Plans (LaMPs) within the Great Lakes region are examples of broad-scale, collaborative resource-management efforts that require a sound ecosystems approach. Yet, the LaMP process is lacking a holistic framework that allows these individual actions to be planned and understood within the broader context of the Great Lakes ecosystem. In this paper we (1) introduce a conceptual framework that unifies ideas and language among Great Lakes managers and scientists, whose focus areas range from tributary watersheds to open-lake waters, and (2) illustrate how the framework can be used to outline the geomorphic, hydrologic biological, and societal processes that underlie several goals of the Lake Michigan LaMP, thus providing a holistic and fairly comprehensive roadmap for tackling these challenges. For each selected goal, we developed a matrix that identifies the key ecosystem processes within the cell for each lake zone and each discipline; we then provide one example where a process is poorly understood and a second where a process is understood, but its impact or importance is unclear. Implicit in these objectives was our intention to highlight the importance of the Great Lakes coastal/nearshore zone. Although the coastal/nearshore zone is the important linkage zone between the watershed and open-lake zones—and is the zone where most LaMP issues are focused--scientists and managers have a relatively poor understanding of how the coastal/nearshore zone functions. We envision follow-up steps including (1) collaborative development of a more detailed and more complete conceptual model of how (and where) identified processes are thought to function, and (2) a subsequent gap analysis of science and monitoring priorities.

  16. Growth and potential yield of perch (Perca spp.) in selected areas of Lake Baikal and the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Gorman, Robert; Bronte, Charles R.; Hatcher, Charles O.; Pronin, Nikolai M.; Sokolnikov, Yury

    1998-01-01

    We compared growth, mortality, and potential yield of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Chivirkui Bay in Lake Baikal with that of yellow perch (P. flavescens) from three areas of the Laurentian Great Lakes --Chequamegon Bay in Lake Superior, northeastern Lake Ontario, and southwestern Lake Erie. Graded mesh gill nets were fished in August to sample perch in lakes Baikal (1993), Ontario (1985-93), and Erie (1994). Bottom trawls were fished in July-August to sample perch in Lake Superior (1973-93). Adult yellow perch from the Laurentian Great Lakes were heavier at most lengths than adult Eurasian perch from Lake Baikal. The increase in body weight per unit increase in length was greatest in Lake Erie. Total annual mortality of perch was low in Lake Baikal (0.31), intermediate in lakes Superior (0.41) and Ontario (0.54), and high in Lake Erie (0.66). Annual fishing mortality (u) for perch in Lake Baikal was 60%-70% lower than that for perch in the Great Lakes. At ages 1-3, perch in Lake Erie were longer than those in lakes Baikal, Superior, and Ontario but at ages 4-9 perch in Lake Baikal were longer than those in the other lakes. Although Eurasian perch in Lake Baikal were longer at age 4 and older, growth in length, as measured by the Brody growth coefficient, K, was lower there than in the other lakes and was similar to that in Lake Superior; yellow perch in Lake Erie grew the fastest. Yield-per-recruit was lowest in Lake Erie and highest in Lake Superior. Potential yield was influenced by growth rates and fishing mortality.

  17. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 3. Great Lakes Region

    SciTech Connect

    Paton, D.L.; Bass, A.; Smith, D.G.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The Great Lakes Region atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data, one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the Great Lakes region: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin. At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than in the regional discussion and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations over several time scales in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and of hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  18. Great Lakes Oil-In-Ice Demonstration 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    in ice- infested waters . The effort explored and demonstrated two commercial oil skimmers, a boom, fire cannon herding equipment, ice detecting radar...Mackinac on the Great Lakes in northern Michigan. The exercise produced many valuable ‘lessons learned’ that are applicable to ice-infested waters ...within the continental United States and in the Arctic waters of Alaska. 17. Key Words 18. Distribution Statement Oil, spill, ice, recovery

  19. Great Lakes all-weather ice information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schertler, R. J.; Mueller, R. A.; Jirberg, R. J.; Cooper, D. W.; Heighway, J. E.; Holmes, A. D.; Gedney, R. T.; Mark, H.

    1975-01-01

    A system is described which utilizes an X-band Side-Looking-Airborne-Radar (SLAR) for determining type, location, and aerial distribution of the ice cover in the Great Lakes and an airborne, S-band, short pulse radar for obtaining ice thickness. The SLAR system is currently mounted aboard a U.S. Coast Guard C-130B aircraft. Digitized SLAR data are relayed in real-time via the NOAA-GOES-1 satellite in geosynchronous orbit to the U.S. Coast Guard Ice Center in Cleveland, Ohio. SLAR images along with hand-drawn interpretative ice charts for various winter shipping areas in the Great Lakes are broadcast to facsimile recorders aboard Great Lakes vessels. The operational aspects of this ice information system are being demonstrated by NASA, U.S. Coast Guard, and NOAA/National Weather Service. Results from the 1974-75 winter season demonstrated the ability of this system to provide all-weather ice information to shippers in a timely manner.

  20. Meeting future information needs for Great Lakes fisheries management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, W.J.; Collins, John J.; Eck, Gary W.; Goddard, Chris I.; Hoenig, John M.; Holey, Mark; Jacobson, Lawrence D.; MacCallum, Wayne; Nepszy, Stephen J.; O'Gorman, Robert; Selgeby, James

    1987-01-01

    Description of information needs for management of Great Lakes fisheries is complicated by recent changes in biology and management of the Great Lakes, development of new analytical methodologies, and a transition in management from a traditional unispecies approach to a multispecies/community approach. A number of general problems with the collection and management of data and information for fisheries management need to be addressed (i.e. spatial resolution, reliability, computerization and accessibility of data, design of sampling programs, standardization and coordination among agencies, and the need for periodic review of procedures). Problems with existing data collection programs include size selectivity and temporal trends in the efficiency of fishing gear, inadequate creel survey programs, bias in age estimation, lack of detailed sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) wounding data, and data requirements for analytical techniques that are underutilized by managers of Great Lakes fisheries. The transition to multispecies and community approaches to fisheries management will require policy decisions by the management agencies, adequate funding, and a commitment to develop programs for collection of appropriate data on a long-term basis.

  1. Early observations on an emerging Great Lakes invader Hemimysis anomala in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Maureen G.; Lantry, Brian F.; Boscarino, Brent; Bowen, Kelly; Gerlofsma, Jocelyn; Schaner, Ted; Back, Richard; Questel, Jennifer; Smythe, A. Garry; Cap, Roberta; Goehle, Michael; Young, Bryan; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Hemimysis anomala, a Ponto-Caspian littoral mysid, is an emerging Great Lakes invader that was discovered in Lakes Michigan and Ontario in 2006. Similar to the native mysid Mysis diluviana, Hemimysis exhibits a diel vertical migration pattern but generally inhabits shallower and warmer waters than M. diluviana. Because basic information on the distribution, habitat use, and biology of Hemimysis in the Great Lakes is scarce, the potential for food web disruption by Hemimysis cannot easily be predicted. Preliminary observations indicate widespread invasion of Hemimysis in Lake Ontario. In this study, we confirm the presence of Hemimysis at sites spanning the northern and southern shores of Lake Ontario and the presence of the individuals during winter months. In one horizontal tow in November 2007, over 26,000 individuals were collected with a length range of 4.4 to 9.0. mm and an average caloric density of 611. cal/g wet weight. The most effective methods for sampling Hemimysis were horizontal tows with either a zooplankton net in the water column or a benthic sled near the lake bottom. Although more quantitative data on the life history and distribution of this species is necessary, our preliminary observations support the prediction that the potential for Hemimysis to impact the nearshore food web in Lake Ontario appears high.

  2. Ciscoes (Coregonus, subgenus Leucichthys) of the Laurentian Great Lakes and Lake Nipigon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eshenroder, Randy L.; Vecsei, Paul; Gorman, Owen T.; Yule, Daniel; Pratt, Thomas C.; Mandrak, Nicholas E.; Bunnell, David; Muir, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    This study of the ciscoes (Coregonus, subgenus Leucichthys) of the Great Lakes and Lake Nipigon represents a furtherance through 2015 of field research initiated by Walter Koelz in 1917 and continued by Stanford Smith in the mid-1900s—a period spanning nearly a century. Like Koelz’s study, this work contains information on taxonomy, geographical distribution, ecology, and status of species (here considered forms). Of the seven currently recognized forms (C. artedi, C. hoyi, C. johannae, C. kiyi, C. nigripinnis, C. reighardi, and C. zenithicus) described by Koelz as major in his 1929 monograph, two (C. johannae and C. reighardi) are extinct. In addition, C. alpenae, described by Koelz but subsequently synonymized with C. zenithicus, although extinct, is recognized as valid making a total of eight major forms. Six of these forms, all but C. artedi and C. hoyi, have been lost from Lake Michigan, and seven have been lost from Lake Huron, leaving in Lake Huron only C. artedi and an introgressed deepwater form that we term a hybrid swarm. C. artedi appears, like its sister form C. alpenae, to have been lost from Lake Erie. Only C. artedi remains extant in Lake Ontario, its three sister forms (C. hoyi, C. kiyi, and C. reighardi) having disappeared long ago. Lakes Superior and Nipigon have retained their original species flocks consisting of four forms each: C. artedi, C. hoyi, and C. zenithicus in both lakes; C. kiyi in Lake Superior; and C. nigripinnis in Lake Nipigon. Morphological deviations from the morphotypes described by Koelz have been modest in contemporary samples. Overall, C. kiyi and C. artedi were the most morphologically stable forms while C. hoyi, C. nigripinnis, and C. zenithicus were the least stable. Although contemporary populations of C. artedi from Lakes Michigan and Huron are highly diverged from the morphotypes described by Koelz, the contemporary samples were of undescribed deep-bodied forms unlikely to have been sampled by Koelz because of

  3. REDUCING EXPOSURE UNCERTAINTY FOR ASSESSMENT OF DIOXIN TOXICITY RISKS TO LAKE TROUT POPULATIONS IN THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the 20th century, declines of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) populations to virtual extinction in all the Great Lakes except Lake Superior were followed by failure of stocked lake trout to achieve recruitment through natural reproduction. Stresses such as excessive harv...

  4. Derivation of proposed human health and wildlife bioaccumulation factors for the Great Lakes initiative. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, C.E.

    1993-03-01

    The publication is divided into two sections: Comparison of Proposed Human Health and Bioaccumulation Factors (HHBAFs) for the Great Lakes Initiative (GLI) and Derivation of Proposed Human Health and Wildlife Bioaccumulation Factors for the Great Lakes Initiative.

  5. EPA Awards Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Grants to Reduce Runoff that Contributes to Algal Blooms

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CHICAGO -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced the award of 14 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative grants totaling over $17 million to fund projects that will improve Great Lakes water quality by preventing phosphorus runoff and soil er

  6. Lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region and their influence during BAQS-Met 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, D. M. L.; Brook, J. R.; Levy, I.; Makar, P. A.; Zhang, J.; Taylor, P. A.

    2011-08-01

    Meteorological observations from the BAQS-Met field experiment during the summer months of 2007 were integrated and manually analyzed in order to identify and characterize lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region of North America, and assess their potential impact on air quality. Lake breezes occurred frequently, with one or more lake breezes identified on 90 % of study days. They affected all parts of the study region, including southwestern Ontario and nearby portions of southeast Lower Michigan and northern Ohio, with lake-breeze fronts occasionally penetrating from 100 km to over 200 km inland. Occurrence rates and penetration distances were found to be higher than previously reported in the literature. This comprehensive depiction of observed lake breezes allows an improved understanding of their influence on the transport, dispersion, and production of pollutants in this region. The observational analyses were compared with output from subsequent runs of a high-resolution numerical weather prediction model. The model accurately predicted lake breeze occurrence and type in a variety of synoptic wind regimes, but selected cases showed substantial differences in the detailed timing and location of lake-breeze fronts, and with the initiation of deep moist convection. Knowledge of such strengths and weaknesses aids in the interpretation of results from air quality models driven by this meteorological model.

  7. Physicochemical Characterization of Lake Spray Aerosol Generated from Great Lakes Water Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ault, A. P.; Axson, J. L.; May, N.; Pratt, K.

    2014-12-01

    Wave breaking across bodies of water releases particles into the air which can impact climate and human health. Similar to sea spray aerosols formed through marine wave breaking, freshwater lakes generate lake spray aerosol (LSA). LSA can impact climate directly through scattering/absorption and indirectly through cloud nucleation. In addition, these LSA are suggested to impact human health through inhalation of these particles during algal bloom periods characterized by toxic cyanobacteria. Few studies have been conducted to assess the physical and chemical properties of freshwater LSA. Herein, we discuss constructing a LSA generation system and preliminary physical and chemical characterization of aerosol generated from water samples collected at various sites across Lake Erie, Lake Huron, Lake Superior, and Lake Michigan. Information on aerosol size distributions, number concentrations, and chemical composition will be discussed as a function of lake water blue-green algae concentration, dissolved organic carbon concentration, temperature, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen concentration. These studies represent a first step towards evaluating the potential for LSA to impact climate and health in the Great Lakes region.

  8. Taking Teachers from the River to the Coast: a COSEE Great Lakes and Lake Superior NERR Collaboration

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes Shipboard and Shoreline Science Workshop provides 15 formal and informal educators of G5-10 an opportunity to spend a week aboard the US EPA’s 180’ R/V Lake Guardian working side-by-side with Great Lakes scien...

  9. Microbial mat mineralization in Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PACE, Aurélie; Bouton, Anthony; Bourillot, Raphaël; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Visscher, Pieter; Dupraz, Christophe; Thomazo, Christophe; Serge, Galaup; Sophie, Leleu; Anna, Kwasniewski; Léa, Pigot; Michel, Franceschi

    2015-04-01

    Great Salt Lake is located in the Basin and Range province of Utah (USA). Its average surface is 4480 Km2 and its maximum depth is of about 15m. It is a partly rainfed endorheic hypersaline lake (average salinity: 140g/L). Due to the high salinity, little or no grazing organisms are present, favoring the development of microbialites that cover the margin of the lake. This work aims to understand the products and processes of mineralization in recent and modern microbialites on the western margin of Antelope Island. The distribution of microbialites and their morphology has been studied along lakeshore to center transects, showing a contrasting spatial distribution in bay versus headland. Fossil microbialites show a great diversity of macro- and microfabrics, some microbialites being essentially built by microbial-mediated carbonate precipitation, while other show the predominance of trapping and binding processes. The nature and composition of the microbial carbonates have been determined through polarizing, cathodoluminescence, reflected fluorescence microscopy, X-Ray diffractometry and isotope geochemistry (δ 18O and δ13C) in order to investigate the preservation of environmental signals in microbialites. Petrophysics analysis such as permeability and porosimetry, have been done to observe the structure of the microbialite. Microprobe and silver foils method have been used respectively to characterize oxygen production and sulfate reduction in living microbial mats. Mineralization zones seem to coincide with sulfate reduction hotspots. This mineralization results in mixed clotted-laminated fabric at the macro- and microscale. Several analysis such as Cryo-SEM, environmental SEM and raman spectroscopy three phases of mineralization allowed us to distinguish three type of minerals inside the mat: (1) a Mg and Si-rich clay developing on the organic matrix; (2) an intracellular Al-rich clay. (3) aragonite clots replacing the organic matrixes and embedding bacteria

  10. Thematic Mapper laser profile resolution of Holocene Lake limit, Great Salt Lake Desert, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merola, John A.; Currey, Donald R.; Ridd, Merrill K.

    1989-01-01

    The limit of Great Salt Lake's maximum expansion onto the floor of the Great Salt Lake Desert during Holocene time is marked by a break in slope which is clearly depicted in terrain models which merge Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral scanner data and Aerial Profiling of Terrain System (APTS) laser profile data. Mean elevations of APTS-coincident TM pixels are strongly correlated with reflectance in TM Bands 5 and 7 when and where sufficient moisture contrasts among terrain components are high. TM-APTS models and field surveys place the highest Holocene standing water at an elavation of 4221 ft (1286.7 m).

  11. 78 FR 21937 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Request: Comment Request; Great Lakes Accountability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... AGENCY Proposed Agency Information Collection Request: Comment Request; Great Lakes Accountability System... Protection Agency is planning to submit an information collection request (ICR), ``Great Lakes Accountability... Accountability System, Attn: Rita Cestaric, EPA, Great Lakes National Program Office, 77 W. Jackson, Chicago,...

  12. 76 FR 50713 - 2012 Rates for Pilotage on the Great Lakes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 401 RIN 1625-AB70 2012 Rates for Pilotage on the Great Lakes AGENCY: Coast... pilotage on the Great Lakes. This correction provides four rows that were missing from Table 36 in the..., Office of Great Lakes Pilotage, Commandant (CG-5522), Coast Guard; telephone 202-372-2037, e- mail...

  13. 46 CFR 195.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 195.07-5 Section 195.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service...

  14. 46 CFR 195.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 195.07-5 Section 195.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service...

  15. 46 CFR 96.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 96.07-5 Section 96.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes...

  16. 46 CFR 77.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 77.07-5... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers § 77.07-5 Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service shall be fitted...

  17. 46 CFR 195.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 195.07-5 Section 195.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service...

  18. 46 CFR 96.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 96.07-5 Section 96.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes...

  19. 46 CFR 77.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 77.07-5... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers § 77.07-5 Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service shall be fitted...

  20. 46 CFR 77.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 77.07-5... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers § 77.07-5 Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service shall be fitted...

  1. 46 CFR 96.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 96.07-5 Section 96.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes...

  2. 46 CFR 77.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 77.07-5... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers § 77.07-5 Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service shall be fitted...

  3. 46 CFR 195.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 195.07-5 Section 195.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service...

  4. 46 CFR 77.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 77.07-5... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers § 77.07-5 Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service shall be fitted...

  5. 46 CFR 96.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 96.07-5 Section 96.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes...

  6. 46 CFR 96.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 96.07-5 Section 96.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes...

  7. 46 CFR 195.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 195.07-5 Section 195.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service...

  8. Selenium mass balance in the Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz, X.; Johnson, W.P.; Naftz, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    A mass balance for Se in the south arm of the Great Salt Lake was developed for September 2006 to August 2007 of monitoring for Se loads and removal flows. The combined removal flows (sedimentation and volatilization) totaled to a geometric mean value of 2079??kg Se/yr, with the estimated low value being 1255??kg Se/yr, and an estimated high value of 3143??kg Se/yr at the 68% confidence level. The total (particulates + dissolved) loads (via runoff) were about 1560??kg Se/yr, for which the error is expected to be ?? 15% for the measured loads. Comparison of volatilization to sedimentation flux demonstrates that volatilization rather than sedimentation is likely the major mechanism of selenium removal from the Great Salt Lake. The measured loss flows balance (within the range of uncertainties), and possibly surpass, the measured annual loads. Concentration histories were modeled using a simple mass balance, which indicated that no significant change in Se concentration was expected during the period of study. Surprisingly, the measured total Se concentration increased during the period of the study, indicating that the removal processes operate at their low estimated rates, and/or there are unmeasured selenium loads entering the lake. The selenium concentration trajectories were compared to those of other trace metals to assess the significance of selenium concentration trends. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Selenium mass balance in the Great Salt Lake, Utah.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Ximena; Johnson, William P; Naftz, David L

    2009-03-15

    A mass balance for Se in the south arm of the Great Salt Lake was developed for September 2006 to August 2007 of monitoring for Se loads and removal flows. The combined removal flows (sedimentation and volatilization) totaled to a geometric mean value of 2079 kg Se/yr, with the estimated low value being 1255 kg Se/yr, and an estimated high value of 3143 kg Se/yr at the 68% confidence level. The total (particulates+dissolved) loads (via runoff) were about 1560 kg Se/yr, for which the error is expected to be +/-15% for the measured loads. Comparison of volatilization to sedimentation flux demonstrates that volatilization rather than sedimentation is likely the major mechanism of selenium removal from the Great Salt Lake. The measured loss flows balance (within the range of uncertainties), and possibly surpass, the measured annual loads. Concentration histories were modeled using a simple mass balance, which indicated that no significant change in Se concentration was expected during the period of study. Surprisingly, the measured total Se concentration increased during the period of the study, indicating that the removal processes operate at their low estimated rates, and/or there are unmeasured selenium loads entering the lake. The selenium concentration trajectories were compared to those of other trace metals to assess the significance of selenium concentration trends.

  10. A Great Lakes atmospheric mercury monitoring network: evaluation and design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risch, Martin R.; Kenski, Donna M.; ,; David, A.

    2014-01-01

    As many as 51 mercury (Hg) wet-deposition-monitoring sites from 4 networks were operated in 8 USA states and Ontario, Canada in the North American Great Lakes Region from 1996 to 2010. By 2013, 20 of those sites were no longer in operation and approximately half the geographic area of the Region was represented by a single Hg-monitoring site. In response, a Great Lakes Atmospheric Mercury Monitoring (GLAMM) network is needed as a framework for regional collaboration in Hg-deposition monitoring. The purpose of the GLAMM network is to detect changes in regional atmospheric Hg deposition related to changes in Hg emissions. An optimized design for the network was determined to be a minimum of 21 sites in a representative and approximately uniform geographic distribution. A majority of the active and historic Hg-monitoring sites in the Great Lakes Region are part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) in North America and the GLAMM network is planned to be part of the MDN. To determine an optimized network design, active and historic Hg-monitoring sites in the Great Lakes Region were evaluated with a rating system of 21 factors that included characteristics of the monitoring locations and interpretations of Hg data. Monitoring sites were rated according to the number of Hg emissions sources and annual Hg emissions in a geographic polygon centered on each site. Hg-monitoring data from the sites were analyzed for long-term averages in weekly Hg concentrations in precipitation and weekly Hg-wet deposition, and on significant temporal trends in Hg concentrations and Hg deposition. A cluster analysis method was used to group sites with similar variability in their Hg data in order to identify sites that were unique for explaining Hg data variability in the Region. The network design included locations in protected natural areas, urban areas, Great Lakes watersheds, and in proximity to areas with a high density of annual Hg

  11. The Effect of Lake Temperatures and Emissions on Ozone Exposure in the Western Great Lakes Region

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Jerome D. ); Heilman, Warren E.

    2003-09-01

    A meteorological-chemical model with a 12-km horizontal grid spacing was used to simulate the evolution of ozone over the western Great Lakes region during a 30-day period in the summer of 1999. High ozone production rates were produced over the surface of the lakes as a result of stable atmospheric conditions that trapped ozone precursors within a shallow layer during the day. Simulations with lake temperatures derived from either satellite measurements or climatological values produced ozone mixing ratios over the lakes and around the lake shores that differed by as much as 50 ppb while differences over land were usually 10 ppb or less. Through another series of sensitivity studies that varied ozone precursor emissions, it was shown that a reduction of 50% NOx or VOC would lower the 60 ppb ozone exposure by up to 50 h per month in the remote forest regions over the northern Great Lakes. The implications of these results on future climate change and air quality in the region is discussed.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the Great Lakes: 1990`s concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Bloem, T.B.; Stanko, T.A.; Blankenbaker, R.K.; Higgins, J.H.; De Vault, D.S.; Anderson, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the water column of the Laurentian Great Lakes have declined over the last decade. The measurement of current concentrations of these hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCS) requires the sampling of large sample volumes, typically 100--400 liters. This paper will present results from the water column HOC trend program, begun by GLNPO in 1991. Water samples were filtered with a 0.7{mu}M glass fiber filter, and the filtrate was collected and extracted using the Goulden Large Sample Extractor (GLSE). PCBs were extracted from the filters with Soxhlet extraction, and the resulting operationally-defined particulate and dissolved phases were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Results indicate concentrations in the 100s of picograms/liter for total PCBs. Spatial differences within and between Lakes, and temporal differences will be presented.

  13. DYNAMICS OF NUTRIENTS AND HYDROLOGY IN A LAKE SUPERIOR COASTAL WETLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal wetlands are hydrologically complex ecosystems situated at the interface of upland catchments and oligotrophic Lake Superior. Little is known about nutrient dynamics within coastal wetlands or their role in modifying or contributing to nutrient fluxes from watersheds to ...

  14. Early responses to zebra mussels in the Great Lakes: a journey from information vacuum to policy and regulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, Ronald W.; Schloesser, Don W.; Kovalak, William P.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species such as zebra mussels pose a threat to the economies and environments of coastal and fresh-water habitats around the world. Consequently, it is important that government policies and programs be adequate to protect these waters from invaders. This chapter documents key events that took place in the early years (1988-1991) of zebra mussel colonization of the Laurentian Great Lakes and evaluates government responses (policies and programs) to this disruptive, invasive, freshwater species.

  15. Interacting Watershed Size and Landcover Influences on Habitat and Biota of Lake Superior Coastal Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal wetlands are important contributors to the productivity and biodiversity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake - watershed connection. This study explores how strength of connection to the watershed (represented by watershed size and wetland morphological ty...

  16. The Life of the Lakes: The Great Lakes Fishery. [Multimedia Package].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Sea Grant Extension, East Lansing.

    This multimedia package includes a 55-minute videocassettes, a guide, and six posters and was designed to provide teaching outlines/plans for a two-week thematic unit on Great Lakes fisheries for middle school or high school youth. The guide can be used in both formal school settings and nonformal school settings such as youth organizations and…

  17. The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement with an emphasis on annex 4 nutrients -and Lake Erie

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presented will be an overview of the Great Lakes Water Quality Act of 2012 including a general description of the Annexes and the new Binational Governance. The talk will focus on the Annex 4 Nutrients Subcommittee and the Objectives and Targets Task Team efforts that have been ...

  18. Air pollution and environmental justice in the Great Lakes region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comer, Bryan

    While it is true that air quality has steadily improved in the Great Lakes region, air pollution remains at unhealthy concentrations in many areas. Research suggests that vulnerable and susceptible groups in society -- e.g., minorities, the poor, children, and poorly educated -- are often disproportionately impacted by exposure to environmental hazards, including air pollution. This dissertation explores the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution (interpolated concentrations of fine particulate matter, PM2.5) and sociodemographic factors (race, housing value, housing status, education, age, and population density) at the Census block-group level in the Great Lakes region of the United States. A relatively novel approach to quantitative environmental justice analysis, geographically weighted regression (GWR), is compared with a simplified approach: ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. While OLS creates one global model to describe the relationship between air pollution exposure and sociodemographic factors, GWR creates many local models (one at each Census block group) that account for local variations in this relationship by allowing the value of regression coefficients to vary over space, overcoming OLS's assumption of homogeneity and spatial independence. Results suggest that GWR can elucidate patterns of potential environmental injustices that OLS models may miss. In fact, GWR results show that the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution and sociodemographic characteristics is non-stationary and can vary geographically and temporally throughout the Great Lakes region. This suggests that regulators may need to address environmental justice issues at the neighborhood level, while understanding that the severity of environmental injustices can change throughout the year.

  19. Mercury temporal trends in top predator fish of the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Zananski, Tiffany J; Holsen, Thomas M; Hopke, Philip K; Crimmins, Bernard S

    2011-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination is widespread in the Laurentian Great Lakes region and is a serious environmental concern. In anaerobic environments such as lake sediments, mercury is transformed into methylmercury (MeHg) and can biomagnify up the food chain to toxic concentrations. The Great Lakes Fish Monitoring Program (GLFMP), administered by the US EPA Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO), aims to monitor temporal trends of mercury in the five Great Lakes using top predator fish as biomonitors. Total Hg (THg) concentrations were measured in Great Lake fish collected between 1999 and 2009. Single factor ANOVA determined that average fish THg concentrations over this time period in the five lakes were significantly different from one another in the order of Superior > Huron > Michigan > Ontario > Erie. By fitting the data to three different models (linear, quadratic, and two-segment piecewise), it was determined that Hg concentrations in top predator fish (lake trout, or walleye in Lake Erie) are currently increasing in Lake Erie and the Apostle Island sampling site in Lake Superior. Significant decreasing trends are evident in Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and the Rockport sampling site in Lake Huron, although all of the lakes exhibit elevated concentrations in fish compared to historic concentrations. As new Hg emission controls are implemented in the US, continued monitoring of Hg in Great Lakes fish will be needed to determine if they influence the current concentrations and trends.

  20. Microwave properties of ice from The Great Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    The increasing use of radar systems as remote sensors of ice thickness has revealed a lack of basic data on the microwave properties of fresh-water ice. A program, in which the complex dielectric constant was measured for a series of ice samples taken from the Great Lakes, is described. The measurements were taken at temperatures of -5, -10, and -15 C. It is noted that the ice has considerable internal layered structure, and the effects of the layering are examined. Values of 3.0 to 3.2 are reported for the real part of the dielectric constant, with an error bar of + or - 0.01.

  1. Coastal change-potential assessment of Sleeping Bear Dunes, Indiana Dunes, and Apostle Islands National Lakeshores to lake-level changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Thieler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2007-01-01

    A change-potential index (CPI) was used to map the susceptibility of the shoreline to future lake-level change within Apostle Islands, Indiana Dunes, and Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshores (NL) along Lake Superior and Lake Michigan. The CPI in the Great Lakes setting ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to lake-level related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate and direction (i.e., rise and fall) of relative lake-level change, historical shoreline change rates, annual ice cover and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each input variable were combined, and an index value calculated for 1-minute bins covering the parks. The CPI highlights those regions where the physical effects of lake-level and coastal change might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's potential for change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the parks' natural susceptibility to the effects of lake-level variation. The CPI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. The CPI is applied to the National Lakeshores of Apostle Islands, Indiana Dunes, and Sleeping Bear Dunes to test this methodology in lake settings. The National Lakeshores in this study consist of sand and gravel beaches, rock outcrops, and dune and glacial bluffs. The areas within these Great Lakes parks that are likely to experience the most lake-level-related coastal change are areas of unconsolidated sediment where regional coastal slope is low and wave energy is high.

  2. Thiamine status in adult salmonines in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, S.B.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Hnath, J.G.; Wolgamood, M.; Marcquenski, S.V.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    In 1996 and again in 1999, hatchery personnel noted that some Lake Michigan coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch from fall spawning runs on the Platte River weir exhibited abnormal wiggling behavior that was similar to the behavior exhibited by thiamine-deficient Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, from the Baltic Sea. Samples of eggs or gonads, muscle, and liver from salmon and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush exhibiting abnormal behaviors were collected to determine the extent to which the behaviors were related to a thiamine deficiency. We compared these values with those found in normally behaving fish that produced offspring with high embryonic survival. In all adult fish exhibiting abnormal behavior, tissue residues of thiamine were among the lowest observed in the Great Lakes. Where embryonic survival was assessed, abnormal adult behavior was also associated with very high levels of offspring mortality due to early mortality syndrome. While the overall ecological significance remains to be determined, it appears that adult fish also exhibit neurological dysfunction and mortality associated with thiamine deficiency.

  3. Lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region and their influence during BAQS-Met 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, D. M. L.; Brook, J. R.; Levy, I.; Makar, P. A.; Zhang, J.; Taylor, P. A.

    2011-02-01

    Mesoscale observations from the BAQS-Met field experiment during the summer of 2007 were integrated and manually analyzed in order to identify and characterize lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region of North America, and assess their potential impact on air quality. Lake breezes were found to occur on 90% of study days, often occurring in conditions previously thought to impede their development. They affected all parts of the study region, including southwestern Ontario and nearby portions of southeast Michigan and northern Ohio, occasionally penetrating inland from 100 km to over 200 km. Occurrence rates and penetration distances were found to be higher than previously reported in the literature. This more accurate depiction of observed lake breezes allows a better understanding of their influence on the production and transport of pollutants in this region. The observational analyses were compared with output from subsequent runs of a high-resolution numerical weather prediction model. The model accurately predicted lake breeze occurrence in a variety of synoptic wind regimes, but selected cases showed substantial differences in the detailed timing and location of lake-breeze fronts, and with the initiation of deep moist convection. Knowledge of such strengths and weaknesses will assist with interpretation of results from air quality modelling driven by this meteorological model.

  4. Great Salt Lake Microbial Communities: The Foundation of a Terminal Lake Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, B. K.; Acord, M.; Riddle, M. R.; Avery, B.

    2006-12-01

    Great Salt Lake (GSL) is a natural hypersaline ecosystem and a terminal lake of substantial size. The dramatic fluctuation in water levels and salinity creates an ecological backdrop selective for organisms with a high degree of adaptability. At the macro level, the biodiversity of the GSL ecosystem is simple, due to the limitations of an extreme saline environment: Birds eat the two invertebrates of the lake, and the invertebrates eat phytoplankton. However, analysis of the microbial level reveals an enormous diversity of species interacting with one another and the ecosystem as a whole. Our cultivation, biochemical tests, microscopy and DNA sequencing yielded data on dozens of isolates. These data demonstrate novel species, and possibly genera, living in the lake. In addition, we have discovered viruses (bacteriophage) that prey on the microorganisms. Preliminary data on bacteria dwelling in the gut of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, link these prokaryotic organisms to the food chain for the first time. All of these results taken together open the door for the discussion of the significance of the microbial level of terminal lake ecosystem, particularly in light of lake water contamination and bioremediation possibilities.

  5. Lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes: stock-size criteria for natural reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.; Bronte, Charles R.; Brown, Edward H.; Hansen, Michael J.; Holey, Mark E.; VanAmberg, Jan P.; Muth, Kenneth M.; Makauskas, Daniel B.; Mckee, Patrick; Anderson, David M.; Ferreri, C. Paola; Schram, Stephen T.

    1995-01-01

    We examined the question of whether the lake trout restoration program in the Great Lakes has developed brood stocks of adequate size to sustain natural reproduction. Stock size criteria were developed from areas of the Great Lakes where natural reproduction has been successful (defined as detection of age-1 or older recruits by assessment fishing). We contrasted them with stocks in areas with no natural reproduction. Based on the relative abundance of spawners measured in the fall and the presence or absence of natural reproduction in 24 areas of the Great Lakes, we found three distinct sets of lake trout populations. In seven areas of successful natural reproduction, the catch-per-unit-effort (CPE) of spawners ranged from 17 to 135 fish/305 m of gillnet. Stock sizes in these areas were used as a gauge against which stocks in other areas were contrasted. We conclude that stock densities of 17-135 fish/305 m of gill net are adequate for natural reproduction, provided that all other requirements are met. No natural reproduction has been detected in seven other areas, where CPEs of spawners ranged from only 3 to 5 fish/305 m. We conclude that spawning stocks of only 3-5 fish/305 m of net are inadequate to develop measurable natural reproduction. Natural reproduction has also not been detected in ten areas where CPEs of spawners ranged from 43 to 195 fish/305 m of net. We conclude that spawning stocks in these ten areas were adequate to sustain natural reproduction, but that some factor other than parental stock size prevented recruitment of wild lake trout.

  6. Developing Multi-Lake Regulation Plans for the Great Lakes through Multi-Scenario Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, S.; Tolson, B.; Asadzadeh, M.

    2011-12-01

    Water levels in the Great Lakes- St. Lawrence freshwater system (Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario as well as the St. Lawrence River) impact a variety of stakeholder groups such as hydropower producers, the shipping industry, shoreline property owners and recreational boaters. Although the system is currently managed by control structures at two locations (Lake Superior and Lake Ontario outflows are controlled), there is concern that future extreme climates will generate water supply sequences to the system that will substantially increase the frequency and persistence of extreme water levels imposing millions of dollars of losses to Canadian and American economies. This work partially summarizes a study under The International Upper Great Lakes Study (International Joint Commission) to provide an exploratory conceptual analysis of how and to what extent new control structures in the system could be used to minimize the risks posed by extreme water levels outside of the historic range. In this study, two new hypothetical control structures were investigated to regulate Lake Michigan-Huron and Lake Erie outflows. Multiple regulation plans were developed to operate the hypothetical structures in the St. Clair and/or Niagara rivers in combination with the two existing control structures in the St. Marys and St. Lawrence Rivers. The regulation plans were defined by multi-lake rule curves whose parameters were determined through a simulation-optimization procedure. As there is a high level of uncertainty in future climate, multiple water supply sequences, each 70 years long, representing different future climate scenarios were considered. A multi-scenario based optimization formulation was developed aiming to keep the water levels within the historical range and to minimize and evenly distribute extreme water levels across the system. The dynamically dimensioned search (DDS) algorithm was applied to optimize the multi-scenario based formulation. As the

  7. Introduction to the Proceedings of the 1994 International Conference on Restoration of Lake Trout in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.

    1995-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) restoration in the Great Lakes began in the 1950s when stocking of artificially propagated lake trout was coupled with the first attempts at sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control. A major milestone in the restoration process was recorded when a selective sea lamprey larvicide was identified in 1958 (Applegate et al. 1958) and then applied broad scale in Lake Superior in 1958-60 (Applegate et al. 1961). Other milestones include the expansion of the sea lamprey control programs into Lakes Michigan and Huron in 1960 (sustained usage in Lake Huron began in 1966, Smith and Tibbles 1980), Lake Ontario in 1971-72 (Elrod et al. 1995), and Lake Erie in 1986 (Cornelius et al. 1995). Following the collapse of lake trout in the Great Lakes and the implementation of massive stocking of hatchery-reared fish and effective sea lamprey control, the first documented evidence of nearshore natural reproduction of lake trout was in Lake Superior in 1965 (Dryer and King 1968), in Lake Michigan in 1980 (Jude et al. 1981), in Lake Huron in 1981-82 (Nester and Poe 1984), and in Lake Ontario in 1986 (Marsden et al. 1988).

  8. Ecotoxicology of organochlorine chemicals in birds of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Giesy, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Silent Spring was fulfilled in the United States with passage of environmental legislation such as the Clean Water Act, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, and the Toxic Substance Control Act in the 1970s. Carson's writings, television interviews, and testimony before Congress alerted a nation and the world to the unintended effects of persistent, bioaccumulative chemicals on populations of fish, wildlife, and possibly humans. Her writings in the popular press brought attention to scientific findings that declines in populations of a variety of birds were directly linked to the widespread use of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in agriculture, public health, and horticulture. By the 1970s, DDT and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were being banned or phased out, and the intent of these regulatory acts became apparent in a number of locations across the United States, including the Great Lakes. Concentrations of DDT and its major product of transformation, dichlorodiphenylchloroethane (DDE), were decreasing in top predators, such as bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), colonial waterbirds, and other fish-eating wildlife. Eggshell thinning and the associated mortality of bird embryos caused by DDE had decreased in the Great Lakes and elsewhere by the early 1980s.

  9. Can high tech save the Great Lakes states

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, L.E.

    1983-11-01

    Hard hit by the current recession, the Great Lakes states are looking at New England's success with high technology to solve their long-term economic problems associated with their dependence on smokestack manufacturing industries. ''High tech'' is a concept relating to evolving knowledge-intensive industries. A comparison of employment records shows a faster growth in nonmanufacturing compared to high-tech industries, which create a relatively small fraction of total employment. Despite a high level of manufacturing activity in the Great Lakes region, high-tech employment is lower than the national average. A 1981-83 survey of high-tech companies showing an interest in increasing expansion investment in the Midwest will not help the area improve its employment situation. High labor costs and a low percentage of college graduates deter investment there. The application of high tech to preserve traditional industries looks more promising than efforts to emulate New England and the Southwest. 10 references, 3 figures, 5 tables. (DCK)

  10. Great Lakes Biomass State and Regional Partnership (GLBSRP)

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzel, Frederic

    2009-09-01

    The Council of Great Lakes Governors administered the Great Lakes Biomass State and Regional Partnership (GLBSRP) under contract with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). This Partnership grew out of the existing Regional Biomass Energy Program which the Council had administered since 1983. The GLBSRP includes the States of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio and Wisconsin. The GLBSRP's overall goal is to facilitate the increased production and use of bioenergy and biobased products throughout the region. The GLBSRP has traditionally addressed its goals and objectives through a three-pronged approach: providing grants to the States; undertaking region-wide education, outreach and technology transfer projects; and, providing in-house management, support and information dissemination. At the direction of US Department of Energy, the primary emphasis of the GLBSRP in recent years has been education and outreach. Therefore, most activities have centered on developing educational materials, hosting workshops and conferences, and providing technical assistance. This report summarizes a selection of activities that were accomplished under this cooperative agreement.

  11. Are PCBs the major neurotoxicant in Great Lakes salmon?

    SciTech Connect

    Seegal, R.F. |

    1999-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between consumption, by women, of contaminated Great Lakes salmon and deficits in cognitive performance in the children of these women. Although significant statistical associations between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burdens and these negative outcomes suggest that PCBs may be responsible, the fetus and neonate are also exposed to other fish-borne neurotoxicants. In this manuscript the authors present data from two developmental studies that support the hypothesis that PCBs may serve either as a marker for other contaminants that are responsible for the observed effects, or that other contaminants present in the fish interact synergistically with the PCBs to produce the observed neurotoxicity. In the first study the authors demonstrated that exposure of rates to diets containing lyophilized Great Lakes salmon, resulting in exposure to as little as 13.9 {micro}g/(kg {center_dot} day) of total PCBs, induced significant reductions in regional brain dopamine (DA) concentrations. In the second study, they demonstrated that exposure of rats to the ortho-substituted PCB congener (2,4,2{prime},4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl) at 1, 10 or 20 mg/(kg {center_dot} day) also induced significant reductions in DA concentrations in the same brain regions although only at the two highest doses--levels at least 100-fold higher than seen in the first study.

  12. 77 FR 32089 - Establishment of the Great Lakes Advisory Board (GLAB)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... AGENCY Establishment of the Great Lakes Advisory Board (GLAB) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Lakes Advisory Board (GLAB). The purpose of the GLAB is to provide advice to the Administrator in her... matters related to Great Lakes restoration and protection. The major objectives will be to provide...

  13. Appreciating Your Great Lakes. A Guide for Developing Educational Projects. 4-H Marine Education Series - 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennisi, Christine; Goettel, Robin, Ed.

    The Great Lakes are the largest series of fresh water bodies in the world. They are used for a wide variety of purposes by the 37 million citizens of the United States and Canada who live near the lakes and share this resource. This guide is intended to guide youth in acquiring training and field experience related to the Great Lakes in areas such…

  14. 77 FR 19309 - Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Great Falls, MT; Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Great Falls, MT; Comprehensive... Falls, Montana. Benton Lake Wetland Management District was established in 1975. It includes 10 counties..., selenium contamination, and public use at the Benton Lake Refuge took place in Great Falls, Montana...

  15. PROFILES OF GREAT LAKES CRITICAL POLLUTANTS: A SENTINEL ANALYSIS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the contaminants that should be studied further in the subsequent population-based study, a profile of Great Lakes (GL) sport fish contaminant residues were studied in human blood and urine specimens from 32 sport fish consumers from three Great Lakes: Lake Michigan ...

  16. Dreissenid mussels are not a "dead end" in Great Lakes food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenijan, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; Ebener, Mark P.; Mohr, Lloyd C.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Bence, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Dreissenid mussels have been regarded as a “dead end” in Great Lakes food webs because the degree of predation on dreissenid mussels, on a lakewide basis, is believed to be low. Waterfowl predation on dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes has primarily been confined to bays, and therefore its effects on the dreissenid mussel population have been localized rather than operating on a lakewide level. Based on results from a previous study, annual consumption of dreissenid mussels by the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) population in central Lake Erie averaged only 6 kilotonnes (kt; 1 kt = one thousand metric tons) during 1995–2002. In contrast, our coupling of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) population models with a lake whitefish bioenergetics model revealed that lake whitefish populations in Lakes Michigan and Huron consumed 109 and 820 kt, respectively, of dreissenid mussels each year. Our results indicated that lake whitefish can be an important predator on dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes, and that dreissenid mussels do not represent a “dead end” in Great Lakes food webs. The Lake Michigan dreissenid mussel population has been estimated to be growing more than three times faster than the Lake Huron dreissenid mussel population during the 2000s. One plausible explanation for the higher population growth rate in Lake Michigan would be the substantially higher predation rate by lake whitefish on dreissenid mussels in Lake Huron.

  17. Bathythermal habitat use by strains of Great Lakes- and Finger Lakes-origin lake trout in Lake Huron after a change in prey fish abundance and composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; Argyle, Ray L.; Krueger, Charles C.; Taylor, William W.

    2012-01-01

    A study conducted in Lake Huron during October 1998–June 2001 found that strains of Great Lakes-origin (GLO) lake trout Salvelinus namaycush occupied significantly higher temperatures than did Finger Lakes-origin (FLO; New York) lake trout based on data from archival (or data storage) telemetry tags that recorded only temperature. During 2002 and 2003, we implanted archival tags that recorded depth as well as temperature in GLO and FLO lake trout in Lake Huron. Data subsequently recorded by those tags spanned 2002–2005. Based on those data, we examined whether temperatures and depths occupied by GLO and FLO lake trout differed during 2002–2005. Temperatures occupied during those years were also compared with occupied temperatures reported for 1998–2001, before a substantial decline in prey fish biomass. Temperatures occupied by GLO lake trout were again significantly higher than those occupied by FLO lake trout. This result supports the conclusion of the previous study. The GLO lake trout also occupied significantly shallower depths than FLO lake trout. In 2002–2005, both GLO and FLO lake trout occupied significantly lower temperatures than they did in 1998–2001. Aside from the sharp decline in prey fish biomass between study periods, the formerly abundant pelagic alewife Alosa pseudoharengus virtually disappeared and the demersal round goby Neogobius melanostomus invaded the lake and became locally abundant. The lower temperatures occupied by lake trout in Lake Huron during 2002–2005 may be attributable to changes in the composition of the prey fish community, food scarcity (i.e., a retreat to cooler water could increase conversion efficiency), or both.

  18. Impacts of Tributaries on Optical Properties and Singlet Oxygen Concentrations in the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Lakes have over 100 tributaries that contribute natural organic matter and othernatural photosensitizers to nearshore sites on the lakes. Absorption of sunlight by thesesensitizers results in indirect (sensitized) photoreactions of the widespread chemical andbiological ...

  19. Lake Superior Coastal Wetland Fish Assemblages and Habitat Conditions in Relation to Watershed Connectivity and Landcover

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of the coastal margin and the watershed context in defining the ecology of even very large lakes is increasingly being recognized and examined. Coastal wetlands are both important contributors to the biodiversity and productivity of large lakes and important mediators o...

  20. Limitations to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) rehabilitation in the Great Lakes imposed by biotic interactions occurring at early life stages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Michael L.; Eck, Gary W.; Evans, David O.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Hoff, Michael H.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Janssen, John; Jude, David; O'Gorman, Robert; Savino, Jacqueline F.

    1995-01-01

    We examine evidence that biotic factors, particularly predation, may be limiting early survival of wild lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) juveniles in many areas of the Great Lakes. The Great Lakes contain numerous potential predators of lake trout eggs and fry, some of which are recent invaders, and most of which were probably absent when lake trout most recently re-invaded the Great Lakes after the last ice age. Simple quantitative models of predation suggest that plausible assumptions about prey densities, predator feeding rates, and duration of exposure of predator to prey can lead to very high estimates of predation mortality, in some instances approaching 100%. Indirect evidence from inter-Great Lake comparisons and inland lake examples also suggest that biotic factors may impede successful lake trout colonization. Our synthesis of the evidence leads to recommendations for research to better define field feeding rates of lake trout egg and fry predators and comparative studies of densities of potential egg and fry predators on lake trout spawning reefs. Management options should be designed to provide useful information as well as achieve short-term goals. From a management standpoint we recommend that: newly constructed lake trout reefs should be placed well away from concentrations of potential predators; offshore spawning reefs should be stocked; salmonine stocking, nutrient abatement, and commercial harvest of alewives should all be considered as options to enhance survival of young lake trout; hatchery lake trout should not be stocked at sites where wild lake trout are showing signs of recovery; and exotic species expansions or introductions must be curtailed to maintain or improve on our recent successes in lake trout rehabilitation.

  1. Paleoenvironmental changes in the Western Great Lakes National Parks since deglaciation: Implications for the effect of the Great Lakes on regional climate

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, M.G.

    1995-09-01

    Pollen and charcoal analyses of lake and bog core sediments from Voyageur`s National Park and the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore provide evidence of regional Holocene climate changes for the western Great Lakes that differ from paleoclimates interpreted for regions of the Midwest more distant from the Great Lakes. The timing of the middle Holocene dry period when prairie and oak-savannah expanded in the Midwest occurs between 9000 and 5000 yr B. P. in the northern regions, but between 5600 and 3500 yr B.P. in the lower tier of the northern midwestern states away from the lakes.

  2. Evaluation of the performance of the WRF 1-Dimensional Lake model over the East Africa Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudoshava, M.; Semazzi, F. H. M.

    2015-12-01

    This study seeks to investigate the performance of the 1-Dimensional lake model coupled to WRF over East Africa. The Africa Great lakes exert a great influence on the climate of the region and a number of studies have shown how the lake influences the circulation and the total precipitation over the region. The lakes have highly variable depths, with Lake Victoria having an average depth of 40m and Lake Tanganyika a depth of 450m. The Lake model for WRF was tested and calibrated for the Great lakes, however it was not tested for tropical lakes. We hypothesize that the inclusion of a 1-dimensional lake will reduce the precipitation bias as compared to the WRF model without the lake model. In addition initializing the lake temperature using a vertical temperature profile that closes resembles the one over these lakes will greatly reduce the spin up time. The simulations utilized three nested domains at 36, 12 and 4km. The 4km domain is centered over Lake Victoria Basin, while the 12 km domain includes all the lakes in East Africa. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) datasets are used in evaluating the precipitation, and the following statistics were calculated: root mean square error, standard deviation of the model and observations and mean bias. The results show that the use of the 1-dimensional lake model improves the precipitation over the region considerably compared to an uncoupled model. The asymmetrical rainfall pattern is evident in the simulations. However using the default vertical temperature profile with a three-month spin up is not adequate to transfer heat to the bottom of the lake. Hence the temperatures are still very cold at the bottom. A nine-month spin up improves the lake surface temperatures and lake temperatures at the bottom. A two year spin up greatly improves the lake surface temperatures and hence the total precipitation over the lake. Thus longer spin up time allows for adequate heat transfer in the lake. Initializing the

  3. Challenges to the Lake

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the past decade we have extensively studied coastal ecosystems in the Great Lakes. Some research efforts have linked coastal receiving systems to conditions in their contributing watersheds; others have focused on developing invasive species detection and monitoring strat...

  4. Conservation and management of fisheries and aquatic communities in Great Lakes connecting channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, Edward F.; Thompson, Patricia A.; Farrell, John M.; Mandrak, Nicholas E.; Stepien, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    The North American Laurentian Great Lakes are linked by a unique series of riverine and lacustrine waters known as the Great Lakes connecting channels that are as integral to the basin's ecology and economies as the lakes themselves. The St. Marys River (SMR) is the northernmost channel and flows from Lake Superior to Lake Huron. Waters from the upper Great Lakes (Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron) empty from Lake Huron via the St. Clair–Detroit River system (SCDRS, also known as the Huron–Erie Corridor) into Lake Erie. The SCDRS is composed of the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, and the Detroit River. The Niagara River (NR) serves as the outflow from Lake Erie into Lake Ontario. The NR above Niagara Falls is bisected by Grand Island and contains several other islands and man-made embayments whereas the NR below the falls is more linear. The outflow from Lake Ontario, representing the natural outlet of all the Great Lakes, is the St. Lawrence River (SLR) which empties into the Gulf of St. Lawrence in the northwest Atlantic Ocean.

  5. Glial cell biology in the Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Douglas L; Skoff, Robert P

    2016-03-31

    We report on the tenth bi-annual Great Lakes Glial meeting, held in Traverse City, Michigan, USA, September 27-29 2015. The GLG meeting is a small conference that focuses on current research in glial cell biology. The array of functions that glial cells (astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells) play in health and disease is constantly increasing. Despite this diversity, GLG meetings bring together scientists with common interests, leading to a better understanding of these cells. This year's meeting included two keynote speakers who presented talks on the regulation of CNS myelination and the consequences of stress on Schwann cell biology. Twenty-two other talks were presented along with two poster sessions. Sessions covered recent findings in the areas of microglial and astrocyte activation; age-dependent changes to glial cells, Schwann cell development and pathology, and the role of stem cells in glioma and neural regeneration.

  6. Research on pathogens at Great Lakes beaches: sampling, influential factors, and potential sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The overall mission of this work is to provide science-based information and methods that will allow beach managers to more accurately make beach closure and advisory decisions, understand the sources and physical processes affecting beach contaminants, and understand how science-based information can be used to mitigate and restore beaches and protect the public. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with many Federal, State, and local agencies and universities, has conducted research on beach health issues in the Great Lakes Region for more than a decade. The work consists of four science elements that align with the USGS Beach Health Initiative Mission: real-time assessments of water quality; coastal processes; pathogens and source tracking; and data analysis, interpretation, and communication. The ongoing or completed research for the pathogens and source tracking topic is described in this fact sheet.

  7. Are PCBs the major neurotoxicant in Great Lakes salmon?

    PubMed

    Seegal, R F

    1999-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between consumption, by women, of contaminated Great Lakes salmon and deficits in cognitive performance in the children of these women. Although significant statistical associations between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burdens and these negative outcomes suggest that PCBs may be responsible, the fetus and neonate are also exposed to other fish-borne neurotoxicants. In this manuscript we present data from two developmental studies that support the hypothesis that PCBs may serve either as a marker for other contaminants that are responsible for the observed effects, or that other contaminants present in the fish interact synergistically with the PCBs to produce the observed neurotoxicity. In the first study we demonstrated that exposure of rats to diets containing lyophilized Great Lakes salmon, resulting in exposure to as little as 13.9 micrograms/(kg small middle dotday) of total PCBs, induced significant reductions in regional brain dopamine (DA) concentrations. In the second study, we demonstrated that exposure of rats to the ortho-substituted PCB congener (2,4,2', 4'-tetrachloro- biphenyl) at 1, 10 or 20 mg/(kg small middle dotday) also induced significant reductions in DA concentrations in the same brain regions although only at the two highest doses-levels at least 100-fold higher than seen in the first study. On the basis of these developmental neurochemical studies we suggest that the reported cognitive deficits in children exposed in utero and during lactation to fish-borne contaminants may be due either to contaminants other than PCBs or to complex interactions between PCBs and other neurotoxicants present in the fish.

  8. The dry deposition of mercury into the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisonbee, Joel R.

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL) in the western United States has been identified as the most mercury laden body of water in the United States with a median water mercury concentration of 42 nanograms per liter. When Hg enters an aquatic ecosystem, it can be converted to the toxic organic mercury compound, methylmercury. Methylmercury bioaccumulates up the food chain and has been the cause of consumption advisories for game fish in many lakes and rivers in the historically pristine Intermountain West. In 2005, the Utah Department of Health and the Fish and Wildlife Service placed a similar consumption advisory on waterfowl on the GSL. The primary goal of this study is to identify the pathway of greatest influx of Hg pollution to the GSL to give insight toward the source and an eventual solution to the Hg pollution problem. Speciated atmospheric mercury measurements were collected at a field site on the eastern shore of the GSL for a 1-year period beginning on July 1, 2009. These atmospheric mercury concentrations, along with turbulence measurements, were used as input to a resistance-in-series dry deposition model (based on Wesley and Hicks 1977). The dry deposition flux of mercury was determined from the modeled dry deposition velocity and the measured concentrations. This dry deposition flux was compared to the wet deposition flux measured by the National Deposition Network and the riverine influx measured by the USGS. It was found that in the 1 year from July 1, 2009 through June 30, 2010, 10.7 nanograms per square meter of Hg was deposited into the GSL by dry deposition from the atmosphere. Dry deposition makes up 60% of the total Hg influx from all measured pathways. The flux from the dry deposition of the global background pool of Hg (1.5 +/- 0.2 nanograms per square meter) dominated the dry deposition flux, making up 82.5+/-8.5% of the dry deposition flux and 50% of the total Hg influx to the GSL. Lake sediment cores from the GSL suggest a much larger annual flux

  9. 46 CFR 30.10-33 - Great Lakes-TB/L.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Great Lakes-TB/L. 30.10-33 Section 30.10-33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-33 Great Lakes—TB/L. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels navigating the Great Lakes....

  10. 46 CFR 30.10-33 - Great Lakes-TB/L.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Great Lakes-TB/L. 30.10-33 Section 30.10-33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-33 Great Lakes—TB/L. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels navigating the Great Lakes....

  11. 46 CFR 30.10-33 - Great Lakes-TB/L.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Great Lakes-TB/L. 30.10-33 Section 30.10-33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-33 Great Lakes—TB/L. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels navigating the Great Lakes....

  12. 46 CFR 30.10-33 - Great Lakes-TB/L.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Great Lakes-TB/L. 30.10-33 Section 30.10-33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-33 Great Lakes—TB/L. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels navigating the Great Lakes....

  13. 46 CFR 30.10-33 - Great Lakes-TB/L.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Great Lakes-TB/L. 30.10-33 Section 30.10-33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-33 Great Lakes—TB/L. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels navigating the Great Lakes....

  14. GREAT LAKES BEACH CLOSURES: USING SATELLITE IMAGES TO IDENTIFY AREAS AT RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are people getting sick from swimming at Great Lakes beaches? Some are. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, swimmers are experiencing an increase in bacterial borne illnesses from swimming at many popular Great Lakes beaches. The beaches in the Great Lak...

  15. 46 CFR 42.03-15 - The Great Lakes of North America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Great Lakes of North America. 42.03-15 Section 42.03... VOYAGES BY SEA Application § 42.03-15 The Great Lakes of North America. (a) The term “Great Lakes of North America” means those waters of North America which are defined in § 42.05-40, and in the exception...

  16. A field guide to valuable underwater aquatic plants of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this field guide is to aid in the identification of common underwater plants in the Great Lakes. These plants are found mostly in shallow, nearshore waters along sheltered bays, peninsulas, and the four connecting rivers of the Great Lakes, including the St. Lawrence River (Figure 1). Connecting rivers are especially favorable for aquatic plants because they are shallow, have a consistent flow of water, and are protected from heavy wave action typical of other Great Lakes shorelines.

  17. Development, Implementation, and Skill Assessment of the NOAA/NOS Great Lakes Operational Forecast System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Development, implementation, and skill assessment of the NOAA /NOS Great Lakes Operational Forecast System Philip Y. Chu & John G. W. Kelley & Gregory...USA) 2011 Abstract The NOAA Great Lakes Operational Forecast System (GLOFS) uses near-real-time atmospheric observa- tions and numerical weather...System (GLFS) was developed by researchers at The Ohio State University (OSU) and NOAA ′s Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) in the

  18. Toxicity to Daphnia pulex and QSAR predictions for polycyclic hydrocarbons representative of Great Lakes contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino-Reader, D.R.; Hickey, J.P.; Ogilvie, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the toxicity of several types of polycyclic hydrocarbons characteristic of Great Lakes samples to Daphnia pulex, a Great Lakes zooplankter, (2) to investigate the influence of different structural characteristics on toxicity, and (3) to determine the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) parameters and model that describe these compounds. These results will be related to comparative toxicity of other Great Lakes environmental compounds and to their application in site specific risk assessment.

  19. Short-Term Bluff Recession Behavior Along Pennsylvania's Great Lakes Coastline, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foyle, A. M.; Naber, M. D.; Pluta, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Coastal bluff retreat is a common problem along the world's unconsolidated coastlines. On the Great Lakes coast of Pennsylvania, Quaternary clay-rich glacial till, paleo-lake plain, and sandy strandplain sequences overlie Devonian bedrock. These Quaternary strata are subject to subaerial and lacustrine erosional processes that cause permanent coastal land loss at spatially variable rates, with the former (runoff, slumping, groundwater focusing, etc) dominating over the latter (wave and current scour, abrasion, etc). Land loss is of concern to environmental agencies because land-use planning should account for spatial and temporal variability in land-loss rates, and because bluff erosion contributes to a temporary degradation in coastal water quality. The goal of this study is to evaluate spatial variability in bluff retreat rates along a 20 km sector of Pennsylvania's short Great Lakes coast. High resolution LiDAR data covering a one-decade time frame (1998-2007) permit bluff-crest mapping on two comparable data sets that captures change within a timeframe similar to CZM planning intervals. Short-term recession data can be more useful, cost-effective, and accurate than long-term analyses that use lower-resolution field measurements, T-sheets, and historical aerial photography. Bluffs along the 20 km coastal study site consist of up to 26 m of unlithified Quaternary sediments overlying a 1-4 m ledge of sub-horizontal Devonian shale and sandstone. Bluff slopes range from 20-90 degrees, beaches are narrow (<8 m wide) or absent, and the bluffs are seasonally shielded by ground-freeze and lake ice. DEMs, hillshades, and slope and contour maps were generated from bare-earth 1998 and 2007 LiDAR data, and checked against 2005 aerial ortho-photography. Maps were analyzed at a scale of 1:120 in ArcGIS and the bluff crest was identified primarily by the visual-break-in-slope method. Rates of bluff retreat derived using DSAS vary from unresolvable to as much as 2.2 m

  20. INFLUENCES OF HYDROLOGY ON NUTRIENT DYNAMICS IN LAKE SUPERIOR COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little is known about the role of the coastal wetlands (CWs) of Lake Superior in modifying or contributing to nutrient fluxes from watersheds to the lake. We are studying factors controlling nutrient retention and transformation of CWs in Western Lake Superior. CWs may be unique ...

  1. Energy density of bloaters in the upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pothoven, Steven A.; Bunnell, David B.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Gorman, Owen T.; Roseman, Edward F.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the energy density of bloaters Coregonus hoyi as a function of fish size across Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Superior in 2008–2009 and assessed how differences in energy density are related to factors such as biomass density of bloaters and availability of prey. Additional objectives were to compare energy density between sexes and to compare energy densities of bloaters in Lake Michigan between two time periods (1998–2001 and 2008–2009). For the cross-lake comparisons in 2008, energy density increased with fish total length (TL) only in Lake Michigan. Mean energy density adjusted for fish size was 8% higher in bloaters from Lake Superior than in bloaters from Lake Huron. Relative to fish in these two lakes, small (175 mm TL) bloaters had higher energy density. In 2009, energy density increased with bloater size, and mean energy density adjusted for fish size was about 9% higher in Lake Michigan than in Lake Huron (Lake Superior was not sampled during 2009). Energy density of bloaters in Lake Huron was generally the lowest among lakes, reflecting the relatively low densities of opossum shrimp Mysis diluviana and the relatively high biomass of bloaters reported for that lake. Other factors, such as energy content of prey, growing season, or ontogenetic differences in energy use strategies, may also influence cross-lake variation in energy density. Mean energy density adjusted for length was 7% higher for female bloaters than for male bloaters in Lakes Michigan and Huron. In Lake Superior, energy density did not differ between males and females. Finally, energy density of bloaters in Lake Michigan was similar between the periods 2008–2009 and 1998–2001, possibly due to a low population abundance of bloaters, which could offset food availability changes linked to the loss of prey such as the amphipods Diporeia spp.

  2. Discrepancies between ages determined from scales and otoliths for alewives from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Gorman, Robert; Barwick, D. Hugh; Bowen, Charles A.; Summerfelt, R.D.; Hall, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Discrepancies between ages determined from otoliths and those determined from scales were common and, sometimes, quite large in alewives Alosa pseudoharengus collected in fall 1983 from Lakes Ontario, Huron, and Michigan. Among fish with 'otolith ages' of 4 or more, the percentages having identical 'scale ages' were 1% in Lake Ontario, 35% in Lake Huron, and 56% in Lake Michigan. Among alewives with different otolith and scale ages, the percentages with discrepancies of 3 years or more were 51% in Lake Ontario, 23% in Lake Huron, and 6% in Lake Michigan. Among the three populations, variation in the magnitude of age disagreements were perhaps due to the different mortality rates in each lake, whereas variation in the frequency of disagreements appeared to be due to different ratios of food to fish in each lake. Previously reported age compositions and rates of mortality and production for Great Lakes alewives derived from scales have probably been inaccurate to various degrees.

  3. Alimini Lakes Project (PAL). Human-environment interaction during the Holocene in Mediterranean coastal wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbo, Andrea; Primavera, Milena; Fiorentino, Girolamo; Simone, Oronzo; Caldara, Massimo; Quarta, Gianluca; Calcagnile, Lucio

    2010-05-01

    A diachronical understanding of the co-evolution of people and Mediterranean wetlands requires the combined study of archaeological and palaeoenvironmental records. By focusing on an extended chronology, and relying on the update of known and new archaeological and palaeonvironmental sequences, PAL investigates how the Alimini Lakes disctrict (Apulia, S Italy) has changed over the past 10ka (the Holocene), a period witnessing great climatic environmental and social change. Holocene climate change is amplified in coastal wetlands, greatly affecting hydrology vegetation and people. Likewise, socio-economical changes (e.g. the introduction of agriculture) play a fundamental role in the shaping of wet landscapes. Under the combined action of environmental and human factors, coastal wetlands are prone to rapid and drastic ecological shifts and constitute ideal locations for developing a geoarchaeological approach. The results of the first year of research are presented here and include (1) the visit, description and GPS positioning of previously and newly discovered archaeological areas (cave and open air sites), (2) sampling of two Holocene sedimentary sequences from the Alimini Lakes disctict, (3) the results of the preliminary analyses (including AMS radiocarbon dating) carried out on the samples. The relocation of new and previously found archaeological sites was necessary to overcome some confusions caused by the contrasting published information. Relocated archaeological sites were normalized in a GIS environment. Two main Pleistocene/Holocene palaeoenvironmental sequences were sampled within the Alimini Lakes district: (1) the Frassanito dune reference sequence, obtained from a portion of the coastal dune (up to 10 m high) bordering the trait of the Adriatic coast situated in front of the Alimini lakes, (2) the ALI G 1 core (9m long) sampled on the W shore of Alimini Grande Lake. The multiproxy study of these sedimentary sequences provides a record of Holocene

  4. Biological Effects–Based Tools for Monitoring Impacted Surface Waters in the Great Lakes: A Multiagency Program in Support of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is increasing demand for the implementation of effects-based monitoring and surveillance (EBMS) approaches in the Great Lakes Basin to complement traditional chemical monitoring. Herein, we describe an ongoing multiagency effort to develop and implement EBMS tools, particul...

  5. FIELD TESTS OF GEOGRAPHICALLY-DEPENDENT VS. THRESHOLD-BASED WATERSHED CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES IN THE GREAT LAKES BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared classification schemes based on watershed storage (wetland + lake area/watershed area) and forest fragmentation with a geographically-based classification scheme for two case studies involving 1) Lake Superior tributaries and 2) watersheds of riverine coastal wetlands...

  6. FIELD TESTS OF GEOGRAPHICALLY-DEPENDENT VS. THRESHOLD-BASED WATERSHED CLASSIFICATION SCHEMED IN THE GREAT LAKES BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared classification schemes based on watershed storage (wetland + lake area/watershed area) and forest fragmentation with a geographically-based classification scheme for two case studies involving 1)Lake Superior tributaries and 2) watersheds of riverine coastal wetlands ...

  7. Potential Impacts of Extended Winter Navigation upon Migratory Birds of the Upper U.S. Great Lakes. Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway Navigation Season Extension Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    Biological Services Program OBS-82i51 SEPTEMBER 1982 POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF EXTENDED WINTER ’It NAVIGATION UPON MIGRATORY BIRDS OF THE UPPER N"j U.S...Security Classification) Potential Impacts of Extended Winter Navigation Upon Migratory Birds of the Upper U.S. Great Lakes 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Davis...PAGE Unclassified Potential Impacts of Extended Winter Navigation upon Migratory Birds of the Upper U.S. Great Lakes ERRATA SHEET Page XVII, item F6

  8. PHOTOTOXICITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN COASTAL GREAT LAKES WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photoinduced toxicity is the exacerbated toxicity of environmental contaminants by UV radiation. Photoinduced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been well established in the laboratory for numerous aquatic species including larval fish. The contaminants sub-p...

  9. Halogenated flame retardants in the Great Lakes environment.

    PubMed

    Venier, Marta; Salamova, Amina; Hites, Ronald A

    2015-07-21

    Flame retardants are widely used industrial chemicals that are added to polymers, such as polyurethane foam, to prevent them from rapidly burning if exposed to a small flame or a smoldering cigarette. Flame retardants, especially brominated flame retardants, are added to many polymeric products at percent levels and are present in most upholstered furniture and mattresses. Most of these chemicals are so-called "additive" flame retardants and are not chemically bound to the polymer; thus, they migrate from the polymeric materials into the environment and into people. As a result, some of these chemicals have become widespread pollutants, which is a concern given their possible adverse health effects. Perhaps because of their environmental ubiquity, the most heavily used group of brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), was withdrawn from production and use during the 2004-2013 period. This led to an increasing demand for other flame retardants, including other brominated aromatics and organophosphate esters. Although little is known about the use or production volumes of these newer flame retardants, it is evident that some of these chemicals are also becoming pervasive in the environment and in humans. In this Account, we describe our research on the occurrence of halogenated and organophosphate flame retardants in the environment, with a specific focus on the Great Lakes region. This Account starts with a short introduction to the first generation of brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated biphenyls, and then presents our measurements of their replacement, the PBDEs. We summarize our data on PBDE levels in babies, bald eagles, and in air. Once these compounds came off the market, we began to measure several of the newer flame retardants in air collected on the shores of the Great Lakes once every 12 days. These new measurements focus on a tetrabrominated benzoate, a tetrabrominated phthalate, a hexabrominated diphenoxyethane

  10. Isotopic Fractionation of Mercury in Great Lakes Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratz, L. E.; Keeler, G. J.; Blum, J. D.; Sherman, L. S.

    2009-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a hazardous bioaccumulative neurotoxin, and atmospheric deposition is a primary way in which mercury enters terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, the chemical processes and transport regimes that mercury undergoes from emission to deposition are not well understood. Thus the use of mercury isotopes to characterize the biogeochemical cycling of mercury is a rapidly growing area of study. Precipitation samples were collected in Chicago, IL, Holland, MI, and Dexter, MI from April 2007 - October 2007 to begin examining the isotopic fractionation of atmospheric mercury in the Great Lakes region. Results show that mass-dependent fractionation relative to NIST-3133 (MDF - δ202Hg) ranged from -0.8‰ to 0.2‰ (±0.2‰) in precipitation samples, while mass-independent fractionation (MIF - Δ199Hg) varied from 0.1‰ to 0.6‰ (±0.1‰). Although clear urban-rural differences were not observed, this may be due to the weekly collection of precipitation samples rather than collection of individual events, making it difficult to truly characterize the meteorology and source influences associated with each sample and suggesting that event-based collection is necessary during future sampling campaigns. Additionally, total vapor phase mercury samples were collected in Dexter, MI in 2009 to examine isotopic fractionation of mercury in ambient air. In ambient samples δ202Hg ranged from 0.3‰ to 0.5‰ (±0.1‰), however Δ199Hg was not significant. Because mercury in precipitation is predominantly Hg2+, while ambient vapor phase mercury is primarily Hg0, these results may suggest the occurrence of MIF during the oxidation of Hg0 to Hg2+ prior to deposition. Furthermore, although it has not been previously reported or predicted, MIF of 200Hg was also detected. Δ200Hg ranged from 0.0‰ to 0.2‰ in precipitation and from -0.1‰ to 0.0‰ in ambient samples. This work resulted in methodological developments in the collection and processing of

  11. Clostridium botulinum Type E in Fish from the Great Lakes1

    PubMed Central

    Bott, Thomas L.; Deffner, Janet S.; McCoy, Elizabeth; Foster, E. M.

    1966-01-01

    Bott, Thomas L. (University of Wisconsin, Madison), Janet S. Deffner, Elizabeth McCoy, and E. M. Foster. Clostridium botulinum type E in fish from the Great Lakes. J. Bacteriol. 91:919–924. 1966.—The intestinal contents of more than 3,000 fish from Lakes Erie, Superior, Huron, and Michigan were examined for Clostridium botulinum type E. Demonstration of the organism was accomplished by identifying its toxin in liquid cultures inoculated with material from the alimentary tract. Incidence figures, expressed as per cent of the fish tested, were: Lake Erie, 1%; Lake Superior, 1%; Lake Huron, 4%; the main body of Lake Michigan, 9%; and Green Bay (on Lake Michigan), 57%. Thus, C. botulinum type E appears to be widely but unevenly distributed in the Great Lakes, and fish from all areas are potential carriers of it. PMID:5326102

  12. Using Scenario Development to Encourage Tourism Business Resilience in the Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, N.; Day, J.; Sydnor, S.; Cherkauer, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Tourism is an economic sector anticipated to be greatly affected by climate change, but the potential impacts of climate change on tourism have rarely been examined in detail in existing research. Past research has shown, however, that the small and medium businesses that dominate the tourism sector could be greatly impacted by climate change. We have presented global climate and hydrologic model research results to pre-selected coastal tourism business owners in the Great Lakes region to determine the best methods for delivering user-friendly future climate scenarios, given that existing research suggests that climate change adaptive behaviors and resilience increase with information (message) clarity. Model output analyses completed for this work have focused on temperature, precipitation, and extreme weather events due to their economic impact on tourism activities. We have also experimented with the development and use of infographics because of their ability to present information quickly and clearly. Initial findings of this work will be presented as well as lessons learned from stakeholder interactions. Two main results include that (1) extreme weather events may have more meaning to tourism business owners than general trends in climate and (2) long-term planning for climate is extremely difficult for tourism business owners because they operate on a much shorter planning timeline than those generally used for climate change analyses.

  13. Caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) of fringing wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armitage, Brian J.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2001-01-01

    Fringing wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes are subject to natural processes, such as water-level fluctuation and wave-induced erosion, and to human alterations. In order to evaluate the quality of these wetlands over space and time, biological communities are often examined. This paper reports on the use of adult caddisflies to evaluate fringing wetlands of Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, and Lake Superior.

  14. Compsopogon cf. coeruleus, a benthic red alga (Rhodophyta) new to the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Wujek, Daniel E.

    1991-01-01

    We found Compsopogon cf. coeruleus for the first time in the Laurentian Great Lakes, growing on limestone rocks at a depth of 21 m on Six Fathom Bank in central Lake Huron. It is the first freshwater red alga to be found in the Great Lakes and the only red alga ever found on an offshore reef in the Great Lakes. However, because this alga usually inhabits water 10–28 °C and has not survived freezing winter temperatures elsewhere, it may not be a permanent member of the flora.

  15. Toxaphene congeners in the Canadian Great Lakes basin: temporal and spatial food web dynamics.

    PubMed

    Whittle, D M; Kiriluk, R M; Carswell, A A; Keir, M J; MacEachen, D C

    2000-01-01

    Samples of a top predator fish species, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and predominant forage species including smelt (Osmerus mordax), alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis) and lake herring (Coregonus artedii) were, collected from throughout 4 of the 5 Great Lakes (Superior, Huron, Erie and Ontario) (Fig. 1). Lake trout were also collected from three isolated lake systems (Lakes Nipigon, Simcoe and Opeongo), all located within the basin. All the samples were analysed for body burdens of total toxaphene and 22 toxaphene congeners. In addition, from each of the Great Lakes sites samples of major invertebrate dietary items, which included Mysis relicta, Diporeia hoyi and plankton, were similarly analysed. Whole lake trout samples, archived at -80 degrees C, were reanalysed to determine historical trends of toxaphene congeners plus carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signatures. The Lake Superior food web consistently had the highest levels of total toxaphene of all the Great Lakes monitored. The primary source of toxaphene to Lake Superior has been identified as atmospheric transport and deposition from sites in the southern US, Mexico and Central America (Hoff, R.M., Strachan, W.M.J., Sweet, C.W., Chan, C.H., Shackelton, M., Bidleman, T.F., Brice, K.A., Burnison, D.A., Cussion, S., Gatz, D.F., Harlin, K., Schroeder, W.H., 1996. Atmospheric deposition of toxic chemicals to the Great Lakes: A review of data through 1994. Atmospheric Environ. 30, 3505-3527). Of the offsystem lakes surveyed. Lake Nipigon, situated due north of Lake Superior and with a Lake Basin area of about 6% of Lake Superior (Hendendorf, C.E., 1982. J. Great Lakes Res. 8(3), 379-412) had total toxaphene levels in lake trout equivalent to about 50% of those found in lake trout from Lake Superior. Temporal trend toxaphene congener analysis was conducted on archived whole fish samples collected over the period 1980 through to

  16. Genetic diversity of wild and hatchery lake trout populations: Relevance for management and restoration in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, K.S.; Scribner, K.T.; Burnham-Curtis, M.

    2004-01-01

    The biological diversity of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in the upper Great Lakes was historically high, consisting of many recognizable morphological types and discrete spawning populations. During the 1950s and 1960s, lake trout populations were extirpated from much of the Great Lakes primarily as a result of overfishing and predation by the parasitic sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. Investigations of how genetic diversity is partitioned among remnant wild lake trout populations and hatchery broodstocks have been advocated to guide lake trout management and conservation planning. Using microsatellite genetic markers, we estimated measures of genetic diversity and the apportionment of genetic variance among 6 hatchery broodstocks and 10 wild populations representing three morphotypes (lean, humper, and siscowet). Analyses revealed that different hatchery broodstocks and wild populations contributed disproportionally to the total levels of genetic diversity. The genetic affinities of hatchery lake trout reflected the lake basins of origin of the wild source populations. The variance in allele frequency over all sampled extant wild populations was apportioned primarily on the basis of morphotype (??MT = 0.029) and secondarily among geographically dispersed populations within each morphotype (??ST = 0.024). The findings suggest that the genetic divergence reflected in recognized morphotypes and the associated ecological and physiological specialization occurred prior to the partitioning of large proglacial lakes into the Great Lakes or as a consequence of higher contemporary levels of gene flow within than among morphotypes. Information on the relative contributions of different broodstocks to total gene diversity within the regional hatchery program can be used to prioritize the broodstocks to be retained and to guide future stocking strategies. The findings highlight the importance of ecological and phenotypic diversity in Great Lakes fish communities and

  17. Genetic population structure of muskellunge in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kapuscinski, Kevin L.; Sloss, Brian L.; Farrell, John M.

    2013-01-01

    We quantified genetic relationships among Muskellunge Esox masquinongy from 15 locations in the Great Lakes to determine the extent and distribution of measurable population structure and to identify appropriate spatial scales for fishery management and genetic conservation. We hypothesized that Muskellunge from each area represented genetically distinct populations, which would be evident from analyses of genotype data. A total of 691 Muskellunge were sampled (n = 10–127/site) and genetic data were collected at 13 microsatellite loci. Results from a suite of analyses (including pairwise genetic differentiation, Bayesian admixture prediction, analysis of molecular variance, and tests of isolation by distance) indicated the presence of nine distinct genetic groups, including two that were approximately 50 km apart. Geographic proximity and low habitat complexity seemed to facilitate genetic similarity among areas, whereas Muskellunge from areas of greater habitat heterogeneity exhibited high differentiation. Muskellunge from most areas contained private alleles, and mean within-area genetic variation was similar to that reported for other freshwater fishes. Management programs aimed at conserving the broader diversity and long-term sustainability of Muskellunge could benefit by considering the genetically distinct groups as independent fisheries, and individual spawning and nursery habitats could subsequently be protected to conserve the evolutionary potential of Muskellunge.

  18. Geographic setting influences Great Lakes beach microbiological water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Fuller, Lori M.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of factors that influence Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) concentrations, pathogen occurrence, and microbial sources at Great Lakes beaches comes largely from individual beach studies. Using 12 representative beaches, we tested enrichment cultures from 273 beach water and 22 tributary samples for EC, ENT, and genes indicating the bacterial pathogens Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella spp., Salmonella spp, Campylobacter jejuni/coli, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and 108–145 samples for Bacteroides human, ruminant, and gull source-marker genes. EC/ENT temporal patterns, general Bacteroides concentration, and pathogen types and occurrence were regionally consistent (up to 40 km), but beach catchment variables (drains/creeks, impervious surface, urban land cover) influenced exceedances of EC/ENT standards and detections of Salmonella and STEC. Pathogen detections were more numerous when the EC/ENT Beach Action Value (but not when the Geometric Mean and Statistical Threshold Value) was exceeded. EC, ENT, and pathogens were not necessarily influenced by the same variables. Multiple Bacteroides sources, varying by date, occurred at every beach. Study of multiple beaches in different geographic settings provided new insights on the contrasting influences of regional and local variables, and a broader-scale perspective, on significance of EC/ENT exceedances, bacterial sources, and pathogen occurrence.

  19. Geographic setting influences Great Lakes beach microbiological water quality.

    PubMed

    Haack, Sheridan K; Fogarty, Lisa R; Stelzer, Erin A; Fuller, Lori M; Brennan, Angela K; Isaacs, Natasha M; Johnson, Heather E

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of factors that influence Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) concentrations, pathogen occurrence, and microbial sources at Great Lakes beaches comes largely from individual beach studies. Using 12 representative beaches, we tested enrichment cultures from 273 beach water and 22 tributary samples for EC, ENT, and genes indicating the bacterial pathogens Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella spp. , Salmonella spp , Campylobacter jejuni/coli , and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , and 108-145 samples for Bacteroides human, ruminant, and gull source-marker genes. EC/ENT temporal patterns, general Bacteroides concentration, and pathogen types and occurrence were regionally consistent (up to 40 km), but beach catchment variables (drains/creeks, impervious surface, urban land cover) influenced exceedances of EC/ENT standards and detections of Salmonella and STEC. Pathogen detections were more numerous when the EC/ENT Beach Action Value (but not when the Geometric Mean and Statistical Threshold Value) was exceeded. EC, ENT, and pathogens were not necessarily influenced by the same variables. Multiple Bacteroides sources, varying by date, occurred at every beach. Study of multiple beaches in different geographic settings provided new insights on the contrasting influences of regional and local variables, and a broader-scale perspective, on significance of EC/ENT exceedances, bacterial sources, and pathogen occurrence.

  20. Wolves in the Great Lakes region: a phylogeographic puzzle.

    PubMed

    Randi, Ettore

    2010-10-01

    Empirical studies demonstrate that natural hybridization in animals is more common than thought so far (Mallet 2005), particularly among species that originated recently through cycles of population contraction-expansion arising from climate changes over the last glacial period, the Pleistocene. In addition, the post-glacial global growth of human populations has fostered anthropogenic hybridization events, mediated by habitat changes, the persecution of large predators and the introduction of alien species (Allendorf et al. 2001). The Canis lineage shows cases of both natural and anthropogenic hybridization, exacerbating the controversy about the number of species that should be formally validated in the taxonomic lists, the evolutionary role of genetic introgression and the ways to manage hybrids with invading wild or domesticated populations. The study by Wheeldon et al. (2010), published in this issue of Molecular Ecology, adds a new piece to the intricate puzzle of evolution and taxonomy of Canis in North America. They show that sympatric wolves (C. lupus) and coyotes (C. latrans) are not (extensively) hybridizing in the western North American Great Lakes region (GLR). Widespread hybridization between coyotes and a genetically distinct, but closely related, wolf-like population (the eastern wolf) occurred in the northeastern regions of North America. In Wheeldon et al.'s (2010) opinion, these data should prove definitely that two different species of wolf (the western gray wolf C. lupus and the eastern wolf C. lycaon) and their hybrids are distributed across the GLR.

  1. The use of ERTS-1 imagery in air pollution and mesometeorological studies around the Great Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, W. A.; Northouse, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 images continue to be highly useful in studies of: (1) long range transport of air pollutants over the Great Lakes; (2) the mesoscale atmospheric dynamics associated with episodic levels of photochemical smog along the western shore of Lake Michigan; and (3) inadvertant weather modification by large industrial complexes. Also unusual wave patterns in fogs and low stratus over the Great Lakes are being detected for the first time due to the satellites high resolution.

  2. Report to Congress: Combined Sewer Overflows into the Great Lakes Basin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report assesses the implementation status of long-term CSO control plans (LTCPs) in the Great Lakes Basin. The report also summarizes existing information on the occurrence and volume of discharges from CSOs in the Great Lakes Basin during 2014.

  3. Eighteen Years of the Great Lakes Regional Counseling Psychology Conference: Revisiting the Need for Regional Conferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Bowman, Sharon L.; Gerstein, Lawrence H.

    2006-01-01

    The Great Lakes Regional Conference on Counseling Psychology is the only conference to continuously fulfill the 1987 mandate issued by Division 17 for regional counseling conferences. The rationale for regional conferences is reviewed, and the 18-year history of the Great Lakes Regional Conference is examined. The authors conclude by noting the…

  4. 47 CFR 80.308 - Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.308 Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. (a) Each ship of...

  5. 47 CFR 80.161 - Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operator Requirements Ship Station Operator Requirements § 80.161 Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. Each ship subject to the...

  6. 47 CFR 80.161 - Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operator Requirements Ship Station Operator Requirements § 80.161 Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. Each ship subject to the...

  7. 47 CFR 80.161 - Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operator Requirements Ship Station Operator Requirements § 80.161 Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. Each ship subject to the...

  8. 47 CFR 80.308 - Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.308 Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. (a) Each ship of...

  9. 47 CFR 80.308 - Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.308 Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. (a) Each ship of...

  10. 47 CFR 80.161 - Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operator Requirements Ship Station Operator Requirements § 80.161 Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. Each ship subject to the...

  11. 47 CFR 80.308 - Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.308 Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. (a) Each ship of...

  12. 47 CFR 80.161 - Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operator Requirements Ship Station Operator Requirements § 80.161 Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. Each ship subject to the...

  13. 47 CFR 80.308 - Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.308 Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. (a) Each ship of...

  14. EPA Awards Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Grant to Clarkson University for Monitoring Pollutants in Fish

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CHICAGO -- The U.S Environmental Protection Agency today announced that Clarkson University in Potsdam, New York, has received a $6.5 million Great Lakes Restoration Initiative grant to monitor pollutants in Great Lakes fish over the next five years. This

  15. The Great Lakes Triangle. Student Guide and Teacher Guide. OEAGLS Investigation 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne; Jax, Daniel W.

    The disappearance of planes and ships in the Great Lakes area is the focus of the three activities in this unit. Activity A involves studying the locations of missing craft and personnel. Activity B, which treats the loss of the freighter Edmund Fitzgerald as an example of a Great Lakes tragedy, consists of plotting bathymetric contours,…

  16. Citizens' Guide to Biomonitoring in the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Great Lakes United, Buffalo, NY.

    The purpose of this report is to present the issues surrounding biomonitoring of wastewaters discharged into the Great Lakes Basin. Biomonitoring is the process of using organisms to monitor the toxicity of a substance. The report reflects an interest in seeing zero discharge of toxic pollutants in the Great Lakes region. The report is organized…

  17. 2016 Federal Green Challenge Award Winners in the Great Lakes Region

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016 FGC award winners in the Great Lakes region: Mpls. Veterans Affairs (VA) Healthcare System, MN National Guard, U.S. EPA Mid-Continent Ecology Division, U.S. Customs and Border Protection Detroit Field Office, and Naval Station Great Lakes.

  18. The Impact of Television on Public Environmental Knowledge Concerning the Great Lakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brothers, Christine C.

    The purpose of this study was to collect baseline information about public knowledge of and opinions toward the Great Lakes and to measure the impact of a television news program in educating adults about the Great Lakes. Survey questionnaires containing multiple-choice knowledge items and Likert scale opinion statements were completed by 570…

  19. Mapping ecosystem services in a Great Lakes estuary supports local decision-making

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries of the Laurentian Great Lakes provide a concentrated supply of ecosystem goods and services from which humans benefit. As long-term centers of human activity, most estuaries of the Great Lakes and have a legacy of chemical contamination, degraded habitats, and non-point...

  20. The Great Lake Erie: A Reference Text for Educators and Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W., Ed.; Mayer, Victor J., Ed.

    This volume of 16 chapters by 15 contributing authors was conceived as a means of drawing together a body of basic information about the Great Lakes that is up to date, based on sound research, and interpreted by experts in the scientific, historical, environmental and political value of the Great Lakes to North America and the world. Chapters…

  1. Turbidity as a factor in the decline of Great Lakes fishes with special reference to Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Oosten, John

    1948-01-01

    All of the evidence indicates, then, that soil erosion on farms and the turbidity of the water were not major factors, if operative at all, in the decline of Great Lakes fishes and that they did not make Lake Erie unsuitable for fish life.

  2. Phylogenetic and ecological characteristics associated with thiaminase activity in Laurentian Great Lakes fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, S.C.; Evans, A.N.

    2008-01-01

    Thiamine deficiency complex (TDC) causes mortality and sublethal effects in Great Lakes salmonines and results from low concentrations of egg thiamine that are thought to be caused by thiaminolytic enzymes (i.e., thiaminase) present in the diet. This complex has the potential to undermine efforts to restore lake trout Salvelinus namaycush and severely restrict salmonid production in the Great Lakes. Although thiaminase has been found in a variety of Great Lakes fishes, the ultimate source of thiaminase in Great Lakes fishes is currently unknown. We used logistic regression analysis to investigate relationships between thiaminase activity and phylogenetic or ecological characteristics of 39 Great Lakes fish species. The taxonomically more ancestral species were more likely to show thiaminase activity than the more derived species. Species that feed at lower trophic levels and occupy benthic habitats also appeared to be more likely to show thiaminase activity; these variables were correlated with taxonomy, which was the most important predictor of thiaminase activity. Further analyses of the relationship between quantitative measures of thiaminase activity and ecological characteristics of Great Lakes fish species would provide greater insight into potential sources and pathways of thiaminase in Great Lakes food webs. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  3. 33 CFR 334.830 - Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.830 Section 334.830 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.830 Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes,...

  4. 33 CFR 334.830 - Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.830 Section 334.830 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.830 Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes,...

  5. 33 CFR 334.830 - Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.830 Section 334.830 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.830 Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes,...

  6. 33 CFR 334.830 - Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.830 Section 334.830 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.830 Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes,...

  7. Recent desiccation of Western Great Basin Saline Lakes: Lessons from Lake Abert, Oregon, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Moore, Johnnie N

    2016-06-01

    Although extremely important to migrating waterfowl and shorebirds, and highly threatened globally, most saline lakes are poorly monitored. Lake Abert in the western Great Basin, USA, is an example of this neglect. Designated a critical habitat under the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network, the lake is at near record historic low levels and ultra-high salinities that have resulted in ecosystem collapse. Determination of the direct human effects and broader climate controls on Lake Abert illustrates the broader problem of saline lake desiccation and suggests future solutions for restoration of key habitat values. A 65-year time series of lake area was constructed from Landsat images and transformed to lake volume and salinity. "Natural" (without upstream withdrawals) conditions were calculated from climate and stream flow data, and compared to measured volume and salinity. Under natural conditions the lake would have higher volume and lower salinities because annual water withdrawals account for one-third of mean lake volume. Without withdrawals, the lake would have maintained annual mean salinities mostly within the optimal range of brine shrimp and alkali fly growth. Even during the last two years of major drought, the lake would have maintained salinities well below measured values. Change in climate alone would not produce the recent low lake volumes and high salinities that have destroyed the brine shrimp and alkali fly populations and depleted shorebird use at Lake Abert. Large scale withdrawal of water for direct human use has drastically increased the imbalance between natural runoff and evaporation during periods of drought in saline lakes worldwide but could be offset by establishing an "environmental water budget" to lay a foundation for the conservation of saline lake habitats under continued threats from development and climate change.

  8. Genetic variation over space and time: analyses of extinct and remnant lake trout populations in the Upper Great Lakes.

    PubMed Central

    Guinand, B; Scribner, K T; Page, K S; Burnham-Curtis, M K

    2003-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the upper Laurentian Great Lakes of North America experienced striking reductions in abundance and distribution during the mid-twentieth century. Complete collapse of populations was documented for Lake Michigan, and a few remnant populations remained only in lakes Huron and Superior. Using DNA obtained from historical scale collections, we analysed patterns of genetic diversity at five microsatellite loci from archived historical samples representing 15 populations (range 1940-1959) and from three contemporary remnant populations across lakes Huron and Superior (total n = 893). Demographic declines in abundance and the extirpation of native lake trout populations during the past 40 years have resulted in the loss of genetic diversity between lakes owing to extirpation of Lake Michigan populations and a temporal trend for reduction in allelic richness in the populations of lakes Superior and Huron. Naturally reproducing populations in Lake Superior, which had been considered to be remnants of historical populations, and which were believed to be responsible for the resurgence of lake trout numbers and distribution, have probably been affected by hatchery supplementation. PMID:12639323

  9. Genetic variation over space and time: Analyses of extinct and remnant lake trout populations in the Upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guinand, B.; Scribner, K.T.; Page, K.S.; Burnham-Curtis, M. K.

    2003-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the upper Laurentian Great Lakes of North America experienced striking reductions in abundance and distribution during the mid–twentieth century. Complete collapse of populations was documented for Lake Michigan, and a few remnant populations remained only in lakes Huron and Superior. Using DNA obtained from historical scale collections, we analysed patterns of genetic diversity at five microsatellite loci from archived historical samples representing 15 populations (range 1940–1959) and from three contemporary remnant populations across lakes Huron and Superior (total n = 893). Demographic declines in abundance and the extirpation of native lake trout populations during the past 40 years have resulted in the loss of genetic diversity between lakes owing to extirpation of Lake Michigan populations and a temporal trend for reduction in allelic richness in the populations of lakes Superior and Huron. Naturally reproducing populations in Lake Superior, which had been considered to be remnants of historical populations, and which were believed to be responsible for the resurgence of lake trout numbers and distribution, have probably been affected by hatchery supplementation.

  10. Undiscovered oil and gas resources underlying the U.S. portions of the Great Lakes, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, James L.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Ryder, Robert T.; Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the U.S. portions of the Appalachian Basin and the Michigan Basin in 2002 and 2004, respectively. Following the assessments of these two basins, oil and gas allocations were assigned to the U.S. portions of the Great Lakes - Lake Superior (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin), Lake Michigan (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and Wisconsin), Lake Huron (Michigan), Lake Erie (Michigan, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania), and Lake Ontario (New York). Allocations for Lake St. Clair (Michigan) were included with those of Lake Erie. The allocations are based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system defined in the region and the projected extent of those elements from onshore beneath each of the lakes. These geologic elements include the hydrocarbon source rocks, reservoir rocks, and traps. By using this geologic framework, the USGS defined 8 total petroleum systems and 21 assessment units within the Great Lakes and estimated the quantity of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and gas resources within 16 of the 21 assessment units in the Great Lakes.

  11. The Oligochaeta (Annelida, Clitellata) of the St. Lawrence Great Lakes region: An update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, Douglas R.; Hudson, Patrick L.

    2003-01-01

    An updated oligochaete species list for the Great Lakes region is provided. The list was developed through the reexamination of the taxa reported in a previous report in 1980, addition of new taxa or records collected from the region since 1980, and an update of taxonomy commensurate with systematic and nomenclatural changes over the intervening years since the last review. The authors found 74 papers mentioning Great Lakes oligochaete species. The majority of these papers were published in the 1980s. The literature review and additional collections resulted in 15 species being added to the previous list. Nine taxa were removed from the previous list due to misidentification, synonymies, level of identification, or inability to confirm the identity. Based on this review, 101 species of Oligochaeta are now known from the St. Lawrence Great Lakes watershed. Of these, 95 species are known from the St. Lawrence Great Lakes proper, with an additional 6 species recorded from the inland waters of the watershed. The greatest diversity of oligochaete species was found in the inland waters of the region (81) followed by Lake Huron (72), Lake Ontario (65), Lake Erie (64), Lake Superior (63), Lake Michigan (62), St. Marys River (60), Niagara River (49), Saginaw Bay (44), St. Clair River (37), Lake St. Clair (36), St. Lawrence River (27), and the Detroit River (21). Three species are suspected of being introduced, Branchiura sowerbyi, Gianius aquaedulcisand Ripistes parasita, and two are believed to be endemic, Thalassodrilus hallae andTeneridrilus flexus.

  12. Do invasive quagga mussels alter CO2 dynamics in the Laurentian Great Lakes?

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Peng; Guo, Laodong

    2016-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes have experienced unprecedented ecological and environmental changes, especially after the introduction of invasive quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis). While impacts on ecological functions have been widely recognized, the response of carbon dynamics to invasive species remains largely unknown. We report new CO2 data showing significant increases in pCO2 (up to 800 μatm in Lake Michigan) and CO2 emission fluxes in most of the Great Lakes compared to those prior to or during the early stage of the colonization of invasive quagga mussels. The increased CO2 supersaturation is most prominent in Lakes Huron and Michigan, followed by Lakes Ontario and Erie, but no evident change was observed in Lake Superior. This trend mirrors the infestation extent of invasive quagga mussels in the Great Lakes and is consistent with the decline in primary production and increase in water clarity observed pre- and post-Dreissena introduction, revealing a close linkage between invasive species and carbon dynamics. The Great Lakes have become a significant CO2 source to the atmosphere, emitting >7.7 ± 1.0 Tg-C annually, which is higher than the organic carbon burial rate in global inland-seas and attesting to the significant role of the Laurentian Great Lakes in regional/global CO2 budget and cycling. PMID:27996017

  13. Do invasive quagga mussels alter CO2 dynamics in the Laurentian Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Peng; Guo, Laodong

    2016-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes have experienced unprecedented ecological and environmental changes, especially after the introduction of invasive quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis). While impacts on ecological functions have been widely recognized, the response of carbon dynamics to invasive species remains largely unknown. We report new CO2 data showing significant increases in pCO2 (up to 800 μatm in Lake Michigan) and CO2 emission fluxes in most of the Great Lakes compared to those prior to or during the early stage of the colonization of invasive quagga mussels. The increased CO2 supersaturation is most prominent in Lakes Huron and Michigan, followed by Lakes Ontario and Erie, but no evident change was observed in Lake Superior. This trend mirrors the infestation extent of invasive quagga mussels in the Great Lakes and is consistent with the decline in primary production and increase in water clarity observed pre- and post-Dreissena introduction, revealing a close linkage between invasive species and carbon dynamics. The Great Lakes have become a significant CO2 source to the atmosphere, emitting >7.7 ± 1.0 Tg-C annually, which is higher than the organic carbon burial rate in global inland-seas and attesting to the significant role of the Laurentian Great Lakes in regional/global CO2 budget and cycling.

  14. Do invasive quagga mussels alter CO2 dynamics in the Laurentian Great Lakes?

    PubMed

    Lin, Peng; Guo, Laodong

    2016-12-20

    The Laurentian Great Lakes have experienced unprecedented ecological and environmental changes, especially after the introduction of invasive quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis). While impacts on ecological functions have been widely recognized, the response of carbon dynamics to invasive species remains largely unknown. We report new CO2 data showing significant increases in pCO2 (up to 800 μatm in Lake Michigan) and CO2 emission fluxes in most of the Great Lakes compared to those prior to or during the early stage of the colonization of invasive quagga mussels. The increased CO2 supersaturation is most prominent in Lakes Huron and Michigan, followed by Lakes Ontario and Erie, but no evident change was observed in Lake Superior. This trend mirrors the infestation extent of invasive quagga mussels in the Great Lakes and is consistent with the decline in primary production and increase in water clarity observed pre- and post-Dreissena introduction, revealing a close linkage between invasive species and carbon dynamics. The Great Lakes have become a significant CO2 source to the atmosphere, emitting >7.7 ± 1.0 Tg-C annually, which is higher than the organic carbon burial rate in global inland-seas and attesting to the significant role of the Laurentian Great Lakes in regional/global CO2 budget and cycling.

  15. Northern goshawk monitoring in the western Great Lakes bioregion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruggeman, Jason E.; Andersen, David E.; Woodford, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Uncertainties about factors affecting Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) ecology and the status of populations have added to the challenge of managing this species. To address data needs for determining the status of goshawk populations, Hargis and Woodbridge (2006) developed a bioregional monitoring protocol based on estimating occupancy. The goal of our study was to implement this protocol and collect data to determine goshawk population status in the western Great Lakes (WGL) bioregion, which encompasses portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan, and is a mixture of private and public property. We used 366 goshawk nest locations obtained between 1979 and 2006 throughout the WGL bioregion to develop a model of landscape use consisting of forest canopy cover and land-cover covariates. We then used the model to develop a stratified sampling design for selecting 600-ha Primary Sampling Units (PSUs) to survey for goshawks. Project collaborators surveyed 86 PSUs for goshawk presence using broadcasted calls twice between mid-May and mid-August 2008, and recorded 30 goshawk detections in 21 different PSUs. Seventy-four percent of detections occurred at call stations with canopy closure >75%. Goshawk detection probabilities were 0.549 ± 0.118 (standard error) for the first visit to PSUs and 0.750 ± 0.126 for the second visit. We estimated the proportion of PSUs occupied by goshawks as 0.266 ± 0.047, which corresponded to 5184 ± 914 PSUs occupied by goshawks in our study area and suggested that goshawks are widely, but sparsely, distributed throughout the WGL bioregion.

  16. An overview of policies for managing polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Great Lakes basin.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jessica; Mohapatra, Satya P; Mitchell, Anne

    2008-11-01

    The Great Lakes are an important environmental and economic resource for Canada and the United States. The ecological integrity of the Great Lakes, however, is becoming increasingly threatened by a number of persistent, bio-accumulative and harmful chemicals that enter the Great Lakes ecosystem through fluvial and atmospheric deposition. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardant, are among such chemicals, whose concentration in the Great Lakes has greatly increased in recent years. Despite growing concern over the possible health and environmental effects of these compounds, only four of the eight Great Lakes states have enacted regulations to ban/restrict the use of PBDE while the two Canadian Great Lakes provinces are yet to endorse any regulation. Of the three main commercial PBDE mixtures (pentaBDE, octaBDE and decaBDE), penta- and octaBDE are no longer manufactured or imported into the United States and Canada. DecaBDE, however, still finds use in a variety of products. In the present paper, the authors review the current regulations and policies for managing PBDEs in the Great Lakes jurisdictions and briefly review commercially available non-bromine chemical alternatives to PBDE. As these alternatives are comparatively more expensive than PBDE, future adoption of more eco-friendly flame retardants by the polymer industry will likely depend on stricter legislation regulating the use of PBDE and/or an increased public demand for PBDE-free products.

  17. Dynamical Downscaling over the Great Lakes Basin of North America using the WRF Regional Climate Model: The impact of the Great Lakes system on regional greenhouse warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gula, J.; Peltier, W. R.

    2011-12-01

    In this study we investigate the regional climate changes to be expected over the Great Lakes Basin of North America during the next century. Large freshwater systems, such as the Great Lakes, play a key role in determining the climate of their basins and adjacent regions by air mass modification through the exchange of heat and moisture with the atmosphere. Even systems as extensive as the Great Lakes are unresolved in coarse resolution global climate simulations but may be accurately captured in finer-mesh regional simulations by dynamical downscaling. Historical (1979-2001) and future (2050-2060 and 2090-2100) conditions are simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) forced by CCSM3 global simulations. Our analyses are based upon the IPCC SRES A2 and A1B emissions scenarios. A two-step nesting procedure is employed for the purpose of downscaling, in which the first nested WRF model is of North American continental scale at 30 km resolution, whereas the innermost domain at 10 km resolution covers the Great Lakes Basin and the Canadian Province of Ontario. The differences in extreme temperature and precipitation events delivered by the different scales of simulation are discussed. As the WRF model does not currently have an explicit lake component, lake ice and lake surface temperature need to be prescribed in the model. A first set of simulations is performed using climatological 1979-2001) data for lake ice and lake surface temperature. A second set is performed using outputs from the freshwater lake model "FLake" (Mironov, D. V., 2008, COSMO Technical Report, No. 11, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach am Main, Germany) forced by atmospheric fields from the global simulations. A third set is performed using an interactive coupling of the lake model FLake with the regional model WRF. Changes in surface temperatures and ice cover, and especially ice-out dates, for the Great Lakes under future atmospheric conditions are discussed. The trends in

  18. Do toxic substances pose a threat to rehabilitation of lake trout in the Great Lakes? A review of the literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zint, Michaela T.; Taylor, William W.; Carl, Leon; Edsall, Carol C.; Heinrich, John; Sippel, Al; Lavis, Dennis; Schaner, Ted

    1995-01-01

    Toxic substances have been suspected of being one of the causes of Great Lakes lake trout reproductive failure. Because toxic substances are present in the Great Lakes basin, managers should be aware of the role of contaminants in preventing lake trout rehabilitation. This paper summarizes studies which have sought to establish a relation between toxic substances and lake trout mortality or morbidity, and offers recommendations for future research and management. The review suggests that exposure to toxic substances has the possibility of affecting the species' rehabilitation. A variety of toxic substances, specifically organochlorine compounds, concentrated in lake trout eggs, fry, and the environment, have affected the hatching success of lake trout in the laboratory, but the strength of the relation between toxic substances and lake trout mortality and morbidity in the field remains unclear. In order to clarify this relation, more information is needed on lake trout physiology, biochemistry, behavior, and genetics. An interdisciplinary workshop should be convened to evaluate existing evidence by epidemiological methods, to set priorities for further research, and to develop management strategies.

  19. Nitrogen deposition to lakes in national parks of the western Great Lakes region: Isotopic signatures, watershed retention, and algal shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, William O.; Lafrancois, Brenda Moraska; Stottlemyer, Robert; Toczydlowski, David; Engstrom, Daniel R.; Edlund, Mark B.; Almendinger, James E.; Strock, Kristin E.; VanderMeulen, David; Elias, Joan E.; Saros, Jasmine E.

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric deposition is a primary source of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to undisturbed watersheds of the Great Lakes region of the U.S., raising concerns over whether enhanced delivery over recent decades has affected lake ecosystems. The National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) has been measuring Nr deposition in this region for over 35 years. Here we explore the relationships among NADP-measured Nr deposition, nitrogen stable isotopes (δ15N) in lake sediments, and the response of algal communities in 28 lakes situated in national parks of the western Great Lakes region of the U.S. We find that 36% of the lakes preserve a sediment δ15N record that is statistically correlated with some form of Nr deposition (total dissolved inorganic N, nitrate, or ammonium). Furthermore, measured long-term (since 1982) nitrogen biogeochemistry and inferred critical nitrogen loads suggest that watershed nitrogen retention and climate strongly affect whether sediment δ15N is related to Nr deposition in lake sediment records. Measurements of algal change over the last ~ 150 years suggest that Nr deposition, in-lake nutrient cycling, and watershed inputs are important factors affecting diatom community composition, in addition to direct climatic effects on lake physical limnology. The findings suggest that bulk sediment δ15N does reflect Nr deposition in some instances. In addition, this study highlights the interactive effects of Nr deposition and climate variability.

  20. Factors of ecologic succession in oligotrophic fish communities of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1972-01-01

    Oligotrophic fish communities of the Great Lakes have undergone successive disruptions since the mid-1800s. Major contributing factors have been intensive selective fisheries, extreme modification of the drainage, invasion of marine species, and progressive physical–chemical changes of the lake environments. Lake Ontario was the first to be affected as its basin was settled and industrialized earliest, and it was the first to be connected by canals to the mid-Atlantic where the alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) which ultimately became established in the Great Lakes were abundant. Oligotrophic fish communities were successively disrupted in Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan, and Superior as the affects of population growth, industrialization, and marine invaders spread upward in the Laurentian drainage.The degree and sequence of response of families offish and species within families differed for each factor, but the sequence of change among families and species has been the same in response to each factor as it affected various lakes at different times. The ultimate result of the disruption of fish communities has been a reduction of productivity of oligotrophic species that ranges from extreme in Lake Ontario to moderate in Lake Superior, and which has reached a state of instability and rapid change in the upper three Great Lakes by the rnid-1900s similar to the situation in Lake Ontario in the mid-1800s. Since oligotrophic species (primarily salmonines, coregonines, and deepwater cottids) are the only kinds of fish that fully occupied the entire volume of the deepwater Great Lakes (Ontario, Huron, Michigan, and Superior), the fish biomass of these lakes has been reduced as various species declined or disappeared. In Lake Erie, which is shallow, and in the shallow bays of the deep lakes, oligotrophic species were replaced by mesotrophic species, primarily percids, which have successively increased and declined. All oligotrophic

  1. Mechanisms driving recruitment variability in fish: comparisons between the Laurentian Great Lakes and marine systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritt, Jeremy J.; Roseman, Edward F.; O'Brien, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    In his seminal work, Hjort (in Fluctuations in the great fisheries of Northern Europe. Conseil Parmanent International Pour L'Exploration De La Mar. Rapports et Proces-Verbaux, 20: 1–228, 1914) observed that fish population levels fluctuated widely, year-class strength was set early in life, and egg production by adults could not alone explain variability in year-class strength. These observations laid the foundation for hypotheses on mechanisms driving recruitment variability in marine systems. More recently, researchers have sought to explain year-class strength of important fish in the Laurentian Great Lakes and some of the hypotheses developed for marine fisheries have been transferred to Great Lakes fish. We conducted a literature review to determine the applicability of marine recruitment hypotheses to Great Lakes fish. We found that temperature, interspecific interactions, and spawner effects (abundance, age, and condition of adults) were the most important factors in explaining recruitment variability in Great Lakes fish, whereas relatively fewer studies identified bottom-up trophodynamic factors or hydrodynamic factors as important. Next, we compared recruitment between Great Lakes and Baltic Sea fish populations and found no statistical difference in factors driving recruitment between the two systems, indicating that recruitment hypotheses may often be transferable between Great Lakes and marine systems. Many recruitment hypotheses developed for marine fish have yet to be applied to Great Lakes fish. We suggest that future research on recruitment in the Great Lakes should focus on forecasting the effects of climate change and invasive species. Further, because the Great Lakes are smaller and more enclosed than marine systems, and have abundant fishery-independent data, they are excellent candidates for future hypothesis testing on recruitment in fish.

  2. Human versus lightning ignition of presettlement surface fires in costal pine forests of the upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loope, Walter L.; Anderton, John B.

    1998-01-01

    To recover direct evidence of surface fires before European settlement, we sectioned fire-scarred logging-era stumps and trees in 39 small, physically isolated sand patches along the Great Lakes coast of northern Michigan and northern Wisconsin. While much information was lost to postharvest fire and stump deterioration, 147 fire-free intervals revealed in cross-sections from 29 coastal sand patches document numerous close interval surface fires before 1910; only one post-1910 fire was documented. Cross-sections from the 10 sections with records spanning >150 yr suggest local fire occurrence rates before 1910 ca. 10 times the present rate of lightning-caused fire. Since fire spread between or into coastal sand patches is rare, and seasonal use of the patches by Native people before 1910 is well documented, both historically and ethnographically, ignition by humans probably accounts for more than half of the pre-1910 fires recorded in cross-sections.

  3. Distribution of native mussel (unionidae) assemblages in coastal areas of Lake Erie, Lake St. Clair, and connecting channels, twenty-five years after a dreissenid invasion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zanatta, David T.; Bossenbroek, Jonathan M.; Burlakova, Lyubov E.; Crail, Todd D.; Szalay, Ferenc de; Griffith, Traci A.; Kapusinski, Douglas; Karatayev, Alexander Y.; Krebs, Robert A.; Meyer, Elizabeth S.; Paterson, Wendy L.; Prescott, Trevor J.; Rowe, Matthew T.; Schloesser, Donald W.; Walsh, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, unionid mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America have been adversely impacted by invasive dreissenid mussels, which directly (e.g., by attachment to unionid shells) and indirectly (e.g., by competing for food) cause mortality. Despite the invasion, unionids have survived in several areas in the presence of dreissenid mussels. We investigated current spatial patterns in these native mussel refuges based on surveys for unionid mussels across 48 sampling locations (141 sites) in 2011 and 2012, and documented species abundance and diversity in coastal areas of lakes St. Clair and Erie. The highest-quality assemblages of native mussels (densities, richness, and diversity) appear to be concentrated in the St. Clair delta, where abundance continues to decline, as well as in in Thompson Bay of Presque Isle in Lake Erie and in just a few coastal wetlands and drowned river-mouths in the western basin of Lake Erie. The discovery of several new refuge areas suggests that unionids have a broader distribution within the region than previously thought.

  4. Concentration and distribution of contaminants in lake trout and walleye from the Laurentian Great Lakes (2008-2012).

    PubMed

    McGoldrick, Daryl J; Murphy, Elizabeth W

    2016-10-01

    Biomonitoring programs for persistent, bioaccumulative, and/or toxic chemicals of concern in fish tissues have been operated by the governments of Canada and the United States in the Great Lakes since the 1970's. The objectives of these programs are to assess concentrations of harmful chemicals in whole body top predator fish as an indicator of ecosystem health and to infer potential harm to fish and fish consuming wildlife in the Great Lakes Basin. Chemicals of interest are selected based upon national and binational commitments, risk assessment, and regulation, and include a wide range of compounds. This review summarizes all available data generated by Environment Canada and the United States Environmental Protection Agency for chemicals measured in whole body homogenates of Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and Walleye (Sander vitreus) for the time period spanning 2008 to 2012 from each of the five Great Lakes. The summary shows that concentrations of legacy compounds, such as, POPs listed in the Stockholm Convention and mercury continue to dominate the chemical burden of Great Lakes fish. This assessment, and others like it, can guide the creation of environmental quality targets where they are lacking, optimize chemical lists for monitoring, and prioritize chemicals of concern under agreements such as the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and the Stockholm Convention.

  5. Managing mercury in the great lakes: an analytical review of abatement policies.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Satya P; Nikolova, Iana; Mitchell, Anne

    2007-04-01

    Mercury, a toxic metal known to have several deleterious affects on human health, has been one of the principal contaminants of concern in the Great Lakes basin. There are numerous anthropogenic sources of mercury to the Great Lakes area. Combustion of coal, smelting of non ferrous metals, and incineration of municipal and medical waste are major sources of mercury emissions in the region. In addition to North American anthropogenic emissions, global atmospheric emissions also significantly contribute to the deposition of mercury in the Great Lakes basin. Both the USA and Canada have agreed to reduce human exposure to mercury in the Great Lakes basin and have significantly curtailed mercury load to this region through individual and joint efforts. However, many important mercury sources, such as coal-fired power plants, still exist in the vicinity of the Great Lakes. More serious actions to drastically reduce mercury sources by employing alternative energy sources, restricting mercury trade and banning various mercury containing consumer products, such as dental amalgam are as essential as cleaning up the historical deposits of mercury in the basin. A strong political will and mass momentum are crucial for efficient mercury management. International cooperation is equally important. In the present paper, we have analyzed existing policies in respective jurisdictions to reduce mercury concentration in the Great Lakes environment. A brief review of the sources, occurrence in the Great Lakes, and the health effects of mercury is also included.

  6. Nonnative salmon alter nitrification in Great Lakes tributaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-05-01

    Nonnative species can affect the biogeochemistry of an ecosystem. For instance, Pacific salmon have been introduced for sport fishing in many streams and lakes beyond their native range, and their introduction may be altering nitrogen cycling in those ecosystems.

  7. Classification of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attack marks on Great Lakes lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Everett Louis

    1980-01-01

    Criteria for the classification of marks inflicted by sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) into nine categories were developed from laboratory studies in an attempt to refine the classification system used in field assessment work. These criteria were based on characteristics of the attachment site that could be identified under field conditions by unaided visual means and by touching the attachment site. Healing of these marks was somewhat variable and was influenced by the size of lamprey, duration of attachment, severity of the wound at lamprey detachment, season and water temperature, and by other less obvious factors. Even under laboratory conditions staging of some wounds was difficult, especially at low water temperatures. If these criteria are to be used effectively and with precision in the field, close examination of individual fish may be required. If the feeding and density of specific year-classes of sea lampreys are to be accurately assessed on an annual basis, close attention to the wound size (as it reflects the size of the lamprey's oral disc) and character of wounds on fish will be required as well as consideration of the season of the year in which they are observed.Key words: sea lamprey, attack marks, lake trout, Great Lakes

  8. Winter 1994 Weather and Ice Conditions for the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assel, Raymond A.; Janowiak, John E.; Young, Sharolyn; Boyce, Daron

    1996-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes developed their most extensive ice cover in over a decade during winter 1994 [December-February 1993/94 (DJF 94)]. Extensive midlake ice formation started the second half of January, about 2 weeks earlier than normal. Seasonal maximal ice extent occurred in early February, again about 2 weeks earlier than normal. Winter 1994 maximum (normal) ice coverages on the Great Lakes are Lake Superior 96% (75%), Lake Michigan 78% (45%), Lake Huron 95% (68%), Lake Erie 97% (90%), and Lake Ontario 67% (24%). Relative to the prior 31 winters (1963-93), the extent of seasonal maximal ice cover for winter 1994 for the Great Lakes taken as a unit is exceeded by only one other winter (1979); however, other winters for individual Great Lakes had similar maximal ice covers.Anomalously strong anticyclonic circulation over the central North Pacific (extending to the North Pole) and an abnormally strong polar vortex centered over northern Hudson Bay combined to produce a circulation pattern that brought frequent air masses of Arctic and polar origin to the eastern third of North America. New records were set for minimum temperatures on 19 January 1994 at many locations in the Great Lakes region. A winter severity index consisting of the average November-February air temperatures averaged over four sites on the perimeter of the Great Lakes (Duluth, Minnesota; Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan; Detroit, Michigan; and Buffalo, New York) indicates that winter 1994 was the 21st coldest since 1779. The unseasonably cold air temperatures produced much-above-normal ice cover over the Great Lakes and created problems for lake shipping. Numerous fatalities and injuries were attributed to the winter weather, which included several ice and snow storms. The much-below-normal air temperatures resulted in enhanced lake-effect snowfall along downwind lake shores, particularly during early to midwinter, prior to extensive ice formation in deeper lake areas. The low air temperatures

  9. Ecological monitoring for assessing the state of the nearshore and open waters of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neilson, Melanie A.; Painter, D. Scott; Warren, Glenn; Hites, Ronald A.; Basu, Ilora; Weseloh, D.V. Chip; Whittle, D. Michael; Christie, Gavin; Barbiero, Richard; Tuchman, Marc; Johannsson, Ora E.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Fleischer, Guy; Bronte, Charles; Smith, Stephen B.; Baumann, Paul C.

    2003-01-01

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement stipulates that the Governments of Canada and the United States are responsible for restoring and maintaining the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the waters of the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem. Due to varying mandates and areas of expertise, monitoring to assess progress towards this objective is conducted by a multitude of Canadian and U.S. federal and provincial/state agencies, in cooperation with academia and regional authorities. This paper highlights selected long-term monitoring programs and discusses a number of documented ecological changes that indicate the present state of the open and nearshore waters of the Great Lakes.

  10. Program and abstracts of the 28th conference on Great Lakes research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Abstracts of papers presented at the 28th Conference on Great Lakes Research and the annual meeting of the International Association for Great Lakes Research covered two symposia. The first was a comparison of Great Lakes and Baltic ecosystems, which provided an opportunity for international exchanges of information and insights. The second featured pollution problems in the Green Bay estuary environment that is of particular value to Wisconsin and Michigan. There are 41 separate abstracts selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB). Four of those were also selected for Energy Research Abstracts (ERA), six for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA), and two for INS.

  11. Coastal geology and recent origins for Sand Point, Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Timothy G.; Krantz, David E.; Castaneda, Mario R.; Loope, Walter L.; Jol, Harry M.; Goble, Ronald J.; Higley, Melinda C.; DeWald, Samantha; Hansen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Sand Point is a small cuspate foreland located along the southeastern shore of Lake Superior within Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore near Munising, Michigan. Park managers’ concerns for the integrity of historic buildings at the northern periphery of the point during the rising lake levels in the mid-1980s greatly elevated the priority of research into the geomorphic history and age of Sand Point. To pursue this priority, we recovered sediment cores from four ponds on Sand Point, assessed subsurface stratigraphy onshore and offshore using geophysical techniques, and interpreted the chronology of events using radiocarbon and luminescence dating. Sand Point formed at the southwest edge of a subaqueous platform whose base is probably constructed of glacial diamicton and outwash. During the post-glacial Nipissing Transgression, the base was mantled with sand derived from erosion of adjacent sandstone cliffs. An aerial photograph time sequence, 1939–present, shows that the periphery of the platform has evolved considerably during historical time, infl uenced by transport of sediment into adjacent South Bay. Shallow seismic refl ections suggest slump blocks along the leading edge of the platform. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) and shallow seismic refl ections to the northwest of the platform reveal large sand waves within a deep (12 m) channel produced by currents fl owing episodically to the northeast into Lake Superior. Ground-penetrating radar profi les show transport and deposition of sand across the upper surface of the platform. Basal radiocarbon dates from ponds between subaerial beach ridges range in age from 540 to 910 cal yr B.P., suggesting that Sand Point became emergent during the last ~1000 years, upon the separation of Lake Superior from Lakes Huron and Michigan. However, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from the beach ridges were two to three times as old as the radiocarbon ages, implying that emergence of Sand Point may have begun

  12. Climate change projections for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) recruitment in the 1836 Treaty Waters of the Upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynch, Abigail J.; Taylor, William W.; Beard, T. Douglas; Lofgren, Brent M.

    2015-01-01

    Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) is an ecologically, culturally, and economically important species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Lake whitefish have been a staple food source for thousands of years and, since 1980, have supported the most economically valuable (annual catch value ≈ US$16.6 million) and productive (annual harvest ≈ 7 million kg) commercial fishery in the upper Great Lakes (Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior). Climate changes, specifically changes in temperature, wind, and ice cover, are expected to impact the ecology, production dynamics, and value of this fishery, because the success of recruitment to the fishery has been linked with these climatic factors. We used linear regression to determine the relationship between fall and spring air temperature indices, fall wind speed, winter ice cover, and lake whitefish recruitment in 13 management units located in the 1836 Treaty Waters of the Upper Great Lakes ceded by the Ottawa and Chippewa nations, a culturally and commercially important region for the lake whitefish fishery. In eight of 13 management units evaluated, models with climate variables explained significantly more variation in recruitment than models with only the stock-recruitment relationship, using corrected Akaike’s Information Criterion comparisons (ΔAICc > 3). Isolating the climate-recruitment relationship and projecting recruitment with the Coupled Hydrosphere-Atmosphere Research Model (CHARM) indicated the potential for increased lake whitefish recruitment in the majority of the 1836 Treaty Waters management units, given projected changes in climate. These results can inform adaptive management strategies by providing anticipated implications of climate on lake whitefish recruitment.

  13. Compilation of watershed models for tributaries to the Great Lakes, United States, as of 2010, and identification of watersheds for future modeling for the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coon, William F.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Soong, David T.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) during 2009–10, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compiled a list of existing watershed models that had been created for tributaries within the United States that drain to the Great Lakes. Established Federal programs that are overseen by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) are responsible for most of the existing watershed models for specific tributaries. The NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) uses the Large Basin Runoff Model to provide data for the management of water levels in the Great Lakes by estimating United States and Canadian inflows to the Great Lakes from 121 large watersheds. GLERL also simulates streamflows in 34 U.S. watersheds by a grid-based model, the Distributed Large Basin Runoff Model. The NOAA National Weather Service uses the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting model to predict flows at river forecast sites. The USACE created or funded the creation of models for at least 30 tributaries to the Great Lakes to better understand sediment erosion, transport, and aggradation processes that affect Federal navigation channels and harbors. Many of the USACE hydrologic models have been coupled with hydrodynamic and sediment-transport models that simulate the processes in the stream and harbor near the mouth of the modeled tributary. Some models either have been applied or have the capability of being applied across the entire Great Lakes Basin; they are (1) the SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model, which was developed by the USGS; (2) the High Impact Targeting (HIT) and Digital Watershed models, which were developed by the Institute of Water Research at Michigan State University; (3) the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L–THIA) model, which was developed by researchers at Purdue University; and (4) the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model, which was

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): turning the corner in Great Lakes trout 1980-2009.

    PubMed

    Crimmins, Bernard S; Pagano, James J; Xia, Xiaoyan; Hopke, Philip K; Milligan, Michael S; Holsen, Thomas M

    2012-09-18

    Lake trout and walleye composites were collected between 2004 and 2009 as part of the Great Lakes Fish Monitoring and Surveillance Program (GLFMSP) and analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Yearly mean total PBDE concentrations (sum of congeners BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-154) ranged from 44-192, 28-113, 50-107, 37-111, and 11-22 ng/g wet wt. for Lakes Michigan, Huron, Ontario, and Superior lake trout, and Lake Erie walleye, respectively. A 1980-2009 temporal record of PBDE concentrations in the Great Lakes' top predator fish (lake trout and walleye) was assembled by integrating previous GLFMSP data (1980-2003) with current results (2004-2009). Temporal profiles show obvious breakpoints between periods of PBDE accumulation and decline in trout for Lakes Huron, Michigan and Ontario with a significant (p < 0.0001 and r = 0.55, 0.72, and 0.51, respectively) decrease in concentration after 2000-2001. A similar transition was observed in Lake Superior for the nearshore site accompanied by a less significant decreasing trend (p = 0.016, r = 0.33), suggesting concentrations are declining very slowly or have leveled off. In contrast, Lake Erie walleye concentrations began leveling off in the late 1990s and no statistically significant trend (increasing or decreasing) has been observed in recent years. A decrease in the BDE-47/BDE-153 ratio was also recently observed, suggesting a transition to more highly brominated PBDEs is occurring in Great Lakes trout. This study provides region-wide evidence that PBDE concentrations are generally declining in Great Lakes trout, although there are clear exceptions to this trend. Results from this study reflect the positive impact of the 2004 PentaBDE ban on macro-scale aquatic freshwater ecosystems.

  15. Biology and status of the shortnose cisco Coregonus reighardi Koelz in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Shane A.; Todd, Thomas N.

    1995-01-01

    The shortnose cisco, Coregonus reighardi, a member of the endemic species assemblage of Coregoninae in the Laurentian Great Lakes, was commercially important until overfishing and competition pressures from induced planktivores extirpated the species in Lakes Michigan and Ontario. Spawning shortnose ciscoes have been collected from Lake Huron and Georgian Bay of Lake Huron since 1956, however, no individuals have been collected from these habitats since 1985. Shortnose ciscoes were not collected during surveys of the cisco fishery of Georgian Bay during the summer of 1992 and spring of 1993. The lack of captures in the last eight years coupled with captures of only lone individuals in the last 16 years suggests the species may be extinct in all of the Laurentian system. The life history traits examined for Lake Huron shortnose ciscoes were similar to the conditions recorded for Lake Michigan and Ontario shortnose ciscoes, although Lake Huron fish were smaller.

  16. Binational ecological risk assessment of bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) for the Great Lakes Basin.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cudmore, B.; Mandrak, N.E.; Dettmers, J.; Chapman, D.C.; Kolar, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bigheaded carps (Bighead and Silver carps) are considered a potential threat to the Great Lakes basin. A binational ecological risk assessment was conducted to provide scientifically defensible advice for managers and decision-makers in Canada and the United States. This risk assessment looked at the likelihood of arrival, survival, establishment, and spread of bigheaded carps to obtain an overall probability of introduction. Arrival routes assessed were physical connections and human-mediated releases. The risk assessment ranked physical connections (specifically the Chicago Area Waterway System) as the most likely route for arrival into the Great Lakes basin. Results of the risk assessment show that there is enough food and habitat for bigheaded carp survival in the Great Lakes, especially in Lake Erie and productive embayments in the other lakes. Analyses of tributaries around the Canadian Great Lakes and the American waters of Lake Erie indicate that there are many suitable tributaries for bigheaded carp spawning. Should bigheaded carps establish in the Great Lakes, their spread would not likely be limited and several ecological consequences can be expected to occur. These consequences include competition for planktonic food leading to reduced growth rates, recruitment and abundance of planktivores. Subsequently this would lead to reduced stocks of piscivores and abundance of fishes with pelagic, early life stages. Overall risk is highest for lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie, followed by Lake Ontario then Lake Superior. To avoid the trajectory of the invasion process and prevent or minimize anticipated consequences, it is important to continue to focus efforts on reducing the probability of introduction of these species at either the arrival, survival, establishment, or spread stage (depending on location).

  17. Mercury in the air, water and biota at the Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA).

    PubMed

    Peterson, Christianna; Gustin, Mae

    2008-11-01

    The Great Salt Lake, Utah (USA), is the fourth largest terminal lake on Earth and a stop-over location for 35 million birds on the Pacific Flyway. Recently, the Utah Department of Health and Utah Division of Wildlife Resources issued tissue mercury (Hg) consumption advisories for several species of birds that consume the lake's brine shrimp. We hypothesized that the chemistry of the atmosphere above the Great Salt Lake would facilitate atmospheric deposition of Hg to the water. Because little information was available on Hg at the Great Salt Lake, and to begin to test this hypothesis, we measured atmospheric elemental (Hg(0)) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) concentrations as well as Hg concentrations in water and brine shrimp five times over a ~year. Surrogate surfaces and a dry deposition model were applied to estimate the amount of Hg that could be input to the lake surface, and HYSPLIT model back trajectories were developed to investigate potential sources of RGM to the lake. Atmospheric Hg(0) concentrations were similar to global ambient background values and RGM concentrations were similar to those reported for rural areas. Both Hg(0) and RGM exhibited regular diel variability. Model estimated deposition velocities for RGM to the lake ranged from 0.9 to 3.0 cm s(-1) while that determined for surrogate surfaces ranged from 2.8 to 7.8 cm s(-1). Filtered total and methyl Hg concentrations in Great Salt Lake surface waters were consistent throughout the year (3.6+/-0.8 ng L(-1) and 0.93+/-0.59 ng L(-1), respectively), while brine shrimp concentrations had a statistically significant increase from summer to fall. Data collected and data analyses indicated no direct local or regional source of Hg to the lake and that factors within the Great Salt Lake basin are important in controlling Hg(0) and RGM concentrations.

  18. New insight into the spawning behavior of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from a recovering population in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Binder, Thomas R.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Riley, Stephen C.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Bronte, Charles R.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2015-01-01

    Spawning behavior of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, is poorly understood, relative to stream-dwelling salmonines. Underwater video records of spawning in a recovering population from the Drummond Island Refuge (Lake Huron) represent the first reported direct observations of lake trout spawning in the Laurentian Great Lakes. These observations provide new insight into lake trout spawning behavior and expand the current conceptual model. Lake trout spawning consisted of at least four distinct behaviors: hovering, traveling, sinking, and gamete release. Hovering is a new courtship behavior that has not been previously described. The apparent concentration of hovering near the margin of the spawning grounds suggests that courtship and mate selection might be isolated from the spawning act (i.e., traveling, sinking, and gamete release). Moreover, we interpret jockeying for position displayed by males during traveling as a unique form of male-male competition that likely evolved in concert with the switch from redd-building to itinerant spawning in lake trout. Unlike previous models, which suggested that intra-sexual competition and mate selection do not occur in lake trout, our model includes both and is therefore consistent with evolutionary theory, given that the sex ratio on spawning grounds is skewed heavily towards males. The model presented in this paper is intended as a working hypothesis, and further revision may become necessary as we gain a more complete understanding of lake trout spawning behavior.

  19. Spatial distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polybrominated biphenyls in lake trout from the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Luross, Jennifer M; Alaee, Mehran; Sergeant, David B; Cannon, Christina M; Whittle, D Michael; Solomon, Keith R; Muir, Derek C G

    2002-02-01

    Concentrations of two types of brominated flame-retardants (BFRs); polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were determined in a single age class of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) collected from the Laurentian Great Lakes in 1997. Mean concentrations of total PBDE were highest in samples from Lake Ontario at 95+/-22 ng/g wet weight (ww) or 434+/-100 ng/g lipid weight (lw) while the lowest concentrations were observed in Lake Erie lake trout (27+/-8.6 ng/g ww, 117+/-37 ng/g lw). In all samples, the predominant PBDE congeners were 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), and 2,2',4,4', 6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100), which are the primary components of the commonly used penta-BDE formulation flame retardant. Lake trout collected from Lake Huron had the highest concentrations of PBBs (3.1+/-1.7 ng/g ww, 15+/-8.5 ng/g lw), while the lowest levels were detected in fish from Lake Superior (0.25+/-0.13 ng/g ww, 1.7+/-0.89 ng/g lw). In all lake trout samples, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153), a major constituent of the flame-retardant FireMaster BP-6, was the predominant PBB congener.

  20. Microhabitat Use by Trichoptera in a Lake Erie Coastal Wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, C. M.; Keiper, J.

    2005-05-01

    We examined the differences in microhabitat use by caddisfly (Trichoptera) adults at a Lake Erie coastal wetlands complex in northwestern Ohio. Light traps were employed in three vegetative zones; a Pontedaria stand, a submerged willow/cottonwood forest, and an adjacent open water area. We used concealed UV lights inside of replicate traps (n = 4 per habitat), attracting only caddisflies near the habitat, that were run May, June, and September 2004. Analysis of the data revealed differences in adult abundance between habitats and months for some taxa. Principal components analyses run at the level of genera and species showed that sites cluster by habitat type and by month, suggesting differences occur temporally and spatially but not exclusively of each other. ANOVA reveals statistical differences between habitats and months for the most common taxa. Hydroptilidae, including Agraylea multipunctata, Orthotrichia aegerfasciella, and Oxyethira pallida, were the most abundant taxa contributing approximately 90% of samples depending on vegetative zone. Information on the microscale preferences of adult caddisflies indicates potential habitat specificity. This may aid managers who decide which habitats within wetlands to conserve based on productivity and unique potential contribution of insect taxa.

  1. 2010 Great Lakes Human Health Fish Tissue Study Fish Tissue Data Dictionary

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) is providing the fish tissue results from the 2010 Great Lakes Human Health Fish Tissue Study (GLHHFTS). This document includes the “data dictionary” for Mercury, PFC, PBDE and PCBs.

  2. Pathway-based monitoring of biological effects at Great Lakes sites (Presntation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Lakes region suffers from degradation of water and environmental quality due to release of chemicals of emerging concern. Critical issues remain in delisting Areas of Concern (AOC) including determining sources of chemicals causing fish health impacts, relating health ...

  3. Linkages between benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages and landscape stressors in the US Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used multiple linear regression analysis to investigate relationships between benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in the nearshore region of the Laurentian Great Lakes and landscape characteristics in adjacent watersheds. Benthic invertebrate data were obtained from the 201...

  4. EVALUATING PERTUBATIONS AND DEVELOPING RESTORATION STRATEGIES FOR INLAND WETLANDS IN THE GREAT LAKES BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetland coverage and type distributions vary systematically by ecoregion across the Great Lakes Basin. Land use and subsequent changes in wetland type distributions also vary among ecoregions. Incidence of wetland disturbance varies significantly within ecoregions but tends to i...

  5. Environmental monitoring in the 21st century: a story of WWTPs, CECs, and Great Lakes AOCs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout much of the 20th century, environmental monitoring of contaminants in fresh water ecosystems, like the Great Lakes, focused on measuring concentrations of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemicals whose biological hazards were well established. However, in recen...

  6. EPA Awards Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Shoreline Cities Grants to Wisconsin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CHICAGO -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Shoreline Cities grants totaling more than $800,000 to four cities in Wisconsin to fund green infrastructure projects that will improve water quality in

  7. 75 FR 82141 - Stakeholder Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... effort. An inventory of current vessel and port assets will be developed. That inventory will be used to... examine the current and potential future role of Great Lakes shipping in supporting the region's...

  8. EPA Awards Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Shoreline Cities Grants to Illinois, Indiana and Michigan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CHICAGO -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Shoreline Cities grants totaling more than $430,000 to four cities in Illinois, Indiana and Michigan to fund green infrastructure projects that will impr

  9. AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES ANALYSIS OF FARMINGTON BAY WETLANDS IN THE GREAT SALT LAKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Alternative Futures Analysis (AFA) was conducted to evaluate tradeoffs between landscape design scenarios and ecological services for Farmington Bay, Great Salt Lake (GSL), wetlands. Model scenarios included plan trend and conservation "futures" scenarios projected to 2030. ...

  10. Alternative Futures Analysis Of Farmington Bay Wetlands In The Great Salt Lake Ecosystem

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Alternative Futures Analysis (AFA) was conducted to evaluate tradeoffs between landscape design scenarios and ecological services for Farmington Bay, Great Salt Lake (GSL), wetlands. Model scenarios included both plan trend and conservation "futures" projected to 2030. Scena...

  11. USING REMORE SENSING AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY TO ASSESS THE CONDITION OF GREAT LAKES WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geospatial modeling approaches are being used to locate and assess the condition of natural resources (particularly wetland ecosystems) in the Great Lakes Basin. These assessments involve measuring landscape characteristics at multiple scales, primarily focusing

    on surface...

  12. 2016 RFA for Great Lakes Long-Term Biology Monitoring Program: Phytoplankton Component

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Request for Applications solicits applications from eligible entities for a cooperative agreement to be awarded for a project to continue the long-term monitoring of phytoplankton in the open waters of the Great Lakes.

  13. Materials for Public Listening Session - Stakeholder Input on Public Notice for CSOs in the Great Lakes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Materials for the Public Listening Session on September 14, 2016, to obtain information from the public to help inform development of a new regulation establishing requirements for public notification of CSO discharges in the Great Lakes.

  14. The Great Lakes Water Balance: Data availability and annotated bibliography of selected references

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neff, Brian P.; Killian, Jason R.

    2003-01-01

    Water balance calculations for the Great Lakes have been made for several decades and are a key component of Great Lakes water management. Despite the importance of the water balance, little has been done to inventory and describe the data available for use in water balance calculations. This report provides a catalog and brief description of major datasets that are used to calculate the Great Lakes water balance. Several additional datasets are identified that could be used to calculate parts of the water balance but currently are not being used. Individual offices and web pages that are useful for attaining these datasets are included. Four specific data gaps are also identified. An annotated bibliography of important publications dealing with the Great Lakes water balance is included. The findings of this investigation permit resource managers and scientists to access data more easily, assess shortcomings of current datasets, and identify which data are not currently being utilized in water balance calculations.

  15. Classification and Accuracy Assessment for Coarse Resolution Mapping within the Great Lakes Basin, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study applied a phenology-based land-cover classification approach across the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin (GLB) using time-series data consisting of 23 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composite images (250 ...

  16. Report: Results of Technical Network Vulnerability Assessment: EPA’s Great Lakes National Program Office

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #09-P-0185, June 30, 2009. Vulnerability testing conducted in May 2009 of EPA’s Great Lakes National Program Office network identified Internet Protocol addresses with several high-risk vulnerabilities associated with one device.

  17. Land-use proxies for aquatic species invasions in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic invasive species adversely impact ecosystems, human health, and the economy of the Laurentian Great Lakes region. Targeted preventative and eradication efforts in response to early detection of invasive species can be both cost advantageous and effective. But where should...

  18. Organic contaminants in Great Lakes tributaries: Identification of watersheds and chemicals of greatest concern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trace organic contaminant concentrations in some Great Lakes tributaries indicate potential for adverse effects on aquatic organisms. Chemicals used in agriculture, industry, and households enter surface waters via variety of sources, including urban and agricultural runoff, sewa...

  19. Guidance for Delisting Michigan’s Great Lakes Areas of Concern

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A useful tool for guidance in delisting Michigan’s Areas of Concern. Technical staff in the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR), USEPA Great Lakes National Program Office, among others.

  20. Monitoring Agricultural Cropping Patterns in the Great Lakes Basin Using MODIS-NDVI Time Series Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research examined changes in agricultural cropping patterns across the Great Lakes Basin (GLB) using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. Specific research objectives were to characterize the distribut...