Science.gov

Sample records for great lakes pilotage

  1. 78 FR 38725 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... Guard on matters relating to Great Lakes pilotage, including review of proposed Great Lakes pilotage...

  2. 75 FR 8728 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee (GLPAC) will meet at Coast Guard Marine... range of issues related to pilotage on the Great Lakes, including the rules and regulations that govern...

  3. 78 FR 54264 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee management; notice of Federal Advisory Committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... the Great Lakes Pilotage regulations. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: GLPAC will meet...

  4. 76 FR 62085 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee... the Federal Register of October 4, 2011, a notice announcing a Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee... authority of the Great Lakes Pilotage program. If you have been adversely affected by the one-day delay in...

  5. 76 FR 61370 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... Homeland Security and the Coast Guard on matters relating to Great Lakes pilotage, including review of...

  6. 77 FR 24729 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... recommendations to the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Coast Guard on matters relating to Great Lakes...

  7. 78 FR 49544 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Request for applications. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard seeks applications for membership on the Great Lakes... of Homeland Security and the Coast Guard on matters relating to Great Lakes pilotage, including...

  8. 78 FR 5474 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... recommendations to the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Coast Guard on matters relating to Great Lakes...

  9. 77 FR 47582 - Great Lakes Pilotage Rates-2013 Annual Review and Adjust; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 401 RIN 1625-AB89 Great Lakes Pilotage Rates--2013 Annual Review and..., 2012 (77 FR 45539) proposing rate adjustments for pilotage services on the Great Lakes. The charge rate... email Mr. Todd Haviland, Management & Program Analyst, Office of Great Lakes Pilotage, Commandant (CG...

  10. 76 FR 50713 - 2012 Rates for Pilotage on the Great Lakes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 401 RIN 1625-AB70 2012 Rates for Pilotage on the Great Lakes AGENCY: Coast... pilotage on the Great Lakes. This correction provides four rows that were missing from Table 36 in the..., Office of Great Lakes Pilotage, Commandant (CG-5522), Coast Guard; telephone 202-372-2037, e- mail Todd.A...

  11. 78 FR 13521 - Great Lakes Pilotage Rates-2013 Annual Review and Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... charges for pilotage services, giving consideration to the public interest and the costs of providing the..., methodology. The last full ratemaking established the current base rates in the 2012 final rule (77 FR 11752... smaller vessels carried a more fair portion of the costs associated with pilotage on the Great Lakes. As...

  12. 46 CFR 1.03-50 - Appeals from decisions or actions of the Director, Great Lakes Pilotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Appeal § 1.03-50 Appeals from decisions or actions of the Director, Great Lakes Pilotage. Any person directly affected by a decision or action of the Director, Great Lakes Pilotage, may make a formal appeal... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Appeals from decisions or actions of the Director, Great...

  13. 77 FR 45539 - Great Lakes Pilotage Rates-2013 Annual Review and Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . (2) Fax: 202-493-2251. (3) Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30... Haviland, Management & Program Analyst, Office of Great Lakes Pilotage, Commandant (CG-WWM-2), Coast Guard.... waters of the St. Mary's River, Sault Ste. Marie Locks, and Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Superior. Area 3...

  14. 46 CFR 1.03-50 - Appeals from decisions or actions of the Great Lakes Pilotage Division (CG-WWM-2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Appeals from decisions or actions of the Great Lakes... FUNCTIONS Rights of Appeal § 1.03-50 Appeals from decisions or actions of the Great Lakes Pilotage Division (CG-WWM-2). Any person directly affected by a decision or action of the Great Lakes Pilotage Division...

  15. 46 CFR 1.03-50 - Appeals from decisions or actions of the Great Lakes Pilotage Division (CG-WWM-2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Appeals from decisions or actions of the Great Lakes... FUNCTIONS Rights of Appeal § 1.03-50 Appeals from decisions or actions of the Great Lakes Pilotage Division (CG-WWM-2). Any person directly affected by a decision or action of the Great Lakes Pilotage Division...

  16. 46 CFR 1.03-50 - Appeals from decisions or actions of the Great Lakes Pilotage Division (CG-WWM-2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Appeals from decisions or actions of the Great Lakes... FUNCTIONS Rights of Appeal § 1.03-50 Appeals from decisions or actions of the Great Lakes Pilotage Division (CG-WWM-2). Any person directly affected by a decision or action of the Great Lakes Pilotage Division...

  17. 46 CFR 1.03-50 - Appeals from decisions or actions of the Director, Great Lakes Pilotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appeals from decisions or actions of the Director, Great Lakes Pilotage. 1.03-50 Section 1.03-50 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC ORGANIZATION, GENERAL COURSE AND METHODS GOVERNING MARINE SAFETY FUNCTIONS Rights of...

  18. 76 FR 47095 - 2012 Rates for Pilotage on the Great Lakes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... charges for pilotage services, giving consideration to the public interest and the costs of providing the... that review. The last full ratemaking established the current base rates in 2006 (final rule, 71 FR... decrease over If pilotage service is required in: the current rate is: Area 1 (Designated waters)...

  19. 78 FR 48374 - Great Lakes Pilotage Rates-2014 Annual Review and Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... . (2) Fax: 202-493-2251. (3) Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of Transportation..., Commandant (CG-WWM-2), Coast Guard; telephone 202-372-2037, email Todd.A.Haviland@uscg.mil , or fax 202-372.... Marie Locks, and Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Superior. Area 3 is the Welland Canal, which is serviced...

  20. 77 FR 11752 - 2012 Rates for Pilotage on the Great Lakes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... Steamship Co. and Mittal Steel USA, Inc. Agreements A and B both expired on July 31, 2011, and AMOU did not... American Steamship Company 815,600 Mittal Steel USA, Inc 38,826 Key Lakes, Inc 361,385 Total tonnage, each...

  1. 46 CFR 401.120 - Federal reservation of pilotage regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Federal reservation of pilotage regulations. 401.120 Section 401.120 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES... and the Memorandum of Arrangements, Great Lakes Pilotage. ...

  2. 46 CFR 401.120 - Federal reservation of pilotage regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Federal reservation of pilotage regulations. 401.120 Section 401.120 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES... and the Memorandum of Arrangements, Great Lakes Pilotage. ...

  3. 46 CFR 401.120 - Federal reservation of pilotage regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal reservation of pilotage regulations. 401.120 Section 401.120 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES... and the Memorandum of Arrangements, Great Lakes Pilotage. ...

  4. 46 CFR 401.120 - Federal reservation of pilotage regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal reservation of pilotage regulations. 401.120 Section 401.120 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES... and the Memorandum of Arrangements, Great Lakes Pilotage. ...

  5. 46 CFR 401.120 - Federal reservation of pilotage regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Federal reservation of pilotage regulations. 401.120 Section 401.120 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES... and the Memorandum of Arrangements, Great Lakes Pilotage. ...

  6. 46 CFR 401.400 - Calculation of pilotage units and determination of weighting factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of pilotage units and determination of weighting factor. 401.400 Section 401.400 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE REGULATIONS Rates, Charges, and Conditions for Pilotage Services...

  7. 46 CFR 401.400 - Calculation of pilotage units and determination of weighting factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Calculation of pilotage units and determination of weighting factor. 401.400 Section 401.400 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE REGULATIONS Rates, Charges, and Conditions for Pilotage Services...

  8. 46 CFR 401.400 - Calculation of pilotage units and determination of weighting factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Calculation of pilotage units and determination of weighting factor. 401.400 Section 401.400 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE REGULATIONS Rates, Charges, and Conditions for Pilotage Services...

  9. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This book contains lesson plans that provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into elementary subjects. The book is divided into three subject areas: (1) History, which includes the origins of the Great Lakes, Great Lakes people, and shipwrecks; (2) Social Studies, which covers government, acid rain as a…

  10. 46 CFR Appendix C to Part 404 - Procedures for Annual Review of Base Pilotage Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Procedures for Annual Review of Base Pilotage Rates C Appendix C to Part 404 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE RATEMAKING Pt. 404, App. C Appendix C to Part 404—Procedures for Annual Review of Base...

  11. 46 CFR Appendix C to Part 404 - Procedures for Annual Review of Base Pilotage Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedures for Annual Review of Base Pilotage Rates C Appendix C to Part 404 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE RATEMAKING Pt. 404, App. C Appendix C to Part 404—Procedures for Annual Review of...

  12. 46 CFR Appendix C to Part 404 - Procedures for Annual Review of Base Pilotage Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Procedures for Annual Review of Base Pilotage Rates C Appendix C to Part 404 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE RATEMAKING Pt. 404, App. C Appendix C to Part 404—Procedures for Annual Review of...

  13. 46 CFR Appendix C to Part 404 - Procedures for Annual Review of Base Pilotage Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedures for Annual Review of Base Pilotage Rates C Appendix C to Part 404 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE RATEMAKING Pt. 404, App. C Appendix C to Part 404—Procedures for Annual Review of...

  14. Great Lakes: Great Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Sea Grant Inst., Albany, NY.

    This folder contains 12 fact sheets designed to improve the quality of gardens near the Great Lakes. The titles are: (1) "Your Garden and the Great Lakes"; (2) "Organic Gardening"; (3) "Fruit and Vegetable Gardening"; (4) "Composting Yard Wastes"; (5) "Herbicides and Water Quality"; (6)…

  15. Great Lakes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Bands of lake effect snow drift eastward from the western Great Lakes in this true-color image captured by the NOAA/NASA Suomi NPP satellite's Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on January 5, 2017. National Weather Service forecasters expect light to moderate lake effect snow showers to continue throughout the day today and into Saturday (1/7). Lake-effect snow forms when cold air passes over the warmer waters of a lake. This causes some lake water to evaporate into the air and warm it. This warmer, wetter air rises and cools as it moves away from the lake. When it cools, it releases that moisture and, if it’s cold enough, that moisture turns into snow. Although true-color images like this may appear to be photographs of Earth, they aren't. They are created by combining data from the three color channels on the VIIRS instrument sensitive to the red, green and blue (or RGB) wavelengths of light into one composite image. In addition, data from several other channels are often also included to cancel out or correct atmospheric interference that may blur parts of the image. Credit: NOAA/NASA/Suomi NPP via NOAA's Environmental Visualization Laboratory

  16. Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  17. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This booklet introduces an environmental curriculum for use in a variety of elementary subjects. The lesson plans provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into the subjects of history, social studies, and environmental sciences. Each of these sections contains background information, discussion points, and a…

  18. 46 CFR 401.405 - Basic rates and charges on the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Lake Ontario. 401.405 Section 401.405 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE REGULATIONS Rates, Charges, and Conditions for Pilotage Services § 401.405 Basic rates and charges on the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario. Except as provided in...

  19. 46 CFR 401.405 - Basic rates and charges on the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Lake Ontario. 401.405 Section 401.405 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE REGULATIONS Rates, Charges, and Conditions for Pilotage Services § 401.405 Basic rates and charges on the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario. Except as provided in...

  20. The Great Lakes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Great Lakes form the largest surface freshwater system on Earth. The U.S. and Canada work together to restore and protect the environment in the Great Lakes Basin. Top issues include contaminated sediments, water quality and invasive species.

  1. Great Lakes: Chemical Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1976-01-01

    The Tenth Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society met to assess current Chemical Research activity in the Great Lakes Basin, and addressed to the various aspects of the theme, Chemistry of the Great Lakes. Research areas reviewed included watershed studies, atmospheric and aquatic studies, and sediment studies. (BT)

  2. Great Lakes in January

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    This image taken on January 13, 2015 from the Suomi NPP satellite's VIIRS instrument shows the Great Lakes and surrounding areas. The latest Great Lakes Surface Environmental Analysis (GLSEA) from the NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory shows total ice cover of 29.3% as of January 13th. Credit: NOAA/NASA/NPP Via NOAA Environmental Visualization Laboratory

  3. Great Lakes: Chemical Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1976-01-01

    The Tenth Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society met to assess current Chemical Research activity in the Great Lakes Basin, and addressed to the various aspects of the theme, Chemistry of the Great Lakes. Research areas reviewed included watershed studies, atmospheric and aquatic studies, and sediment studies. (BT)

  4. 46 CFR 401.410 - Basic rates and charges on Lakes Huron, Michigan and Superior and the St. Mary's River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basic rates and charges on Lakes Huron, Michigan and Superior and the St. Mary's River. 401.410 Section 401.410 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE REGULATIONS Rates, Charges, and Conditions for Pilotage...

  5. 46 CFR 401.410 - Basic rates and charges on Lakes Huron, Michigan and Superior and the St. Mary's River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic rates and charges on Lakes Huron, Michigan and Superior and the St. Mary's River. 401.410 Section 401.410 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE REGULATIONS Rates, Charges, and Conditions for Pilotage...

  6. 46 CFR 401.410 - Basic rates and charges on Lakes Huron, Michigan and Superior and the St. Mary's River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basic rates and charges on Lakes Huron, Michigan and Superior and the St. Mary's River. 401.410 Section 401.410 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE REGULATIONS Rates, Charges, and Conditions for Pilotage...

  7. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  8. Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ron

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology…

  9. Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ron

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology…

  10. The Great Lakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seasons, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human…

  11. The Great Lakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seasons, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human…

  12. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  13. 77 FR 33228 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The GLPAC is an advisory committee established in accordance with the provisions of... accounting, who must be recommended to the Secretary by a unanimous vote of the other members of the..., applicants are required to complete Confidential Financial Disclosure Reports (OGE Form 450). Coast Guard...

  14. 76 FR 24505 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ..., travel time and delay/detention time using historical traffic records. New Business: Review of bridge..., contact Mr. David Dean as soon as possible. To facilitate public participation, we are inviting public.... Please note that the public comment period may end before the time indicated, following the last call...

  15. The Great Lakes whitefish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Oosten, John; Elliot, Charles

    1942-01-01

    In every one of the Great Lakes- Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michigan, and Superior- the most valuable fishes are declining, and there is no evidence that this trend will be reversed. Under existing conditions of a diversity of regulations that vary between states and between the two countries, and with the present methods of fishing, the Great Lakes fisheries are doomed. This chapter deals with the common whitefish, a valuable species which many believe to be the next that will go unless positive action is forthcoming soon.

  16. Great Lakes, No Clouds

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    NASA image acquired August 28, 2010 Late August 2010 provided a rare satellite view of a cloudless summer day over the entire Great Lakes region. North Americans trying to sneak in a Labor Day weekend getaway on the lakes were hoping for more of the same. The Great Lakes comprise the largest collective body of fresh water on the planet, containing roughly 18 percent of Earth's supply. Only the polar ice caps contain more fresh water. The region around the Great Lakes basin is home to more than 10 percent of the population of the United States and 25 percent of the population of Canada. Many of those people have tried to escape record heat this summer by visiting the lakes. What they found, according to The Hamilton Spectator, was record-breaking water temperatures fueled by record-breaking air temperatures in the spring and summer. By mid-August, the waters of Lake Superior were 6 to 8°C (11 to 14°F) above normal. Lake Michigan set records at about 4°C (7°F) above normal. The other three Great Lakes – Huron, Erie, and Ontario -- were above normal temperatures, though no records were set. The image was gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite at 1:30 p.m. Central Daylight Time (18:30 UTC) on August 28. Open water appears blue or nearly black. The pale blue and green swirls near the coasts are likely caused by algae or phytoplankton blooms, or by calcium carbonate (chalk) from the lake floor. The sweltering summer temperatures have produced an unprecedented bloom of toxic blue-green algae in western Lake Erie, according to the Cleveland Plain Dealer. NASA image by Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center. Caption by Mike Carlowicz. Instrument: Aqua - MODIS Click here to see more images from NASA Goddard’s Earth Observatory NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft

  17. The Great Lakes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA image captured March 28, 2011 The Great Lakes Satellite: Terra NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  18. Great Lakes Demonstration 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Representatives from CG Districts 1, 5 , 13, and 17  Enbridge Pipeline, Co.  EPA  National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)  Observers (CG...distances from the vessel‟s hull. (Figure 5 ) In that configuration, the recovery hose and hydraulic lines dragged across the surface of the nearby...No. CG-D-08-12 2. Government Accession Number 3. Recipient’s Catalog No. 4. Title and Subtitle Great Lakes Demonstration 2 Final Report 5

  19. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J. Iwan

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  20. Not so Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, “September of My Years” “Early Bird,” the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  1. Not so Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, "September of My Years;" "Early Bird," the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  2. Great Lakes Harbors Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-11-01

    Locally.assigned Library of Congress number: HE396 S25 U55 Nj 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side if necessary and identify by block number) 1. HARBORS 2... WATER TRANSPORTATION 3. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 4. GREAT LJAKES - 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on ie.er.se side It necesaty nd identify by blocA number) Harbor...Scope 2 DESCRIPTION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 3 Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Navigation System 2 4 Navigation Season 3 5 Water Levels 4 6 Tributary Area 6

  3. Great Lakes Initiative (GLI) Clearinghouse

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Great Lakes Initiative Toxicity Clearinghouse is a central location for information on criteria, toxicity data, exposure parameters and other supporting documents used in developing water quality standards in the Great Lakes watershed.

  4. Michigan: The Great Lakes State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Sandra Lee; La Luzerne-Oi, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Although Michigan is often called the "Wolverine State," its more common nickname is the "Great Lakes State." This name comes from the fact that Michigan is the only state in the United States that borders four of the five Great Lakes. Also referred to as the "Water Wonderland," Michigan has 11,000 additional lakes,…

  5. 46 CFR 401.407 - Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron, MI. 401.407 Section 401.407 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE REGULATIONS Rates, Charges, and Conditions...

  6. 46 CFR 401.407 - Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron, MI. 401.407 Section 401.407 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE REGULATIONS Rates, Charges, and Conditions...

  7. 46 CFR 401.407 - Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron, MI. 401.407 Section 401.407 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE REGULATIONS Rates, Charges, and Conditions...

  8. The Great Lakes Food Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Marjane L.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a play for students in grades four to nine that incorporates the scientific names, physical characteristics, feeding habits, interactions, and interdependence of the plants and animals that make up the Great Lakes food web to facilitate the learning of this complex system. Includes a Great Lakes food web chart. (AIM)

  9. The Great Lakes Food Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Marjane L.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a play for students in grades four to nine that incorporates the scientific names, physical characteristics, feeding habits, interactions, and interdependence of the plants and animals that make up the Great Lakes food web to facilitate the learning of this complex system. Includes a Great Lakes food web chart. (AIM)

  10. TOXAPHENE STUDY OF GREAT LAKES TRIBUTARY SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Product is the paper "Pulp and Paper Mills as Sources of Toxaphene to Lake Superior and Northern Lake Michigan" published in the Journal of Great Lakes Research, 25(2):383-394 International Association of Great Lakes 1999.

  11. TOXAPHENE STUDY OF GREAT LAKES TRIBUTARY SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Product is the paper "Pulp and Paper Mills as Sources of Toxaphene to Lake Superior and Northern Lake Michigan" published in the Journal of Great Lakes Research, 25(2):383-394 International Association of Great Lakes 1999.

  12. Great Lakes' regional climate regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsov, Sergey; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Roebber, Paul

    2016-04-01

    We simulate the seasonal cycle of the Great Lakes' water temperature and lake ice using an idealized coupled lake-atmosphere-ice model. Under identical seasonally varying boundary conditions, this model exhibits more than one seasonally varying equilibrium solutions, which we associate with distinct regional climate regimes. Colder/warmer regimes are characterized by abundant/scarce amounts of wintertime ice and cooler/warmer summer temperatures, respectively. These regimes are also evident in the observations of the Great Lakes' climate variability over recent few decades, and are found to be most pronounced for Lake Superior, the deepest of the Great Lakes, consistent with model predictions. Multiple climate regimes of the Great Lakes also play a crucial role in the accelerated warming of the lakes relative to the surrounding land regions in response to larger-scale global warming. We discuss the physical origin and characteristics of multiple climate regimes over the lakes, as well as their implications for a longer-term regional climate variability.

  13. Early Holocene Great Salt Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Madsen, David B.; Miller, David; Thompson, Robert S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Shorelines and surficial deposits (including buried forest-floor mats and organic-rich wetland sediments) show that Great Salt Lake did not rise higher than modern lake levels during the earliest Holocene (11.5–10.2 cal ka BP; 10–9 14C ka BP). During that period, finely laminated, organic-rich muds (sapropel) containing brine-shrimp cysts and pellets and interbedded sodium-sulfate salts were deposited on the lake floor. Sapropel deposition was probably caused by stratification of the water column — a freshwater cap possibly was formed by groundwater, which had been stored in upland aquifers during the immediately preceding late-Pleistocene deep-lake cycle (Lake Bonneville), and was actively discharging on the basin floor. A climate characterized by low precipitation and runoff, combined with local areas of groundwater discharge in piedmont settings, could explain the apparent conflict between evidence for a shallow lake (a dry climate) and previously published interpretations for a moist climate in the Great Salt Lake basin of the eastern Great Basin.

  14. Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    As seen from space, the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA (41.5N, 112.5W) appears as two separate bodies of water with a narrow divider in the middle. At the turn of the century, a railroad bridge without culverts, was built across the lake and ever since, the water and salinity levels have been uneqal on either side. Fed by snowmelt from the nearby Wasatch Mountains, the lake in recent years has had record high water levels, threatening to flood the local areas.

  15. Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-03-04

    As seen from space, the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA (41.5N, 112.5W) appears as two separate bodies of water with a narrow divider in the middle. At the turn of the century, a railroad bridge without culverts, was built across the lake and ever since, the water and salinity levels have been uneqal on either side. Fed by snowmelt from the nearby Wasatch Mountains, the lake in recent years has had record high water levels, threatening to flood the local areas.

  16. 33 CFR 125.08 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Great Lakes. 125.08 Section 125... VESSELS § 125.08 Great Lakes. The term Great Lakes as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters. ...

  17. 33 CFR 125.08 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Great Lakes. 125.08 Section 125... VESSELS § 125.08 Great Lakes. The term Great Lakes as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters. ...

  18. 33 CFR 125.08 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Great Lakes. 125.08 Section 125... VESSELS § 125.08 Great Lakes. The term Great Lakes as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters. ...

  19. 33 CFR 125.08 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Great Lakes. 125.08 Section 125... VESSELS § 125.08 Great Lakes. The term Great Lakes as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters. ...

  20. 33 CFR 125.08 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Lakes. 125.08 Section 125... VESSELS § 125.08 Great Lakes. The term Great Lakes as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters. ...

  1. Great Lakes management: Ecological factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonzogni, W. C.; Robertson, A.; Beeton, A. M.

    1983-11-01

    Although attempts to improve the quality of the Great Lakes generally focus on chemical pollution, other factors are important and should be considered Ecological factors, such as invasion of the lakes by foreign species, habitat changes, overfishing, and random variations in organism populations, are especially influential. Lack of appreciation of the significance of ecological factors stems partly from the inappropriate application of the concept of eutrophication to the Great Lakes. Emphasis on ecological factors is not intended to diminish the seriousness of pollution, but rather to point out that more cost-effective management, as well as more realistic expectations of management efforts by the public, should result from an ecosystem management approach in which ecological factors are carefully considered.

  2. Radioactivity in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Joshi, S R

    1991-03-01

    Studies of radioactivity in the Laurentian Great Lakes are reviewed to evaluate the impact of radionuclide dissemination on the world's foremost freshwater aquatic ecosystem. The status of radiologically-degraded areas is also reported. Significant amounts of radioactivity are stored in the basin, which has numerous nuclear reactors as well as uranium mine waste areas. The prevailing low levels of artificially-produced radionuclides, arising largely from previous fallout inputs, provide very little radiation dose to the area residents consuming lake water. The interlake transport of radionuclides is adequately described by existing models, though some refinement of the source term is needed. Revised estimates of fallout over each lake are given, but no data are available to estimate drainage basin contributions. Only limited information is available on the dispersal of radioactive pollutants. The influence of chemical parameters on radionuclide cycling has been extensively investigated in Lake Michigan and, to a lesser degree, in Lake Ontario. The need for developing a radiological objective for fish becomes apparent from an assessment of the very few data collected thus far on the biological and dosimetric aspects. Several research and monitoring needs are also identified.

  3. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  4. EPA Research Strengthens Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth, the Great Lakes (Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan, Ontario and Superior) are a source of economic prosperity, recreation and raw materials. Human activity, however, has resulted in pollution and other stressors. The Great Lakes curren...

  5. EPA Research Strengthens Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth, the Great Lakes (Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan, Ontario and Superior) are a source of economic prosperity, recreation and raw materials. Human activity, however, has resulted in pollution and other stressors. The Great Lakes curren...

  6. Insecticides and the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.

    1969-01-01

    Cracks in the perfect image of DDT appeared when traces of the insecticide began to show up in a wide variety of organisms throughout the world. As more and more people investigated this problem, it became increasingly evident that terrestrial and aquatic animals were accumulating comparatively high concentrations of DDT from extremely low levels in their environment. It also became apparent that DDT and all of the other chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides were not species-specific, but were toxic to all forms of animal life including man. In 1965, when the Great Lakes Fishery Laboratory of the U.S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries began to monitor pesticide residues in fish from the Great Lakes, it was discovered that the fish contained not only DDT, but also dieldrin, another chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide. Fish from Lake Michigan in particular contained relatively high levels of both of these insecticides; concentrations of DDT were in the parts per million (ppm) range, a factor at least several million times greater than the few parts per trillion found in the water. Two questions presented themselves: first, How did these insecticides get into the water? and second, How did the fish build up such high concentrations in their bodies from such low concentrations in the water?

  7. The Great Lakes' regional climate regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Noriyuki

    For the last couple of decades, the Great Lakes have undergone rapid surface warming. In particular, the magnitude of the summer surface-warming trends of the Great Lakes have been much greater than those of surrounding land (Austin and Colman, 2007). Among the Great Lakes, the deepest Lake Superior exhibited the strongest warming trend in its annual, as well as summer surface water temperature. We find that many aspects of this behavior can be explained in terms of the tendency of deep lakes to exhibit multiple regimes characterized, under the same seasonally varying forcing, by the warmer and colder seasonal cycles exhibiting different amounts of wintertime lake-ice cover and corresponding changes in the summertime lake-surface temperatures. In this thesis, we address the problem of the Great Lakes' warming using one-dimensional lake modeling to interpret diverse observations of the recent lake behavior. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  8. TOXAPHENE IN THE GREAT LAKES. (R825246)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the most current data for toxaphene in the water, sediments, and biota of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. Concentrations in water range from 1.1 ng/L in Lake Superior to 0.17 ng/L in Lake Ontario. Lake Superior has the highest water concentrati...

  9. TOXAPHENE IN THE GREAT LAKES. (R825246)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the most current data for toxaphene in the water, sediments, and biota of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. Concentrations in water range from 1.1 ng/L in Lake Superior to 0.17 ng/L in Lake Ontario. Lake Superior has the highest water concentrati...

  10. Great Lakes Education Booklet, 1990-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    This booklet integrates science, history, and environmental education to help students acquire a basic understanding of the importance of the Great Lakes located in the United States. The packet also contains a Great Lakes Basin resource map and a sand dune poster. These materials introduce students to a brief history of the lakes, the diversity…

  11. Great Lakes Education Booklet, 1990-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    This booklet integrates science, history, and environmental education to help students acquire a basic understanding of the importance of the Great Lakes located in the United States. The packet also contains a Great Lakes Basin resource map and a sand dune poster. These materials introduce students to a brief history of the lakes, the diversity…

  12. Monitoring change in Great Salt Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, David L.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Freeman, Michael L.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Carling, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake, only limited water quality monitoring has occurred historically. To change this, new monitoring stations and networks—gauges of lake level height and rate of inflow, moored buoys, and multiple lake-bottom sensors—will provide important information that can be used to make informed decisions regarding future management of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem.

  13. Great Lakes Research Review, 1982. Appendices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    Laboratory-Duluth ESEERCO Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation < EV.HAM.INC. Evans-Hamilton Incorporated I ABBREVIATIONS FWS Fish and...Wildlife Service GE General Electric Company GLERL Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab GL7.C Great Lakes Fishery Commission GLF_ Great Lakes Fishery Lab...Oceanographic Institute WI.DNR Wisconsin Department of Natural Rasources WIEPC Wisconsin Electric Power Company WMB Waste Management Branch WTC Wastewater

  14. Eutrophication of the St. Lawrence Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeton, Alfred M.

    1965-01-01

    Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior are classified as oligotrophic lakes on the basis of their biological, chemical, and physical characteristics. Lake Ontario, although rich in nutrients, is morphometrically oligotrophic or mesotrophic because of its large area of deep water. Lake Erie, the most productive of the lakes and the shallowest, is eutrophic. Several changes commonly associated with eutrophication in small lakes have been observed in the Great Lakes. These changes apparently reflect accelerated eutrophication in the Great Lakes due to man's activity. Chemical data compiled from a number of sources, dating as early as 1854, indicate a progressive increase in the concentrations of various major ions and total dissolved solids in all of the lakes except Lake Superior. The plankton has changed somewhat in Lake Michigan and the plankton, benthos, and fish populations of Lake Erie are greatly different today from those of the past. An extensive area of hypolimnetic water of Lake Erie has developed low dissolved oxygen concentrations in late summer within recent years.

  15. Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Claramunt, Randall M.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Clapp, David; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Leonard, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) are a valuable resource, both within their native range in the North Pacific rim and in the Great Lakes basin. Understanding their value from a biological and economic perspective in the Great Lakes, however, requires an understanding of changes in the ecosystem and of management actions that have been taken to promote system stability, integrity, and sustainable fisheries. Pacific salmonine introductions to the Great Lakes are comprised mainly of Chinook salmon, coho salmon, and steelhead and have accounted for 421, 177, and 247 million fish, respectively, stocked during 1966-2007. Stocking of Pacific salmonines has been effective in substantially reducing exotic prey fish abundances in several of the Great Lakes (e.g., lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario). The goal of our evaluation was to highlight differences in management strategies and perspectives across the basin, and to evaluate policies for Pacific salmonine management in the Great Lakes. Currently, a potential conflict exists between Pacific salmonine management and native fish rehabilitation goals because of the desire to sustain recreational fisheries and to develop self-sustaining populations of stocked Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes. We provide evidence that suggests Pacific salmonines have not only become naturalized to the food webs of the Great Lakes, but that their populations (specifically Chinook salmon) may be fluctuating in concert with specific prey (i.e., alewives) whose populations are changing relative to environmental conditions and ecosystem disturbances. Remaining questions, however, are whether or not “natural” fluctuations in predator and prey provide enough “stability” in the Great Lakes food webs, and even more importantly, would a choice by managers to attempt to reduce the severity of predator-prey oscillations be antagonistic to native fish restoration efforts. We argue that, on each of the Great Lakes, managers are pursuing

  16. Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between the U.S. and Canada addresses critical environmental health issues in the Great Lakes region. It's a model of binational cooperation to protect water quality. It was first signed in 1972 and amended in 2012.

  17. Directory of Great Lakes Education Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Joint Commission, Windsor (Ontario). Great Lakes Regional Office.

    The Great Lakes Science Advisory Board of the International Joint Commission surveyed several hundred educators and producers of educational programs. One of the results of the survey was the development of this directory, which is limited to materials and producers of materials dealing with the Great Lakes Basin ecosystem, environmental studies,…

  18. Directory of Great Lakes Education Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Joint Commission, Windsor (Ontario). Great Lakes Regional Office.

    The Great Lakes Science Advisory Board of the International Joint Commission surveyed several hundred educators and producers of educational programs. One of the results of the survey was the development of this directory, which is limited to materials and producers of materials dealing with the Great Lakes Basin ecosystem, environmental studies,…

  19. Winter Lake Breezes near the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosman, Erik T.; Horel, John D.

    2016-05-01

    Case studies of lake breezes during wintertime cold air pools in Utah's Salt Lake Valley are examined. While summer breezes originating from the Great Salt Lake are typically deeper, of longer duration, and have higher wind speeds than winter breezes, the rate of inland penetration and cross-frontal temperature differences can be higher during the winter. The characteristics of winter breezes and the forcing mechanisms controlling them (e.g., snow cover, background flow, vertical stability profile, clouds, lake temperature, lake sheltering, and drainage pooling) are more complex and variable than those evident in summer. During the afternoon in the Salt Lake Valley, these lake breezes can lead to elevated pollution levels due to the transport of fine particle pollutants from over the Great Salt Lake, decreased vertical mixing depth, and increased vertical stability.

  20. Pesticide concentrations in Great Lakes fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.

    1970-01-01

    During the past 4 years the Ann Arbor Great Lakes Fishery Laboratory of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries has been monitoring insecticide levels in fish from the Great Lakes. The two insecticides found in all Great Lakes fish have been DDT (DDT, DDD, DDE) and dieldrin. Fish from Lake Michigan contain from 2 to 7 times as much of these insecticides as those from the other Great Lakes. Insecticide levels calculated on a whole-fish basis show a marked difference from species to species. Within a species there is also an increase in DDT and dieldrin levels with an increase in size. If these insecticide levels are, however, calculated as ppm of insecticide in the extractable fish oil, the differences in concentration between species and the differences between size groups becomes considerably less. Laboratory experiments indicate that fish can build up concentrations of DDT and dieldrin at the parts-per-million level from parts-per-trillion concentrations in the water.

  1. Genetic diversity of Diporeia in the Great Lakes: comparison of Lake Superior to the other Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abundances of Diporeia have dropped drastically in the Great Lakes, except in Lake Superior, where data suggest that population counts actually have risen. Various ecological, environmental, or geographic hypotheses have been proposed to explain the greater abundance of Lake Supe...

  2. Genetic diversity of Diporeia in the Great Lakes: comparison of Lake Superior to the other Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abundances of Diporeia have dropped drastically in the Great Lakes, except in Lake Superior, where data suggest that population counts actually have risen. Various ecological, environmental, or geographic hypotheses have been proposed to explain the greater abundance of Lake Supe...

  3. 76 FR 6351 - Great Lakes Pilotage: 2011 Annual Review and Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ....53 $1,139.30 (Monthly Wages x 5%) Pension = $33.35 x 45.5 days........ 1,517.43 1,517.43 Health = $97....57 (Monthly Wages x 5%) Pension = $43.55 x 45.5 days........ 1,981.53 1,981.53 Health = $97.64 x 45.5...,348,516 5,203 $451.38 Area 2 1,689,246 5,650 298.98 Area 4 1,436,140 7,320 196.19 Area 5 2,649,876......

  4. 75 FR 7958 - 2010 Rates for Pilotage on the Great Lakes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... in benchmark contractual wages and benefits and an adjustment for inflation. This rulemaking promotes... of living (which is determined using 2007 and 2008 data). However, the inflation factor is merely one... docket of two benchmark contracts and the absence of supporting documentation for the inflation...

  5. 75 FR 51191 - Great Lakes Pilotage Rates-2011 Annual Review and Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ...'' then click on the balloon shape in the ``Actions'' column. If you submit your comments by mail or hand... benefits to remain fixed at current levels with the exception of medical plan contributions. Medical plan..., we forecast an increase of 10 percent over 2010 medical plan contributions for the AMOU contracts in...

  6. Dry Climate Disconnected the Laurentian Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, C. F. Michael; King, John W.; Blasco, Stefan M.; Brooks, Gregory R.; Coakley, John P.; Croley, Thomas E.; Dettman, David L.; Edwards, Thomas W. D.; Heil, Clifford W.; Hubeny, J. Bradford; Laird, Kathleen R.; McAndrews, John H.; McCarthy, Francine M. G.; Medioli, Barbara E.; Moore, Theodore C.; Rea, David K.; Smith, Alison J.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies have produced a new understanding of the hydrological history of North America's Great Lakes, showing that water levels fell several meters below lake basin outlets during an early postglacial dry climate in the Holocene (younger than 10,000 radiocarbon years, or about 11,500 calibrated or calendar years before present (B.P.)). Water levels in the Huron basin, for example, fell more than 20 meters below the basin overflow outlet between about 7900 and 7500 radiocarbon (about 8770-8290 calibrated) years B.P. Outlet rivers, including the Niagara River, presently falling 99 meters from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario (and hence Niagara Falls), ran dry. This newly recognized phase of low lake levels in a dry climate provides a case study for evaluating the sensitivity of the Great Lakes to current and future climate change.

  7. Great Lakes rivermouths: a primer for managers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul; Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Between the North American Great Lakes and their tributaries are the places where the confluence of river and lake waters creates a distinct ecosystem: the rivermouth ecosystem. Human development has often centered around these rivermouths, in part, because they provide a rich array of ecosystem services. Not surprisingly, centuries of intense human activity have led to substantial pressures on, and alterations to, these ecosystems, often diminishing or degrading their ecological functions and associated ecological services. Many Great Lakes rivermouths are the focus of intense restoration efforts. For example, 36 of the active Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) are rivermouths or areas that include one or more rivermouths. Historically, research of rivermouth ecosystems has been piecemeal, focused on the Great Lakes proper or on the upper reaches of tributaries, with little direct study of the rivermouth itself. Researchers have been divided among disciplines, agencies and institutions; and they often work independently and use disparate venues to communicate their work. Management has also been fragmented with a focus on smaller, localized, sub-habitat units and socio-political or economic elements, rather than system-level consideration. This Primer presents the case for a more holistic approach to rivermouth science and management that can enable restoration of ecosystem services with multiple benefits to humans and the Great Lakes ecosystem. A conceptual model is presented with supporting text that describes the structures and processes common to all rivermouths, substantiating the case for treating these ecosystems as an identifiable class.1 Ecological services provided by rivermouths and changes in how humans value those services over time are illustrated through case studies of two Great Lakes rivermouths—the St. Louis River and the Maumee River. Specific ecosystem services are identified in italics throughout this Primer and follow definitions described

  8. BIOLOGICAL INDICATOR DEVELOPMENT AND CLASSIFICATION FOR GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands are a valued aquatic resource that provide important ecological functions for the Great Lakes including serving as fish habitat, aquatic food web support, and nutrient and sediment retention from watersheds. Great Lakes resource managers need assessme...

  9. BIOLOGICAL INDICATOR DEVELOPMENT AND CLASSIFICATION FOR GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands are a valued aquatic resource that provide important ecological functions for the Great Lakes including serving as fish habitat, aquatic food web support, and nutrient and sediment retention from watersheds. Great Lakes resource managers need assessme...

  10. How the Great Lakes Were Evaluated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonzogni, William C.

    1975-01-01

    The Great Lakes Basin Commission exhaustively studied the world's largest fresh water ecosystem. The reconnaissance-type investigation provided a broad-scale analysis of resource needs and problems in the United States portion of the Basin. (BT)

  11. Animation: 'Great Lake' on Jupiter's Moon Europa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Data from a NASA planetary mission have provided scientists evidence of what appears to be a body of liquid water, equal in volume to the North American Great Lakes, beneath the icy surface of Jupi...

  12. Sanctuaries for lake trout in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Jon G.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Hartman, Wilbur L.

    1987-01-01

    Populations of lake trout, severely depleted in Lake Superior and virtually extirpated from the other Great Lakes because of sea lamprey predation and intense fishing, are now maintained by annual plantings of hatchery-reared fish in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario and parts of Lake Superior. The extensive coastal areas of the Great Lakes and proximity to large populations resulted in fishing pressure on planted lake trout heavy enough to push annual mortality associated with sport and commercial fisheries well above the critical level needed to reestablish self-sustaining stocks. The interagency, international program for rehabilitating lake trout includes controlling sea lamprey abundance, stocking hatchery-reared lake trout, managing the catch, and establishing sanctuaries where harvest is prohibited. Three lake trout sanctuaries have been established in Lake Michigan: the Fox Island Sanctuary of 121, 500 ha, in the Chippewa-Ottawa Treaty fishing zone in the northern region of the lake; the Milwaukee Reef Sanctuary of 160, 000 ha in midlake, in boundary waters of Michigan and Wisconsin; and Julian's Reef Sanctuary of 6, 500 ha, in Illinois waters. In northern Lake Huron, Drummond Island Sanctuary of 55, 000 ha is two thirds in Indian treaty-ceded waters in Michigan and one third in Ontario waters of Canada. A second sanctuary, Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef Sanctuary, in central Lake Huron contains 168, 000 ha. Sanctuary status for the Canadian areas remains to be approved by the Provincial government. In Lake Superior, sanctuaries protect the spawning grounds of Gull Island Shoal (70, 000 ha) and Devils Island Shoal (44, 000 ha) in Wisconsin's Apostle Island area. These seven sanctuaries, established by the several States and agreed upon by the States, Indian tribes, the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Province of Ontario, contribute toward solving an interjurisdictional fishery problem.

  13. Ecosystem services in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinman, Alan D.; Cardinale, Bradley J; Munns Jr, Wayne R; Ogdahl, Mary E.; Allan, David J; Angadi, Ted; Bartlett, Sarah; Brauman, Kate; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Doss, Matt; Dupont, Diane; Johns, Annie; Kashian, Donna; Lupi, Frank; McIntyre, Peter B.; Miller, Todd; Moore, Michael P.; Muenich, Rebecca Logsdon; Poudel, Rajendra; Price, James; Provencher, Bill; Rea, Anne; Read, Jennifer; Renzetti, Steven; Sohngen, Brent; Washburn, Erica

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services across the entire Great Lakes basin is currently lacking and is needed to make informed management decisions. A greater appreciation and understanding of ecosystem services, including both use and non-use services, may have avoided misguided resource management decisions in the past that resulted in negative legacies inherited by future generations. Given the interest in ecosystem services and lack of a coherent approach to addressing this topic in the Great Lakes, a summit was convened involving 28 experts working on various aspects of ecosystem services in the Great Lakes. The invited attendees spanned a variety of social and natural sciences. Given the unique status of the Great Lakes as the world's largest collective repository of surface freshwater, and the numerous stressors threatening this valuable resource, timing was propitious to examine ecosystem services. Several themes and recommendations emerged from the summit. There was general consensus that: 1) a comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services throughout the Great Lakes is a desirable goal but would require considerable resources; 2) more spatially and temporally intensive data are needed to overcome our data gaps, but the arrangement of data networks and observatories must be well-coordinated; 3) trade-offs must be considered as part of ecosystem services analyses; and 4) formation of a Great Lakes Institute for Ecosystem Services, to provide a hub for research, meetings, and training is desirable. Several challenges also emerged during the summit, which are discussed.

  14. Integrating Climate Change into Great Lakes Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedman, S.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is now recognized as one of the greatest threats to the Great Lakes. Projected climate change impacts to the Great Lakes include increases in surface water and air temperature; decreases in ice cover; shorter winters, early spring, and longer summers; increased frequency of intense storms; more precipitation falling as rain in the winter; less snowfall; and variations in water levels, among other effects. Changing climate conditions may compromise efforts to protect and restore the Great Lakes ecosystem and may lead to irrevocable impacts on the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes. Examples of such potential impacts include the transformation of coastal wetlands into terrestrial ecosystems; reduced fisheries; increased beach erosion; change in forest species composition as species migrate northward; potential increase in toxic substance concentrations; potential increases in the frequency and extent of algal blooms; degraded water quality; and a potential increase in invasive species. The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, signed into law by President Obama in 2010, represents the commitment of the federal government to protect, restore, and maintain the Great Lakes ecosystem. The GLRI Action Plan, issued in February 2010, identifies five focus areas: - Toxic Substances and Areas of Concern - Invasive Species - Nearshore Health and Nonpoint Source Pollution - Habitat and Wildlife Protection and Restoration - Accountability, Education, Monitoring, Evaluation, Communication, and Partnerships The Action Plan recognizes that the projected impacts of climate change on the Great Lakes have implications across all focus areas and encourages incorporation of climate change considerations into GLRI projects and programs as appropriate. Under the GLRI, EPA has funded climate change-related work by states, tribes, federal agencies, academics and NGOs through competitive grants, state and tribal capacity grants, and Interagency

  15. ERTS-1 views the Great Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, W. A.; Pease, S. R.

    1973-01-01

    The meteorological content of ERTS images, particularly mesoscale effects of the Great Lakes and air pollution dispersion is summarized. Summertime lake breeze frontal clouds and various winter lake-effect convection patterns and snow squalls are revealed in great detail. A clear-cut spiral vortex over southern Lake Michigan is related to a record early snow storm in the Chicago area. Marked cloud changes induced by orographic and frictional effects on Lake Michigan's lee shore snow squalls are seen. The most important finding, however, is a clear-cut example of alterations in cumulus convection by anthropogenic condensation and/or ice nuclei from northern Indiana steel mills during a snow squall situation. Jet aircraft condensation trails are also found with surprising frequency.

  16. Energy and water in the Great Lakes.

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2011-11-01

    The nexus between thermoelectric power production and water use is not uniform across the U.S., but rather differs according to regional physiography, demography, power plant fleet composition, and the transmission network. That is, in some regions water demand for thermoelectric production is relatively small while in other regions it represents the dominate use. The later is the case for the Great Lakes region, which has important implications for the water resources and aquatic ecology of the Great Lakes watershed. This is today, but what about the future? Projected demographic trends, shifting lifestyles, and economic growth coupled with the threat of global climate change and mounting pressure for greater U.S. energy security could have profound effects on the region's energy future. Planning for such an uncertain future is further complicated by the fact that energy and environmental planning and regulatory decisionmaking is largely bifurcated in the region, with environmental and water resource concerns generally taken into account after new energy facilities and technologies have been proposed, or practices are already in place. Based on these confounding needs, the objective of this effort is to develop Great Lakes-specific methods and tools to integrate energy and water resource planning and thereby support the dual goals of smarter energy planning and development, and protection of Great Lakes water resources. Guiding policies for this planning are the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The desired outcome of integrated energy-water-aquatic resource planning is a more sustainable regional energy mix for the Great Lakes basin ecosystem.

  17. Great Lakes Energy-Water Model

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent

    2014-09-18

    The nexus between thermoelectric power production and water use is not uniform across the U.S., but rather differs according to regional physiography, demography, power plant fleet composition, and the transmission network. That is, in some regions water demand for thermoelectric production is relatively small while in other regions it represents the dominate use. The later is the case for the Great Lakes region, which has important implications for the water resources and aquatic ecology of the Great Lakes watershed. This is today, but what about the future? Projected demographic trends, shifting lifestyles, and economic growth coupled with the threat of global climate change and mounting pressure for greater U.S. energy security could have profound effects on the region’s energy future. Planning for such an uncertain future is further complicated by the fact that energy and environmental planning and regulatory decision-making is largely bifurcated in the region, with environmental and water resource concerns generally taken into account after new energy facilities and technologies have been proposed, or practices are already in place. Based on these confounding needs, the objective of this effort is to develop Great Lakes-specific methods and tools to integrate energy and water resource planning and thereby support the dual goals of smarter energy planning and development, and protection of Great Lakes water resources. Guiding policies for this planning are the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The desired outcome of integrated energy-water-aquatic resource planning is a more sustainable regional energy mix for the Great Lakes basin ecosystem.

  18. Modeling toxaphene behavior in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaoyan; Hopke, Philip K; Holsen, Thomas M; Crimmins, Bernard S

    2011-01-15

    Chlorinated camphenes, toxaphene, are persistent organic pollutants of concern in the Great Lakes since elevated concentrations are found in various media throughout the system. While concentrations have decreased since their peak values in the 1970s and 80s, recent measurements have shown that the rate of this decline in Lake Superior has decreased significantly. This modeling study focused on toxaphene cycling in the Great Lakes and was performed primarily to determine if elevated water and fish concentrations in Lake Superior can be explained by physical differences among the lakes. Specifically, the coastal zone model for persistent organic pollutants (CoZMo-POP), a fugacity-based multimedia fate model, was used to calculate toxaphene concentrations in the atmosphere, water, soil, sediment, and biota. The performance of the model was evaluated by comparing calculated and reported concentrations in these compartments. In general, simulated and observed concentrations agree within one order of magnitude. Both model results and observed values indicate that toxaphene concentrations have declined in water and biota since the 1980s primarily as the result of decreased atmospheric deposition rates. Overall the model results suggest that the CoZMo-POP2 model does a reasonable job in simulating toxaphene variations in the Great Lakes basin. The results suggest that the recent findings of higher toxaphene concentrations in Lake Superior can be explained by differences in the physical properties of the lake (primarily large volume, large residence time and cold temperatures) compared to the lower lakes and increased recent inputs are not needed to explain the measured values.

  19. The reproductive toxicology of Great Lakes contaminants.

    PubMed Central

    Foster, W G

    1995-01-01

    The Great Lakes basin is characterized as a heavily populated and industrialized region in which a large number of environmental contaminants have been identified. Both the scientific community and the public have voiced concern that contaminants present in the Great Lakes may pose undue risk to human reproduction. Evidence from animal experiments, wildlife studies, and reports of occupational and accidental human exposures indicate that chemical contaminants can adversely affect reproduction. The purpose of this paper is to review the reproductive toxicity of some of the many contaminants known to be present in the Great Lakes. Since the number of chemicals present in the Great Lakes is far too great for each to be adequately reviewed here, discussion will be limited to those contaminants that have been identified in human serum, ovarian follicular fluid, and semen obtained from people residing in the Great Lakes region. It is concluded that a) the data at present is too limited to support the notion that reproduction, in the general population, has been impaired by exposure to chemicals present in the Great Lakes; b) the lack of data in some cases such as for hexachloroethane and 1,2,4-trichlobenzene does provide reason for concern and underscores the need for further research in this area; and c) the potential for a number of the compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT), to disrupt endocrine functions suggests that additive or synergistic effects of these compounds may already be causing adverse effects on reproduction in sensitive individuals, which needs to be explored. PMID:8635441

  20. Life in the Great Lakes. Earth Systems - Education Activities for Great Lakes Schools (ES-EAGLS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheaffer, Amy L., Ed.

    This activity book is part of a series designed to take a concept or idea from the existing school curriculum and develop it in the context of the Great Lakes using teaching approaches and materials appropriate for students in middle and high school. The theme of this book is life in the Great Lakes. Students learn about shorebird adaptations,…

  1. Great Lakes Shipping. Earth Systems - Education Activities for Great Lakes Schools (ES-EAGLS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W., Ed.

    This activity book is part of a series designed to take a concept or idea from the existing school curriculum and develop it in the context of the Great Lakes using teaching approaches and materials appropriate for students in middle and high school. The theme of this book is Great Lakes shipping. Students learn about the connections between the…

  2. Great Lakes Environmental Issues. Earth Systems - Education Activities for Great Lakes Schools (ES-EAGLS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheaffer, Amy L., Ed.

    This activity book is part of a series designed to take a concept or idea from the existing school curriculum and develop it in the context of the Great Lakes using teaching approaches and materials appropriate for students in middle and high school. The subject of this book is environmental issues in the Great Lakes. Students learn about the…

  3. Great Lakes Sinkholes: A Microbiogeochemical Frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddanda, Bopaiah A.; Nold, Stephen C.; Ruberg, Steven A.; Kendall, Scott T.; Sanders, T. Garrison; Gray, Jefferson J.

    2009-02-01

    Recent underwater explorations have revealed unique hot spots of biogeochemical activity at several submerged groundwater vents in Lake Huron, the third largest of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Fueled by venting groundwater containing high sulfate and low dissolved oxygen, these underwater ecosystems are characterized by sharp physical and chemical gradients and spectacularly colorful benthic mats that overlie carbon-rich sediments. Here, typical lake inhabitants such as fish and phytoplankton are replaced by communities dominated by microorganisms: bacteria and archaea that perform unique ecosystem functions. Shallow, sunlit sinkholes are dominated by photosynthetic microorganisms and processes, while food webs in deep aphotic sinkholes are supported primarily by chemosynthesis.

  4. Toxaphene in Great Lakes biota and air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassmeyer, Susan Theresa

    1998-11-01

    Toxaphene is a complex mixture of at least 600 hexa- through decachlorinated bornanes and bornenes, which was used as an insecticide in the United States from the 1950's until 1982, when it was banned. Toxaphene is ubiquitous in the environment, probably because of its atmospheric transport away from areas of use. Toxaphene's complex nature makes accurate quantitation difficult. I have developed a computer program to automate quantitation, thus decreasing the time required for analysis while maintaining precise quantitation. I have shown that toxaphene in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) taken from Lake Superior have not decreased as they have in the four other Great Lakes from the time of the ban though 1992. This result could be due to three possibilities: ( a) There had been a food chain perturbation that made the 1982 concentrations unusually low. (b) The physical properties of Lake Superior make the loss rate significantly lower than the other Great Lakes. (c) There are current sources of toxaphene entering the Lake Superior basin. I analyzed an extended time series of lake trout from Lake Superior and from northern Lake Michigan to test the first two hypotheses. The concentrations of toxaphene have been constant in trout from Lake Superior since the late 1970's, so hypothesis a can be negated. The northern Lake Michigan samples did not decline as greatly as the southern basin samples, so hypothesis b can not be disproved. To determine the atmospheric deposition of toxaphene to Lake Superior, I analyzed air samples collected every twelve days for sixteen months at Eagle Harbor, Michigan. The concentrations of toxaphene in these samples are similar to those found in recent studies of air collected at Traverse City, MI., but significantly lower than samples taken at a land based site in southern Ontario in 1988 and 1989. This difference in concentration may (or may not) be due to differences in sampling times or locations or

  5. 46 CFR 42.05-40 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... St. Lawrence River shall be considered as a part of the Great Lakes. In addition, the Victoria Bridge... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Great Lakes. 42.05-40 Section 42.05-40 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-40 Great Lakes. (a) This term means the Great Lakes...

  6. Great Lakes Region, State of Michigan, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-06-14

    STS040-77-045 (6 June 1991) --- This image, photographed on June 6, 1991, is an oblique view looking north-northeast and shows most of the Great Lakes region. Part of Columbia's cargo bay and the Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS-1) module are in the foreground. In the center of the image is Lake Michigan with Chicago clearly visible along the southwest shore. According to NASA photo experts studying the STS-40 imagery, this image shows several interesting meteorological phenomena. The difference in temperature between the warming land and the cold lake waters is illustrated by the low level clouds. The warming land surface results in rising air and the formation of clouds, while the lake waters are cold and result in the lakes remaining cloud free. Also visible is evidence of lake breezes developing around several of the lakes. This phenomena is also driven by the difference in temperature between the land and the water. Winds blowing off the lakes must travel 25 - 30 miles inland before it warms sufficiently to create clouds.

  7. Natural remediation in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Kamrin, Michael A.; Hickey, James P.; Swindoll, C. Michael; Stahl, Ralph G.; Ells, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    Overall, the existence of stricter environmental laws during the last 30 years and a reduction in the manufacturing base in the Great Lakes has resulted in improvement in conditions in harbors, rivers, and nearshore waters. Problems remain, such as the inability to dredge certain harbors and remove sediments because of lack of disposal facilities for contaminated sediments. Because of the wide extent of of contaminated sediments in the Great Lakes, much work remains to be done to document the condition of contaminated areas and the degree to which remediation of these areas is occurring from biotic and abiotic natural processes.

  8. Native Great Lakes wolves were not restored.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Jennifer A; Wayne, Robert K

    2008-02-23

    Wolves from the Great Lakes area were historically decimated due to habitat loss and predator control programmes. Under the protection of the US Endangered Species Act, the population has rebounded to approximately 3000 individuals. We show that the pre-recovery population was dominated by mitochondrial DNA haplotypes from an endemic American wolf referred to here as the Great Lakes wolf. In contrast, the recent population is admixed, and probably derives also from the grey wolf (Canis lupus) of Old World origin and the coyote (Canis latrans). Consequently, the pre-recovery population has not been restored, casting doubt on delisting actions.

  9. The Great Lakes Runoff Intercomparison Project (GRIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronewold, A. D.; Fortin, V.; Fry, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    As a continuation of investments in the development of alternative methods for estimating major components of the Great Lakes water budget through the recently-completed International Joint Commission (IJC) International Upper Great Lakes Study (IUGLS), representatives from a variety of United States and Canadian agencies have formed a bi-national collaboration to assess alternative methods for modeling runoff within the Great Lakes basin. The project is based on assessing and comparing simulated runoff across the watersheds of both Lake Michigan and Lake Ontario, with an emphasis on understanding the different sources of data needed to support these models, and a comparison between both total runoff and estimated runoff at individual gauging stations. Models, or modeling frameworks (and contributing agencies) participating in the project include (but are not limited to) Analysis of Flows in Networks of Channels (or AFINCH, from USGS), the Community Hydrologic Prediction System (or CHPS, from NOAA's National Weather Service), the MESH system (from Environment Canada), the Large Basin Runoff Model (or LBRM, from NOAA's Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory) as well as a series of empirical methods for extrapolating historical gauge measurements to ungauged portions of each Lake basin. This presentation will also explore alternative methods for comparing runoff estimates over broad spatial scales, and for understanding potential sources of bias and uncertainty within and between these estimates. For models generating probabilistic estimates (i.e. with an explicit expression of uncertainty) we provide a comparison based on posterior predictive p-values (similar to rank histograms), an approach which, unlike conventional deterministic metrics, provides an indication of the relative importance of uncertainty in large-scale hydrological model assessment and how expressions of that uncertainty propagate into model-based water resources management planning

  10. Great Lakes Environmental Education. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Joint Commission, Windsor (Ontario). Great Lakes Regional Office.

    The International Joint Commission report builds on a previous report to the Governments of the United States and Canada that recommended the Great Lakes (GL) States and Provinces incorporate the GL ecosystem as a priority topic in existing school curricula. This report begins by building an argument showing the need for environmental education…

  11. The Future of Great Lakes Rivermouth Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Lakes Rivermouth Collaboratory, a group of scientists and stakeholders representing academics, federal and state agencies, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are developing a conceptual model that draws upon existing data sources to synthesize the "state of the s...

  12. The Future of Great Lakes Rivermouth Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Lakes Rivermouth Collaboratory, a group of scientists and stakeholders representing academics, federal and state agencies, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are developing a conceptual model that draws upon existing data sources to synthesize the "state of the s...

  13. Great Lakes Environmental Education. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Joint Commission, Windsor (Ontario). Great Lakes Regional Office.

    The International Joint Commission report builds on a previous report to the Governments of the United States and Canada that recommended the Great Lakes (GL) States and Provinces incorporate the GL ecosystem as a priority topic in existing school curricula. This report begins by building an argument showing the need for environmental education…

  14. Temperature Over Time at the Great Lakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Rick; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity in which water temperature is investigated in relation to water depth, weather patterns, land use, time of year, and other factors students choose to investigate with data collected from the Internet. Uses the Great Lakes as the setting for this investigation and examines how and why the temperature of a body of water changes…

  15. Exotic scolytids of the Great Lakes region

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Haack

    2001-01-01

    There are at least 44 exotic species of Scolytidae established in North America north of Mexico, of which 16 species can be found in the Great Lakes region (see Table). Scolytids occupy many niches, but the two most common groups are the true bark beetles and the ambrosia beetles (Poland and Haack 1998). Adult bark beetles, as their name implies, construct galleries...

  16. Ecosystem services in the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services across the entire Great Lakes basin is currently lacking and is needed to make informed management decisions. A greater appreciation and understanding of ecosystem services, including both use and non-use services, may have avoided ...

  17. Global Change in the Great Lakes: Scenarios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Barbara K., Ed.; Rosser, Arrye R., Ed.

    The Ohio Sea Grant Education Program has produced this series of publications designed to help people understand how global change may affect the Great Lakes region. The possible implications of global change for this region of the world are explained in the hope that policymakers and individuals will be more inclined to make responsible decisions…

  18. Global Implications of Great Lakes Wildlife Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colborn, Theo

    1991-01-01

    Data on the health of wildlife in the Great Lakes ecosystem are reviewed. Researchers infer from data on eight species that the effects in offspring are the result of exposure to chlorinated chemicals by adults and passed to the offspring via maternal transfer. Policy implications are discussed. (CW)

  19. Temperature Over Time at the Great Lakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Rick; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity in which water temperature is investigated in relation to water depth, weather patterns, land use, time of year, and other factors students choose to investigate with data collected from the Internet. Uses the Great Lakes as the setting for this investigation and examines how and why the temperature of a body of water changes…

  20. Proceedings of the Great Lakes silviculture summit

    Treesearch

    Brian Palik; Louise (ed.) Levy

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the Great Lakes Silviculture Summit was to identify a research agenda that captures the priority information needs of diverse organizations in the region. These needs and the resultant research agenda are presented in the series of papers in these proceedings.

  1. Aerosol Production from the Great Lakes Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slade, J. H.; Mwaniki, G.; Bertman, S. B.; Vanreken, T. M.; Shepson, P. B.

    2009-12-01

    It is well understood that oceans generate airborne particulate matter from mechanical processes such as sea spray and bubble bursting. These particles are primarily composed of salts and other nonvolatile inorganic material; however, the organic mass fraction can vary by location and the extent of biological activity. The size distributions of aerosols in these environments depend greatly on relative humidity with diameters ranging from typically several hundred nanometers to several micrometers. There has been much less discussion of particle formation from fresh water ecosystems, a hub for organic activity, and thus a more likely medium for organic aerosol production. We investigated particle formation over the Great Lakes during the summer of 2009 as a part of the Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions Experiments (CABINEX) at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) in Pellston, MI. With a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) aboard Purdue University’s Airborne Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (ALAR) for size-distribution analysis of accumulation-mode aerosol, we conducted vertical profiles above Lake Michigan and the UMBS deciduous forest, and transects across the peninsula between Lakes Michigan and Huron to study particle formation, transport, and deposition. Preliminary results reveal a well-mixed troposphere above the forest with a mode ~0.1 μm, while in several cases, the total particle concentration over Lake Michigan is an order of magnitude greater than over the forest. There is a consistent bimodal distribution of particle sizes over Lake Michigan the lowest of which is centered at ~0.025 μm, suggesting the possibility of new particle formation. This mode is consistent with the presence of breaking waves on the lake’s surface, and this mode and the vertical structure depend greatly on wind speed. We present here evidence for new particle production from breaking waves on fresh water lakes, and discuss the results

  2. EPA Report to Congress: Great Lakes Restoration Initiative is Accelerating Great Lakes Cleanup and Protection

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Chicago (July 28, 2015) - During its first five years, the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative implemented more than 2500 projects to improve water quality, clean up contaminated shoreline, protect and restore native habitat and species and prevent and cont

  3. Incidental oligotrophication of North American Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mary Anne; Fahnenstiel, Gary; Scavia, Donald

    2011-04-15

    Phytoplankton production is an important factor in determining both ecosystem stability and the provision of ecosystem goods and services. The expansive and economically important North American Great Lakes are subjected to multiple stressors and understanding their responses to those stresses is important for understanding system-wide ecological controls. Here we show gradual increases in spring silica concentration (an indicator of decreasing growth of the dominant diatoms) in all basins of Lakes Michigan and Huron (USA and Canadian waters) between 1983 and 2008. These changes indicate the lakes have undergone gradual oligotrophication coincident with and anticipated by nutrient management implementation. Slow declines in seasonal drawdown of silica (proxy for seasonal phytoplankton production) also occurred, until recent years, when lake-wide responses were punctuated by abrupt decreases, putting them in the range of oligotrophic Lake Superior. The timing of these dramatic production drops is coincident with expansion of populations of invasive dreissenid mussels, particularly quagga mussels, in each basin. The combined effect of nutrient mitigation and invasive species expansion demonstrates the challenges facing large-scale ecosystems and suggest the need for new management regimes for large ecosystems.

  4. Microseisms from the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, K. J.; Koper, K. D.; Burlacu, V.

    2014-12-01

    Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA We performed frequency-dependent polarization and power analysis on continuous ambient seismic energy recorded by broadband seismic stations that were part of the Utah Regional Seismic Network (UU) for the years of 2001-2013. The number of broadband seismometers increased from 10 to 28 in this time period. As expected, at all 28 stations the single and double frequency peaks caused by microseisms were observed in the range of 3-20 s. At four of the stations located around the Great Salt Lake (BGU, HVU, NOQ, and SPU) an additional noise peak was intermittently observed in the period range of 0.8-1.2 s. This noise peak was strongest at SPU, a station located on the tip of a peninsula jutting into the lake from the north, and weakest at NOQ, a station located a few kilometers south of the lake in the Oquirrh Mountains. The noise peaks occur in both daytime and nighttime, and have durations lasting from a couple of hours to multiple days. They occur more frequently in the spring, summer, and fall, and less commonly in the winter. The occurrences of noise peaks in the summer show a day night pattern and seem to reach a peak during the night. The time dependence of this 1-s seismic noise was compared to records of wind speed measured at 1-hr intervals from nearby meteorological stations run by the NWS, and to lake level gage height measurements made by the USGS. Correlations with wind speed and lake level were done for every month of the year in 2013. Results showed that the correlations with wind varied throughout the year from a high of 0.49 in November to a low of 0.20 in the month of January. The correlation with lake level also varied throughout the year and the strongest correlation was found in the month of December with a correlation of 0.43. While these correlation values are statistically significant, neither wind nor lake level can completely explain the seismic observations

  5. Uncertainty in the Great Lakes water balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neff, Brian P.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the Great Lakes hydrologic system and methods used to quantify individual components of the water balance. Potential sources of uncertainty are identified and, where appropriate, alternate or additional data, models, and estimation methods suitable for reducing uncertainties are discussed. Finally, approximate uncertainties of all components are identified, compared, and assessed within the context of net basin supply. Results indicate that average uncertainties in monthly estimates of individual water-balance components may range from 1.5 percent to 45 percent. These uncertainties may cause uncertainties in monthly net basin supply estimates of approximately 2,600 ft3/s to 33,500 ft3/s for individual Great Lakes.

  6. Hydrogeomorphic classification for Great Lakes coastal wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albert, Dennis A.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Ingram, Joel W.; Thompson, Todd A.

    2005-01-01

    A hydrogeomorphic classification scheme for Great Lakes coastal wetlands is presented. The classification is hierarchical and first divides the wetlands into three broad hydrogeomorphic systems, lacustrine, riverine, and barrier-protected, each with unique hydrologic flow characteristics and residence time. These systems are further subdivided into finer geomorphic types based on physical features and shoreline processes. Each hydrogeomorphic wetland type has associated plant and animal communities and specific physical attributes related to sediment type, wave energy, water quality, and hydrology.

  7. Lake Buchannan, Great Dividing Range, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lake Buchannan, a small but blue and prominent in the center of the view, lies in the Great Dividing of Queensland, Australia (22.0S, 146.0E). The mountain range in this case is a low plateau of no more than 2,000 to 3,000 ft altitude. The interior is dry, mostly in pasture but the coastal zone in contrast, is wet tropical country where bananas and sugarcane are grown.

  8. Beach science in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring beach waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, beach sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, beach managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “Beach Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes beaches and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.

  9. Monitoring microbes in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Bain, Mark B; Cangelosi, Allegra; Eder, Tim A

    2011-11-01

    Great Lakes environmental agencies want to build the capacity to understand microbe threats and develop responses and mitigation plans in advance of crises such as large fish kills. We developed a collaborative plan for monitoring microbes across the Great Lakes of North America to meet practical needs with the latest science and testing technology. The goal was to build understanding of harmful microbes and be rapid, relevant, and robust in addressing threats. The program was oriented for adaptability to changing threats and will target areas of human activity, especially shipping ports and invasion hotspots. Sampling will be aimed at fish and water with application of molecular testing procedures that will allow rapid, efficient, and very sensitive detection of microbes. Compared to other programs with similar aims, our agenda is broader in scope, focuses on building knowledge, uses a representative sampling design, and will provide findings for proactive management and response planning. The reliance on molecular testing procedures, sample archiving, and rapid and broadly distributed results distinguishes our approach from the other similar programs. Fitting microbe monitoring into the Great Lakes environmental management agenda is expected to add an important new dimension to ecosystem monitoring and yield new knowledge of importance for management.

  10. Meteotsunamis in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Bechle, Adam J.; Wu, Chin H.; Kristovich, David A. R.; Anderson, Eric J.; Schwab, David J.; Rabinovich, Alexander B.

    2016-01-01

    The generation mechanism of meteotsunamis, which are meteorologically induced water waves with spatial/temporal characteristics and behavior similar to seismic tsunamis, is poorly understood. We quantify meteotsunamis in terms of seasonality, causes, and occurrence frequency through the analysis of long-term water level records in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The majority of the observed meteotsunamis happen from late-spring to mid-summer and are associated primarily with convective storms. Meteotsunami events of potentially dangerous magnitude (height > 0.3 m) occur an average of 106 times per year throughout the region. These results reveal that meteotsunamis are much more frequent than follow from historic anecdotal reports. Future climate scenarios over the United States show a likely increase in the number of days favorable to severe convective storm formation over the Great Lakes, particularly in the spring season. This would suggest that the convectively associated meteotsunamis in these regions may experience an increase in occurrence frequency or a temporal shift in occurrence to earlier in the warm season. To date, meteotsunamis in the area of the Great Lakes have been an overlooked hazard. PMID:27883066

  11. Meteotsunamis in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Bechle, Adam J; Wu, Chin H; Kristovich, David A R; Anderson, Eric J; Schwab, David J; Rabinovich, Alexander B

    2016-11-24

    The generation mechanism of meteotsunamis, which are meteorologically induced water waves with spatial/temporal characteristics and behavior similar to seismic tsunamis, is poorly understood. We quantify meteotsunamis in terms of seasonality, causes, and occurrence frequency through the analysis of long-term water level records in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The majority of the observed meteotsunamis happen from late-spring to mid-summer and are associated primarily with convective storms. Meteotsunami events of potentially dangerous magnitude (height > 0.3 m) occur an average of 106 times per year throughout the region. These results reveal that meteotsunamis are much more frequent than follow from historic anecdotal reports. Future climate scenarios over the United States show a likely increase in the number of days favorable to severe convective storm formation over the Great Lakes, particularly in the spring season. This would suggest that the convectively associated meteotsunamis in these regions may experience an increase in occurrence frequency or a temporal shift in occurrence to earlier in the warm season. To date, meteotsunamis in the area of the Great Lakes have been an overlooked hazard.

  12. Meteotsunamis in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechle, Adam J.; Wu, Chin H.; Kristovich, David A. R.; Anderson, Eric J.; Schwab, David J.; Rabinovich, Alexander B.

    2016-11-01

    The generation mechanism of meteotsunamis, which are meteorologically induced water waves with spatial/temporal characteristics and behavior similar to seismic tsunamis, is poorly understood. We quantify meteotsunamis in terms of seasonality, causes, and occurrence frequency through the analysis of long-term water level records in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The majority of the observed meteotsunamis happen from late-spring to mid-summer and are associated primarily with convective storms. Meteotsunami events of potentially dangerous magnitude (height > 0.3 m) occur an average of 106 times per year throughout the region. These results reveal that meteotsunamis are much more frequent than follow from historic anecdotal reports. Future climate scenarios over the United States show a likely increase in the number of days favorable to severe convective storm formation over the Great Lakes, particularly in the spring season. This would suggest that the convectively associated meteotsunamis in these regions may experience an increase in occurrence frequency or a temporal shift in occurrence to earlier in the warm season. To date, meteotsunamis in the area of the Great Lakes have been an overlooked hazard.

  13. Ballast Water Discharges into the Great Lakes from Overseas Vessels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Analysis of Ballast Water Discharges into the Great Lakes from Overseas Vessels from 2010 to 2013 - An assessment of the volume, location, and global port origins of ballast water discharges in the Great Lakes (May 2015).

  14. 75 FR 6354 - NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes Restoration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-ZC10 NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program... Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION... notice published in the Federal Register on January 19, 2010. That notice announced the NOAA Great...

  15. 46 CFR 46.05-20 - Great Lakes voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Great Lakes voyage. 46.05-20 Section 46.05-20 Shipping... VESSELS Definitions Used in This Part § 46.05-20 Great Lakes voyage. A Great Lakes voyage is any voyage from a United States port or place on the Great Lakes to another United States port or place on the...

  16. 46 CFR 42.05-40 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Great Lakes. 42.05-40 Section 42.05-40 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-40 Great Lakes. (a) This term means the Great Lakes of North America. (b) As used in this part, the term solely navigating the Great Lakes includes any special...

  17. 46 CFR 46.05-20 - Great Lakes voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Great Lakes voyage. 46.05-20 Section 46.05-20 Shipping... VESSELS Definitions Used in This Part § 46.05-20 Great Lakes voyage. A Great Lakes voyage is any voyage from a United States port or place on the Great Lakes to another United States port or place on the...

  18. 46 CFR 46.05-20 - Great Lakes voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Great Lakes voyage. 46.05-20 Section 46.05-20 Shipping... VESSELS Definitions Used in This Part § 46.05-20 Great Lakes voyage. A Great Lakes voyage is any voyage from a United States port or place on the Great Lakes to another United States port or place on the...

  19. 46 CFR 46.05-20 - Great Lakes voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Great Lakes voyage. 46.05-20 Section 46.05-20 Shipping... VESSELS Definitions Used in This Part § 46.05-20 Great Lakes voyage. A Great Lakes voyage is any voyage from a United States port or place on the Great Lakes to another United States port or place on the...

  20. 46 CFR 42.05-40 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Great Lakes. 42.05-40 Section 42.05-40 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-40 Great Lakes. (a) This term means the Great Lakes of North America. (b) As used in this part, the term solely navigating the Great Lakes includes any special...

  1. 46 CFR 42.05-40 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Great Lakes. 42.05-40 Section 42.05-40 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-40 Great Lakes. (a) This term means the Great Lakes of North America. (b) As used in this part, the term solely navigating the Great Lakes includes any special...

  2. 46 CFR 46.05-20 - Great Lakes voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Great Lakes voyage. 46.05-20 Section 46.05-20 Shipping... VESSELS Definitions Used in This Part § 46.05-20 Great Lakes voyage. A Great Lakes voyage is any voyage from a United States port or place on the Great Lakes to another United States port or place on the...

  3. The Great Lakes. An Environmental Atlas and Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botts, Lee; Krushelnicki, Bruce

    This atlas was developed jointly by the Canadian and American governments, and is intended to provide an ecosystem approach to the understanding of the Great Lakes Basin. Chapter one provides an introduction to both the natural and cultural aspects of the Great Lakes. Chapter two, "Natural Processes in the Great Lakes," describes such…

  4. The Great Lakes. An Environmental Atlas and Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botts, Lee; Krushelnicki, Bruce

    This atlas was developed jointly by the Canadian and American governments, and is intended to provide an ecosystem approach to the understanding of the Great Lakes Basin. Chapter one provides an introduction to both the natural and cultural aspects of the Great Lakes. Chapter two, "Natural Processes in the Great Lakes," describes such…

  5. 46 CFR 151.03-29 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Great Lakes. 151.03-29 Section 151.03-29 Shipping COAST... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-29 Great Lakes. A designation for all vessels in Great Lakes service. ...

  6. 46 CFR 151.03-29 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Great Lakes. 151.03-29 Section 151.03-29 Shipping COAST... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-29 Great Lakes. A designation for all vessels in Great Lakes service. ...

  7. 46 CFR 90.10-13 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Great Lakes. 90.10-13 Section 90.10-13 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-13 Great Lakes. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the Great Lakes. ...

  8. 46 CFR 151.03-29 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Great Lakes. 151.03-29 Section 151.03-29 Shipping COAST... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-29 Great Lakes. A designation for all vessels in Great Lakes service. ...

  9. 46 CFR 188.10-31 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Great Lakes. 188.10-31 Section 188.10-31 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-31 Great Lakes. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the Great Lakes. ...

  10. 46 CFR 188.10-31 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Great Lakes. 188.10-31 Section 188.10-31 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-31 Great Lakes. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the Great Lakes. ...

  11. 46 CFR 188.10-31 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Great Lakes. 188.10-31 Section 188.10-31 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-31 Great Lakes. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the Great Lakes. ...

  12. 46 CFR 90.10-13 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Great Lakes. 90.10-13 Section 90.10-13 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-13 Great Lakes. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the Great Lakes. ...

  13. 46 CFR 188.10-31 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Great Lakes. 188.10-31 Section 188.10-31 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-31 Great Lakes. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the Great Lakes. ...

  14. 46 CFR 90.10-13 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Great Lakes. 90.10-13 Section 90.10-13 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-13 Great Lakes. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the Great Lakes. ...

  15. 46 CFR 90.10-13 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Great Lakes. 90.10-13 Section 90.10-13 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-13 Great Lakes. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the Great Lakes. ...

  16. 46 CFR 188.10-31 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Great Lakes. 188.10-31 Section 188.10-31 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-31 Great Lakes. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the Great Lakes. ...

  17. 46 CFR 151.03-29 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Great Lakes. 151.03-29 Section 151.03-29 Shipping COAST... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-29 Great Lakes. A designation for all vessels in Great Lakes service. ...

  18. 46 CFR 151.03-29 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Great Lakes. 151.03-29 Section 151.03-29 Shipping COAST... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-29 Great Lakes. A designation for all vessels in Great Lakes service. ...

  19. 46 CFR 90.10-13 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Great Lakes. 90.10-13 Section 90.10-13 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-13 Great Lakes. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the Great Lakes. ...

  20. CHECKLIST OF DIATOMS FROM THE LAURENTIAN GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An updated diatom (Bacillariophyta) checklist for the Great Lakes has been completed (J. Great Lakes Res. 1999) and supplants the preliminary checklist (J. Great Lakes Res. 1978). The present list is effectively a 20-year update. The updated list is based upon: 1) the 1978 checkl...

  1. 46 CFR 42.05-40 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-40 Great Lakes. (a) This term means the Great Lakes of North America. (b) As used in this part, the term solely navigating the Great Lakes includes any special service coastwise navigation performed by the vessel. (c) In concurrence with related Canadian regulations...

  2. Proposed Great Salt Lake Basin Hydrologic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. P.; Tarboton, D. G.

    2004-12-01

    The dynamic physiography and population growth within the Great Salt Lake Basin provide the opportunity to observe climate and human-induced land-surface changes affecting water availability, water quality, and water use, thereby making the Great Salt Lake Basin a microcosm of contemporary water resource issues and an excellent site to pursue interdisciplinary and integrated hydrologic science. Important societal concerns center on: How do climate variability and human-induced landscape changes affect hydrologic processes, water quality and availability, and aquatic ecosystems over a range of scales? What are the resource, social, and economic consequences of these changes? The steep topography and large climatic gradients of the Great Salt Lake Basin yield hydrologic systems that are dominated by non-linear interactions between snow deposition and snow melt in the mountains, stream flow and groundwater recharge in the mid-elevations, and evaporative losses from the desert floor at lower elevations. Because the Great Salt Lake Basin terminates in a closed basin lake, it is uniquely suited to closing the water, solute, and sediment balances in a way that is rarely possible in a watershed of a size sufficient for coupling to investigations of atmospheric processes. Proposed infrastructure will include representative densely instrumented focus areas that will be nested within a basin-wide network, thereby quantifying fluxes, residence times, pathways, and storage volumes over a range of scales and land uses. The significant and rapid ongoing urbanization presents the opportunity for observations that quantify the interactions among hydrologic processes, human induced changes and social and economic dynamics. One proposed focus area will be a unique, highly instrumented mountain-to-basin transect that will quantify hydrologic processes extending from the mountain ridge top to the Great Salt Lake. The transect will range in elevation from about 1200 m to 3200 m, with a

  3. ROV dives under Great Lakes ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolsenga, S.J.; Gannon, John E.; Kennedy, Gregory; Norton, D.C.; Herdendorf, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of the underside of ice have a wide variety of applications. Severe under-ice roughness can affect ice movements, rough under-ice surfaces can scour the bottom disturbing biota and man-made structures such as pipelines, and the flow rate of rivers is often affected by under-ice roughness. A few reported observations of the underside of an ice cover have been made, usually by cutting a large block of ice and overturning it, by extensive boring, or by remote sensing. Such operations are extremely labor-intensive and, in some cases, prone to inaccuracies. Remotely operated vehicles (ROV) can partially solve these problems. In this note, we describe the use, performance in a hostile environment, and results of a study in which a ROV was deployed under the ice in Lake Erie (North American Great Lakes).

  4. Forecasting Lake-Effect Snow in the Great Lakes Using NASA Satllite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cipullo, Michelle; Molthan, Andrew; Shafer, Jackie; Case, Jonathan; Jedlovec, Gary

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the forecast of the lake effect snow in the Great Lakes region using models and infrared estimates of Great Lake Surface Temperatures (GLSTs) from the MModerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on Terra and Aqua satellites, and other satellite data. This study analyzes Lake Erie and Lake Ontario which produce storm total snowfall ranged from 8-18 inches off of Lake Ontario and 10-12 inches off of Lake Erie for the areas downwind.

  5. Early mortality syndrome in Great Lakes salmonines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, Dale C.; Brown, Scott B.; Fitzsimons, John D.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2005-01-01

    Early mortality syndrome (EMS) is the termused to describe an embryonic mortality affectingthe offspring of salmonines (coho salmonOnco-rhynchus kisutch, Chinook salmonOncorhynchustshawytscha, steelhead [anadromous rainbow troutOncorhynchus mykiss], brown troutSalmo trutta,and lake trout,Salvelinus namaycush) in LakesMichigan and Ontario and, to a lesser extent, LakesHuron and Erie (Marcquenski and Brown 1997).Clinical signs of EMS include loss of equilibrium,a spiral swimming pattern, lethargy, hyperexcit-ability, hemorrhage, and death between hatch andfirst feeding. Early mortality syndrome was ob-served as far back as the 1960s in Great Lakessalmonines (Marcquenski and Brown 1997; Fitz-simons et al. 1999) and is of concern because mor-tality has been high in recent years (Wolgamoodet al. 2005; all 2005 citations are this issue). Stocksof Atlantic salmonSalmo salarfrom the FingerLakes and the Baltic Sea also exhibit a similarearly life stage mortality, called Cayuga syndrome(Fisher et al. 1995) and M74 (Bo ̈ rjeson and Norr-gren 1997), respectively. Low egg thiamine levelsand enhanced survival following thiamine treat-ments are common characteristics of EMS, CayugaSyndrome, and M74 (Fitzsimons et al. 1999). Be-cause the deficiency does not appear to be the re-sult of inadequate dietary thiamine (Fitzsimons and Brown 1998), investigators have hypothesizedthat the presence of some thiaminolytic factors inthe diet may reduce the bioavailability of thiamine,either by destroying it or converting it to an in-active analog or thiamine antagonist (Fisher et al.1996; Fitzsimons et al. 1999).

  6. Issues in Remote Pilotage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadley, Mike

    This paper was presented at the World Congress of the International Association of Institutes of Navigation (IAIN) held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 17-21 November 1997.Remote, or shore-based, pilotage means different things to different people, despite a definition being produced by the European and International Maritime Pilots Associations. The debate about it is set in the context of increasing public awareness of the environment and a downward pressure on costs; these in themselves make for uncomfortable bedfellows. However, this sets the scene for the current aspirations within the European Union for vessel traffic management and the ongoing research into Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) and Vessel Traffic Management and Information Services (VTMIS). The technology to implement navigational assistance of a fairly high order is already in place, but there are still problems to be overcome before the concept can be taken further. Commonly recurring concerns over remote pilotage are the inadequacies of radar, difficulties with language, lack of 'feel' for the ship, which includes the on-board pilot's assessment of the quality of the vessel's crew, and the lack of ship motion data. Differential GPS is now capable of aiding automatic docking of some specialized vessels, but it has emerged, most recently at the IALA VTS Committee meeting, that ECDIS has shortcomings when being considered as the geographic information system of a VTS. Transponders are the subject of yet another debate, but will the data that they can convey be able to replace an on-board pilot?

  7. Drainage water phosphorus losses in the great lakes basin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The great lakes are one of the most important fresh water resources on the planet. While forestry is a primary land use throughout much of the great lakes basin, there are portions of the basin, such as much of the land that drains directly to Lake Erie, that are primarily agricultural. The primary ...

  8. The Role of Ecological Research in Great Lakes Water Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    This talk will present some current ecological research in the Great Lakes. It will focus on how research examines aspects of water quality that relate to Basin-Lake and Human-Water interactions in the context of water sustainability issues for the Great Lakes.

  9. The Role of Ecological Research in Great Lakes Water Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    This talk will present some current ecological research in the Great Lakes. It will focus on how research examines aspects of water quality that relate to Basin-Lake and Human-Water interactions in the context of water sustainability issues for the Great Lakes.

  10. The Great Lakes Hydrography Dataset: Consistent, binational watersheds for the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecosystem-based management of the Laurentian Great Lakes, which spans both the United States and Canada, is hampered by the lack of consistent binational watersheds for the entire Basin. Using comparable data sources and consistent methods we developed spatially equivalent waters...

  11. The Great Lakes Hydrography Dataset: Consistent, binational watersheds for the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecosystem-based management of the Laurentian Great Lakes, which spans both the United States and Canada, is hampered by the lack of consistent binational watersheds for the entire Basin. Using comparable data sources and consistent methods we developed spatially equivalent waters...

  12. Making Connections for a Great Lakes Information Highway: An Action Plan for the Great Lakes Governors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Libraries, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Describes plans by the Council of Great Lakes Governors, which includes the states of Illinois, Indiana, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, New York, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Ohio, to develop an information highway linking state governments, computer and research networks, telecommunications providers, and universities. Highlights include the Internet,…

  13. 46 CFR 403.200 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM... the Canadian Great Lakes Pilotage Authority (GLPA) shall submit settlement statements regarding these... the United States and Canada and guidance from the Director of Great Lakes Pilotage. ...

  14. 46 CFR 403.200 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM... the Canadian Great Lakes Pilotage Authority (GLPA) shall submit settlement statements regarding these... the United States and Canada and guidance from the Director of Great Lakes Pilotage. ...

  15. 46 CFR 403.200 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM... the Canadian Great Lakes Pilotage Authority (GLPA) shall submit settlement statements regarding these... the United States and Canada and guidance from the Director of Great Lakes Pilotage. ...

  16. 46 CFR 403.200 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM... the Canadian Great Lakes Pilotage Authority (GLPA) shall submit settlement statements regarding these... the United States and Canada and guidance from the Director of Great Lakes Pilotage. ...

  17. 46 CFR 403.200 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM... the Canadian Great Lakes Pilotage Authority (GLPA) shall submit settlement statements regarding these... the United States and Canada and guidance from the Director of Great Lakes Pilotage. ...

  18. Lake trout in the Great Lakes: Basin-wide stock collapse and binational restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Taylor, William W.; Ferreri, C. Paola

    1999-01-01

    The lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) was important to the human settlement of each of the Great Lakes, and underwent catastrophic collapses in each lake in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The timing of lake trout stock collapses were different in each lake, as were the causes of the collapses, and have been the subject of much scientific inquiry and debate. The purpose of this chapter is to summarize and review pertinent information relating historical changes in Great Lakes lake trout stocks, binational efforts to restore those stocks, and progress toward stock restoration. This presentation attempts to generalize patterns across the Great Lakes, rather than to focus within each lake. Lake specific analyses have been used to understand lake specific causes and effects, but there is continuing debate about some of these causes and effects. A basinwide review may suggest mechanisms for observed changes that are not evident by lake specific analysis.

  19. Perchlorate in the Great Lakes: isotopic composition and origin.

    PubMed

    Poghosyan, Armen; Sturchio, Neil C; Morrison, Candice G; Beloso, Abelardo D; Guan, Yunbin; Eiler, John M; Jackson, W Andrew; Hatzinger, Paul B

    2014-10-07

    Perchlorate is a persistent and mobile contaminant in the environment with both natural and anthropogenic sources. Stable isotope ratios of oxygen (δ(18)O, Δ(17)O) and chlorine (δ(37)Cl) along with the abundance of the radioactive isotope (36)Cl were used to trace perchlorate sources and behavior in the Laurentian Great Lakes. These lakes were selected for study as a likely repository of recent atmospheric perchlorate deposition. Perchlorate concentrations in the Great Lakes range from 0.05 to 0.13 μg per liter. δ(37)Cl values of perchlorate from the Great Lakes range from +3.0‰ (Lake Ontario) to +4.0‰ (Lake Superior), whereas δ(18)O values range from -4.1‰ (Lake Superior) to +4.0‰ (Lake Erie). Great Lakes perchlorate has mass-independent oxygen isotopic variations with positive Δ(17)O values (+1.6‰ to +2.7‰) divided into two distinct groups: Lake Superior (+2.7‰) and the other four lakes (∼+1.7‰). The stable isotopic results indicate that perchlorate in the Great Lakes is dominantly of natural origin, having isotopic composition resembling that measured for indigenous perchlorate from preindustrial groundwaters of the western USA. The (36)Cl/Cl ratio of perchlorate varies widely from 7.4 × 10(-12) (Lake Ontario) to 6.7 × 10(-11) (Lake Superior). These (36)ClO4(-) abundances are consistent with an atmospheric origin of perchlorate in the Great Lakes. The relatively high (36)ClO4(-) abundances in the larger lakes (Lakes Superior and Michigan) could be explained by the presence of (36)Cl-enriched perchlorate deposited during the period of elevated atmospheric (36)Cl activity following thermonuclear bomb tests in the Pacific Ocean.

  20. Base flow in the Great Lakes Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neff, B.P.; Day, S.M.; Piggott, A.R.; Fuller, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrograph separations were performed using the PART, HYSEP 1, 2, and 3, BFLOW and UKIH methods on 104,293 years of daily streamflow records from 3,936 streamflow-gaging stations in Ontario, Canada and the eight Great Lakes States of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin to estimate base-flow index (BFI) and base flow. BFI ranged an average of 0.24 BFI depending on which hydrograph-separation method was used. BFI data from 959 selected streamflow-gaging stations with a combined 28,784 years of daily streamflow data were used to relate BFI to surficial geology and the proportion of surface water within the gaged watersheds. This relation was then used to derive estimates of BFI throughout the Great Lakes, Ottawa River, and upper St. Lawrence River Basins at a scale of 8-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC) watersheds for the U.S. and tertiary watersheds in Canada. This process was repeated for each of the six hydrograph-separation methods used. When applied to gaged watersheds, model results predicted observed base flow within 0.2 BFI up to 94 percent of the time. Estimates of long-term (length of streamflow record) average annual streamflow in each HUC and tertiary watershed were calculated and used to determine average annual base flow from BFI estimates. Possibilities for future study based on results from this study include long-term trend analysis of base flow and improving the scale at which base-flow estimates can be made.

  1. Great Lakes agreement calls for binational science priorities and action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    An amended Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA), signed by officials from Canada and the United States at a 7 September ceremony in Washington, D. C., will facilitate efforts by the two countries to “restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Waters of the Great Lakes.” The agreement calls on the countries to cooperate and collaborate; develop programs, practices, and technology necessary to better understand the Great Lakes Basin ecosystem; and eliminate or reduce environmental threats to Great Lakes waters. The amended GLWQA specifically calls for the establishment of “binational priorities for science and action to address current and future threats” to the quality of Great Lakes waters within 18 months. In addition, the agreement calls on the International Joint Commission (IJC) to establish a Great Lakes science advisory board.

  2. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    PubMed Central

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-01-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2

  3. Genetic evaluation of a Great Lakes lake trout hatchery program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, K.S.; Scribner, K.T.; Bast, D.; Holey, M.E.; Burnham-Curtis, M. K.

    2005-01-01

    Efforts over several decades to restore lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in U.S. waters of the upper Great Lakes have emphasized the stocking of juveniles from each of six hatchery broodstocks. Retention of genetic diversity across all offspring life history stages throughout the hatchery system has been an important component of the restoration hatchery and stocking program. Different stages of the lake trout hatchery program were examined to determine how effective hatchery practices have been in minimizing the loss of genetic diversity in broodstock adults and in progeny stocked. Microsatellite loci were used to estimate allele frequencies, measures of genetic diversity, and relatedness for wild source populations, hatchery broodstocks, and juveniles. We also estimated the effective number of breeders for each broodstock. Hatchery records were used to track destinations of fertilized eggs from all spawning dates to determine whether adult contributions to stocking programs were proportional to reproductive effort. Overall, management goals of maintaining genetic diversity were met across all stages of the hatchery program; however, we identified key areas where changes in mating regimes and in the distribution of fertilized gametes and juveniles could be improved. Estimates of effective breeding population size (Nb) were 9-41% of the total number of adults spawned. Low estimates of Nb were primarily attributed to spawning practices, including the pooling of gametes from multiple males and females and the reuse of males. Nonrandom selection and distribution of fertilized eggs before stocking accentuated declines in effective breeding population size and increased levels of relatedness of juveniles distributed to different rearing facilities and stocking locales. Adoption of guidelines that decrease adult reproductive variance and promote more equitable reproductive contributions of broodstock adults to juveniles would further enhance management goals of

  4. Embryotoxicity of an extract from Great Lakes lake trout to rainbow trout and lake trout

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, P.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Aquatic ecosystems such as the Great Lakes are known to be contaminated with chemicals that are toxic to fish. However, the role of these contaminants in reproductive failures of fishes, such as lake trout recruitment, has remained controvertible. It was the objective to evaluate dioxin-like embryotoxicity of a complex mixture of chemicals and predict their potential to cause the lack of recruitment in Great Lakes lake trout. Graded doses of a complex environmental extract were injected into eggs of both rainbow trout and lake trout. The extract was obtained from whole adult lake trout collected from Lake Michigan in 1988. The extract was embryotoxic in rainbow trout, with LD50 values for Arlee strain and Erwin strain of 33 eggEQ and 14 eggEQ respectively. The LOAEL for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities in rainbow trout were 2, 2, and 4 eggEQ, respectively. Subsequent injections of the extract into lake trout eggs were likewise embryotoxic, with an LD50 value of 7 eggEQ. The LOAEL values for the extract in lake trout for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities were 0.1, 1, and 2 eggEQ, respectively. The current levels of contaminants in lake trout eggs are above the threshold for hemorrhaging and yolk-sac edema. The results also support the use of an additive model of toxicity to quantify PCDDs, PCDFs, Non-o-PCBs, and Mono-o-PCBs in relation to early life stage mortality in Lake Michigan lake trout.

  5. Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway Regional Transportation Study; Great Lakes Area Industries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    Regional Transportation Study is an element of this planning process . The objective of the GL/SLS Regional Transportation Study is to develop an up-to-date...system performance and ability to process future cargo flows Evaluation of the performance and economic feasibility of improvements to increase the...section is organized as follows: Basic steelmaking processes Production centers in the U.S. and Canada The industry in the Great Lakes area. These

  6. History of salmon in the Great Lakes, 1850-1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, John W.

    1973-01-01

    This history of the salmon in the Great Lakes describes the decline and extinction of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Lake Ontario in the 1800's; the failure to establish, by salmon culture, permanent or sizable populations of Atlantic or Pacific salmon in any of the Great Lakes in 1867-1965; and the success of the plantings of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytsha) in the Great Lakes, in 1966-70 -- particularly in Lake Michigan. Despite plantings of 5 million fry and fingerlings from Lake Ontario stocks in 1866-84, the native Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario became extinct in the late 1800's primarily because tributaries in which they spawned were blocked by mill dams. Plantings of 13 million chinook salmon and landlocked and anadromous forms of Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario and the other Great Lakes in 1873-1947 failed completely. The first species to develop a self-sustaining population was the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), which was planted in Lake Superior in 1956; however, it has not become abundant. A salmon fishery finally was established when 15 million coho salmon and 6 million chinook salmon were planted as smolt in the Great Lakes in 1966-70. In 1970, for example, 576,000 coho salmon (12% of those planted in 1969) were caught by anglers in Lake Michigan. Most weighed 5 to 10 pounds (2.3-4.5 kg). Sport fishing for salmon was fair in Lakes Superior and Huron, and poor in Lakes Erie and Ontario. By 1970, natural reproduction of coho, chinook, pink, and kokanee (O. nerka) salmon had occurred in some tributaries of one or more of the upper three Great Lakes. It is expected, however, that the sport fishery will continue to be supported almost entirely by planted fish.

  7. Lake whitefish diet, condition, and energy density in Lake Champlain and the lower four Great Lakes following dreissenid invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbst, Seth J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lantry, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis support some of the most valuable commercial freshwater fisheries in North America. Recent growth and condition decreases in Lake Whitefish populations in the Great Lakes have been attributed to the invasion of the dreissenid mussels, zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussels D. bugensis, and the subsequent collapse of the amphipod, Diporeia, a once-abundant high energy prey source. Since 1993, Lake Champlain has also experienced the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels, but in contrast to the Great Lakes, Diporeia were not historically abundant. We compared the diet, condition, and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain after the dreissenid mussel invasion to values for those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Lake Whitefish were collected using gill nets and bottom trawls, and their diets were quantified seasonally. Condition was estimated using Fulton's condition factor (K) and by determining energy density. In contrast to Lake Whitefish from some of the Great Lakes, those from Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish did not show a dietary shift towards dreissenid mussels, but instead fed primarily on fish eggs in spring, Mysis diluviana in summer, and gastropods and sphaeriids in fall and winter. Along with these dietary differences, the condition and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain were high compared with those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario after the dreissenid invasion, and were similar to Lake Whitefish from Lake Erie; fish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario consumed dreissenids, whereas fish from Lake Erie did not. Our comparisons of Lake Whitefish populations in Lake Champlain to those in the Great Lakes indicate that diet and condition of Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish were not negatively affected by the dreissenid mussel invasion.

  8. Will Lake Michigan lake trout meet the Great Lakes Strategy 2002 PCB reduction goal?

    PubMed

    Stow, Craig A; Lamon, E Conrad; Qian, Song S; Schrank, Candy S

    2004-01-15

    The Great Lakes Strategy 2002 establishes the long-term goal that all Great Lakes fish should be safe to eat without restriction. As an indicator of progress toward that goal, the Strategy specifies that lake trout PCBs will decline 25% from 2000 to 2007. We estimated the plausibility of achieving this near-term goal by examining a time-series of Lake Michigan lake trout PCB concentrations from 1972 to 2000. We used two different Bayesian approaches, Bayesian model averaging (BMA) and dynamic linear models (DLM), to model the trajectory of these historical data and forecast concentrations through 2007. Both approaches indicate that the probability of a 25% reduction from 2000 to 2007 is negligible. The most likely lake trout PCB declines predicted by the BMA and DLM over this time period are 6.8% and 8.9%, respectively. Our results suggest that declines in lake trout PCBs will be in the range of 5-10% assuming conditions similar to recent years. This rate of decline will be difficult to discern without adequate data collection. If sufficient data are not gathered to document further declines, then the relaxation of lake trout consumption advisories is indeed a long-term prospect.

  9. Potential Impacts of Climate Change in the Great Lakes Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change is projected to have substantial impacts in the Great Lakes region of the United States. One intent of this presentation is to introduce the Great Lakes Integrated Sciences and Assessments Center (GLISA), a recently-funded NOAA RISA center. The goals and unique organizational structure of GLISA will be described along with core activities that support impact and assessment studies in the region. Additionally, observed trends in temperature, precipitation including lake effect snowfall, and lake temperatures and ice cover will be summarized for the Great Lakes region, and vulnerabilities to, and potential impacts of, climate change will be surveyed for critical natural and human systems. These include forest ecosystems, water resources, traditional and specialized agriculture, and tourism/recreation. Impacts and vulnerabilities unique to the Great Lakes region are emphasized.

  10. 33 CFR 100.901 - Great Lakes annual marine events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Great Lakes annual marine events... REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.901 Great Lakes annual marine events. Permanent special local regulations are hereby established for the marine events listed in Table 1....

  11. 33 CFR 100.901 - Great Lakes annual marine events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Great Lakes annual marine events... REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.901 Great Lakes annual marine events. Permanent special local regulations are hereby established for the marine events listed in Table 1....

  12. 33 CFR 100.901 - Great Lakes annual marine events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Great Lakes annual marine events... REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.901 Great Lakes annual marine events. Permanent special local regulations are hereby established for the marine events listed in Table 1....

  13. Wildlife in the Upper Great Lakes Region: a community profile.

    Treesearch

    Janine M. Benyus; Richard R. Buech; Mark D. Nelson

    1992-01-01

    Wildlife habitat data from seven Great Lakes National Forests were combined into a wildlife-habitat matrix named NORTHWOODS. The composite NORTHWOODS data base is summarized. Multiple queries of NORTHWOODS were used to profile the wildlife community of the Upper Great Lakes region.

  14. Snow From Great Lakes Covers Buffalo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On November 20, 2000, Buffalo, New York was blanketed by a late-autumn storm that left 25 inches of snow on the ground in a 24-hour period, most of it during the afternoon rush hour. Buffalo officials declared a state of emergency and New York National Guardsmen were called in to assist with clearing snow from roads. With the exception of essential vehicles or people retrieving stranded children, all driving was banned in the city. This SeaWiFS pass over the central United States and Canada depicts a source for all of the snow in Buffalo. Cold, dry Canadian air blowing toward the southeast picked up a lot of moisture from the relatively warm Great Lakes -- forming the clouds that lightened their loads over Buffalo. This image was acquired November 21, 2000, by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  15. Great Salt Lake basins study unit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddell, Kidd M.; Baskin, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began implementing a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program.The long-term goals of the NAWQA Program are to describe the status and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the Nation’s surface- and ground-water resources and to provide a sound, scientific understanding of the primary natural and human factors that affect the quality of these resources. In meeting these goals, the program will produce a wealth of water-quality information that will be useful to policy makers and managers at Federal, State, and local levels.A major design feature of the NAWQA Program will enable water-quality information at different areal scales to be integrated. A major component of the program is study-unit investigations, which ae the principal building blocks of the program upon which national-level assessment activities will be based. The 60 study-unit investigations that make up the program are hydrologic systems that include principal river basins and aquifer systems throughout the Nation. These study units cover areas from less than 1.000 to greater than 60,000 mi2 and incorporate from about 60 to 70 percent of the Nation’s water use and population served by public water supply. In 1993, assessment activities began in the Great Salt Lake Basins NAWQA study unit.

  16. Snow From Great Lakes Covers Buffalo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On November 20, 2000, Buffalo, New York was blanketed by a late-autumn storm that left 25 inches of snow on the ground in a 24-hour period, most of it during the afternoon rush hour. Buffalo officials declared a state of emergency and New York National Guardsmen were called in to assist with clearing snow from roads. With the exception of essential vehicles or people retrieving stranded children, all driving was banned in the city. This SeaWiFS pass over the central United States and Canada depicts a source for all of the snow in Buffalo. Cold, dry Canadian air blowing toward the southeast picked up a lot of moisture from the relatively warm Great Lakes -- forming the clouds that lightened their loads over Buffalo. This image was acquired November 21, 2000, by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  17. Relative cancer risks of chemical contaminants in the great lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bro, Kenneth M.; Sonzogni, William C.; Hanson, Mark E.

    1987-08-01

    Anyone who drinks water or eats fish from the Great Lakes consumes potentially carcinogenic chemicals. In choosing how to respond to such pollution, it is important to put the risks these contaminants pose in perspective. Based on recent measurements of carcinogens in Great Lakes fish and water, calculations of lifetime risks of cancer indicate that consumers of sport fish face cancer risks from Great Lakes contaminants that are several orders of magnitude higher than the risks posed by drinking Great Lakes water. But drinking urban groundwater and breathing urban air may be as hazardous as frequent consumption of sport fish from the Great Lakes. Making such comparisons is difficult because of variation in types and quality of information available and in the methods for estimating risk. Much uncertainty pervades the risk assessment process in such areas as estimating carcinogenic potency and human exposure to contaminants. If risk assessment is to be made more useful, it is important to quantify this uncertainty.

  18. Influence of the African Great Lakes on the regional climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiery, Wim; Davin, Edouard; Panitz, Hans-Jürgen; Demuzere, Matthias; Lhermitte, Stef; van Lipzig, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    Although the African Great Lakes are important regulators for the East-African climate, their influence on atmospheric dynamics and the regional hydrological cycle remains poorly understood. We aim to assess this impact by conducting a regional climate model simulation which resolves individual lakes and explicitly computes lake temperatures. The regional climate model COSMO-CLM, coupled to a state-of-the-art lake parameterization scheme and land surface model, is used to dynamically downscale the COSMO-CLM CORDEX-Africa evaluation simulation to 7 km grid spacing for the period 1999-2008. Evaluation of the model reveals good performance compared to both in-situ and satellite observations, especially for spatio-temporal variability of lake surface temperatures and precipitation. Model integrations indicate that the four major African Great Lakes almost double precipitation amounts over their surface relative to a simulation without lakes, but hardly exert any influence on precipitation beyond their shores. The largest lakes also cool their near-surface air, this time with pronounced downwind influence. The lake-induced cooling happens during daytime, when the lakes absorb incoming solar radiation and inhibit upward turbulent heat transport. At night, when this heat is released, the lakes warm the near-surface air. Furthermore, Lake Victoria has profound influence on atmospheric dynamics and stability as it induces cellular motion with over-lake convective inhibition during daytime, and the reversed pattern at night. Overall, this study shows the added value of resolving individual lakes and realistically representing lake surface temperatures for climate studies in this region. Thiery, W., Davin, E., Panitz, H.-J., Demuzere, M., Lhermitte, S., van Lipzig, N.P.M., The impact of the African Great Lakes on the regional climate, J. Climate (in review).

  19. Temporal evolution of (36)Cl abundances in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Poghosyan, Armen; Sturchio, Neil C

    2015-06-01

    The observed (36)Cl isotopic abundance in Great Lakes water decreases from west to east, with the highest (36)Cl/Cl ratio of 1332 × 10(-15) in Lake Superior and the lowest (36)Cl/Cl ratio of 151 × 10(-15) in Lake Erie, whereas the (36)Cl concentration ((36)Cl atoms/L) is lowest in Lake Superior and higher in the other Great Lakes. The (36)Cl concentration in Lake Superior is much higher than expected from normal atmospheric deposition over the basin, consistent with deposition of nuclear bomb-produced (36)Cl during 1952-1964. A conservative mass-balance model constrained by hydrological parameters and available (36)Cl fluence measurements predicts the (36)Cl abundances in the Great Lakes from 1945 to 2015, in excellent agreement with available data for Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron, but the model underestimates (36)Cl abundances for Lakes Erie and Ontario. However, assuming that (36)Cl demonstrates non-conservative behavior and is significantly retained in the drainage basins, a model incorporating a delayed input parameter successfully predicts observed (36)Cl concentrations in all of the Great Lakes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Land & Water Interactions in the Great Lakes. Earth Systems - Education Activities for Great Lakes Schools (ES-EAGLS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheaffer, Amy L., Ed.

    This activity book is part of a series designed to take a concept or idea from the existing school curriculum and develop it in the context of the Great Lakes using teaching approaches and materials appropriate for students in middle and high school. The subject of this book is land and water interactions. Students examine how the Great Lakes were…

  1. Great Lakes Climate and Water Movement. Earth Systems - Education Activities for Great Lakes Schools (ES-EAGLS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Heidi, Ed.; Sheaffer, Amy L., Ed.

    This activity book is part of a series designed to take a concept or idea from the existing school curriculum and develop it in the context of the Great Lakes using teaching approaches and materials appropriate for students in middle and high school. The theme of this book is Great Lakes climate and water movement. Students learn about land-sea…

  2. Restoring the Great Lakes: DOI stories of success and partnership in implementing the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; ,; ,; ,; ,

    2013-01-01

    The Great Lakes are a monumentally unique national treasure containing nearly ninety-five percent of the United States' fresh surface water. Formed by receding glaciers, the Great Lakes support a thriving, resilient ecosystem rich with fish, wildlife, and abundant natural resources. The Great Lakes also support an array of commercial uses, including shipping, and provide a source of recreation, drinking water, and other critical services that drive the economy of the region and the Nation. Regrettably, activities such as clear cutting of mature forests, over-harvesting of fish populations, industrial pollution, invasive species, and agricultural runoffs have degraded these treasured lakes over the decades creating long-term impacts to the surrounding watershed. Fortunately, the people who live, work, and recreate in the region recognize the critical importance of a healthy Great Lakes ecosystem, and have come together to support comprehensive restoration. To stimulate and promote the goal of a healthy Great Lakes region, President Obama and Congress created the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) in 2009. This program provides the seed money to clean up legacy pollution, restore habitats, protect wildlife, combat invasive species, and address agricultural runoff in the Great Lakes watershed. At the same time GLRI promotes public outreach, education, accountability, and partnerships.

  3. Nile perch: the great lake experiment.

    PubMed

    Ogutu-ohwayo, R

    1998-01-01

    In order to improve the fishery of Lake Victoria, a large predatory fish, the Nile perch (Lates niloticus), was introduced into the lake to feed on the smaller but abundant haplochromines, thereby producing a larger fish for food consumption. Originally the lake had a very high fish species diversity, dominated by more than 300 species of haplochromine cichlids; however, they were too small to be exploited for food. It took about 20 years for the population of the Nile perch in the lake to increase significantly. Although increased fish production has benefited riparian communities by providing revenue, employment, and food, the introduction of the Nile perch has also resulted in extinction and has transformed the lake ecosystem. In response to the concern caused by the introduction of the Nile perch, the deteriorating water quality, and the need to sustain the lucrative fishery, the governments of Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania have initiated the multisectoral Lake Victoria Environment Management Programme. Its goals are to control the loading of nutrients and contaminants into the lake, manage land use in the catchment area, manage the introduced fish species, conserve biodiversity, and control the spread of water hyacinths.

  4. Radionuclide partitioning across great lakes natural interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platford, R. F.; Joshi, S. R.

    1989-11-01

    Several water and surface microlayer samples from Lake St. Clair, the Niagara River, and the North Shore of Lake Ontario collected during 1983 1986 have been assayed for a variety of radionuclides. In addition, the foam accumulating in the pool just below Niagara Falls was also analyzed and found to be the most efficient aqueous phase collector of137Cs,210Pb, and226Ra. The order of radioisotope specific activities from highest to lowest is: Lake Ontario sediment, Niagara River suspended solids, Niagara River foam, surface microlayer water, and subsurface water. Radiological dose rates to the sediments from137Cs,226Ra, and228Th total about 5 mGy/y.

  5. Sensitivity of Great Lakes Ice Cover to Air Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, J. A.; Titze, D.

    2016-12-01

    Ice cover is shown to exhibit a strong linear sensitivity to air temperature. Upwards of 70% of ice cover variability on all of the Great Lakes can be explained in terms of air temperature, alone, and nearly 90% of ice cover variability can be explained in some lakes. Ice cover sensitivity to air temperature is high, and a difference in seasonally-averaged (Dec-May) air temperature on the order of 1°C to 2°C can be the difference between a low-ice year and a moderate- to high- ice year. The total amount of seasonal ice cover is most influenced by air temperatures during the meteorological winter, contemporaneous with the time of ice formation. Air temperature conditions during the pre-winter conditioning period and during the spring melting period were found to have less of an impact on seasonal ice cover. This is likely due to the fact that there is a negative feedback mechanism when heat loss goes toward cooling the lake, but a positive feedback mechanism when heat loss goes toward ice formation. Ice cover sensitivity relationships were compared between shallow coastal regions of the Great Lakes and similarly shallow smaller, inland lakes. It was found that the sensitivity to air temperature is similar between these coastal regions and smaller lakes, but that the absolute amount of ice that forms varies significantly between small lakes and the Great Lakes, and amongst the Great Lakes themselves. The Lake Superior application of the ROMS three-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical model verifies a deterministic linear relationship between air temperature and ice cover, which is also strongest around the period of ice formation. When the Lake Superior bathymetry is experimentally adjusted by a constant vertical multiplier, average lake depth is shown to have a nonlinear relationship with seasonal ice cover, and this nonlinearity may be associated with a nonlinear increase in the lake-wide volume of the surface mixed layer.

  6. Flame retardants and legacy chemicals in Great Lakes' water.

    PubMed

    Venier, Marta; Dove, Alice; Romanak, Kevin; Backus, Sean; Hites, Ronald

    2014-08-19

    The Great Lakes have been the focus of extensive environmental research, but recent data on the aquatic concentrations of emerging compounds, such as flame retardants, are scarce. Water samples from 18 stations on the five Great Lakes were collected in 2011 and 2012 using XAD-2 resin adsorption and analyzed for PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, PAHs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and emerging flame retardants, including organophosphate flame retardants (OPEs). Total PCB concentrations ranged from 117 ± 18 pg/L in Lake Superior to 623 ± 113 pg/L in Lake Ontario. Among the organochlorine pesticides, the most abundant was dieldrin, with the highest average concentration of 99 ± 26 pg/L in Lake Erie, followed by p,p'-DDD with an average concentration of 37 ± 8 pg/L in Lake Ontario. Total PAH concentrations were higher in Lakes Erie and Ontario than in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Superior. Total PBDE concentrations were highest in Lake Ontario (227 ± 75 pg/L), and the most abundant congeners were BDE-47, BDE-99, and BDE-209. Total OPE concentrations ranged between 7.3 ± 4.5 ng/L in Lake Huron to 96 ± 43 ng/L in Lake Erie.

  7. Origin and status of the Great Lakes wolf.

    PubMed

    Koblmüller, Stephan; Nord, Maria; Wayne, Robert K; Leonard, Jennifer A

    2009-06-01

    An extensive debate concerning the origin and taxonomic status of wolf-like canids in the North American Great Lakes region and the consequences for conservation politics regarding these enigmatic predators is ongoing. Using maternally, paternally and biparentally inherited molecular markers, we demonstrate that the Great Lakes wolves are a unique population or ecotype of gray wolves. Furthermore, we show that the Great Lakes wolves experienced high degrees of ancient and recent introgression of coyote and western gray wolf mtDNA and Y-chromosome haplotypes, and that the recent demographic bottleneck caused by persecution and habitat depletion in the early 1900s is not reflected in the genetic data.

  8. Dreissenid mussels from the Great Lakes contain elevated thiaminase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillitt, D.E.; Riley, S.C.; Evans, A.N.; Nichols, S.J.; Zajicek, J.L.; Rinchard, J.; Richter, C.A.; Krueger, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at different depths and seasons, and from various locations in Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Huron. Here we present evidence that two dreissenid mussel species (Dreissena bugensis and D. polymorpha) contain thiaminase activity that is 5-100 fold greater than observed in Great Lakes fishes. Thiaminase activity in zebra mussels ranged from 10,600 to 47,900??pmol g- 1??min- 1 and activities in quagga mussels ranged from 19,500 to 223,800??pmol g- 1??min- 1. Activity in the mussels was greatest in spring, less in summer, and least in fall. Additionally, we observed greater thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at shallow depths compared to mussels collected at deeper depths. Dreissenids constitute a significant and previously unknown pool of thiaminase in the Great Lakes food web compared to other known sources of this thiamine (vitamin B1)-degrading enzyme. Thiaminase in forage fish of the Great Lakes has been causally linked to thiamine deficiency in salmonines. We currently do not know whether linkages exist between thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids and the thiaminase activities in higher trophic levels of the Great Lakes food web. However, the extreme thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids from the Great Lakes may represent a serious unanticipated negative effect of these exotic species on Great Lakes ecosystems.

  9. View of Great Lakes region from STS-64

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-19

    STS064-54-022 (9-20 Sept. 1994) --- All the Great Lakes are visible in this oblique 35mm image exposed from the space shuttle Discovery during the almost 11-day mission. Lake Ontario is in the foreground. The Niagara Falls area and Lake Erie are illuminated by sunglint just below center frame. Detroit is visible just above center. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  10. Survival of lake trout eggs and fry reared in water from the upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.; Edsall, Carol Cotant; Seelye, James G.

    1985-01-01

    As part of continuing studies of the reproductive failure of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan, we measured the survival of lake trout eggs and fry of different origins and reared in different environments. Eggs and milt were stripped from spawning lake trout collected in the fall of 1980 from southeastern Lake Michigan, northwestern Lake Huron, south central Lake Superior, and from hatchery brood stock. Eggs from all sources were incubated, and the newly hatched fry were reared for 139 days in lake water from each of the three upper Great Lakes and in well water. Survival of eggs to hatching at all sites was lowest for those from Lake Michigan (70% of fertilized eggs) and highest for eggs from Lake Superior (96%). Comparisons of incubation water from the different lakes indicated that hatching success of eggs from all sources was highest in Lake Huron water, and lowest in Lake Michigan water. The most notable finding was the nearly total mortality of fry from eggs of southeastern Lake Michigan lake trout. At all sites, the mean survival of Lake Michigan fry through 139 days after hatching was only 4% compared to near 50% for fry from the other three sources. In a comparison of the rearing sites, little influence of water quality on fry survival was found. Thus, the poor survival was associated with the source of eggs and sperm, not the water in which the fry were reared.

  11. Partitioning potential fish yields from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loftus, D.H.; Olver, C.H.; Brown, Edward H.; Colby, P.J.; Hartman, Wilbur L.; Schupp, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    We proposed and implemented procedures for partitioning future fish yields from the Great Lakes into taxonomic components. These projections are intended as guidelines for Great Lakes resource managers and scientists. Attainment of projected yields depends on restoration of stable fish communities containing some large piscivores that will use prey efficiently, continuation of control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), and restoration of high-quality fish habitat. Because Great Lakes fish communities were harmonic before their collapse, we used their historic yield properties as part of the basis for projecting potential yields of rehabilitated communities. This use is qualified, however, because of possible inaccuracies in the wholly commercial yield data, the presence now of greatly expanded sport fisheries that affect yield composition and magnitude, and some possibly irreversible changes since the 1950s in the various fish communities themselves. We predict that total yields from Lakes Superior, Huron, and Ontario will be increased through rehabilitation, while those from Lakes Michigan and Erie will decline. Salmonines and coregonines will dominate future yields from the upper lakes. The Lake Erie fishery will continue to yield mostly rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), but the relative importance of percids, especially of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) will increase. In Lake Ontario, yields of salmonines will be increased. Managers will have to apply the most rigorous management strictures to major predator species.

  12. Fisheries Education: From the Great Lakes to the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne; Mayer, Victor J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are investigations related to fisheries education developed by the Ohio Sea Grant Education Office as a part of a series of Oceanic Education Activities for Great Lake Schools. The investigations discussed are "Yellow Perch in Lake Erie," which concerns fisheries management, and "It's Everyone's Sea: Or Is It," which…

  13. Fisheries Education: From the Great Lakes to the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne; Mayer, Victor J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are investigations related to fisheries education developed by the Ohio Sea Grant Education Office as a part of a series of Oceanic Education Activities for Great Lake Schools. The investigations discussed are "Yellow Perch in Lake Erie," which concerns fisheries management, and "It's Everyone's Sea: Or Is It," which…

  14. 77 FR 2472 - Great Lakes Steamship Repower Incentive Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 1043 RIN 2060-XXXX Great Lakes Steamship Repower Incentive Program AGENCY... address will be automatically captured and included as part of the comment that is placed in the public... Lakes Passenger Transportation. Industry 336611 Ship building and repairing. Industry 811310...

  15. Nutrients in the Great Lakes. Teacher's Guide and Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brothers, Chris; And Others

    This teacher guide and student workbook set presents two learning activities, designed for fifth through ninth grade students, that concentrate on nutrients in the Great Lakes. In activity A, students simulate aquatic habitats using lake water and goldfish in glass jars and observe the effects of nutrient loading and nutrient limitation on aquatic…

  16. Cyclopoid and harpacticoid copepods of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Reid, Janet W.; Lesko, Lynn T.; Selgeby, James H.

    1998-01-01

    Historical collections of cyclopoid and harpacticoid copepod crustaceans in the Great Lakes have mainly been based on samples taken with plankton nets in deeper waters (>5 m). Of the non-calanoid copepod species known from the Great Lakes, 58 or 64 live primarily on or in the sediments and rarely are collected in plankton samples. Because of their small size, they are rarely retained in the coarse sieves used to concentrate samples of benthic invertebrates. Thus, the abundance and distribution of most species of these two groups of copepods have never been adequately documented in the Great Lakes. We examined the stomach contents of small, bottom-feeding fishes such as slimy sculpin which feed on benthic copepods that live in deep, inaccessible rocky areas of the Great Lakes to collect some of the material. We also collected in shallow nearshore habitats, including wetlands. We present an annotated checklist of cyclopoid and harpacticoid copepods based on published records and our recent collections in the Great Lakes. We have added 14 species of cyclopoid copepods to the Great Lakes record, increasing the total to 30. Because we probably have accounted for most of the cyclopoid species, we provide a key to the identification of this group. We have added 19 species of harpacticoid copepods to the 15 previously known to the Great Lakes, and suspect that additional species remain to be discovered. In individual lakes, there were approximately as many species of cyclopoids as harpacticoids; the total number of species per lake ranged from 35 to 57. The most speciose genera were Bryocamptus (7), Canthocamptus (5), and Moraria (5) in the Harpacticoida, and Diacyclops (6) and Acanthocyclops (5) in the Cyclopoida. The origin of introduced species, our ability to classify copepod habitat, and the ecological significance of copepods are discussed.

  17. ScienceCast 38: The Great Lakes of Europa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-23

    Scientists studying data from NASA's Galileo probe have discovered what appears to be a body of liquid water the volume of the North American Great Lakes locked inside the icy shell of Jupiter's moon Europa.

  18. Great Lakes Construction/John Robichaud Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    R5 Great Lakes Construction/John Robichaud (the Company) is located in Monroe, Michigan. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Monroe, Michigan.

  19. 2015 RFA for Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Monitoring Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Request for Applications solicits applications from eligible entities for a cooperative agreement to be awarded for a project to continue monitoring and assessment of Great Lakes coastal wetlands.

  20. Great Lakes Environmentalists Push for Zero Chemical Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heylin, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Described are the efforts of a coalition of several environmental organizations to influence federal legislation regarding water pollution in the Great Lakes region. Statements from regional legislators are included. (CW)

  1. Great Salt Lake and Bonneville Salt Flats, UT, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This is a view of the Great Salt Lake and nearby Bonneville Salt Flats, UT, (41.0N, 112.5W). A railroad causeway divides the lake with a stark straight line changing the water level and chemistry of the lake as a result. Fresh water runoff enters from the south adding to the depth and reducing the salinity. The north half receives little frsh water and is more saline and shallow. The Bonnieville Salt Flats is the lakebed of a onetime larger lake.

  2. Great Salt Lake and Bonneville Salt Flats, UT, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-04-02

    This is a view of the Great Salt Lake and nearby Bonneville Salt Flats, UT, (41.0N, 112.5W). A railroad causeway divides the lake with a stark straight line changing the water level and chemistry of the lake as a result. Fresh water runoff enters from the south adding to the depth and reducing the salinity. The north half receives little frsh water and is more saline and shallow. The Bonnieville Salt Flats is the lakebed of a onetime larger lake.

  3. Simulation of Atmospheric Mercury:Deposition in the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, Shanique; Kim, Myoungwoo; Lin, Peng; Crist, Kevin; Ghosh, Saikat; Kotamarthi, Veerabhadra R.

    2014-09-01

    The Great Lakes eco-region is one of the largest sources of fresh water in North America; however it is chronically exposed to heavy metal loadings such as mercury. In this study a comprehensive model evaluation was conducted to determine mercury loadings to the Great Lakes. The study also evaluated the relative impact of anthropogenic mercury emissions from China, regional and global sources on deposition to the Great Lakes. For the 2005 study period, CMAQ 4.7.1 model estimated a total of 6.4 ± 0.5 metric tons of mercury deposited in the Great Lakes. The total deposition breakdown showed a net loading for Lake Superior of 1906 ± 246 kg/year which is the highest of all the lakes. Lake Michigan followed with 1645 ± 203 kg/year and 1511 ± 107 kg/year in Lake Huron. The lowest total deposition was seen in Lakes Erie and Ontario amassing annual totals of 837 ± 107 kg and 506 ± 63 kg, respectively. Wet and dry deposition of mercury were both significant pathways and exhibited strong seasonal variability with higher deposition occurring in the warmer months (June–November) and the lowest in winter. Wet deposition of RGM significantly influenced the deposition proportions accounting for roughly 90% of all mercury deposited. Of the three emission sources (global background, integrated planning management (IPM) and Chinese), global background concentrations represented the maximum impact to deposition loading in the Great Lakes, except for Lake Erie and parts of Lake Michigan. There was minimal seasonality for the global background, but differences in percentage contribution between dry (28–97%) and wet deposition (43–98%) was predicted. The contributions were seen mainly in the northern sections of the Great Lakes further away from IPM point sources. These findings suggest strong localized impact of IPM sources on the southernmost lakes. Deposition as a result of emissions from China exhibited seasonality in both wet and dry deposition and showed significant

  4. Species succession and fishery exploitation in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1968-01-01

    The species composition of fish in the Great Lakes has undergone continual change since the earliest records. Some changes were caused by enrichment of the environment, but others primarily by an intensive and selective fishery for certain species. Major changes related to the fishery were less frequent before the late 1930's than in recent years and involved few species. Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) were overexploited knowingly during the late 1800's because they interfered with fishing for preferred species; sturgeon were greatly reduced in all lakes by the early 1900's. Heavy exploitation accompanied sharp declines of lake herring (Leucichthys artedi) in Lake Erie during the 1920's and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Lake Huron during the 1930's. A rapid succession of fish species in Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior that started about 1940 has been caused by selective predation by the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) on native predatory species, and the resultant shifting emphasis of the fishery and species interaction as various species declined. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and burbot (Lota lota), the deepwater predators, were depleted first; this favored their prey, the chubs (Leucichthys spp.). The seven species of chubs were influenced differently according to differences in size. Fishing emphasis and predation by sea lampreys were selective for the largest species of chubs as lake trout and burbot declined. A single slow-growing chub, the bloater, was favored and increased, but as the large chubs declined the bloater was exploited by a new trawl fishery. The growth rate and size of the bloater increased, making it more vulnerable to conventional gillnet fishery and lamprey predation. This situation in Lakes Michigan and Huron favored the small alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) which had recently become established in the upper Great Lakes, and the alewife increased rapidly and dominated the fish stocks of the lakes. The successive

  5. Trends in fishery management of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1970-01-01

    Some hope is returning for recovery of the fish stocks of the Great Lakes, which have been outstanding examples of abuse although they are the world's largest and most valuable freshwater fishery resource. The lakes and the fish in them have been under complete jurisdiction of sovereign nations and their subdivisions almost since the settlement of north-central North America, but ironically this control has not prevented their decadence. For the first time in the long history of the Great Lakes fishery, management measures have been taken to meliorate conditions that contributed to earlier difficulties.

  6. An investigation of historical lake-atmosphere interactions in the Great Lakes Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, Kathleen Danielle

    The Laurentian Great Lakes are a tremendous freshwater resource, holding approximately 20% of the world's unfrozen freshwater. With a combined surface area of 244,000 km2, the Great Lakes are constantly interacting with the overlying atmosphere through fluxes of heat, moisture, and momentum. In the current study, we explore interactions between the Great Lakes and overlying atmosphere using a combination of observational and modeling tools. Results based on historical observations indicate that over-lake precipitation from the Lake Superior watershed is associated with transient Rossby waves during each month of the year. Further analysis indicates the origin and path of these waves change with the background flow. During summer and early fall, the Pacific jet is relatively sharp and acts as a waveguide, such that Rossby wave trains traversing the Great Lakes region do not follow a great-circle path. While the atmosphere primarily dictates hydrology in the Great Lakes basin, each of the Great Lakes feeds back on the overlying atmosphere, ultimately influencing the local and regional climate. Historical observational and modeling studies support this claim; however, a consistent, long-term analysis of the impacts of the Great Lakes on climate has yet to be executed. In the current analysis, the influence of the Great Lakes on climate is assessed by comparing two decade-long regional climate simulations, with the lakes present or replaced by woodland. Model results indicate the Great Lakes dampen seasonal and daily surface air temperature ranges, alter the strength and track of synoptic systems, and modify atmospheric stability. Additional analysis based on output from the regional climate model indicates that seasonal fluctuations in atmospheric stability over Lake Superior influence the ratio of over-lake to over-land precipitation. Since the current operational technique used to estimate over-lake precipitation does not account for variations in atmospheric

  7. Great Lakes rivermouth ecosystems: scientific synthesis and management implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, James H.; Trebitz, Anett S.; Steinman, Alan D.; Wiley, Michael J.; Carlson Mazur, Martha; Pebbles, Victoria; Braun, Heather A.; Seelbach, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    At the interface of the Great Lakes and their tributary rivers lies the rivermouths, a class of aquatic ecosystem where lake and lotic processes mix and distinct features emerge. Many rivermouths are the focal point of both human interaction with the Great Lakes and human impacts to the lakes; many cities, ports, and beaches are located in rivermouth ecosystems, and these human pressures often degrade key ecological functions that rivermouths provide. Despite their ecological uniqueness and apparent economic importance, there has been relatively little research on these ecosystems as a class relative to studies on upstream rivers or the open-lake waters. Here we present a synthesis of current knowledge about ecosystem structure and function in Great Lakes rivermouths based on studies in both Laurentian rivermouths, coastal wetlands, and marine estuarine systems. A conceptual model is presented that establishes a common semantic framework for discussing the characteristic spatial features of rivermouths. This model then is used to conceptually link ecosystem structure and function to ecological services provided by rivermouths. This synthesis helps identify the critical gaps in understanding rivermouth ecology. Specifically, additional information is needed on how rivermouths collectively influence the Great Lakes ecosystem, how human alterations influence rivermouth functions, and how ecosystem services provided by rivermouths can be managed to benefit the surrounding socioeconomic networks.

  8. Observations of Changing Cloud Properties due to the Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, S. A.; Maddux, B. C.; Holz, R. E.; Platnick, S. E.; Menzel, W.

    2010-12-01

    The Great Lakes collectively form one of the largest reservoirs for fresh water in the world. During winter, synoptic flow patterns can bring cold arctic air over the relatively warm Great Lake waters, forming boundary layer clouds that can lead to lake effect snow falls. This study uses MODIS and CALIOP observations to characterize the changes in cloud properties (e.g. cloud top pressure, cloud effective radius and optical depth)as they develop when cold and dry air masses move across these large water bodies. To accomplish this study, satellite observations are composited based on the wind direction of Great Lake coastal cities (e.g. Superior and Milwaukee) and a gridding process that is currently not part of the MODIS standard products.

  9. Federal Great Lakes fishery research objectives, priorities, and projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tait, Howard D.

    1973-01-01

    Fishery productivity of the Great Lakes has declined drastically since settlement of the area. Premium quality fishes of the Great Lakes such as whitefish, lake trout, and walleyes have been replaced by less desired species. This change is attributed to selective overfishing, pollution, and the extreme instability of fish populations. Sea lamprey predation is still a vexing problem but progress is being made in controlling this parasite. The federal fishery research program with headquarters in Ann Arbor, Michigan, has the objective of providing baseline information, needed in resource use decisions, about the fishes of the Great Lakes. Studies of the habitat requirements of fish are high priority. The program includes fish population assessments, studies of the effects of mercury and other contaminants on fish, thermal effects studies, and general investigation of the impact of engineering projects on Great Lakes fisheries. The work is closely coordinated with state and Canadian agencies through the Great Lakes Fishery Commission. Four small research vessels and four field stations are utilized with a staff of 90 and an annual budget of about $1.5 million.

  10. Influence of the Laurentian Great Lakes on Regional Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notaro, M.; Holman, K.; Zarrin, A.; Fluck, E.; Vavrus, S. J.; Bennington, V.

    2012-12-01

    The influence of the Laurentian Great Lakes on climate is assessed by comparing two decade-long simulations, with the lakes either included or excluded, using the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model Version 4. The Great Lakes dampen the variability in near-surface air temperature across the surrounding region, while reducing the amplitude of the diurnal cycle and annual cycle of air temperature. The impacts of the Great Lakes on the regional surface energy budget include an increase (decrease) in turbulent fluxes during the cold (warm) season and an increase in surface downward shortwave radiation flux during summer due to diminished atmospheric moisture and convective cloud amount. Changes in the hydrologic budget due to the presence of the Great Lakes include increases in evaporation and precipitation during October-March and decreases during May-August, along with springtime reductions in snowmelt-related runoff. Circulation responses consist of a regionwide decrease in sea-level pressure in autumn-winter and an increase in summer, with enhanced ascent and descent in the two seasons, respectively. The most pronounced simulated impact of the Great Lakes on synoptic systems traversing the basin is a weakening of cold-season anticyclones.

  11. Functional convergence among pelagic sculpins of Lake Baikal and deepwater ciscoes of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eshenroder, Randy L.; Sideleva, Valentina G.; Todd, Thomas N.

    1999-01-01

    The vast, well-oxygenated hypolimnia of Lake Baikal and the Great Lakes were both dominated by endemic planktivorous fishes. These dominants, two species of sculpins (Comephorus, Comephoridae) in Lake Baikal and six species of deepwater ciscoes (Coregonus, Salmonidae) in the Great Lakes, although distant taxonomically, have morphologies suggesting a surprising degree of functional convergence. Here it is proposed that the same two buoyancy-regulation strategies observed in Baikal sculpins also arose in the deepwater ciscoes of the Great Lakes. One strategy favors hydrostatic lift (generated by low specific gravity) and is characterized by fatter, larger-bodied fish with smaller paired fins; the second strategy favors hydrodynamic lift (generated by swimming) and is characterized by leaner, smaller-bodied fish with larger paired fins. Both types likely evolved to feed on a single species of ecologically analogous, vertically migrating macrozooplankter: Macrohectopus branickii in Lake Baikal and Mysis relicta in the Great Lakes. It is suggested that Coregonus did not diversify and proliferate in Lake Baikal as they did in the Great Lakes because by the time Coregonus colonized Lake Baikal, pelagic sculpins were already dominant.

  12. Risks and Benefits of Consumption of Great Lakes Fish

    PubMed Central

    Bhavsar, Satyendra P.; Bowerman, William; Boysen, Eric; Clark, Milton; Diamond, Miriam; Mergler, Donna; Pantazopoulos, Peter; Schantz, Susan; Carpenter, David O.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Beneficial effects of fish consumption on early cognitive development and cardiovascular health have been attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids in fish and fish oils, but toxic chemicals in fish may adversely affect these health outcomes. Risk–benefit assessments of fish consumption have frequently focused on methylmercury and omega-3 fatty acids, not persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, and none have evaluated Great Lakes fish consumption. Objectives: The risks and benefits of fish consumption have been established primarily for marine fish. Here, we examine whether sufficient data are available to evaluate the risks and benefits of eating freshwater fish from the Great Lakes. Methods: We used a scoping review to integrate information from multiple state, provincial, and federal agency sources regarding the contaminants and omega-3 fatty acids in Great Lakes fish and fish consumers, consumption rates and fish consumption advisories, and health effects of contaminants and omega-3 fatty acids. Data synthesis: Great Lakes fish contain persistent contaminants—many of which have documented adverse health effects —that accumulate in humans consuming them. In contrast, data are sparse on omega-3 fatty acids in the fish and their consumers. Moreover, few studies have documented the social and cultural benefits of Great Lakes fish consumption, particularly for subsistence fishers and native communities. At this time, federal and state/provincial governments provide fish consumption advisories based solely on risk. Conclusions: Our knowledge of Great Lakes fish has critical gaps, particularly regarding the benefits of consumption. A risk–benefit analysis requires more information than is currently available on the concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in Great Lakes fish and their absorption by fish eaters in addition to more information on the social, cultural, and health consequences of changes in the amount of fish consumed. PMID

  13. Risks and benefits of consumption of Great Lakes fish.

    PubMed

    Turyk, Mary E; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Bowerman, William; Boysen, Eric; Clark, Milton; Diamond, Miriam; Mergler, Donna; Pantazopoulos, Peter; Schantz, Susan; Carpenter, David O

    2012-01-01

    Beneficial effects of fish consumption on early cognitive development and cardiovascular health have been attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids in fish and fish oils, but toxic chemicals in fish may adversely affect these health outcomes. Risk-benefit assessments of fish consumption have frequently focused on methylmercury and omega-3 fatty acids, not persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, and none have evaluated Great Lakes fish consumption. The risks and benefits of fish consumption have been established primarily for marine fish. Here, we examine whether sufficient data are available to evaluate the risks and benefits of eating freshwater fish from the Great Lakes. We used a scoping review to integrate information from multiple state, provincial, and federal agency sources regarding the contaminants and omega-3 fatty acids in Great Lakes fish and fish consumers, consumption rates and fish consumption advisories, and health effects of contaminants and omega-3 fatty acids. Great Lakes fish contain persistent contaminants--many of which have documented adverse health effects--that accumulate in humans consuming them. In contrast, data are sparse on omega-3 fatty acids in the fish and their consumers. Moreover, few studies have documented the social and cultural benefits of Great Lakes fish consumption, particularly for subsistence fishers and native communities. At this time, federal and state/provincial governments provide fish consumption advisories based solely on risk. Our knowledge of Great Lakes fish has critical gaps, particularly regarding the benefits of consumption. A risk-benefit analysis requires more information than is currently available on the concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in Great Lakes fish and their absorption by fish eaters in addition to more information on the social, cultural, and health consequences of changes in the amount of fish consumed.

  14. Dechlorane plus, a chlorinated flame retardant, in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Hoh, Eunha; Zhu, Lingyan; Hites, Ronald A

    2006-02-15

    A highly chlorinated flame retardant, Dechlorane Plus (DP), was detected and identified in ambient air, fish, and sediment samples from the Great Lakes region. The identity of this compound was confirmed by comparing its gas chromatographic retention times and mass spectra with those of authentic material. This compound exists as two gas chromatographically separable stereoisomers (syn and anti), the structures of which were characterized by one- and two-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance. DP was detected in most air samples, even at remote sites. The atmospheric DP concentrations were higher at the eastern Great Lakes sites (Sturgeon Point, NY, and Cleveland, OH) than those at the western Great Lakes sites (Eagle Harbor, MI, Chicago, IL, and Sleeping Bear Dunes, MI). Atthe Sturgeon Point site, DP concentrations once reached 490 pg/m3. DP atmospheric concentrations were comparable to those of BDE-209 at the eastern Great Lakes sites. DP was also found in sediment cores from Lakes Michigan and Erie. The peak DP concentrations were comparable to BDE-209 concentrations in the sediment core from Lake Erie butwere about 30 times lower than BDE-209 concentrations in the core from Lake Michigan. In the sediment cores, the DP concentrations peaked around 1975-1980, and the surficial concentrations were 10-80% of peak concentrations. Higher DP concentrations in air samples from Sturgeon Point, NY, and in the sediment core from Lake Erie suggest that DP's manufacturing facility in Niagara Falls, NY, may be a source. DP was also detected in archived fish (walleye) from Lake Erie, suggesting that this compound is, at least partially, bioavailable.

  15. The great lakes silviculture summit: an introduction and organizing framework

    Treesearch

    Brian Palik; Louise Levy; Thomas Crow

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, institutional commitment to silviculture as a research discipline has decreased in the Great Lakes region and elsewhere. Ironically, at the same time, the various demands placed on silviculture by users of research have increased greatly and continue to do so today. There remains the need to produce more and better quality wood and fiber, a need...

  16. CO2-Induced Acidification of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, G. A.; Phillips, J.; Bennington, V.; Bootsma, H. A.; Pilcher, D.; Sterner, R.; Urban, N. R.

    2013-12-01

    A number of studies indicate that air-water equilibration is the dominant control on pCO2 in several Great Lakes at annual timescales or longer. Assuming this is the case across all lakes at present and into the future, we show that pH will decline by 0.3-0.4 units through 2100 under a business-as-usual CO2 emission scenario. In a survey of the Great Lakes scientific community, 87% of respondents indicate that CO2-driven acidification is likely. The available pH data do not support these predicted trends, but limited sampling in an environment characterized by significant spatio-temporal variability, as well as significant measurement uncertainty, cast doubt on the ability of the historical pH record to resolve the predicted trends. Evaluation of the current sampling strategy using eddy-resolving numerical models of Lake Superior and Lake Michigan are key evidence that the current monitoring strategy is inadequate. In order to track long-term pH change and assess whether atmospheric CO2 will affect the Great Lakes like the oceans, a new approach to Great Lakes pH monitoring is required. Ecological impacts of CO2 acidification have not been studied for the Great Lakes, but potential effects can be gleaned from the literature. In addition, our qualitative and quantitative survey results suggest that processes such as fish recruitment, dreissenid mussel growth, and nutrient cycling may be sensitive to pH, but there is lack of consensus about the magnitude and overall significance of these effects.

  17. Patterns of organochlorine contamination in lake trout from Wisconsin waters of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Michael A.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Masnado, Robert G.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate spatial and temporal patterns of organochlorine contamination in lake trout from Wisconsin waters of the Great Lakes, we examined laboratory contaminant analysis data of muscle tissue samples from Lake Michigan (n=317) and Lake Superior (n=53) fish. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlordane, and dieldrin, reported as mg/kg wet weight in 620 mm to 640 mm mean length Lake Michigan lake trout, decreased over time. Mean total PCB concentration declined exponentially from 9.7 in 1975 to 1.9 in 1990. Total chlordane concentration declined 63 percent from 0.48 in 1983 to 0.18 in 1990, and dieldrin declined 52 percent during this same period, from 0.21 to 0.10. The bioaccumulation rate of PCBs is significantly lower for lake trout inhabiting Lake Michigan's midlake reef complex, compared to lake trout from the nearshore waters of western Lake Michigan. Organochlorine compound concentrations were greater in Lake Michigan lake trout than Lake Superior fish. Lake Superior lean lake trout and siscowet exhibited similar rates of PCB bioaccumulation despite major differneces in muscle tissue lipid content between the two subspecies. The lack of a significant difference in the PCB bioaccumulation rates of lean trout and siscowet suggests that lipid content may not be an important factor influencing PCB bioaccumulation in lake trout, within the range of lipid concentrations observed. Relative concentrations of the various organochlorine contaminants found in lake trout were highly correlated, suggesting similar mass balance processes for these compounds. Evidence presented revealing spatial and temporal patterns of organochlorine contamination may be of value in reestablishing self-sustaining populations of lake trout in Lake Michigan.

  18. Fog Plumes over the Great Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A southerly flow of unseasonably warm, moist air (temperatures of +20o to +26o C, dew points of +14o to +16o C) over the relatively cool (generally +2o to +5o C ) water of Lake Michigan and Lake Huron contributed to the development of large advection fog plumes (caused by the horizontal motion of air) during the day on April 16, 2002. These fog plumes moved northward during the day, eventually interacting with various land features to produce patterns of wave diffraction and packets of reflected waves (resembling 'shock waves') as the fog plumes impinged upon the rugged coastline of Wisconsin, the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and Ontario. These waves remained trapped within the strong marine layer temperature inversion which was sustained by the continued flow of warm air across the cool water surface. The above image was acquired by the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra satellite. Red = .645um (red), green = 1.627um, (shortwave infrared), blue = 2.13um (shortwave infrared). Image courtesy Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin

  19. Thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs from the upper Great Lakes are related to maternal diet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, S.C.; Rinchard, J.; Ebener, M.P.; Tillitt, D.E.; Munkittrick, K.R.; Parrott, J.L.; Allen, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Thiamine deficiency is responsible for reproductive impairment in several species of salmonines in the Great lakes, and is thought to be caused by the consumption of prey containing thiaminase, a thiamine-degrading enzyme. Because thiaminase levels are extremely high in dreissenid mussels, fish that prey on them may be susceptible to thiamine deficiency. We determined thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis eggs from the upper Laurentian Great Lakes to assess the potential for thiamine deficiency and to determine if thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs were related to maternal diet. Mean thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs were highest in Lake Huron, intermediate in Lake Superior, and lowest in Lake Michigan. Some fish had thiamine concentrations below putative thresholds for lethal and sublethal effects in salmonines, suggesting that some larval lake whitefish may currently be at risk of at least sublethal effects of low thiamine concentrations, although thiamine thresholds are unknown for lake whitefish. Egg thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs were statistically significantly related to isotopic carbon signatures, suggesting that egg thiamine levels were related to maternal diet, but low egg thiamine concentrations did not appear to be associated with a diet of dreissenids. Egg thiamine concentrations were not statistically significantly related to multifunction oxidase induction, suggesting that lower egg thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish were not related to contaminant exposure.

  20. Geochemical evolution of Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Naftz, D.L.; Spencer, R.J.; Oviatt, Charles G.

    2009-01-01

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL) of Utah, USA, is the largest saline lake in North America, and its brines are some of the most concentrated anywhere in the world. The lake occupies a closed basin system whose chemistry reflects solute inputs from the weathering of a diverse suite of rocks in its drainage basin. GSL is the remnant of a much larger lacustrine body, Lake Bonneville, and it has a long history of carbonate deposition. Inflow to the lake is from three major rivers that drain mountain ranges to the east and empty into the southern arm of the lake, from precipitation directly on the lake, and from minor groundwater inflow. Outflow is by evaporation. The greatest solute inputs are from calcium bicarbonate river waters mixed with sodium chloride-type springs and groundwaters. Prior to 1930 the lake concentration inversely tracked lake volume, which reflected climatic variation in the drainage, but since then salt precipitation and re-solution, primarily halite and mirabilite, have periodically modified lake-brine chemistry through density stratification and compositional differentiation. In addition, construction of a railway causeway has restricted circulation, nearly isolating the northern from the southern part of the lake, leading to halite precipitation in the north. These and other conditions have created brine differentiation, mixing, and fractional precipitation of salts as major factors in solute evolution. Pore fluids and diagenetic reactions have been identified as important sources and especially sinks for CaCO3, Mg, and K in the lake, depending on the concentration gradient and clays. ?? U.S. Geological Survey 2008.

  1. Great Lakes commercial fishing catch 1929-2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2016-01-01

    Since 1971 the Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC), formerly known as the National Fishery Center-Great Lakes (National Biological Service), the Great Lakes Fishery Laboratory (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)(FWS/GLFL), and the Ann Arbor Biological Laboratory (Bureau of Commercial Fisheries), have acted as repositories for the processing, reporting, and storage of U.S. Great Lakes commercial fishery statistics. The GLSC prepares annual summaries of these data for use by federal and state resource managers and other interested public and private organizations. The data collection system was organized in 1926 by Dr. John Van Oosten of the Bureau of Fisheries and was first put to use by the State of Michigan in 1927. Commercial fishermen licensed by that state were required to submit daily fishing reports indicating gear used and amount of catch. In succeeding years the system was improved and expanded until by 1950 all the Great Lakes states and the Province of Ontario, Canada, had similar systems.

  2. Great Lakes commercial fishing catches 1929-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Since 1971 the Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC), formerly known as the National Fishery Center-Great Lakes (National Biological Service), the Great Lakes Fishery Laboratory (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)(FWS/GLFL), and the Ann Arbor Biological Laboratory (Bureau of Commercial Fisheries), have acted as repositories for the processing, reporting, and storage of U.S. Great Lakes commercial fishery statistics. The GLSC prepares annual summaries of these data for use by federal and state resource managers and other interested public and private organizations. The data collection system was organized in 1926 by Dr. John Van Oosten of the Bureau of Fisheries and was first put to use by the State of Michigan in 1927. Commercial fishermen licensed by that state were required to submit daily fishing reports indicating gear used and amount of catch. In succeeding years the system was improved and expanded until by 1950 all the Great Lakes states and the Province of Ontario, Canada, had similar systems.

  3. Portion of the Great Lakes area as seen from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An oblique view of a portion of the Great Lakes (43.0N, 70.0W) area as seen from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. lake Erie is in the foreground; and Lake Ontario is in the background. The Niagara Falls area is in the center of the photograph. Portions of Pennsylvania, New York, and Ontario, Canada are visible, but under nearly complete snow cover. Major structural features, drainage patterns, road systems and the cities of Buffalo and Toronto are easily distinguished and actually enhanced by the snow. At the time this picture was taken, these two Great Lakes had no observable ice, although cloud formations partially mask the southern shores of the two bodies of water.

  4. Portion of the Great Lakes area as seen from Skylab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1974-02-01

    SL4-139-3989 (February 1974) --- An oblique view of a portion of the Great Lakes area as seen from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This picture was taken with a hand-held 70mm Hasselblad camera. Lake Erie is in the foreground; and Lake Ontario is in the background. The Niagara Falls area is in the center of the photograph. Portions of Pennsylvania, New York, and Ontario, Canada are visible, but under nearly complete snow cover. Major structural features, drainage patterns, road systems and the cities of Buffalo and Toronto are easily distinguished and actually enhanced by the snow. At the time this picture was taken, these two Great Lakes had no observable ice, although cloud formations partially mask the southern shores of the two bodies of water. James Barnes, a snow-pattern expert, will analyze Skylab photographs like this one to gain further knowledge of snow cover over land masses. Photo credit: NASA

  5. Species interactions of the alewife in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1970-01-01

    The alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) has caused serious problems in the Great Lakes for almost 100 years. It entered Lake Ontario in abundance via the Erie Canal during the 1860's when major piscivores were declining, and became the dominant species in the lake during the 1870's. The alewife subsequently spread throughout the Great Lakes and became the dominant species in Lakes Huron and Michigan as major piscivores declined. In lakes where it became extremely abundant, the shallow-water planktivores declined in the first decade after alewife establishment, the minor piscivores increased then declined in the second decade, and the deep-water planktivores declined in the third decade. The consequence has been a general reduction in fishery productivity. Rehabilitation will require extreme reduction of the alewife, and restoration of an interacting complex of deep- and shallow-water forage species, and minor and major piscivores, either by reestablishing species affected by the alewife, or by the introduction of new species that can thrive under the new ecological conditions of the lakes.

  6. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Antidegradation Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM Pt. 132, App. E Appendix E to Part 132—Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Antidegradation Policy Great Lakes States and...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Antidegradation Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM Pt. 132, App. E Appendix E to Part 132—Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Antidegradation Policy Great Lakes States and...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Antidegradation Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM Pt. 132, App. E Appendix E to Part 132—Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Antidegradation Policy Great Lakes States and...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative B... WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM Pt. 132, App. B Appendix B to Part 132—Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Methodology for Deriving Bioaccumulation Factors Great Lakes States and Tribes...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative B... WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM Pt. 132, App. B Appendix B to Part 132—Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Methodology for Deriving Bioaccumulation Factors Great Lakes States and Tribes...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative B... WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM Pt. 132, App. B Appendix B to Part 132—Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Methodology for Deriving Bioaccumulation Factors Great Lakes States and Tribes...

  12. 46 CFR 380.11 - Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels. 380.11... Application for Designation of Vessels as American Great Lakes Vessels § 380.11 Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels. The Secretary shall designate a vessel as an American Great Lakes vessel if— (a) The...

  13. 46 CFR 380.11 - Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels. 380.11... Application for Designation of Vessels as American Great Lakes Vessels § 380.11 Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels. The Secretary shall designate a vessel as an American Great Lakes vessel if— (a) The...

  14. 46 CFR 380.11 - Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels. 380.11... Application for Designation of Vessels as American Great Lakes Vessels § 380.11 Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels. The Secretary shall designate a vessel as an American Great Lakes vessel if— (a) The...

  15. 46 CFR 380.11 - Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels. 380.11... Application for Designation of Vessels as American Great Lakes Vessels § 380.11 Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels. The Secretary shall designate a vessel as an American Great Lakes vessel if— (a) The...

  16. 46 CFR 380.11 - Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels. 380.11... Application for Designation of Vessels as American Great Lakes Vessels § 380.11 Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels. The Secretary shall designate a vessel as an American Great Lakes vessel if— (a) The...

  17. Predicting Great Lakes fish yields: tools and constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, C.A.; Schupp, D.H.; Taylor, W.W.; Collins, J.J.; Hatch, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    Prediction of yield is a critical component of fisheries management. The development of sound yield prediction methodology and the application of the results of yield prediction are central to the evolution of strategies to achieve stated goals for Great Lakes fisheries and to the measurement of progress toward those goals. Despite general availability of species yield models, yield prediction for many Great Lakes fisheries has been poor due to the instability of the fish communities and the inadequacy of available data. A host of biological, institutional, and societal factors constrain both the development of sound predictions and their application to management. Improved predictive capability requires increased stability of Great Lakes fisheries through rehabilitation of well-integrated communities, improvement of data collection, data standardization and information-sharing mechanisms, and further development of the methodology for yield prediction. Most important is the creation of a better-informed public that will in turn establish the political will to do what is required.

  18. Reaching Regional and Local Learners via a Great Lakes MOOC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, M. E.; Ackerman, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Cooperative Institute of Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) took a regional approach to climate change education in a 4-week MOOC (Massive Open On-line Course) on the Changing Weather and Climate in the Great Lakes Region launched in February 2015. Featuring a different season each week, this Great Lakes MOOC includes lectures about seasonal weather conditions, observed changes, and societal impacts of regional climate change, as well as actions with co-benefits to slow future climate change. To better connect with learners, CIMSS facilitated 21 discussion groups at public libraries around Wisconsin each week. Participants discussed climate change impacts in their communities as well as strategies to mitigate climate change. Not surprisingly, initial survey results show library participants were more committed, engaged, climate literate, and community minded. This session will share lessons learned and survey results from the Great Lakes MOOC which remains open and accessible on Coursera through February 2016 at https://www.coursera.org/course/greatlakesclimate.

  19. An operational all-weather Great Lakes ice information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedney, R. T.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of the NASA developed all-weather ice information system for the Great Lakes winter navigation program. The system utilizes an X-band side looking airborne radar (SLAR) for determining type, location, and areal distribution of the ice cover in the Great Lakes and an airborne, S band, down looking short pulse radar for obtaining ice thickness. Digitized SLAR data are relayed in real time via the NOAA-GOES satellite in geosynchronous orbit. The SLAR images along with hand drawn interpretative ice charts for various Great Lakes winter shipping areas are broadcast to facsimile recorders aboard vessles is the area via the MARAD marine VHF-FM radio network. These data assist such vessels in navigating both through and around the ice.

  20. Historical land cover changes in the Great Lakes Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, K.L.; Davis, M.B.; Stearns, F.; Guntenspergen, G.; Walker, K.; Sisk, Thomas D.

    1999-01-01

    Two different methods of reconstructing historical vegetation change, drawing on General Land Office (GLO) surveys and fossil pollen deposits, are demonstrated by using data from the Great Lakes region. Both types of data are incorporated into landscape-scale analyses and presented through geographic information systems. Results from the two methods reinforce each other and allow reconstructions of past landscapes at different time scales. Changes to forests of the Great Lakes region during the last 150 years were far greater than the changes recorded over the preceding 1,000 years. Over the last 150 years, the total amount of forested land in the Great Lakes region declined by over 40%, and much of the remaining forest was converted to early successional forest types as a result of extensive logging. These results demonstrate the utility of using GLO survey data in conjunction with other data sources to reconstruct a generalized 'presettlement' condition and assess changes in landcover.

  1. Consumptive Water Use in the Great Lakes Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, Kimberly H.

    2008-01-01

    Great Lakes state agencies and organizations view understanding consumptive water use as a critical component in water-resource management. To assist them in developing a better understanding of the factors involved in consumptive use, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has completed an inventory of consumptive-use coefficients for the Great Lakes Basin. This fact sheet highlights findings and data from a comprehensive report resulting from that inventory. This fact sheet includes information on water-use categories used to compile and organize consumptive-use coefficients, summary statistics for consumptive-use coefficients by category, and estimated water withdrawals and consumptive-use amounts for the Great Lakes States for 2000.

  2. U.S. EPA Announces 28 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Grants Totaling Over $12.5 Million to Restore Great Lakes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    US EPA Senior Advisor Cameron Davis today announced 28 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative grants for projects to restore and protect the Great Lakes. The grants, totaling more than $12.5 million, were announced at an event near Toledo, Ohio.

  3. Volatile selenium flux from the great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz, X.; Johnson, W.P.; Oliver, W.A.; Naftz, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    The removal mechanisms that govern Se concentrations in the Great Salt Lake are unknown despite this terminal lake being an avian habitat of hemispheric importance. However, the volatilization flux of Se from the Great Salt Lake has not been previously measured due to challenges of analysis in this hypersaline environment This paper presents results from recent field studies examining the spatial distribution of dissolved volatile Se (areally and with depth) in the south arm (main body) of the Great Salt Lake. The analyses involved collection of dissolved volatile Se in a cryofocusing trap system via sparging with helium. The cryotrapped volatile Se was digested with nitric acid and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results show concentrations of dissolved volatile Se that increase with depth in the shallow brine, suggesting that phytoplankton in the open waters and bioherms in shallow sites (<4 m in depth) may be responsible for volatile Se production. Volatile Se flux to the atmosphere was determined using mass transport models corrected to simulate the highly saline environment of the south arm of the Great Salt Lake. The estimated annual flux of volatile Se was 1455 kg/year within a range from 560 to 3780 kg Se/year for the 95% confidence interval and from 970 to 2180 kg Se/year within the 68% confidence interval. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  4. Volatile selenium flux from the Great Salt Lake, Utah.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Ximena; Johnson, William P; Oliver, Wade A; Naftz, David L

    2009-01-01

    The removal mechanisms that govern Se concentrations in the Great Salt Lake are unknown despite this terminal lake being an avian habitat of hemispheric importance. However, the volatilization flux of Se from the Great Salt Lake has not been previously measured due to challenges of analysis in this hypersaline environment This paper presents results from recent field studies examining the spatial distribution of dissolved volatile Se (areally and with depth) in the south arm (main body) of the Great Salt Lake. The analyses involved collection of dissolved volatile Se in a cryofocusing trap system via sparging with helium. The cryotrapped volatile Se was digested with nitric acid and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS). Results show concentrations of dissolved volatile Se that increase with depth in the shallow brine, suggesting that phytoplankton in the open waters and bioherms in shallow sites (<4 m in depth) may be responsible for volatile Se production. Volatile Se flux to the atmosphere was determined using mass transport models corrected to simulate the highly saline environment of the south arm of the Great Salt Lake. The estimated annual flux of volatile Se was 1455 kg/year within a range from 560 to 3780 kg Se/year for the 95% confidence interval and from 970 to 2180 kg Se/year within the 68% confidence interval.

  5. Great Lakes fish consumption and reproductive outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, E.

    1989-01-01

    This epidemiological investigation determined prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), through contaminated fish consumption, and ascertained reproductive outcomes. Green Bay, Wisconsin was chosen as the study site because it was known for its environmental contamination of PCBs. These chemicals are environmentally stable and persistent, and tend to bioaccumulate up the food chain, with highest levels found in predatory sport fish from Lake Michigan. The Green Bay area provided a population with potential PCB exposure from sport fish consumption. Accidental poisoning incidents showed detrimental reproductive effects of high dose PCB exposures. A Michigan study found significant effects on birth weight and gestational age when mothers consumed two sport fish meals per month. This study population was drawn from women during their first prenatal visit at two Green Bay clinics during a one year period. 1,112 participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Maternal and cord blood samples were obtained for selected PCB serum analyses. Reproductive outcome measures were abstracted from hospital labor reports. Study results indicated that maternal consumption was correlated to maternal PCB serum levels. Regression techniques estimated significant exposure coefficients for subsets of two birth size parameters. Birth length was positively associated with PCB exposure in shorter mothers. Significant associations of PCB exposure and birth weight percentiles were estimated for two income groups in the urban residence/weight gain less than 34 pounds subset.

  6. An appraisal of management pathologies in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Chris; Krantzberg, Gail

    2012-02-01

    Recent research has produced broad application of the health concept to regional ecosystems, including the Great Lakes. The attention is warranted, as new and recurring stresses on the health of the Great Lakes undermine our understanding and hinder our ability to manage and restore critical ecological functions. There is widespread agreement that the Great Lakes are presently exhibiting symptoms of extreme stress and potentially irreversible and catastrophic damage. Historical command and control management has resulted simultaneously in environmental benefits to people and a loss of resilience in Great Lakes ecosystems. Surprising system responses often prompt further control, and the continued decline in resilience has been called the pathology of natural resource management. The pathology is also suggested to affect human systems of organization such as management authorities. We use published criteria of institutional pathologies and illustrate their occurrence in the Great Lakes with evidence of non-existent program evaluation, program incompatibility, lack of coordination among programs, authorities that establish and then abandon public participatory initiatives, and inappropriate choice of policy mechanisms or inadequate level of support for an appropriate mechanism (either of which creates disincentives for stakeholders). Learning is an element of resilience, as managed systems are inherently dynamic and our understanding is therefore always incomplete. Policy mechanisms that mimic learning techniques to improve understanding are therefore central to avoiding pathologies in management. But learning (individually or institutionally) can be threatening and very difficult, and its proper conduct necessarily involves a continuous process of feedback, interpretation, and reformulation. Double-loop learning processes that institutionalize learning in policy are recommended, as these will be required to overcome pathologies in management and maintain resilience

  7. Microplastics in 29 Great Lakes tributaries (2014-15)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven; Mason, Sherri A.

    2016-01-01

    This dataset describes the quantity and morphology of floating microplastics in 29 Great Lakes tributaries in 6 states. Samples were collected in spring 2014 – spring 2015. Each tributary was sampled three to four times, capturing low-flow and runoff-event conditions. Sampling and analysis methods are described in the .xml metadata file.These data are interpreted in a journal article: Baldwin, A.K., Corsi, S.R., and Mason, S.A., 2016, Plastic debris in 29 Great Lakes tributaries: Relations to watershed attributes and hydrology: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 50, no. 19, p. 10377–10385, doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b02917.

  8. Quantitative interpretation of Great Lakes remote sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shook, D. F.; Salzman, J.; Svehla, R. A.; Gedney, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses the quantitative interpretation of Great Lakes remote sensing water quality data. Remote sensing using color information must take into account (1) the existence of many different organic and inorganic species throughout the Great Lakes, (2) the occurrence of a mixture of species in most locations, and (3) spatial variations in types and concentration of species. The radiative transfer model provides a potential method for an orderly analysis of remote sensing data and a physical basis for developing quantitative algorithms. Predictions and field measurements of volume reflectances are presented which show the advantage of using a radiative transfer model. Spectral absorptance and backscattering coefficients for two inorganic sediments are reported.

  9. Quantitative interpretation of Great Lakes remote sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shook, D. F.; Salzman, J.; Svehla, R. A.; Gedney, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses the quantitative interpretation of Great Lakes remote sensing water quality data. Remote sensing using color information must take into account (1) the existence of many different organic and inorganic species throughout the Great Lakes, (2) the occurrence of a mixture of species in most locations, and (3) spatial variations in types and concentration of species. The radiative transfer model provides a potential method for an orderly analysis of remote sensing data and a physical basis for developing quantitative algorithms. Predictions and field measurements of volume reflectances are presented which show the advantage of using a radiative transfer model. Spectral absorptance and backscattering coefficients for two inorganic sediments are reported.

  10. Implications of thiamine deficiency in Great Lakes salmonines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Scott B.; Fitzsimons, John D.; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2005-01-01

    Our recent experimental work and ecoepizootiological assessments provide mechanistic data supporting a plausible hypothesis for an association between a prey base comprised of a large biomass of nonnative alewives Alosa pseudoharengus and the recruitment difficulties currently experienced by Great Lakes salmonines. We hypothesize that the thiamine deficiency induced by alewives, a species harboring high thiaminase activity, represents an ongoing cause of fry and adult mortality in salmonines. Overall ramifications of the thiamine deficiency on recruitment have not been firmly established but may represent a substantial bottleneck for natural recruitment in feral salmonine populations in the Great Lakes.

  11. Total organochlorine content of fish from the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, W.H.; Andrews, P.; Conacher, H.B.; Rao, R.R.; Chatt, A. )

    1993-07-01

    Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were determined in several species of commercial fish from the Great Lakes and compared to the total organic chlorine determined by neutron activation analysis. The mean organochlorine contents ranged from 44 to 138 ppm (lipid basis) and were 5 to 72 times higher than the contents of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides. Marine fish also contained a large proportion of unidentified organic chlorine. The unknown material in the Great Lakes fish was found to chromatograph with the high molecular weight lipid fraction by gel permeation chromatography.

  12. Projecting Future Water Levels of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennington, V.; Notaro, M.; Holman, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes are the largest freshwater system on Earth, containing 84% of North America's freshwater. The lakes are a valuable economic and recreational resource, valued at over 62 billion in annual wages and supporting a 7 billion fishery. Shipping, recreation, and coastal property values are significantly impacted by water level variability, with large economic consequences. Great Lakes water levels fluctuate both seasonally and long-term, responding to natural and anthropogenic climate changes. Due to the integrated nature of water levels, a prolonged small change in any one of the net basin supply components: over-lake precipitation, watershed runoff, or evaporation from the lake surface, may result in important trends in water levels. We utilize the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics's Regional Climate Model Version 4.5.6 to dynamically downscale three global global climate models that represent a spread of potential future climate change for the region to determine whether the climate models suggest a robust response of the Laurentian Great Lakes to anthropogenic climate change. The Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate Version 5 (MIROC5), the National Centre for Meteorological Research Earth system model (CNRM-CM5), and the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) project different regional temperature increases and precipitation change over the next century and are used as lateral boundary conditions. We simulate the historical (1980-2000) and late-century periods (2080-2100). Upon model evaluation we will present dynamically downscaled projections of net basin supply changes for each of the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  13. Great Lakes fish consumption advisories: is mercury a concern?

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Awad, Emily; Mahon, Chris G; Petro, Steve

    2011-10-01

    The majority of the restrictive fish consumption advisories for the Canadian waters of the Great Lakes issued by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Canada based on the most restrictive contaminant, are attributed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins/furans. Mercury currently causes about <1-2.5% and 9-16% of the restrictive advisories for the general population (GP) and sensitive population of children under 15 and women of child-bearing age (SP), respectively (the St. Lawrence River is not considered here). Toxaphene causes minor restrictions. At present it is not clear that if PCBs and dioxins/furans were to decrease below their fish consumption advisory guidelines, current fish mercury levels would replace some, most or all of the consumption restrictions. In order to examine this, location-, species- and size-specific fish consumption advisories were calculated for a "mercury only" scenario by disregarding the presence of the other contaminants. In the absence of other contaminants, mercury would replace some of the current advisories caused by other contaminants; however, the overall advisories would be minimally to moderately restrictive (<1-7% for GP; 13-32% for SP). Almost half of the Great Lake blocks considered here would have more than double the unrestricted consumption advisories than they currently have, with Lake Ontario showing the greatest improvement. Certain size ranges of each species across the main basins of the Canadian waters of the Great Lakes would be deemed safe for unrestricted consumption. However, at least some sizes of a number of species from certain locations of each lake would still have "do not eat" advisories issued for the SP, although these restrictions would be minimal for Lake Erie. These results suggest that the current mercury levels in the Canadian Great Lakes fish are of very minor concern for the GP and of moderate concern for the SP.

  14. The Great Lakes Runoff Intercomparison Project Phase 1: Lake Michigan (GRIP-M)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Lauren M.; Gronewold, Andrew D.; Fortin, Vincent; Buan, Steven; Clites, Anne H.; Luukkonen, Carol; Holtschlag, David; Diamond, Laura; Hunter, Timothy; Seglenieks, Frank; Durnford, Dorothy; Dimitrijevic, Milena; Subich, Christopher; Klyszejko, Erika; Kea, Kandace; Restrepo, Pedro

    2014-11-01

    We assembled and applied five models (one of which included three different configurations) to the Lake Michigan basin to improve our understanding of how differences in model skill at simulating total runoff to Lake Michigan relate to model structure, calibration protocol, model complexity, and assimilation (i.e. replacement of simulated discharge with discharge observations into historical simulations), and evaluate historical changes in runoff to Lake Michigan. We found that the performance among these models when simulating total runoff to the lake varied relatively little, despite variability in model structure, spatial representation, input data, and calibration protocol. Relatively simple empirical, assimilative models, including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) area ratio-based model (ARM) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Analysis of Flows in Networks of CHannels (AFINCH) model, represent efficient and effective approaches to propagating discharge observations into basin-wide (including gaged and ungaged areas) runoff estimates, and may offer an opportunity to improve predictive models for simulating runoff to the Great Lakes. Additionally, the intercomparison revealed that the median of the simulations from non-assimilative models agrees well with assimilative models, suggesting that using a combination of different methodologies may be an appropriate approach for estimating runoff into the Great Lakes. We then applied one assimilative model (ARM) to the Lake Michigan basin and found that there was persistent reduction in the amount of precipitation that becomes runoff following 1998, corresponding to a period of persistent low Lake Michigan water levels. The study was conducted as a first phase of the Great Lakes Runoff Intercomparison Project, a regional binational collaboration that aims to systematically and rigorously assess a variety of models currently used

  15. Temporal trends and spatial distribution of dioxins and furans in lake trout or lake whitefish from the Canadian Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Awad, Emily; Fletcher, Rachael; Hayton, Alan; Somers, Keith M; Kolic, Terry; MacPherson, Karen; Reiner, Eric J

    2008-08-01

    Concentrations of the seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted, most toxic congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) or lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) collected between 1989 and 2003 from the Canadian Great Lakes as a part of the on-going Sport Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program of the Ontario Ministry of the Environment. These monitoring data were used to assess temporal trends and spatial variations of these compounds in the Canadian Great Lakes. Toxic equivalents (TEQs) were calculated using the measured congener concentrations and toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) published by the World Health Organization in 1998. Five congeners, namely 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF, and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, were the most dominant congeners among the 17 congeners analyzed. The highest TEQs were found for Lake Ontario lake trout (22-54 pg g(-1)) while the TEQs for the other Canadian Great Lakes were 60-95% lower. Non-parametric Mann-Kendall and Sen's tests performed on TEQs and PCDD/Fs standardized at a mean lake trout length of 60 cm suggest a linearly decreasing trend for PCDD/Fs in lake trout from Lakes Ontario and Huron. There was no monotonously increasing or decreasing trend found for Lake Superior lake trout. The ratios of 2,3,7,8-TCDD to 2,3,7,8-TCDF concentrations were generally constant during the 1989-2003 period with the values being in the order of Lakes Superior (0.05-0.3) Great Lakes.

  16. Reconstructing paleo lake levels from relict shorelines along the Upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baedke, Steve J.; Thompson, Todd A.; Johnston, John W.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2004-01-01

    Shorelines of the upper Great Lakes include many embayments that contain strandplains of beach ridges. These former shoreline positions of the lakes can be used to determine changes in the elevation of the lakes through time, and they also provide information on the warping of the ground surface that is occurring in the Great Lakes after the weight of glacial ice was removed. Relative lake-level hydrographs can be created by coring the beach ridges to determine the elevation of basal foreshore (swash zone) deposits in each ridge and by obtaining radiocarbon dates of basal wetland sediments between ridges to generate an age model for the ridges. Because the relative-level hydrographs are the combination of lake-level change and vertical ground movement (isostatic rebound), the rebound must be removed to produce a graph that shows only the physical limits and timing of past lake-level fluctuations referenced to a common outlet. More than 500 vibracores of beach-ridge sediments were collected at five sites along Lake Michigan and four sites along Lake Superior. The cores showed a sequence of dune deposits overlying foreshore deposits that, in turn, overlie upper shoreface deposits. The base of the foreshore deposits is coarser and more poorly sorted than an overlying and underlying sediment and represents the plunge-point sediments at the base of the swash zone. The plunge-point deposits are a close approximation of the elevation of the lake when the beach ridge formed. More than 150 radiocarbon ages of basal wetland sediments were collected to produce age models for the sites. Currently, age models exist for all Lake Michigan sites and one Lake Superior site. By combining the elevation data with the age models, six relative lake-level hydrographs were created for the upper Great Lakes. An iterative approach was used to remove rebound from the five Lake Michigan relative hydrographs and merge the graphs into a single hydrograph. The resultant hydrograph shows long

  17. Use of egg traps to investigate lake trout spawning in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreiner, Donald R.; Bronte, Charles R.; Payne, N. Robert; Fitzsimons, John D.; Casselman, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Disk-shaped traps were used to examine egg deposition by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) at 29 sites in the Great Lakes. The main objectives were to; first, evaluate the disk trap as a device for sampling lake trout eggs in the Great Lakes, and second, summarize what has been learned about lake trout spawning through the use of disk traps. Of the 5,085 traps set, 60% were classified as functional when retrieved. Evidence of lake trout egg deposition was documented in each of the lakes studied at 14 of 29 sites. A total of 1,147 eggs were trapped. The percentage of traps functioning and catch per effort were compared among sites based on depth, timing of egg deposition, distance from shore, size of reef, and type of reef (artificial or natural). Most eggs were caught on small, shallow, protected reefs that were close to shore. Use of disk traps on large, shallow, unprotected offshore reefs or along unprotected shorelines was generally unsuccessful due to the effects of heavy wind and wave action. Making multiple lifts at short intervals, and retrieval before and re-deployment after storms are recommended for use in exposed areas. On large reefs, preliminary surveys to identify preferred lake trout spawning habitat may be required to deploy disk traps most effectively. Egg deposition by hatchery-reared fish was widespread throughout the Great Lakes, and the use of artificial structures by these fish was extensive.

  18. Status of coregonine fishes in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleischer, Guy W.

    1992-01-01

    The post-glacial coregonine assemblage in the Great Lakes included several species of the genera Prosopium and Coregonus. Overfishing, habitat degradation, and competition with various exotic fish species severely reduced coregonine abundance and altered their distribution by the mid to latter part of the 20th century. Most of the original Coregonus species, some which were endemic to the Great Lakes, are now extinct or are extremely rare. The prevailing coregonines are mostly benthic and deep-water species, contrasted to the original assemblage dominated by pelagic, nearshore species. Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) populations have recovered and now support record fisheries in Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron. Bloaters (C. hoyi) have recovered to dominate the planktivorous fish community in Lake Michigan and are rapidly increasing in Lake Huron. The recent resurgence in some coregonine populations are linked to declines in exotic fish populations and favorable climatic changes. The reduced diversity of the coregonines may explain the dominance of the remaining species. The stability of this simplified coregonine community is uncertain but the existing coregonines have demonstrated resiliency.

  19. The Effect of Lake Temperatures and Emissions on Ozone Exposure in the Western Great Lakes Region

    Treesearch

    Jerome D. Fast; Warren E. Heilman

    2003-01-01

    A meteorological-chemical model with a 12-km horizontal grid spacing was used to simulate the evolution of ozone over the western Great Lakes region during a 30-day period in the summer of 1999. Lake temperatures in the model were based on analyses derived from daily satellite measurements. The model performance was evaluated using operational surface and upper-air...

  20. Forecasting Lake-Effect Precipitation in the Great Lakes Region Using NASA Enhanced-Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cipullo, Michelle; Molthan, Andrew; Shafer, Jackie; Case, Jonathan; Jedlovec, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Lake-effect precipitation is common in the Great Lakes region, particularly during the late fall and winter. The synoptic processes of lake-effect precipitation are well understood by operational forecasters, but individual forecast events still present a challenge. Locally run, high resolution models can assist the forecaster in identifying the onset and duration of precipitation, but model results are sensitive to initial conditions, particularly the assumed surface temperature of the Great Lakes. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has created a Great Lakes Surface Temperature (GLST) composite, which uses infrared estimates of water temperatures obtained from the MODIS instrument aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites, other coarser resolution infrared data when MODIS is not available, and ice cover maps produced by the NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab (GLERL). This product has been implemented into the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model Environmental Modeling System (WRF-EMS), used within forecast offices to run local, high resolution forecasts. The sensitivity of the model forecast to the GLST product was analyzed with a case study of the Lake Effect Storm Echinacea, which produced 10 to 12 inches of snowfall downwind of Lake Erie, and 8 to 18 inches downwind of Lake Ontario from 27-29 January 2010. This research compares a forecast using the default Great Lakes surface temperatures from the Real Time Global sea surface temperature (RTG SST), in the WRF-EMS model to the enhanced NASA SPoRT GLST product to study forecast impacts. Results from this case study show that the SPoRT GLST contained less ice cover over Lake Erie and generally cooler water temperatures over Lakes Erie and Ontario. Latent and sensible heat fluxes over Lake Ontario were decreased in the GLST product. The GLST product decreased the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF), which can be correlated to the decrease in temperatures and heat

  1. Evidence for early hunters beneath the Great Lakes

    PubMed Central

    O'Shea, John M.; Meadows, Guy A.

    2009-01-01

    Scholars have hypothesized that the poorly understood and rarely encountered archaeological sites from the terminal Paleoindian and Archaic periods associated with the Lake Stanley low water stage (10,000–7,500 BP) are lost beneath the modern Great Lakes. Acoustic and video survey on the Alpena-Amberley ridge, a feature that would have been a dry land corridor crossing the Lake Huron basin during this time period, reveals the presence of a series of stone features that match, in form and location, structures used for caribou hunting in both prehistoric and ethnographic times. These results present evidence for early hunters on the Alpena-Amberley corridor, and raise the possibility that intact settlements and ancient landscapes are preserved beneath Lake Huron. PMID:19506245

  2. 33 CFR 334.820 - Lake Michigan; naval restricted area, U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Michigan; naval restricted area, U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.820 Section 334.820 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.820 Lake Michigan; naval restricted area, U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. (a...

  3. 33 CFR 334.820 - Lake Michigan; naval restricted area, U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Michigan; naval restricted area, U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.820 Section 334.820 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.820 Lake Michigan; naval restricted area, U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. (a...

  4. 33 CFR 334.820 - Lake Michigan; naval restricted area, U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Michigan; naval restricted area, U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.820 Section 334.820 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.820 Lake Michigan; naval restricted area, U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. (a...

  5. 33 CFR 334.820 - Lake Michigan; naval restricted area, U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Michigan; naval restricted area, U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.820 Section 334.820 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.820 Lake Michigan; naval restricted area, U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. (a...

  6. First record of Daphnia lumholtzi Sars in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muzinic, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    Adults of the cladoceran Daphnia lumholtzi, native to Australia, Africa, and parts of Asia, were first collected in August 1999 in Lake Erie. Individuals were collected near East Harbor State Park, Lakeside, Ohio from vertical plankton net tows. The average number of D. lumholtzi that were found (0.03/L) indicate that D. lumholtzi is beginning to establish itself in Lake Erie. The morphology of this Daphnia differs greatly from native species because of its elongated head and tail spine. This sighting is important because it acknowledges yet another exotic invader into the Great Lakes basin and it also shows that this, normally, warm water species continues to expand its range northward.

  7. Changes in depth occupied by Great Lakes lake whitefish populations and the influence of survey design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rennie, Michael D.; Weidel, Brian C.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Dunlob, Erin S.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding fish habitat use is important in determining conditions that ultimately affect fish energetics, growth and reproduction. Great Lakes lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) have demonstrated dramatic changes in growth and life history traits since the appearance of dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes, but the role of habitat occupancy in driving these changes is poorly understood. To better understand temporal changes in lake whitefish depth of capture (Dw), we compiled a database of fishery-independent surveys representing multiple populations across all five Laurentian Great Lakes. By demonstrating the importance of survey design in estimating Dw, we describe a novel method for detecting survey-based bias in Dw and removing potentially biased data. Using unbiased Dw estimates, we show clear differences in the pattern and timing of changes in lake whitefish Dw between our reference sites (Lake Superior) and those that have experienced significant benthic food web changes (lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario). Lake whitefish Dw in Lake Superior tended to gradually shift to shallower waters, but changed rapidly in other locations coincident with dreissenid establishment and declines in Diporeia densities. Almost all lake whitefish populations that were exposed to dreissenids demonstrated deeper Dw following benthic food web change, though a subset of these populations subsequently shifted to more shallow depths. In some cases in lakes Huron and Ontario, shifts towards more shallow Dw are occurring well after documented Diporeia collapse, suggesting the role of other drivers such as habitat availability or reliance on alternative prey sources.

  8. 77 FR 2497 - Great Lakes Steamship Repower Incentive Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... Category 3 FRM for a discussion of compliance strategies. Voluntary replacement of steam engines with... simplify an existing provision in our marine diesel engine program that is intended to encourage owners of Great Lakes steamships to repower those steamships with cleaner marine diesel engines. The...

  9. Area contingency plan: Eastern Great Lakes. (COTP Buffalo)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-30

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Eastern Great Lakes Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Buffalo Coastal Zone.

  10. A REGIONAL ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE GREAT LAKES BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Natural Resources Canada: Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) are conducting a cooperative research landscape ecological study of the Great Lakes Basin. The analyses will include the areas located along the border of the Unit...

  11. A LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY ANALYSIS OF THE GREAT LAKES BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Natural Resources Canada: Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) are conducting a cooperative research landscape ecological study of the Great Lakes Basin. The analyses will include the areas located along the border of the Unit...

  12. LESSONS LEARNED FROM MODELLING PCBS IN THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Implementation of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement depends in part on knowing which chemicals under what conditions have impacted different fish species, either independently or in concert with non-chemical stressors. Dr. Phillip Cook of MED presented an overview of his re...

  13. Near shore-wetland fish movements in the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Linkages of Great Lakes coastal wetlands and near shore habitats are under-explored, yet 90 species of fish are known to utilize wetlands for spawning and/or nursery habitat. The duration and frequency of wetland use for pelagic species with mobile adult stages is also poorly un...

  14. Near shore-wetland fish movements in the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Linkages of Great Lakes coastal wetlands and near shore habitats are under-explored, yet 90 species of fish are known to utilize wetlands for spawning and/or nursery habitat. The duration and frequency of wetland use for pelagic species with mobile adult stages is also poorly un...

  15. Allocating Great Lakes forage bases in response to multiple demand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Edward H.; Busiahn, Thomas R.; Jones, Michael L.; Argyle, Ray L.; Taylor, William W.; Ferreri, C. Paola

    1999-01-01

    Forage base allocation, which has become an important issue because of major changes in the fish communities and fisheries of the Great Lakes since the 1950s is examined and documented in this chapter. Management initiatives that were used to address the issue, and supporting research and development that provided new or improved methods of field sampling and analysis are also highlighted.

  16. A LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY ANALYSIS OF THE GREAT LAKES BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Natural Resources Canada: Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) are conducting a cooperative research landscape ecological study of the Great Lakes Basin. The analyses will include the areas located along the border of the Unit...

  17. Great Lakes Nearshore Assessment: What Would Goldilocks Do?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concerns with the nearshore water quality of the Great Lakes, such as excessive eutrophication and harmful algal blooms, called for establishing a nearshore monitoring program to gain a better understanding of the watershed-nearshore link. This is challenging, as sporadic runoff ...

  18. Early Detection Monitoring for Vulnerable Great Lakes Coastal Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes harbors/embayments are vulnerable to introduction of aquatic invasive species. Monitoring is needed to inform on new introductions, as well as to track success of prevention programs intended to limit spread. We have completed a pilot field case study in the Duluth-...

  19. Cross-Sector Collaboration: The Great Lakes Environmental Finance Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austrian, Ziona; Iannone, Donald

    1997-01-01

    The Great Lakes Environmental Finance Center is one of six university-based environmental finance centers established by the federal government. Its primary mission is to help state and local government and private-sector organizations devise effective financing strategies for environmental improvement projects. Cross-sector collaboration and…

  20. Evaluating Great Lakes bald eagle nesting habitat with Bayesian inference

    Treesearch

    Teryl G. Grubb; William W. Bowerman; Allen J. Bath; John P. Giesy; D. V. Chip Weseloh

    2003-01-01

    Bayesian inference facilitated structured interpretation of a nonreplicated, experience-based survey of potential nesting habitat for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) along the five Great Lakes shorelines. We developed a pattern recognition (PATREC) model of our aerial search image with six habitat attributes: (a) tree cover, (b) proximity and...

  1. Great Lakes rivermouth ecosystems: scientific synthesis and management implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rivermouth ecosystems contribute to both the ecological dynamics and the human social networks that surround and depend on the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, understanding and management of these systems would be enhanced by viewing them with a new, holistic focus. Here, focu...

  2. GREAT LAKES BASIN LAND-COVER DATA: ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a consistent land-cover (LC) data set for the entire 480,000 km2 Great Lakes Basin (GLB). The acquisition of consistent LC data has proven difficult both within the US and across GLB political boundaries due to disparate...

  3. Early Detection Monitoring for Vulnerable Great Lakes Coastal Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes harbors/embayments are vulnerable to introduction of aquatic invasive species. Monitoring is needed to inform on new introductions, as well as to track success of prevention programs intended to limit spread. We have completed a pilot field case study in the Duluth-...

  4. Great Lakes rivermouth ecosystems: scientific synthesis and management implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rivermouth ecosystems contribute to both the ecological dynamics and the human social networks that surround and depend on the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, understanding and management of these systems would be enhanced by viewing them with a new, holistic focus. Here, focu...

  5. Predicting exotic earthworm distribution in the northern Great Lakes region

    Treesearch

    Lindsey M. Shartell; Erik A. Lilleskov; Andrew J. Storer

    2013-01-01

    Identifying influences of earthworm invasion and distribution in the northern Great Lakes is an important step in predicting the potential extent and impact of earthworms across the region. The occurrence of earthworm signs, indicating presence in general, and middens, indicating presence of Lumbricus terrestris exclusively, in the Huron Mountains...

  6. A research agenda for silviculture in the Great Lakes Region

    Treesearch

    Brian Palik; Louise Levy

    2004-01-01

    The Great Lakes Silviculture Summit took place in April 2003 at Michigan Technological University. The primary audience of the summit included institutional representatives who define needs and set policy regarding silvicultural approaches and practice, as well as researchers working in silviculture or related disciplines.

  7. GREAT LAKES BASIN LAND-COVER DATA: ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a consistent land-cover (LC) data set for the entire 480,000 km2 Great Lakes Basin (GLB). The acquisition of consistent LC data has proven difficult both within the US and across GLB political boundaries due to disparate...

  8. Repeated Measures of Students' Marine and Great Lakes Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne; Mayer, Victor J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a longitudinal statewide study of Ohio fifth and ninth graders' knowledge about and attitude toward the oceans and Great Lakes. Results indicate a knowledge score increase except for humanities items. Among science items, earth science topics showed the greatest deficiencies, and oceanic attitudes declined over the period. (15…

  9. Conceptual Model for Selenium Cycling in the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. P.; Conover, M. R.; Wurtsbaugh, W. A.; Adams, J.

    2006-12-01

    The conceptual model for Selenium cycling in the Great Salt Lake was developed to guide investigations in support of determining an open water selenium standard for the Great Salt Lake. The motivation to determine this particular selenium standard derives from public concern for a plan to allow disposal of reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate in the GSL, which would contain elevated concentrations of major and trace elements, including selenium. The development of an open water standard for selenium requires a working knowledge of the biological significance of existing selenium concentrations in the Great Salt Lake, as well as a working understanding of the likely changes of these concentrations over time given existing and proposed loads to the system. This working knowledge" is being represented in a conceptual model that accounts for selenium in various stocks" in the system (e.g. water, sediment, biota) and the flow" of selenium between stocks (e.g., precipitation and settling, volatilization, bioconcentration). It illustrates the critical pathway of selenium in the Great Salt Lake from water, to microorganisms, to brine shrimp and brine flies, to birds, and to their eggs. It also addresses the complexity of the GSL system: a) Spatially diverse, being comprised by four distinct bays and two layers, with major differences in salinity among their waters. b) Temporally dynamic, due to seasonal and inter-annual variations in runoff. The conceptual model is presently descriptive, but will serve as the basis for a semi-quantitative model that will be fed by data accumulated during subsequent investigations.

  10. A REGIONAL ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE GREAT LAKES BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Natural Resources Canada: Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) are conducting a cooperative research landscape ecological study of the Great Lakes Basin. The analyses will include the areas located along the border of the Unit...

  11. Great Lakes nearshore-offshore: Distinct water quality regions

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared water quality of nearshore regions in the Laurentian Great Lakes to water quality in offshore regions. Sample sites for the nearshore region were from the US EPA National Coastal Condition Assessment and based on a criteria or sample-frame of within the 30-m depth co...

  12. EPA Awards 15 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Grants Totaling Over $8 Million to Combat Invasive Species

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    15-OPA124 CHICAGO -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced the award of 15 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative grants totaling more than $8 million for projects to combat invasive species in the Great Lakes basin. These Great

  13. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Mercury Accumulation in Lacustrine Sediments Across the Laurentian Great Lakes Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from 103 sediment cores from the Great Lakes and inland lakes of the Great Lakes airshed were compiled to examine and provide a synthesis of patterns of historical and recent changes in mercury (Hg) deposition. Limited data from the lower Laurentian Great Lakes shows a lega...

  14. 77 FR 58204 - International Joint Commission Invites Public Comment on Upper Great Lakes Report via...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... International Joint Commission Invites Public Comment on Upper Great Lakes Report via Teleconference and Extends... teleconference to invite public comment on the final report of its International Upper Great Lakes Study Board, Lake Superior Regulation: Addressing Uncertainty in Upper Great Lakes Water Levels. The teleconference...

  15. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Mercury Accumulation in Lacustrine Sediments Across the Laurentian Great Lakes Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from 103 sediment cores from the Great Lakes and inland lakes of the Great Lakes airshed were compiled to examine and provide a synthesis of patterns of historical and recent changes in mercury (Hg) deposition. Limited data from the lower Laurentian Great Lakes shows a lega...

  16. Long-Term Variability of Satellite Lake Surface Water Temperatures in the Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierach, M. M.; Matsumoto, K.; Holt, B.; McKinney, P. J.; Tokos, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Great Lakes are the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth that approximately 37 million people depend upon for fresh drinking water, food, flood and drought mitigation, and natural resources that support industry, jobs, shipping and tourism. Recent reports have stated (e.g., the National Climate Assessment) that climate change can impact and exacerbate a range of risks to the Great Lakes, including changes in the range and distribution of certain fish species, increased invasive species and harmful algal blooms, declining beach health, and lengthened commercial navigation season. In this study, we will examine the impact of climate change on the Laurentian Great Lakes through investigation of long-term lake surface water temperatures (LSWT). We will use the ATSR Reprocessing for Climate: Lake Surface Water Temperature & Ice Cover (ARC-Lake) product over the period 1995-2012 to investigate individual and interlake variability. Specifically, we will quantify the seasonal amplitude of LSWTs, the first and last appearances of the 4°C isotherm (i.e., an important identifier of the seasonal evolution of the lakes denoting winter and summer stratification), and interpret these quantities in the context of global interannual climate variability such as ENSO.

  17. Spatial distribution of perfluoroalkyl contaminants in lake trout from the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Furdui, Vasile I; Stock, Naomi L; Ellis, David A; Butt, Craig M; Whittle, D Michael; Crozier, Patrick W; Reiner, Eric J; Muir, Derek C G; Mabury, Scott A

    2007-03-01

    Individual whole body homogenates of 4 year old lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) samples collected in 2001 from each of the Great Lakes were extracted using a novel fluorophilicity cleanup step and analyzed for perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs). Standard addition and internal standardization were used for quantification. Results were reported (+/- SE) for perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs), and unsaturated fluorotelomer carboxylates (8:2 and 10:2 FTUCA). The lowest average concentration of sigmaPFC was found in samples from Lake Superior (13+/-1 ng g(-1)), while the highest average concentration was found in samples from Lake Erie (152+/-14 ng g(-1)). Samples from Lake Ontario (60+/-5 ng g(-1)) and Lake Huron (58 +/-10 ng g(-1)) showed similar average sigmaPFC concentrations, although the perfluorinated sulfonate/carboxylate ratios were different. The major perfluoroalkyl contaminant observed was perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) with the highest concentration found in samples from Lake Erie (121+/-14 ng g(-1)), followed by samples from Lake Ontario (46+/-5 ng g(-1)), Lake Huron (39 +/-10 ng g(-1)), Lake Michigan (16+/-3 ng g(-1)), and Lake Superior (5+/-1 ng g(-1)). Perfluorodecane sulfonate (PFDS) was detected in 89% of the samples, with the highest concentration in Lake Erie samples (9.8+/-1.6 ng g(-1)), and lowest concentration in samples from Lake Superior (0.7 +/- 0.1 ng g(-1)). Statistically significant correlations were observed between PFOS and PFDS concentrations, and PFOS concentration and body weight, respectively. The PFCAs were detected in all samples, with the highest total average concentration in samples from Lake Erie (19 ng g(-1)), followed by samples from Lake Huron (16 ng g(-1)), Lake Ontario (10 ng g(-1)), Lake Michigan (9 ng g(-1)) and Lake Superior (7 ng g(-1)). The compounds with significant contributions to the sigmaPFCA concentrations were PFOA and C9-C13-PFCAs. The 8:2 FTUCA was detected at

  18. Genetic variability among lake whitefish from Isle Royale and the Upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stott, Wendylee; Todd, Thomas N.; Kallemeyn, Larry

    2004-01-01

    The coregonine fishes from Isle Royale National Park represent a unique group that has escaped the successional changes observed elsewhere in North America. Analysis of microsatellite DNA loci revealed significant genetic differences among samples of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) from Isle Royale, Lake Superior, and Lake Huron. The amount of genetic variation observed is consistent with that seen in other studies of whitefishes from North America. The lake whitefish from Isle Royale had previously been assigned sub-species status, but no evidence was found to support this. The effects of common ancestry and demographics both play a role in determining the relatedness of the populations. As with other fish species from Isle Royale and the upper Great Lakes, the lake whitefish have their origins in the Mississippi refugium.

  19. Perchlorate in The Great Lakes: Distribution, Isotopic Composition and Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, A.; Sturchio, N. C.; Jackson, W. A.; Guan, Y.; Eiler, J. M.; Hatzinger, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Concentrations, stable chlorine and oxygen isotopic compositions, and 36Cl abundances of perchlorate were investigated in the five Laurentian Great Lakes. Samples were collected during monitoring cruises in 2007 and 2008 of the U.S. EPA's RV Lake Guardian and in 2010 at the water supply intake of Marquette, MI on the southern shore of Lake Superior. Concentrations of perchlorate were measured by IC/MS/MS at 24 locations, including one or two depth profiles in each lake. Mean concentrations (μg/L) are: Superior, 0.06 × 0.01; Michigan, 0.10 × 0.01; Huron, 0.11 × 0.01; Erie, 0.08 × 0.01, and Ontario, 0.09 × 0.01. Concentration vs. depth is nearly constant in each lake, indicating well-mixed conditions. Perchlorate was extracted from near-surface water by passing 15,000 to 80,000 L of water through 1-L cartridges containing Purolite A530E bifunctional anion-exchange resin. In the laboratory, perchlorate was eluted from the resin, purified, and precipitated as a >99% pure crystalline phase. Milligram amounts were recovered from each lake. Chlorine and oxygen isotopic analyses were performed at Caltech using the Cameca 7f-GEO SIMS instrument, following validation of the SIMS method with analyses of USGS-37 and USGS-38 isotopic reference materials. Results indicate a relatively narrow range in δ37Cl values (+2.9 to +3.9 ‰) and a wider range in δ18O values (-4.0 to +4.1 ‰), with a general geographic trend of increasing δ18O from west to east. Oxygen-17 was measured at UIC using dual-inlet IRMS of O2 produced by decomposition of KClO4. Great Lakes perchlorate has mass-independent oxygen isotopic variations with positive Δ17O values (+1.6 ‰ to +2.7 ‰) divided into two distinct groups: Lake Superior (+2.7 ‰) and the other four lakes (~ +1.7 ‰). The isotopic data indicate that perchlorate is dominantly of natural origin, having stable isotopic compositions resembling those of perchlorate from pre-industrial groundwaters in the western USA. The 36Cl

  20. Geochemistry of Great Salt Lake, Utah I: Hydrochemistry since 1850

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, R.J.; Eugster, H.P.; Jones, B.F.; Rettig, S.L.

    1985-01-01

    The hydrochemistry of Great Salt Lake, Utah, has been defined for the historic period, 1850 through 1982, from published data combined with new observations. The water balance depends largely on river inflow, atmospheric precipitation onto the lake surface and evaporation. Input of the major solutes can best be accounted for by mixing dilute calcium-bicarbonate type river waters with NaCl-dominated hydrothermal springs. Prior to 1930, lake concentrations fluctuated inversely with lake volume in response to small climatic variations. Since then, salt precipitation and dissolution have significantly modified lake brine compositions and have led to density stratification and the formation of brine pockets of differing composition. Brine mixing has become an important component of brine evolution. We have used calculated evaporation curves with mineral precipitation and dissolution to clarify these processes. Pore fluids represent important storage for solutes. Solute profiles can be modeled by simple one-dimensional diffusion calculations. Short-term historic variations in lake composition affect shallow pore fluids in the upper 2 metres of sediment. ?? 1985.

  1. Genetic assessment of strain-specific sources of lake trout recruitment in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Kevin S.; Scribner, Kim T.; Bennett, Kristine R.; Garzel, Laura M.; Burnham-Curtis, Mary K.

    2003-01-01

    Populations of wild lake trout Salvelinus namaycush have been extirpated from nearly all their historical habitats across the Great Lakes. Efforts to restore self-sustaining lake trout populations in U.S. waters have emphasized the stocking of coded-wire-tagged juveniles from six hatchery strains (Seneca Lake, Lewis Lake, Green Lake, Apostle Islands, Isle Royale, and Marquette) into vacant habitats. Strain-specific stocking success has historically been based on estimates of the survival and catch rates of coded-wire-tagged adults returning to spawning sites. However, traditional marking methods and estimates of relative strain abundance provide no means of assessing strain fitness (i.e., the realized contributions to natural recruitment) except by assuming that young-of-the-year production is proportional to adult spawner abundance. We used microsatellite genetic data collected from six hatchery strains with likelihood-based individual assignment tests (IA) and mixed-stock analysis (MSA) to identify the strain composition of young of the year recruited each year. We show that strain classifications based on IA and MSA were concordant and that the accuracy of both methods varied based on strain composition. Analyses of young-of-the-year lake trout samples from Little Traverse Bay (Lake Michigan) and Six Fathom Bank (Lake Huron) revealed that strain contributions differed significantly from estimates of the strain composition of adults returning to spawning reefs. The Seneca Lake strain contributed the majority of juveniles produced on Six Fathom Bank and more young of the year than expected within Little Traverse Bay. Microsatellite markers provided a method for accurately classifying the lake trout hatchery strains used for restoration efforts in the Great Lakes and for assessment of strain-specific reproductive success.

  2. Characterization and comparison of phytoplankton in selected lakes of five Great Lakes area national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith Becker; Whitman, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Phytoplankton species have been widely used as indicators of lake conditions, and they may be useful for detecting changes in overall lake condition. In an attempt to inventory and monitor its natural resources, the National Park Service wants to establish a monitoring program for aquatic resources in the Great Lakes Cluster National Parks. This study sought to establish baseline information on the phytoplankton and water chemistry of selected lakes in five national parks in a preliminary effort toward establishing a long-term monitoring program. Phytoplankton and water chemistry samples were collected from ten lakes in five national parks over a two-year period. A total of 176 taxa were identified during the study. Northern lakes generally had higher Shannon-Wiener diversity and clustered together in similarity. Lakes exhibited a south to north gradient of many water chemistry variables, with northern lakes having lower hardness, sulfate, turbidity, and temperature and higher dissolved oxygen. Chloride and sulfate concentrations were the variables that best explained variation among phytoplankton in the ten lakes. A monitoring plan will have to incorporate the differences among lakes, but by coordinating the effort, comparisons within and among parks and other regions will prove useful for determining environmental change.

  3. Plans and progress for building a Great Lakes fauna DNA ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DNA reference libraries provide researchers with an important tool for assessing regional biodiversity by allowing unknown genetic sequences to be assigned identities, while also providing a means for taxonomists to validate identifications. Expanding the representation of Great Lakes species in such reference libraries is an explicit component of research at EPA’s Mid-Continent Ecology Division. Our DNA reference library building efforts began in 2012 with the goal of providing barcodes for at least 5 specimens of each native and nonindigenous fish and aquatic invertebrate species currently present in the Great Lakes. The approach is to pull taxonomically validated specimen for sequencing from EPA led sampling efforts of adult/juvenile fish, larval fish, benthic macroinvertebrates, and zooplankton; while also soliciting aid from state and federal agencies for tissue from “shopping list” organisms. The barcodes we generate are made available through the publicly accessible BOLD (Barcode of Life) database, and help inform a planned Great Lakes biodiversity inventory. To date, our submissions to BOLD are limited to fishes; of the 88 fish species listed as being present within Lake Superior, roughly half were successfully barcoded, while only 22 species met the desired quota of 5 barcoded specimens per species. As we continue to generate genomic information from our collections and the taxonomic representations become more complete, we will continue to

  4. Saline lakes of the glaciated Northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mushet, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Unless you have flown over the region or seen aerial photographs, it is hard to grasp the scale of the millions of lakes and wetlands that dot the prairie landscape of the glaciated Northern Great Plains (Figure 1). This region of abundant aquatic habitats within a grassland matrix provides for the needs of a wide diversity of wildlife species and has appropriately been deemed the "duck factory of North America." While the sheer number of lakes and wetlands within this area of the Northern Great Plains can be truly awe-inspiring, their diversity in terms of the chemical composition of their water adds an equally important component supporting biotic diversity and productivity. Water within these lakes and wetlands can range from extremely fresh with salinities approaching that of rainwater to hypersaline with salinity ten times greater than that of seawater. Additionally, while variation in salinity among these water bodies can be great, the ionic composition of lakes and wetlands with similar salinities can vary markedly, influencing the overall spatial and temporal diversity of the region's biota.

  5. HISTORICAL SNOW AMOUNTS IN THE LAKE EFFECT REGION OF LAKE SUPERIOR: EVIDENCE OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies (Levitus et al., .2000) suggest a warming of the world ocean over the past 50 years. This could be occurring in the Great Lakes also but thermal measurements are lacking. Historical trends in natural phenomena, such as the duration of ice cover on lakes, provide in...

  6. HISTORICAL SNOW AMOUNTS IN THE LAKE EFFECT REGION OF LAKE SUPERIOR: EVIDENCE OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies (Levitus et al., .2000) suggest a warming of the world ocean over the past 50 years. This could be occurring in the Great Lakes also but thermal measurements are lacking. Historical trends in natural phenomena, such as the duration of ice cover on lakes, provide in...

  7. Simulation of Heavy Lake-Effect Snowstorms across the Great Lakes Basin by RegCM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notaro, M.; Zarrin, A.; Vavrus, S. J.; Bennington, V.

    2013-12-01

    A historical simulation (1976-2002) of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model Version 4 (ICTP RegCM4), coupled to a one-dimensional lake model, is validated against observed lake ice cover and snowfall across the Great Lakes Basin. The model reproduces the broad temporal and spatial features of both variables in terms of spatial distribution, seasonal cycle, and interannual variability, including climatological characteristics of lake-effect snowfall, although the simulated ice cover is overly extensive largely due to the absence of lake circulations. A definition is introduced for identifying heavy lake-effect snowstorms in regional climate model output for all grid cells in the Great Lakes Basin, using criteria based on location, wind direction, lake ice cover, and snowfall. Simulated heavy lake-effect snowstorms occur most frequently downwind of the Great Lakes, particularly to the east of Lake Ontario and to the east and south of Lake Superior, and are most frequent in December-January. The mechanism for these events is attributed to an anticyclone over the central United States and related cold air outbreak for areas downwind of Lakes Ontario and Erie, in contrast to a nearby cyclone over the Great Lakes Basin and associated cold front for areas downwind of Lakes Superior, Huron, and Michigan. Projections of mid- and late-21st century lake-effect snowstorms in the Great Lakes Basin will be summarized, based on dynamically downscaled CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase Five) simulations.

  8. Dynamic Heights in the Great Lakes using OPUS Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, D. R.; Li, X.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. will be implementing new geometric and vertical reference frames in 2022 to replace the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88), respectively. Less emphasized is the fact that a new dynamic height datum will also be defined about the same time to replace the International Great Lakes Datum of 1985 (IGLD 85). IGLD 85 was defined concurrent with NAVD 88 and used the same geopotential values. This paper focuses on the use of an existing tool for determining geometric coordinates and a developing geopotential model as a means of determining dynamic heights. The Online Positioning User Service (OPUS) Projects (OP) is an online tool available from the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) for use in developing geometric coordinates from simultaneous observations at multiple sites during multiple occupations. With observations performed at the water level gauges throughout the Great Lakes, the geometric coordinates of the mean water level surface can be determined. NGS has also developed the xGEOID15B model from satellite, airborne and surface gravity data. Using the input geometric coordinates determined through OP, the geopotential values for the water surface at the water level stations around the Great Lakes were determined using the xGEOID15B model. Comparisons were made between water level sites for each Lake as well as to existing IGLD 85 heights. A principal advantage to this approach is the ability to generate new water level control stations using OP, while maintaining the consistency between orthometric and dynamic heights by using the same gravity field model. Such a process may provide a means for determining dynamic heights for a future Great Lakes Datum.

  9. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Great Lakes Region 4 HUC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic systems. The lake morphometry dataset included here contains estimates of Surface Area, Shoreline Length, Shoreline Development, Maximum Depth, Mean Depth, Lake Volume, Maximum Lake Length, Mean Lake Width, Maximum Lake Width, and Fetch for each of the ??lakepond?? waterbodies in the NHDPlus V2. The current release of the datasets is version 0.1 and future refinements to the data are expected.

  10. Lake-level variability and water availability in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, Douglas A.; Thompson, Todd A.; Booth, Robert K.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we present recorded and reconstructed (pre-historical) changes in water levels in the Great Lakes, relate them to climate changes of the past, and highlight major water-availability implications for storage, coastal ecosystems, and human activities. 'Water availability,' as conceptualized herein, includes a recognition that water must be available for human and natural uses, but the balancing of how much should be set aside for which use is not discussed. The Great Lakes Basin covers a large area of North America. The lakes capture and store great volumes of water that are critical in maintaining human activities and natural ecosystems. Water enters the lakes mostly in the form of precipitation and streamflow. Although flow through the connecting channels is a primary output from the lakes, evaporation is also a major output. Water levels in the lakes vary naturally on timescales that range from hours to millennia; storage of water in the lakes changes at the seasonal to millennial scales in response to lake-level changes. Short-term changes result from storm surges and seiches and do not affect storage. Seasonal changes are driven by differences in net basin supply during the year related to snowmelt, precipitation, and evaporation. Annual to millennial changes are driven by subtle to major climatic changes affecting both precipitation (and resulting streamflow) and evaporation. Rebounding of the Earth's surface in response to loss of the weight of melted glaciers has differentially affected water levels. Rebound rates have not been uniform across the basin, causing the hydrologic outlet of each lake to rise in elevation more rapidly than some parts of the coastlines. The result is a long-term change in lake level with respect to shoreline features that differs from site to site. The reconstructed water-level history of Lake Michigan-Huron over the past 4,700 years shows three major high phases from 2,300 to 3,300, 1,100 to 2,000, and 0 to 800

  11. Hydrogeomorphic and Anthropogenic Influences on Water Quality, Habitat, and Fish of Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands represent a dynamic interface between coastal watersheds and the open lake. Compared to the adjacent lakes, these wetlands have generally warmer water, reduced wave energy, shallow bathymetry, higher productivity, and structurally complex vegetated h...

  12. Hydrogeomorphic and Anthropogenic Influences on Water Quality, Habitat, and Fish of Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands represent a dynamic interface between coastal watersheds and the open lake. Compared to the adjacent lakes, these wetlands have generally warmer water, reduced wave energy, shallow bathymetry, higher productivity, and structurally complex vegetated h...

  13. The Younger Dryas phase of Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Miller, D.M.; McGeehin, J.P.; Zachary, C.; Mahan, S.

    2005-01-01

    Field investigations at the Public Shooting Grounds (a wildlife-management area on the northeastern shore of Great Salt Lake) and radiocarbon dating show that the Great Salt Lake rose to the Gilbert shoreline sometime between 12.9 and 11.2 cal ka. We interpret a ripple-laminated sand unit exposed at the Public Shooting Grounds, and dated to this time interval, as the nearshore sediments of Great Salt Lake deposited during the formation of the Gilbert shoreline. The ripple-laminated sand is overlain by channel-fill deposits that overlap in age (11.9-11.2 cal ka) with the sand, and by wetland deposits (11.1 to 10.5 cal ka). Consistent accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon ages were obtained from samples of plant fragments, including those of emergent aquatic plants, but mollusk shells from spring and marsh deposits yielded anomalously old ages, probably because of a variable radiocarbon reservoir effect. The Bonneville basin was effectively wet during at least part of the Younger Dryas global-cooling interval, however, conflicting results from some Great Basin locations and proxy records indicate that the regional effects of Younger Dryas cooling are still not well understood. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dynamic Heights in the Great Lakes at Different Epochs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, D. R.

    2016-12-01

    Vertical control in the Great Lakes region is currently defined by the International Great Lakes Datum of 1985 (IGLD 85) in the form of dynamic heights. Starting in 2025, dynamic heights will be defined through GNSS-derived geometric coordinates and a geopotential model. This paper explores the behavior of an existing geopotential model at different epochs when the Great Lakes were at significantly different (meter-level) geopotential surfaces. Water surfaces were examined in 2015 and 2010 at six sites on Lakes Superior and Lake Erie (three on each Lake). These sites have collocated a Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS) and a Water Level Sensor (WLS). The offset between the antenna phase center for the CORS and the WLS datum are known at each site. The WLS then measures the distance from its datum to the Lake surface via an open well. Thus it is possible to determine the height above an ellipsoid datum at these sites as long as both the CORS and WLS are operational. The geometric coordinates are then used to estimate the geopotential value from the xGEOID16B model. This accomplished in two steps. To provide an improved reference model, EGM2008 was spectrally enhanced using observations from the GOCE satellite gravity mission and aerogravity from the Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D) Project. This enhanced model, xGEOID16B_Ref, is still only a five arcminute resolution model (d/o 2160), but resolves dynamic heights at about 2 cm on Lake Superior for December 2015. The reference model was primarily developed to determine a one arcminute geoid height grid, xGEOID16B, available on the NGS website. This geoid height model was used to iteratively develop improved geopotential value for each of the site locations, which then improved comparisons to the cm-level. Comparisons were then made at the 2010 epoch for these same locations to determine if the performance of the geopotential model was consistent.

  15. Large-Scale Atmospheric Variability and the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Young-Il.

    The impact of climate variability on the hydrologic cycle is of importance from the point of view of understanding the underlying dynamics of the system. The regional climate is governed primarily by the topography, vegetal cover, geomorphological characteristics, and the large scale atmospheric circulation. Regional climate is strongly affected by the nature of temporal variations in the atmospheric circulation. There is a large literature concerning potential hydrologic changes coming from various climatic change scenarios. Thus, we need to understand how the climate system influences hydrologic variability. Water-level fluctuations of Great Salt Lake (GSL) are a subject of concern and interest to industries along the shore, governmental officials, and the general public. Utah's rate of population growth is among the highest in the nation. Economic impacts of reduced water supply on industrial growth and agriculture are thus likely to be very significant if projected climate change scenarios occur. The ability to identify a relationship between Great Salt Lake (GSL) and atmospheric circulation patterns is important for understanding the response of lake volume to climatic variability. In particular, the impact of variability for atmospheric circulation is strong in the Western United States, where water resources are limited. The proposed research was motivated by an interest in how variations in climate may influence hydrologic extremes. Climatic variability and predictability is a function of the time and space scales of interest. Persistent droughts and wet periods typically have long time scales and large spatial extent. Closed basin lakes can act as amplifiers of climatic variability, and represent a space-time integration of basin hydrologic processes. The study (1) showed relationships between the time variability of the volume of the Great Salt Lake (GSL) and selected atmospheric circulation indices, (2) developed and applied nonlinear measures of

  16. Growth and potential yield of perch (Perca spp.) in selected areas of Lake Baikal and the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Gorman, Robert; Bronte, Charles R.; Hatcher, Charles O.; Pronin, Nikolai M.; Sokolnikov, Yury

    1998-01-01

    We compared growth, mortality, and potential yield of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Chivirkui Bay in Lake Baikal with that of yellow perch (P. flavescens) from three areas of the Laurentian Great Lakes --Chequamegon Bay in Lake Superior, northeastern Lake Ontario, and southwestern Lake Erie. Graded mesh gill nets were fished in August to sample perch in lakes Baikal (1993), Ontario (1985-93), and Erie (1994). Bottom trawls were fished in July-August to sample perch in Lake Superior (1973-93). Adult yellow perch from the Laurentian Great Lakes were heavier at most lengths than adult Eurasian perch from Lake Baikal. The increase in body weight per unit increase in length was greatest in Lake Erie. Total annual mortality of perch was low in Lake Baikal (0.31), intermediate in lakes Superior (0.41) and Ontario (0.54), and high in Lake Erie (0.66). Annual fishing mortality (u) for perch in Lake Baikal was 60%-70% lower than that for perch in the Great Lakes. At ages 1-3, perch in Lake Erie were longer than those in lakes Baikal, Superior, and Ontario but at ages 4-9 perch in Lake Baikal were longer than those in the other lakes. Although Eurasian perch in Lake Baikal were longer at age 4 and older, growth in length, as measured by the Brody growth coefficient, K, was lower there than in the other lakes and was similar to that in Lake Superior; yellow perch in Lake Erie grew the fastest. Yield-per-recruit was lowest in Lake Erie and highest in Lake Superior. Potential yield was influenced by growth rates and fishing mortality.

  17. Concentrations of trace elements in Great Lakes fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucas, Henry F.; Edgington, David N.; Colby, Peter J.

    1970-01-01

    The concentration of 15 trace elements was determined by activation analysis of samples of whole fish and fish livers from three of the Great Lakes: Michigan, Superior, and Erie. The average concentrations of 7 elements in 19 whole fish from 3 species were as follows: uranium, 3 ppb (parts per billion); thorium, 6 ppb; cobalt, 28 ppb; cadmium, 94 ppb; arsenic, 16 ppb; chromium, 1 ppm; and copper, 1.3 ppm. The average concentrations of 8 elements in 40 liver samples from 10 species of fish were as follows: uranium, ~ 2 ppb; thorium, a?? 2 ppb; cobalt, 40 ppb; copper, 9 ppm; zinc, 30 ppm; bromine, 0.4 ppm; arsenic, 30 ppb; and cadmium, 0.4 ppm. Other elements observed in most of the samples were: antimony, 5-100 ppb; gold, 2-5 ppb; lanthanum, 1-20 ppb; rhenium, 0.5-5 ppb; rubidium, 0.06-4 ppm; and selenium, 0.1-2 ppb. Trace element concentrations varied with species and lake. Uranium and thorium varied with species, but not for the same species from different lakes. The levels of copper, cobalt, zinc, and bromine varied little between species and lakes. The concentration of cadmium, arsenic, and chromium varied between species and with species between lakes.

  18. Organophosphate Esters in Sediment of the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dandan; Guo, Jiehong; Wang, Yawei; Li, Zhuona; Liang, Kang; Corcoran, Margaret B; Hosseini, Soheil; Bonina, Solidea M C; Rockne, Karl J; Sturchio, Neil C; Giesy, John P; Liu, Jingfu; Li, An; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-02-07

    This is the first study on organophosphate ester (OPEs) flame retardants and plasticizers in the sediment of the Great Lakes. Concentrations of 14 OPEs were measured in three sediment cores and 88 Ponar surface grabs collected from Lakes Ontario, Michigan, and Superior of North America. The sum of these OPEs (Σ14OPEs) in Ponar grabs averaged 2.2, 4.7, and 16.6 ng g(-1) dw in Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Ontario, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated statistically significant associations between logarithm concentrations of Σ14OPEs as well as selected congeners in surface grab samples and sediment organic carbon content as well as a newly developed urban distance factor. Temporal trends observed in dated sediment cores from Lake Michigan demonstrated that the recent increase in depositional flux to sediment is dominated by chlorinated OPEs, particularly tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP), which has a doubling time of about 20 years. Downward diffusion within sediment may have caused vertical fractionation of OPEs over time. Two relatively hydrophilic OPEs including TCPP had much higher concentrations in sediment than estimated based on equilibria between water and sediment organic carbon. Approximately a quarter (17 tonnes) of the estimated total OPE burden (63 tonnes) in Lake Michigan resides in sediment, which may act as a secondary source releasing OPEs to the water column for years to come.

  19. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 3. Great Lakes Region

    SciTech Connect

    Paton, D.L.; Bass, A.; Smith, D.G.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The Great Lakes Region atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data, one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the Great Lakes region: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin. At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than in the regional discussion and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations over several time scales in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and of hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  20. Human influences on water quality in Great Lakes coastal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Morrice, John A; Danz, Nicholas P; Regal, Ronald R; Kelly, John R; Niemi, Gerald J; Reavie, Euan D; Hollenhorst, Tom; Axler, Richard P; Trebitz, Anett S; Cotter, Anne M; Peterson, Gregory S

    2008-03-01

    A better understanding of relationships between human activities and water chemistry is needed to identify and manage sources of anthropogenic stress in Great Lakes coastal wetlands. The objective of the study described in this article was to characterize relationships between water chemistry and multiple classes of human activity (agriculture, population and development, point source pollution, and atmospheric deposition). We also evaluated the influence of geomorphology and biogeographic factors on stressor-water quality relationships. We collected water chemistry data from 98 coastal wetlands distributed along the United States shoreline of the Laurentian Great Lakes and GIS-based stressor data from the associated drainage basin to examine stressor-water quality relationships. The sampling captured broad ranges (1.5-2 orders of magnitude) in total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), total suspended solids (TSS), chlorophyll a (Chl a), and chloride; concentrations were strongly correlated with stressor metrics. Hierarchical partitioning and all-subsets regression analyses were used to evaluate the independent influence of different stressor classes on water quality and to identify best predictive models. Results showed that all categories of stress influenced water quality and that the relative influence of different classes of disturbance varied among water quality parameters. Chloride exhibited the strongest relationships with stressors followed in order by TN, Chl a, TP, TSS, and DIN. In general, coarse scale classification of wetlands by morphology (three wetland classes: riverine, protected, open coastal) and biogeography (two ecoprovinces: Eastern Broadleaf Forest [EBF] and Laurentian Mixed Forest [LMF]) did not improve predictive models. This study provides strong evidence of the link between water chemistry and human stress in Great Lakes coastal wetlands and can be used to inform management efforts to improve water

  1. Educators' Guide to Great Lakes Materials: Books, Films, Maps and Pamphlets for Classroom Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Pam

    This annotated bibliography presents Great Lakes information for grades six through nine classroom use. It is meant to facilitate and encourage Great Lakes study, particularly of Lakes Michigan and Superior. Material is presented on history, science, lake management, environmental concerns, and recreational use. Included are both fiction and…

  2. Early observations on an emerging Great Lakes invader Hemimysis anomala in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Maureen G.; Lantry, Brian F.; Boscarino, Brent; Bowen, Kelly; Gerlofsma, Jocelyn; Schaner, Ted; Back, Richard; Questel, Jennifer; Smythe, A. Garry; Cap, Roberta; Goehle, Michael; Young, Bryan; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Hemimysis anomala, a Ponto-Caspian littoral mysid, is an emerging Great Lakes invader that was discovered in Lakes Michigan and Ontario in 2006. Similar to the native mysid Mysis diluviana, Hemimysis exhibits a diel vertical migration pattern but generally inhabits shallower and warmer waters than M. diluviana. Because basic information on the distribution, habitat use, and biology of Hemimysis in the Great Lakes is scarce, the potential for food web disruption by Hemimysis cannot easily be predicted. Preliminary observations indicate widespread invasion of Hemimysis in Lake Ontario. In this study, we confirm the presence of Hemimysis at sites spanning the northern and southern shores of Lake Ontario and the presence of the individuals during winter months. In one horizontal tow in November 2007, over 26,000 individuals were collected with a length range of 4.4 to 9.0. mm and an average caloric density of 611. cal/g wet weight. The most effective methods for sampling Hemimysis were horizontal tows with either a zooplankton net in the water column or a benthic sled near the lake bottom. Although more quantitative data on the life history and distribution of this species is necessary, our preliminary observations support the prediction that the potential for Hemimysis to impact the nearshore food web in Lake Ontario appears high.

  3. Meeting future information needs for Great Lakes fisheries management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, W.J.; Collins, John J.; Eck, Gary W.; Goddard, Chris I.; Hoenig, John M.; Holey, Mark; Jacobson, Lawrence D.; MacCallum, Wayne; Nepszy, Stephen J.; O'Gorman, Robert; Selgeby, James

    1987-01-01

    Description of information needs for management of Great Lakes fisheries is complicated by recent changes in biology and management of the Great Lakes, development of new analytical methodologies, and a transition in management from a traditional unispecies approach to a multispecies/community approach. A number of general problems with the collection and management of data and information for fisheries management need to be addressed (i.e. spatial resolution, reliability, computerization and accessibility of data, design of sampling programs, standardization and coordination among agencies, and the need for periodic review of procedures). Problems with existing data collection programs include size selectivity and temporal trends in the efficiency of fishing gear, inadequate creel survey programs, bias in age estimation, lack of detailed sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) wounding data, and data requirements for analytical techniques that are underutilized by managers of Great Lakes fisheries. The transition to multispecies and community approaches to fisheries management will require policy decisions by the management agencies, adequate funding, and a commitment to develop programs for collection of appropriate data on a long-term basis.

  4. Great Lakes all-weather ice information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schertler, R. J.; Mueller, R. A.; Jirberg, R. J.; Cooper, D. W.; Heighway, J. E.; Holmes, A. D.; Gedney, R. T.; Mark, H.

    1975-01-01

    A system is described which utilizes an X-band Side-Looking-Airborne-Radar (SLAR) for determining type, location, and aerial distribution of the ice cover in the Great Lakes and an airborne, S-band, short pulse radar for obtaining ice thickness. The SLAR system is currently mounted aboard a U.S. Coast Guard C-130B aircraft. Digitized SLAR data are relayed in real-time via the NOAA-GOES-1 satellite in geosynchronous orbit to the U.S. Coast Guard Ice Center in Cleveland, Ohio. SLAR images along with hand-drawn interpretative ice charts for various winter shipping areas in the Great Lakes are broadcast to facsimile recorders aboard Great Lakes vessels. The operational aspects of this ice information system are being demonstrated by NASA, U.S. Coast Guard, and NOAA/National Weather Service. Results from the 1974-75 winter season demonstrated the ability of this system to provide all-weather ice information to shippers in a timely manner.

  5. Coast Guard Assists with Mapping of Great Lakes Ice

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1976-11-21

    A group of Coast Guard seamen leave their ship to verify ice formations on the Great Lakes as part of an joint effort with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The regular winter freezing of large portions of the Great Lakes stalled the shipping industry. Lewis began working on two complementary systems to monitor the ice. The Side Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) system used microwaves to measure the ice distribution and electromagnetic systems used noise modulation to determine the thickness of the ice. The images were then transferred via satellite to the Coast Guard station. The Coast Guard then transmitted the pertinent images by VHF to the ship captains to help them select the best route. The Great Lakes ice mapping devices were first tested on NASA aircraft during the winter of 1972 and 1973. The pulsed radar system was transferred to the Coast Guard’s C-130 aircraft for the 1975 and 1976 winter. The SLAR was installed in the rear cargo door, and the small S-band antenna was mounted to the underside of the aircraft. Coast Guard flights began in January 1975 at an altitude of 11,000 feet. Early in the program, teams of guardsmen and NASA researchers frequently set out in boats to take samples and measurements of the ice in order to verify the radar information.

  6. REDUCING EXPOSURE UNCERTAINTY FOR ASSESSMENT OF DIOXIN TOXICITY RISKS TO LAKE TROUT POPULATIONS IN THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the 20th century, declines of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) populations to virtual extinction in all the Great Lakes except Lake Superior were followed by failure of stocked lake trout to achieve recruitment through natural reproduction. Stresses such as excessive harv...

  7. REDUCING EXPOSURE UNCERTAINTY FOR ASSESSMENT OF DIOXIN TOXICITY RISKS TO LAKE TROUT POPULATIONS IN THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the 20th century, declines of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) populations to virtual extinction in all the Great Lakes except Lake Superior were followed by failure of stocked lake trout to achieve recruitment through natural reproduction. Stresses such as excessive harv...

  8. Ciscoes (Coregonus, subgenus Leucichthys) of the Laurentian Great Lakes and Lake Nipigon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eshenroder, Randy L.; Vecsei, Paul; Gorman, Owen T.; Yule, Daniel; Pratt, Thomas C.; Mandrak, Nicholas E.; Bunnell, David B.; Muir, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    This study of the ciscoes (Coregonus, subgenus Leucichthys) of the Great Lakes and Lake Nipigon represents a furtherance through 2015 of field research initiated by Walter Koelz in 1917 and continued by Stanford Smith in the mid-1900s—a period spanning nearly a century. Like Koelz’s study, this work contains information on taxonomy, geographical distribution, ecology, and status of species (here considered forms). Of the seven currently recognized forms (C. artedi, C. hoyi, C. johannae, C. kiyi, C. nigripinnis, C. reighardi, and C. zenithicus) described by Koelz as major in his 1929 monograph, two (C. johannae and C. reighardi) are extinct. In addition, C. alpenae, described by Koelz but subsequently synonymized with C. zenithicus, although extinct, is recognized as valid making a total of eight major forms. Six of these forms, all but C. artedi and C. hoyi, have been lost from Lake Michigan, and seven have been lost from Lake Huron, leaving in Lake Huron only C. artedi and an introgressed deepwater form that we term a hybrid swarm. C. artedi appears, like its sister form C. alpenae, to have been lost from Lake Erie. Only C. artedi remains extant in Lake Ontario, its three sister forms (C. hoyi, C. kiyi, and C. reighardi) having disappeared long ago.Lakes Superior and Nipigon have retained their original species flocks consisting of four forms each: C. artedi, C. hoyi, and C. zenithicus in both lakes; C. kiyi in Lake Superior; and C. nigripinnis in Lake Nipigon. Morphological deviations from the morphotypes described by Koelz have been modest in contemporary samples. Overall, C. kiyi and C. artedi were the most morphologically stable forms while C. hoyi, C. nigripinnis, and C. zenithicus were the least stable. Although contemporary populations of C. artedi from Lakes Michigan and Huron are highly diverged from the morphotypes described by Koelz, the contemporary samples were of undescribed deep-bodied forms unlikely to have been sampled by Koelz because of

  9. Ciscoes (Coregonus, subgenus Leucichthys) of the Laurentian Great Lakes and Lake Nipigon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eshenroder, Randy L.; Vecsei, Paul; Gorman, Owen T.; Yule, Daniel; Pratt, Thomas C.; Mandrak, Nicholas E.; Bunnell, David; Muir, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    This study of the ciscoes (Coregonus, subgenus Leucichthys) of the Great Lakes and Lake Nipigon represents a furtherance through 2015 of field research initiated by Walter Koelz in 1917 and continued by Stanford Smith in the mid-1900s—a period spanning nearly a century. Like Koelz’s study, this work contains information on taxonomy, geographical distribution, ecology, and status of species (here considered forms). Of the seven currently recognized forms (C. artedi, C. hoyi, C. johannae, C. kiyi, C. nigripinnis, C. reighardi, and C. zenithicus) described by Koelz as major in his 1929 monograph, two (C. johannae and C. reighardi) are extinct. In addition, C. alpenae, described by Koelz but subsequently synonymized with C. zenithicus, although extinct, is recognized as valid making a total of eight major forms. Six of these forms, all but C. artedi and C. hoyi, have been lost from Lake Michigan, and seven have been lost from Lake Huron, leaving in Lake Huron only C. artedi and an introgressed deepwater form that we term a hybrid swarm. C. artedi appears, like its sister form C. alpenae, to have been lost from Lake Erie. Only C. artedi remains extant in Lake Ontario, its three sister forms (C. hoyi, C. kiyi, and C. reighardi) having disappeared long ago. Lakes Superior and Nipigon have retained their original species flocks consisting of four forms each: C. artedi, C. hoyi, and C. zenithicus in both lakes; C. kiyi in Lake Superior; and C. nigripinnis in Lake Nipigon. Morphological deviations from the morphotypes described by Koelz have been modest in contemporary samples. Overall, C. kiyi and C. artedi were the most morphologically stable forms while C. hoyi, C. nigripinnis, and C. zenithicus were the least stable. Although contemporary populations of C. artedi from Lakes Michigan and Huron are highly diverged from the morphotypes described by Koelz, the contemporary samples were of undescribed deep-bodied forms unlikely to have been sampled by Koelz because of

  10. Assessment of the Great Lakes Marine Renewable Energy Resources: Characterizing Lake Erie Surge, Seiche and Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhadzadeh, A.; Hashemi, M. R.

    2016-02-01

    Lake Erie, the fourth largest in surface area, smallest in volume and shallowest among the Great Lakes is approximately 400 km long and 90 km wide. Short term lake level variations are due to storm surge generated by high winds and moving pressure systems over the lake mainly in the southwest-northeast direction, along the lakes longitudinal axis. The historical wave data from three active offshore buoys shows that significant wave height can exceed 5 m in the eastern and central basins. The long-term lake level data show that storm surge can reach up to 3 m in eastern Lake Erie. Owing its shallow depth, Lake Erie frequently experiences seiching motions, the low frequency oscillations that are initiated by storm surge. The seiches whose first mode of oscillations has a period of nearly 14.2 hours can last from several hours to days. In this study, the Lake Erie potential for power generation, primarily using storm surge and seiche and also waves are assessed. Given the cyclic lake level variations due to storm-induced seiching, a concept similar to that of tidal range development is utilized to assess the potential of storm surge and seiche energy harvesting mechanisms for power generation. In addition, wave energy resources of the Lake is characterized -. To achieve these objectives, the following steps are taken : (1) Frequency of occurrence for extreme storm surge and wave events is determined using extreme value analysis such as Peak-Over-Threshold method for the long-term water level and wave data; (2) Spatial and temporal variations of wave height, storm surge and seiche are characterized. The characterization is carried out using the wave and storm surge outputs from numerical simulation of a number of historical extreme events. The coupled ADCIRC and SWAN model is utilized for the modeling; (3) Assessment of the potentials for marine renewable power generation in Lake Erie is made. The approach can be extended to the other lakes in the Great Lakes region.

  11. EPA Awards Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Grants to Reduce Runoff that Contributes to Algal Blooms

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CHICAGO -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced the award of 14 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative grants totaling over $17 million to fund projects that will improve Great Lakes water quality by preventing phosphorus runoff and soil er

  12. EPA Awards Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Grant to Central Michigan University to Monitor Coastal Wetlands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CHICAGO -- The U.S Environmental Protection Agency today announced that Central Michigan University in Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, has received a $10 million Great Lakes Restoration Initiative grant to monitor coastal wetlands around the Great Lakes basin over

  13. Derivation of proposed human health and wildlife bioaccumulation factors for the Great Lakes initiative. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, C.E.

    1993-03-01

    The publication is divided into two sections: Comparison of Proposed Human Health and Bioaccumulation Factors (HHBAFs) for the Great Lakes Initiative (GLI) and Derivation of Proposed Human Health and Wildlife Bioaccumulation Factors for the Great Lakes Initiative.

  14. Contaminant trends in lake trout and walleye from the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeVault, David S.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Rodgers, Paul W.; Feist, Timothy J.

    1996-01-01

    Trends in PCBs, DDT, and other contaminants have been monitored in Great Lakes lake trout and walleye since the 1970s using composite samples of whole fish. Dramatic declines have been observed in concentrations of PCB, ΣDDT, dieldrin, and oxychlordane, with declines initially following first order loss kinetics. Mean PCB concentrations in Lake Michigan lake trout increased from 13 μg/g in 1972 to 23 μg/g in 1974, then declined to 2.6 μg/g by 1986. Between 1986 and 1992 there was little change in concentration, with 3.5 μg/g observed in 1992. ΣDDT in Lake Michigan trout followed a similar trend, decreasing from 19.2 μg/g in 1970 to 1.1 μg/g in 1986, and 1.2 μg/g in 1992. Similar trends were observed for PCBs and ΣDDT in lake trout from Lakes Superior, Huron and Ontario. Concentrations of both PCB and ΣDDT in Lake Erie walleye declined between 1977 and 1982, after which concentrations were relatively constant through 1990. When originally implemented it was assumed that trends in the mean contaminant concentrations in open-lake fish would serve as cost effective surrogates to trends in the water column. While water column data are still extremely limited it appears that for PCBs in lakes Michigan and Superior, trends in lake trout do reasonably mimic those in the water column over the long term. Hypotheses to explain the trends in contaminant concentrations are briefly reviewed. The original first order loss kinetics used to describe the initial decline do not explain the more recent leveling off of contaminant concentrations. Recent theories have examined the possibilities of multiple contaminant pools. We suggest another hypothesis, that changes in the food web may have resulted in increased bioaccumulation. However, a preliminary exploration of this hypothesis using a change point analysis was inconclusive.

  15. Lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region and their influence during BAQS-Met 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, D. M. L.; Brook, J. R.; Levy, I.; Makar, P. A.; Zhang, J.; Taylor, P. A.

    2011-08-01

    Meteorological observations from the BAQS-Met field experiment during the summer months of 2007 were integrated and manually analyzed in order to identify and characterize lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region of North America, and assess their potential impact on air quality. Lake breezes occurred frequently, with one or more lake breezes identified on 90 % of study days. They affected all parts of the study region, including southwestern Ontario and nearby portions of southeast Lower Michigan and northern Ohio, with lake-breeze fronts occasionally penetrating from 100 km to over 200 km inland. Occurrence rates and penetration distances were found to be higher than previously reported in the literature. This comprehensive depiction of observed lake breezes allows an improved understanding of their influence on the transport, dispersion, and production of pollutants in this region. The observational analyses were compared with output from subsequent runs of a high-resolution numerical weather prediction model. The model accurately predicted lake breeze occurrence and type in a variety of synoptic wind regimes, but selected cases showed substantial differences in the detailed timing and location of lake-breeze fronts, and with the initiation of deep moist convection. Knowledge of such strengths and weaknesses aids in the interpretation of results from air quality models driven by this meteorological model.

  16. Physicochemical Characterization of Lake Spray Aerosol Generated from Great Lakes Water Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ault, A. P.; Axson, J. L.; May, N.; Pratt, K.

    2014-12-01

    Wave breaking across bodies of water releases particles into the air which can impact climate and human health. Similar to sea spray aerosols formed through marine wave breaking, freshwater lakes generate lake spray aerosol (LSA). LSA can impact climate directly through scattering/absorption and indirectly through cloud nucleation. In addition, these LSA are suggested to impact human health through inhalation of these particles during algal bloom periods characterized by toxic cyanobacteria. Few studies have been conducted to assess the physical and chemical properties of freshwater LSA. Herein, we discuss constructing a LSA generation system and preliminary physical and chemical characterization of aerosol generated from water samples collected at various sites across Lake Erie, Lake Huron, Lake Superior, and Lake Michigan. Information on aerosol size distributions, number concentrations, and chemical composition will be discussed as a function of lake water blue-green algae concentration, dissolved organic carbon concentration, temperature, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen concentration. These studies represent a first step towards evaluating the potential for LSA to impact climate and health in the Great Lakes region.

  17. Taking Teachers from the River to the Coast: a COSEE Great Lakes and Lake Superior NERR Collaboration

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes Shipboard and Shoreline Science Workshop provides 15 formal and informal educators of G5-10 an opportunity to spend a week aboard the US EPA’s 180’ R/V Lake Guardian working side-by-side with Great Lakes scien...

  18. Taking Teachers from the River to the Coast: a COSEE Great Lakes and Lake Superior NERR Collaboration

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes Shipboard and Shoreline Science Workshop provides 15 formal and informal educators of G5-10 an opportunity to spend a week aboard the US EPA’s 180’ R/V Lake Guardian working side-by-side with Great Lakes scien...

  19. 46 CFR 42.03-15 - The Great Lakes of North America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The Great Lakes of North America. 42.03-15 Section 42.03... VOYAGES BY SEA Application § 42.03-15 The Great Lakes of North America. (a) The term “Great Lakes of North... application to voyages on the Great Lakes or portions thereof unless specifically provided otherwise in part...

  20. 46 CFR 42.03-15 - The Great Lakes of North America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Great Lakes of North America. 42.03-15 Section 42.03... VOYAGES BY SEA Application § 42.03-15 The Great Lakes of North America. (a) The term “Great Lakes of North... application to voyages on the Great Lakes or portions thereof unless specifically provided otherwise in part...

  1. 46 CFR 42.03-15 - The Great Lakes of North America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The Great Lakes of North America. 42.03-15 Section 42.03... VOYAGES BY SEA Application § 42.03-15 The Great Lakes of North America. (a) The term “Great Lakes of North... application to voyages on the Great Lakes or portions thereof unless specifically provided otherwise in Part...

  2. 46 CFR 42.03-15 - The Great Lakes of North America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The Great Lakes of North America. 42.03-15 Section 42.03... VOYAGES BY SEA Application § 42.03-15 The Great Lakes of North America. (a) The term “Great Lakes of North... application to voyages on the Great Lakes or portions thereof unless specifically provided otherwise in Part...

  3. Microbial mat mineralization in Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PACE, Aurélie; Bouton, Anthony; Bourillot, Raphaël; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Visscher, Pieter; Dupraz, Christophe; Thomazo, Christophe; Serge, Galaup; Sophie, Leleu; Anna, Kwasniewski; Léa, Pigot; Michel, Franceschi

    2015-04-01

    Great Salt Lake is located in the Basin and Range province of Utah (USA). Its average surface is 4480 Km2 and its maximum depth is of about 15m. It is a partly rainfed endorheic hypersaline lake (average salinity: 140g/L). Due to the high salinity, little or no grazing organisms are present, favoring the development of microbialites that cover the margin of the lake. This work aims to understand the products and processes of mineralization in recent and modern microbialites on the western margin of Antelope Island. The distribution of microbialites and their morphology has been studied along lakeshore to center transects, showing a contrasting spatial distribution in bay versus headland. Fossil microbialites show a great diversity of macro- and microfabrics, some microbialites being essentially built by microbial-mediated carbonate precipitation, while other show the predominance of trapping and binding processes. The nature and composition of the microbial carbonates have been determined through polarizing, cathodoluminescence, reflected fluorescence microscopy, X-Ray diffractometry and isotope geochemistry (δ 18O and δ13C) in order to investigate the preservation of environmental signals in microbialites. Petrophysics analysis such as permeability and porosimetry, have been done to observe the structure of the microbialite. Microprobe and silver foils method have been used respectively to characterize oxygen production and sulfate reduction in living microbial mats. Mineralization zones seem to coincide with sulfate reduction hotspots. This mineralization results in mixed clotted-laminated fabric at the macro- and microscale. Several analysis such as Cryo-SEM, environmental SEM and raman spectroscopy three phases of mineralization allowed us to distinguish three type of minerals inside the mat: (1) a Mg and Si-rich clay developing on the organic matrix; (2) an intracellular Al-rich clay. (3) aragonite clots replacing the organic matrixes and embedding bacteria

  4. Thematic Mapper laser profile resolution of Holocene Lake limit, Great Salt Lake Desert, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merola, John A.; Currey, Donald R.; Ridd, Merrill K.

    1989-01-01

    The limit of Great Salt Lake's maximum expansion onto the floor of the Great Salt Lake Desert during Holocene time is marked by a break in slope which is clearly depicted in terrain models which merge Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral scanner data and Aerial Profiling of Terrain System (APTS) laser profile data. Mean elevations of APTS-coincident TM pixels are strongly correlated with reflectance in TM Bands 5 and 7 when and where sufficient moisture contrasts among terrain components are high. TM-APTS models and field surveys place the highest Holocene standing water at an elavation of 4221 ft (1286.7 m).

  5. Ion deposition in Wasatch Mountain snow: Influence of Great Salt Lake and Salt Lake City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arens, Seth J. T.

    The Wasatch Mountains are a unique place to study deposition of ions in snow because of proximity to Salt Lake City, UT, home to 1.1 million people, and Great Salt Lake, the world' fourth largest closed-basin saline lake. Prior study at low elevations of the Wasatch Mountains and in Salt Lake City indicates very high deposition (>1 mmol L-1) of chloride nitrate, sulfate, sodium and calcium ions in snow and rime during winter temperature inversions. At peak snowpack, concentrations (mueq L-1) and ecosystem loading (meq m-2) of major ion species (Cl-, NO3 -, SO42-, H+, NH4 +, Na+, Mg2+, K+, and Ca2+) were measured at five sites in 2008 and 16 sites in 2009 in the Wasatch Mountains. Concentrations and loading of these ion species in snow were up to an order of magnitude higher than previously observed and were likely derived from salts that precipitated from Great Salt Lake as its elevation decreased. Great Salt Lake has very high salinity dominated by concentrations of chloride, sulfate, sodium and magnesium. Moderately strong correlations existed between concentrations of these ions in snow and distance from Great Salt Lake, suggesting it as a major source of ion deposition in the Wasatch Mountains. Concentrations and ecosystem loading of nitrate in snow were lower than expected, but total winter inorganic nitrogen deposition (NO3- and NH4+) was similar to observations at Niwot Ridge in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. In general, concentrations of ions in snow decreased with elevation while ecosystem loading of ions increased with elevation due to greater snow accumulation.

  6. Progress in understanding the importance of coastal wetland nursery habitat to Great Lakes fisheries support

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands provide important habitat for Great Lakes fishes of all life stages. A literature review of ichthyoplankton surveys conducted in Great Lakes coastal wetlands found at least 82 species reported to be captured during the larval stage. Twenty of those sp...

  7. 46 CFR 195.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 195.07-5 Section 195.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service shall...

  8. 46 CFR 77.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 77.07-5... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers § 77.07-5 Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service shall be fitted with...

  9. 46 CFR 96.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 96.07-5 Section 96.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service...

  10. 46 CFR 96.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 96.07-5 Section 96.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service...

  11. 46 CFR 77.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 77.07-5... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers § 77.07-5 Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service shall be fitted with...

  12. 46 CFR 96.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 96.07-5 Section 96.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service...

  13. 46 CFR 195.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 195.07-5 Section 195.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service shall...

  14. 46 CFR 77.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 77.07-5... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers § 77.07-5 Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service shall be fitted with...

  15. 46 CFR 195.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 195.07-5 Section 195.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service shall...

  16. 46 CFR 96.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 96.07-5 Section 96.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service...

  17. 46 CFR 77.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 77.07-5... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers § 77.07-5 Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service shall be fitted with...

  18. 46 CFR 96.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 96.07-5 Section 96.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service...

  19. 46 CFR 195.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 195.07-5 Section 195.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service shall...

  20. 46 CFR 77.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 77.07-5... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers § 77.07-5 Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service shall be fitted with...

  1. 46 CFR 195.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 195.07-5 Section 195.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service shall...

  2. 46 CFR 180.206 - Survival craft-vessels operating on Great Lakes routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on Great Lakes routes... Craft § 180.206 Survival craft—vessels operating on Great Lakes routes. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, each vessel certificated to operate on a Great Lakes route must be provided...

  3. 78 FR 32645 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Great Lakes Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... AGENCY Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Great Lakes Advisory Board AGENCY: Environmental... public teleconference of the Great Lakes Advisory Board (GLAB). The purpose of the teleconference is to continue discussions that will inform the development of a draft Great Lakes Restoration Initiative FY 2015...

  4. 46 CFR 180.206 - Survival craft-vessels operating on Great Lakes routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on Great Lakes routes... Craft § 180.206 Survival craft—vessels operating on Great Lakes routes. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, each vessel certificated to operate on a Great Lakes route must be provided...

  5. 46 CFR 11.430 - Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. 11... Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. Any license or MMC endorsement issued for service on the Great Lakes and inland waters is valid on all of the inland waters of the United States as defined in...

  6. 46 CFR 11.430 - Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. 11... Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. Any license or MMC endorsement issued for service on the Great Lakes and inland waters is valid on all of the inland waters of the United States as defined in...

  7. 46 CFR 117.206 - Survival craft-vessels operating on Great Lakes routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on Great Lakes routes...—vessels operating on Great Lakes routes. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, each vessel certificated to operate on a Great Lakes route must be provided with the survival craft required...

  8. 46 CFR 11.430 - Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. 11... Endorsements § 11.430 Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. (a) Any officer endorsement issued for service on Great Lakes and inland waters self-propelled vessels, excluding towing vessels, is...

  9. 78 FR 70941 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Great Lakes Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... AGENCY Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Great Lakes Advisory Board AGENCY: Environmental... public teleconference of the Great Lakes Advisory Board (GLAB). The purpose of the teleconference is to conclude discussions that will inform the development of a draft Great Lakes Restoration Initiative FY 2015...

  10. 46 CFR 11.430 - Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. 11... Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. Any license or MMC endorsement issued for service on the Great Lakes and inland waters is valid on all of the inland waters of the United States as defined in...

  11. 46 CFR 46.10-40 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load line (Great Lakes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nonsubmergence subdivision load line (Great Lakes). 46.10-40 Section 46.10-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... (Great Lakes). (a) Passenger vessels on the Great Lakes of 150 gross tons or over shall not submerge the...

  12. 46 CFR 180.206 - Survival craft-vessels operating on Great Lakes routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on Great Lakes routes... Craft § 180.206 Survival craft—vessels operating on Great Lakes routes. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, each vessel certificated to operate on a Great Lakes route must be provided...

  13. 46 CFR 117.206 - Survival craft-vessels operating on Great Lakes routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on Great Lakes routes...—vessels operating on Great Lakes routes. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, each vessel certificated to operate on a Great Lakes route must be provided with the survival craft required...

  14. 46 CFR 11.430 - Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. 11... Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. Any license or MMC endorsement issued for service on the Great Lakes and inland waters is valid on all of the inland waters of the United States as defined in...

  15. 46 CFR 46.10-40 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load line (Great Lakes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nonsubmergence subdivision load line (Great Lakes). 46.10-40 Section 46.10-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... (Great Lakes). (a) Passenger vessels on the Great Lakes of 150 gross tons or over shall not submerge the...

  16. 46 CFR 117.206 - Survival craft-vessels operating on Great Lakes routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on Great Lakes routes...—vessels operating on Great Lakes routes. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, each vessel certificated to operate on a Great Lakes route must be provided with the survival craft required...

  17. 46 CFR 46.10-40 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load line (Great Lakes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nonsubmergence subdivision load line (Great Lakes). 46.10-40 Section 46.10-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... (Great Lakes). (a) Passenger vessels on the Great Lakes of 150 gross tons or over shall not submerge the...

  18. 46 CFR 46.10-40 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load line (Great Lakes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonsubmergence subdivision load line (Great Lakes). 46.10-40 Section 46.10-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... (Great Lakes). (a) Passenger vessels on the Great Lakes of 150 gross tons or over shall not submerge the...

  19. 46 CFR 46.10-40 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load line (Great Lakes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nonsubmergence subdivision load line (Great Lakes). 46.10-40 Section 46.10-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... (Great Lakes). (a) Passenger vessels on the Great Lakes of 150 gross tons or over shall not submerge the...

  20. 46 CFR 180.206 - Survival craft-vessels operating on Great Lakes routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on Great Lakes routes... Craft § 180.206 Survival craft—vessels operating on Great Lakes routes. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, each vessel certificated to operate on a Great Lakes route must be provided...

  1. 46 CFR 180.206 - Survival craft-vessels operating on Great Lakes routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on Great Lakes routes... Craft § 180.206 Survival craft—vessels operating on Great Lakes routes. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, each vessel certificated to operate on a Great Lakes route must be provided...

  2. Progress in understanding the importance of coastal wetland nursery habitat to Great Lakes fisheries support

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands provide important habitat for Great Lakes fishes of all life stages. A literature review of ichthyoplankton surveys conducted in Great Lakes coastal wetlands found at least 82 species reported to be captured during the larval stage. Twenty of those sp...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM Pt. 132, App. B Appendix B to Part 132—Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Methodology for Deriving Bioaccumulation Factors Great Lakes States and Tribes... system. For log KOW, the log of the octanol-water partition coefficient is a base 10 logarithm. Uptake...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM Pt. 132, App. B Appendix B to Part 132—Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Methodology for Deriving Bioaccumulation Factors Great Lakes States and Tribes... system. For log KOW, the log of the octanol-water partition coefficient is a base 10 logarithm. Uptake...

  5. Selenium mass balance in the Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz, X.; Johnson, W.P.; Naftz, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    A mass balance for Se in the south arm of the Great Salt Lake was developed for September 2006 to August 2007 of monitoring for Se loads and removal flows. The combined removal flows (sedimentation and volatilization) totaled to a geometric mean value of 2079??kg Se/yr, with the estimated low value being 1255??kg Se/yr, and an estimated high value of 3143??kg Se/yr at the 68% confidence level. The total (particulates + dissolved) loads (via runoff) were about 1560??kg Se/yr, for which the error is expected to be ?? 15% for the measured loads. Comparison of volatilization to sedimentation flux demonstrates that volatilization rather than sedimentation is likely the major mechanism of selenium removal from the Great Salt Lake. The measured loss flows balance (within the range of uncertainties), and possibly surpass, the measured annual loads. Concentration histories were modeled using a simple mass balance, which indicated that no significant change in Se concentration was expected during the period of study. Surprisingly, the measured total Se concentration increased during the period of the study, indicating that the removal processes operate at their low estimated rates, and/or there are unmeasured selenium loads entering the lake. The selenium concentration trajectories were compared to those of other trace metals to assess the significance of selenium concentration trends. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Selenium mass balance in the Great Salt Lake, Utah.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Ximena; Johnson, William P; Naftz, David L

    2009-03-15

    A mass balance for Se in the south arm of the Great Salt Lake was developed for September 2006 to August 2007 of monitoring for Se loads and removal flows. The combined removal flows (sedimentation and volatilization) totaled to a geometric mean value of 2079 kg Se/yr, with the estimated low value being 1255 kg Se/yr, and an estimated high value of 3143 kg Se/yr at the 68% confidence level. The total (particulates+dissolved) loads (via runoff) were about 1560 kg Se/yr, for which the error is expected to be +/-15% for the measured loads. Comparison of volatilization to sedimentation flux demonstrates that volatilization rather than sedimentation is likely the major mechanism of selenium removal from the Great Salt Lake. The measured loss flows balance (within the range of uncertainties), and possibly surpass, the measured annual loads. Concentration histories were modeled using a simple mass balance, which indicated that no significant change in Se concentration was expected during the period of study. Surprisingly, the measured total Se concentration increased during the period of the study, indicating that the removal processes operate at their low estimated rates, and/or there are unmeasured selenium loads entering the lake. The selenium concentration trajectories were compared to those of other trace metals to assess the significance of selenium concentration trends.

  7. The Effect of Lake Temperatures and Emissions on Ozone Exposure in the Western Great Lakes Region

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Jerome D. ); Heilman, Warren E.

    2003-09-01

    A meteorological-chemical model with a 12-km horizontal grid spacing was used to simulate the evolution of ozone over the western Great Lakes region during a 30-day period in the summer of 1999. High ozone production rates were produced over the surface of the lakes as a result of stable atmospheric conditions that trapped ozone precursors within a shallow layer during the day. Simulations with lake temperatures derived from either satellite measurements or climatological values produced ozone mixing ratios over the lakes and around the lake shores that differed by as much as 50 ppb while differences over land were usually 10 ppb or less. Through another series of sensitivity studies that varied ozone precursor emissions, it was shown that a reduction of 50% NOx or VOC would lower the 60 ppb ozone exposure by up to 50 h per month in the remote forest regions over the northern Great Lakes. The implications of these results on future climate change and air quality in the region is discussed.

  8. A Great Lakes atmospheric mercury monitoring network: evaluation and design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risch, Martin R.; Kenski, Donna M.; ,; David, A.

    2014-01-01

    As many as 51 mercury (Hg) wet-deposition-monitoring sites from 4 networks were operated in 8 USA states and Ontario, Canada in the North American Great Lakes Region from 1996 to 2010. By 2013, 20 of those sites were no longer in operation and approximately half the geographic area of the Region was represented by a single Hg-monitoring site. In response, a Great Lakes Atmospheric Mercury Monitoring (GLAMM) network is needed as a framework for regional collaboration in Hg-deposition monitoring. The purpose of the GLAMM network is to detect changes in regional atmospheric Hg deposition related to changes in Hg emissions. An optimized design for the network was determined to be a minimum of 21 sites in a representative and approximately uniform geographic distribution. A majority of the active and historic Hg-monitoring sites in the Great Lakes Region are part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) in North America and the GLAMM network is planned to be part of the MDN. To determine an optimized network design, active and historic Hg-monitoring sites in the Great Lakes Region were evaluated with a rating system of 21 factors that included characteristics of the monitoring locations and interpretations of Hg data. Monitoring sites were rated according to the number of Hg emissions sources and annual Hg emissions in a geographic polygon centered on each site. Hg-monitoring data from the sites were analyzed for long-term averages in weekly Hg concentrations in precipitation and weekly Hg-wet deposition, and on significant temporal trends in Hg concentrations and Hg deposition. A cluster analysis method was used to group sites with similar variability in their Hg data in order to identify sites that were unique for explaining Hg data variability in the Region. The network design included locations in protected natural areas, urban areas, Great Lakes watersheds, and in proximity to areas with a high density of annual Hg

  9. Embryotoxicity of Great Lakes lake trout extracts to developing rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Peggy J.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    1999-01-01

    Planar halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs), such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls are present in aquatic systems, and are known to produce adverse effects in fish. This study investigated the embryotoxicity of PHH mixtures through the nanoinjection of environmental extracts into newly fertilized eggs from two strains of rainbow trout. Organic extracts were obtained from whole adult lake trout collected from Lake Michigan in 1988 and Lake Superior in 1994. The graded doses of the final extracts used for injection were quantified as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic-equivalents (TEQs) based on the concentrations of dioxins, furans and non-o-PCBs in each, and as equivalent amounts found in the eggs of the original lake trout (eggEQ). Total TEQs in the lake trout were 14.7 pg TEQ/g in the Lake Michigan sample and 7.3 pg TEQ/g in the Lake Superior sample. The extract of the Lake Michigan lake trout was embryotoxic to rainbow trout; LD50 values were 35 eggEQ (15–90, 95% F.L.) in the Arlee strain and 14 eggEQ (5–99, 95% F.L.) in the Erwin strain of rainbow trout. The LD50 values of the Lake Michigan extract in either of these strains of rainbow trout fall within the actual range of TCDD LD50values based on TEQs. This indicates that an additive model of toxicity is appropriate to quantify PHHs in relation to early life stage mortality in fish. Gross lesions characteristic of exposure to PHHs (i.e. yolk-sac edema, craniofacial deformities, and hemorrhaging) increased in a dose-related manner. The lowest observable adverse effect concentrations (LOAEC) for these gross lesions and cumulative mortalities suggests that current concentrations of PHHs in lake trout from Lake Michigan are above a threshold for adverse effects and these compounds may have implications on the lack of recruitment in certain Great Lakes lake trout populations.

  10. Environmental contaminants and the reproductive success of lake trout in the Great Lakes: An epidemiological approach

    SciTech Connect

    Mac, M.J.; Edsall, C.C. )

    1991-08-01

    Epidemiological criteria were used to examine the influence of environmental contamination on reproductive success of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Most of the information was obtained from lake trout eggs collected in southeastern Lake Michigan and reared in the laboratory. Two separate end points that measure reproductive success--egg hatchability and fry survival--were used in the evaluation. Strong evidence for maternally derived polychlorinated biphenyls causing reduced egg hatchability were observed for the time order, strength of association, and coherence criteria. Equally strong evidence for organic environmental contaminants, also of maternal origin, causing a swim-up fry mortality syndrome were presented for the strength of association, specificity, replication, and coherence criteria. The epidemiological approach for demonstrating cause-and-effect relations was useful because of the difficulty in demonstrating definite proof of causality between specific environmental contaminants and reproductive dysfunction in feral fish.

  11. Environmental contaminants and the reproductive success of lake trout in the Great Lakes: an epidemiological approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.; Edsall, Carol C.

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiological criteria were used to examine the influence of environmental contamination on reproductive success of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Most of the information was obtained from lake trout eggs collected in southeastern Lake Michigan and reared in the laboratory. Two separate end points that measure reproductive success - egg hatchability and fry survival - were used in the evaluation. Strong evidence for maternally derived polychlorinated biphenyls causing reduced egg hatchability were observed for the time order, strength of association, and coherence criteria. Equally strong evidence for organic environmental contaminants, also of maternal origin, causing a swim-up fry mortality syndrome were presented for the strength of association, specificity, replication, and coherence criteria. The epidemiological approach for demonstrating cause-and-effect relations was useful because of the difficulty in demonstrating definite proof of causality between specific environmental contaminants and reproductive dysfunction in feral fish.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the Great Lakes: 1990`s concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Bloem, T.B.; Stanko, T.A.; Blankenbaker, R.K.; Higgins, J.H.; De Vault, D.S.; Anderson, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the water column of the Laurentian Great Lakes have declined over the last decade. The measurement of current concentrations of these hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCS) requires the sampling of large sample volumes, typically 100--400 liters. This paper will present results from the water column HOC trend program, begun by GLNPO in 1991. Water samples were filtered with a 0.7{mu}M glass fiber filter, and the filtrate was collected and extracted using the Goulden Large Sample Extractor (GLSE). PCBs were extracted from the filters with Soxhlet extraction, and the resulting operationally-defined particulate and dissolved phases were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Results indicate concentrations in the 100s of picograms/liter for total PCBs. Spatial differences within and between Lakes, and temporal differences will be presented.

  13. The Life of the Lakes: The Great Lakes Fishery. [Multimedia Package].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Sea Grant Extension, East Lansing.

    This multimedia package includes a 55-minute videocassettes, a guide, and six posters and was designed to provide teaching outlines/plans for a two-week thematic unit on Great Lakes fisheries for middle school or high school youth. The guide can be used in both formal school settings and nonformal school settings such as youth organizations and…

  14. Hydrologic Factors Determining Linkages of Great Lake Coastal Wetlands to Watershed and Lake

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water can enter Great Lakes coastal wetlands (CWs) from both watershed and offshore sources. Identifying the relative contribution of these potential sources, and the spatial scale at which sources are influenced by human activities, are critical steps in wetland protection. We d...

  15. Hydrologic Factors Determining Linkages of Great Lake Coastal Wetlands to Watershed and Lake

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water can enter Great Lakes coastal wetlands (CWs) from both watershed and offshore sources. Identifying the relative contribution of these potential sources, and the spatial scale at which sources are influenced by human activities, are critical steps in wetland protection. We d...

  16. The Life of the Lakes: The Great Lakes Fishery. [Multimedia Package].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Sea Grant Extension, East Lansing.

    This multimedia package includes a 55-minute videocassettes, a guide, and six posters and was designed to provide teaching outlines/plans for a two-week thematic unit on Great Lakes fisheries for middle school or high school youth. The guide can be used in both formal school settings and nonformal school settings such as youth organizations and…

  17. The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement with an emphasis on annex 4 nutrients -and Lake Erie

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presented will be an overview of the Great Lakes Water Quality Act of 2012 including a general description of the Annexes and the new Binational Governance. The talk will focus on the Annex 4 Nutrients Subcommittee and the Objectives and Targets Task Team efforts that have been ...

  18. The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement with an emphasis on annex 4 nutrients -and Lake Erie

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presented will be an overview of the Great Lakes Water Quality Act of 2012 including a general description of the Annexes and the new Binational Governance. The talk will focus on the Annex 4 Nutrients Subcommittee and the Objectives and Targets Task Team efforts that have been ...

  19. Mercury temporal trends in top predator fish of the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Zananski, Tiffany J; Holsen, Thomas M; Hopke, Philip K; Crimmins, Bernard S

    2011-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination is widespread in the Laurentian Great Lakes region and is a serious environmental concern. In anaerobic environments such as lake sediments, mercury is transformed into methylmercury (MeHg) and can biomagnify up the food chain to toxic concentrations. The Great Lakes Fish Monitoring Program (GLFMP), administered by the US EPA Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO), aims to monitor temporal trends of mercury in the five Great Lakes using top predator fish as biomonitors. Total Hg (THg) concentrations were measured in Great Lake fish collected between 1999 and 2009. Single factor ANOVA determined that average fish THg concentrations over this time period in the five lakes were significantly different from one another in the order of Superior > Huron > Michigan > Ontario > Erie. By fitting the data to three different models (linear, quadratic, and two-segment piecewise), it was determined that Hg concentrations in top predator fish (lake trout, or walleye in Lake Erie) are currently increasing in Lake Erie and the Apostle Island sampling site in Lake Superior. Significant decreasing trends are evident in Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and the Rockport sampling site in Lake Huron, although all of the lakes exhibit elevated concentrations in fish compared to historic concentrations. As new Hg emission controls are implemented in the US, continued monitoring of Hg in Great Lakes fish will be needed to determine if they influence the current concentrations and trends.

  20. Factors affecting the evolution of coastal wetlands of the Laurential Great Lakes: an overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayer, T.; Edsall, T.; Munawar, M.

    2004-01-01

    Coastal wetlands play a pivotal role in the Great Lakes ecosystem. As buffer zones between the land and open waters of the Great Lakes, they perform a variety of essential functions providing both direct and indirect anthropogenic benefits. Geology, morphology and climate are the dominant variables that influence Laurentian Great Lakes wetland development. However, anthropogenic factors are the major contributors to alteration of natural wetland processes. This paper provides an overview of natural and anthropogenic factors important in Great Lakes coastal wetland development and provides statistical information describing the Great Lakes Basin. A brief description of wetlands classification and research issues is also presented.

  1. Coastal wetlands: Proceedings of First Great Lakes Wetlands Colloquium, November 1984, East Lansing, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, H.H.; D'Itri, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book explores the wetlands of the Great Lakes. Topics considered include the effects of water level fluctuations on Great Lakes coastal marshes; environmental influences on the distribution and composition of wetlands in the Great Lakes Basin; vegetation dynamics, buried seeds, and water level fluctuations on the shoreline of the Great Lakes; preliminary observations on the flux of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous in a Great Lakes coastal marsh; nutrient cycling by wetlands and possible effects of water levels; and avian wetland habitat functions affected by water level fluctuations.

  2. Air pollution and environmental justice in the Great Lakes region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comer, Bryan

    While it is true that air quality has steadily improved in the Great Lakes region, air pollution remains at unhealthy concentrations in many areas. Research suggests that vulnerable and susceptible groups in society -- e.g., minorities, the poor, children, and poorly educated -- are often disproportionately impacted by exposure to environmental hazards, including air pollution. This dissertation explores the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution (interpolated concentrations of fine particulate matter, PM2.5) and sociodemographic factors (race, housing value, housing status, education, age, and population density) at the Census block-group level in the Great Lakes region of the United States. A relatively novel approach to quantitative environmental justice analysis, geographically weighted regression (GWR), is compared with a simplified approach: ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. While OLS creates one global model to describe the relationship between air pollution exposure and sociodemographic factors, GWR creates many local models (one at each Census block group) that account for local variations in this relationship by allowing the value of regression coefficients to vary over space, overcoming OLS's assumption of homogeneity and spatial independence. Results suggest that GWR can elucidate patterns of potential environmental injustices that OLS models may miss. In fact, GWR results show that the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution and sociodemographic characteristics is non-stationary and can vary geographically and temporally throughout the Great Lakes region. This suggests that regulators may need to address environmental justice issues at the neighborhood level, while understanding that the severity of environmental injustices can change throughout the year.

  3. Fish Consumption and Advisory Awareness in the Great Lakes Basin

    PubMed Central

    Imm, Pamela; Knobeloch, Lynda; Anderson, Henry A.; Consortium, the Great Lakes Sport Fish

    2005-01-01

    More than 61 million adults live in the eight U.S. states bordering the Great Lakes. Between June 2001 and June 2002, a population-based, random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults residing in Great Lakes (GL) states was conducted to assess consumption of commercial and sport-caught fish and awareness of state-issued consumption advisories for GL fish. On the basis of the weighted survey data, approximately 84% of the adults living in these states included fish in their diets. Seven percent (an estimated 4.2 million adults) consumed fish caught from the Great Lakes. The percentage of residents who had consumed sport-caught fish (from any water source) varied regionally and was highest among those who lived in Minnesota (44%) and Wisconsin (39%). Consumption of GL sport fish was highest among residents of Michigan (16%) and Ohio (12%). Among residents who had eaten GL fish, awareness of consumption advisories varied by gender and race and was lowest among women (30%) and black residents (15%). However, 70% of those who consumed GL sport-caught fish twice a month or more (an estimated 509,000 adults across all eight states) were aware of the advisories. Findings from this survey indicate that exposure to persistent contaminants found in GL fish is likely limited to a relatively small subpopulation of avid sport-fish consumers. Results also underscore the public health importance of advisories for commercial fish because an estimated 2.9 million adults living in these states consume more than 104 fish meals per year and may be at risk of exceeding the reference doses for methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, and other bioaccumulative contaminants. PMID:16203241

  4. Microwave properties of ice from The Great Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    The increasing use of radar systems as remote sensors of ice thickness has revealed a lack of basic data on the microwave properties of fresh-water ice. A program, in which the complex dielectric constant was measured for a series of ice samples taken from the Great Lakes, is described. The measurements were taken at temperatures of -5, -10, and -15 C. It is noted that the ice has considerable internal layered structure, and the effects of the layering are examined. Values of 3.0 to 3.2 are reported for the real part of the dielectric constant, with an error bar of + or - 0.01.

  5. Thiamine status in adult salmonines in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, S.B.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Hnath, J.G.; Wolgamood, M.; Marcquenski, S.V.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    In 1996 and again in 1999, hatchery personnel noted that some Lake Michigan coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch from fall spawning runs on the Platte River weir exhibited abnormal wiggling behavior that was similar to the behavior exhibited by thiamine-deficient Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, from the Baltic Sea. Samples of eggs or gonads, muscle, and liver from salmon and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush exhibiting abnormal behaviors were collected to determine the extent to which the behaviors were related to a thiamine deficiency. We compared these values with those found in normally behaving fish that produced offspring with high embryonic survival. In all adult fish exhibiting abnormal behavior, tissue residues of thiamine were among the lowest observed in the Great Lakes. Where embryonic survival was assessed, abnormal adult behavior was also associated with very high levels of offspring mortality due to early mortality syndrome. While the overall ecological significance remains to be determined, it appears that adult fish also exhibit neurological dysfunction and mortality associated with thiamine deficiency.

  6. Great Salt Lake Microbial Communities: The Foundation of a Terminal Lake Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, B. K.; Acord, M.; Riddle, M. R.; Avery, B.

    2006-12-01

    Great Salt Lake (GSL) is a natural hypersaline ecosystem and a terminal lake of substantial size. The dramatic fluctuation in water levels and salinity creates an ecological backdrop selective for organisms with a high degree of adaptability. At the macro level, the biodiversity of the GSL ecosystem is simple, due to the limitations of an extreme saline environment: Birds eat the two invertebrates of the lake, and the invertebrates eat phytoplankton. However, analysis of the microbial level reveals an enormous diversity of species interacting with one another and the ecosystem as a whole. Our cultivation, biochemical tests, microscopy and DNA sequencing yielded data on dozens of isolates. These data demonstrate novel species, and possibly genera, living in the lake. In addition, we have discovered viruses (bacteriophage) that prey on the microorganisms. Preliminary data on bacteria dwelling in the gut of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, link these prokaryotic organisms to the food chain for the first time. All of these results taken together open the door for the discussion of the significance of the microbial level of terminal lake ecosystem, particularly in light of lake water contamination and bioremediation possibilities.

  7. Lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region and their influence during BAQS-Met 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, D. M. L.; Brook, J. R.; Levy, I.; Makar, P. A.; Zhang, J.; Taylor, P. A.

    2011-02-01

    Mesoscale observations from the BAQS-Met field experiment during the summer of 2007 were integrated and manually analyzed in order to identify and characterize lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region of North America, and assess their potential impact on air quality. Lake breezes were found to occur on 90% of study days, often occurring in conditions previously thought to impede their development. They affected all parts of the study region, including southwestern Ontario and nearby portions of southeast Michigan and northern Ohio, occasionally penetrating inland from 100 km to over 200 km. Occurrence rates and penetration distances were found to be higher than previously reported in the literature. This more accurate depiction of observed lake breezes allows a better understanding of their influence on the production and transport of pollutants in this region. The observational analyses were compared with output from subsequent runs of a high-resolution numerical weather prediction model. The model accurately predicted lake breeze occurrence in a variety of synoptic wind regimes, but selected cases showed substantial differences in the detailed timing and location of lake-breeze fronts, and with the initiation of deep moist convection. Knowledge of such strengths and weaknesses will assist with interpretation of results from air quality modelling driven by this meteorological model.

  8. Lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes: stock-size criteria for natural reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.; Bronte, Charles R.; Brown, Edward H.; Hansen, Michael J.; Holey, Mark E.; VanAmberg, Jan P.; Muth, Kenneth M.; Makauskas, Daniel B.; Mckee, Patrick; Anderson, David M.; Ferreri, C. Paola; Schram, Stephen T.

    1995-01-01

    We examined the question of whether the lake trout restoration program in the Great Lakes has developed brood stocks of adequate size to sustain natural reproduction. Stock size criteria were developed from areas of the Great Lakes where natural reproduction has been successful (defined as detection of age-1 or older recruits by assessment fishing). We contrasted them with stocks in areas with no natural reproduction. Based on the relative abundance of spawners measured in the fall and the presence or absence of natural reproduction in 24 areas of the Great Lakes, we found three distinct sets of lake trout populations. In seven areas of successful natural reproduction, the catch-per-unit-effort (CPE) of spawners ranged from 17 to 135 fish/305 m of gillnet. Stock sizes in these areas were used as a gauge against which stocks in other areas were contrasted. We conclude that stock densities of 17-135 fish/305 m of gill net are adequate for natural reproduction, provided that all other requirements are met. No natural reproduction has been detected in seven other areas, where CPEs of spawners ranged from only 3 to 5 fish/305 m. We conclude that spawning stocks of only 3-5 fish/305 m of net are inadequate to develop measurable natural reproduction. Natural reproduction has also not been detected in ten areas where CPEs of spawners ranged from 43 to 195 fish/305 m of net. We conclude that spawning stocks in these ten areas were adequate to sustain natural reproduction, but that some factor other than parental stock size prevented recruitment of wild lake trout.

  9. 46 CFR 404.1 - General ratemaking provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE... procedures for Great Lakes pilotage ratemaking. Included in this part are explanations of the steps followed... at the pilotage rates contained in part 401 of this chapter. (b) Great Lakes pilotage rates shall be...

  10. 46 CFR 404.1 - General ratemaking provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE... procedures for Great Lakes pilotage ratemaking. Included in this part are explanations of the steps followed... at the pilotage rates contained in part 401 of this chapter. (b) Great Lakes pilotage rates shall be...

  11. 46 CFR 404.1 - General ratemaking provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE... procedures for Great Lakes pilotage ratemaking. Included in this part are explanations of the steps followed... at the pilotage rates contained in part 401 of this chapter. (b) Great Lakes pilotage rates shall be...

  12. 46 CFR 404.1 - General ratemaking provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE... procedures for Great Lakes pilotage ratemaking. Included in this part are explanations of the steps followed... at the pilotage rates contained in part 401 of this chapter. (b) Great Lakes pilotage rates shall be...

  13. 46 CFR 404.1 - General ratemaking provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE... procedures for Great Lakes pilotage ratemaking. Included in this part are explanations of the steps followed... at the pilotage rates contained in part 401 of this chapter. (b) Great Lakes pilotage rates shall be...

  14. Developing Multi-Lake Regulation Plans for the Great Lakes through Multi-Scenario Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, S.; Tolson, B.; Asadzadeh, M.

    2011-12-01

    Water levels in the Great Lakes- St. Lawrence freshwater system (Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario as well as the St. Lawrence River) impact a variety of stakeholder groups such as hydropower producers, the shipping industry, shoreline property owners and recreational boaters. Although the system is currently managed by control structures at two locations (Lake Superior and Lake Ontario outflows are controlled), there is concern that future extreme climates will generate water supply sequences to the system that will substantially increase the frequency and persistence of extreme water levels imposing millions of dollars of losses to Canadian and American economies. This work partially summarizes a study under The International Upper Great Lakes Study (International Joint Commission) to provide an exploratory conceptual analysis of how and to what extent new control structures in the system could be used to minimize the risks posed by extreme water levels outside of the historic range. In this study, two new hypothetical control structures were investigated to regulate Lake Michigan-Huron and Lake Erie outflows. Multiple regulation plans were developed to operate the hypothetical structures in the St. Clair and/or Niagara rivers in combination with the two existing control structures in the St. Marys and St. Lawrence Rivers. The regulation plans were defined by multi-lake rule curves whose parameters were determined through a simulation-optimization procedure. As there is a high level of uncertainty in future climate, multiple water supply sequences, each 70 years long, representing different future climate scenarios were considered. A multi-scenario based optimization formulation was developed aiming to keep the water levels within the historical range and to minimize and evenly distribute extreme water levels across the system. The dynamically dimensioned search (DDS) algorithm was applied to optimize the multi-scenario based formulation. As the

  15. Introduction to the Proceedings of the 1994 International Conference on Restoration of Lake Trout in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.

    1995-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) restoration in the Great Lakes began in the 1950s when stocking of artificially propagated lake trout was coupled with the first attempts at sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control. A major milestone in the restoration process was recorded when a selective sea lamprey larvicide was identified in 1958 (Applegate et al. 1958) and then applied broad scale in Lake Superior in 1958-60 (Applegate et al. 1961). Other milestones include the expansion of the sea lamprey control programs into Lakes Michigan and Huron in 1960 (sustained usage in Lake Huron began in 1966, Smith and Tibbles 1980), Lake Ontario in 1971-72 (Elrod et al. 1995), and Lake Erie in 1986 (Cornelius et al. 1995). Following the collapse of lake trout in the Great Lakes and the implementation of massive stocking of hatchery-reared fish and effective sea lamprey control, the first documented evidence of nearshore natural reproduction of lake trout was in Lake Superior in 1965 (Dryer and King 1968), in Lake Michigan in 1980 (Jude et al. 1981), in Lake Huron in 1981-82 (Nester and Poe 1984), and in Lake Ontario in 1986 (Marsden et al. 1988).

  16. Ecotoxicology of organochlorine chemicals in birds of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Giesy, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Silent Spring was fulfilled in the United States with passage of environmental legislation such as the Clean Water Act, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, and the Toxic Substance Control Act in the 1970s. Carson's writings, television interviews, and testimony before Congress alerted a nation and the world to the unintended effects of persistent, bioaccumulative chemicals on populations of fish, wildlife, and possibly humans. Her writings in the popular press brought attention to scientific findings that declines in populations of a variety of birds were directly linked to the widespread use of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in agriculture, public health, and horticulture. By the 1970s, DDT and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were being banned or phased out, and the intent of these regulatory acts became apparent in a number of locations across the United States, including the Great Lakes. Concentrations of DDT and its major product of transformation, dichlorodiphenylchloroethane (DDE), were decreasing in top predators, such as bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), colonial waterbirds, and other fish-eating wildlife. Eggshell thinning and the associated mortality of bird embryos caused by DDE had decreased in the Great Lakes and elsewhere by the early 1980s.

  17. Great Lakes Biomass State and Regional Partnership (GLBSRP)

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzel, Frederic

    2009-09-01

    The Council of Great Lakes Governors administered the Great Lakes Biomass State and Regional Partnership (GLBSRP) under contract with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). This Partnership grew out of the existing Regional Biomass Energy Program which the Council had administered since 1983. The GLBSRP includes the States of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio and Wisconsin. The GLBSRP's overall goal is to facilitate the increased production and use of bioenergy and biobased products throughout the region. The GLBSRP has traditionally addressed its goals and objectives through a three-pronged approach: providing grants to the States; undertaking region-wide education, outreach and technology transfer projects; and, providing in-house management, support and information dissemination. At the direction of US Department of Energy, the primary emphasis of the GLBSRP in recent years has been education and outreach. Therefore, most activities have centered on developing educational materials, hosting workshops and conferences, and providing technical assistance. This report summarizes a selection of activities that were accomplished under this cooperative agreement.

  18. Can high tech save the Great Lakes states

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, L.E.

    1983-11-01

    Hard hit by the current recession, the Great Lakes states are looking at New England's success with high technology to solve their long-term economic problems associated with their dependence on smokestack manufacturing industries. ''High tech'' is a concept relating to evolving knowledge-intensive industries. A comparison of employment records shows a faster growth in nonmanufacturing compared to high-tech industries, which create a relatively small fraction of total employment. Despite a high level of manufacturing activity in the Great Lakes region, high-tech employment is lower than the national average. A 1981-83 survey of high-tech companies showing an interest in increasing expansion investment in the Midwest will not help the area improve its employment situation. High labor costs and a low percentage of college graduates deter investment there. The application of high tech to preserve traditional industries looks more promising than efforts to emulate New England and the Southwest. 10 references, 3 figures, 5 tables. (DCK)

  19. Are PCBs the major neurotoxicant in Great Lakes salmon?

    SciTech Connect

    Seegal, R.F. |

    1999-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between consumption, by women, of contaminated Great Lakes salmon and deficits in cognitive performance in the children of these women. Although significant statistical associations between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burdens and these negative outcomes suggest that PCBs may be responsible, the fetus and neonate are also exposed to other fish-borne neurotoxicants. In this manuscript the authors present data from two developmental studies that support the hypothesis that PCBs may serve either as a marker for other contaminants that are responsible for the observed effects, or that other contaminants present in the fish interact synergistically with the PCBs to produce the observed neurotoxicity. In the first study the authors demonstrated that exposure of rates to diets containing lyophilized Great Lakes salmon, resulting in exposure to as little as 13.9 {micro}g/(kg {center_dot} day) of total PCBs, induced significant reductions in regional brain dopamine (DA) concentrations. In the second study, they demonstrated that exposure of rats to the ortho-substituted PCB congener (2,4,2{prime},4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl) at 1, 10 or 20 mg/(kg {center_dot} day) also induced significant reductions in DA concentrations in the same brain regions although only at the two highest doses--levels at least 100-fold higher than seen in the first study.

  20. PROFILES OF GREAT LAKES CRITICAL POLLUTANTS: A SENTINEL ANALYSIS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the contaminants that should be studied further in the subsequent population-based study, a profile of Great Lakes (GL) sport fish contaminant residues were studied in human blood and urine specimens from 32 sport fish consumers from three Great Lakes: Lake Michigan ...

  1. 77 FR 19309 - Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Great Falls, MT; Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Great Falls, MT; Comprehensive... Falls, Montana. Benton Lake Wetland Management District was established in 1975. It includes 10 counties..., selenium contamination, and public use at the Benton Lake Refuge took place in Great Falls, Montana...

  2. Appreciating Your Great Lakes. A Guide for Developing Educational Projects. 4-H Marine Education Series - 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennisi, Christine; Goettel, Robin, Ed.

    The Great Lakes are the largest series of fresh water bodies in the world. They are used for a wide variety of purposes by the 37 million citizens of the United States and Canada who live near the lakes and share this resource. This guide is intended to guide youth in acquiring training and field experience related to the Great Lakes in areas such…

  3. PROFILES OF GREAT LAKES CRITICAL POLLUTANTS: A SENTINEL ANALYSIS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the contaminants that should be studied further in the subsequent population-based study, a profile of Great Lakes (GL) sport fish contaminant residues were studied in human blood and urine specimens from 32 sport fish consumers from three Great Lakes: Lake Michigan ...

  4. Bathythermal habitat use by strains of Great Lakes- and Finger Lakes-origin lake trout in Lake Huron after a change in prey fish abundance and composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; Argyle, Ray L.; Krueger, Charles C.; Taylor, William W.

    2012-01-01

    A study conducted in Lake Huron during October 1998–June 2001 found that strains of Great Lakes-origin (GLO) lake trout Salvelinus namaycush occupied significantly higher temperatures than did Finger Lakes-origin (FLO; New York) lake trout based on data from archival (or data storage) telemetry tags that recorded only temperature. During 2002 and 2003, we implanted archival tags that recorded depth as well as temperature in GLO and FLO lake trout in Lake Huron. Data subsequently recorded by those tags spanned 2002–2005. Based on those data, we examined whether temperatures and depths occupied by GLO and FLO lake trout differed during 2002–2005. Temperatures occupied during those years were also compared with occupied temperatures reported for 1998–2001, before a substantial decline in prey fish biomass. Temperatures occupied by GLO lake trout were again significantly higher than those occupied by FLO lake trout. This result supports the conclusion of the previous study. The GLO lake trout also occupied significantly shallower depths than FLO lake trout. In 2002–2005, both GLO and FLO lake trout occupied significantly lower temperatures than they did in 1998–2001. Aside from the sharp decline in prey fish biomass between study periods, the formerly abundant pelagic alewife Alosa pseudoharengus virtually disappeared and the demersal round goby Neogobius melanostomus invaded the lake and became locally abundant. The lower temperatures occupied by lake trout in Lake Huron during 2002–2005 may be attributable to changes in the composition of the prey fish community, food scarcity (i.e., a retreat to cooler water could increase conversion efficiency), or both.

  5. Dreissenid mussels are not a "dead end" in Great Lakes food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenijan, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; Ebener, Mark P.; Mohr, Lloyd C.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Bence, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Dreissenid mussels have been regarded as a “dead end” in Great Lakes food webs because the degree of predation on dreissenid mussels, on a lakewide basis, is believed to be low. Waterfowl predation on dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes has primarily been confined to bays, and therefore its effects on the dreissenid mussel population have been localized rather than operating on a lakewide level. Based on results from a previous study, annual consumption of dreissenid mussels by the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) population in central Lake Erie averaged only 6 kilotonnes (kt; 1 kt = one thousand metric tons) during 1995–2002. In contrast, our coupling of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) population models with a lake whitefish bioenergetics model revealed that lake whitefish populations in Lakes Michigan and Huron consumed 109 and 820 kt, respectively, of dreissenid mussels each year. Our results indicated that lake whitefish can be an important predator on dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes, and that dreissenid mussels do not represent a “dead end” in Great Lakes food webs. The Lake Michigan dreissenid mussel population has been estimated to be growing more than three times faster than the Lake Huron dreissenid mussel population during the 2000s. One plausible explanation for the higher population growth rate in Lake Michigan would be the substantially higher predation rate by lake whitefish on dreissenid mussels in Lake Huron.

  6. Impacts of Tributaries on Optical Properties and Singlet Oxygen Concentrations in the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Lakes have over 100 tributaries that contribute natural organic matter and othernatural photosensitizers to nearshore sites on the lakes. Absorption of sunlight by thesesensitizers results in indirect (sensitized) photoreactions of the widespread chemical andbiological ...

  7. Impacts of Tributaries on Optical Properties and Singlet Oxygen Concentrations in the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Lakes have over 100 tributaries that contribute natural organic matter and othernatural photosensitizers to nearshore sites on the lakes. Absorption of sunlight by thesesensitizers results in indirect (sensitized) photoreactions of the widespread chemical andbiological ...

  8. DIEL OXYGEN-INDUCED MOVEMENT OF FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN A GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the importance of dissolved oxygen conditions in influencing daily ovement patterns of fishes in Great Lakes coastal wetlands, we sampled migrating fish assemblages from habitats with varying diurnal dissolved oxygen patterns in a Lake Superior coastal wetland during...

  9. DIEL OXYGEN-INDUCED MOVEMENT OF FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN A GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the importance of dissolved oxygen conditions in influencing daily ovement patterns of fishes in Great Lakes coastal wetlands, we sampled migrating fish assemblages from habitats with varying diurnal dissolved oxygen patterns in a Lake Superior coastal wetland during...

  10. Limitations to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) rehabilitation in the Great Lakes imposed by biotic interactions occurring at early life stages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Michael L.; Eck, Gary W.; Evans, David O.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Hoff, Michael H.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Janssen, John; Jude, David; O'Gorman, Robert; Savino, Jacqueline F.

    1995-01-01

    We examine evidence that biotic factors, particularly predation, may be limiting early survival of wild lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) juveniles in many areas of the Great Lakes. The Great Lakes contain numerous potential predators of lake trout eggs and fry, some of which are recent invaders, and most of which were probably absent when lake trout most recently re-invaded the Great Lakes after the last ice age. Simple quantitative models of predation suggest that plausible assumptions about prey densities, predator feeding rates, and duration of exposure of predator to prey can lead to very high estimates of predation mortality, in some instances approaching 100%. Indirect evidence from inter-Great Lake comparisons and inland lake examples also suggest that biotic factors may impede successful lake trout colonization. Our synthesis of the evidence leads to recommendations for research to better define field feeding rates of lake trout egg and fry predators and comparative studies of densities of potential egg and fry predators on lake trout spawning reefs. Management options should be designed to provide useful information as well as achieve short-term goals. From a management standpoint we recommend that: newly constructed lake trout reefs should be placed well away from concentrations of potential predators; offshore spawning reefs should be stocked; salmonine stocking, nutrient abatement, and commercial harvest of alewives should all be considered as options to enhance survival of young lake trout; hatchery lake trout should not be stocked at sites where wild lake trout are showing signs of recovery; and exotic species expansions or introductions must be curtailed to maintain or improve on our recent successes in lake trout rehabilitation.

  11. Evaluation of the performance of the WRF 1-Dimensional Lake model over the East Africa Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudoshava, M.; Semazzi, F. H. M.

    2015-12-01

    This study seeks to investigate the performance of the 1-Dimensional lake model coupled to WRF over East Africa. The Africa Great lakes exert a great influence on the climate of the region and a number of studies have shown how the lake influences the circulation and the total precipitation over the region. The lakes have highly variable depths, with Lake Victoria having an average depth of 40m and Lake Tanganyika a depth of 450m. The Lake model for WRF was tested and calibrated for the Great lakes, however it was not tested for tropical lakes. We hypothesize that the inclusion of a 1-dimensional lake will reduce the precipitation bias as compared to the WRF model without the lake model. In addition initializing the lake temperature using a vertical temperature profile that closes resembles the one over these lakes will greatly reduce the spin up time. The simulations utilized three nested domains at 36, 12 and 4km. The 4km domain is centered over Lake Victoria Basin, while the 12 km domain includes all the lakes in East Africa. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) datasets are used in evaluating the precipitation, and the following statistics were calculated: root mean square error, standard deviation of the model and observations and mean bias. The results show that the use of the 1-dimensional lake model improves the precipitation over the region considerably compared to an uncoupled model. The asymmetrical rainfall pattern is evident in the simulations. However using the default vertical temperature profile with a three-month spin up is not adequate to transfer heat to the bottom of the lake. Hence the temperatures are still very cold at the bottom. A nine-month spin up improves the lake surface temperatures and lake temperatures at the bottom. A two year spin up greatly improves the lake surface temperatures and hence the total precipitation over the lake. Thus longer spin up time allows for adequate heat transfer in the lake. Initializing the

  12. Paleoenvironmental changes in the Western Great Lakes National Parks since deglaciation: Implications for the effect of the Great Lakes on regional climate

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, M.G.

    1995-09-01

    Pollen and charcoal analyses of lake and bog core sediments from Voyageur`s National Park and the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore provide evidence of regional Holocene climate changes for the western Great Lakes that differ from paleoclimates interpreted for regions of the Midwest more distant from the Great Lakes. The timing of the middle Holocene dry period when prairie and oak-savannah expanded in the Midwest occurs between 9000 and 5000 yr B. P. in the northern regions, but between 5600 and 3500 yr B.P. in the lower tier of the northern midwestern states away from the lakes.

  13. Forest-Product Imports and Exports Via the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway Through Upper Lakes Ports

    Treesearch

    Eugene M. Carpenter

    1966-01-01

    The expanded Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway system was opened in the early spring of 1959, and for the first time deep-draft ocean-going vessels could visit inland Great Lakes ports. In 1963 the Station published a Research Note reporting what effect this expansion may have had on the volume of forest products moving through Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan ports;...

  14. Conservation and management of fisheries and aquatic communities in Great Lakes connecting channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, Edward F.; Thompson, Patricia A.; Farrell, John M.; Mandrak, Nicholas E.; Stepien, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    The North American Laurentian Great Lakes are linked by a unique series of riverine and lacustrine waters known as the Great Lakes connecting channels that are as integral to the basin's ecology and economies as the lakes themselves. The St. Marys River (SMR) is the northernmost channel and flows from Lake Superior to Lake Huron. Waters from the upper Great Lakes (Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron) empty from Lake Huron via the St. Clair–Detroit River system (SCDRS, also known as the Huron–Erie Corridor) into Lake Erie. The SCDRS is composed of the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, and the Detroit River. The Niagara River (NR) serves as the outflow from Lake Erie into Lake Ontario. The NR above Niagara Falls is bisected by Grand Island and contains several other islands and man-made embayments whereas the NR below the falls is more linear. The outflow from Lake Ontario, representing the natural outlet of all the Great Lakes, is the St. Lawrence River (SLR) which empties into the Gulf of St. Lawrence in the northwest Atlantic Ocean.

  15. Satellite microwave observations of the Utah Great Salt Lake Desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Dellwig, L. F.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    Microwave data acquired over the Great Salt Lake Desert by sensors aboard Skylab and Nimbus 5 indicate that microwave emission and backscatter were strongly influenced by contributions from subsurface layers of sediment saturated with brine. This phenomenon was observed by Skylab's S-194 radiometer operating at 1.4 GHz, S-193 RADSCAT (Radiometer-Scatterometer) operating at 13.9 GHz and the Nimbus 5 ESMR (Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer) operating at 19.35 GHz. The availability of ESMR data over an 18 month period allowed an investigation of temporal variations. Aircraft 1.4 GHz radiometer data acquired two days after one of the Skylab passes confirm the satellites observations. Data from the ESMR revealed similar responses over the Bolivian deserts, which have geologic features similar to those of the Utah desert.

  16. Understanding beach health throughout the Great Lakes -- continuing research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The overall mission of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Beach Health Initiative is to provide science-based information and methods that will allow beach managers to more accurately make beach closure and advisory decisions, understand the sources and physical processes affecting beach contaminants, and understand how science-based information can be used to mitigate and restore beaches and protect the public. The USGS, in collaboration with many Federal, State, and local agencies and universities, has conducted research on beach-health issues in the Great Lakes Region for more than a decade. The work consists of four science elements that align with the initiative's mission: real-time assessments of water quality; coastal processes; pathogens and source tracking; and data analysis, interpretation, and communication. The ongoing or completed research for each of these elements is described in this fact sheet.

  17. Glial cell biology in the Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Douglas L; Skoff, Robert P

    2016-03-31

    We report on the tenth bi-annual Great Lakes Glial meeting, held in Traverse City, Michigan, USA, September 27-29 2015. The GLG meeting is a small conference that focuses on current research in glial cell biology. The array of functions that glial cells (astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells) play in health and disease is constantly increasing. Despite this diversity, GLG meetings bring together scientists with common interests, leading to a better understanding of these cells. This year's meeting included two keynote speakers who presented talks on the regulation of CNS myelination and the consequences of stress on Schwann cell biology. Twenty-two other talks were presented along with two poster sessions. Sessions covered recent findings in the areas of microglial and astrocyte activation; age-dependent changes to glial cells, Schwann cell development and pathology, and the role of stem cells in glioma and neural regeneration.

  18. Are PCBs the major neurotoxicant in Great Lakes salmon?

    PubMed

    Seegal, R F

    1999-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between consumption, by women, of contaminated Great Lakes salmon and deficits in cognitive performance in the children of these women. Although significant statistical associations between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burdens and these negative outcomes suggest that PCBs may be responsible, the fetus and neonate are also exposed to other fish-borne neurotoxicants. In this manuscript we present data from two developmental studies that support the hypothesis that PCBs may serve either as a marker for other contaminants that are responsible for the observed effects, or that other contaminants present in the fish interact synergistically with the PCBs to produce the observed neurotoxicity. In the first study we demonstrated that exposure of rats to diets containing lyophilized Great Lakes salmon, resulting in exposure to as little as 13.9 micrograms/(kg small middle dotday) of total PCBs, induced significant reductions in regional brain dopamine (DA) concentrations. In the second study, we demonstrated that exposure of rats to the ortho-substituted PCB congener (2,4,2', 4'-tetrachloro- biphenyl) at 1, 10 or 20 mg/(kg small middle dotday) also induced significant reductions in DA concentrations in the same brain regions although only at the two highest doses-levels at least 100-fold higher than seen in the first study. On the basis of these developmental neurochemical studies we suggest that the reported cognitive deficits in children exposed in utero and during lactation to fish-borne contaminants may be due either to contaminants other than PCBs or to complex interactions between PCBs and other neurotoxicants present in the fish.

  19. Hydroxylated PCBs and other chlorinated phenolic compounds in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) blood plasma from the Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Linda M; Muir, Derek C G; Whittle, D Mike; Backus, Sean; Norstrom, Ross J; Fisk, Aaron T

    2003-05-01

    Recently, there has been an increase in studies focusing on an emerging class of organic contaminants, hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) and chlorinated phenolic compounds (CPCs) in the environment, particularly in northern regions of Europe and Canada. Since information for fish from the Great Lakes are scarce, we determined the blood plasma concentrations of OH-PCB congeners, pentachlorophenol (PCP), 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol (TCP), and 4-hydroxyheptachlorostyrene (4-OH-HpCS) for lake trout (Savelinus namaycush) collected from two of the Great Lakes, Lake Ontario and Lake Superior, and two regional lakes, Lake Champlain and Lake Opeongo. PCP was the dominant CPC in lake trout (105-658 pg/g of plasma). Detectable concentrations of 2,3,4,5-TCP and 4-OH-HpCS were found in all lake trout (2.6-101 and 0.4-27 pg/g, respectively). Highest concentrations were found in trout from Lake Ontario and Lake Superior. Sixteen OH-PCBs were quantified, with 4-OH-CB187 having the highest concentration in all samples (10-173 pg/g of plasma). Unexpectedly, highly chlorinated OH-PCBs such as 4'-OH-CB199 (mean 21.4 and 74.4 pg/g), 4,4'-diOH-CB202 (18.3 and 27.7 pg/g), and 4'-OH-CB208 (24.5 and 34.7 pg/g) were found in lake trout from Lake Ontario and Lake Superior, respectively. Future studies to delineate the sources and impacts of CPCs in the Great Lakes catchment are needed.

  20. Mid Holocene lake level and shoreline behavior during the Nipissing phase of the upper Great Lakes at Alpena, Michigan, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, T.A.; Lepper, K.; Endres, A.L.; Johnston, J.W.; Baedke, S.J.; Argyilan, E.P.; Booth, R.K.; Wilcox, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Nipissing phase was the last pre-modern high-water stage of the upper Great Lakes. Represented as either a one- or two-peak highstand, the Nipissing occurred following a long-term lake-level rise. This transgression was primarily an erosional event with only the final stage of the transgression preserved as barriers, spits, and strandplains of beach ridges. South of Alpena, Michigan, mid to late Holocene coastal deposits occur as a strandplain between Devils Lake and Lake Huron. The landward part of this strandplain is a higher elevation platform that formed during the final stage of lake-level rise to the Nipissing peak. The pre-Nipissing shoreline transgressed over Devils Lake lagoonal deposits from 6.4 to 6.1. ka. The first beach ridge formed ~ 6. ka, and then the shoreline advanced toward Lake Huron, producing beach ridges about every 70. years. This depositional regression produced a slightly thickening wedge of sediment during a lake-level rise that formed 20 beach ridges. The rise ended at 4.5. ka at the Nipissing peak. This peak was short-lived, as lake level fell > 4. m during the following 500. years. During this lake-level rise and subsequent fall, the shoreline underwent several forms of shoreline behavior, including erosional transgression, aggradation, depositional transgression, depositional regression, and forced regression. Other upper Great Lakes Nipissing platforms indicate that the lake-level change observed at Alpena of a rapid pre-Nipissing lake-level rise followed by a slower rise to the Nipissing peak, and a post-Nipissing rapid lake-level fall is representative of mid Holocene lake level in the upper Great Lakes. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Water clarity of the Upper Great Lakes: tracking changes between 1998-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, F.; Shuchman, R. A.; Sayers, M.; Fahnenstiel, G.; Henareh Khalyani, A.

    2016-12-01

    Water clarity trends in three upper Great Lakes, Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron, were assessed via satellite imagery from 1998 to 2012. Water attenuation coefficients (Kd490) from SeaWiFS and Aqua MODIS satellites compared favorably with in situ measurements. Significant temporal and spatial trends and differences in Kd490 were noted within all three of the lakes. Lake-wide average Kd490 for Lake Superior did not exhibited any changes between 1998 and 2012. Annual Kd490 values for Lake Huron, however, showed a significant negative trend during the study period using both SeaWiFS and MODIS datasets. Similarly, annual Kd490 values of Lake Michigan declined between 1998 and 2010. Additionally, Kd490 trend for depths >90m in northern Lake Michigan reversed (increased) after 2007. Photic depth increased significantly in both Lake Michigan (≃5m), and Lake Huron (≃10m) when comparing annual Kd490 for pre- (1998-2001) and post-mussel (2006-2010). At seasonal level, significant decreases in Kd490 in lakes Michigan and Huron were mainly noted for the spring/fall/winter mixing periods. After current changes in water clarity, lake-wide photic depths in lakes Michigan and Huron superseded Lake Superior; thus, making Lake Superior no longer the clearest Great Lake. Combination of several factors (filtering activities of quagga mussels [Dreissena bugensis rostriformis], phosphorus abatement, climate change, etc.) are likely responsible for these large changes.

  2. GREAT LAKES BEACH CLOSURES: USING SATELLITE IMAGES TO IDENTIFY AREAS AT RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are people getting sick from swimming at Great Lakes beaches? Some are. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, swimmers are experiencing an increase in bacterial borne illnesses from swimming at many popular Great Lakes beaches. The beaches in the Great Lak...

  3. 47 CFR 80.161 - Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operator Requirements Ship Station Operator Requirements § 80.161 Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. Each ship subject to the Great...

  4. 47 CFR 80.161 - Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operator Requirements Ship Station Operator Requirements § 80.161 Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. Each ship subject to the Great...

  5. GREAT LAKES BEACH CLOSURES: USING SATELLITE IMAGES TO IDENTIFY AREAS AT RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are people getting sick from swimming at Great Lakes beaches? Some are. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, swimmers are experiencing an increase in bacterial borne illnesses from swimming at many popular Great Lakes beaches. The beaches in the Great Lak...

  6. 46 CFR 30.10-33 - Great Lakes-TB/L.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Great Lakes-TB/L. 30.10-33 Section 30.10-33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-33 Great Lakes—TB/L. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels navigating the Great Lakes....

  7. 46 CFR 30.10-33 - Great Lakes-TB/L.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Great Lakes-TB/L. 30.10-33 Section 30.10-33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-33 Great Lakes—TB/L. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels navigating the Great Lakes. ...

  8. 46 CFR 30.10-33 - Great Lakes-TB/L.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Great Lakes-TB/L. 30.10-33 Section 30.10-33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-33 Great Lakes—TB/L. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels navigating the Great Lakes. ...

  9. 46 CFR 30.10-33 - Great Lakes-TB/L.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Great Lakes-TB/L. 30.10-33 Section 30.10-33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-33 Great Lakes—TB/L. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels navigating the Great Lakes. ...

  10. 46 CFR 30.10-33 - Great Lakes-TB/L.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Great Lakes-TB/L. 30.10-33 Section 30.10-33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-33 Great Lakes—TB/L. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels navigating the Great Lakes. ...

  11. The dry deposition of mercury into the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisonbee, Joel R.

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL) in the western United States has been identified as the most mercury laden body of water in the United States with a median water mercury concentration of 42 nanograms per liter. When Hg enters an aquatic ecosystem, it can be converted to the toxic organic mercury compound, methylmercury. Methylmercury bioaccumulates up the food chain and has been the cause of consumption advisories for game fish in many lakes and rivers in the historically pristine Intermountain West. In 2005, the Utah Department of Health and the Fish and Wildlife Service placed a similar consumption advisory on waterfowl on the GSL. The primary goal of this study is to identify the pathway of greatest influx of Hg pollution to the GSL to give insight toward the source and an eventual solution to the Hg pollution problem. Speciated atmospheric mercury measurements were collected at a field site on the eastern shore of the GSL for a 1-year period beginning on July 1, 2009. These atmospheric mercury concentrations, along with turbulence measurements, were used as input to a resistance-in-series dry deposition model (based on Wesley and Hicks 1977). The dry deposition flux of mercury was determined from the modeled dry deposition velocity and the measured concentrations. This dry deposition flux was compared to the wet deposition flux measured by the National Deposition Network and the riverine influx measured by the USGS. It was found that in the 1 year from July 1, 2009 through June 30, 2010, 10.7 nanograms per square meter of Hg was deposited into the GSL by dry deposition from the atmosphere. Dry deposition makes up 60% of the total Hg influx from all measured pathways. The flux from the dry deposition of the global background pool of Hg (1.5 +/- 0.2 nanograms per square meter) dominated the dry deposition flux, making up 82.5+/-8.5% of the dry deposition flux and 50% of the total Hg influx to the GSL. Lake sediment cores from the GSL suggest a much larger annual flux

  12. A field guide to valuable underwater aquatic plants of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this field guide is to aid in the identification of common underwater plants in the Great Lakes. These plants are found mostly in shallow, nearshore waters along sheltered bays, peninsulas, and the four connecting rivers of the Great Lakes, including the St. Lawrence River (Figure 1). Connecting rivers are especially favorable for aquatic plants because they are shallow, have a consistent flow of water, and are protected from heavy wave action typical of other Great Lakes shorelines.

  13. Development, Implementation, and Skill Assessment of the NOAA/NOS Great Lakes Operational Forecast System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Development, implementation, and skill assessment of the NOAA /NOS Great Lakes Operational Forecast System Philip Y. Chu & John G. W. Kelley & Gregory...USA) 2011 Abstract The NOAA Great Lakes Operational Forecast System (GLOFS) uses near-real-time atmospheric observa- tions and numerical weather...System (GLFS) was developed by researchers at The Ohio State University (OSU) and NOAA ′s Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) in the

  14. Toxicity to Daphnia pulex and QSAR predictions for polycyclic hydrocarbons representative of Great Lakes contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino-Reader, D.R.; Hickey, J.P.; Ogilvie, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the toxicity of several types of polycyclic hydrocarbons characteristic of Great Lakes samples to Daphnia pulex, a Great Lakes zooplankter, (2) to investigate the influence of different structural characteristics on toxicity, and (3) to determine the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) parameters and model that describe these compounds. These results will be related to comparative toxicity of other Great Lakes environmental compounds and to their application in site specific risk assessment.

  15. 46 CFR 42.03-15 - The Great Lakes of North America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Great Lakes of North America. 42.03-15 Section 42.03... VOYAGES BY SEA Application § 42.03-15 The Great Lakes of North America. (a) The term “Great Lakes of North America” means those waters of North America which are defined in § 42.05-40, and in the exception...

  16. Energy density of bloaters in the upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pothoven, Steven A.; Bunnell, David B.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Gorman, Owen T.; Roseman, Edward F.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the energy density of bloaters Coregonus hoyi as a function of fish size across Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Superior in 2008–2009 and assessed how differences in energy density are related to factors such as biomass density of bloaters and availability of prey. Additional objectives were to compare energy density between sexes and to compare energy densities of bloaters in Lake Michigan between two time periods (1998–2001 and 2008–2009). For the cross-lake comparisons in 2008, energy density increased with fish total length (TL) only in Lake Michigan. Mean energy density adjusted for fish size was 8% higher in bloaters from Lake Superior than in bloaters from Lake Huron. Relative to fish in these two lakes, small (175 mm TL) bloaters had higher energy density. In 2009, energy density increased with bloater size, and mean energy density adjusted for fish size was about 9% higher in Lake Michigan than in Lake Huron (Lake Superior was not sampled during 2009). Energy density of bloaters in Lake Huron was generally the lowest among lakes, reflecting the relatively low densities of opossum shrimp Mysis diluviana and the relatively high biomass of bloaters reported for that lake. Other factors, such as energy content of prey, growing season, or ontogenetic differences in energy use strategies, may also influence cross-lake variation in energy density. Mean energy density adjusted for length was 7% higher for female bloaters than for male bloaters in Lakes Michigan and Huron. In Lake Superior, energy density did not differ between males and females. Finally, energy density of bloaters in Lake Michigan was similar between the periods 2008–2009 and 1998–2001, possibly due to a low population abundance of bloaters, which could offset food availability changes linked to the loss of prey such as the amphipods Diporeia spp.

  17. Discrepancies between ages determined from scales and otoliths for alewives from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Gorman, Robert; Barwick, D. Hugh; Bowen, Charles A.; Summerfelt, R.D.; Hall, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Discrepancies between ages determined from otoliths and those determined from scales were common and, sometimes, quite large in alewives Alosa pseudoharengus collected in fall 1983 from Lakes Ontario, Huron, and Michigan. Among fish with 'otolith ages' of 4 or more, the percentages having identical 'scale ages' were 1% in Lake Ontario, 35% in Lake Huron, and 56% in Lake Michigan. Among alewives with different otolith and scale ages, the percentages with discrepancies of 3 years or more were 51% in Lake Ontario, 23% in Lake Huron, and 6% in Lake Michigan. Among the three populations, variation in the magnitude of age disagreements were perhaps due to the different mortality rates in each lake, whereas variation in the frequency of disagreements appeared to be due to different ratios of food to fish in each lake. Previously reported age compositions and rates of mortality and production for Great Lakes alewives derived from scales have probably been inaccurate to various degrees.

  18. Biological Effects–Based Tools for Monitoring Impacted Surface Waters in the Great Lakes: A Multiagency Program in Support of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is increasing demand for the implementation of effects-based monitoring and surveillance (EBMS) approaches in the Great Lakes Basin to complement traditional chemical monitoring. Herein, we describe an ongoing multiagency effort to develop and implement EBMS tools, particul...

  19. Biological Effects–Based Tools for Monitoring Impacted Surface Waters in the Great Lakes: A Multiagency Program in Support of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is increasing demand for the implementation of effects-based monitoring and surveillance (EBMS) approaches in the Great Lakes Basin to complement traditional chemical monitoring. Herein, we describe an ongoing multiagency effort to develop and implement EBMS tools, particul...

  20. Clostridium botulinum Type E in Fish from the Great Lakes1

    PubMed Central

    Bott, Thomas L.; Deffner, Janet S.; McCoy, Elizabeth; Foster, E. M.

    1966-01-01

    Bott, Thomas L. (University of Wisconsin, Madison), Janet S. Deffner, Elizabeth McCoy, and E. M. Foster. Clostridium botulinum type E in fish from the Great Lakes. J. Bacteriol. 91:919–924. 1966.—The intestinal contents of more than 3,000 fish from Lakes Erie, Superior, Huron, and Michigan were examined for Clostridium botulinum type E. Demonstration of the organism was accomplished by identifying its toxin in liquid cultures inoculated with material from the alimentary tract. Incidence figures, expressed as per cent of the fish tested, were: Lake Erie, 1%; Lake Superior, 1%; Lake Huron, 4%; the main body of Lake Michigan, 9%; and Green Bay (on Lake Michigan), 57%. Thus, C. botulinum type E appears to be widely but unevenly distributed in the Great Lakes, and fish from all areas are potential carriers of it. PMID:5326102