Science.gov

Sample records for great observatories origins

  1. Search for cosmic strings in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, J. L.; Albin, E.; James, K. A.; Goldman, J.; Maruyama, D.; Smoot, G. F.

    2008-06-15

    We search Hubble Space Telescope Treasury Program images collected as part of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey for pairs of galaxies consistent with the gravitational lensing signature of a cosmic string. Our technique includes estimates of the efficiency for finding the lensed galaxy pair. In the north (south) survey field we find no evidence out to a redshift of greater than 0.5 (0.3) for cosmic strings to a mass per unit length limit of G{mu}/c{sup 2}<3.0x10{sup -7} at 95% confidence limits (C.L.). In the combined 314.9 arcmin{sup 2} of the north and south survey fields this corresponds to a global limit on {omega}{sub strings}<0.02. Our limit on G{mu}/c{sup 2} is more than an order of magnitude lower than searches for individual strings in cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. Our limit is higher than other CMB and gravitational wave searches, however, we note that it is less model dependent than these other searches.

  2. The Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey High Redshift Search for Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strolger, L.-G.; Riess, A. G.; Dahlen, T.; GOODS SN Searchers; HHZS Team

    2003-05-01

    We have recently concluded the Hubble Higher-z Supernova Team's search for high redshift supernovae in conjunction with the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS). Using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), we have surveyed ˜170 sq. arcmin fields about the CDF-S and HSF-N on five epochs each, with ˜45 day baselines. These deep observations have allowed us to discover ˜40 supernovae in the range of 0.2=1. A cosmic evolution of SN Ia luminosity or ``grey dust'' would cause SNe Ia to be systematically fainter at higher-z and thus show a different sign and shape on the Hubble diagram. We are also investigating the rate of SNe at /line{z}˜=0.8-1.0, the relation to the local rates, comparisons of host environments to low redshift host environments, and the implications of each to SN progenitors, star formation rate history, and possibly to cosmology.

  3. NASA'S Great Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Why are space observatories important? The answer concerns twinkling stars in the night sky. To reach telescopes on Earth, light from distant objects has to penetrate Earth's atmosphere. Although the sky may look clear, the gases that make up our atmosphere cause problems for astronomers. These gases absorb the majority of radiation emanating from celestial bodies so that it never reaches the astronomer's telescope. Radiation that does make it to the surface is distorted by pockets of warm and cool air, causing the twinkling effect. In spite of advanced computer enhancement, the images finally seen by astronomers are incomplete. NASA, in conjunction with other countries' space agencies, commercial companies, and the international community, has built observatories such as the Hubble Space Telescope, the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory to find the answers to numerous questions about the universe. With the capabilities the Space Shuttle provides, scientist now have the means for deploying these observatories from the Shuttle's cargo bay directly into orbit.

  4. NASA's Great Observatories: Paper Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This educational brief discusses observatory stations built by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for looking at the universe. This activity for grades 5-12 has students build paper models of the observatories and study their history, features, and functions. Templates for the observatories are included. (MVL)

  5. Conceiving and Marketing NASA's Great Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwit, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In late 1984, Dr. Charles P. (Charlie) Pellerin Jr., director of the Astrophysics Division of NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) faced a dilemma. Congress and the White House had given approval to work that would lead to the launch of the Gamma Ray Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope, but competing segments of the astronomical community were clamoring for two additional missions, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) and the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). Pellerin knew that Congress would not countenance a request for another costly astronomical space observatory so soon after approving GRO and HST. He also foresaw that if he arbitrarily assigned priority to either AXAF or SIRTF he would split the astronomical community. The losing faction would be up on Capitol Hill, lobbying Congress to reverse the decision; and Congress would do what it always does with split communities --- nothing. Pellerin called a meeting of leading astrophysicists to see how a persuasive argument could be made for both these new observatories and to market them as vital to a first comprehensive inventory of the universe conducted across all wavelength ranges. The group provided Pellerin a rotating membership of astrophysicists, who could debate and resolve issues so that decisions he reached would have solid community support. It also helped him to market his ideas in Congress. Ultimately, the concept of the Great Observatories came to be accepted; but its implementation faced myriad difficulties. False starts, political alliances that never worked out, and dramatic changes of direction necessitated by the Challenger disaster of early 1986 continually kept progress off balance. My paper follows these twists and turns from late 1984 to the announcement, on February 1, 1988, that President Reagan's FY89 budget proposal to Congress had designated AXAF for a new start.

  6. The great observatories for space astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwit, M.; Neal, V.

    1986-01-01

    Motivated by the ancient urge to observe, measure, compute, and understand the nature of the Universe, the available advanced technology is used to place entire observatories into space for investigations across the spectrum. Stellar evolution, development and nature of the Universe, planetary exploration, technology, NASA's role, and careers in asronomy are displayed.

  7. NASA's Great Observatories Paper Model Kits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Education Dept.

    The Hubble Space Telescope, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, was built to study the cosmos from low-Earth orbit for 10 to 15 years or more. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory is a complex spacecraft fitted with four different gamma ray detectors, each of which concentrates on different but overlapping energy range and was…

  8. Great Observatories Present Rainbow of a Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer, Hubble and Chandra space observatories teamed up to create this multi-wavelength, false-colored view of the M82 galaxy. The lively portrait celebrates Hubble's 'sweet sixteen' birthday.

    X-ray data recorded by Chandra appears in blue; infrared light recorded by Spitzer appears in red; Hubble's observations of hydrogen emission appear in orange, and the bluest visible light appears in yellow-green.

    About the Movie M82 is shown in all its wavelength glory. Dissolving from Chandra X-ray Observatory images of three X-ray energy bands to images in three bands of the infrared spectrum taken by the Spitzer Space Telescope, and ending with the Hubble Space Telescope's visible- and near-infrared-light image. The three observatories' images were composited to reveal the galaxy's stars, as well as gas and dust features.

    Note: The size of the Full-Res TIFF for the still image is 4299 samples x 3490 lines.

  9. Conceiving and marketing NASA's Great Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwit, Martin

    2009-08-01

    In early 1984, the astronomical community’s plans to launch a series of powerful telescopes able to study celestial sources at almost any wavelength were in trouble. The President of the United States had just declared his priority for a Space Station that was bound to be expensive, and Congress could not understand why yet another set of space observatories was needed when others were already being funded. To realize their aims, astronomers would have to advocate their needs much more effectively than in the past.

  10. Proposed Great Salt Lake Basin Hydrologic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. P.; Tarboton, D. G.

    2004-12-01

    The dynamic physiography and population growth within the Great Salt Lake Basin provide the opportunity to observe climate and human-induced land-surface changes affecting water availability, water quality, and water use, thereby making the Great Salt Lake Basin a microcosm of contemporary water resource issues and an excellent site to pursue interdisciplinary and integrated hydrologic science. Important societal concerns center on: How do climate variability and human-induced landscape changes affect hydrologic processes, water quality and availability, and aquatic ecosystems over a range of scales? What are the resource, social, and economic consequences of these changes? The steep topography and large climatic gradients of the Great Salt Lake Basin yield hydrologic systems that are dominated by non-linear interactions between snow deposition and snow melt in the mountains, stream flow and groundwater recharge in the mid-elevations, and evaporative losses from the desert floor at lower elevations. Because the Great Salt Lake Basin terminates in a closed basin lake, it is uniquely suited to closing the water, solute, and sediment balances in a way that is rarely possible in a watershed of a size sufficient for coupling to investigations of atmospheric processes. Proposed infrastructure will include representative densely instrumented focus areas that will be nested within a basin-wide network, thereby quantifying fluxes, residence times, pathways, and storage volumes over a range of scales and land uses. The significant and rapid ongoing urbanization presents the opportunity for observations that quantify the interactions among hydrologic processes, human induced changes and social and economic dynamics. One proposed focus area will be a unique, highly instrumented mountain-to-basin transect that will quantify hydrologic processes extending from the mountain ridge top to the Great Salt Lake. The transect will range in elevation from about 1200 m to 3200 m, with a

  11. NASA's Great Observatories Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for larger version

    In 1609, Galileo improved the newly invented telescope, turned it toward the heavens, and revolutionized our view of the universe. In celebration of the 400th anniversary of this milestone, 2009 has been designated as the International Year of Astronomy.

    Today, NASA's Great Observatories are continuing Galileo's legacy with stunning images and breakthrough science from the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory.

    While Galileo observed the sky using visible light seen by the human eye, technology now allows us to observe in many wavelengths, including Spitzer's infrared view and Chandra's view in X-rays. Each wavelength region shows different aspects of celestial objects and often reveals new objects that could not otherwise be studied.

    This image of the spiral galaxy Messier 101 is a composite of views from Spitzer, Hubble, and Chandra. The red color shows Spitzer's view in infrared light. It highlights the heat emitted by dust lanes in the galaxy where stars can form. The yellow color is Hubble's view in visible light. Most of this light comes from stars, and they trace the same spiral structure as the dust lanes. The blue color shows Chandra's view in X-ray light. Sources of X-rays include million-degree gas, exploded stars, and material colliding around black holes.

    Such composite images allow astronomers to see how features seen in one wavelength match up with those seen in another wavelength. It's like seeing with a camera, night vision goggles, and X-ray vision all at once.

    In the four centuries since Galileo, astronomy has changed dramatically. Yet our curiosity and quest for knowledge remain the same. So, too, does our wonder at the splendor of the universe.

    The International Year of Astronomy Great Observatories Image Unveiling is supported by the NASA Science Mission Directorate

  12. Space Subaru: great science observatories in the space station ERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu

    1998-08-01

    A concept of 'Space Factory' on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) is described. Following the four great observatories deployed by the Space Transportation System (STS), the next generation of great observatories would require a very large, 10-meter class optical telescope. A telescope of this size will require careful assembly and tuning by astronauts on orbit before deployment. Once built, it could visualize the universe to the earliest galaxies, and could explore the earth-like planet in other star- system. The 'Space Factory' is conceived by including four or five frontier astrophysics programs. Less demanding experiments could precede the construction of the most demanding optical telescope. Space SUBARU is a 10 meter- diameter optical telescope with a diffraction limited optics. Space-Submillimeter-and-IR-Telescope is a 20 meter- diameter sub-millimeter telescope. A 10-meter-cube telescope is for observing gamma-rays from 1 GeV to 10 TeV. The Multiple-OWL is an earth's night-sky-watcher for the highest energy cosmic rays. Space SUBARU envisages a plan of orbital construction, fine-tuning and deployment of large scale astrophysical instruments into the desired free-flying orbit. It incorporates physical aids of the robotics and extra-vehicle activities of astronauts.

  13. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorak, John

    2011-05-15

    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  14. The Great Geospace Observatory and Simultaneous Missions of Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, Eric; Brandt, Pontus; Sibeck, David; Spann, James; Lester, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A predictive understanding of the sun to geospace environment is one of the main goals of ILWS. This can only be achieved through a "system-level" approach, meaning long-term, simultaneous, continuous observations across the relevant scales of the magnetosphere and ionosphere/thermosphere (IT). To date such an approach, which must involve simultaneous, multi-scale, global imaging of different geospace regions, has not been carried out for a complete geomagnetic storm. Such imagery, now routine for the Solar community, is of critical scientific importance and captures public imagination. Its absence in geospace studies has limited the growth and impact of geospace science. In this presentation, we discuss a concept called the Great Geospace Observatory, which would involve coordinated geospace imaging through an international effort of multiple, simultaneous Missions of Opportunity. In this way, the cost would be spread among different agencies as well as putting remote sensors in vantage points optimized for each type of imaging. 24/7 auroral imaging from weather satellites on Molniya (or similar) orbits, EUV imaging of the plasmasphere from high-inclination orbits, continuous and global ENA imaging from geosynchronous commercial satellites, and continuous X-ray imaging of the cusp and magnetosheath from a high-altitude dedicated probe would quantitatively track system-level dynamics at through substorms, sawtooth events, steady magnetospheric convection, and storms; studying energy and mass coupling between the solar wind, magnetosphere, and the upper atmosphere. In our minds, The Great Geospace Observatory represents the next strategic step for ILWS and needs to be seriously considered.

  15. NASA's Great Observatories May Unravel 400-Year Old Supernova Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    Four hundred years ago, sky watchers, including the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler, best known as the discoverer of the laws of planetary motion, were startled by the sudden appearance of a "new star" in the western sky, rivaling the brilliance of the nearby planets. Kepler's Supernova Remnant Multiple Images of Kepler's Supernova Remnant Modern astronomers, using NASA's three orbiting Great Observatories, are unraveling the mysteries of the expanding remains of Kepler's supernova, the last such object seen to explode in our Milky Way galaxy. When a new star appeared Oct. 9, 1604, observers could use only their eyes to study it. The telescope would not be invented for another four years. A team of modern astronomers has the combined abilities of NASA's Great Observatories, the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Chandra X-ray Observatory, to analyze the remains in infrared radiation, visible light, and X-rays. Ravi Sankrit and William Blair of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore lead the team. The combined image unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust, 14 light-years wide and expanding at 4 million mph. Observations from each telescope highlight distinct features of the supernova, a fast-moving shell of iron-rich material, surrounded by an expanding shock wave sweeping up interstellar gas and dust. Interview with Dr. Ravi Sankrit Interview with Dr. Ravi Sankrit "Multi-wavelength studies are absolutely essential for putting together a complete picture of how supernova remnants evolve," Sankrit said. Sankrit is an associate research scientist, Center for Astrophysical Sciences at Hopkins and lead for HST astronomer observations. "For instance, the infrared data are dominated by heated interstellar dust, while optical and X-ray observations sample different temperatures of gas," Blair added. Blair is a research professor, Physics and Astronomy Department at Hopkins and lead astronomer for SST observations. "A range of

  16. Briefings Set for Launch of Next "Great Observatory" in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    NASA's next Space Shuttle flight will provide astronomers with a new look at the universe and make history with NASA's first female mission commander. Reporters can get an overview of the mission at a series of briefings July 7. The briefings will begin at 9 a.m. EDT at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston. The five-day flight is scheduled for launch no earlier than July 20. STS-93 will be led by U.S. Air Force Colonel Eileen Collins, the first woman to command an American space mission. The flight's primary objective will be to deploy the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, the third of NASA's Great Observatories. Collins and her crew of four will carry Chandra, the heaviest payload ever deployed from the shuttle, into orbit and deploy it approximately seven hours after launch. An upper stage will carry the observatory to its final orbit, more than one-third of the way to the Moon. Chandra will allow scientists to obtain unprecedented X-ray images of exploding stars, black holes and other exotic environments to help them understand the structure and evolution of the universe. The first two briefings will provide an overview of mission operations and science to be conducted by Chandra. The NASA Television Video File will follow at noon. The crew press conference will begin at 2 p.m. EDT. The briefings will be carried live on NASA Television, with question-and-answer capability for reporters covering the event from participating NASA centers. NASA Television is available on transponder 9C of the GE-2 satellite at 85 degrees West longitude, vertical polarization, frequency 3880 MHz, audio of 6.8 MHz. Media planning to attend the briefings must notify the Johnson Space Center newsroom by June 28 to ensure proper badging. Each reporter's name, affiliation and country of citizenship should be faxed to the newsroom at 281/483-2000. IMPORTANT NOTE: Reporters can schedule in-person or telephone interviews STS-93 crew. These interviews will begin at about 3:15 p.m. EDT. Media

  17. Chandra: Ten Years of Amazing Science with a Great Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    We review briefly review the history of the development of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, highlighting certain details that many attendees of this Conference might not be aware of. We then present a selection of scientific highlights of the first 10 years of this remarkable and unique mission.

  18. Estimation of Observatory Geoelectric Fields Induced during Great Magnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, J. J.; Swidinsky, A.

    2014-12-01

    In support of a project for monitoring hazards for electric power grids, we present a new method for estimating electric fields that are induced in the Earth's interior at a particular site during magnetic storms. For this, we adopt a model of the electrical conductivity of the lithosphere that is simple but sufficient to model most variation in the induced geoelectric field: two horizontal layers, each with uniform electrical conductivity properties that can be parameterized by a galvanic distortion tensor. After Laplace transformation of the induction equations into the complex frequency domain, we obtain an electromagnetic impedance function. Upon inverse transformation back to the time domain, convolution of the impedance tensor with a geomagnetic time series yields an estimated geoelectric time series. We optimize the model conductivity parameters using 1-sec resolution magnetic and electric field data collected at the Kakioka magnetic observatory during the October 2003 Halloween storm. We validate the algorithm against Kakioka magnetic and electric field data for the July 2000 Bastille-Day storm. Finally, we infer 1-sec geoelectric fields that were realized (but not directly measured) in Japan during the 1989 Quebec storm. Results highlight the need for improved ground-level monitoring of geomagnetic and geoelectric fields. They also reveal the need for accommodating the galvanic distortion of three-dimensional conductivity when predicting geoelectric fields in the lithosphere and geomagnetically induced currents in electric power grids.

  19. AVOCADO: A Virtual Observatory Census to Address Dwarfs Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Sánchez-Janssen

    2011-12-01

    Dwarf galaxies are by far the most abundant of all galaxy types, yet their properties are still poorly understood-especially due to the observational challenge that their intrinsic faintness represents. AVOCADO aims at establishing firm conclusions on their formation and evolution by constructing a homogeneous, multiwavelength dataset for a statistically significant sample of several thousand nearby dwarfs (-18 < Mi < -14). Using public data and Virtual Observatory tools, we have built GALEX+SDSS+2MASS spectral energy distributions that are fitted by a library of single stellar population models. Star formation rates, stellar masses, ages and metallicities are further complemented with structural parameters that can be used to classify them morphologically. This unique dataset, coupled with a detailed characterization of each dwarf's environment, allows for a fully comprehensive investigation of their origins and to track the (potential) evolutionary paths between the different dwarf types.

  20. The Sun-Solar System Connection Great Observatory: Virtual, but Nearing Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, D. A.; King, J.; Rezapkin, V.

    2005-05-01

    The collection of spacecraft and ground-based observatories that measure photons, fields, and particles from the Sun and solar system can function as a Great Observatory if the resulting data products are united through services that make them seamlessly available to researchers. Virtual Observatories, begun as ways of viewing the sky in all wavelengths from a desktop computer, should allow us to reach this goal. Major strides have been made in designing architectures and operational systems that allow scientists to rapidly gather, visualize, and process widely-distributed data from highly varied instruments. This talk will present the current state-of-the art and a vision for the future of "VS3O." The eGY is very well timed to be a focal point for these efforts on an international scale.

  1. Kepler's Supernova Studied Through the Combined Abilities of NASA's Great Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Four hundred years ago, sky watchers, including the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler, best known as the discoverer of the laws of planetary motion, were startled by the sudden appearance of a new star in the western sky, rivaling the brilliance of the nearby planets. Modern astronomers, using NASA's three orbiting Great Observatories, are unraveling the mysteries of the expanding remains of Kepler's supernova, the last such object seen to explode in our Milky Way galaxy. When a new star appeared Oct. 9, 1604, observers could use only their eyes to study it. The telescope would not be invented for another four years. A team of modern astronomers has the combined abilities of NASA's Great Observatories, the Spritzer Space Telescope (SST), Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), to analyze the remains in infrared radiation, visible light, and X-rays. Visible-light images from Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys reveal where the supernova shock wave is slamming into the densest regions of surrounding gas. The astronomers used the SST to probe for material that radiates in infrared light, which shows heated microscopic dust particles that have been swept up by the supernova shock wave. The CXO data show regions of very hot gas. The combined image unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust, 14 light-years wide and expanding at 4 million mph. There have been six known supernovas in our Milky Way over the past 1,000 years. Kepler's is the only one in which astronomers do not know what type of star exploded. By combining information from all three Great Observatories, astronomers may find the clues they need. Project management for both the HST and CXO programs is the responsibility of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

  2. The Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey: Herschel Image Atlas and Aperture Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Jason K.; Sanders, D. B.; Larson, K. L.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Howell, J. H.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Xu, K. C.; Paladini, R.; Schulz, B.; Shupe, D.; Appleton, P.; Armus, L.; Billot, N.; Chan, B. H. P.; Evans, A. S.; Fadda, D.; Frayer, D. T.; Haan, S.; Ishida, C. M.; Iwasawa, K.; Kim, D.-C.; Lord, S.; Murphy, E.; Petric, A.; Privon, G. C.; Surace, J. A.; Treister, E.

    2017-04-01

    Far-infrared images and photometry are presented for 201 Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies [LIRGs: log ({L}{IR}/{L}ȯ )=11.00{--}11.99, ULIRGs: log ({L}{IR}/{L}ȯ )=12.00{--}12.99], in the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS), based on observations with the Herschel Space Observatory Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) and the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) instruments. The image atlas displays each GOALS target in the three PACS bands (70, 100, and 160 μm) and the three SPIRE bands (250, 350, and 500 μm), optimized to reveal structures at both high and low surface brightness levels, with images scaled to simplify comparison of structures in the same physical areas of ∼100 × 100 kpc2. Flux densities of companion galaxies in merging systems are provided where possible, depending on their angular separation and the spatial resolution in each passband, along with integrated system fluxes (sum of components). This data set constitutes the imaging and photometric component of the GOALS Herschel OT1 observing program, and is complementary to atlases presented for the Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Chandra X-ray Observatory. Collectively, these data will enable a wide range of detailed studies of active galactic nucleus and starburst activity within the most luminous infrared galaxies in the local universe. Based on Herschel Space Observatory observations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by the European-led Principal Investigator consortia, and important participation from NASA.

  3. Supporting the SSSC Great Observatory: S3C Active Archive Data and Services Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalick, T.; McGuire, R.; Bilitza, D.; Candey, R.; Chimiak, R.; Cooper, J.; Fung, S.; Han, D.; Harris, B.; Johnson, R.; Kessel, R.; Klipsch, C.; Leckner, H.; Liu, M.; Papatishvili, N.

    2005-12-01

    The next advances in Sun Solar System Connections (S3C) / Solar-Terrestrial science require an increasingly integrated and transparent data environment, where data can be easily accessed and used across the boundaries of both missions and traditional disciplines. While the data environment to best support the longterm strategic and science goals of the S3C Great Observatory will grow over time, the S3C Active Archive within the Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) already operates uniquely important multi-mission data services with current data from most operating space physics missions. This paper reviews the range of services now available for data and how they are now evolving to meet the future science issues of the Great Observatory program and the needs of programs like LWS/ILWS. The Coordinated Data Analysis [Workshop] Web (CDAWeb) and Satellite Situation Center Web (SSCWeb), critically supported by the Common Data Format (CDF) effort and supplemented by more focused services such as data format translations, COHOWeb, ATMOWeb, FTPBrowser, ModelWeb and HelioWeb, are important current examples suggestive of the scope and functionality needed in the future. These systems serve the broad international community now and are already capable of significant contributions to eGY. Our new Java-based "CDAWeb Plus" interface integrates unified user access to this combined set. Key services increasingly support web services APIs to allow their ready invocation from distributed external middleware and clients expected to form the framework of a new Virtual discipline Observatory (VxO) paradigm for the data environment for NASA solar and space physics data.

  4. NASA's Great Observatories Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy With a National Unveiling of Spectacular Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-02-01

    In 1609, Galileo first turned his telescope to the heavens and gave birth to modern astronomy. To commemorate four hundred years of exploring the universe, 2009 is designated the International Year of Astronomy. NASA's Great Observatories - the Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Chandra X-ray Observatory - are marking the occasion with the release of a suite of images at over 100 planetariums, museums, nature centers, and schools across the country in conjunction with Galileo's birthday on February 15. The selected sites will unveil a large 9-square-foot print of the spiral galaxy Messier 101 that combines the optical view of Hubble, the infrared view of Spitzer, and the X-ray view of Chandra into one multi-wavelength picture. "It's like using your eyes, night vision goggles, and X-ray vision all at the same time," says Dr. Hashima Hasan, lead scientist for the International Year of Astronomy at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Cas A animation Chandra X-ray Image of M101 Participating institutions also will display a matched trio of Hubble, Spitzer, and Chandra images of Messier 101. Each image shows a different wavelength view of the galaxy that illustrates not only the different science uncovered by each observatory, but also just how far astronomy has come since Galileo. Messier 101 is a face-on spiral galaxy about 22 million light-years away in the constellation Ursa Major. It is in many ways similar to, but larger than, our own Milky Way galaxy. Hubble's visible light view shows off the swirls of bright stars and glowing gas that give the galaxy its nickname the Pinwheel Galaxy. In contrast, Spitzer's infrared-light image sees into the spiral arms and reveals the glow of dust lanes where dense clouds can collapse to form new stars. Chandra's X-ray picture uncovers the high-energy features in the galaxy, such as remnants of exploded stars or matter zooming around black holes. The juxtaposition of observations from these three telescopes

  5. Great science observatories in the space station era and OWL efforts in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1998-06-01

    A concept of ``Space Factory'' on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) is described. By following the four great observatories that purposefully took advantage of the Space Transportation System (STS), the next generation of great observatories is considered. These new astronomical projects require a very large optical telescope whose diameter is of the order of 10 m. Space telescope of this size will require careful assembly and tuning by astronauts on orbit before deployment. Once built, it could visualize the universe to the earliest galaxies, and could explore the earth-like planet in other star-system. The ``Space Factory'' would permit other large-scale observatories for construction in space. A step-by-step advancement of the ``Space Factory'' is conceived by including four or five frontier astrophysics programs. Less demanding experiments would precede the construction project of the most demanding optical telescope. A study in Japan to observe the highest energy cosmic rays from space is synchronized with those being carried out by the OWL team in the USA and the AIRWATCH team in Italy. The Japanese efforts are coordinated in a larger program study of the Space SUBARU, which envisages a plan of orbital construction, fine-tuning and eventual deployment of large scale astrophysical instruments into the desired free-flying orbit. A space observatory of the highest energy cosmic rays can be maximized by a cluster of 6 or 7 units of the wide-angle OWL telescopes, each having a field-of-view (FOV) of ~60°. The ultimate viewing area could be up to 6,000 km×6,000 km, the entire horizon for a 1000 km orbit. Within this large detection area about 105 cosmic hadronic events at above 1020 eV would be observed in a year. It also makes possible to observe the highest energy neutrinos from the known source mechanisms; including cosmic photo-production. Neutrino events from Topological Defects, Gamma Ray Burst fireballs and Blazers are observable as frequently

  6. Origin and status of the Great Lakes wolf.

    PubMed

    Koblmüller, Stephan; Nord, Maria; Wayne, Robert K; Leonard, Jennifer A

    2009-06-01

    An extensive debate concerning the origin and taxonomic status of wolf-like canids in the North American Great Lakes region and the consequences for conservation politics regarding these enigmatic predators is ongoing. Using maternally, paternally and biparentally inherited molecular markers, we demonstrate that the Great Lakes wolves are a unique population or ecotype of gray wolves. Furthermore, we show that the Great Lakes wolves experienced high degrees of ancient and recent introgression of coyote and western gray wolf mtDNA and Y-chromosome haplotypes, and that the recent demographic bottleneck caused by persecution and habitat depletion in the early 1900s is not reflected in the genetic data.

  7. Image of the Great Nebula in Andromeda, M31 Taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Both of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2/Einstein Observatory imaging devices were used to observe the Great Nebula in Andromeda, M31. This is a smaller field and more detailed view of the central region of the Great Nebula in Andromeda, M31, taken with the High Resolution Imager. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978.

  8. NASA Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach: Engaging the Public with NASA's Next Great Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Joel David; Jirdeh, Hussein; Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Smith, Denise Anne

    2015-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. STScI and the Office of Public Outreach are committed to bringing awareness of the technology, the excitement, and the future science potential of this great observatory to the public, to educators and students, and to the scientific community, prior to its 2018 launch. We currently engage the full range of the public and scientific communities using a variety of high impact, memorable initiatives, in combination with modern technologies to extend reach, linking the science goals of Webb to the ongoing discoveries being made by Hubble. We have injected Webb-specific content into ongoing E/PO programs: for example, active classroom learning via the STEM Innovation Project (SIP) and 3-D visualizations developed for modern inexpensive platforms, the production and collection of materials for speakers related to any Webb topic (engineering, science, or education), the addition of Webb materials to the Amazing Space programs and updating them for general usage, and the development of simulated Webb observations illustrating the science of the next decade.

  9. Spitzer Space Telescope Leads NASA's Great Observatories to Uncover Black Holes and Other Hidden Objects in the Distant Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-06-01

    Astronomers unveiled the deepest images from NASA's new Spitzer Space Telescope today, and announced the detection of distant objects -- including several supermassive black holes -- that are nearly invisible in even the deepest images from telescopes operating at other wavelengths. Mark Dickinson, of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory in Tucson, Ariz., and Principal Investigator for the new observations, says, "With these ultra-deep Spitzer images, we are easily seeing objects throughout time and space, out to redshifts of 6 or more, where the most distant known galaxies lie. Moreover, we see some objects that are completely invisible to optical telescopes, but whose existence was hinted at by previous observations from the Chandra and Hubble Observatories." Seven of the objects detected in the Spitzer images may be part of the long-sought population of "missing" supermassive black holes that powered the bright cores of the earliest active galaxies. The discovery finally completes a full accounting of all the X-ray sources seen in one of the deepest surveys of the universe ever taken. This detective story required no less than the combined power of NASA's three Great Observatories in space -- the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Spitzer Space Telescope. Each observatory works with different wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, from the high-energy X-rays that Chandra detects, through visible light with Hubble, and into the infrared with Spitzer. The combination of these telescopes yields far more information than any single instrument would. All three telescopes peered out to distances of up to 13 billion light-years toward a small patch of the southern sky containing more than 10,000 galaxies, in a coordinated project called the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (or GOODS, for short). Chandra images detected over two hundred X-ray sources believed to be supermassive black holes lying in the centers of young

  10. NASA and Japanese X-ray observatories Clarify Origin of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Recent observations from NASA and Japanese X-ray observatories have helped clarify one of the long-standing mysteries in astronomy -- the origin of cosmic rays. This image from Japan's Suzaku X-ray observatory shows RXJ1713.7-3946. This supernova remnant is the gaseous remnant of a massive star that exploded. The remnant is about 1,600 years old. The contour lines show where gamma-ray intensity is highest, as measured by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) in Namibia.

  11. The Virtual Great Observatory: Do We Know How to Make It Real?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, R. E.; Roberts, D. A.

    2005-12-01

    The goal of the SSSC Great Observatory (GO), to use "simultaneous measurements in multiple locations ... to resolve temporal and spatial changes and to understand the interactions of complex systems of regimes", demands a future data environment where users can see data resources as an integrated set. Where data from solar and space physics missions, models and services may be highly distributed, such an integrated view is the paradigm of a Virtual Observatory (VO) or inter-connected Virtual discipline Observatories (VxOs). A first concern to achieving an effective VO/VxO environment must always be that the maximum of potentially useful data and models are openly accessible and made readily findable, with appropriate keywords for search engines and registries of products and services for rapid and uniform access to data from geographically distributed sources in a range of formats and described by different sets of terms. But beyond this, there is no agreed and prioritized list of issues and most critical user requirements for the new data environment. The level of community commitment required to develop consensus on the most urgent needs and to make investigation data usefully accessible to the larger environment will be much deeper than has been seen in the past. At the highest level, we believe that science users want easy-to-use interfaces with reasonable functionality across different types of data and robust performance over a wide range of high resolution, high quality and current data. The skills of both solar/space physics investigators and technologists will be required to build and sustain effective coordination and overall data content. There has been some recent success in providing access to files and some basic services from many distributed sources (e.g., VSO, VSPO, and EGSO). But a possible next level of integration, in which variables are labeled and can be subsetted and supplied in standard ways for use by universal tools and in higher

  12. Image of the Great Nebula in Andromeda, M31 Taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Both of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) 2/Einstein Observatory imaging devices were used to observe the Great Nebula in Andromeda, M31. This image is a wide field x-ray view of the center region of M31 by the HEAO-2's Imaging Proportional Counter. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978.

  13. Prototyping a large-scale distributed system for the Great Observatories era - NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shames, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) is a distributed information system intended to support research in the Great Observatories era, to simplify access to data, and to enable simultaneous analyses of multispectral data sets. Here, the user agent and interface, its functions, and system components are examined, and the system architecture and infrastructure is addressed. The present status of the system and related future activities are examined.

  14. Perchlorate in The Great Lakes: Distribution, Isotopic Composition and Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, A.; Sturchio, N. C.; Jackson, W. A.; Guan, Y.; Eiler, J. M.; Hatzinger, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Concentrations, stable chlorine and oxygen isotopic compositions, and 36Cl abundances of perchlorate were investigated in the five Laurentian Great Lakes. Samples were collected during monitoring cruises in 2007 and 2008 of the U.S. EPA's RV Lake Guardian and in 2010 at the water supply intake of Marquette, MI on the southern shore of Lake Superior. Concentrations of perchlorate were measured by IC/MS/MS at 24 locations, including one or two depth profiles in each lake. Mean concentrations (μg/L) are: Superior, 0.06 × 0.01; Michigan, 0.10 × 0.01; Huron, 0.11 × 0.01; Erie, 0.08 × 0.01, and Ontario, 0.09 × 0.01. Concentration vs. depth is nearly constant in each lake, indicating well-mixed conditions. Perchlorate was extracted from near-surface water by passing 15,000 to 80,000 L of water through 1-L cartridges containing Purolite A530E bifunctional anion-exchange resin. In the laboratory, perchlorate was eluted from the resin, purified, and precipitated as a >99% pure crystalline phase. Milligram amounts were recovered from each lake. Chlorine and oxygen isotopic analyses were performed at Caltech using the Cameca 7f-GEO SIMS instrument, following validation of the SIMS method with analyses of USGS-37 and USGS-38 isotopic reference materials. Results indicate a relatively narrow range in δ37Cl values (+2.9 to +3.9 ‰) and a wider range in δ18O values (-4.0 to +4.1 ‰), with a general geographic trend of increasing δ18O from west to east. Oxygen-17 was measured at UIC using dual-inlet IRMS of O2 produced by decomposition of KClO4. Great Lakes perchlorate has mass-independent oxygen isotopic variations with positive Δ17O values (+1.6 ‰ to +2.7 ‰) divided into two distinct groups: Lake Superior (+2.7 ‰) and the other four lakes (~ +1.7 ‰). The isotopic data indicate that perchlorate is dominantly of natural origin, having stable isotopic compositions resembling those of perchlorate from pre-industrial groundwaters in the western USA. The 36Cl

  15. Are the Odds Against the Origin of Life Too Great?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Statistics are offered to "prove" odds against the origin of life. Presents a summary analysis of all known examples to be used to check these claims whenever they are brought up in conversations, debates, books, or articles. Addresses scientific work misused by anti-evolutionists and the pseudoscientific assertions of the…

  16. Carnegie Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Carnegie Observatories were founded in 1902 by George Ellery Hale. Their first facility was the MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY, located in the San Gabriel Mountains above Pasadena, California. Originally a solar observatory, it moved into stellar, galactic and extragalactic research with the construction of the 60 in (1.5 m), and 100 in (2.5 m) telescopes, each of which was the largest in the world...

  17. AGN and Starbursts in Dusty Galaxy Mergers: Insights from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzarella, Joseph M.

    2014-07-01

    The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is combining imaging and spectroscopic data from the Herschel, Spitzer, Hubble, GALEX, Chandra, and XMM-Newton space telescopes augmented with extensive ground-based observations in a multiwavelength study of approximately 180 Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) and 20 Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) that comprise a statistically complete subset of the 60μm-selected IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample. The objects span the full range of galaxy environments (giant isolated spirals, wide and close pairs, minor and major mergers, merger remnants) and nuclear activity types (Seyfert 1, Seyfert 2, LINER, starburst/HII), with proportions that depend strongly on the total infrared luminosity. I will review the science motivations and present highlights of recent results selected from over 25 peer-reviewed journal articles published recently by the GOALS Team. Statistical investigations include detection of high-ionization Fe K emission indicative of deeply embedded AGN, comparison of UV and far-IR properties, investigations of the fraction of extended emission as a function of wavelength derived from mid-IR spectroscopy, mid-IR spectral diagnostics and spectral energy distributions revealing the relative contributions of AGN and starbursts to powering the bolometric luminosity, and quantitative structure analyses that delineate the evolution of stellar bars and nuclear stellar cusps during the merger process. Multiwavelength dissections of individual systems have unveiled large populations of young star clusters and heavily obscured AGN in early-stage (II Zw 96), intermediate-stage (Mrk 266, Mrk 273), and late-stage (NGC 2623, IC 883) mergers. A recently published study that matches numerical simulations to the observed morphology and gas kinematics in mergers has placed four systems on a timeline spanning 175-260 million years after their first passages, and modeling of additional (U)LIRGs is underway. A very

  18. Contributions of the "Great" X-Ray Observatories (XMM-Newton and Chandra) to Astronomy and Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Chandra X-ray Observatory and ESA s XMM-Newton made their first observations over a decade ago. The unprecedented and complementary capabilities of these observatories to detect, image, and measure the energy of cosmic X-rays, achieved less than 50 years after the first detection of an extra-solar X-ray source, represent an increase in sensitivity comparable in going from naked-eye observations to the most powerful optical telescopes over the past 400 years. In this presentation we highlight some of the many discoveries made using these powerful X-ray observatories that have transformed 21st century astronomy. We briefly discuss future prospects for this truly exciting field.

  19. Origin of atmospheric aerosols at the Pierre Auger Observatory using studies of air mass trajectories in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bardenet, R.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Foerster, N.; Fox, B. D.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Preda, T.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Straub, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcău, O.; Thao, N. T.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Curci, G.

    2014-11-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is making significant contributions towards understanding the nature and origin of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. One of its main challenges is the monitoring of the atmosphere, both in terms of its state variables and its optical properties. The aim of this work is to analyse aerosol optical depth τa(z) values measured from 2004 to 2012 at the observatory, which is located in a remote and relatively unstudied area of Pampa Amarilla, Argentina. The aerosol optical depth is in average quite low - annual mean τa(3.5 km) ∼ 0.04 - and shows a seasonal trend with a winter minimum - τa(3.5 km) ∼ 0.03 -, and a summer maximum - τa(3.5 km) ∼ 0.06 -, and an unexpected increase from August to September - τa(3.5 km) ∼ 0.055. We computed backward trajectories for the years 2005 to 2012 to interpret the air mass origin. Winter nights with low aerosol concentrations show air masses originating from the Pacific Ocean. Average concentrations are affected by continental sources (wind-blown dust and urban pollution), whilst the peak observed in September and October could be linked to biomass burning in the northern part of Argentina or air pollution coming from surrounding urban areas.

  20. Gamma-Ray Flashes of Atmospheric Origin. The Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory Guest Investigator Program: Cycle 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallozzi, Robert S.; Fishman, G. J.; Pendleton, G. N.; Inan, U. S.

    2000-01-01

    The BATSE detectors on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory have recorded the first observations of an unexplained terrestrial phenomenon: brief, intense flashes of MeV photons. These events, known as terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, must originate at altitudes above 30 km to be observed by the orbiting detectors. More than 70 of these events have been observed in nine years of observations. The most likely origin of these high-energy photons is bremsstrahlung from relativistic electrons from high altitude electrical discharges above thunderstorm regions. We proposed to analyze observations of temporal and spectral properties of these events, and to produce a catalog of event characteristics. Temporal correlations with radio observations made at Palmer Station, Antarctica and spatial correlations with satellite images of thunderstorm regions near GRO during these events were investigated, aiding in verification and testing of proposed theoretical models of the atmospheric processes believed to be responsible for these unique observations.

  1. On the origin and age of the Great Sand Dunes, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madole, Richard F.; Romig, Joe H.; Aleinikoff, John N.; VanSistine, D. Paco; Yacob, Ezra Y.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past 100 yr, several hypotheses have been proposed for the origin and age of the Great Sand Dunes. These hypotheses differ widely in the descriptions of dune morphometry, the immediate source of eolian sand, and when sand transport occurred. The primary purpose of this paper is to evaluate these hypotheses and, where warranted, to present new ideas about the origin and age of the Great Sand Dunes. To evaluate the previous hypotheses, we had to develop more detailed information about the surficial geology of the northern San Luis Valley. Thus, we mapped the surficial geology of an area extending several tens of kilometers north, south, and west of the Great Sand Dunes and examined subsurface stratigraphy in more than 200 wells and borings. In addition, we used relative-dating criteria and several radiocarbon and OSL ages to establish the chronology of surficial deposits, and we determined the U-Pb ages of detrital zircons to obtain information about the sources of the sand in the Great Sand Dunes. The first principal finding of this study is that the lower part of the closed basin north of the Rio Grande, referred to here as the sump, is the immediate source of the sand in the Great Sand Dunes, rather than the late Pleistocene flood plain of the Rio Grande (the most widely accepted hypothesis). A second principal finding is that the Great Sand Dunes are older than late Pleistocene. They postdate the draining of Lake Alamosa, which began ˜ 440 ka, and predate the time when streams draining the west flank of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains were deflected by incipient dunes that formed near the mountain front. Geomorphic and stratigraphic evidence indicate that this deflection occurred prior to the end of the next to last glaciation (Bull Lake), i.e., prior to ˜ 130 ka.

  2. On the origin and age of the Great Sand Dunes, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madole, R.F.; Romig, J.H.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; VanSistine, D.P.; Yacob, E.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 100??yr, several hypotheses have been proposed for the origin and age of the Great Sand Dunes. These hypotheses differ widely in the descriptions of dune morphometry, the immediate source of eolian sand, and when sand transport occurred. The primary purpose of this paper is to evaluate these hypotheses and, where warranted, to present new ideas about the origin and age of the Great Sand Dunes. To evaluate the previous hypotheses, we had to develop more detailed information about the surficial geology of the northern San Luis Valley. Thus, we mapped the surficial geology of an area extending several tens of kilometers north, south, and west of the Great Sand Dunes and examined subsurface stratigraphy in more than 200 wells and borings. In addition, we used relative-dating criteria and several radiocarbon and OSL ages to establish the chronology of surficial deposits, and we determined the U-Pb ages of detrital zircons to obtain information about the sources of the sand in the Great Sand Dunes. The first principal finding of this study is that the lower part of the closed basin north of the Rio Grande, referred to here as the sump, is the immediate source of the sand in the Great Sand Dunes, rather than the late Pleistocene flood plain of the Rio Grande (the most widely accepted hypothesis). A second principal finding is that the Great Sand Dunes are older than late Pleistocene. They postdate the draining of Lake Alamosa, which began ??? 440??ka, and predate the time when streams draining the west flank of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains were deflected by incipient dunes that formed near the mountain front. Geomorphic and stratigraphic evidence indicate that this deflection occurred prior to the end of the next to last glaciation (Bull Lake), i.e., prior to ??? 130??ka.

  3. The upGREAT 1.9 THz multi-pixel high resolution spectrometer for the SOFIA Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risacher, C.; Güsten, R.; Stutzki, J.; Hübers, H.-W.; Bell, A.; Buchbender, C.; Büchel, D.; Csengeri, T.; Graf, U. U.; Heyminck, S.; Higgins, R. D.; Honingh, C. E.; Jacobs, K.; Klein, B.; Okada, Y.; Parikka, A.; Pütz, P.; Reyes, N.; Ricken, O.; Riquelme, D.; Simon, R.; Wiesemeyer, H.

    2016-10-01

    We present a new multi-pixel high resolution (R ≳ 107) spectrometer for the Stratospheric Observatory for Far-Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). The receiver uses 2 × 7-pixel subarrays in orthogonal polarization, each in an hexagonal array around a central pixel. We present the first results for this new instrument after commissioning campaigns in May and December 2015 and after science observations performed in May 2016. The receiver is designed to ultimately cover the full 1.8-2.5 THz frequency range but in its first implementation, the observing range was limited to observations of the [CII] line at 1.9 THz in 2015 and extended to 1.83-2.07 THz in 2016. The instrument sensitivities are state-of-the-art and the first scientific observations performed shortly after the commissioning confirm that the time efficiency for large scale imaging is improved by more than an order of magnitude as compared to single pixel receivers. An example of large scale mapping around the Horsehead Nebula is presented here illustrating this improvement. The array has been added to SOFIA's instrument suite already for ongoing observing cycle 4. The datacube of the Horsehead observations is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/595/A34

  4. Origin, Specification, and Plasticity of the Great Vessels of the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Nagelberg, Danielle; Wang, Jinhu; Su, Rina; Torres-Vázquez, Jesús; Targoff, Kimara L.; Poss, Kenneth D.; Knaut, Holger

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The pharyngeal arch arteries (PAAs) are a series of paired embryonic blood vessels that give rise to several major arteries that connect directly to the heart. During development, the PAAs emerge from nkx2.5-expressing mesodermal cells and connect the dorsal head vasculature to the outflow tract of the heart. Despite their central role in establishing the circulatory system, the embryonic origins of the PAA progenitors are only coarsely defined, and the factors that specify them and their regenerative potential are unclear. Using fate mapping and mutant analysis, we find that PAA progenitors are derived from the tcf21 and nkx2.5 double-positive head mesoderm and require these two transcription factors for their specification and survival. Unexpectedly, cell ablation shows that the tcf21+; nkx2.5+ PAA progenitors are not required for PAA formation. We find that this compensation is due to the replacement of ablated tcf21+; nkx2.5+ PAA cells by endothelial cells from the dorsal head vasculature. Together, these studies assign the embryonic origin of the great vessel progenitors to the interface between the pharyngeal and cardiac mesoderm, identify the transcription factor code required for their specification, and reveal an unexpected plasticity in the formation of the great vessels. PMID:26255850

  5. The Origin of Basin of Great Lakes in Western Mongolia: Glaciated Super Valley, Not Super Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khukhuudei, Ulambadrakh; Otgonbayar, Orolzodmaa

    2015-04-01

    Research for morphology, its origin of the Basin of Great Lakes in Western Mongolia, is few and far between, particularly, any in recent years. The origin of the morphology of the basin presents a new study, combining previous study materials, their results and interpreting the digital photos. Also the main bases of theory is Pleistocene Last Glacial Maximum distribution. Many scholars have proven that global glaciation covered many areas of the Northern Hemisphere during the Pleistocene era. This global glaciation occurred in the northwest part of Mongolia to Mongolian Altay, Khangay and Khuvsgul mountain range. At the same time, the present appearance of basin that developed inheriting since the Mesozoic era, forms by global glaciation. The morphology of Basin of Great Lakes is super trough or glaciated super valley. At current day, "knock and lochan" topography (scoured region) and rock drumlins lie in the central part of the basin. Huge meltwater from this glaciation formed Shargasub-basin as a super kettle hole by erosion and overflowed water from it formed pluvial basins or big lakes in the Lake Valley.

  6. Climatic influences on wood anatomy and tree-ring features of Great Basin conifers at a new mountain observatory1

    PubMed Central

    Ziaco, Emanuele; Biondi, Franco; Rossi, Sergio; Deslauriers, Annie

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: A network of mountain observing stations has been installed in the Great Basin of North America. NevCAN (Nevada Climate-ecohydrological Assessment Network), which spans a latitudinal range of 2.5° and two elevation ranges of about 2000 m each, enabled us to investigate tree growth in relation to climate. • Methods: We analyzed wood anatomy and tree-ring characteristics of four conifer species in response to different levels of water availability by comparing a low- and a high-elevation population. Chronologies of earlywood and latewood widths, as well as cellular parameters, were developed from the year 2000 to 2012. • Results: At the southern (drier and warmer) sites, Pinus monophylla had smaller cell lumen, tracheid diameter, and cell wall thickness. Pinus monophylla and P. flexilis showed bigger cellular elements at the higher elevations, whereas the opposite pattern was found in Picea engelmannii and Pinus longaeva. When all species and sites were pooled together, stem diameter was positively related with earlywood anatomical parameters. • Discussion: We have provided a glimpse of the applications that NevCAN, as a new scientific tool, could allow in the general field of botany. In particular, we were able to investigate how differences in water stress related to elevation lead to changes in xylem anatomy. PMID:25309838

  7. A unique Middle Miocene European hominoid and the origins of the great ape and human clade

    PubMed Central

    Moyà-Solà, Salvador; Alba, David M.; Almécija, Sergio; Casanovas-Vilar, Isaac; Köhler, Meike; De Esteban-Trivigno, Soledad; Robles, Josep M.; Galindo, Jordi; Fortuny, Josep

    2009-01-01

    The great ape and human clade (Primates: Hominidae) currently includes orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos, and humans. When, where, and from which taxon hominids evolved are among the most exciting questions yet to be resolved. Within the Afropithecidae, the Kenyapithecinae (Kenyapithecini + Equatorini) have been proposed as the sister taxon of hominids, but thus far the fragmentary and scarce Middle Miocene fossil record has hampered testing this hypothesis. Here we describe a male partial face with mandible of a previously undescribed fossil hominid, Anoiapithecus brevirostris gen. et sp. nov., from the Middle Miocene (11.9 Ma) of Spain, which enables testing this hypothesis. Morphological and geometric morphometrics analyses of this material show a unique facial pattern for hominoids. This taxon combines autapomorphic features—such as a strongly reduced facial prognathism—with kenyapithecine (more specifically, kenyapithecin) and hominid synapomorphies. This combination supports a sister-group relationship between kenyapithecins (Griphopithecus + Kenyapithecus) and hominids. The presence of both groups in Eurasia during the Middle Miocene and the retention in kenyapithecins of a primitive hominoid postcranial body plan support a Eurasian origin of the Hominidae. Alternatively, the two extant hominid clades (Homininae and Ponginae) might have independently evolved in Africa and Eurasia from an ancestral, Middle Miocene stock, so that the supposed crown-hominid synapomorphies might be homoplastic. PMID:19487676

  8. Great ape origins of personality maturation and sex differences: a study of orangutans and chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Alexander; King, James E

    2015-04-01

    Human personality development evinces increased emotional stability, prosocial tendencies, and responsibility. One hypothesis offered to explain this pattern is Social-Investment Theory, which posits that culturally defined social roles, including marriage and employment, are responsible for the increased maturity. Alternatively, Five-Factor Theory emphasizes the role of biological factors, such as those governing physical development, which may predate the emergence of humans. Five-Factor Theory, unlike Social-Investment Theory, predicts that all or some of the human personality developmental trends should be present in great apes, our closest evolutionary relatives. To test this prediction and to better understand the evolutionary origins of sex differences, we examined age and sex differences in the chimpanzee and orangutan personality domains Extraversion, Dominance, Neuroticism, and Agreeableness. We also examined the Activity and Gregariousness facets of Extraversion and the orangutan Intellect domain. Extraversion and Neuroticism declined across age groups in both species, in common with humans. A significant interaction indicated that Agreeableness declined in orangutans but increased in chimpanzees, as it does in humans, though this may reflect differences in how Agreeableness was defined in each species. Significant interactions indicated that male chimpanzees, unlike male orangutans, displayed higher Neuroticism scores than females and maintained higher levels of Activity and Dominance into old age than female chimpanzees, male orangutans, and female orangutans. Personality-age correlations were comparable across orangutans and chimpanzees and were similar to those reported in human studies. Sex differences were stronger in chimpanzees than in humans or orangutans. These findings support Five-Factor Theory, suggest the role of gene-culture coevolution in shaping personality development, and suggest that sex differences evolved independently in different

  9. Coral reef origins of atmospheric dimethylsulfide at Heron Island, southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, Hilton B.; Jones, Graham B.; Deschaseaux, Elisabeth S. M.; Eyre, Bradley D.

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric dimethylsulfide (DMSa), continually derived from the world's oceans, is a feed gas for the tropospheric production of new sulfate particles, leading to cloud condensation nuclei that influence the formation and properties of marine clouds and ultimately the Earth's radiation budget. Previous studies on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, have indicated coral reefs are significant sessile sources of DMSa capable of enhancing the tropospheric DMSa burden mainly derived from phytoplankton in the surface ocean; however, specific environmental evidence of coral reef DMS emissions and their characteristics is lacking. By using on-site automated continuous analysis of DMSa and meteorological parameters at Heron Island in the southern GBR, we show that the coral reef was the source of occasional spikes of DMSa identified above the oceanic DMSa background signal. In most instances, these DMSa spikes were detected at low tide under low wind speeds, indicating they originated from the lagoonal platform reef surrounding the island, although evidence of longer-range transport of DMSa from a 70 km stretch of coral reefs in the southern GBR was also observed. The most intense DMSa spike occurred in the winter dry season at low tide when convective precipitation fell onto the aerially exposed platform reef. This co-occurrence of events appeared to biologically shock the coral resulting in a seasonally aberrant extreme DMSa spike concentration of 45.9 nmol m-3 (1122 ppt). Seasonal DMS emission fluxes for the 2012 wet season and 2013 dry season campaigns at Heron Island were 5.0 and 1.4 µmol m-2 day-1, respectively, of which the coral reef was estimated to contribute 4 % during the wet season and 14 % during the dry season to the dominant oceanic flux.

  10. A Virtual Observatory Census to Address Dwarfs Origins (AVOCADO). I. Science goals, sample selection, and analysis tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Amorín, R.; García-Vargas, M.; Gomes, J. M.; Huertas-Company, M.; Jiménez-Esteban, F.; Mollá, M.; Papaderos, P.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Rodrigo, C.; Sánchez Almeida, J.; Solano, E.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Even though they are by far the most abundant of all galaxy types, the detailed properties of dwarf galaxies are still only poorly characterised - especially because of the observational challenge that their intrinsic faintness and weak clustering properties represent. Aims: AVOCADO aims at establishing firm conclusions on the formation and evolution of dwarf galaxies by constructing and analysing a homogeneous, multiwavelength dataset for a statistically significant sample of approximately 6500 nearby dwarfs (Mi - 5 log h100 > - 18 mag). The sample is selected to lie within the 20 < D < 60 h100-1 Mpc volume covered by the SDSS-DR7 footprint, and is thus volume-limited for Mi - 5 log h100 < -16 mag dwarfs - but includes ≈1500 fainter systems. We will investigate the roles of mass and environment in determining the current properties of the different dwarf morphological types - including their structure, their star formation activity, their chemical enrichment history, and a breakdown of their stellar, dust, and gas content. Methods: We present the sample selection criteria and describe the suite of analysis tools, some of them developed in the framework of the Virtual Observatory. We use optical spectra and UV-to-NIR imaging of the dwarf sample to derive star formation rates, stellar masses, ages, and metallicities - which are supplemented with structural parameters that are used to classify them morphologically. This unique dataset, coupled with a detailed characterisation of each dwarf's environment, allows for a fully comprehensive investigation of their origins and enables us to track the (potential) evolutionary paths between the different dwarf types. Results: We characterise the local environment of all dwarfs in our sample, paying special attention to trends with current star formation activity. We find that virtually all quiescent dwarfs are located in the vicinity (projected distances ≲ 1.5 h100-1 Mpc) of ≳ L∗ companions, consistent with

  11. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This book contains lesson plans that provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into elementary subjects. The book is divided into three subject areas: (1) History, which includes the origins of the Great Lakes, Great Lakes people, and shipwrecks; (2) Social Studies, which covers government, acid rain as a…

  12. After a dozen years of progress the origin of angiosperms is still a great mystery.

    PubMed

    Frohlich, Michael W; Chase, Mark W

    2007-12-20

    Here we discuss recent advances surrounding the origin of angiosperms. Putatively primitive characters are now much better understood because of a vastly improved understanding of angiosperm phylogenetics, and recent discoveries of fossil flowers have provided an increasingly detailed picture of early diversity in the angiosperms. The 'anthophyte theory', the dominant concept of the 1980s and 1990s, has been eclipsed; Gnetales, previously thought to be closest to the angiosperms, are related instead to other extant gymnosperms, probably most closely to conifers. Finally, new theories of flower origins have been proposed based on gene function, duplication and loss, as well as on morphology. Further studies of genetic mechanisms that control reproductive development in seed plants provide a most promising avenue for further research, including tests of these recent theories. Identification of fossils with morphologies that convincingly place them close to angiosperms could still revolutionize understanding of angiosperm origins.

  13. New data on mitochondrial diversity and origin of Hemimysis anomala in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Questel, Jennifer M.; Walsh, Maureen G.; Smith, Randall J.; Welsh, Amy B.

    2012-01-01

    The most recent Ponto-Caspian species to invade the Laurentian Great Lakes is the crustacean Hemimysis anomala, first reported in 2006. A previous study described three haplotype groups (A, B, C) of H. anomala in native and invaded areas within Europe, but only one haplotype (A1) in a sample from Lake Michigan. Our study expands these results to additional populations in the Great Lakes basin, and evaluates relationships among North American and European populations. A 549-bp fragment of themitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene was analyzed from populations of H. anomala in Lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron, and the St. Lawrence River.Two different haplotypes, A1 and B1,were observed in the sampled populations of H. anomala and in a previous analysis from H. anomala in Oneida Lake (New York). Our results, in contrast with a previous study, detect an additional haplotype in North America.

  14. Recently recovered Kenyapithecus mandible and its implications for great ape and human origins.

    PubMed Central

    McCrossin, M L; Benefit, B R

    1993-01-01

    We report here a Kenyapithecus africanus juvenile mandible recovered from middle Miocene (ca. 14-16 million years) deposits of Maboko Island (Lake Victoria), Kenya. Symphyseal and dental attributes of the mandible distinguish K. africanus, a species widely regarded as the earliest known member of the great ape and human clade, from other Miocene large-bodied hominoids. The Maboko Island mandible exhibits a markedly proclined symphyseal axis, massive inferior transverse torus, mesiodistally narrow, high-crowned, and strongly procumbent lateral incisor, and molars with cingula restricted to the median buccal cleft. Although the presence of some of these conditions in Kenyapithecus was suggested earlier, the fragmentary and ill-preserved nature of previously known specimens led certain authorities to doubt their validity. Our assessment of mandibular and dental morphology indicates that K. africanus diverged after Proconsul and Griphopithecus but prior to the last common ancestor of Sivapithecus, extant great apes, and humans. The robustly constructed mandibular symphysis and anterior dentition suggest that incisal biting played as important a role as thick molar enamel in the dietary adaptations of K. africanus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8446615

  15. Characterization and origin of polar dissolved organic matter from the Great Salt Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Noyes, T.I.; Rostad, C.E.; Davisson, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    Polar dissolved organic matter (DOM) was isolated from a surface-water sample from the Great Salt Lake by separating it from colloidal organic matter by membrane dialysis, from less-polar DOM fractions by resin sorbents, and from inorganic salts by a combination of sodium cation exchange followed by precipitation of sodium salts by acetic acid during evaporative concentration. Polar DOM was the most abundant DOM fraction, accounting for 56% of the isolated DOM. Colloidal organic matter was 14C-age dated to be about 100% modern carbon and all of the DOM fractions were 14C-age dated to be between 94 and 95% modern carbon. Average structural models of each DOM fraction were derived that incorporated quantitative elemental and infrared, 13C-NMR, and electrospray/mass spectrometric data. The polar DOM model consisted of open-chain N-acetyl hydroxy carboxylic acids likely derived from N-acetyl heteropolysaccharides that constituted the colloidal organic matter. The less polar DOM fraction models consisted of aliphatic alicyclic ring structures substituted with carboxyl, hydroxyl, ether, ester, and methyl groups. These ring structures had characteristics similar to terpenoid precursors. All DOM fractions in the Great Salt Lake are derived from algae and bacteria that dominate DOM inputs in this lake.

  16. Constraints on the Origin of Cosmic Rays above 1018 eV from Large-scale Anisotropy Searches in Data of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antiči'c, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buroker, L.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos Diaz, J.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; del Río, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Messina, S.; Meurer, C.; Meyhandan, R.; Mi'canovi'c, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Peķala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H. H.; Sima, O.; 'Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano Garcia, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2013-01-01

    A thorough search for large-scale anisotropies in the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays detected above 1018 eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory is reported. For the first time, these large-scale anisotropy searches are performed as a function of both the right ascension and the declination and expressed in terms of dipole and quadrupole moments. Within the systematic uncertainties, no significant deviation from isotropy is revealed. Upper limits on dipole and quadrupole amplitudes are derived under the hypothesis that any cosmic ray anisotropy is dominated by such moments in this energy range. These upper limits provide constraints on the production of cosmic rays above 1018 eV, since they allow us to challenge an origin from stationary galactic sources densely distributed in the galactic disk and emitting predominantly light particles in all directions.

  17. CONSTRAINTS ON THE ORIGIN OF COSMIC RAYS ABOVE 10{sup 18} eV FROM LARGE-SCALE ANISOTROPY SEARCHES IN DATA OF THE PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Antici'c, T.; Arganda, E.; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration; and others

    2013-01-01

    A thorough search for large-scale anisotropies in the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays detected above 10{sup 18} eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory is reported. For the first time, these large-scale anisotropy searches are performed as a function of both the right ascension and the declination and expressed in terms of dipole and quadrupole moments. Within the systematic uncertainties, no significant deviation from isotropy is revealed. Upper limits on dipole and quadrupole amplitudes are derived under the hypothesis that any cosmic ray anisotropy is dominated by such moments in this energy range. These upper limits provide constraints on the production of cosmic rays above 10{sup 18} eV, since they allow us to challenge an origin from stationary galactic sources densely distributed in the galactic disk and emitting predominantly light particles in all directions.

  18. Performance as Promised: How the Chandra X-ray Observatory Accomplished One of Nasa's Most Challenging Missions for Billions of Dollars Less than Originally Planned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Greg; Hefner, Keith

    2004-01-01

    As the nation looks toward bold new ventures in space, the Chandra X-ray Observatory program offers an example of how billion-dollar missions can be successfully developed within tightening fiscal constraints. Chandra experienced many of challenges facing bold space programs (state-of-the-art technical requirements and budget-induced slips and restructurings), and yet the Chandra team achieved nearly all the originally envisioned performance for dramatically lower cost. This was accomplished by a combination of team- work, systems engineering, advanced technology insertion, and effective approaches for program implementation. A thorough tradeoff of science utility vs. cost led to the selection of a highly elliptical orbit with uncrewed robotic delivery, deployment, and maintenance. Progressive, focused technology demonstrations were accomplished prior to commitment of major resources to critical elements of the system design, such as the high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA). Pathfinder hardware was developed to reduce risks. A variety of schedule risk reduction measures were implemented and resulted in the X-ray calibration taking place exactly within five days of its originally planned date after after five years of development. The team worked together in an effective manner to contain requirements creep. reductions such as the ACIS-2 chip device. It is estimated that the above combination of measures achieved the avoidance of over $4B in costs, while enabling a highly successful mission.

  19. Observatories: History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisciunas, K.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    An astronomical OBSERVATORY is a building, installation or institution dedicated to the systematic and regular observation of celestial objects for the purpose of understanding their physical nature, or for purposes of time reckoning and keeping the calendar. At a bona fide observatory such work constitutes a main activity, not just an incidental one. While the ancient Egyptians, Babylonians, Chi...

  20. Astronomical observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, D. N.

    1983-01-01

    The layout and equipment of astronomical observatories, the oldest scientific institutions of human society are discussed. The example of leading observatories of the USSR allows the reader to familiarize himself with both their modern counterparts, as well as the goals and problems on which astronomers are presently working.

  1. Taosi Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    Taosi observatory is the remains of a structure discovered at the later Neolithic Taosi site located in Xiangfen County, Shanxi Province, in north-central China. The structure is a walled enclosure on a raised platform. Only rammed-earth foundations of the structure remained. Archaeoastronomical studies suggest that this structure functioned as an astronomical observatory. Historical circumstantial evidence suggests that it was probably related to the legendary kingdom of Yao from the twenty-first century BC.

  2. Architecture, heterogeneity, and origin of late Miocene fluvial deposits hosting the most important aquifer in the Great Plains, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joeckel, R. M.; Wooden, S. R.; Korus, J. T.; Garbisch, J. O.

    2014-08-01

    The Ash Hollow Formation (AHF) of the Ogallala Group is an important sedimentary archive of the emergence of the Great Plains and it contains major groundwater resources. Stratal patterns of constituent alluvial lithofacies demonstrate that the AHF is much more heterogeneous than is commonly assumed. Very fine- to fine-grained sandstone dominate overall, chiefly lithofacies Sm (massive to locally stratified sandstone). Stacked, thin sheets of Sm with accretionary macroform surfaces are common, indicating that many sandstone architectural elements originated as compound-bar deposits in dominantly sand-bed streams. Channel forms are difficult to identify and steep cutbanks are absent. Multiple units of lithofacies Sm show dense, and sometimes deep, burrowing by insects well above water tables under ancient floodplains. Massive, pedogenically modified siltstones (Fm), which compose floodplain fine architectural elements, are subsidiary in volumetric abundance to sandstones. Paleosols in these siltstones lack evidence for well-developed B horizons and advanced stages of maturity. Thin lenses of impure carbonate and laminated mud (lithofacies association Fl + C), which appear in most exposures, are deposits of ponded water in abandoned channels. Paleosols, ponded-water elements, and large vertebrate burrows in both Sm and Fm indicate that episodes of floodplain deposition, bar accretion, and channel filling were regularly followed by intervals of nondeposition on floodplains and by channel migration and abandonment. This study documents a major downdip change in the Ogallala Group overall, from source-proximal gravelly successions in the Wyoming Gangplank and deep, narrow paleovalley fills extending eastward into the Nebraska Panhandle. The lithofacies composition, stratigraphic architecture, and stratal dimensions of the AHF in the present study area are compatible with the planform geometries and floodplain soils of modestly-sized, sandy, low-sinuosity braided streams

  3. Evolution and origin of sympatric shallow-water morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, in Canada's Great Bear Lake.

    PubMed

    Harris, L N; Chavarie, L; Bajno, R; Howland, K L; Wiley, S H; Tonn, W M; Taylor, E B

    2015-01-01

    Range expansion in north-temperate fishes subsequent to the retreat of the Wisconsinan glaciers has resulted in the rapid colonization of previously unexploited, heterogeneous habitats and, in many situations, secondary contact among conspecific lineages that were once previously isolated. Such ecological opportunity coupled with reduced competition likely promoted morphological and genetic differentiation within and among post-glacial fish populations. Discrete morphological forms existing in sympatry, for example, have now been described in many species, yet few studies have directly assessed the association between morphological and genetic variation. Morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, are found in several large-lake systems including Great Bear Lake (GBL), Northwest Territories, Canada, where several shallow-water forms are known. Here, we assess microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation among four morphotypes of Lake Trout from the five distinct arms of GBL, and also from locations outside of this system to evaluate several hypotheses concerning the evolution of morphological variation in this species. Our data indicate that morphotypes of Lake Trout from GBL are genetically differentiated from one another, yet the morphotypes are still genetically more similar to one another compared with populations from outside of this system. Furthermore, our data suggest that Lake Trout colonized GBL following dispersal from a single glacial refugium (the Mississippian) and support an intra-lake model of divergence. Overall, our study provides insights into the origins of morphological and genetic variation in post-glacial populations of fishes and provides benchmarks important for monitoring Lake Trout biodiversity in a region thought to be disproportionately susceptible to impacts from climate change.

  4. Evolution and origin of sympatric shallow-water morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, in Canada's Great Bear Lake

    PubMed Central

    Harris, L N; Chavarie, L; Bajno, R; Howland, K L; Wiley, S H; Tonn, W M; Taylor, E B

    2015-01-01

    Range expansion in north-temperate fishes subsequent to the retreat of the Wisconsinan glaciers has resulted in the rapid colonization of previously unexploited, heterogeneous habitats and, in many situations, secondary contact among conspecific lineages that were once previously isolated. Such ecological opportunity coupled with reduced competition likely promoted morphological and genetic differentiation within and among post-glacial fish populations. Discrete morphological forms existing in sympatry, for example, have now been described in many species, yet few studies have directly assessed the association between morphological and genetic variation. Morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, are found in several large-lake systems including Great Bear Lake (GBL), Northwest Territories, Canada, where several shallow-water forms are known. Here, we assess microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation among four morphotypes of Lake Trout from the five distinct arms of GBL, and also from locations outside of this system to evaluate several hypotheses concerning the evolution of morphological variation in this species. Our data indicate that morphotypes of Lake Trout from GBL are genetically differentiated from one another, yet the morphotypes are still genetically more similar to one another compared with populations from outside of this system. Furthermore, our data suggest that Lake Trout colonized GBL following dispersal from a single glacial refugium (the Mississippian) and support an intra-lake model of divergence. Overall, our study provides insights into the origins of morphological and genetic variation in post-glacial populations of fishes and provides benchmarks important for monitoring Lake Trout biodiversity in a region thought to be disproportionately susceptible to impacts from climate change. PMID:25204304

  5. Keele Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodorus van Loon, Jacco; Albinson, James; Bagnall, Alan; Bryant, Lian; Caisley, Dave; Doody, Stephen; Johnson, Ian; Klimczak, Paul; Maddison, Ron; Robinson, StJohn; Stretch, Matthew; Webb, John

    2015-08-01

    Keele Observatory was founded by Dr. Ron Maddison in 1962, on the hill-top campus of Keele University in central England, hosting the 1876 Grubb 31cm refractor from Oxford Observatory. It since acquired a 61cm research reflector, a 15cm Halpha solar telescope and a range of other telescopes. Run by a group of volunteering engineers and students under directorship of a Keele astrophysicist, it is used for public outreach as well as research. About 4,000 people visit the observatory every year, including a large number of children. We present the facility, its history - including involvement in the 1919 Eddington solar eclipse expedition which proved Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity - and its ambitions to erect a radio telescope on its site.

  6. Dudley Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Dudley Observatory, in Schenectady, New York, is a private foundation supporting research and education in astronomy, astrophysics and the history of astronomy. Chartered in 1852, it is the oldest organization in the US, outside academia and government, dedicated to the support of astronomical research. For more than a century it was a world leader in astrometry, with such achievements as pub...

  7. Tools for Coordinated Planning Between Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeremy; Fishman, Mark; Grella, Vince; Kerbel, Uri; Maks, Lori; Misra, Dharitri; Pell, Vince; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    With the realization of NASA's era of great observatories, there are now more than three space-based telescopes operating in different wavebands. This situation provides astronomers with a unique opportunity to simultaneously observe with multiple observatories. Yet scheduling multiple observatories simultaneously is highly inefficient when compared to observations using only one single observatory. Thus, programs using multiple observatories are limited not due to scientific restrictions, but due to operational inefficiencies. At present, multi-observatory programs are conducted by submitting observing proposals separately to each concerned observatory. To assure that the proposed observations can be scheduled, each observatory's staff has to check that the observations are valid and meet all the constraints for their own observatory; in addition, they have to verify that the observations satisfy the constraints of the other observatories. Thus, coordinated observations require painstaking manual collaboration among the observatory staff at each observatory. Due to the lack of automated tools for coordinated observations, this process is time consuming, error-prone, and the outcome of the requests is not certain until the very end. To increase observatory operations efficiency, such manpower intensive processes need to undergo re-engineering. To overcome this critical deficiency, Goddard Space Flight Center's Advanced Architectures and Automation Branch is developing a prototype effort called the Visual Observation Layout Tool (VOLT). The main objective of the VOLT project is to provide visual tools to help automate the planning of coordinated observations by multiple astronomical observatories, as well as to increase the scheduling probability of all observations.

  8. Grand Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eric W.

    2002-01-01

    Various concepts have been recently presented for a 100 m class astronomical observatory. The science virtues of such an observatory are many: resolving planets orbiting around other stars, resolving the surface features of other stars, extending our temporal reach back toward the beginning (at and before stellar and galactic development), improving on the Next Generation Space Telescope, and other (perhaps as yet) undiscovered purposes. This observatory would be a general facility instrument with wide spectral range from at least the near ultraviolet to the mid infrared. The concept espoused here is based on a practical, modular design located in a place where temperatures remain (and instruments could operate) within several degrees of absolute zero with no shielding or cooling. This location is the bottom of a crater located near the north or south pole of the moon, most probably the South Polar Depression. In such a location the telescope would never see the sun or the earth, hence the profound cold and absence of stray light. The ideal nature of this location is elaborated herein. It is envisioned that this observatory would be assembled and maintained remotely through the use of expert robotic systems. A base station would be located above the crater rim with (at least occasional) direct line-of-sight access to the earth. Certainly it would be advantageous, but not absolutely essential, to have humans travel to the site to deal with unexpected contingencies. Further, observers and their teams could eventually travel there for extended observational campaigns. Educational activities, in general, could be furthered thru extended human presence. Even recreational visitors and long term habitation might follow.

  9. The Second Great Thermal Event from the History of the Solar System as Origin of the Lunar Asymmetries and Paleomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neagu, A.

    1993-07-01

    To explain the origin of the natural remanent magnetism (NRM) of lunar rocks [1,2] and lunar asymmetries [3-5], many models suppose an asymmetric arrangement of matter within the early Moon [6,7]. Presented here is a model of lunar evolution that explains both the appearance of the lunar asymmetries and the presence of a high lunar palaeomagnetic field in the vicinity of 3.9 Ga starting from a symmetrically differentiated Moon. According to this model, less than 0.2 Ga after its formation as a completely molten planetary body, the Moon differentiated in concentric layers to form an anorthositic crust, a mantle, and an iron core [8]. Lunar asymmetries appeared at about 3.9 Ga ago when the Sun underwent a very violent explosive phase, generating the second great thermal event (SGTE) from the history of the solar system. Solar plasma into expansion interacted with the solar system bodies, erasing previous records on a large part of their surfaces and generating thermal effects of various kinds. Figure 1 presents the manner in which the solar plasma "excavated" within the lunar crust. The result was the displacement of the lunar center-of-figure (CF) and center-of mass (CM) from O in their present positions [3-5]. A similar "excavation" within the primordial crust of the Earth generated the appearance of a protocontinental land (Proto-Pangaea). Eccentric placement of the lunar core immediately after SGTE occurrence and its movement toward the new position of the lunar CM, along with change of the lunar spin into a synchronous rotation, generated lunar internal motions vigorously enough to drive lunar dynamo. Figure 2 presents the lunar palaeomagnetic field intensity as a function of time according to this scenario. Immediately after SGTE occurrence, the lunar crust was subjected to intensive bombardment with impacting masses belonging to Population II impactors [9]. The larger impacts generated zones of weakness and fissures within the lunar crust, but the isostatic

  10. [Clinical therapeutic aspects of the origin and the course of atherosclerosis in the veterans of the Great Patriotic War].

    PubMed

    Badaliants, I E

    2008-01-01

    The article presents the results of the research defining a number of features in development and course of some diseases typical for the veterans of the Great Patriotic war who got during the war craniocerebral traumas and wounds of various localization in compare with the patients of the same age who did not participate in the Great Patriotic war and did not have either brain traumas or wounds. Earlier development of ischemic heart disease, arterial hypertension, and cerebral atherosclerosis in veterans of Great Patriotic war has been found. The main intercurrent diseases in senior age persons have been distinguished. Some groups of psychopathological syndromes observed in persons of elderly and senile age and long-livers have been revealed.

  11. La Plata Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, Juan Carlos; Cora, Sofia A.

    La Plata, the current capital city of the province of Buenos Aires, was founded on 19 November 1882 by governor Dardo Rocha, and built on an innovative design giving emphasis to the quality of the public space, official and educational buildings. The Astronomical Observatory was one of the first inhabitants of the main park of the city; its construction started in 1883 including two telescopes that ranked among the largest in the southern hemisphere at that time and also several instruments devoted to positional astronomy (e.g. a meridian circle and a zenith telescope). A dedicated effort has being invested during the last 15 years in order to recover some of the original instrumentation (kept in a small museum) as well as the distinctive architectural values. In 1905, the Observatory, the School of Agriculture and the Museum of Natural Sciences (one of the most important museums in South America) became part of the backbone of La Plata National University, an institution with a strong and distinctive profile in exact and natural sciences. The First School for Astronomy and Related Sciences had been harboured by the Observatory since 1935, and became the current Faculty of Astronomical and Geophysical Sciences in 1983. This last institution carries PhD programs and also a number of teaching activities at different levels. These activities are the roots of a strong connection of the Observatory with the city.

  12. Culture in great apes: using intricate complexity in feeding skills to trace the evolutionary origin of human technical prowess.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Richard W

    2007-04-29

    Geographical cataloguing of traits, as used in human ethnography, has led to the description of 'culture' in some non-human great apes. Culture, in these terms, is detected as a pattern of local ignorance resulting from environmental constraints on knowledge transmission. However, in many cases, the geographical variations may alternatively be explained by ecology. Social transmission of information can reliably be identified in many other animal species, by experiment or distinctive patterns in distribution; but the excitement of detecting culture in great apes derives from the possibility of understanding the evolution of cumulative technological culture in humans. Given this interest, I argue that great ape research should concentrate on technically complex behaviour patterns that are ubiquitous within a local population; in these cases, a wholly non-social ontogeny is highly unlikely. From this perspective, cultural transmission has an important role in the elaborate feeding skills of all species of great ape, in conveying the 'gist' or organization of skills. In contrast, social learning is unlikely to be responsible for local stylistic differences, which are apt to reflect sensitive adaptations to ecology.

  13. Genetic effects of habitat restoration in the Laurentian Great Lakes: an assessment of lake sturgeon origin and genetic diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jamie Marie Marranca,; Amy Welsh,; Roseman, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) have experienced significant habitat loss, resulting in reduced population sizes. Three artificial reefs were built in the Huron-Erie corridor in the Great Lakes to replace lost spawning habitat. Genetic data were collected to determine the source and numbers of adult lake sturgeon spawning on the reefs and to determine if the founder effect resulted in reduced genetic diversity. DNA was extracted from larval tail clips and 12 microsatellite loci were amplified. Larval genotypes were then compared to 22 previously studied spawning lake sturgeon populations in the Great Lakes to determine the source of the parental population. The effective number of breeders (Nb) was calculated for each reef cohort. The larval genotypes were then compared to the source population to determine if there were any losses in genetic diversity that are indicative of the founder effect. The St. Clair and Detroit River adult populations were found to be the source parental population for the larvae collected on all three artificial reefs. There were large numbers of contributing adults relative to the number of sampled larvae. There was no significant difference between levels of genetic diversity in the source population and larval samples from the artificial reefs; however, there is some evidence for a genetic bottleneck in the reef populations likely due to the founder effect. Habitat restoration in the Huron-Erie corridor is likely resulting in increased habitat for the large lake sturgeon population in the system and in maintenance of the population's genetic diversity.

  14. Urania in the Marketplace: Observatories as Holiday Destinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century astronomical imagery was frequently incorporated, by manufacturers of industrial and consumer goods, into advertisements which appeared in popular magazines in America. The domes and telescopes of major observatories were often featured. In some cases, particularly within the Golden State of California, major astronomical facilities (notably the Lick and Mt. Wilson Observatories) were touted as tourist attractions and were publicized as such by tourist bureaus, railroads, and hotels.A particularly interesting example is provided by the Hotel Vendome in San Jose. With completion of the Lick Observatory (and the 36-inch Great Refractor) in 1887, the local business community felt that the city needed a first-class resort hotel. The architectural firm of Jacob Lenzen & Son was hired to design a grand hotel, comparable to those found in locales such as Monterey and Pasadena. The resulting four-story, 150-room structure cost 250,000, a phenomenal sum in those days. Yet, within just fourteen years, tourist demand led to the construction of a 36-room annex. Of course, a great resort hotel would not be complete without the opportunity for excursion, and the Mt. Hamilton Stage Company offered daily trips to the famous Lick Observatory.Farther south, the Mt. Wilson Observatory began construction of its own hotel in 1905.The original structure was destroyed by fire in 1913, and replaced by a second which was used by visitors until 1966.Early examples of advertisements for these observatories, recalling the heyday of astronomical tourism, are presented. A few more recent ones for Arecibo and Palomar are included for comparison.

  15. The great lunar hot spot and the composition and origin of the Apollo mafic (``LKFM'') impact-melt breccias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    2000-02-01

    Thorium-rich, mafic impact-melt breccias from the Apollo 14-17 missions, that is, those breccias identified with the composition known as ``LKFM,'' are regarded largely as products of basin-forming impacts that penetrated the feldspathic crust and sampled underlying mafic material and magma-ocean residuum carrying the compositional signature of KREEP (potassium, rare earth elements, phosphorous). Despite considerable compositional variation among such breccias, compositions of all of them correspond to mixtures of only four components: (1) a norite with composition generally similar to that of Apollo 15 basalt (mean abundance: 58% range: ~30-95%), (2) Fo~90 dunite (mean: 13%, range: 1-27%), (3) feldspathic upper crust (mean: 29%, range: 4-50%), and FeNi metal (0.1-1.7%). Petrographic evidence has shown that much of the feldspathic component, but none of the KREEP component, is clastic. This observation and the high proportion of KREEP norite component in the breccias suggest that the melt zone of the impact or impacts forming the breccias contained little feldspathic material but consisted predominantly of material with the average composition of KREEP norite. The dunite component probably derives ultimately from the upper mantle. These conclusions support the hypothesis that the breccias were not formed in typical feldspathic crust but instead by one or more impacts into what is designated here ``the great lunar hot spot,'' that is, the anomalous Th-rich terrane in the Imbrium-Procellarum area identified by the Apollo and Lunar Prospector gamma-ray spectrometers. The LKFM composition is a special product of the great lunar hot spot and is not the average composition of the lower crust in typical feldspathic highlands. Similarly, Mg-suite and alkali-suite plutonic rocks of the Apollo collection are likely all differentiation products of the hot spot, not of plutons that might occur in typical feldspathic crust.

  16. The Great Wall in the CfA survey - Its origin and imprint on the microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atrio-Barandela, F.; Kashlinsky, A.

    1992-01-01

    The paper models the evolution of the Great Wall (GW) after recombination and the influence of its time-dependent gravitational potential on the MBR. It is shown that within the framework of the Zel'dovich approximation the (pre)GW region can be treated as an ellipsoid. The GW is approximated as an oblate ellipsoid that started at recombination with an almost spherical shape, but with initial density contrast, delta-i, much smaller than it had to be in the spherical model in order to reach the observed density contrast of beta-f of 5. The resultant delta-i is compatible with the rms value of delta-rho/rho on the GW scale at recombination for models with the n less than 0 power spectrum of the primordial density field. It is shown that the time-dependent potential of the GW will induce a detectable fluctuation in MBR. The possibility of similar structures located at higher redshifts producing measurable and perhaps dominant statistical MBR anisotropies by this effect is also discussed.

  17. Saturn's Great Storm of 2010-2011: Cloud particles containing ammonia and water ices indicate a deep convective origin. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; Baines, K. H.; Fry, P.

    2013-12-01

    Saturn's Great Storm of 2010-2011 was first detected by amateur astronomers in early December 2010 and later found in Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) images taken on 5 December, when it took the form of a 1000 km wide bright spot. Within a week the head of the storm grew by a factor of ten in width and within a few months created a wake that encircled the planet. This is the sixth Great Saturn Storm in recorded history, all having appeared in the northern hemisphere, and most near northern summer solstice at intervals of roughly 30 years (Sanchez-Lavega et al. 1991, Nature 353, 397-401). That the most recent storm appeared 10 years early proved fortunate because Cassini was still operating in orbit around Saturn and was able to provide unique observations from which we could learn much more about these rare and enormous events. Besides the dramatic dynamical effects displayed at the visible cloud level by high-resolution imaging observations (Sayanagi et al. 2013, Icarus 223, 460-478), dramatic thermal changes also occurred in the stratosphere above the storm (Fletcher et al. 2011, Science 332, 1413), and radio measurements of lightning (Fischer et al., 2011, Nature 475, 75-77) indicated strong convective activity at deeper levels. Numerical models of Saturn's Giant storms (Hueso and Sanchez-Lavega 2004, Icarus 172, 255-271) suggest that they are fueled by water vapor condensation beginning at the 10-12 bar level, some 250 km below the visible cloud tops. That idea is also supported by our detection of water ice near the cloud tops (Sromovsky et al. 2013, Icarus 226, 402-418). From Cassini VIMS spectral imaging taken in February 2011, we learned that the storm's cloud particles are strong absorbers of sunlight at wavelengths from 2.8 to 3.1 microns. Such absorption is not seen on Saturn outside of storm regions, implying a different kind of cloud formation process as well as different cloud composition inside the storm region. We found compelling evidence

  18. Lowell Observatory's Discovery Channel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Lowell Observatory broke ground on its 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) in July 2005 and celebrated first light for the telescope in July 2012. In this overview to this special session, I will discuss the origin and development of the project, the telescope's general specifications and performance, its current operating status, and the initial instrument suite.

  19. ESO's Two Observatories Merge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-02-01

    On February 1, 2005, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has merged its two observatories, La Silla and Paranal, into one. This move will help Europe's prime organisation for astronomy to better manage its many and diverse projects by deploying available resources more efficiently where and when they are needed. The merged observatory will be known as the La Silla Paranal Observatory. Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General, comments the new development: "The merging, which was planned during the past year with the deep involvement of all the staff, has created unified maintenance and engineering (including software, mechanics, electronics and optics) departments across the two sites, further increasing the already very high efficiency of our telescopes. It is my great pleasure to commend the excellent work of Jorge Melnick, former director of the La Silla Observatory, and of Roberto Gilmozzi, the director of Paranal." ESO's headquarters are located in Garching, in the vicinity of Munich (Bavaria, Germany), and this intergovernmental organisation has established itself as a world-leader in astronomy. Created in 1962, ESO is now supported by eleven member states (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom). It operates major telescopes on two remote sites, all located in Chile: La Silla, about 600 km north of Santiago and at an altitude of 2400m; Paranal, a 2600m high mountain in the Atacama Desert 120 km south of the coastal city of Antofagasta. Most recently, ESO has started the construction of an observatory at Chajnantor, a 5000m high site, also in the Atacama Desert. La Silla, north of the town of La Serena, has been the bastion of the organization's facilities since 1964. It is the site of two of the most productive 4-m class telescopes in the world, the New Technology Telescope (NTT) - the first major telescope equipped with active optics - and the 3.6-m, which hosts HARPS

  20. Great Lakes: Great Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Sea Grant Inst., Albany, NY.

    This folder contains 12 fact sheets designed to improve the quality of gardens near the Great Lakes. The titles are: (1) "Your Garden and the Great Lakes"; (2) "Organic Gardening"; (3) "Fruit and Vegetable Gardening"; (4) "Composting Yard Wastes"; (5) "Herbicides and Water Quality"; (6)…

  1. Mission Planning for the CHANDRA X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullins, Larry D.; Stone, Russell, L.; Evans, Steven W.

    1999-01-01

    The CHANDRA x-ray observatory started life as the Advanced X-ray Facility (AXAF) but was renamed Chandra in December of 1998 at the of a nationwide contest by NASA to name the new observatory. The honors the Nobel Prize winning astrophysicist S. Chandrasekar who astrophysics at the University of Chicago for more than 50 years, following graduate studies at Cambridge University in England. The observatory has been under construction for a decade under the management of the Observatory observatory, Projects office at the Marshall Space Flight Center; the same office that oversaw the construction of the Hubble Space Telescope and the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. This observatory is a member of NASA's great observatory series of missions of which Hubble and Compton are members. This paper describes the mission planning that was conducted at MSFC to design the orbit and launch window that would permit the new observatory to function properly.

  2. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    This booklet is devoted to NAS RA V. Ambartsumian Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory and is aimed at people interested in astronomy and BAO, pupils and students, BAO visitors and others. The booklet is made as a visiting card and presents concise and full information about BAO. A brief history of BAO, the biography of the great scientist Viktor Ambartsumian, brief biographies of 13 other deserved scientists formerly working at BAO (B.E. Markarian, G.A. Gurzadyan, L.V. Mirzoyan, M.A. Arakelian, et al.), information on BAO telescopes (2.6m, 1m Schmidt, etc.) and other scientific instruments, scientific library and photographic plate archive, Byurakan surveys (including the famous Markarian Survey included in the UNESCO Memory of the World International Register), all scientific meetings held in Byurakan, international scientific collaboration, data on full research staff of the Observatory, as well as former BAO researchers, who have moved to foreign institutions are given in the booklet. At the end, the list of the most important books published by Armenian astronomers and about them is given.

  3. Molonglo Observatory: Building the Cross and MOST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdam, Bruce

    2008-03-01

    When Bernard Mills left the GSIRO in 1960 to establish a radio astronomy group in the School of Physics, University of Sydney, he had not only invented the principle of cross-type radio telescopes but proved their great efficiency at surveying the positions, intensity and structure of radio sources. He had ambitious plans for a second generation Cross - a radio telescope with arms one mile long. This paper describes the circumstances of Mills' appointment as Professor of Astrophysics and the recruitment of an international Department that achieved his vision with the Molonglo Cross: The construction involved interaction with many colleagues - engineers in other university departments and government agencies, and with the contracting firms. Formal links were set up with the Electrical Engineering Department through The Radio Astronomy Centre in the University of Sydney and then with Arecibo Observatory through the Cornell-Sydney University Astronomy Center. When the Molonglo Cross completed its main survey in 1978 after eleven years, it was switched off and the EW arm was then converted to the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope. Many of the staff involved with the MOST are now challenged by SKAMP, testing systems for the Square Kilometre Array with cylindrical geometry in the Molonglo Prototype. These two later developments out of the original Cross telescope are described briefly.

  4. Survey of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dova, T.; Pierre Auger Observatory Collaboration

    The question of the origin and nature of cosmic ray particles with energies exceeding the predicted GZK spectral cutoff is one of the present great challenges of astroparticle physics. The Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO), currently under construction in Province of Mendoza, Argentina, is a broadly based international effort to explore the upper-end of the cosmic ray energy spectrum. The PAO is the first experiment designed to work in a hybrid detection mode. The combination of two complementary detection techniques -water Cerenkov tank arrays overlooked by atmospheric fluorescence detectorsto observe extensive air showers guarantees high-quality and statistically significant data. An updated overview of the science prospects for the PAO is presented. The concept of the experiment as well as the current status is described. 1 Physics motivation for the Pierre Auger Observatory The puzzle set by the existence of cosmic rays with energies above 1020 eV (Lawrence et al., 1991; Hayashida et al., 1994; Bird et al., 1995; Abu-Zayyad et al, 1999), which may be an indication of new physics or exotic particles, is at present one of the hot topics in high energy astroparticle physics. The underlying problem in trying to explain the origin of these extremely high energy cosmic rays (EHECR) is the well-known GZK (Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin) effect: if the cosmic rays are extragalactic in origin, then a sharp cutoff at around several times 1019 eV in the observed spectrum is expected due to energy degradation of the cosmic ray particles through interaction with photons of the microwave background radiation (Greisen, 1965; Zatsepin and Kuzmin, 1966). This process limits the distance of the sources of particles with energies above 1020 eV to less than 100 Mpc from the Earth (Aharonian and Cronin, 1994; Puget et al., 1976; Stecker and Salomon, 1999; Berezinsky, 1970; Protheroe and Biermann, 1996). Since the energy loss mechanism depends on

  5. Popularization of Astronomy Through Robotic Telescopes and Virtual Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksic, J.; Tomic, Z.

    2013-05-01

    Robotic telescopes and virtual observatories have great impact on popularization of astronomy. In this paper we will present several web services and observatories that allow remote control over their equipment, which have great contribution in astronomy promotion. In addition, the first Serbian amateur robotic observatory will be presented (Night Hawk, Bačka Palanka). Finally, an economic review of this concept is done to consider its attainability to the general audience.

  6. Private Observatories in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijsdijk, C.

    2016-12-01

    Descriptions of private observatories in South Africa, written by their owners. Positions, equipment descriptions and observing programmes are given. Included are: Klein Karoo Observatory (B. Monard), Cederberg Observatory (various), Centurion Planetary and Lunar Observatory (C. Foster), Le Marischel Observatory (L. Ferreira), Sterkastaaing Observatory (M. Streicher), Henley on Klip (B. Fraser), Archer Observatory (B. Dumas), Overbeek Observatory (A. Overbeek), Overberg Observatory (A. van Staden), St Cyprian's School Observatory, Fisherhaven Small Telescope Observatory (J. Retief), COSPAR 0433 (G. Roberts), COSPAR 0434 (I. Roberts), Weltevreden Karoo Observatory (D. Bullis), Winobs (M. Shafer)

  7. The Boulder magnetic observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Finn, Carol A.; Pedrie, Kolby L.; Blum, Cletus C.

    2015-08-14

    The Boulder magnetic observatory has, since 1963, been operated by the Geomagnetism Program of the U.S. Geological Survey in accordance with Bureau and national priorities. Data from the observatory are used for a wide variety of scientific purposes, both pure and applied. The observatory also supports developmental projects within the Geomagnetism Program and collaborative projects with allied geophysical agencies.

  8. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This booklet introduces an environmental curriculum for use in a variety of elementary subjects. The lesson plans provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into the subjects of history, social studies, and environmental sciences. Each of these sections contains background information, discussion points, and a…

  9. Bathythermal habitat use by strains of Great Lakes- and Finger Lakes-origin lake trout in Lake Huron after a change in prey fish abundance and composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; Argyle, Ray L.; Krueger, Charles C.; Taylor, William W.

    2012-01-01

    A study conducted in Lake Huron during October 1998–June 2001 found that strains of Great Lakes-origin (GLO) lake trout Salvelinus namaycush occupied significantly higher temperatures than did Finger Lakes-origin (FLO; New York) lake trout based on data from archival (or data storage) telemetry tags that recorded only temperature. During 2002 and 2003, we implanted archival tags that recorded depth as well as temperature in GLO and FLO lake trout in Lake Huron. Data subsequently recorded by those tags spanned 2002–2005. Based on those data, we examined whether temperatures and depths occupied by GLO and FLO lake trout differed during 2002–2005. Temperatures occupied during those years were also compared with occupied temperatures reported for 1998–2001, before a substantial decline in prey fish biomass. Temperatures occupied by GLO lake trout were again significantly higher than those occupied by FLO lake trout. This result supports the conclusion of the previous study. The GLO lake trout also occupied significantly shallower depths than FLO lake trout. In 2002–2005, both GLO and FLO lake trout occupied significantly lower temperatures than they did in 1998–2001. Aside from the sharp decline in prey fish biomass between study periods, the formerly abundant pelagic alewife Alosa pseudoharengus virtually disappeared and the demersal round goby Neogobius melanostomus invaded the lake and became locally abundant. The lower temperatures occupied by lake trout in Lake Huron during 2002–2005 may be attributable to changes in the composition of the prey fish community, food scarcity (i.e., a retreat to cooler water could increase conversion efficiency), or both.

  10. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.

    2001-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory is the X-ray component of NASA's Great observatories which also includes the recently decommissioned Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Hubble Space Telescope, and the soon to be launched Space Infra Red Telescope Facility. Chandra is a unique X-ray astronomy facility for high-resolution imaging and for high-resolution spectroscopy. Chandra's performance advantage over other X-ray observatories is analogous to that of the Hubble Space Telescope over ground-based observatories. Chandra is a NASA facility that provides scientific data to the international astronomical community in response to proposals for its use. Data becomes public one year after the observation. The Observatory is the product of the efforts of many commercial, academic, and government organizations in the United States and Europe. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) manages the Project and provides Project Science; TRW Space and Electronics Group served as prime contractor responsible for providing the spacecraft, the telescope, and assembling and testing the observatory; the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) provides technical support and is responsible for ground operations.

  11. Planetary research at Lowell Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, William A.

    1988-01-01

    Scientific goals include a better determination of the basic physical characteristics of cometary nuclei, a more complete understanding of the complex processes in the comae, a survey of abundances and gas/dust ratios in a large number of comets, and measurement of primordial (12)C/(13)C and (14)N/(15)N ratios. The program also includes the observation of Pluto-Charon mutual eclipses to derive dimensions. Reduction and analysis of extensive narrowband photometry of Comet Halley from Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Perth Observatory, Lowell Observatory, and Mauna Kea Observatory were completed. It was shown that the 7.4-day periodicity in the activity of Comet Halley was present from late February through at least early June 1986, but there is no conclusive evidence of periodic variability in the preperihelion data. Greatly improved NH scalelengths and lifetimes were derived from the Halley data which lead to the conclusion that the abundance of NH in comets is much higher than previously believed. Simultaneous optical and thermal infrared observations were obtained of Comet P/Temple 2 using the MKO 2.2 m telescope and the NASA IRTF. Preliminary analysis of these observations shows that the comet's nucleus is highly elongated, very dark, and quite red.

  12. Great Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnham, Robert

    2000-05-01

    Spectacular and mysterious objects that come and go in the night sky, comets have dwelt in our popular culture for untold ages. As remnants from the formation of the Solar system, they are objects of key scientific research and space missions. As one of nature's most potent and dramatic dangers, they pose a threat to our safety--and yet they were the origin of our oceans and perhaps even life itself. This beautifully illustrated book tells the story of the biggest and most awe-inspiring of all comets: those that have earned the title "Great." Robert Burnham focuses on the Great comets Hyakutake in 1996 and Hale-Bopp in 1997, which gripped attention worldwide because, for many, they were the first comets ever seen. He places these two recent comets in the context of their predecessors from past ages, among them the famous Comet Halley. Great Comets explains the exciting new discoveries that have come from these magnificent objects and profiles the spaceprobes to comets due for launch in the next few years. The book even takes a peek behind Hollywood's science-fiction fantasies to assess the real risks humanity faces from potential impacts of both comets and asteroids. For everyone interested in astronomy, this exciting book reveals the secrets of the Great Comets and provides essential tools for keeping up to date with comet discoveries in the future. Robert Burnham has been an amateur astronomer since the mid-1950s. He has been a senior editor of Astronomy magazine (1986-88) and is the author of many books and CD-ROMS, including Comet Hale-Bopp: Find and Enjoy the Great Comet and Comet Explorer.

  13. The Origin of Carbon-bearing Volatiles in Surprise Valley Hot Springs in the Great Basin: Carbon Isotope and Water Chemistry Characterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Romanek, Christopher; Datta, Saugata; Darnell, Mike; Bissada, Adry K.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous hydrothermal fields within the Great Basin of North America, some of which have been exploited for geothermal resources. With methane and other carbon-bearing compounds being observed, in some cases with high concentrations, however, their origins and formation conditions remain unknown. Thus, studying hydrothermal springs in this area provides us an opportunity to expand our knowledge of subsurface (bio)chemical processes that generate organic compounds in hydrothermal systems, and aid in future development and exploration of potential energy resources as well. While isotope measurement has long been used for recognition of their origins, there are several secondary processes that may generate variations in isotopic compositions: oxidation, re-equilibration of methane and other alkanes with CO2, mixing with compounds of other sources, etc. Therefore, in addition to isotopic analysis, other evidence, including water chemistry and rock compositions, are necessary to identify volatile compounds of different sources. Surprise Valley Hot Springs (SVHS, 41 deg 32'N, 120 deg 5'W), located in a typical basin and range province valley in northeastern California, is a terrestrial hydrothermal spring system of the Great Basin. Previous geophysical studies indicated the presence of clay-rich volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age beneath the lava flows in late Tertiary and Quaternary. Water and gas samples were collected for a variety of chemical and isotope composition analyses, including in-situ pH, alkalinity, conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), major and trace elements, and C and H isotope measurements. Fluids issuing from SVHS can be classified as Na-(Cl)-SO4 type, with the major cation and anion being Na+ and SO4(2-), respectively. Thermodynamic calculation using ORP and major element data indicated that sulfate is the most dominant sulfur species, which is consistent with anion analysis results. Aquifer temperatures at depth

  14. The Origin of Carbon-bearing Volatiles in Surprise Valley Hot Springs in the Great Basin: Carbon Isotope aud Water Chemistry Characterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Romanek, Christopher; Datta, Saugata; Darnell, Mike; Bissada, Adry K.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous hydrothermal fields within the Great Basin of North America, some of which have been exploited for geothermal resources. With methane and other carbon-bearing compounds being observed, in some cases with high concentrations, however, their origins and formation conditions remain unknown. Thus, studying hydrothermal springs in this area provides us an opportunity to expand our knowledge of subsurface (bio)chemical processes that generate organic compounds in hydrothermal systems, and aid in future development and exploration of potential energy resources as well. While isotope measurement has long been used for recognition of their origins, there are several secondary processes that may generate variations in isotopic compositions: oxidation, re-equilibration of methane and other alkanes with CO2, mixing with compounds of other sources, etc. Therefore, in addition to isotopic analysis, other evidence, including water chemistry and rock compositions, are necessary to identify volatile compounds of different sources. Surprise Valley Hot Springs (SVHS, 41º32'N, 120º5'W), located in a typical basin and range province valley in northeastern California, is a terrestrial hydrothermal spring system of the Great Basin. Previous geophysical studies indicated the presence of clay-rich volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age beneath the lava flows in late Tertiary and Quaternary. Water and gas samples were collected for a variety of chemical and isotope composition analyses, including in-situ pH, alkalinity, conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), major and trace elements, and C and H isotope measurements. Fluids issuing from SVHS can be classified as Na-(Cl)-SO4 type, with the major cation and anion being Na+ and SO4 2-, respectively. Thermodynamic calculation using ORP and major element data indicated that sulfate is the most dominant sulfur species, which is consistent with anion analysis results. Aquifer temperatures at depth estimated

  15. Expanding the HAWC Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Johanna; HAWC Collaboration; College of Idaho; HAWC Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    To increase the effective area and sensitivity of the High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory to gamma-ray photons with energies higher than 10 TeV, we are building 350 smaller outrigger tanks around the main array of 300 existing tanks. HAWC detects cascades of charged particles (``extensive air showers'') created by TeV gamma rays hitting the atmosphere. Increasing the size of the array will improve the sensitivity of the array by a factor of 2 to 4 above 10 TeV, allowing for more accurate gamma-ray origin reconstruction and energy estimation. Building the outrigger array requires carefully calibrated equipment, including PMTs and high voltage signal cables of the correct length. Origin reconstruction relies on precise signal timing, so the signal cables' lengths were standardized so that the signal transit time varied by less than 5 ns. Energy estimation depends on accurate photon counts from each tank, so the PMTs were calibrated with a laser and filter wheels to give the PMTs a known amount of light.

  16. Recent results from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Gascón, Alberto; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2014-07-23

    The Pierre Auger Observatory has been designed to investigate the origin and nature of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) using a hybrid detection technique. In this contribution we present some of the most recent results of the observatory, namely the upper-end of the spectrum of cosmic rays, state-of-the-art analyses on mass composition, the measurements of the proton-air cross-section, and the number of muons at ground.

  17. Overview of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory (originally called the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility - AXAF) is the X-Ray component of NASA's "Great Observatory" Program. Chandra is a NASA facility that provides scientific data to the international astronomical community in response to scientific proposals for its use. The Observatory is the product of the efforts of many organizations in the United States and Europe. The Great Observatories also include the Hubble Space Telescope for space-based observations of astronomical objects primarily in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, the now defunct Compton Gamma- Ray Observatory that was designed to observe gamma-ray emission from astronomical objects, and the soon-to-be-launched Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The Chandra X-Ray Observatory (hereafter CXO) is sensitive to X-rays in the energy range from below 0.1 to above 10.0 keV corresponding to wavelengths from 12 to 0.12 nanometers. The relationship among the various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, sorted by characteristic temperature and the corresponding wavelength, is illustrated. The German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen discovered what he thought was a new form of radiation in 1895. He called it X-radiation to summarize its properties. The radiation had the ability to pass through many materials that easily absorb visible light and to free electrons from atoms. We now know that X-rays are nothing more than light (electromagnetic radiation) but at high energies. Light has been given many names: radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma radiation are all different forms. Radio waves are composed of low energy particles of light (photons). Optical photons - the only photons perceived by the human eye - are a million times more energetic than the typical radio photon, whereas the energies of X-ray photons range from hundreds to thousands of times higher than that of optical photons. Very low temperature systems

  18. The observatories and instruments of Tycho Brahe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) was the most important observational astronomer until the invention of the telescope in 1608. By construction new instruments and devising new observing methods, Tycho succeeded in significantly increasing measurement accuracy: He increased the size of his instruments (e.g. a large wooden quadrant of diameter 5.4 m and a mural quadrant); he used metal and masonry rather than wood; he modified construction techniques to achieve greater stability; to provide shelter from the wind, his instruments were in subterranean nooks; his instruments were permanently and solidly mounted; for better angular readings, he developed new subdivisions and diopters (Tycho used transversals to obtain the greatest possible angular resolution readings. His instrumental sights (diopters) were specially designed to minimize errors); he carefully analysed all the errors (Tycho's aim was to reduce thethe uncertainty to less than one minute of arc); he used fundamental stars for the first time; he preferred measuring equatorial coordinates directly instead of using the zodiacal system, i.e. using the equatorial armillary sphere instead of the zodiacal armillary sphere; he tried a new measuring method with clocks and his mural quadrant (1582) for determining the right ascension; he took atmospheric refraction into account. Most of his high-accuracy instruments have been distroyed. Only two sextants, made by Jost Bürgi and Erasmus Habermel around 1600, still exist in the Narodny Technicky Muzeum (NTM) [National Technical Museum] in Prague. A model of the wooden quadrant is in the old observatory in Copenhagen, in the round tower. But we have good descriptions of the instruments (half circles of 2.3 m radius, quadrants up to 2 m radius including the mural quadrant, sextants up to 1.6 m, armillary spheres of 1.5 m radius and the great equatorial armillary sphere of 2.7 m, triquetrum and celestial globe of 1.5 m) in Tycho's book Astronomiae instauratae mechanica

  19. The Little Thompson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, A.; Melsheimer, T.; Rideout, C.; Vanlew, K.

    1998-12-01

    The Little Thompson Observatory is believed to be the first observatory built as part of a high school and accessible to other schools remotely, via the Internet. This observatory is the second member of the Telescopes in Education (TIE) project. Construction is nearly completed and first light is planned for fall 1998. The observatory is located on the grounds of Berthoud High School in northern Colorado. Local schools and youth organizations will have prioritized access to the telescope, and there will also be opportunities for public viewing. After midnight, the telescope will be open to world-wide use by schools via the Internet following the model of the first TIE observatory, the 24" telescope on Mt. Wilson. That telescope has been in use for the past four years by up to 50 schools per month. Students remotely connect to the observatory over the Internet, and then receive the images on their local computers. The observatory grew out of grassroots support from the local community surrounding Berthoud, Colorado, a town of 3,500 residents. TIE has provided the observatory with a Tinsley 18" Cassegrain telescope on a 10-year loan. The facility has been built with tremendous support from volunteers and the local school district. We have applied for an IDEAS grant to provide teacher training workshops which will allow K-12 schools in northern Colorado to make use of the Little Thompson Observatory, including remote observing from classrooms.

  20. The Little Thompson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, A.; Melsheimer, T.; Sackett, C.

    1999-05-01

    The Little Thompson Observatory is believed to be the first observatory built as part of a high school and accessible to other schools remotely, via the Internet. This observatory is the second member of the Telescopes in Education (TIE) project. Construction of the building and dome has been completed, and first light is planned for spring 1999. The observatory is located on the grounds of Berthoud High School in northern Colorado. Local schools and youth organizations will have prioritized access to the telescope, and there will also be opportunities for public viewing. After midnight, the telescope will be open to world-wide use by schools via the Internet following the model of the first TIE observatory, the 24" telescope on Mt. Wilson. Students remotely connect to the observatory over the Internet, and then receive the images on their local computers. The observatory grew out of grassroots support from the local community surrounding Berthoud, Colorado, a town of 3,500 residents. TIE has provided the observatory with a Tinsley 18" Cassegrain telescope on a 10-year loan. The facility has been built with tremendous support from volunteers and the local school district. We have received an IDEAS grant to provide teacher training workshops which will allow K-12 schools in northern Colorado to make use of the Little Thompson Observatory, including remote observing from classrooms.

  1. Royal Observatory, Edinburgh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Royal Observatory, Edinburgh (ROE) comprises the UK Astronomy Technology Centre (ATC) of the PARTICLE PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY RESEARCH COUNCIL, and the University of Edinburgh's Institute for Astronomy....

  2. The MicroObservatory Net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, K.; Sadler, P.

    1994-12-01

    A group of scientists, engineers and educators based at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) has developed a prototype of a small, inexpensive and fully integrated automated astronomical telescope and image processing system. The project team is now building five second generation instruments. The MicroObservatory has been designed to be used for classroom instruction by teachers as well as for original scientific research projects by students. Probably in no other area of frontier science is it possible for a broad spectrum of students (not just the gifted) to have access to state-of-the-art technologies that would allow for original research. The MicroObservatory combines the imaging power of a cooled CCD, with a self contained and weatherized reflecting optical telescope and mount. A microcomputer points the telescope and processes the captured images. The MicroObservatory has also been designed to be used as a valuable new capture and display device for real time astronomical imaging in planetariums and science museums. When the new instruments are completed in the next few months, they will be tried with high school students and teachers, as well as with museum groups. We are now planning to make the MicroObservatories available to students, teachers and other individual users over the Internet. We plan to allow the telescope to be controlled in real time or in batch mode, from a Macintosh or PC compatible computer. In the real-time mode, we hope to give individual access to all of the telescope control functions without the need for an "on-site" operator. Users would sign up for a specific period of time. In the batch mode, users would submit jobs for the telescope. After the MicroObservatory completed a specific job, the images would be e-mailed back to the user. At present, we are interested in gaining answers to the following questions: (1) What are the best approaches to scheduling real-time observations? (2) What criteria should be used

  3. Svetloe Radio Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolentsev, Sergey; Rahimov, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes information about the Svetloe Radio Astronomical Observatory activities in 2012. Last year, a number of changes took place in the observatory to improve some technical characteristics and to upgrade some units to their required status. The report provides an overview of current geodetic VLBI activities and gives an outlook for the future.

  4. Zelenchukskaya Radio Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolentsev, Sergey; Dyakov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes information about Zelenchukskaya Radio Astronomical Observatory activities in 2012. Last year a number of changes took place in the observatory to improve some technical characteristics and to upgrade some units to the required status. The report provides an overview of current geodetic VLBI activities and gives an outlook for the future.

  5. INTERMAGNET and magnetic observatories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Chulliat, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    A magnetic observatory is a specially designed ground-based facility that supports time-series measurement of the Earth’s magnetic field. Observatory data record a superposition of time-dependent signals related to a fantastic diversity of physical processes in the Earth’s core, mantle, lithosphere, ocean, ionosphere, magnetosphere, and, even, the Sun and solar wind.

  6. The Norwegian Naval Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, Bjørn Ragnvald

    2007-07-01

    Archival material has revealed milestones and new details in the history of the Norwegian Naval Observatories. We have identified several of the instrument types used at different epochs. Observational results have been extracted from handwritten sources and an extensive literature search. These allow determination of an approximate location of the first naval observatory building (1842) at Fredriksvern. No physical remains exist today. A second observatory was established in 1854 at the new main naval base at Horten. Its location is evident on military maps and photographs. We describe its development until the Naval Observatory buildings, including archives and instruments, were completely demolished during an allied air bomb raid on 23 February 1945. The first director, C.T.H. Geelmuyden, maintained scientific standards at the the Observatory between 1842 and 1870, and collaborated with university astronomers to investigate, develop, and employ time-transfer by telegraphy. Their purpose was accurate longitude determination between observatories in Norway and abroad. The Naval Observatory issued telegraphic time signals twice weekly to a national network of sites, and as such served as the first national time-service in Norway. Later the Naval Observatory focused on the particular needs of the Navy and developed into an internal navigational service.

  7. Carter National Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Carter National Observatory is situated in the Botanic Gardens in Wellington, New Zealand. Opened in 1941, the observatory is equipped with a 41 cm Boller and Chivens, an historic 23 cm Cooke photo-visual refractor and a 36 seat Zeiss planetarium. The staff are involved in research, school and tertiary education programs....

  8. Latest results from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhenry-Yvon, Isabelle

    2016-07-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory has been designed to investigate the origin and nature of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) with energies from 1017 to 1020 eV. In this paper we will review some of the most recent results obtained from data of the Pierre Auger Observatory, namely the spectrum of cosmic rays, the anisotropies in arrival directions and the studies related to mass composition and to the number of muons measured at the ground. We will also discuss the implication of these results for assembling a consistent description of the composition, origin and propagation of cosmic rays.

  9. Light Phenomena over the ESO Observatories II: Red Sprites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horálek, P.; Christensen, L. L.; Bór, J.; Setvák, M.

    2016-03-01

    A rare atmospheric phenomenon, known as red sprites, was observed and captured on camera from the La Silla Observatory. This event signalled the first time that these extremely short-lived flashes of red light, originating in the Earth’s upper atmosphere, were photographed from a major astronomical observatory. Further images of red sprites from the La Silla Paranal Observatory sites are presented and the nature of red sprites is discussed.

  10. INTEGRATING GEOPHYSICS, GEOLOGY, AND HYDROLOGY TO DETERMINE BEDROCK GEOMETRY CONTROLS ON THE ORIGIN OF ISOLATED MEADOW COMPLEXES WITHIN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN, NEVADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian meadow complexes found in mountain ranges of the Central Great Basin physiographic region (western United States) are of interest to researchers as they contain significant biodiversity relative to the surrounding basin areas. These meadow complexes are currently degradi...

  11. The Little Thompson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, A. E.; VanLew, K.; Melsheimer, T.; Sackett, C.

    1999-12-01

    The Little Thompson Observatory is the second member of the Telescopes in Education (TIE) project. Construction of the dome and the remote control system has been completed, and the telescope is now on-line and operational over the Internet. The observatory is located on the grounds of Berthoud High School in northern Colorado. Local schools and youth organizations have prioritized access to the telescope, and there are monthly opportunities for public viewing. In the future, the telescope will be open after midnight to world-wide use by schools following the model of the first TIE observatory, the 24" telescope on Mt. Wilson. Students remotely connect to the observatory over the Internet, and then receive the images on their local computers. The observatory grew out of grassroots support from the local community surrounding Berthoud, Colorado, a town of 3,500 residents. TIE has provided the observatory with a Tinsley 18" Cassegrain telescope on a 10-year loan. The facility has been built with tremendous support from volunteers and the local school district. With funding from an IDEAS grant, we have begun teacher training workshops which will allow K-12 schools in northern Colorado to make use of the Little Thompson Observatory, including remote observing from classrooms.

  12. The Virtual Observatory: I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, R. J.

    2014-11-01

    The concept of the Virtual Observatory arose more-or-less simultaneously in the United States and Europe circa 2000. Ten pages of Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium: Panel Reports (National Academy Press, Washington, 2001), that is, the detailed recommendations of the Panel on Theory, Computation, and Data Exploration of the 2000 Decadal Survey in Astronomy, are dedicated to describing the motivation for, scientific value of, and major components required in implementing the National Virtual Observatory. European initiatives included the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory at the European Southern Observatory, the AstroGrid project in the United Kingdom, and the Euro-VO (sponsored by the European Union). Organizational/conceptual meetings were held in the US at the California Institute of Technology (Virtual Observatories of the Future, June 13-16, 2000) and at ESO Headquarters in Garching, Germany (Mining the Sky, July 31-August 4, 2000; Toward an International Virtual Observatory, June 10-14, 2002). The nascent US, UK, and European VO projects formed the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) at the June 2002 meeting in Garching, with yours truly as the first chair. The IVOA has grown to a membership of twenty-one national projects and programs on six continents, and has developed a broad suite of data access protocols and standards that have been widely implemented. Astronomers can now discover, access, and compare data from hundreds of telescopes and facilities, hosted at hundreds of organizations worldwide, stored in thousands of databases, all with a single query.

  13. Using Robotic Operating System (ROS) to control autonomous observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilardell, Francesc; Artigues, Gabriel; Sanz, Josep; García-Piquer, Álvaro; Colomé, Josep; Ribas, Ignasi

    2016-07-01

    Astronomical observatories are complex systems requiring the integration of numerous devices into a common platform. We are presenting here the firsts steps to integrate the popular Robotic Operating System (ROS) into the control of a fully autonomous observatory. The observatory is also equipped with a decision-making procedure that can automatically react to a changing environment (like weather events). The results obtained so far have shown that the automation of a small observatory can be greatly simplified when using ROS, as well as robust, with the implementation of our decision-making algorithms.

  14. Transient Astrophysics Observatory (TAO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racusin, J. L.; TAO Team

    2016-10-01

    The Transient Astrophysics Observatory (TAO) is a NASA MidEx mission concept (formerly known as Lobster) designed to provide simultaneous wide-field gamma-ray, X-ray, and near-infrared observations of the sky.

  15. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Orr, Tim R.

    2008-01-01

    Lava from Kilauea volcano flowing through a forest in the Royal Gardens subdivision, Hawai'i, in February 2008. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) monitors the volcanoes of Hawai'i and is located within Hawaiian Volcanoes National Park. HVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Kilauea and HVO at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov.

  16. A home-built, fully automated observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beales, M.

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes the design of an automated observatory making use of off-the-shelf components and software. I make no claims for originality in the design but it has been an interesting and rewarding exercise to get all the components to work together.

  17. Observatories and Telescopes of Modern Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leverington, David

    2016-11-01

    Preface; Part I. Optical Observatories: 1. Palomar Mountain Observatory; 2. The United States Optical Observatory; 3. From the Next Generation Telescope to Gemini and SOAR; 4. Competing primary mirror designs; 5. Active optics, adaptive optics and other technical innovations; 6. European Northern Observatory and Calar Alto; 7. European Southern Observatory; 8. Mauna Kea Observatory; 9. Australian optical observatories; 10. Mount Hopkins' Whipple Observatory and the MMT; 11. Apache Point Observatory; 12. Carnegie Southern Observatory (Las Campanas); 13. Mount Graham International Optical Observatory; 14. Modern optical interferometers; 15. Solar observatories; Part II. Radio Observatories: 16. Australian radio observatories; 17. Cambridge Mullard Radio Observatory; 18. Jodrell Bank; 19. Early radio observatories away from the Australian-British axis; 20. The American National Radio Astronomy Observatory; 21. Owens Valley and Mauna Kea; 22. Further North and Central American observatories; 23. Further European and Asian radio observatories; 24. ALMA and the South Pole; Name index; Optical observatory and telescope index; Radio observatory and telescope index; General index.

  18. Mechanical Overview of the International X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David W.; McClelland, Ryan S.

    2009-01-01

    The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) is a new collaboration between NASA, ESA, and JAXA which is under study for launch in 2020. IXO will be a large 6600 kilogram Great Observatory-class mission which will build upon the legacies of the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observatories. It combines elements from NASA's Constellation-X program and ESA's XEUS program. The observatory will have a 20-25 meter focal length, which necessitates the use of a deployable instrument module. Currently the project is actively trading configurations and layouts of the various instruments and spacecraft components. This paper will provide a snapshot of the latest observatory configuration under consideration and summarize the observatory from the mechanical engineering perspective.

  19. Using Virtual Observatory Tools for Astronomical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Chul; Taylor, John D.; Panter, Benjamin; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Heavens, Alan F.; Mann, Robert G.

    2005-06-01

    Construction of the Virtual Observatory (VO) is a great concern to the astronomical community in the 21st century. We present an outline of the concept and necessity of the VO and the current status of various VO projects including the 15 national ones and the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). %, and of Grid project. We summarize the possible science cases that could be solved by using the VO data/tools, real science cases which are the results of using current VO tools, and our own work of using AstroGrid, the United Kingdom national VO, for a research on star formation history of galaxies.

  20. Chicago's Dearborn Observatory: a study in survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartky, Ian R.

    2000-12-01

    The Dearborn Observatory, located on the Old University of Chicago campus from 1863 until 1888, was America's most promising astronomical facility when it was founded. Established by the Chicago Astronomical Society and directed by one of the country's most gifted astronomers, it boasted the largest telescope in the world and virtually unlimited operating funds. The Great Chicago Fire of 1871 destroyed its funding and demolished its research programme. Only via the sale of time signals and the heroic efforts of two amateur astronomers did the Dearborn Observatory survive.

  1. The Astronomical Observatory of the University of Coimbra (1772--1799): its Instruments and Scientific Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Fernando B.

    2012-09-01

    The establishment of scientific education at the University of Coimbra was one of the most important features of the Reform of the University in 1772. One of the best examples is the creation of the Faculty Mathematics and of the Astronomical Observatory (OAUC) - it was here that Alexandre Gouveia (1731--1808), who would be bishop of Beijing (1785--1808), obtained his degree in Mathematics. The foundation of the OAUC was fundamental in the institutionalization of astronomical science in Portugal, during a period when astronomy, supported by the great theoretical advances of the celestial mechanics and applied mathematics, could finally provide some important solutions to the most prominent scientific problems since Newton (questions about celestial mechanics, navigation, geodesy, etc.). Such questions were also central in the conception and planning of OAUC - the first Portuguese university-based astronomical observatory, although with aspects of a National Observatory. Jose Monteiro da Rocha (1734--1819) was the central personality in the conception, planning and construction of OAUC, as well in its instrument's provision (purchased and assembled throughout the 1780s) and posterior scientific activity. The construction of the OAUC was originally planned for the site of the Castle of the city of Coimbra. In 1775, when only the first floor of the Observatory was built, the construction stopped. However, to fulfill the teaching needs a small provisional Observatory was built inside the courtyard of the University. This provisional Observatory would eventually run for about 15 years! The definitive OAUC was built between the years 1790--99. In this communication we pretend to study the establishment of the OAUC and its primary astronomical collection (a transit instrument, a portable quadrant, a sector, several telescopes, etc.) and how that collection was responsible for the construction plan of the OAUC and the establishment of its Astronomical Ephemeris (1803).

  2. Creating Griffith Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Griffith Observatory has been the iconic symbol of the sky for southern California since it began its public mission on May 15, 1935. While the Observatory is widely known as being the gift of Col. Griffith J. Griffith (1850-1919), the story of how Griffith’s gift became reality involves many of the people better known for other contributions that made Los Angeles area an important center of astrophysics in the 20th century. Griffith began drawing up his plans for an observatory and science museum for the people of Los Angeles after looking at Saturn through the newly completed 60-inch reflector on Mt. Wilson. He realized the social impact that viewing the heavens could have if made freely available, and discussing the idea of a public observatory with Mt. Wilson Observatory’s founder, George Ellery Hale, and Director, Walter Adams. This resulted, in 1916, in a will specifying many of the features of Griffith Observatory, and establishing a committee managed trust fund to build it. Astronomy popularizer Mars Baumgardt convinced the committee at the Zeiss Planetarium projector would be appropriate for Griffith’s project after the planetarium was introduced in Germany in 1923. In 1930, the trust committee judged funds to be sufficient to start work on creating Griffith Observatory, and letters from the Committee requesting help in realizing the project were sent to Hale, Adams, Robert Millikan, and other area experts then engaged in creating the 200-inch telescope eventually destined for Palomar Mountain. A Scientific Advisory Committee, headed by Millikan, recommended that Caltech Physicist Edward Kurth be put in charge of building and exhibit design. Kurth, in turn, sought help from artist Russell Porter. The architecture firm of John C. Austin and Fredrick Ashley was selected to design the project, and they adopted the designs of Porter and Kurth. Philip Fox of the Adler Planetarium was enlisted to manage the completion of the Observatory and become its

  3. The un-uniform observatories location effect in the Dst index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The Dst index is a major planetary magnetic activity index proposed by Sugiura in 1964, which is designed to depict the temporal development of the magnetic storm and the intensity of the ring current system flowing in the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere at 3 to 8 Earth radii. It is an hourly index derived from the average value of the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field at four low latitudinal observatories (namely, HER, HON, KAK and SJG). For a long time, the Dst index is greatly doubted. Researchers have pointed out that a great proportion of the Dst index is originated from the Substorm Wedge current system, the Cross-tail current and the Partial ring current system [Turner et al., 2000; Liemohn et al., 2001; Ohtani et al., 2001; Rostoker, 2000; Friedrich et al., 1999; Maltsev, 2003; Huang, 2004; Hakkinen et al., 2002]. The ring current system and its disturbed storm-time field (Dst field) take on an enhanced dawn-dusk asymmetry during disturbed time. Therefore, the influence of the non-uniform location of four observatories of the Dst index will enhance. The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of the observatories' location on the Dst index. The hourly data of the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field in the observatories in geomagnetic latitude between 45°S and -45°N is used, to derive the local-time distribution model of the Dst field by the method of Nature Orthogonal Component and Cubic Polynomial Fitting. Results suggest that the maximum difference to the LT-model with four Dst index stations is about 5% lowness on 16UTmp, 3% highness on 05UTmp, and the minimum difference is around 11UTmp (UTmp corresponds to the universal time of the minimum of the Dst index). It proves some certain extent efficiency afforded by adding observatories in the SYM index.

  4. Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) Prelaunch Mission Operations Report (MOR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Program is an endeavor to understand the origin and fate of the universe, to understand the birth and evolution of the large variety of objects in the universe, from the most benign to the most violent, and to probe the fundamental laws of physics by examining their behavior under extreme physical conditions. These goals are pursued by means of observations across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, and through theoretical interpretation of radiations and fields associated with astrophysical systems. Astrophysics orbital flight programs are structured under one of two operational objectives: (1) the establishment of long duration Great Observatories for viewing the universe in four major wavelength regions of the electromagnetic spectrum (radio/infrared/submillimeter, visible/ultraviolet, X-ray, and gamma ray), and (2) obtaining crucial bridging and supporting measurements via missions with directed objectives of intermediate or small scope conducted within the Explorer and Spacelab programs. Under (1) in this context, the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) is one of NASA's four Great Observatories. The other three are the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for the visible and ultraviolet portion of the spectrum, the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) for the X-ray band, and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) for infrared wavelengths. GRO's specific mission is to study the sources and astrophysical processes that produce the highest energy electromagnetic radiation from the cosmos. The fundamental physical processes that are known to produce gamma radiation in the universe include nuclear reactions, electron bremsstrahlung, matter-antimatter annihilation, elementary particle production and decay, Compton scattering, synchrotron radiation. GRO will address a variety of questions relevant to understanding the universe, such as: the formation of the elements; the structure and dynamics of the Galaxy; the nature of pulsars; the existence

  5. Digital Data Preservation and Curation: A Collaboration Among Libraries, Publishers, and the Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, R. J.; Steffen, J.; Choudhury, S.; Dilauro, T.; Szalay, A.; Vishniac, E.; Ehling, T.; Milkey, R.; Plante, R.

    2007-10-01

    Astronomers are producing and analyzing data at ever more prodigious rates. NASA's Great Observatories, ground-based national observatories, and major survey projects have archive and data distribution systems in place to manage their standard data products, and these are now interlinked through the protocols and metadata standards agreed upon in the Virtual Observatory. However, the digital data associated with peer-reviewed publications is only rarely archived. Most often, astronomers publish graphical representations of their data but not the data themselves. Other astronomers cannot readily inspect the data to either confirm the interpretation presented in a paper or extend the analysis. Highly processed data sets reside on departmental servers and the personal computers of astronomers, and may or may not be available a few years hence. We are investigating ways to preserve and curate the digital data associated with peer-reviewed journals in astronomy. The technology and standards of the VO provide one component of the necessary technology. A variety of underlying systems can be used to physically host a data repository, and indeed this repository need not be centralized. The repository, however, must be managed and data must be documented through high quality, curated metadata. Multiple access portals must be available: the original journal, the host data center, the Virtual Observatory, or any number of topically-oriented data services utilizing VO-standard access mechanisms.

  6. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton) is the second in NASA's series of great Observatories. Launched on 1991 April 5, Compton represents a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made. We describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments, and the observing program of the first 2 years of the mission. Examples of early discoveries by Compton are enumerated, including the discovery that gamma-ray bursts are isotropic but spatially inhomogeneous in their distribution; the discovery of a new class of high-energy extragalacatic gamma-ray sources, the gamma-ray AGNs; the discovery of emission from SN 1987A in the nuclear line of Co-57; and the mapping of emission from Al-26 in the interstellar medium (ISM) near the Galactic center. Future observations will include deep surveys of selected regions of the sky, long-tem studies of individual objects, correlative studies of objects at gamma-ray and other energies, a Galactic plane survey at intermediate gamma-ray energies, and improved statistics on gamma-ray bursts to search for small anisotropies. After completion of the all-sky survey, a Guest Investigator program is in progress with guest observers' time share increasing from 30% upward for the late mission phases.

  7. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D.

    1994-06-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton) is the second in NASA's series of great Observatories. Launched on 1991 April 5, Compton represents a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made. We describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments, and the observing program of the first 2 years of the mission. Examples of early discoveries by Compton are enumerated, including the discovery that gamma-ray bursts are isotropic but spatially inhomogeneous in their distribution; the discovery of a new class of high-energy extragalacatic gamma-ray sources, the gamma-ray AGNs; the discovery of emission from SN 1987A in the nuclear line of Co-57; and the mapping of emission from Al-26 in the interstellar medium (ISM) near the Galactic center. Future observations will include deep surveys of selected regions of the sky, long-tem studies of individual objects, correlative studies of objects at gamma-ray and other energies, a Galactic plane survey at intermediate gamma-ray energies, and improved statistics on gamma-ray bursts to search for small anisotropies. After completion of the all-sky survey, a Guest Investigator program is in progress with guest observers' time share increasing from 30% upward for the late mission phases.

  8. Toward a green observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weilenmann, Ueli; Ramírez, Christian; Vanderheyden, Pierre

    2010-07-01

    Many of the modern observatories are located at remote sites, far from larger cities and away from infrastructure like power grids, water supplies and roads. On-site power generation in island mode is often the only choice to provide electricity to an observatory. During the 2008 petrol price rally, conventional power generation has received special attention and alternatives are being studied now in many organisations to keep energy prices at bay. This paper shall outline the power generation at the ESO VLT/VLTI observatory at Paranal as it is now and a plan for a possible way out of the dependency on fossil fuels in the near future. A discussion of several alternatives including wind energy, solar energy and heat recovery from a conventional power plant shall be analysed and compared. Finally, a project is being proposed to equip the VLT/VLTI with a modern alternative energy supply, based on a novel concept: Solar cooling.

  9. Wendelstein Observatory control software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snigula, Jan M.; Gössl, Claus; Kodric, Mihael; Riffeser, Arno; Wegner, Michael; Schlichter, Jörg

    2016-07-01

    LMU Munchen operates an astrophysical observatory on Mt. Wendelstein1. The 2m Fraunhofer telescope2, 3 is equipped with a 0.5 x 0.5 square degree field-of-view wide field camera4 and a 3 channel optical/NIR camera5, 6. Two fiber coupled spectrographs7-9 and a wavefront sensor will be added in the near future. The observatory hosts a multitude of supporting hardware, i.e. allsky cameras, webcams, meteostation, air conditioning etc. All scientific hardware can be controlled through a single, central "Master Control Program" (MCP). At the last SPIE astronomy venue we presented the overall Wendelstein Observatory software concept10. Here we explain concept and implementation of the MCP as a multi-threaded Python daemon in the area of conflict between debuggability and Don't Repeat Yourself (DRY).

  10. Iranian National Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosroshahi, H. G.; Danesh, A.; Molaeinezhad, A.

    2016-09-01

    The Iranian National Observatory is under construction at an altitude of 3600m at Gargash summit 300km southern Tehran. The site selection was concluded in 2007 and the site monitoring activities have begun since then, which indicates a high quality of the site with a median seeing of 0.7 arcsec through the year. One of the major observing facilities of the observatory is a 3.4m Alt-Az Ritchey-Chretien optical telescope which is currently under design. This f/11 telescope will be equipped with high resolution medium-wide field imaging cameras as well as medium and high resolution spectrographs. In this review, I will give an overview of astronomy research and education in Iran. Then I will go through the past and present activities of the Iranian National Observatory project including the site quality, telescope specifications and instrument capabilities.

  11. Swift Observatory Space Simulation Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espiritu, Mellina; Choi, Michael K.; Scocik, Christopher S.

    2004-01-01

    The Swift Observatory is a Middle-Class Explorer (MIDEX) mission that is a rapidly re-pointing spacecraft with immediate data distribution capability to the astronomical community. Its primary objectives are to characterize and determine the origin of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) and to use the collected data on GRB phenomena in order to probe the universe and gain insight into the physics of black hole formation and early universe. The main components of the spacecraft are the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT), X-Ray Telescope (XRT), and Optical Bench (OB) instruments coupled with the Swift spacecraft (S/C) bus. The Swift Observatory will be tested at the Space Environment Simulation (SES) chamber at the Goddard Space Flight Center from May to June 2004 in order to characterize its thermal behavior in a vacuum environment. In order to simulate the independent thermal zones required by the BAT, XRT, UVOT, and OB instruments, the spacecraft is mounted on a chariot structure capable of maintaining adiabatic interfaces and enclosed in a modified, four section MSX fixture in order to accommodate the strategic placement of seven cryopanels (on four circuits), four heater panels, and a radiation source burst simulator mechanism. There are additionally 55 heater circuits on the spacecraft. To mitigate possible migration of silicone contaminants from BAT to the XRT and UVOT instruments, a contamination enclosure is to be fabricated around the BAT at the uppermost section of the MSX fixture. This paper discuses the test requirements and implemented thermal vacuum test configuration for the Swift Observatory.

  12. First Light of the Renovated Thacher Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Katie; Yin, Yao; Edwards, Nick; Swift, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    The Thacher Observatory, originally a collaboration between UCLA (P.I. G. Abell), Caltech, Pomona College, and the Thacher School, was built in the early 1960s. The goal of the facility was to serve as a training ground for undergraduate and graduate students in Los Angeles area colleges and also to provide hands-on technical training and experience for Thacher students. It was the birthplace of the Summer Science Program which continues today at other campuses. The observatory has now been fully renovated and modernized with a new, 0.7m telescope and dome that can be controlled remotely and in an automated manner. Science programs involving accurate and precise photometry have been initiated, and we project that we will be presenting the first scientific results of the renovated observatory at this meeting.

  13. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This drawing is a schematic of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-1. The first observatory, designated HEAO-1, was launched on August 12, 1977 aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle and was designed to survey the sky for additional x-ray and gamma-ray sources as well as pinpointing their positions. The HEAO-1 was originally identified as HEAO-A but the designation was changed once the spacecraft achieved orbit. The HEAO project involved the launching of three unmarned scientific observatories into low Earth orbit between 1977 and 1979 to study some of the most intriguing mysteries of the universe; pulsars, black holes, neutron stars, and super nova. Hardware support for the imaging instruments was provided by American Science and Engineeing. The HEAO spacecraft were built by TRW, Inc. under project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  14. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This artist's conception depicts the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-1 in orbit. The first observatory, designated HEAO-1, was launched on August 12, 1977 aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle and was designed to survey the sky for additional x-ray and gamma-ray sources as well as pinpointing their positions. The HEAO-1 was originally identified as HEAO-A but the designation was changed once the spacecraft achieved orbit. The HEAO project involved the launching of three unmarned scientific observatories into low Earth orbit between 1977 and 1979 to study some of the most intriguing mysteries of the universe; pulsars, black holes, neutron stars, and super nova. Hardware support for the imaging instruments was provided by American Science and Engineeing. The HEAO spacecraft were built by TRW, Inc. under project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  15. Abnormal origin of the right subclavian artery from the right pulmonary artery in a patient with D-transposition of the great vessels and left juxtaposition of the right atrial appendage: an unusual anatomical variant.

    PubMed

    Mosieri, Jackmerry; Chintala, Kavitha; Delius, Ralph E; Walters, Henry L; Hakimi, Mehdi

    2004-01-01

    Isolation of the left subclavian artery (LSCA) or its anomalous origin from the pulmonary artery (PA) has been documented in several cases, especially in association with a right-sided aortic arch. Similar anomalies involving the right subclavian artery (RSCA) are less frequent. Anomalous origin of the RSCA from the PA in association with D-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) is exceedingly rare and only two cases have been reported so far. We present here, a case of aberrant origin of the RSCA from the right PA in a patient with D-TGA, in whom the diagnosis was rendered difficult due to the partial occlusion of the intervening ductus arteriosus (DA). We discuss the embryological basis of this anomaly and review its clinical and surgical implications.

  16. WFIRST Observatory Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    The WFIRST observatory will be a powerful and flexible wide-field near-infrared facility. The planned surveys will provide data applicable to an enormous variety of astrophysical science. This presentation will provide a description of the observatory and its performance characteristics. This will include a discussion of the point spread function, signal-to-noise budgets for representative observing scenarios and the corresponding limiting sensitivity. Emphasis will be given to providing prospective Guest Observers with information needed to begin thinking about new observing programs.

  17. Arecibo Observatory for All

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidro, Gloria M.; Pantoja, C. A.; Bartus, P.; La Rosa, C.

    2006-12-01

    We describe new materials available at Arecibo Observatory for visitors with visual impairments. These materials include a guide in Braille that describes the telescope, some basic terms used in radio astronomy and frequently asked questions. We have also designed a tactile model of the telescope. We are interested that blind visitors can participate of the excitement of the visit to the worlds largest radio telescope. We would like to thank the "Fundacion Comunitaria de Puerto Rico" for the scholarship that allowed GMI to work on this project. We would like to express our gratitude to the Arecibo Observatory/NAIC for their support.

  18. Long Valley Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Hill, David

    2008-01-01

    The ~300-year-old lava on Paoha Island in Mono Lake was produced by the most recent eruption in the Long Valley Caldera area in east-central California. The Long Valley Caldera was formed by a massive volcanic eruption 760,000 years ago. The region is monitored by the Long Valley Observatory (LVO), one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about the Long Valley Caldera region and LVO at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/lvo.

  19. Cascades Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Driedger, Carolyn; Pallister, John

    2008-01-01

    Washington's Mount St. Helens volcano reawakens explosively on October 1, 2004, after 18 years of quiescence. Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) study and observe Mount St. Helens and other volcanoes of the Cascade Range in Washington, Oregon, and northern California that hold potential for future eruptions. CVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Mount St. Helens and CVO at http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/.

  20. Yellowstone Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Lowenstern, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Eruption of Yellowstone's Old Faithful Geyser. Yellowstone hosts the world's largest and most diverse collection of natural thermal features, which are the surface expression of magmatic heat at shallow depths in the crust. The Yellowstone system is monitored by the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO), a partnership among the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Yellowstone National Park, and the University of Utah. YVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Yellowstone and YVO at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/yvo.

  1. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory, the third of NASA's four Great Observatories and its flagship mission for X-ray astronomy, was launched by NASA's Space Shuttle Columbia on July 23, 1999. The first X-ray sources were observed on August 12, 1999. The brightest of these sources named Leon X-1 in honor of Chandra's Telescope Scientist who played the leading role in establishing the key to Chandra's great advance in angular resolution. Over the past years, the Observatory's ability to provide sub-arc second X-ray images and high resolution spectra has established it as one of the most versatile and powerful tools for astrophysical research in the 21st century. Chandra explores the high-energy regions of the universe, observing X-ray sources with fluxes ranging over more than 10 orders of magnitude. The longevity of Chandra also provides a long observing baseline enabling temporal studies over time-scales of years. I will discuss how the Observatory works, the current operational status, and scientific highlights covering a variety of objects from stars with nearby planets that impact the stellar activity to the deepest Chandra surveys.

  2. Observatory Sponsoring Astronomical Image Contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    and to provide a showcase for a broad range of astronomical research and celestial objects," Adams added. In addition, NRAO is developing enhanced data visualization techniques and data-processing recipes to assist radio astronomers in making quality images and in combining radio data with data collected at other wavelengths, such as visible-light or infrared, to make composite images. "We encourage all our telescope users to take advantage of these techniques to showcase their research," said Juan Uson, a member of the NRAO scientific staff and the observatory's EPO scientist. "All these efforts should demonstrate the vital and exciting roles that radio telescopes, radio observers, and the NRAO play in modern astronomy," Lo said. "While we want to encourage images that capture the imagination, we also want to emphasize that extra effort invested in enhanced imagery also will certainly pay off scientifically, by revealing subtleties and details that may have great significance for our understanding of astronomical objects," he added. Details of the NRAO Image Contest, which will become an annual event, are on the observatory's Web site. The observatory will announce winners on October 15. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  3. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becklin, E. E.; Gehrz, R. D.; Roellig, T. L.

    2012-10-01

    The joint U.S. and German Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), a program to develop and operate a 2.5-meter infrared airborne telescope in a Boeing 747SP, has obtained first science with the FORCAST camera in the 5 to 40 micron spectral region and the GREAT heterodyne spectrometer in the 130 to 240 micron spectral region. We briefly review the characteristics and status of the observatory. Spectacular science results on regions of star formation will be discussed. The FORCAST images show several discoveries and the potential for determining how massive stars form in our Galaxy. The GREAT heterodyne spectrometer has made mapping observations of the [C II] line at 158 microns, high J CO lines, and other molecular lines including SH. The HIPO high speed photometer and the high speed camera FDC were used to observe the 2011 June 23 UT stellar occultation by Pluto.

  4. High Energy Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory 2 contributions to X-ray astronomy is presented along with a brief description of the satellite and onboard telescope. Observations relating to galaxies and galactic clusters, black holes, supernova remnants, quasars, and cosmology are discussed.

  5. Arecibo Observatory for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartus, P.; Isidro, G. M.; La Rosa, C.; Pantoja, C. A.

    2007-01-01

    We describe new materials available at the Arecibo Observatory for visitors with visual impairments. These materials include a guide in Braille that describes the telescope, explains some basic terms used in radio astronomy, and lists frequently asked questions. We have also designed a tactile model of the telescope. Our interest is in enabling…

  6. Improving Arecibo Observatory's Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Rooy, Paula; Whitlow, Dana; Seymour, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The Puerto-rican Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (PUPPI) is a key backend for time-domain observations at Arecibo Observatory. PUPPI enables pulsar timing used for gravitational wave studies, single pulse studies of pulsars, searches for new pulsars, and allows in depth studies of Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs). Unfortunately, PUPPI is presently restricted to only certain Arecibo receivers due to its input frequency and bandwidth requirements. Here we present the design process, building, bench testing, and updates on the implementation of a one-channel breadboard of a new frequency mixer at the Arecibo Observatory. The function of the frequency mixer design is to translate a 1.1-1.9 GHz band to 0.8 - 1.6 GHz band, where PUPPI samples the data at the second Nyquist zone. When this seemingly simple device is fully implemented, it will allow for the further expansion of the abilities of PUPPI. Mainly it will expand PUPPI's frequency agility to higher frequencies from 4 to 10 GHz, by enabling it to work with many more of Arecibo's receivers. We hope this becomes particularly useful, now that a FRB has been detected at these higher frequencies. The Arecibo Observatory is operated by SRI International under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (AST-1100968), and in alliance with Ana G. Méndez-Universidad Metropolitana, and the Universities Space Research Association. The Arecibo Observatory REU is funded under grant AST-1559849 to Universidad Metropolitana

  7. Observatory of Shiraz University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordbar, G. H.; Bahrani, F.

    2016-12-01

    Here we write about the observatory of Shiraz University, which has the largest active telescope in Iran but now, because of problems like light pollution of the nearby city and exhaustion of its largest telescope we need a plan for modernization and automatization in a new place.

  8. Armenian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Vast amount of information continuously accumulated in astronomy requires finding new solutions for its efficient storage, use and dissemination, as well as accomplishing new research projects. Virtual Observatories (VOs) have been created in a number of countries to set up a new environment for these tasks. Based on them, the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) was created in 2002, which unifies 19 VO projects, including Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) founded in 2005. ArVO is a project of Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) aimed at construction of a modern system for data archiving, extraction, acquisition, reduction, use and publication. ArVO technical and research projects are presented, including the Global Spectroscopic Database, which is being built based on Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS). Quick optical identification of radio, IR or X-ray sources will be possible by plotting their positions in the DFBS or other spectroscopic plate and matching all available data. Accomplishment of new projects by combining data is so important that the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) recently created World Data System (WDS) for unifying data coming from all science areas, and BAO has also joined it.

  9. Strasbourg's "First" astronomical observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, André

    2011-08-01

    The turret lantern located at the top of the Strasbourg Hospital Gate is generally considered as the first astronomical observatory of the city, but such a qualification must be treated with caution. The thesis of this paper is that the idea of a tower-observatory was brought back by a local scholar, Julius Reichelt (1637-1717), after he made a trip to Northern Europe around 1666 and saw the "Rundetårn" (Round Tower) recently completed in Copenhagen. There, however, a terrace allowed (and still allows) the full viewing of the sky, and especially of the zenith area where the atmospheric transparency is best. However, there is no such terrace in Strasbourg around the Hospital Gate lantern. Reichelt had also visited Johannes Hevelius who was then developing advanced observational astronomy in Gdansk, but nothing of the kind followed in Strasbourg. Rather, the Hospital Gate observatory was built essentially for the prestige of the city and for the notoriety of the university, and the users of this observing post did not make any significant contributions to the progress of astronomical knowledge. We conclude that the Hospital Gate observatory was only used for rudimentary viewing of bright celestial objects or phenomena relatively low on the horizon.

  10. The IT Observatory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Kai Iok Tong; Sousa, Antonio C. M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the IT Observatory, a service of the Macau Productivity and Technology center (CPTTM) that provides information on demand using information technology. The CPTTM is a nonprofit organization funded by the Macau government and private businesses to enhance the productivity of Macau businesses by introducing new technologies and new…

  11. Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Torun Center for Astronomy is located at Piwnice, 15 km north of Torun, Poland. A part of the Faculty of Physics and Astronomy of the Nicolaus Copernicus University, it was created by the union of Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory (TRAO) and the Institute of Astronomy on 1 January 1997....

  12. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Hime, A.

    1996-09-01

    A report is given on the status of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, presently under construction in the Creighton nickel mine near Sudbury, Ontario in Canada. Focus is upon the technical factors involving a measurement of the charged-current and neutral-current interactions of solar neutrinos on deuterium.

  13. The Origin of Carbon-Bearing Volatiles in a Continental Hydrothermal System in the Great Basin: Water Chemistry and Isotope Characterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Romanek, Christopher; Datta, Saugata; Darnell, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal systems on Earth are active centers in the crust where organic molecules can be synthesized biotically or abiotically under a wide range of physical and chemical conditions [1-3]. Not only are volatile species (CO, CO2, H2, and hydrocarbons) a reflection of deep-seated hydrothermal alteration processes, but they also form an important component of biological systems. Studying carbon-bearing fluids from hydrothermal systems is of specific importance to understanding (bio-)geochemical processes within these systems. With recent detection of methane in the martian atmosphere [4-7] and the possibility of its hydrothermal origin [8, 9], understanding the formation mechanisms of methane may provide constraints on the history of the martian aqueous environments and climate.

  14. Great Practices

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Great Practice Compendium highlights outstanding activities, technologies, and programs that prevent trash from entering the aquatic environment and/or that reduce the overall volume of trash that is generated.

  15. Great Apes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Cerveny, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia of great apes is often necessary to conduct diagnostic analysis, provide therapeutics, facilitate surgical procedures, and enable transport and translocation for conservation purposes. Due to the stress of remote delivery injection of anesthetic agents, recent studies have focused on oral delivery and/or transmucosal absorption of preanesthetic and anesthetic agents. Maintenance of the airway and provision of oxygen is an important aspect of anesthesia in great ape species. The provision of analgesia is an important aspect of the anesthesia protocol for any procedure involving painful stimuli. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often administered alone, or in combination to provide multi-modal analgesia. There is increasing conservation management of in situ great ape populations, which has resulted in the development of field anesthesia techniques for free-living great apes for the purposes of translocation, reintroduction into the wild, and clinical interventions.

  16. Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus

    2008-01-01

    Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.

  17. Two New Permanent GPS Observatories In The Czech Republic - Snezka and Biskup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, V.; Kottnauer, P.; Schenkova, Z.; Rucki, A.; Psenicka, J.; Rehak, J., Jr.

    In summer 2001 the Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics bought GPS receivers Ashtech Z-18 equipped with Choke-Ring antennas to establish two GPS observatories in the area of geodynamic networks "East" and "West Sudeten". For the permanent monitoring of the GPS satellite signals following two sites were tested and adopted: (a) a top of the highest mount Snezka of the Krkonose Mts. and (b) the old stone watchtower on the mount Biskupská Kupa in Silesia. The Ashtech Z - 18 receivers that monitor simultaneously NAVSTAR and GLONASS satellite signals are connected to a standard PC equipped with a capable HD to store a great amount of observed data. Just monitored data are regularly put to the HD in binary and RINEX forms, respectively. When GPS day terminates and the binary and RINEX files are successfully stored, the standard Ashtech software closes them and new binary and RINEX files for the next GPS day creates. To protect the receivers and the PCs against a power failure they are powered by 230V AC/ 12V DC power source/charger and backed up by 12V/240Ah batteries. As evident, the observatories operate without operators and approximately once per two months the stored data are copied to any PC medium. Thus, valuable databases for an intensive research in geodynamics of the north-east part of the Bo- hemian Massif and naturally for a fundamental tasks in geodesy are originated. Since each observatory is located within one of two existing GPS networks, the "East" and "West Sudeten", there is an assumption that annual campaign network data together with observatory ones will distinctly contribute to understanding and/or explanation of existing regional geodynamical movements in the Sudeten area. The establishment of the GPS observatories was essentially supported from funds of the MEYS research programme, from a Project LN00A005 "Dynamics of the Earth", and of the GA CR research project No. 205/01/0480.

  18. Calar Alto Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Calar Alto Observatory, or `Centro Astronomico Hispano-Aleman', is located at an altitude of 2168 m in the `Sierra de los Filabres', in southern Spain. Its construction on Calar Alto mountain began in 1973. It is operated jointly by the MAX-PLANCK-INSTITUT FÜR ASTRONOMIE in Heidelberg (MPIA), Germany, and the `Comision Nacional de Astronomia'. The MPIA provides four telescopes of diameters 3....

  19. Jodrell Bank Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Jodrell Bank Observatory is part of the University of Manchester and was founded by Bernard Lovell in December 1945. Its prime instrument, the 76 m, MK1 radio-telescope, was completed in 1957. It was given a major upgrade in 1971 and is now known as the Lovell Telescope. In its early years it pioneered the technique of long baseline interferometry which led to the discovery of quasars. A majo...

  20. Mount Wilson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mount Wilson Observatory, located in the San Gabriel Mountains near Pasadena, California, was founded in 1904 by George Ellery Hale with financial support from Andrew Carnegie. In the 1920s and 1930s, working at the 2.5 m Hooker telescope, Edwin Hubble made two of the most important discoveries in the history of astronomy: first, that `nebulae' are actually island universes—galaxies—each with bil...

  1. Arecibo Observatory for All

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartus, P.; Isidro, G. M.; La Rosa, C.; Pantoja, C. A.

    We describe new materials available at the Arecibo Observatory for visitors with visual impairments. These materials include a guide in Braille that describes the telescope, explains some basic terms used in radio astronomy, and lists frequently asked questions. We have also designed a tactile model of the telescope. Our interest is in enabling blind visitors to participate in the excitement of visiting the world's largest radio telescope.

  2. Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory began operating in 1959, and joined the NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL in 1970. It became part of the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics in 1975. The site near Penticton, BC has a 26 m radio telescope, a seven-antenna synthesis telescope on a 600 m baseline and two telescopes dedicated to monitoring the solar radio flux at 10.7 cm. This part of the Institu...

  3. Expanding the HAWC Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Johanna

    2016-08-17

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory is expanding its current array of 300 water tanks to include 350 outrigger tanks to increase sensitivity to gamma rays above 10 TeV. This involves creating and testing hardware with which to build the new tanks, including photomultiplier tubes, high voltage supply units, and flash analog to digital converters. My responsibilities this summer included preparing, testing and calibrating that equipment.

  4. The solar terrestrial observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    The larger system of the earth environment is controlled externally by electromagnetic and particle energy from the sun. Recent studies have shown that the sun is a variable star with changes in its radiation which produce significant effects in the earth's climate and weather. The study of the solar-terrestrial system requires simultaneous, long-duration observations of the different elements or 'links' in the solar-terrestrial chain. Many investigations must be conducted in space from a vantage point above the earth's atmosphere where all of the sun's emissions can be observed free from atmospheric distortion, where the magnetospheric particles and fields can be measured directly, and where the atmosphere can be observed on a global scale. The extension of the Shuttle on-orbit capability in connection with the development of the power module will offer an important near-term step in an evolutionary process leading toward a permanent manned Solar Terrestrial Observatory capability in low-earth orbit. Attention is given to the required solar-terrestrial measurements, the operation of the Solar Terrestrial Observatory, and an evolutionary approach to the Solar Terrestrial Observatory.

  5. Megalithic observatory Kokino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenev, Gj.

    2006-05-01

    In 2001, on the footpath of a mountain peak, near the village of Kokino, archeologist Jovica Stankovski discovered an archeological site from The Bronze Age. The site occupies a large area and is scaled in two levels. Several stone seats (thrones) are dominant in this site and they are pointing towards the east horizon. The high concentration of the movable archeological material found on the upper platform probably indicates its use in a function containing still unknown cult activities. Due to precise measurements and a detailed archaeoastronomical analysis of the site performed in the past three years by Gjore Cenev, physicist from the Planetarium in Skopje, it was shown that the site has characteristics of a sacred site, but also of a Megalithic Observatory. The markers found in this observatory point on the summer and winter solstices and spring and autumn equinoxes. It can be seen that on both sides of the solstice markers, that there are markers for establishing Moon's positions. The markers are crafted in such a way that for example on days when special rites were performed (harvest rites for example) the Sun filled a narrow space of the marker and special ray lighted the man sitting on only one of the thrones, which of course had a special meaning. According to the positions of the markers that are used for Sun marking, especially on the solstice days, it was calculated that this observatory dates from 1800 B.C.

  6. The Russian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dluzhnevskaya, O. B.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Kilpio, A. A.; Kilpio, E. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Sat, L. A.

    The Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO) will be an integral component of the International Virtual Observatory (IVO). The RVO has the main goal of integrating resources of astronomical data accumulated in Russian observatories and institutions (databases, archives, digitized glass libraries, bibliographic data, a remote access system to information and technical resources of telescopes etc.), and providing transparent access for scientific and educational purposes to the distributed information and data services that comprise its content. Another goal of the RVO is to provide Russian astronomers with on-line access to the rich volumes of data and metadata that have been, and will continue to be, produced by astronomical survey projects. Centre for Astronomical Data (CAD), among other Russian institutions, has had the greatest experience in collecting and distributing astronomical data for more than 20 years. Some hundreds of catalogs and journal tables are currently available from the CAD repository. More recently, mirrors of main astronomical data resources (VizieR, ADS, etc) are now maintained in CAD. Besides, CAD accumulates and makes available for the astronomical community information on principal Russian astronomical resources.

  7. SOFIA: Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunz, Nans; Bowers, Al

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the great astronomical observatories both space and land based that are now operational. It shows the history of the development of SOFIA, from its conception in 1986 through the contract awards in 1996 and through the planned first flight in 2007. The major components of the observatory are shown and there is a comparison of the SOFIA with the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), which is the direct predecessor to SOFIA. The development of the aft ramp of the KAO was developed as a result of the wind tunnel tests performed for SOFIA development. Further slides show the airborne observatory layout and the telescope's optical layout. Included are also vies of the 2.5 Meter effective aperture, and the major telescope's components. The presentations reviews the technical challenges encountered during the development of SOFIA. There are also slides that review the wind tunnel tests, and CFD modeling performed during the development of SOFIA. Closing views show many views of the airplane, and views of SOFIA.

  8. Astronomical publications of Melbourne Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andropoulos, Jenny Ioanna

    2014-05-01

    During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, four well-equipped government observatories were maintained in Australia - in Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide and Perth. These institutions conducted astronomical observations, often in the course of providing a local time service, and they also collected and collated meteorological data. As well, some of these observatories were involved at times in geodetic surveying, geomagnetic recording, gravity measurements, seismology, tide recording and physical standards, so the term "observatory" was being used in a rather broad sense! Despite the international renown that once applied to Williamstown and Melbourne Observatories, relatively little has been written by modern-day scholars about astronomical activities at these observatories. This research is intended to rectify this situation to some extent by gathering, cataloguing and analysing the published astronomical output of the two Observatories to see what contributions they made to science and society. It also compares their contributions with those of Sydney, Adelaide and Perth Observatories. Overall, Williamstown and Melbourne Observatories produced a prodigious amount of material on astronomy in scientific and technical journals, in reports and in newspapers. The other observatories more or less did likewise, so no observatory of those studied markedly outperformed the others in the long term, especially when account is taken of their relative resourcing in staff and equipment.

  9. Portable coastal observatories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frye, Daniel; Butman, Bradford; Johnson, Mark; von der Heydt, Keith; Lerner, Steven

    2000-01-01

    Ocean observational science is in the midst of a paradigm shift from an expeditionary science centered on short research cruises and deployments of internally recording instruments to a sustained observational science where the ocean is monitored on a regular basis, much the way the atmosphere is monitored. While satellite remote sensing is one key way of meeting the challenge of real-time monitoring of large ocean regions, new technologies are required for in situ observations to measure conditions below the ocean surface and to measure ocean characteristics not observable from space. One method of making sustained observations in the coastal ocean is to install a fiber optic cable from shore to the area of interest. This approach has the advantage of providing power to offshore instruments and essentially unlimited bandwidth for data. The LEO-15 observatory offshore of New Jersey (yon Alt et al., 1997) and the planned Katama observatory offshore of Martha's Vineyard (Edson et al., 2000) use this approach. These sites, along with other cabled sites, will play an important role in coastal ocean science in the next decade. Cabled observatories, however, have two drawbacks that limit the number of sites that are likely to be installed. First, the cable and the cable installation are expensive and the shore station needed at the cable terminus is often in an environmentally sensitive area where competing interests must be resolved. Second, cabled sites are inherently limited geographically to sites within reach of the cable, so it is difficult to cover large areas of the coastal ocean.

  10. Great Expectations for "Great Expectations."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridley, Cheryl

    Designed to make the study of Dickens'"Great Expectations" an appealing and worthwhile experience, this paper presents a unit of study intended to help students gain (1) an appreciation of Dickens' skill at creating realistic human characters; (2) an insight into the problems of a young man confused by false values and unreal ambitions…

  11. NASA's Heliophysics System Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Steven

    2016-04-01

    NASA formulates and implements a national research program for understanding the Sun and its interactions with the Earth and the solar system and how these phenomena impact life and society. This research provides theory, data, and modeling development services to national and international space weather efforts utilizing a coordinated and complementary fleet of spacecraft, called the Heliophysics System Observatory (HSO), to understand the Sun and its interactions with Earth and the solar system, including space weather. This presentation will focus on NASA's role in space weather research and the contributions the agency continues to provide to the science of space weather, leveraging inter-agency and international collaborations for the benefit of society.

  12. The HAWC observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeYoung, Tyce; HAWC Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a new very high energy water Cherenkov gamma ray telescope, now under construction at 4100 m altitude at Sierra Negra, Mexico. Due to its increased altitude, larger surface area and improved design, HAWC will be about 15 times more sensitive than its predecessor, Milagro. With its wide field of view and high duty factor, HAWC will be an excellent instrument for the studies of diffuse gamma ray emission, the high energy spectra of Galactic gamma ray sources, and transient emission from extragalactic objects such as GRBs and AGN, as well as surveying a large fraction of the VHE sky.

  13. How To Cover NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    NASA's newest space telescope, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, is scheduled for launch not earlier than July 20, 1999, aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-93. The world's most powerful X-ray observatory, Chandra will join the Hubble Space Telescope and NASA's other great observatories in an unprecedented study of our universe. With its capability to "see" an otherwise invisible but violent, vibrant and ever-changing universe, Chandra will provide insights into the universe's structure and evolution. The following information is designed to assist news media representatives cover launch and activation of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Covering from the Chandra Control Center NASA will establish a news center at the Chandra X-ray Observatory Operations Control Center in Cambridge, Mass., during the critical period of launch and early activation. The news center will be open from approximately two days prior to launch until the observatory is established in its operating orbit approximately 11 days after launch. The telephone numbers for the news center are: (617) 496-4454 (617) 496-4462 (617) 496-4484 The news center will be staffed around the clock during the Shuttle mission by media relations officers knowledgeable about the Chandra mission and its status. Media covering from the news center will be provided work space and have opportunities for face-to-face interviews with Chandra management, control team members and Chandra scientists. They will be able to participate in daily Chandra status briefings and have access to a special control room viewing area. Additionally, media covering from Cambridge will receive periodic status reports on Chandra and the STS-93 mission, and will be able to participate in interactive televised briefings on the STS-93 mission originating from other NASA centers. While advance accreditation is not required, media interested in covering Chandra from the Operations Control Center should contact Dave Drachlis by telephone at (256) 544

  14. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory: mission status.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D. A.

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) is the second in NASA's series of Great Observatories. Compton has now been operating for over two and a half years, and has given a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made and continue to be made. The authors describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments and the observing programs for the first three years of the mission. During Phases 2 and 3 of the mission a Guest Investigator program has been in progress with the Guest Observers' time share increasing from 30% to over 50% for the later mission phases.

  15. The Great Astronomical Ear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiatt, Blanchard

    1980-01-01

    Presents a description of the world's largest radio/radar antenna, the Areciba Observatory in Puerto Rico. Activities at the observatory are discussed as well as the scientific research in the field of radio astronomy. (SA)

  16. GREAT optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner-Gentner, Armin; Graf, Urs U.; Philipp, Martin; Rabanus, David; Stutzki, Jürgen

    2004-10-01

    The German REceiver for Astronomy at Terahertz frequencies (GREAT) is a first generation PI instrument for the SOFIA telescope, developed by a collaboration between the MPIfR, KOSMA, DLR, and the MPAe. The first three institutes each contribute one heterodyne receiver channel to operate at 1.9, 2.7 and 4.7 THz, respectively. A later addition of a e.g. 1.4 THz channel is planned. The GREAT instrument is developed to carry two cryostats at once. That means that any two of the three frequencies can be observed simultaneously. Therefore, we need to be able to quickly exchange the optics benches, the local oscillator (LO) subsystems, and the cryostats containing the mixer devices. This demands a high modularity and flexibility of our receiver concept. Our aim is to avoid the need for realignment when swapping receiver channels. After an overview of the common GREAT optics, a detailed description of several parts (optics benches, calibration units, diplexer, focal plane imager) is given. Special emphasis is given to the LO optics of the KOSMA 1.9 THz channel, because its backward wave oscillator has an astigmatic output beam profile, which has to be corrected for. We developed astigmatic off-axis mirrors to compensate this astigmatism. The mirrors are manufactured in-house on a 5 axis CNC milling machine. We use this milling machine to obtain optical components with highest surface accuracy (about 5 microns) appropriate for these wavelengths. Based on the CNC machining capabilities we present our concept of integrated optics, which means to manufacture optical subsystems monolithically. The optics benches are located on three point mounts, which in conjunction with the integrated optics concept ensure the required adjustment free optics setup.

  17. Lessons from the MicroObservatory Net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, K.; Sadler, P.; Gould, R.; Leiker, S.; Antonucci, P.; Deutsch, F.

    1998-12-01

    Over the past several years, we have developed a fully integrated automated astronomical telescope system which combines the imaging power of a cooled CCD, with a self-contained and weatherized 15 cm reflecting optical telescope and mount. Each telescope can be pointed and focused remotely, and filters, field of view and exposure times can be changed easily. The MicroObservatory Net consists of five of these telescopes. They are being deployed around the world at widely distributed longitudes for access to distant night skies during local daytime. Remote access to the MicroObservatories over the Internet has been available to select schools since 1995. The telescopes can be controlled in real time or in delay mode, from any computer using Web-based software. Individuals have access to all of the telescope control functions without the need for an `on-site' operator. After a MicroObservatory completes a job, the user is automatically notified by e-mail that the image is available for viewing and downloading from the Web site. Images are archived at the Web site, along with sample challenges and a user bulletin board, all of which encourage collaboration between schools. The Internet address of the telescopes is http://mo-www.harvard.edu/MicroObservatory/. The telescopes were designed for classroom instruction by teachers, as well as for use by students and amateur astronomers for original scientific research projects. In this talk, we will review some of the experiences we, students and teachers have had in using the telescopes. Support for the MicroObservatory Net has been provided by the NSF, Apple Computer, Inc. and Kodak, Inc.

  18. GPM Core Observatory Launch Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the launch of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory satellite from Tanegashima Space Center, Japan. The launch is currently scheduled for Feb. 27, 2014....

  19. Latest results from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembinski, Hans P.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2012-02-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located in the Province of Mendoza, Argentina, is the World's largest detector for cosmic rays at ultra-high energies. In its seven years of operation it has collected an exposure of more than 20000 km2 sr yr, larger than all previous experiments combined. Its original design, optimized for the energy range 1018 eV to 1020 eV, is currently enhanced to cover energies down to almost 1017 eV. We give an overview of the latest results with a focus on the prospect to study nuclear interactions with cosmic rays and conclude with a brief outlook on developments and extensions of the observatory. Full author list

  20. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2 in orbit. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978. The HEAO-2 was originally identified as HEAO-B but the designation was changed once the spacecraft achieved orbit.

  1. 150th Anniversary of the Astronomical Observatory Library of Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solntseva, T.

    The scientific library of the Astronomical observatory of Kyiv Taras Shevchenko University is one of the oldest ones of such a type in Ukraine. Our Astronomical Observatory and its scientific library will celebrate 150th anniversary of their foundation. 900 volumes of duplicates of Olbers' private library underlay our library. These ones were acquired by Russian Academy of Sciences for Poulkovo observatory in 1841 but according to Struve's order were transmitted to Kyiv Saint Volodymyr University. These books are of great value. There are works edited during Copernicus', Kepler's, Galilei's, Newton's, Descartes' lifetime. Our library contains more than 100000 units of storage - monographs, periodical astronomical editions from the first (Astronomische Nachrichten, Astronomical journal, Monthly Notices etc.), editions of the majority of the astronomical observatories and institutions of the world, unique astronomical atlases and maps

  2. LCOGT network observatory operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickles, Andrew; Hjelstrom, Annie; Boroson, Todd; Burleson, Ben; Conway, Patrick; De Vera, Jon; Elphick, Mark; Haworth, Brian; Rosing, Wayne; Saunders, Eric; Thomas, Doug; White, Gary; Willis, Mark; Walker, Zach

    2014-08-01

    We describe the operational capabilities of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network. We summarize our hardware and software for maintaining and monitoring network health. We focus on methodologies to utilize the automated system to monitor availability of sites, instruments and telescopes, to monitor performance, permit automatic recovery, and provide automatic error reporting. The same jTCS control system is used on telescopes of apertures 0.4m, 0.8m, 1m and 2m, and for multiple instruments on each. We describe our network operational model, including workloads, and illustrate our current tools, and operational performance indicators, including telemetry and metrics reporting from on-site reductions. The system was conceived and designed to establish effective, reliable autonomous operations, with automatic monitoring and recovery - minimizing human intervention while maintaining quality. We illustrate how far we have been able to achieve that.

  3. DSN Transient Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Monroe, R. M.; White, L. A.; Miro, C. Garcia; Levin, S. M.; Majid, W. A.; Soriano, M.

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) Transient Observatory (DTO) is a signal processing facility that can monitor up to four DSN downlink bands for astronomically interesting signals. The monitoring is done commensally with reception of deep space mission telemetry. The initial signal processing is done with two CASPERa ROACH1 boards, each handling one or two baseband signals. Each ROACH1 has a 10 GBe interface with a GPU-equipped Debian Linux workstation for additional processing. The initial science programs include monitoring Mars for electrostatic discharges, radio spectral lines, searches for fast radio bursts and pulsars and SETI. The facility will be available to the scientific community through a peer review process.

  4. Orbiting Carbon Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Charles E.

    2005-01-01

    Human impact on the environment has produced measurable changes in the geological record since the late 1700s. Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 today may cause the global climate to depart for its natural behavior for many millenia. CO2 is the primary anthropogenic driver of climate change. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory goals are to help collect measurements of atmospheric CO2, answering questions such as why the atmospheric CO2 buildup varies annually, the roles of the oceans and land ecosystems in absorbing CO2, the roles of North American and Eurasian sinks and how these carbon sinks respond to climate change. The present carbon cycle, CO2 variability, and climate uncertainties due atmospheric CO2 uncertainties are highlighted in this presentation.

  5. Global geodetic observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Claude; Pearlman, Mike; Sarti, Pierguido

    2015-01-01

    Global geodetic observatories (GGO) play an increasingly important role both for scientific and societal applications, in particular for the maintenance and evolution of the reference frame and those applications that rely on the reference frame for their viability. The International Association of Geodesy (IAG), through the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), is fully involved in coordinating the development of these systems and ensuring their quality, perenniality and accessibility. This paper reviews the current role, basic concepts, and some of the critical issues associated with the GGOs, and advocates for their expansion to enhance co-location with other observing techniques (gravity, meteorology, etc). The historical perspective starts with the MERIT campaign, followed by the creation of international services (IERS, IGS, ILRS, IVS, IDS, etc). It provides a basic definition of observing systems and observatories and the build up of the international networks and the role of co-locations in geodesy and geosciences and multi-technique processing and data products. This paper gives special attention to the critical topic of local surveys and tie vectors among co-located systems in sites; the agreement of space geodetic solutions and the tie vectors now place one of the most significant limitations on the quality of integrated data products, most notably the ITRF. This topic focuses on survey techniques, extrapolation to instrument reference points, computation techniques, systematic biases, and alignment of the individual technique reference frames into ITRF. The paper also discusses the design, layout and implementation of network infrastructure, including the role of GGOS and the benefit that would be achieved with better standardization and international governance.

  6. Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, E.W.

    1992-03-01

    This document is a technical progress report on work performed at the University of Pennsylvania during the current year on the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory project. The motivation for the experiment is the measurement of neutrinos emitted by the sun. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a second generation dedicated solar neutrino experiment which will extend the results of our work with the Kamiokande II detector by measuring three reactions of neutrinos rather than the single reaction measured by the Kamiokande experiment. The collaborative project includes physicists from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Full funding for the construction of this facility was obtained in January 1990, and its construction is estimated to take five years. The motivation for the SNO experiment is to study the fundamental properties of neutrinos, in particular the mass and mixing parameters, which remain undetermined after decades of experiments in neutrino physics utilizing accelerators and reactors as sources of neutrinos. To continue the study of neutrino properties it is necessary to use the sun as a neutrino source. The long distance to the sun makes the search for neutrino mass sensitive to much smaller mass than can be studied with terrestrial sources. Furthermore, the matter density in the sun is sufficiently large to enhance the effects of small mixing between electron neutrinos and mu or tau neutrinos. This experiment, when combined with the results of the radiochemical {sup 37}Cl and {sup 71}Ga experiments and the Kamiokande II experiment, should extend our knowledge of these fundamental particles, and as a byproduct, improve our understanding of energy generation in the sun.

  7. The Pierre Auger Observatory Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsella, Giovanni

    2017-03-01

    It is planned to operate the Pierre Auger Observatory until at least the end of 2024. An upgrade of the experiment has been proposed in order to provide additional measurements to allow one to elucidate the mass composition and the origin of the flux suppression at the highest energies, to search for a flux contribution of protons up to the highest energies and to reach a sensitivity to a contribution as small as 10% in the flux suppression region, to study extensive air showers and hadronic multi-particle production. With operation planned until 2024, event statistics will more than double compared with the existing Auger data set, with the critical added advantage that every event will now have mass information. Obtaining additional composition-sensitive information will not only help to better reconstruct the properties of the primary particles at the highest energies, but also improve the measurements in the energy range just above the ankle. Furthermore, measurements with the new detectors will help to reduce systematic uncertainties related to the modelling hadronic showers and to limitations in the reconstruction algorithms. A description of the principal proposed Auger upgrade will be presented. The Auger upgrade promises high-quality future data, and real scope for new physics.

  8. Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Joseph M.; SaintCyr, O. C.

    2003-01-01

    The solar magnetic field is constantly generated beneath the surface of the Sun by the solar dynamo. To balance this flux generation, there is constant dissipation of magnetic flux at and above the solar surface. The largest phenomenon associated with this dissipation is the Coronal Mass Ejection (CME). The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) has provided remarkable views of the corona and CMEs, and served to highlight how these large interplanetary disturbances can have terrestrial consequences. STEREO is the next logical step to study the physics of CME origin, propagation, and terrestrial effects. Two spacecraft with identical instrument complements will be launched on a single launch vehicle in November 2007. One spacecraft will drift ahead and the second behind the Earth at a separation rate of 22 degrees per year. Observation from these two vantage points will for the first time allow the observation of the three-dimensional structure of CMEs and the coronal structures where they originate. Each STEREO spacecraft carries a complement of 10 instruments, which include (for the first time) an extensive set of both remote sensing and in-situ instruments. The remote sensing suite is capable of imaging CMEs from the solar surface out to beyond Earth's orbit (1 AU), and in-situ instruments are able to measure distribution functions for electrons, protons, and ions over a broad energy range, from the normal thermal solar wind plasma to the most energetic solar particles. It is anticipated that these studies will ultimately lead to an increased understanding of the CME process and provide unique observations of the flow of energy from the corona to the near-Earth environment. An international research program, the International Heliophysical Year (IHY) will provide a framework for interpreting STEREO data in the context of global processes in the Sun-Earth system.

  9. The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

  10. Ancient "Observatories" - A Relevant Concept?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    It is quite common, when reading popular books on astronomy, to see a place referred to as "the oldest observatory in the world". In addition, numerous books on archaeoastronomy, of various levels of quality, frequently refer to the existence of "prehistoric" or "ancient" observatories when describing or citing monuments that were certainly not built with the primary purpose of observing the skies. Internet sources are also guilty of this practice. In this chapter, the different meanings of the word observatory will be analyzed, looking at how their significances can be easily confused or even interchanged. The proclaimed "ancient observatories" are a typical result of this situation. Finally, the relevance of the concept of the ancient observatory will be evaluated.

  11. The great asteroid nomenclature controversy of 1801

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.

    1992-01-01

    With the almost complete neglect of 19th century asteroid research by professional historians of science, it is scarcely surprising that great gaps exist in our knowledge of that important field. This paper focuses on issue of naming the first asteroid. This seemingly innocuous issue assumed great importance because many believed the object discovered by Giuseppe Piazzi at Palermo Observatory to be the eighth primary planet of the solar system.

  12. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This illustration is a schematic of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2 and its experiments. It shows the focal plane instruments (at the right) plus the associated electronics for operating the telescope as it transmitted its observations to the ground. A fifth instrument, the Monitor Proportional Counter, is located near the front of the telescope. Four separate astronomical instruments are located at the focus of this telescope and they could be interchanged for different types of observations as the observatory pointed at interesting areas of the Sky. Two of these instruments produced images; a High Resolution Imaging Detector and an Imaging Proportional Counter. The other two instruments, the Solid State Spectrometer and the Crystal Spectrometer, measured the spectra of x-ray objects. A fifth instrument, the Monitor Proportional Counter, continuously viewed space independently to study a wider band of x-ray wavelengths and to examine the rapid time variations in the sources. The HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978. The HEAO-2 was originally identified as HEAO-B but the designation was changed once the spacecraft achieved orbit.

  13. The Solid Earth Research Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnellan, A.; Rundle, J. B.; Fox, G.; Pierce, M.; McLeod, D.; Parker, J. W.; Tullis, T.; Grant, L.

    2003-12-01

    Under the auspices of NASA we are developing the Solid Earth Research Virtual Observatory (SERVO). The initial focus of the observatory is spaced-based observational data, ground-based sensor data (GPS, seismicity), simulation data, and published/historical fault measurements, coupled with earthquake fault and tectonic modeling and pattern recognition software. This observatory will enable investigators to seamlessly merge multiple data sets and models, and create new queries. In the SERVO framework, simulation data will be archived together with analysis/animation tools and the original simulation code. Observational data, which is heterogeneous and distributed in nature, will be accessible through cooperative federated databases. SERVO will include tools for visualization, datamining and pattern recognition, with data fusion into a web services (portal) based Problem Solving Environment (PSE). SERVO couples distributed data sources, applications, and hardware resources through an XML-based Web Services framework. Users access the services (and thus distributed resources) through Web browser-based Problem Solving Environment clients. The Web services approach defines standard, programming language-independent application programming interfaces, so non-browser client applications may also be built. Initial application codes in SERVO are GeoFEST, a parallel 3D finite element code, Virtual California, a boundary element code to simulate fault interactions, PARK, a boundary element code for studying unstable slip on faults, and two pattern recognizers RDAHMM, which uses a modification of Hidden Markov Models to analyze time series data, and PDPC, which looks for anomalies in seismicity data.

  14. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewan, G. T.

    1992-04-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) detector is a 1000 ton heavy water (D2O) Cherenkov detector designed to study neutrinos from the sun and other astrophysical sources. The use of heavy water allows both electron neutrinos and all other types of neutrinos to be observed by three complementary reactions. The detector will be sensitive to the electron neutrino flux and energy spectrum shape and to the total neutrino flux irrespective of neutrino type. These measurements will provide information on both vacuum neutrino oscillations and matter-enhanced oscillations, the MSW effect. In the event of a supernova it will be very sensitive to muon and tau neutrinos as well as the electron neutrinos emitted in the initial burst, enabling sensitive mass measurements as well as providing details of the physics of stellar collapse. On behalf of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) Collaboration : H.C . Evans, G.T . Ewan, H.W. Lee, J .R . Leslie, J .D. MacArthur, H .-B . Mak, A.B . McDonald, W. McLatchie, B.C . Robertson, B. Sur, P. Skensved (Queen's University) ; C.K . Hargrove, H. Mes, W.F. Davidson, D. Sinclair, 1 . Blevis, M. Shatkay (Centre for Research in Particle Physics) ; E.D. Earle, G.M. Milton, E. Bonvin, (Chalk River Laboratories); J .J . Simpson, P. Jagam, J . Law, J .-X . Wang (University of Guelph); E.D . Hallman, R.U. Haq (Laurentian University); A.L. Carter, D. Kessler, B.R . Hollebone (Carleton University); R. Schubank . C.E . Waltha m (University of British Columbia); R.T. Kouzes, M.M. Lowry, R.M. Key (Princeton University); E.W. Beier, W. Frati, M. Newcomer, R. Van Berg (University of Penn-sylvania), T.J . Bowles, P.J . Doe, S.R . Elliott, M.M. Fowler, R.G.H. Robertson, D.J . Vieira, J .B . Wilhelmy, J .F. Wilker-son, J .M. Wouters (Los Alamos National Laboratory) ; E. Norman, K. Lesko, A. Smith, R. Fulton, R. Stokstad (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory), N.W. Tanner, N. JCIILY, P. Trent, J . Barton, D.L . Wark (University of Oxford).

  15. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1956 Quarterly Administrative Reports

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. This report consists of four parts.

  16. Klimovskaya: A new geomagnetic observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, A. A.; Sidorov, R. V.; Krasnoperov, R. I.; Grudnev, A. A.; Khokhlov, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    In 2011 Geophysical Center RAS (GC RAS) began to deploy the Klimovskaya geomagnetic observatory in the south of Arkhangelsk region on the territory of the Institute of Physiology of Natural Adaptations, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (IPNA UB RAS). The construction works followed the complex of preparatory measures taken in order to confirm that the observatory can be constructed on this territory and to select the optimal configuration of observatory structures. The observatory equipping stages are described in detail, the technological and design solutions are described, and the first results of the registered data quality control are presented. It has been concluded that Klimovskaya observatory can be included in INTERMAGNET network. The observatory can be used to monitor and estimate geomagnetic activity, because it is located at high latitudes and provides data in a timely manner to the scientific community via the web-site of the Russian-Ukrainian Geomagnetic Data Center. The role of ground observatories such as Klimovskaya remains critical for long-term observations of secular variation and for complex monitoring of the geomagnetic field in combination with low-orbiting satellite data.

  17. The Solar Dynamics Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesnell, William D.

    2008-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is the first Space Weather Mission in NASA's Living With a Star Program. SDO's main goal is to understand, driving towards a predictive capability, those solar variations that influence life on Earth and humanity's technological systems. The past decade has seen an increasing emphasis on understanding the entire Sun, from the nuclear reactions at the core to the development and loss of magnetic loops in the corona. SDO's three science investigations (HMI, AIA, and EVE) will determine how the Sun's magnetic field is generated and structured, how this stored magnetic energy is released into the heliosphere and geospace as the solar wind, energetic particles, and variations in the solar irradiance. SDO will return full-disk Dopplergrams, full-disk vector magnetograms, full-disk images at nine EIUV wavelengths, and EUV spectral irradiances, all taken at a rapid cadence. This means you can 'observe the database' to study events, but we can also move forward in producing quantitative models of what the Sun is doing today. SDO is scheduled to launch in 2008 on an Atlas V rocket from the Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, Florida. The satellite will fly in a 28 degree inclined geosynchronous orbit about the longitude of New Mexico, where a dedicated Ka-band ground station will receive the 150 Mbps data flow. How SDO data will transform the study of the Sun and its affect on Space Weather studies will be discussed.

  18. 10 meter airborne observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditto, Thomas D.; Ritter, Joseph M.

    2008-07-01

    Inside an aircraft fuselage there is little room for the mass of all the instrumentation of a ground-based observatory much less a primary objective aperture at the scale of 10 meters. We have proposed a solution that uses a primary objective grating (POG) which matches the considerable length of the aircraft, approximately 10 meters, and conforms to aircraft aerodynamics. Light collected by the POG is diffracted at an angle of grazing exodus inside the aircraft where it is disambiguated by an optical train that fits within to the interior tunnel. Inside the aircraft, light is focused by a parabolic mirror onto a spectrograph slit. The design has a special benefit in that all objects in the field-of-view of the free spectral range of the POG can have their spectra taken as the aircraft changes orientation. We suggest flight planes that will improve integration times, angular resolution and spectral resolution to acquire targets of high stellar magnitudes or alternatively increase the number of sources acquired per flight at the cost of sensitivity.

  19. OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The description, development history, test history, and orbital performance analysis of the OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory are presented. The OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory was the sixth flight model of a series of scientific spacecraft designed to provide a stable platform for experiments engaged in the collection of solar and celestial radiation data. The design objective was 180 days of orbital operation. The OSO-6 has telemetered an enormous amount of very useful experiment and housekeeping data to GSFC ground stations. Observatory operation during the two-year reporting period was very successful except for some experiment instrument problems.

  20. Islamic Astronomical Instruments and Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarzadeh, Tofigh

    This chapter is a brief survey of astronomical instruments being used and developed in Islamic territories from the eighth to the fifteenth centuries as well as a concise account of major observatories and observational programs in this period.

  1. The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helou, George; Kessler, Martin F.

    1995-01-01

    ISO, scheduled to launch in 1995, will carry into orbit the most sophisticated infrared observatory of the decade. Overviews of the mission, instrument payload and scientific program are given, along with a comparison of the strengths of ISO and SOFIA.

  2. The Russian Virtual Observatory Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dluzhnevskaya, O. B.; Malkov, O. Yu.

    2005-12-01

    We describe the Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO), a prestigious international project sponsored by the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS). In 2001, the RAS Scientific Council on Astronomy included this project in a list of the most important international projects of the RAS. Its main goal to create and develop the RVO, intended to provide Russian astronomers with direct and effective access to worldwide astronomical data resources. The RVO is one component of the International Virtual Observatory (IVO), a system in which vast astronomical archives and databases around the world, together with analysis tools and computational services, are linked together into an integrated facility. The IVO unites all important national and international projects to create virtual observatories, coordinated by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance. The RVO is one of the organizers and an important participant of the IVO Alliance.

  3. Haystack Observatory Technology Development Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaudoin, Chris; Corey, Brian; Niell, Arthur; Cappallo, Roger; Whitney, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Technology development at MIT Haystack Observatory were focused on four areas in 2012: VGOS developments at GGAO; Digital backend developments and workshop; RFI compatibility at VLBI stations; Mark 6 VLBI data system development.

  4. Status of the SOFIA Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    The SOFIA observatory has been in routine science operations since returning in January from a 6 month-long heavy maintenance period for the aircraft and the telescope assembly. These operations include a successful 6 week deployment to the Southern hemisphere. This presentation will provide an update to the current operational status of the SOFIA observatory, concentrating on the improvements and upgrades that have been implemented since the heavy maintenance period.

  5. Light Phenomena over the ESO Observatories III: Zodiacal Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horálek, P.; Christensen, L. L.; Nesvorný, D.; Davies, R.

    2016-06-01

    The zodiacal light is often seen at the ESO observatories in the hours after sunset and before sunrise. The origin of the zodiacal light is described and recent research briefly summarised. Some fine images of the zodiacal light from Paranal and La Silla, including the full extent of the night sky are presented.

  6. Sofia Observatory Performance and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temi, Pasquale; Miller, Walter; Dunham, Edward; McLean, Ian; Wolf, Jurgen; Becklin, Eric; Bida, Tom; Brewster, Rick; Casey, Sean; Collins, Peter; Jakob, Holger; Killebrew, Jana; Lampater, Ulrich; Mandushev, Georgi; Marcum, Pamela; Meyer, Allan; Pfueller, Enrico; Reinacher, Andreas; Roeser, Hans-Peter; Savage, Maureen; Teufel, Stefan; Wiedemann, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) has recently concluded a set of engineering flights for Observatory performance evaluation. These in-flight opportunities have been viewed as a first comprehensive assessment of the Observatory's performance and will be used to address the development activity that is planned for 2012, as well as to identify additional Observatory upgrades. A series of 8 SOFIA Characterization And Integration (SCAI) flights have been conducted from June to December 2011. The HIPO science instrument in conjunction with the DSI Super Fast Diagnostic Camera (SFDC) have been used to evaluate pointing stability, including the image motion due to rigid-body and flexible-body telescope modes as well as possible aero-optical image motion. We report on recent improvements in pointing stability by using an Active Mass Damper system installed on Telescope Assembly. Measurements and characterization of the shear layer and cavity seeing, as well as image quality evaluation as a function of wavelength have been performed using the HIPO+FLITECAM Science Instrument configuration (FLIPO). A number of additional tests and measurements have targeted basic Observatory capabilities and requirements including, but not limited to, pointing accuracy, chopper evaluation and imager sensitivity. SCAI activities included in-flight partial Science Instrument commissioning prior to the use of the instruments as measuring engines. This paper reports on the data collected during the SCAI flights and presents current SOFIA Observatory performance and characterization.

  7. SOFIA observatory performance and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temi, Pasquale; Marcum, Pamela M.; Miller, Walter E.; Dunham, Edward W.; McLean, Ian S.; Wolf, Jurgen; Becklin, Eric E.; Bida, Thomas A.; Brewster, Rick; Casey, Sean C.; Collins, Peter L.; Horner, Scott D.; Jakob, Holger; Jensen, Stephen C.; Killebrew, Jana L.; Lampater, Ulrich; Mandushev, Georgi I.; Meyer, Allen W.; Pfueller, Enrico; Reinacher, Andreas; Rho, Jeonghee; Roellig, Thomas L.; Savage, Maureen L.; Smith, Erin C.; Teufel, Stefan; Wiedemann, Manuel

    2012-09-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) has recently concluded a set of engineering flights for Observatory performance evaluation. These in-flight opportunities have been viewed as a first comprehensive assessment of the Observatory's performance and will be used to address the development activity that is planned for 2012, as well as to identify additional Observatory upgrades. A series of 8 SOFIA Characterization And Integration flights have been conducted from June to December 2011. The HIPO science instrument in conjunction with the DSI Super Fast Diagnostic Camera (SFDC) have been used to evaluate pointing stability, including the image motion due to rigid-body and flexible-body telescope modes as well as possible aero-optical image motion. We report on recent improvements in pointing stability by using an Active Mass Damper system installed on Telescope Assembly. Measurements and characterization of the shear layer and cavity seeing, as well as image quality evaluation as a function of wavelength have been performed using the HIPO+FLITECAM Science Instrument conguration (FLIPO). A number of additional tests and measurements have targeted basic Observatory capabilities and requirements including, but not limited to, pointing accuracy, chopper evaluation and imager sensitivity. This paper reports on the data collected during these flights and presents current SOFIA Observatory performance and characterization.

  8. Automation of Coordinated Planning Between Observatories: The Visual Observation Layout Tool (VOLT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maks, Lori; Koratkar, Anuradha; Kerbel, Uri; Pell, Vince

    2002-01-01

    Fulfilling the promise of the era of great observatories, NASA now has more than three space-based astronomical telescopes operating in different wavebands. This situation provides astronomers with the unique opportunity of simultaneously observing a target in multiple wavebands with these observatories. Currently scheduling multiple observatories simultaneously, for coordinated observations, is highly inefficient. Coordinated observations require painstaking manual collaboration among the observatory staff at each observatory. Because they are time-consuming and expensive to schedule, observatories often limit the number of coordinated observations that can be conducted. In order to exploit new paradigms for observatory operation, the Advanced Architectures and Automation Branch of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a tool called the Visual Observation Layout Tool (VOLT). The main objective of VOLT is to provide a visual tool to automate the planning of coordinated observations by multiple astronomical observatories. Four of NASA's space-based astronomical observatories - the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and Chandra - are enthusiastically pursuing the use of VOLT. This paper will focus on the purpose for developing VOLT, as well as the lessons learned during the infusion of VOLT into the planning and scheduling operations of these observatories.

  9. Galaxies Gather at Great Distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Distant Galaxy Cluster Infrared Survey Poster [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Bird's Eye View Mosaic Bird's Eye View Mosaic with Clusters [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 9.1 Billion Light-Years 8.7 Billion Light-Years 8.6 Billion Light-Years

    Astronomers have discovered nearly 300 galaxy clusters and groups, including almost 100 located 8 to 10 billion light-years away, using the space-based Spitzer Space Telescope and the ground-based Mayall 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory in Tucson, Ariz. The new sample represents a six-fold increase in the number of known galaxy clusters and groups at such extreme distances, and will allow astronomers to systematically study massive galaxies two-thirds of the way back to the Big Bang.

    A mosaic portraying a bird's eye view of the field in which the distant clusters were found is shown at upper left. It spans a region of sky 40 times larger than that covered by the full moon as seen from Earth. Thousands of individual images from Spitzer's infrared array camera instrument were stitched together to create this mosaic. The distant clusters are marked with orange dots.

    Close-up images of three of the distant galaxy clusters are shown in the adjoining panels. The clusters appear as a concentration of red dots near the center of each image. These images reveal the galaxies as they were over 8 billion years ago, since that's how long their light took to reach Earth and Spitzer's infrared eyes.

    These pictures are false-color composites, combining ground-based optical images captured by the Mosaic-I camera on the Mayall 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak, with infrared pictures taken by Spitzer's infrared array camera. Blue and green represent visible light at wavelengths of 0

  10. Two 18th Century Observatories of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambleton, Robert

    A visit to the two major observatories of Ireland, Armagh Observatory in Northern Ireland, and Dunsink Observatory in Dublin. Mentioned are Herschel, Thomas Grubb, Thomas Jones transit instrument, Howard Grubb, Kew Observatory, John Arnold & Sons clocks, Birr Castle, and the Earl of Rosse.

  11. The Carl Sagan solar and stellar observatories as remote observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saucedo-Morales, J.; Loera-Gonzalez, P.

    In this work we summarize recent efforts made by the University of Sonora, with the goal of expanding the capability for remote operation of the Carl Sagan Solar and Stellar Observatories, as well as the first steps that have been taken in order to achieve autonomous robotic operation in the near future. The solar observatory was established in 2007 on the university campus by our late colleague A. Sánchez-Ibarra. It consists of four solar telescopes mounted on a single equatorial mount. On the other hand, the stellar observatory, which saw the first light on 16 February 2010, is located 21 km away from Hermosillo, Sonora at the site of the School of Agriculture of the University of Sonora. Both observatories can now be remotely controlled, and to some extent are able to operate autonomously. In this paper we discuss how this has been accomplished in terms of the use of software as well as the instruments under control. We also briefly discuss the main scientific and educational objectives, the future plans to improve the control software and to construct an autonomous observatory on a mountain site, as well as the opportunities for collaborations.

  12. Invited review article: The Chandra X-ray Observatory.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Daniel A

    2014-06-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory is an orbiting x-ray telescope facility. It is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's four "Great Observatories" that collectively have carried out astronomical observations covering the infrared through gamma-ray portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Chandra is used by astronomers world-wide to acquire imaging and spectroscopic data over a nominal 0.1-10 keV (124-1.24 Å) range. We describe the three major parts of the observatory: the telescope, the spacecraft systems, and the science instruments. This article will emphasize features of the design and development driven by some of the experimental considerations unique to x-ray astronomy. We will update the on-orbit performance and present examples of the scientific highlights.

  13. Assembling the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This photograph shows the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-1 being assembled at TRW Systems of Redondo Beach, California. The HEAO was designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center. The first observatory, designated HEAO-1, was launched on August 12, 1977 aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle and was designed to survey the sky for additional x-ray and gamma-ray sources as well as pinpointing their positions. The HEAO-1 was originally identified as HEAO-A but the designation was changed once the spacecraft achieved orbit.

  14. GEOSCOPE Observatory Recent Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, N.; Pardo, C.; Bonaime, S.; Stutzmann, E.; Maggi, A.

    2010-12-01

    The GEOSCOPE observatory consists of a global seismic network and a data center. The 31 GEOSCOPE stations are installed in 19 countries, across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. They are equipped with three component very broadband seismometers (STS1 or STS2) and 24 or 26 bit digitizers, as required by the Federation of Seismic Digital Network (FDSN). In most stations, a pressure gauge and a thermometer are also installed. Currently, 23 stations send data in real or near real time to GEOSCOPE Data Center and tsunami warning centers. In 2009, two stations (SSB and PPTF) have been equipped with warpless base plates. Analysis of one year of data shows that the new installation decreases long period noise (20s to 1000s) by 10 db on horizontal components. SSB is now rated in the top ten long period stations for horizontal components according to the LDEO criteria. In 2010, Stations COYC, PEL and RER have been upgraded with Q330HR, Metrozet electronics and warpless base plates. They have been calibrated with the calibration table CT-EW1 and the software jSeisCal and Calex-EW. Aluminum jars are now installed instead of glass bells. A vacuum of 100 mbars is applied in the jars which improves thermal insulation of the seismometers and reduces moisture and long-term corrosion in the sensor. A new station RODM has just been installed in Rodrigues Island in Mauritius with standard Geoscope STS2 setup: STS2 seismometer on a granite base plate and covered by cooking pot and thermal insulation, it is connected to Q330HR digitizer, active lightning protection, Seiscomp PC and real-time internet connection. Continuous data of all stations are collected in real time or with a delay by the GEOSCOPE Data Center in Paris where they are validated, archived and made available to the international scientific community. Data are freely available to users by different interfaces according data types (see : http://geoscope.ipgp.fr) - Continuous data in real time coming

  15. Development of solar tower observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Because the horizontal solar telescope, the Snow Telescope in Yerkes Observatory, was affected by air-currents from the warmed-up soil, George Ellery Hale had the idea of a tower telescope. In 1904, the 60-foot tower in Mt. Wilson was ready, in 1908 the 150-foot tower was built with the help of the Carnegie foundation. After World War I, Germany made heavy efforts to regain its former strong position in the field of science. Already in December 1919 - after the spectacular result of the English eclipse expedition in October 1919 - Erwin Finlay-Freundlich started a successful fund raising (“Einstein-Stiftungrdquo;) among German industrialists. The company Zeiss in Jena was responsible for the instrumentation of the 20-m solar tower, built in 1920-22. The optical design of the Einstein Tower in respect to light intensity surpassed even the Mt. Wilson solar observatory. Also abroad solar tower observatories were built in the 1920s: Utrecht,The Netherlands (1922), Canberra, Australia (1924), Arcetri, Italy (1926), Pasadena, California (1926) and Tokyo, Japan (1928). In the thirties, solar physics became important because of the solar maximum in 1938 and the new observational possibilities created by Bernard Lyot. At the end of the 1930s, Karl-Otto Kiepenheuer proposed to establish a solar tower observatory on Wendelstein in order to improve the predictions of radio interference by observing sunspots. By stressing the importance of the solar research for war efforts, Otto Heckmann of Göttingen observatory finally succeeded in winning the “Reichsluftfahrtministerium” to finance several solar observatories, like Wendelstein, Hainberg/Göttingen, Kanzelhöhe/Villach, and Schauinsland/Freiburg. Solar astronomy profited by the foundation of the new observatories - four of them existed still after the war. Abroad only the solar observatories of Oxford (1935) and the 50 foot tower of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory, University of Michigan (1936) should be mentioned. Only

  16. Local, regional and global signals in longterm time series of gravity, tilt and strain at the Geodynamic Observatory Moxa/Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahr, T.; Kukowski, N.; Schindler, P.; Weise, A.; Jentzsch, G.

    2012-04-01

    For the past 15 years geodynamic signals in gravity, tilt and strain are recorded continuously at the Observatory Moxa in Thuringia/Germany. In the period range between minutes and years signals of interest are the free modes of the Earth, the tides, the polar motion with the Chandler Wobble up to the very long- and non-periodic effects. These global signals can be overlain or masked by local signals, caused by sources in the nearby surroundings of the observatory. These recorded local signals originate from fluctuations of meteorological and hydrological parameters as well as by anthropogenic effects. Modelling and elimination of the effects of environmental parameters in the time series are a great challenge for geodynamic observatories worldwide. For the past several years, the work at the Observatory Moxa is focusing on the separation of local, regional and global parts of the signals. Here, we present several signals in gravity, tilt and strain, e.g. barometric pressure, preciptation and groundwater level, separated from our time series, showing the broad application in geodynamics.

  17. Observatory Bibliographies as Research Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rots, Arnold H.; Winkelman, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, observatory bibliographies were maintained to provide insight in how successful a observatory is as measured by its prominence in the (refereed) literature. When we set up the bibliographic database for the Chandra X-ray Observatory (http://cxc.harvard.edu/cgi-gen/cda/bibliography) as part of the Chandra Data Archive ((http://cxc.harvard.edu/cda/), very early in the mission, our objective was to make it primarily a useful tool for our user community. To achieve this we are: (1) casting a very wide net in collecting Chandra-related publications; (2) including for each literature reference in the database a wealth of metadata that is useful for the users; and (3) providing specific links between the articles and the datasets in the archive that they use. As a result our users are able to browse the literature and the data archive simultaneously. As an added bonus, the rich metadata content and data links have also allowed us to assemble more meaningful statistics about the scientific efficacy of the observatory. In all this we collaborate closely with the Astrophysics Data System (ADS). Among the plans for future enhancement are the inclusion of press releases and the Chandra image gallery, linking with ADS semantic searching tools, full-text metadata mining, and linking with other observatories' bibliographies. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC) and depends critically on the services provided by the ADS.

  18. Tsunami Research and Monitoring Enabled through Ocean Network Canada's NEPTUNE Cabled Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heesemann, M.; Insua, T. L.; Mihaly, S. F.; Thomson, R.; Rabinovich, A.; Fine, I.; Scherwath, M.; Moran, K.

    2014-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC; http://www.oceannetworks.ca/) operates the multidisciplinary NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled ocean observatories off the west coast of Canada and an increasing number of miniature ocean observatories, such as in the Canadian Arctic. All data collected by these observatories are archived and publicly available through ONC's Oceans 2.0 data portal. Much of the data are related to marine geohazards, such as earthquakes, submarine landslides, and tsunamis and are delivered in real-time to various agencies, including early warning centers. The NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled observatories consist of over 850 km of cable deployed inshore and offshore off Vancouver Island and covers the coastal zones, the northern part of the Cascadia subduction zone, Cascadia Basin, and the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Geological evidence suggests that there is a 25-40% probability of a magnitude 8 or greater megathrust earthquake along the Cascadia subduction zone in the next 50 years and that the most recent great earthquake (estimated magnitude ~9.0) that occurred in 1700 caused widespread tsunami damage. However, most of the tsunamis that arrive in the area originate from distant sources around the Pacific. Over the last 100 years, numerous major tsunamis have occurred in the Pacific Ocean, killing many tens of thousands of people. The NEPTUNE observatory includes high-precision bottom pressure recorders (BPRs) at each major nodes and a tsunami meter consisting of three BPRs arranged on a ~20 km radius circle around the flat Cascadia Basin site. On September 30, 2009, just days after the first NEPTUNE instruments were installed, the first tsunami waves of 2.5-6.0 cm amplitude generated by the Mw 8.1 Samoa earthquake were recorded by six BPRs. The Samoan tsunami was followed by several other events recorded by the network, including the 2010 Chilean tsunami, the 2011 Tōhoku-Oki earthquake and tsunami, and the 2012 Haida Gwaii tsunami. These open

  19. TRW Ships NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory To Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    Two U.S. Air Force C-5 Galaxy transport planes carrying the observatory and its ground support equipment landed at Kennedy's Space Shuttle Landing Facility at 2:40 p.m. EST this afternoon. REDONDO BEACH, CA.--(Business Wire)--Feb. 4, 1999--TRW has shipped NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory ("Chandra") to the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), in Florida, in preparation for a Space Shuttle launch later this year. The 45-foot-tall, 5-ton science satellite will provide astronomers with new information on supernova remnants, the surroundings of black holes, and other celestial phenomena that produce vast quantities of X-rays. Cradled safely in the cargo hold of a tractor-trailer rig called the Space Cargo Transportation System (SCTS), NASA's newest space telescope was ferried on Feb. 4 from Los Angeles International Airport to KSC aboard an Air Force C-5 Galaxy transporter. The SCTS, an Air Force container, closely resembles the size and shape of the Shuttle cargo bay. Over the next few months, Chandra will undergo final tests at KSC and be mated to a Boeing-provided Inertial Upper Stage for launch aboard Space Shuttle Columbia. A launch date for the Space Shuttle STS-93 mission is expected to be announced later this week. The third in NASA's family of Great Observatories that includes the Hubble Space Telescope and the TRW-built Compton Gamma Ray observatory, Chandra will use the world's most powerful X-ray telescope to allow scientists to "see" and monitor cosmic events that are invisible to conventional optical telescopes. Chandra's X-ray images will yield new insight into celestial phenomena such as the temperature and extent of gas clouds that comprise clusters of galaxies and the superheating of gas and dust particles as they swirl into black holes. A TRW-led team that includes the Eastman Kodak Co., Raytheon Optical Systems Inc., and Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. designed and built the Chandra X-ray Observatory for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The

  20. The Compton Observatory Science Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrader, Chris R. (Editor); Gehrels, Neil (Editor); Dennis, Brian (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The Compton Observatory Science Workshop was held in Annapolis, Maryland on September 23-25, 1991. The primary purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas and information among scientists with interests in various areas of high energy astrophysics, with emphasis on the scientific capabilities of the Compton Observatory. Early scientific results, as well as reports on in-flight instrument performance and calibrations are presented. Guest investigator data products, analysis techniques, and associated software were discussed. Scientific topics covered included active galaxies, cosmic gamma ray bursts, solar physics, pulsars, novae, supernovae, galactic binary sources, and diffuse galactic and extragalactic emission.

  1. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This is an artist's concept describing the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO). The HEAO project involved the launching of three unmarned scientific observatories into low Earth orbit between 1977 and 1979 to study some of the most intriguing mysteries of the universe; pulsars, black holes, neutron stars, and super nova. This concept was painted by Jack Hood of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Hardware support for the imaging instruments was provided by American Science and Engineering. The HEAO spacecraft were built by TRW, Inc. under project management of the MSFC.

  2. Historical Examples of Lobbying: The Case of Strasbourg Astronomical Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, Andre

    2012-08-01

    Several astronomical observatories have been established in Strasbourg in very differing contexts. In the late 17th century, an observing post (scientifically sterile) was put on top of a tower, the Hospital Gate, essentially for the prestige of the city and the notoriety of the university. In the 19th century, the observatory built on the Académie hosting the French university was the first attempt to set up in the city a real observatory equipped with genuine instrumentation with the purpose of carrying out serious research, but the succession of political regimes in France and the continual bidding for moving the university to other locations, together with the faltering of later scholars, torpedoed any significant scientific usage of the place. After the 1870-1871 Franco-Prussian war, the German authorities set up a prestigious university campus with a whole range of institutes together with a modern observatory consisting of several buildings and hosting a flotilla of excellent instruments, including the then largest refractor of the country. This paper illustrates various types of lobbying used in the steps above while detailing, from archive documents largely unexploited so far, original research on the two first observatories.

  3. AUGO II: a comprehensive subauroral zone observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, I. S.; Connors, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    A new geophysical observatory dedicated to the study of the aurora borealis will be built 25 km southwest of the town of Athabasca, Alberta, Canada. It is anticipated to see first light in the winter of 2010/2011 and be fully operational in the fall of 2011. Based on the highly successful Athabasca University Geophysical Observatory (AUGO), opened in 2002 at the Athabasca University campus in Athabasca, Alberta, AUGO II will have expanded observational capacity featuring up to eight climate-controlled domed optical observation suites for instrumentation, on-site accommodation for up to six researchers, and most importantly, dark skies free of light pollution from urban development. AUGO II will share the same advantages as its predecessor, one being its location in central Alberta, allowing routine study of the subauroral zone, auroral oval studies during active times, and very rarely of the polar cap. Like the original AUGO, AUGO II will be in close proximity to major highways, be connected to a high bandwidth network, and be within two hour driving distance to the city of Edmonton and its international airport. Opportunities are open for guest researchers in space physics to conduct auroral studies at this new, state-of-the-art research facility through the installation of remotely controlled instruments and/or campaigns. An innovative program of instrument development will accompany the new observatory’s enhanced infrastructure with a focus on magnetics and H-beta meridian scanning photometry.

  4. ISS images for Observatory protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Miguel, Alejandro; Zamorano, Jaime

    2015-08-01

    Light pollution is the main factor of degradation of the astronomical quality of the sky along the history. Astronomical observatories have been monitoring how the brightness of the sky varies using photometric measures of the night sky brightness mainly at zenith. Since the sky brightness depends in other factors such as sky glow, aerosols, solar activity and the presence of celestial objects, the continuous increase of light pollution in these enclaves is difficult to trace except when it is too late.Using models of light dispersion on the atmosphere one can determine which light pollution sources are increasing the sky brightness at the observatories. The input satellite data has been provided by DMSP/OLS and SNPP/VIIRS. Unfortunately their panchromatic bands (color blinded) are not useful to detect in which extension the increase is due to the dramatic change produced by the irruption of LED technology in outdoor lighting. The only instrument in the space that is able to distinguish between the various lighting technologies are the DSLR cameras used by the astronauts onboard the ISS.Current status for some astronomical observatories that have been imaged from the ISS is presented. We are planning to send an official request to NASA with a plan to get images for the most important astronomical observatories. We ask support for this proposal by the astronomical community and especially by the US-based researchers.

  5. The Coronal Solar Magnetism Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, S.; Landi, E.; Zhang, J.; Lin, H.; DeLuca, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of coronal and chromospheric magnetic fields are arguably the most important observables required for advances in our understanding of the processes responsible for coronal heating, coronal dynamics and the generation of space weather that affects communications, GPS systems, space flight, and power transmission. The Coronal Solar Magnetism Observatory (COSMO) is a proposed ground-based suite of instruments designed for routine study of coronal and chromospheric magnetic fields and their environment, and to understand the formation of coronal mass ejections (CME) and their relation to other forms of solar activity. This new facility will be operated by the High Altitude Observatory of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (HAO/NCAR) with partners at the University of Michigan, the University of Hawaii and George Mason University in support of the solar and heliospheric community. It will replace the current NCAR Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (http://mlso.hao.ucar.edu). COSMO will enhance the value of existing and new observatories on the ground and in space by providing unique and crucial observations of the global coronal and chromospheric magnetic field and its evolution. The design and current status of the COSMO will be reviewed.

  6. The gamma-ray observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) mission. Detection of gamma rays and gamma ray sources, operations using the Space Shuttle, and instruments aboard the GRO, including the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE), the Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL), and the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) are among the topics surveyed.

  7. Michelson geostationary gravitational wave observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, A. J.

    Studies made during the previous year are outlined. These studies have indicated that a Michelson mm wave interferometer observatory (MGO) operating in geostationary orbit is the best configuration satisfying both current operational and design constraints. It is proposed to study the design of this space laboratory interferometer and to study the inclusion of an inertial transponder in this design.

  8. The Instruments of Dudley Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gino, M. C.

    2002-12-01

    Dudley Observatory, founded in 1852, is the nation's oldest independent organization dedicated to astronomical research and education. While Dudley no longer operates a physical observatory, it is home to a number of historically important scientific instruments and telescopes. Dudley's first operating telescope, a Clark Comet-seeker, remains in Dudley's collection today. This 4-inch refractor provided the first discovery of a comet by a Dudley astronomer in 1857 and is one of only four telescopes of this size produced by Alvan Clark. Also in Dudley's collection is the Olcott Meridian Circle which was the primary working telescope at the observatory for over 75 years. This telescope, made by Pistor & Martins and which operated both at the Dudley Observatory in Albany, NY and the San Luis Observatory in Argentina, was used to conduct all of the observations for the Preliminary General Catalog of 6788 Stars (1908) and the General Catalog of 33,343 Stars (1937). The gem of Dudley's collection is the Pruyn Equatorial Telescope, built by the Warner and Swasey Company and equipped with a 12-inch lens made by John Brashear. It was installed in 1893 to conduct both research observations and public observing sessions. After remaining in storage for many decades, this historic telescope will soon resume its role after being refurbished and installed at the Arunah Hill Natural Science Center in Cummington, MA. While Dudley retains its interest in astronomical instruments it has also moved into the areas of space studies and astronomical education. The key projects in the areas of instrumentation and astronomical outreach, which include the instruments above as well as the Rising Star Internship and Space Campership educational programs, will be detailed in the remainder of this paper.

  9. Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferré, Bénédicte; Mienert, Jürgen; Winther, Svein; Hageberg, Anne; Rune Godoe, Olav; Partners, Noon

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON) is led by the University of Tromsø and collaborates with the Universities of Oslo and Bergen, UniResearch, Institute of Marine Research, Christian Michelsen Research and SINTEF. It is supported by the Research Council of Norway and oil and gas (O&G) industries like Statoil to develop science, technology and new educational programs. Main topics relate to ocean climate and environment as well as marine resources offshore Norway from the northern North Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean. NOON's vision is to bring Norway to the international forefront in using cable based ocean observatory technology for marine science and management, by establishing an infrastructure that enables real-time and long term monitoring of processes and interactions between hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere. This activity is in concert with the EU funded European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap and European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observation (EMSO) project to attract international leading research developments. NOON envisions developing towards a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC). Beside, the research community in Norway already possesses a considerable marine infrastructure that can expand towards an international focus for real-time multidisciplinary observations in times of rapid climate change. PIC The presently established cable-based fjord observatory, followed by the establishment of a cable-based ocean observatory network towards the Arctic from an O&G installation, will provide invaluable knowledge and experience necessary to make a successful larger cable-based observatory network at the Norwegian and Arctic margin (figure 1). Access to large quantities of real-time observation from the deep sea, including high definition video, could be used to provide the public and future recruits to science a fascinating insight into an almost unexplored part of the Earth beyond the Arctic Circle

  10. Role of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory Observations for the Study of Ionized Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2010-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory, launched in 1999, is now beginning its 12-th year of operation. Chandra, the X-ray component of NASA s Great Observatory program, continues to operate efficiently, somewhat remarkable considering that the Observatory was designed for three years of operation with a goal of five. The Observatory features X-ray optics with sub-arcsecond angular resolution and a small suite of instruments, including transmission gratings, which allow for high-resolution spectroscopy of point sources. We will detail the capabilities of the Observatory for making such spectroscopic measurements and discuss a number of examples of what has been learned about the astrophysical plasmas capable of producing bright X-ray emission.

  11. SOFIA - Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunz, Nans; Bowers, Al

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). The contents include: 1) Heritage & History; 2) Level 1 Requirements; 3) Top Level Overview of the Observatory; 4) Development Challenges; and 5) Highlight Photos.

  12. SOFIA: Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Eric; Kunz, Nans; Bowers, Al

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). The contents include: 1) Heritage & History; 2) Level 1 Requirements; 3) Top Level Overview of the Observatory; 4) Development Challenges; and 5) Highlight Photos.

  13. Armenian virtual observatory simple image access service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyazyan, A. V.; Astsatryan, H. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the article is to introduce the data sharing service of the Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) based on the Simple Image Access (SIA) Protocol of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA).

  14. The Magnetic Observatory Buildings at the Royal Observatory, Cape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, I. S.

    2015-10-01

    During the 1830s there arose a strong international movement, promoted by Carl Friedrich Gauss and Alexander von Humboldt, to characterise the earth's magnetic field. By 1839 the Royal Society in London, driven by Edward Sabine, had organised a "Magnetic Crusade" - the establishment of a series of magnetic and meteorological observatories around the British Empire, including New Zealand, Australia, St Helena and the Cape. This article outlines the history of the latter installation, its buildings and what became of them.

  15. Observatory bibliographies: a vital resource in operating an observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelman, Sherry; Rots, Arnold

    2016-07-01

    The Chandra Data Archive (CDA) maintains an extensive observatory bibliography. By linking the published articles with the individual datasets analyzed in the paper, we have the opportunity to join the bibliographic metadata (including keywords, subjects, objects, data references from other observatories, etc.) with the meta- data associated with the observational datasets. This rich body of information is ripe for far more sophisticated data mining than the two repositories (publications and data) would afford individually. Throughout the course of the mission the CDA has investigated numerous questions regarding the impact of specific types of Chandra programs such as the relative science impact of GTO, GO, and DDT programs or observing, archive, and theory programs. Most recently the Chandra bibliography was used to assess the impact of programs based on the size of the program to examine whether the dividing line between standard and large projects should be changed and whether another round of X-ray Visionary Programs should be offered. Traditionally we have grouped observations by proposal when assessing the impact of programs. For this investigation we aggregated observations by pointing and instrument configuration such that objects observed multiple times in the mission were considered single observing programs. This change in perspective has given us new ideas for assessing the science impact of Chandra and for presenting data to our users. In this paper we present the methodologies used in the recent study, some of its results, and most importantly some unexpected insights into assessing the science impact of an observatory.

  16. Astronomical observatory for shuttle. Phase A study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guthals, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    The design, development, and configuration of the astronomical observatory for shuttle are discussed. The characteristics of the one meter telescope in the spaceborne observatory are described. A variety of basic spectroscopic and image recording instruments and detectors which will permit a large variety of astronomical observations are reported. The stDC 37485elines which defined the components of the observatory are outlined.

  17. Great cities look small.

    PubMed

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-08-06

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin.

  18. Great cities look small

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N.; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin. PMID:26179988

  19. Three Great Eyes on Kepler's Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Composite

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chandra X-Ray Data (blue) Chandra X-Ray Data (green)Hubble Telescope (visible-light)Spitzer Telescope (infrared)

    NASA's three Great Observatories -- the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory -- joined forces to probe the expanding remains of a supernova, called Kepler's supernova remnant, first seen 400 years ago by sky watchers, including astronomer Johannes Kepler.

    The combined image unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust that is 14 light-years wide and is expanding at 4 million miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per second). Observations from each telescope highlight distinct features of the supernova remnant, a fast-moving shell of iron-rich material from the exploded star, surrounded by an expanding shock wave that is sweeping up interstellar gas and dust.

    Each color in this image represents a different region of the electromagnetic spectrum, from X-rays to infrared light. These diverse colors are shown in the panel of photographs below the composite image. The X-ray and infrared data cannot be seen with the human eye. By color-coding those data and combining them with Hubble's visible-light view, astronomers are presenting a more complete picture of the supernova remnant.

    Visible-light images from the Hubble telescope (colored yellow) reveal where the supernova shock wave is slamming into the densest regions of surrounding gas. The bright glowing knots are dense clumps from instabilities that form behind the shock wave. The Hubble data also show thin filaments of gas that look like rippled sheets seen edge-on. These filaments reveal where the shock wave is encountering lower-density, more uniform interstellar material.

    The Spitzer telescope shows microscopic dust particles (colored red) that have been heated by the

  20. International Ultraviolet Explorer Observatory operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains the final report for the International Ultraviolet Explorer IUE Observatory Operations contract. The fundamental operational objective of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) program is to translate competitively selected observing programs into IUE observations, to reduce these observations into meaningful scientific data, and then to present these data to the Guest Observer in a form amenable to the pursuit of scientific research. The IUE Observatory is the key to this objective since it is the central control and support facility for all science operations functions within the IUE Project. In carrying out the operation of this facility, a number of complex functions were provided beginning with telescope scheduling and operation, proceeding to data processing, and ending with data distribution and scientific data analysis. In support of these critical-path functions, a number of other significant activities were also provided, including scientific instrument calibration, systems analysis, and software support. Routine activities have been summarized briefly whenever possible.

  1. International ultraviolet explorer observatory operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains the Final Report for the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) Observatory Operations contract, NAS5-28787. The report summarizes the activities of the IUE Observatory over the 13-month period from November 1985 through November 1986 and is arranged in sections according to the functions specified in the Statement of Work (SOW) of the contract. In order to preserve numerical correspondence between the technical SOW elements specified by the contract and the sections of this report, project management activities (SOW element 0.0.) are reported here in Section 7, following the reports of technical SOW elements 1.0 through 6.0. Routine activities have been summarized briefly whenever possible; statistical compilations, reports, and more lengthy supplementary material are contained in the Appendices.

  2. New Geophysical Observatory in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Nuñez, P.; Caraballo, R. R.; Ogando, R.

    2013-05-01

    In 2011 began the installation of the first geophysical observatory in Uruguay, with the aim of developing the Geosciences. The Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory Aiguá (OAGA) is located within the Cerro Catedral Tourist Farm (-34 ° 20 '0 .89 "S/-54 ° 42 '44.72" W, h: 270m). This has the distinction of being located in the center of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. Geologically is emplaced in a Neoproterozoic basement, in a region with scarce anthropogenic interference. The OAGA has, since 2012, with a GSM-90FD dIdD v7.0 and GSM-90F Overhauser, both of GEM Systems. In addition has a super-SID receiver provided by the Stanford University SOLAR Center, as a complement for educational purposes. Likewise the installation of a seismograph REF TEK-151-120A and VLF antenna is being done since the beginning of 2013.

  3. Boscovich and the Brera Observatory .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonello, E.

    In the mid 18th century both theoretical and practical astronomy were cultivated in Milan by Barnabites and Jesuits. In 1763 Boscovich was appointed to the chair of mathematics of the University of Pavia in the Duchy of Milan, and the following year he designed an observatory for the Jesuit Collegium of Brera in Milan. The Specola was built in 1765 and it became quickly one of the main european observatories. We discuss the relation between Boscovich and Brera in the framework of a short biography. An account is given of the initial research activity in the Specola, of the departure of Boscovich from Milan in 1773 and his coming back just before his death.

  4. The TAROT observatory data management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringer, M.; Boër, M.; Peignot, C.; Fontan, G.; Merce, C.

    1999-09-01

    TAROT (Tálescope a Action Rapide pour les Objets Transitoires, Rapid Action Telescope for Transient Objects) is an autonomous ground based observatory (Calern, France) whose primary goal is the rapid detection of variable objects, peculiarly optical counterparts of Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) sources. We present the observatory data management architecture which is composed of 3 main modules: The MAJORDOME module whose aim is to optimally schedule the observation requests sent to the telescope through socket connections, e-mail or even a web interface, The CONTROL module which monitors the hardware, and a data processing software TAITAR which detects, deblends, measures, classifies sources and detects variable objects by comparison with a catalogue. This paper will mainly focus on the MAJORDOME.

  5. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory: highlights from the first three years of the mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Shrader, C.; Kniffen, D. A.

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray observatory is the second in NASA's series of Great Observatories. It has been in operation for over three years, and has given a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments continue to function nearly flawlessly, and many significant discoveries have been made. The authors describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments, and highlight some of the results from the first three years of the mission.

  6. Composition of the ultramafic-mafic contact interval of the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe at Ngezi mine: Comparisons to the Bushveld Complex and implications for the origin of the PGE reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, W. D.; Määttää, S.; Yang, S.; Oberthür, T.; Lahaye, Y.; Huhma, H.; Barnes, S.-J.

    2015-12-01

    The Great Dyke contains the world's second largest platinum resource after the Bushveld Complex. Isotopic and trace element data from the interval straddling the contact between the Ultramafic and Mafic Sequences of the Great Dyke indicate a less enriched composition than in the Bushveld Complex (Great Dyke: Sri 0.7024-0.7028, εNd mostly - 1 to + 1, Ce/Sm 2-6; Bushveld: Sri 705-0.709, εNd - 5 to - 7, Ce/Sm 5-15). These data are interpreted to reflect relatively moderate amounts of contamination of the Great Dyke parent magma. All analyzed isotopes show little variation across the Main Sulfide Zone and the ultramafic-mafic contact. This corroborates earlier work by other researchers that the Great Dyke crystallized from a single magma type. Mixing of compositionally distinct magmas, proposed to have caused sulfide melt saturation in the Bushveld Complex, seemingly played little or no role in the formation of the PGE mineralization in the Main Sulfide Zone, and neither did enhanced crustal contamination of specific magma batches. Instead, sulfide melt saturation of the magma was likely triggered by silicate fractionation. The mechanism of concentration of the sulfide melt remains uncertain, but theoretical considerations suggest that phase sorting in response to slumping of crystal mushes, possibly caused by chamber subsidence, played an important role. This model is consistent with the highly irregular, undulating nature of the contact between the mafic and ultramafic zones of the intrusion, in the hanging wall of the Main Sulfide Zone.

  7. Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This photograph shows the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory being released from the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-35 mission in April 1991. The GRO reentered the Earth's atmosphere and ended its successful mission in June 2000. For nearly 9 years, GRO's Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center, kept an unblinking watch on the universe to alert scientist to the invisible, mysterious gamma-ray bursts that had puzzled them for decades. By studying gamma-rays from objects like black holes, pulsars, quasars, neutron stars, and other exotic objects, scientists could discover clues to the birth, evolution, and death of star, galaxies, and the universe. The gamma-ray instrument was one of four major science instruments aboard the Compton. It consisted of eight detectors, or modules, located at each corner of the rectangular satellite to simultaneously scan the entire universe for bursts of gamma-rays ranging in duration from fractions of a second to minutes. In January 1999, the instrument, via the Internet, cued a computer-controlled telescope at Las Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, within 20 seconds of registering a burst. With this capability, the gamma-ray experiment came to serve as a gamma-ray burst alert for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and major gound-based observatories around the world. Thirty-seven universities, observatories, and NASA centers in 19 states, and 11 more institutions in Europe and Russia, participated in BATSE's science program.

  8. Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This photograph shows the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) being deployed by the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-37 mission in April 1991. The GRO reentered Earth atmosphere and ended its successful mission in June 2000. For nearly 9 years, the GRO Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), kept an unblinking watch on the universe to alert scientists to the invisible, mysterious gamma-ray bursts that had puzzled them for decades. By studying gamma-rays from objects like black holes, pulsars, quasars, neutron stars, and other exotic objects, scientists could discover clues to the birth, evolution, and death of stars, galaxies, and the universe. The gamma-ray instrument was one of four major science instruments aboard the Compton. It consisted of eight detectors, or modules, located at each corner of the rectangular satellite to simultaneously scan the entire universe for bursts of gamma-rays ranging in duration from fractions of a second to minutes. In January 1999, the instrument, via the Internet, cued a computer-controlled telescope at Las Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, within 20 seconds of registering a burst. With this capability, the gamma-ray experiment came to serve as a gamma-ray burst alert for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and major gound-based observatories around the world. Thirty-seven universities, observatories, and NASA centers in 19 states, and 11 more institutions in Europe and Russia, participated in the BATSE science program.

  9. ESA extends solar observatory mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-06-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) announced on 24 May that it would extend the life of its Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) from April 2007 to December 2009. Since it was launched in December 1995, SOHO has provided scientists with a view of the Sun's surface. ``This mission extension will allow SOHO to cement its position as the most important spacecraft in the history of solar physics,'' said SOHO project scientist Bernhard Fleck.

  10. Ny-Alesund Geodetic Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sieber, Moritz

    2013-01-01

    In 2012 the 20-m telescope at Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, operated by the Norwegian Mapping Authority (NMA), took part in 163 out of 168 scheduled sessions of the IVS program. Since spring, all data was transferred by network, and the receiver monitoring computer was replaced by a bus-coupler. In autumn, the NMA received building permission for a new observatory from the Governor of Svalbard. The bidding process and first construction work for the infrastructure will start in 2013.

  11. McDonald Observatory Visitor Center Education Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemenway, M. K.; Armosky, B. J.; Wetzel, M.; Preston, S.

    2002-12-01

    The opening of the new Visitor Center at McDonald Observatory in Fort Davis, Texas provided an opportunity to greatly expand the Observatory's outreach efforts to students and teachers. In addition to a theater, outdoor telescope park, and amphitheater, the facility contains a classroom and an exhibit entitled ``Decoding Starlight." In preparation for the opening, new teacher-friendly materials were written to provide standards aligned (both state and national) classroom activities for students. These activities form the core for both the multi-day Professional Development Program for teachers and the Student Field Experience Program. Student Field Experiences often begin with a tour specifically designed for student groups to emphasize careers and life at the Observatory. The group then interacts with the exhibit using Exhibit Guides that were developed for various grade levels. When their schedule allows, student groups may also participate in nighttime observing activities. Smaller groups (under 30 members) may choose from a menu of hands-on activities offered within the classroom. The positive reception of these activities has led to their inclusion in the existing Elderhostel program for senior citizens. We gratefully acknowledge the support of NSF 96-26965 ``Fingerprinting the Universe - An Interactive, Bilingual Exhibit on Spectroscopy," NSF 97-05340 ``Universo, Hispanic Heritage Month Programs, and StarDate in the Classroom," and NASA IDEAS HST-ED-90234-.01 ``Enriching the Experience at McDonald Observatory: Pre/Post Visit Materials for Teachers and Students."

  12. NASA Names Premier X-Ray Observatory and Schedules Launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-12-01

    NASA's Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility has been renamed the Chandra X-ray Observatory in honor of the late Indian-American Nobel laureate, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. The telescope is scheduled to be launched no earlier than April 8, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia mission STS-93, commanded by astronaut Eileen Collins. Chandrasekhar, known to the world as Chandra, which means "moon" or "luminous" in Sanskrit, was a popular entry in a recent NASA contest to name the spacecraft. The contest drew more than six thousand entries from fifty states and sixty-one countries. The co-winners were a tenth grade student in Laclede, Idaho, and a high school teacher in Camarillo, CA. The Chandra X-ray Observatory Center (CXC), operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, will control science and flight operations of the Chandra X-ray Observatory for NASA from Cambridge, Mass. "Chandra is a highly appropriate name," said Harvey Tananbaum, Director of the CXC. "Throughout his life Chandra worked tirelessly and with great precision to further our understanding of the universe. These same qualities characterize the many individuals who have devoted much of their careers to building this premier X-ray observatory." "Chandra probably thought longer and deeper about our universe than anyone since Einstein," said Martin Rees, Great Britain's Astronomer Royal. "Chandrasekhar made fundamental contributions to the theory of black holes and other phenomena that the Chandra X-ray Observatory will study. His life and work exemplify the excellence that we can hope to achieve with this great observatory," said NASA Administrator Dan Goldin. Widely regarded as one of the foremost astrophysicists of the 20th century, Chandrasekhar won the Nobel Prize in 1983 for his theoretical studies of physical processes important to the structure and evolution of stars. He and his wife immigrated from India to the U.S. in 1935. Chandrasekhar served on the faculty of the University of

  13. Making Kew Observatory: the Royal Society, the British Association and the politics of early Victorian science.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Lee T

    2015-09-01

    Built in 1769 as a private observatory for King George III, Kew Observatory was taken over in 1842 by the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS). It was then quickly transformed into what some claimed to be a 'physical observatory' of the sort proposed by John Herschel - an observatory that gathered data in a wide range of physical sciences, including geomagnetism and meteorology, rather than just astronomy. Yet this article argues that the institution which emerged in the 1840s was different in many ways from that envisaged by Herschel. It uses a chronological framework to show how, at every stage, the geophysicist and Royal Artillery officer Edward Sabine manipulated the project towards his own agenda: an independent observatory through which he could control the geomagnetic and meteorological research, including the ongoing 'Magnetic Crusade'. The political machinations surrounding Kew Observatory, within the Royal Society and the BAAS, may help to illuminate the complex politics of science in early Victorian Britain, particularly the role of 'scientific servicemen' such as Sabine. Both the diversity of activities at Kew and the complexity of the observatory's origins make its study important in the context of the growing field of the 'observatory sciences'.

  14. Review of "Great Teachers and Great Leaders"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    "Great Teachers and Great Leaders" (GTGL) is one of six research summaries issued by the U.S. Department of Education in support of its Blueprint for Reform. This review examines the presentation of research about improving teacher and administrator quality in GTGL. The review concludes that there are serious flaws in the research summary. The…

  15. The Pierre Auger Observatory status and latest results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berat, Corinne

    2017-03-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, in Argentina, is the present flagship experiment studying ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). Facing the challenge due to low cosmic-ray flux at the highest energies, the Observatory has been taking data for more than a decade, reaching an exposure of over 50 000 km2 sr yr. The combination of a large surface detector array and fluorescence telescopes provides a substantial improvement in energy calibration and extensive air shower measurements, resulting in data of unprecedented quality. Moreover, the installation of a denser subarray has allowed extending the sensitivity to lower energies. Altogether, this contributes to provide important information on key questions in the UHECR field in the energy range from 0.1 EeV up to 100 EeV. A review of main results from the Pierre Auger Observatory is presented with a particular focus on the energy spectrum measurements, the mass composition studies, the arrival directions analyses, the search for neutral cosmic messengers, and the investigation of high-energy hadronic interactions. Despite this large amount of valuable results, the understanding of the nature of UHECRs and of their origin remains an open science case that the Auger collaboration is planning to address with the AugerPrime project to upgrade the Observatory.

  16. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1977 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  17. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1978 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  18. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1984 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  19. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1961 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  20. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1960 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  1. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1981 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  2. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1957 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  3. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1968 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  4. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1969 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  5. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1967 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  6. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1970 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  7. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1971 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  8. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1974 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  9. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1965 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  10. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1958 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  11. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1975 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  12. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1982 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  13. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1966 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  14. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1972 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  15. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1963 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  16. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1959 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  17. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1983 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  18. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1985 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  19. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1976 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  20. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1964 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  1. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1973 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  2. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1980 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  3. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1979 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  4. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1962 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  5. The CEOS Recovery Observatory Pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosford, S.; Proy, C.; Giros, A.; Eddy, A.; Petiteville, I.; Ishida, C.; Gaetani, F.; Frye, S.; Zoffoli, S.; Danzeglocke, J.

    2015-04-01

    Over the course of the last decade, large populations living in vulnerable areas have led to record damages and substantial loss of life in mega-disasters ranging from the deadly Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 and Haiti earthquake of 2010; the catastrophic flood damages of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Tohoku tsunami of 2011, and the astonishing extent of the environmental impact of the Deepwater Horizon explosion in 2009. These major catastrophes have widespread and long-lasting impacts with subsequent recovery and reconstruction costing billions of euros and lasting years. While satellite imagery is used on an ad hoc basis after many disasters to support damage assessment, there is currently no standard practice or system to coordinate acquisition of data and facilitate access for early recovery planning and recovery tracking and monitoring. CEOS led the creation of a Recovery Observatory Oversight Team, which brings together major recovery stakeholders such as the UNDP and the World Bank/Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery, value-adding providers and leading space agencies. The principal aims of the Observatory are to: 1. Demonstrate the utility of a wide range of earth observation data to facilitate the recovery and reconstruction phase following a major catastrophic event; 2. Provide a concrete case to focus efforts in identifying and resolving technical and organizational obstacles to facilitating the visibility and access to a relevant set of EO data; and 3. Develop dialogue and establish institutional relationships with the Recovery phase user community to best target data and information requirements; The paper presented here will describe the work conducted in preparing for the triggering of a Recovery Observatory including support to rapid assessments and Post Disaster Needs Assessments by the EO community.

  6. The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Ford, Linda A.; Zambrano-Marin, Luisa; Petty, Bryan M.; Sternke, Elizabeth; Ortiz, Andrew M.; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.

    2015-11-01

    The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy (AOSA) is a ten (10) week pre-college research program for students in grades 9-12. Our mission is to prepare students for academic and professional careers by allowing them to receive an independent and collaborative research experience on topics related to space and aide in their individual academic and social development. Our objectives are to (1) Supplement the student’s STEM education via inquiry-based learning and indirect teaching methods, (2) Immerse students in an ESL environment, further developing their verbal and written presentation skills, and (3) To foster in every student an interest in science by exploiting their natural curiosity and knowledge in order to further develop their critical thinking and investigation skills. AOSA provides students with the opportunity to share lectures with Arecibo Observatory staff, who have expertise in various STEM fields. Each Fall and Spring semester, selected high school students, or Cadets, from all over Puerto Rico participate in this Saturday academy where they receive experience designing, proposing, and carrying out research projects related to space exploration, focusing on four fields: Physics/Astronomy, Biology, Engineering, and Sociology. Cadets get the opportunity to explore their topic of choice while practicing many of the foundations of scientific research with the goal of designing a space settlement, which they present at the NSS-NASA Ames Space Settlement Design Contest. At the end of each semester students present their research to their peers, program mentors, and Arecibo Observatory staff. Funding for this program is provided by NASA SSERVI-LPI: Center for Lunar Science and Exploration with partial support from the Angel Ramos Visitor Center through UMET and management by USRA.

  7. the Large Aperture GRB Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Bertou, Xavier

    2009-04-30

    The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) aims at the detection of high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) using the single particle technique (SPT) in ground based water Cherenkov detectors (WCD). To reach a reasonable sensitivity, high altitude mountain sites have been selected in Mexico (Sierra Negra, 4550 m a.s.l.), Bolivia (Chacaltaya, 5300 m a.s.l.) and Venezuela (Merida, 4765 m a.s.l.). We report on the project progresses and the first operation at high altitude, search for bursts in 6 months of preliminary data, as well as search for signal at ground level when satellites report a burst.

  8. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becklin, Eric E.

    2001-01-01

    The joint U.S. and German SOFIA project to develop and operate a 2.5-meter infrared airborne telescope in a Boeing 747-SP is now well into development. First science flights will begin in 2004 with 20% of the observing time assigned to German investigators. The observatory is expected to operate for over 20 years. The sensitivity, characteristics and science instrument complement are discussed. Present and future instrumentation will allow unique astrobiology experiments to be carried out. Several experiments related to organic molecules in space will be discussed.

  9. Light pollution around Tonantzintla Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Mata, José A.; Hernández-Toledo, Héctor M.; Martínez-Vázquez, Luis A.; Pani-Cielo, Atanacio

    2011-06-01

    Being close to the cities of Puebla to east and Cholula to the north, both having potential for large growth, the National Astronomical Observatory in Tonantzintla (OAN-Tonantzintla) faces the danger of deteriorating its sky conditions even more. In order to maintain competitiveness for education and scientific programs, it is important to preserve the sky brightness conditions. through: 1) our awareness of the night sky characteristics in continuous monitoring campaigns, doing more measurements over the next years to monitor changes and 2) encouraging local authorities about the need to regulate public lighting at the same time, showing them the benefits of such initiatives when well planed and correctly implemented.

  10. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Charles E.

    2005-01-01

    CO2 is the principal human generated driver of climate change. Accurate forecasting of future climate requires an improved understanding of the global carbon cycle and its interaction with the climate system. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) will make global, space-based observations of atmospheric CO2 with the precision, resolution, and coverage needed to understand sources and sinks. OCO data will provide critical information for decision makers including the scientific basis for policy formulation, guide for carbon management strategies and treaty monitoring.

  11. Reading the Cosmic Landscape: An Observatory in the Nevada Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Hilary Jane

    This thesis aims to restore value to the phenomenological experience of the desert through architecture, exploring the desert as a physical, cultural and experiential landscape that ideally lends itself to the study of astronomy and to a greater understanding of a universal order. This project will create a recreational observatory allowing amateur observers to study the skies. The observatory will be located on the desert peak of Mount Washington, located in Great Basin National Park in Nevada. It will provide a venue for the astronomy-focused activities which already exist within the park, and will serve as a destination highlighting the cosmic properties of the desert. This thesis proposes that architecture can play a role in realizing the essential qualities of this unique landscape and can enhance the study of astronomy as an endeavor that goes beyond science to access a greater understanding of the human condition.

  12. Exploring the Digital Universe with Europe's Astrophysical Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    N° 73-2001 - Paris, 5 December 2001 The aim of AVO is to give astronomers instant access to the vast databanks now being built up by the world's observatories and forming what is in effect a "digital sky". Using AVO astronomers will be able, for example, to retrieve the elusive traces of the passage of an asteroid as it passes the Earth and so predict its future path and perhaps warn of a possible impact. When a giant star comes to the end of its life in a cataclysmic explosion called a supernova, they will be able to access the digital sky and pinpoint the star shortly before it exploded, adding invaluable data to the study of the evolution of stars. Modern observatories observe the sky continuously and data accumulates remorselessly in the digital archives. The growth rate is impressive and many hundreds of terabytes of data -corresponding to many thousands of billions of pixels - are already available to scientists. The real sky is being digitally reconstructed in the databanks. The volume and complexity of data and information available to astronomers are overwhelming. Hence the problem of how astronomers can possibly manage, distribute and analyse this great wealth of data. The Astrophysical Virtual Observatory will enable them to meet the challenge and "put the Universe online". AVO is a three-year project, funded by the European Commission under its Research and Technological Development (RTD) scheme, to design and implement a virtual observatory for the European astronomical community. The Commission has awarded a contract valued at EUR 4m for the project, starting on 15 November. AVO will provide software tools to enable astronomers to access the multi-wavelength data archives over the Internet and so give them the capability to resolve fundamental questions about the Universe by probing the digital sky. Equivalent searches of the "real" sky would, in comparison, both be prohibitively costly and take far too long. Towards a Global Virtual Observatory The

  13. ``Route of astronomical observatories'' project: Classical observatories from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    2016-10-01

    Observatories offer a good possibility for serial transnational applications. For example one can choose groups like baroque or neoclassical observatories, solar physics observatories or a group of observatories equipped with the same kind of instruments or made by famous firms. I will discuss what has been achieved and show examples, like the route of astronomical observatories, the transition from classical astronomy to modern astrophysics. I will also discuss why the implementation of the World Heritage & Astronomy initiative is difficult and why there are problems to nominate observatories for election in the national tentative lists.

  14. Taking Charge: Walter Sydney Adams and the Mount Wilson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brashear, R.

    2004-12-01

    The growing preeminence of American observational astronomy in the first half of the 20th century is a well-known story and much credit is given to George Ellery Hale and his skill as an observatory-building entrepreneur. But a key figure who has yet to be discussed in great detail is Walter Sydney Adams (1876-1956), Hale's Assistant Director at Mount Wilson Observatory. Due to Hale's illnesses, Adams was Acting Director for much of Hale's tenure, and he became the second Director of Mount Wilson from 1923 to 1946. Behind his New England reserve Adams was instrumental in the growth of Mount Wilson and thus American astronomy in general. Adams was hand-picked by Hale to take charge of stellar spectroscopy work at Yerkes and Mount Wilson and the younger astronomer showed tremendous loyalty to Hale and Hale's vision throughout his career. As Adams assumed the leadership role at Mount Wilson he concentrated on making the observatory a place where researchers worked with great freedom but maintain a high level of cooperation. This paper will concentrate on Adams's early years and look at his growing relationship with Hale and how he came to be the central figure in the early history of Mount Wilson as both a solar and stellar observatory. His education, his years at Dartmouth and Yerkes (including his unfortunate encounter with epsilon Leonis), and his formative years on Mount Wilson are all important in learning how he shaped the direction of Mount Wilson and the development of American astronomy in the first half of the 20th century. This latter history cannot be complete until we bring Adams into better focus.

  15. Protection of the Guillermo Haro Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, E.; Carraminana, A. P.

    The Guillermo Haro Astrophysical Observatory, with a 2m telescope, is one of only two professional observatories in Mexico. The observatory, run by the InstitutoNacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), is located in the north of Mexico, in Cananea, Sonora. Since 1995 the observatory has faced the potential threat of pollution by an open cast mine to be opened at 3kms from the observatory. In the absence of national or regional laws enforcing protection to astronomical sites in Mexico, considerable effort has been needed to guarantee the conditions of the site. We present the studies carried out to ensure the protection of the Guillermo Haro Observatory from pollution due to dust, light and vibrations.

  16. Cosmology in the Bucharest Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suran, Marian Doru

    2008-09-01

    At the Bucharest Observatory cosmology started in the early'80s as a theoretical branch directly related to the computational facilities available in our Observatory. With the help of our instruments, from a small Z8080 computer (early'80s) to a superscalar supercomputer of 44 processors (now), our cosmology team has developed models, methods and techniques related to: the investigation of 2D and 3D catalogues of galaxies, clusters and superclusters; investigation of the log tails of the 2-points correlation functions; cosmological simulations (N-body+SPH) of the Large Scale Structure of the Universe (LSS) investigation of environmental effects in clusters of galaxies; application of neural methods in cosmology. The use of such models and techniques has permitted us to study problems concerning: correlated signals in the long tail of the correlation functions for galaxies, clusters and superclusters (due to baryon oscillations) HD simulations of the LSS and of the evolution of the first and secondary Web structures; studies of the epochs of the formation of DM halos in a LCDM scenario (earlier than z 15) studies of the evolution of halos and galaxies due to the parental merging phenomena; detection of the Butcher-Oemler and Oemler-Butcher effects in far or close clusters; studies of E+A galaxies; study of the synthetic spectra of galaxies and of the chemo-spectro-photometrical evolution of galaxies (for z<30) photometric redshift determination (for z<10).

  17. The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becklin, Eric

    2015-08-01

    The joint U.S. and German Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), a 2.5-meter infrared airborne telescope in a Boeing 747SP, is now fully operational with cameras and spectrometers in the 1 to 240 micron region. It will be one of the major observatories for the next 20 years to observe the local ISM in this spectral region. We will give a brief overview of the SOFIA observatory, telescope, instrumentation and recent science. Future observing opportunities and participation in future instrument developments, over the lifetime of the SOFIA observatory will be discussed.

  18. SOFIA Observatory Obtains 'First Light' Images

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, successfully obtained its "First Light"" images during an overnight flight May 26. Scientists are now processing the data gathered...

  19. NASA capabilities roadmap: advanced telescopes and observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee D.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Telescopes and Observatories (ATO) Capability Roadmap addresses technologies necessary for NASA to enable future space telescopes and observatories collecting all electromagnetic bands, ranging from x-rays to millimeter waves, and including gravity-waves. It has derived capability priorities from current and developing Space Missions Directorate (SMD) strategic roadmaps and, where appropriate, has ensured their consistency with other NASA Strategic and Capability Roadmaps. Technology topics include optics; wavefront sensing and control and interferometry; distributed and advanced spacecraft systems; cryogenic and thermal control systems; large precision structure for observatories; and the infrastructure essential to future space telescopes and observatories.

  20. Astronomical Research with the MicroObservatory Net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, K.; Sadler, P.; Gould, R.; Leiker, S.; Antonucci, P.; Deutsch, F.

    1997-05-01

    We have developed a fully integrated automated astronomical telescope system which combines the imaging power of a cooled CCD, with a self-contained and weatherized 15 cm reflecting optical telescope and mount. The MicroObservatory Net consists of five of these telescopes. They are currently being deployed around the world at widely distributed longitudes. Remote access to the MicroObservatories over the Internet has now been implemented. Software for computer control, pointing, focusing, filter selection as well as pattern recognition have all been developed as part of the project. The telescopes can be controlled in real time or in delay mode, from a Macintosh, PC or other computer using Web-based software. The Internet address of the telescopes is http://cfa- www.harvard.edu/cfa/sed/MicroObservatory/MicroObservatory.html. In the real-time mode, individuals have access to all of the telescope control functions without the need for an `on-site' operator. Users can sign up for a specific period of ti me. In the batch mode, users can submit requests for delayed telescope observations. After a MicroObservatory completes a job, the user is automatically notified by e-mail that the image is available for viewing and downloading from the Web site. The telescopes were designed for classroom instruction, as well as for use by students and amateur astronomers for original scientific research projects. We are currently examining a variety of technical and educational questions about the use of the telescopes including: (1) What are the best approaches to scheduling real-time versus batch mode observations? (2) What criteria should be used for allocating telescope time? (3) With deployment of more than one telescope, is it advantageous for each telescope to be used for just one type of observation, i.e., some for photometric use, others for imaging? And (4) What are the most valuable applications of the MicroObservatories in astronomical research? Support for the MicroObservatory

  1. Solar Dynamics Observatory Launch and Commissioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Kristin, D.; Bourkland, L.; Hsu, Oscar C.; Liu, Kuo-Chia; Mason, Paul A. C.; Morgenstern, Wendy M.; Russo, Angela M.; Starin, Scott R.; Vess, Melissa F.

    2011-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) was launched on February 11, 2010. Over the next three months, the spacecraft was raised from its launch orbit into its final geosynchronous orbit and its systems and instruments were tested and calibrated in preparation for its desired ten year science mission studying the Sun. A great deal of activity during this time involved the spacecraft attitude control system (ACS); testing control modes, calibrating sensors and actuators, and using the ACS to help commission the spacecraft instruments and to control the propulsion system as the spacecraft was maneuvered into its final orbit. This paper will discuss the chronology of the SDO launch and commissioning, showing the ACS analysis work performed to diagnose propellant slosh transient and attitude oscillation anomalies that were seen during commissioning, and to determine how to overcome them. The simulations and tests devised to demonstrate correct operation of all onboard ACS modes and the activities in support of instrument calibration will be discussed and the final maneuver plan performed to bring SDO on station will be shown. In addition to detailing these commissioning and anomaly resolution activities, the unique set of tests performed to characterize SDO's on-orbit jitter performance will be discussed.

  2. The Role of Project Science in the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2006-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory, one of NASA's Great Observatories, has an outstanding record of scientific and technical success. This success results from the efforts of a team comprising NASA, its contractors, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, the instrument groups, and other elements of the scientific community, including thousands of scientists who utilize this powerful facility for astrophysical research. We discuss the role of NASA Project Science in the formulation, development, calibration, and operation of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. In addition to representing the scientific community within the Project, Project Science performed what we term "science systems engineering". This activity encompasses translation of science requirements into technical requirements and assessment of the scientific impact of programmatic and technical trades. We briefly describe several examples of science systems engineering conducted by Chandra Project Science.

  3. Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; Lal, Nand; McGuire, Robert E.; Szabo, Adam; Narock, Thomas W.; Armstrong, Thomas P.; Manweiler, Jerry W.; Patterson, J. Douglas; Hill, Matthew E.; Vandergriff, Jon D.; McKibben, Robert B.; Lopate, Clifford; Tranquille, Cecil

    2008-01-01

    The Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO) focuses on improved discovery, access, and usability of heliospheric energetic particle and ancillary data products from selected spacecraft and sub-orbital instruments of the heliophysics data environment. The energy range of interest extends over the full range of particle acceleration from keV energies of suprathermal seed particles to GeV energies of galactic cosmic ray particles. Present spatial coverage is for operational and legacy spacecraft operating from the inner to the outer heliosphere, e.g. from measurements by the two Helios spacecraft to 0.3 AU to the inner heliosheath region now being traversed by the two Voyager spacecraft. This coverage will eventually be extended inward to ten solar radii by the planned NASA solar probe mission and at the same time beyond the heliopause into the outer heliosheath by continued Voyager operations. The geospace fleet of spacecraft providing near-Earth interplanetary measurements, selected magnetospheric spacecraft providing direct measurements of penetrating interplanetary energetic particles, and interplanetary cruise measurements from planetary spacecraft missions further extend VEPO resources to the domain of geospace and planetary interactions. Ground-based (e.g., neutron monitor) and high-altitude suborbital measurements can expand coverage to the highest energies of galactic cosmic rays affected by heliospheric interaction and of solar energetic particles. Science applications include investigation of solar flare and coronal mass ejection events. acceleration and transport of interplanetary particles within the inner heliosphere, cosmic ray interactions with planetary surfaces and atmospheres, sources of suprathermal and anomalous cosmic ray ions in the outer heliosphere, and solar cycle modulation of galactic cosmic rays. Robotic and human exploration, and eventual habitation, of planetary and space environments beyond the Earth require knowledge of radiation

  4. The Great Lakes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Great Lakes form the largest surface freshwater system on Earth. The U.S. and Canada work together to restore and protect the environment in the Great Lakes Basin. Top issues include contaminated sediments, water quality and invasive species.

  5. Medicine Wheels of the Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, David

    Medicine Wheels are unexplained aboriginal boulder configurations found primarily on hilltops and river valley vistas across the northwest Great Plains of North America. Their varied, complex designs have inspired diverse hypotheses concerning their meaning and purpose, including astronomical ones. While initial "observatory" speculations were unfounded, and quests to "decode" these structures remain unfulfilled and possibly misguided, the Medicine Wheels nevertheless represent a uniquely worthwhile case study in archaeoastronomical theory and method. In addition, emerging technologies for data acquisition and analysis pertinent to Medicine Wheels offer prospectively important new sight lines for the future of archaeoastronomy.

  6. Sensor networks for cabled ocean observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, B. M.; McGinnis, T.; Kirkham, H.

    2003-04-01

    This paper considers the development of a support infrastructure for subsea observatory sensors and networks. Some sensors will be self-contained individual items, others will be part of a sensor network using, for example, secondary cables and junction boxes to extend the horizontal reach 10s to 100s of km from backbone nodes, or using moorings to distribute observatory capabilities throughout the water column and (equivalently) down boreholes into the crust. Included in the support infrastructure could be acoustic navigation and communications systems, free-swimming AUVs, and bottom rovers that could carry sensors and could provide data and energy "tanker" service. Because of the likely long term observatory application of sensors, and the high cost of access, methods of self-calibration of sensors will also be useful. The sensor infrastructure would supplement the observatory infrastructure that is part of the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI). This Initiative plans to provide junction box nodes on the seafloor that furnish power and communications, and distribute time. There are three elements of the OOI: a regional scale cabled observatory (such as NEPTUNE) with dozens of nodes; a sparse global array of buoys with seafloor nodes; and an expanded system of coastal observatories. Each of these observatories will depend on suites of sensors from a number of investigators, and it is likely that once the observatory infrastructure itself has been installed and commissioned, most of the physical interaction with an observatory will be for installing, operating, servicing, and recovering sensors. These activities will be supported by the proposed infrastructure, enabling the full potential of the observatory to be reached.

  7. Investigations of the interstellar medium at Washburn Observatory 1930-58

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebl, David S.; Fluke, Christopher

    2004-12-01

    Between 1930 and 1958, the Washburn Observatory of the University of Wisconsin-Madison was home to pioneering photometric research into the interstellar medium by Joel Stebbins and Albert Whitford. Between 1933 and 1941, Stebbins and Whitford published seminal research on the photometry of stellar reddening, using the Washburn 15-inch refractor and the 60- and 100-inch reflectors at Mount Wilson Observatory. Many factors were responsible for the Washburn Observatory's pre-eminence in this area. This paper reviews their research on interstellar dust during the years 1922-58, the observational technology and scientific methods that were developed at the Washburn Observatory during that time and the scientific discoveries that originated there. We discuss the factors that enabled Washburn Observatory to become a leader in photometry during the first half of the twentieth century. We also draw on the recollections of past and present Washburn Observatory scientists to understand how Washburn's standing led to a subsequent programme of research into the interstellar medium at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The resulting portrayal of Washburn Observatory provides insights into the evolution of astronomical research in America, from the beginning of the twentieth century until today.

  8. Great Lakes: Chemical Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1976-01-01

    The Tenth Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society met to assess current Chemical Research activity in the Great Lakes Basin, and addressed to the various aspects of the theme, Chemistry of the Great Lakes. Research areas reviewed included watershed studies, atmospheric and aquatic studies, and sediment studies. (BT)

  9. The Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, Shing F.

    2008-01-01

    Heliophysics wave data are currently not easily searchable by computers, making identifying pertinent wave data features for analyses and cross comparisons difficult and laborious. Since wave data analysis requires specialized knowledge about waves, which spans the spectrum of microphysics to macrophysics, researchers having varied expertise cannot easily use wave data. To resolve these difficulties and to allow wave data to contribute more fully to Heliophysics research, we are developing a Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO) whose goal is to enable all Heliophysics wave data to become searchable, understandable and usable by the Heliophysics community. The VWO objective is to enable search of multiple and distributed wave data (from both active and passive measurements). This presentation provides and overview of the VWO, a new VxO component within the emerging distributed Heliophysics data and model environment.

  10. HELIO: The Heliophysics Integrated Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, R. D.; Csillaghy, A.; Aboudarham, J.; Jacquey, C.; Hapgood, M. A.; Bocchialini, K.; Messerotti, M.; Brooke, J.; Gallagher, P.; Fox, P.; Hurlburt, N.; Roberts, D. A.; Sanchez Duarte, L.

    2011-01-01

    Heliophysics is a new research field that explores the Sun-Solar System Connection; it requires the joint exploitation of solar, heliospheric, magnetospheric and ionospheric observations. HELIO, the Heliophysics Integrated Observatory, will facilitate this study by creating an integrated e-Infrastructure that has no equivalent anywhere else. It will be a key component of a worldwide effort to integrate heliophysics data and will coordinate closely with international organizations to exploit synergies with complementary domains. HELIO was proposed under a Research Infrastructure call in the Capacities Programme of the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme (FP7). The project was selected for negotiation in January 2009; following a successful conclusion to these, the project started on 1 June 2009 and will last for 36 months.

  11. HELIO: The Heliophysics Integrated Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, R. D.; Csillaghy, A.; Aboudarham, J.; Jacquey, C.; Hapgood, M. A.; Bocchialini, K.; Messerotti, M.; Brooke, J.; Gallagher, P.; Fox, P.; Hurlburt, N.; Roberts, D. A.; Duarte, L. Sanchez

    2011-06-01

    Heliophysics is a new research field that explores the Sun-Solar System Connection; it requires the joint exploitation of solar, heliospheric, magnetospheric and ionospheric observations.HELIO, the Heliophysics Integrated Observatory, will facilitate this study by creating an integrated e-Infrastructure that has no equivalent anywhere else. It will be a key component of a worldwide effort to integrate heliophysics data and will coordinate closely with international organizations to exploit synergies with complementary domains.HELIO was proposed under a Research Infrastructure call in the Capacities Programme of the European Commission’s 7th Framework Programme (FP7). The project was selected for negotiation in January 2009; following a successful conclusion to these, the project started on 1 June 2009 and will last for 36 months.

  12. Iranian National Observatory: project overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Jenab, Hooshdad; Bidar, Masoud; Mohajer, Mohammad; Saeidifar, Mahdi

    2016-07-01

    The Iranian National Observatory site is under construction at an altitude of 3600m at Mount Gargash in central Iran. It offers a promising site for optical and near-IR observations with a 0.7 arcsec median seeing and thus a number of observing facilities have been planned. The largest facility is a 3.4m Alt- Az reflecting Ritchey-Chretien optical telescope under development with an exit focal ratio of f/11 providing a generous 20 arcmin field of view at the main Cassegrain focus. This telescope will be equipped with high resolution medium-wide field imaging camera as well as medium and high resolution spectrographs. The telescope will benefit from an active support for the primary mirror. The primary mirror has been manufactured, polished and delivered. In this project overview, the design parameters for the 3.4m telescope and the current status of the project are presented.

  13. Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the technical parameters and the technical staff of the VLBI system at the fundamental station GGAO. It also gives an overview about the VLBI activities during the report year. The Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) consists of a 5-meter radio telescope for VLBI, a new 12-meter radio telescope for VLBI2010 development, a 1-meter reference antenna for microwave holography development, an SLR site that includes MOBLAS-7, the NGSLR development system, and a 48" telescope for developmental two-color Satellite Laser Ranging, a GPS timing and development lab, a DORIS system, meteorological sensors, and a hydrogen maser. In addition, we are a fiducial IGS site with several IGS/IGSX receivers. GGAO is located on the east coast of the United States in Maryland. It is approximately 15 miles NNE of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland.

  14. Autonomous Infrastructure for Observatory Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, R.

    This is an era of rapid change from ancient human-mediated modes of astronomical practice to a vision of ever larger time domain surveys, ever bigger "big data", to increasing numbers of robotic telescopes and astronomical automation on every mountaintop. Over the past decades, facets of a new autonomous astronomical toolkit have been prototyped and deployed in support of numerous space missions. Remote and queue observing modes have gained significant market share on the ground. Archives and data-mining are becoming ubiquitous; astroinformatic techniques and virtual observatory standards and protocols are areas of active development. Astronomers and engineers, planetary and solar scientists, and researchers from communities as diverse as particle physics and exobiology are collaborating on a vast range of "multi-messenger" science. What then is missing?

  15. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  16. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) was launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on 5 April 1991. The spacecraft and instruments are in good health and returning exciting results. The mission provides nearly six orders of magnitude in spectral coverage, from 30 keV to 30 GeV, with sensitivity over the entire range an order of magnitude better than that of previous observations. The 16,000 kilogram observatory contains four instruments on a stabilized platform. The mission began normal operations on 16 May 1991 and is now over half-way through a full-sky survey. The mission duration is expected to be from six to ten years. A Science Support Center has been established at Goddard Space Flight Center for the purpose of supporting a vigorous Guest Investigator Program. New scientific results to date include: (1) the establishment of the isotropy, combined with spatial inhomogeneity, of the distribution of gamma-ray bursts in the sky; (2) the discovery of intense high energy (100 MeV) gamma-ray emission from 3C 279 and other quasars and BL Lac objects, making these the most distant and luminous gamma-ray sources ever detected; (3) one of the first images of a gamma-ray burst; (4) the observation of intense nuclear and position-annihilation gamma-ray lines and neutrons from several large solar flares; and (5) the detection of a third gamma-ray pulsar, plus several other transient and pulsing hard X-ray sources.

  17. Golden legacy from ESA's observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    ISO was the first space observatory able to see the sky in infrared light. Using its eyes, we have discovered many new phenomena that have radically changed our view of the Universe. Everybody knows that when something is heated it glows. However, things also glow with a light our eyes cannot detect at room temperature: infrared light. Infrared telescopes do not work well on the Earth’s surface because such light is absorbed by the atmosphere. ISO looked at the cold parts of the universe, usually the 'cold and dusty' parts. It peered into clouds of dust and gas where stars were being born, observing for the first time the earliest stages of star formation. It discovered, for example, that stars begin to form at temperatures as low as -250°C or less. Scientists were able to follow the evolution of dust from where it is produced (that is, old stars - the massive 'dust factories') to the regions where it forms new planetary systems. ISO found that most young stars are surrounded by discs of dust that could harbour planets. The observatory also analysed the chemical composition of cosmic dust, thereby opening up a new field of research, ‘astromineralogy’. With ISO we have been able to discover the presence of water in many different regions in space. Another new discipline, 'astrochemistry', was boosted when ISO discovered that the water molecule is common in the Universe, even in distant galaxies, and complex organic molecules like benzene readily form in the surroundings of some stars. "ISO results are impacting most fields of astronomical research, almost literally from comets to cosmology," explains Alberto Salama, ISO Project Scientist. "Some results answer questions. Others open new fields. Some are already being followed up by existing telescopes; others have to await future facilities." When ISO's operational life ended, in 1998, its observations became freely available to the world scientific community via ISO’s data archive. In May 2003 the

  18. The Rapid Ice Sheet Change Observatory (RISCO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, P.; Howat, I. M.; Ahn, Y.; Porter, C.; McFadden, E. M.

    2010-12-01

    The recent expansion of observational capacity from space has revealed dramatic, rapid changes in the Earth’s ice cover. These discoveries have fundamentally altered how scientists view ice-sheet change. Instead of just slow changes in snow accumulation and melting over centuries or millennia, important changes can occur in sudden events lasting only months, weeks, or even a single day. Our understanding of these short time- and space-scale processes, which hold important implications for future global sea level rise, has been impeded by the low temporal and spatial resolution, delayed sensor tasking, incomplete coverage, inaccessibility and/or high cost of data available to investigators. New cross-agency partnerships and data access policies provide the opportunity to dramatically improve the resolution of ice sheet observations by an order of magnitude, from timescales of months and distances of 10’s of meters, to days and meters or less. Advances in image processing technology also enable application of currently under-utilized datasets. The infrastructure for systematically gathering, processing, analyzing and distributing these data does not currently exist. Here we present the development of a multi-institutional, multi-platform observatory for rapid ice change with the ultimate objective of helping to elucidate the relevant timescales and processes of ice sheet dynamics and response to climate change. The Rapid Ice Sheet Observatory (RISCO) gathers observations of short time- and space-scale Cryosphere events and makes them easily accessible to investigators, media and general public. As opposed to existing data centers, which are structured to archive and distribute diverse types of raw data to end users with the specialized software and skills to analyze them, RISCO focuses on three types of geo-referenced raster (image) data products in a format immediately viewable with commonly available software. These three products are (1) sequences of images

  19. Ecosystem services in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinman, Alan D.; Cardinale, Bradley J; Munns Jr, Wayne R; Ogdahl, Mary E.; Allan, David J; Angadi, Ted; Bartlett, Sarah; Brauman, Kate; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Doss, Matt; Dupont, Diane; Johns, Annie; Kashian, Donna; Lupi, Frank; McIntyre, Peter B.; Miller, Todd; Moore, Michael P.; Muenich, Rebecca Logsdon; Poudel, Rajendra; Price, James; Provencher, Bill; Rea, Anne; Read, Jennifer; Renzetti, Steven; Sohngen, Brent; Washburn, Erica

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services across the entire Great Lakes basin is currently lacking and is needed to make informed management decisions. A greater appreciation and understanding of ecosystem services, including both use and non-use services, may have avoided misguided resource management decisions in the past that resulted in negative legacies inherited by future generations. Given the interest in ecosystem services and lack of a coherent approach to addressing this topic in the Great Lakes, a summit was convened involving 28 experts working on various aspects of ecosystem services in the Great Lakes. The invited attendees spanned a variety of social and natural sciences. Given the unique status of the Great Lakes as the world's largest collective repository of surface freshwater, and the numerous stressors threatening this valuable resource, timing was propitious to examine ecosystem services. Several themes and recommendations emerged from the summit. There was general consensus that: 1) a comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services throughout the Great Lakes is a desirable goal but would require considerable resources; 2) more spatially and temporally intensive data are needed to overcome our data gaps, but the arrangement of data networks and observatories must be well-coordinated; 3) trade-offs must be considered as part of ecosystem services analyses; and 4) formation of a Great Lakes Institute for Ecosystem Services, to provide a hub for research, meetings, and training is desirable. Several challenges also emerged during the summit, which are discussed.

  20. Scientific Workflows and the Sensor Web for Virtual Environmental Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, I.; Vahed, A.

    2008-12-01

    Virtual observatories mature from their original domain and become common practice for earth observation research and policy building. The term Virtual Observatory originally came from the astronomical research community. Here, virtual observatories provide universal access to the available astronomical data archives of space and ground-based observatories. Further on, as those virtual observatories aim at integrating heterogeneous ressources provided by a number of participating organizations, the virtual observatory acts as a coordinating entity that strives for common data analysis techniques and tools based on common standards. The Sensor Web is on its way to become one of the major virtual observatories outside of the astronomical research community. Like the original observatory that consists of a number of telescopes, each observing a specific part of the wave spectrum and with a collection of astronomical instruments, the Sensor Web provides a multi-eyes perspective on the current, past, as well as future situation of our planet and its surrounding spheres. The current view of the Sensor Web is that of a single worldwide collaborative, coherent, consistent and consolidated sensor data collection, fusion and distribution system. The Sensor Web can perform as an extensive monitoring and sensing system that provides timely, comprehensive, continuous and multi-mode observations. This technology is key to monitoring and understanding our natural environment, including key areas such as climate change, biodiversity, or natural disasters on local, regional, and global scales. The Sensor Web concept has been well established with ongoing global research and deployment of Sensor Web middleware and standards and represents the foundation layer of systems like the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The Sensor Web consists of a huge variety of physical and virtual sensors as well as observational data, made available on the Internet at standardized

  1. HAWC observatory catches first gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frías Villegas, Gabriela

    2013-06-01

    The world's largest and most modern gamma-ray observatory has carried out its first successful observations. Located inside the Pico de Orizaba national park in the Mexican state of Puebla, the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC) is a collaboration between 26 Mexican and US institutions.

  2. Atlas of Great Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyan, Ronald; Dunlop, Storm

    2015-01-01

    Foreword; Using this book; Part I. Introduction: Cometary beliefs and fears; Comets in art; Comets in literature and poetry; Comets in science; Cometary science today; Great comets in antiquity; Great comets of the Middle Ages; Part II. The 30 Greatest Comets of Modern Times: The Great Comet of 1471; Comet Halley 1531; The Great Comet of 1556; The Great Comet of 1577; Comet Halley, 1607; The Great Comet of 1618; The Great Comet of 1664; Comet Kirch, 1680; Comet Halley, 1682; The Great Comet of 1744; Comet Halley, 1759; Comet Messier, 1769; Comet Flaugergues, 1811; Comet Halley, 1835; The Great March Comet of 1843; Comet Donati, 1858; Comet Tebbutt, 1861; The Great September Comet of 1882; The Great January Comet of 1910; Comet Halley, 1910; Comet Arend-Roland, 1956; Comet Ikeya-Seki, 1965; Comet Bennett, 1970; Comet Kohoutek, 1973-4; Comet West, 1976; Comet Halley, 1986; Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, 1994; Comet Hyakutake, 1996; Comet Hale-Bopp, 1997; Comet McNaught, 2007; Part III. Appendices; Table of comet data; Glossary; References; Photo credits; Index.

  3. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory and its Role for the Study of Ionized Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory was launched in July of 1999. Featuring a 1000cm2-class X-ray telescope with sub-arcsecond angular resolution, the Observatory has observed targets from the solar system including the earth s moon, comets, and planets to the most distant galaxy clusters and active galactic nuclei. Capable of performing moderate energy resolution image-resolved spectroscopy using its CCD detectors, and high-resolution grating spectroscopy, the Observatory has produced, and continues to produce, valuable data and insights into the emission mechanisms of the ionized plasmas in which the X-rays originate. We present a brief overview of the Observatory to provide insight as to how to use it for your investigations. We also present an, admittedly brief and biased, overview of some of the results of investigations performed with Chandra that may be of interest to this audience.

  4. EARLY SCIENCE WITH SOFIA, THE STRATOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY FOR INFRARED ASTRONOMY

    SciTech Connect

    Young, E. T.; Becklin, E. E.; De Buizer, J. M.; Andersson, B.-G.; Casey, S. C.; Helton, L. A.; Marcum, P. M.; Roellig, T. L.; Temi, P.; Herter, T. L.; Guesten, R.; Dunham, E. W.; Backman, D.; Burgdorf, M.; Caroff, L. J.; Erickson, E. F.; Davidson, J. A.; Gehrz, R. D.; Harper, D. A.; Harvey, P. M.; and others

    2012-04-20

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an airborne observatory consisting of a specially modified Boeing 747SP with a 2.7 m telescope, flying at altitudes as high as 13.7 km (45,000 ft). Designed to observe at wavelengths from 0.3 {mu}m to 1.6 mm, SOFIA operates above 99.8% of the water vapor that obscures much of the infrared and submillimeter. SOFIA has seven science instruments under development, including an occultation photometer, near-, mid-, and far-infrared cameras, infrared spectrometers, and heterodyne receivers. SOFIA, a joint project between NASA and the German Aerospace Center Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft und-Raumfahrt, began initial science flights in 2010 December, and has conducted 30 science flights in the subsequent year. During this early science period three instruments have flown: the mid-infrared camera FORCAST, the heterodyne spectrometer GREAT, and the occultation photometer HIPO. This Letter provides an overview of the observatory and its early performance.

  5. Cosmic Ray Observatories for Space Weather Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Xavier

    2016-07-01

    The Mexican Space Weather Service (SCiESMEX) was created in October 2014. Some observatories measure data for the service at different frequencies and particles. Two cosmic ray observatories detect the particle variations attributed to solar emissions, and are an important source of information for the SCiESMEX. The Mexico City Cosmic Ray Observatory consists of a neutron monitor (6-NM-64) and a muon telescope, that detect the hadronic and hard component of the secondary cosmic rays in the atmosphere. It has been in continous operation since 1990. The Sierra Negra Cosmic Ray Observatory consists of a solar neutron telescope and the scintillator cosmic ray telescope. These telescopes can detect the neutrons, generated in solar flares and the hadronic and hard components of the secondary cosmic rays. It has been in continous operation since 2004. We present the two observatories and the capability to detect variations in the cosmic rays, generated by the emissions of the solar activity.

  6. Status of the Frisco Peak Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricketts, Paul; Springer, Wayne; Dawson, Kyle; Kieda, Dave; Gondolo, Paolo; Bolton, Adam

    2009-10-01

    The University of Utah has constructed an astronomical observatory located at an elevation of approximately 9600 feet of Frisco Peak west of Milford, Utah. This site was chosen after performing a survey of potential observatory sites throughout Southern Utah. At the time of writing this abstract, the dome and control buildings have been completed. Installation of a 32'' telescope manufactured by DFM Engineering is scheduled to start October 5, 2009. Commissioning of the telescope will take place this fall. A study of the photometric quality of the observatory site will be performed as well. A description of the observatory site survey and the construction and commissioning of the Frisco Peak Observatory will be presented.

  7. The Pulkovo Observatory on the Centuries' Borderline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abalakin, Viktor K.

    The present paper deals with the development of astrophysical research at the Pulkovo Observatory (now: the Central (Pulkovo) Astronomical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences) at adjacent time periods separated by the threshold between the 19th and the 20th centuries. The Pulkovo Observatory had been inaugurated in 1839. Its traditional field of research work was astrometry. The confirmation of light absorption phenomenon in interstellar space by Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve marked the turn of the Observatory's research programs toward astrophysics. New tendencies in the development of contemporaneous astronomy in Russia were pointed out by Otto Struve in his paper “About the Place of Astrophysics in Astronomy” presented in 1866 to the Saint-Petersburg Academy of Sciences. Wide-scale astrophysical studies were performed at Pulkovo Observatory around 1900 during the directorships of Theodore Bredikhin, Oscar Backlund and Aristarchos Belopolsky.

  8. Development of Observatories for the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyo, N.; Namba, Y.; Saruhashi, T.; Sawada, I.; Eguchi, N.; Toczko, S.; Kano, Y.; Yamano, M.; Muraki, H.; Fulton, P. M.; Brodsky, E. E.; Davis, E. E.; Sun, T.; Mori, J. J.; Chester, F. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake and accompanying tsunami produced the largest slip ever recorded in an earthquake and devastated much of northern Japan on March 11, 2011. The IODP proposal for JFAST (Japan Trench Fast Drilling project) planned to drill into the Tohoku subduction zone using the research ship Chikyu, measure the fault zone physical properties, recover fault zone material, and install an observatory to directly record the temperature anomaly caused by frictional slip during the earthquake. Considering the significant technical and operational challenges related to the great water depth of ~7,000 meters, and timing constraints, the observatory needed to be both robust and simple. After frequent discussions among scientists, engineers and operators, we decided to prepare two different types of observatories. 1. Autonomous MTL (Miniature Temperature Logger) observatory. The important temperature monitoring is accomplished by 55 MTLs attached to a string (Vectran rope) which is suspended inside a 4.5" casing in the borehole. The string latches at the top of the casing to allow retrieval using the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Kaiko operated by JAMSTEC. This observatory avoids risks associated with a thermistor cable and wellhead data logger, and increases reliability by applying proven technologies. Perhaps most importantly, this configuration allows flexibility in defining the final depth distribution of the temperature sensors. This is advantageous since information of the exact depth of the fault zone will be known only after drilling and logging. Also, the judicious placement of weak links along the string helps to minimize possible loss of the entire sensor string if it is clamped by post-seismic movements that deform the casing. 2. Telemetered PT (Pressure and Temperature) observatory. Based on the previous deployment experience of the NanTroSEIZE C0010 observatory, we prepared another system that enables long term monitoring and repeated ROV data

  9. Alaska Volcano Observatory at 20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) was established in 1988 in the wake of the 1986 Augustine eruption through a congressional earmark. Even within the volcanological community, there was skepticism about AVO. Populations directly at risk in Alaska were small compared to Cascadia, and the logistical costs of installing and maintaining monitoring equipment were much higher. Questions were raised concerning the technical feasibility of keeping seismic stations operating through the long, dark, stormy Alaska winters. Some argued that AVO should simply cover Augustine with instruments and wait for the next eruption there, expected in the mid 90s (but delayed until 2006), rather than stretching to instrument as many volcanoes as possible. No sooner was AVO in place than Redoubt erupted and a fully loaded passenger 747 strayed into the eruption cloud between Anchorage and Fairbanks, causing a powerless glide to within a minute of impact before the pilot could restart two engines and limp into Anchorage. This event forcefully made the case that volcano hazard mitigation is not just about people and infrastructure on the ground, and is particularly important in the heavily traveled North Pacific where options for flight diversion are few. In 1996, new funding became available through an FAA earmark to aggressively extend volcano monitoring far into the Aleutian Islands with both ground-based networks and round-the-clock satellite monitoring. Beyond the Aleutians, AVO developed a monitoring partnership with Russians volcanologists at the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. The need to work together internationally on subduction phenomena that span borders led to formation of the Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes (JKASP) consortium. JKASP meets approximately biennially in Sapporo, Petropavlovsk, and Fairbanks. In turn, these meetings and support from NSF and the Russian Academy of Sciences led to new international education and

  10. Ballast Water Discharges into the Great Lakes from Overseas Vessels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Analysis of Ballast Water Discharges into the Great Lakes from Overseas Vessels from 2010 to 2013 - An assessment of the volume, location, and global port origins of ballast water discharges in the Great Lakes (May 2015).

  11. Graduate Astronomy Education in the Early Days of Lick Observatory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterbrock, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses Lick Observatory's (University of California) early graduate students and graduate program in astronomy. The history of the Lick Observatory and famous astronomy professors and astronomers associated with the Lick Observatory are also discussed. (DS)

  12. A Bibliometric Analysis of Observatory Publications 2008-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, D. R.

    2015-04-01

    Refereed publications are the primary output of modern observatories. I examine the productivity and impact of a significant number of observatories, as well as some other interesting aspects of observatory papers.

  13. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, P.; Partnership, Emso

    2009-04-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. EMSO will reply also to the need expressed in the frame of GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) to develop a marine segment integrated in the in situ and satellite global monitoring system. The EMSO development relays upon the synergy between the scientific community and the industry to improve the European competitiveness with respect to countries like USA/Canada, NEPTUNE, VENUS and MARS projects, Taiwan, MACHO project, and Japan, DONET project. In Europe the development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90, and presently supported by EU initiatives. The EMSO infrastructure will constitute the extension to the sea of the land-based networks. Examples of data recorded by seafloor observatories will be presented. EMSO is presently at the stage of Preparatory Phase (PP), funded in the EC FP7 Capacities Programme. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years with the participation of 12 Institutions representing 12 countries. EMSO potential will be significantly increased also with the interaction with other Research Infrastructures addressed to Earth Science. 2. IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph Waldmann); IMI-Irish Marine Institute (Ireland, ref. Michael Gillooly); UTM-CSIC-Unidad de

  14. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap (Report 2006, http://cordis.europa.eu/esfri/roadmap.htm), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. The development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90 and is being supported by several EU initiatives, as the on-going ESONET-NoE, coordinated by IFREMER (2007-2011, http://www.esonet-emso.org/esonet-noe/), and aims at gathering together the Research Community of the Ocean Observatories. In 2006 the FP7 Capacities Programme launched a call for Preparatory Phase (PP) projects, that will provide the support to create the legal and organisational entities in charge of managing the infrastructures, and coordinating the financial effort among the countries. Under this call the EMSO-PP project was approved in 2007 with the coordination of INGV and the participation of other 11 Institutions of 11 countries. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years. The EMSO is a key-infrastructure both for Ocean Sciences and for Solid Earth Sciences. In this respect it will enhance and complement profitably the capabilities of other European research infrastructures such as EPOS, ERICON-Aurora Borealis, and SIOS. The perspective of the synergy among EMSO and other ESFRI Research Infrastructures will be outlined. EMSO Partners: IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph

  15. The GEOSCOPE broadband seismic observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douet, Vincent; Vallée, Martin; Zigone, Dimitri; Bonaimé, Sébastien; Stutzmann, Eléonore; Maggi, Alessia; Pardo, Constanza; Bernard, Armelle; Leroy, Nicolas; Pesqueira, Frédéric; Lévêque, Jean-Jacques; Thoré, Jean-Yves; Bes de Berc, Maxime; Sayadi, Jihane

    2016-04-01

    The GEOSCOPE observatory has provided continuous broadband data to the scientific community for the past 34 years. The 31 operational GEOSCOPE stations are installed in 17 countries, across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. They are equipped with three component very broadband seismometers (STS1, T240 or STS2) and 24 or 26 bit digitizers (Q330HR). Seismometers are installed with warpless base plates, which decrease long period noise on horizontal components by up to 15dB. All stations send data in real time to the IPGP data center, which transmits them automatically to other data centers (FDSN/IRIS-DMC and RESIF) and tsunami warning centers. In 2016, three stations are expected to be installed or re-installed: in Western China (WUS station), in Saint Pierre and Miquelon Island (off the East coast of Canada) and in Walis and Futuna (SouthWest Pacific Ocean). The waveform data are technically validated by IPGP (25 stations) or EOST (6 stations) in order to check their continuity and integrity. Scientific data validation is also performed by analyzing seismic noise level of the continuous data and by comparing real and synthetic earthquake waveforms (body waves). After these validations, data are archived by the IPGP data center in Paris. They are made available to the international scientific community through different interfaces (see details on http://geoscope.ipgp.fr). Data are duplicated at the FDSN/IRIS-DMC data center and a similar duplication at the French national data center RESIF will be operational in 2016. The GEOSCOPE broadband seismic observatory also provides near-real time information on global moderate-to-large seismicity (above magnitude 5.5-6) through the automated application of the SCARDEC method (Vallée et al., 2011). By using global data from the FDSN - in particular from GEOSCOPE and IRIS/USGS stations -, earthquake source parameters (depth, moment magnitude, focal mechanism, source time function) are determined about 45

  16. The Malaysian Robotic Solar Observatory (P29)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, M.; Asillam, M. F.; Ismail, M. K. H.

    2006-11-01

    Robotic observatory with small telescopes can make significant contributions to astronomy observation. They provide an encouraging environment for astronomers to focus on data analysis and research while at the same time reducing time and cost for observation. The observatory will house the primary 50cm robotic telescope in the main dome which will be used for photometry, spectroscopy and astrometry observation activities. The secondary telescope is a robotic multi-apochromatic refractor (maximum diameter: 15 cm) which will be housed in the smaller dome. This telescope set will be used for solar observation mainly in three different wavelengths simultaneously: the Continuum, H-Alpha and Calcium K-line. The observatory is also equipped with an automated weather station, cloud & rain sensor and all-sky camera to monitor the climatic condition, sense the clouds (before raining) as well as to view real time sky view above the observatory. In conjunction with the Langkawi All-Sky Camera, the observatory website will also display images from the Malaysia - Antarctica All-Sky Camera used to monitor the sky at Scott Base Antarctica. Both all-sky images can be displayed simultaneously to show the difference between the equatorial and Antarctica skies. This paper will describe the Malaysian Robotic Observatory including the systems available and method of access by other astronomers. We will also suggest possible collaboration with other observatories in this region.

  17. The Little Thompson Observatory's Astronomy Education Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Andrea E.

    2007-12-01

    The Little Thompson Observatory is a community-built E/PO observatory and is a member of the Telescopes in Education (TIE) project. The observatory is located on the grounds of Berthoud High School in northern Colorado. Annually we have approximately 5,000 visitors, which is roughly equal to the population of the small town of Berthoud, CO. This past year, we have used the funding from our NASA ROSS E/PO grant to expand our teacher workshop programs, and included the baseball-sized meteorite that landed in Berthoud three years ago. Our teacher programs have involved scientists from the Southwest Research Institute and from Fiske Planetarium at CU-Boulder. We thank the NASA ROSS E/PO program for providing this funding! We also held a Colorado Project ASTRO-GEO workshop, and the observatory continues to make high-school astronomy courses available to students from the surrounding school districts. Statewide, this year we helped support the development and construction of three new educational observatories in Colorado, located in Estes Park, Keystone, and Gunnison. The LTO is grateful to have received the recently-retired 24-inch telescope from Mount Wilson Observatory as part of the TIE program. To provide a new home for this historic telescope, we have doubled the size of the observatory and are building a second dome (all with volunteer labor). During 2008 we plan to build a custom pier and refurbish the telescope.

  18. Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, P. C.; Allred, J. C.; Airapetian, V.; Gong, Q.; Mcintosh, S. W.; De Pontieu, B.; Fontenla, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO) sounding rocket will observe small-scale eruptive events called "Rapid Blue-shifted Events" (RBEs) [Rouppe van der Voort et al., 2009], the on-disk equivalent of Type-II spicules, and extend observations that explore their role in the solar coronal heating problem [De Pontieu et al., 2011]. LASO utilizes a new and novel optical design to simultaneously observe two spatial dimensions at 4.2" spatial resolution (2.1" pixels) over a 2'x2' field of view with high spectral resolution of 66mÅ (33mÅ pixels) across a broad 20Å spectral window. This spectral window contains three strong chromospheric and transition region emissions and is centered on the strong Hydrogen Lyman-α emission at 1216Å. This instrument makes it possible to obtain new data crucial to the physical understanding of these phenomena and their role in the overall energy and momentum balance from the upper chromosphere to lower corona. LASO was submitted March 2011 in response to the ROSES SHP-LCAS call.

  19. Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Allred, J.; Airapetian, V.; Gong, Q.; Fontenla, J.; McIntosh, S.; de Pontieu, B.

    2011-05-01

    The Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO) sounding rocket will observe small-scale eruptive events called "Rapid Blue-shifted Events” (RBEs), the on-disk equivalent of Type-II spicules, and extend observations that explore their role in the solar coronal heating problem. LASO utilizes a new and novel optical design to simultaneously observe two spatial dimensions at 4.2" spatial resolution (2.1” pixels) over a 2'x2' field of view with high spectral resolution of 66mÅ (33mÅ pixels) across a broad 20Å spectral window. This spectral window contains three strong chromospheric and transition region emissions and is centered on the strong Hydrogen Lyman-α emission at 1216Å. This instrument makes it possible to obtain new data crucial to the physical understanding of these phenomena and their role in the overall energy and momentum balance from the upper chromosphere to lower corona. LASO was submitted March 2011 in response to the ROSES SHP-LCAS call.

  20. Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2011-01-01

    The Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO) sounding rocket will observe smallscale eruptive events called "Rapid Blue-shifted Events" (RBEs) [Rouppe van der Voort et al., 2009], the on-disk equivalent of Type-II spicules, and extend observations that explore their role in the solar coronal heating problem [De Pontieu et al., 2011]. LASO utilizes a new and novel optical design to simultaneously observe two spatial dimensions at 4.2" spatial resolution (2.1" pixels) over a 2'x2' field of view with high spectral resolution of 66mAngstroms (33mAngstroms pixels) across a broad 20Angstrom spectral window. This spectral window contains three strong chromospheric and transition region emissions and is centered on the strong Hydrogen Lyman-a emission at 1216Angstroms. This instrument makes it possible to obtain new data crucial to the physical understanding of these phenomena and their role in the overall energy and momentum balance from the upper chromosphere to lower corona. LASO was submitted March 2011 in response to the ROSES SHP-LCAS call.

  1. Science and the Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowler, Patrick; Schade, David

    The Canadian Virtual Observatory (CVO) is the cornerstone of a budding international partnership that delivers high quality scientific content and capabilities to the astronomical community. We have developed a uniform astronomical data model to characterise all types of observational data across the entire electromagnetic spectrum; this model enables users to find archive data based on the content and the quality without letting the technology get in the way. We have also developed general purpose source and object catalogs to store information extracted from the data using standard techniques and algorithms. These catalogs are explorable with a variety of scientific tools from a web interface for simple tasks to a programmatic interface for sophisticated analysis involving client and server side processing. Finally all of the data processing and analysis tasks we have executed or will execute are viewable via our processing catalog; links between object and source catalogs processing catalogs and observation catalogs allow users to examine the complete pedigree of every single derived value. Thus the entire system is open to peer review which is the cornerstone of science.

  2. An Overview of the Performance of the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.; Aldcroft, T. L.; Bautz, M.; Cameron, R. A.; Dewey, D.; Drake, J. J.; Grant, C. E.; Marshall, H. L.; Murray, S. S.

    2004-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory is the X-ray component of NASA's Great Observatory Program which includes the recently launched Spitzer Infrared Telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for observations in the visible, and the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) which, after providing years of useful data has reentered the atmosphere. All these facilities provide, or provided, scientific data to the international astronomical community in response to peer-reviewed proposals for their use. The Chandra X-ray Observatory was the result of the efforts of many academic, commercial, and government organizations primarily in the United States but also in Europe. NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) manages the Project and provides Project Science; Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST - formerly TRW) served as prime contractor responsible for providing the spacecraft, the telescope, and assembling and testing the Observatory; and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) provides technical support and is responsible for ground operations including the Chandra X-ray Center (CXC). Telescope and instrument teams at SAO, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the Pennsylvania State University (PSU), the Space Research Institute of the Netherlands (SRON), the Max-Planck Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), and the University of Kiel support also provide technical support to the Chandra Project. We present here a detailed description of the hardware, its on-orbit performance, and a brief overview of some of the remarkable discoveries that illustrate that performance.

  3. SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy) with Telescope Configuration Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy) with Telescope Configuration Changes Artwork. Concepts: Based on 18 Years of Experience of Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) Operation, Characteristics, Operations and Science

  4. World Space Observatory Ultraviolet mission: status 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachkov, Mikhail; Shustov, Boris; Gómez de Castro, Ana Inés.

    2016-07-01

    The WSO-UV (World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet) project is intended to built and operate an international space observatory designed for observations in the UV (115 - 310 nm) range, where some of the most important astrophysical processes can be efficiently studied. It is the solution to the problem of future access to UV spectroscopy. Dedicated to spectroscopic and imaging observations of the ultraviolet sky, the World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet mission is a Russian-Spanish collaboration with potential Mexican minor contribution. This paper provides a summary on the project, its status and the major outcomes since the last SPIE meeting.

  5. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory as Cultural Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Farmanyan, S. V.

    2016-12-01

    NAS RA V. Ambartsumian Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory is presented as a cultural centre for Armenia and the Armenian nation in general. Besides being scientific and educational centre, the Observatory is famous for its unique architectural ensemble, rich botanical garden and world of birds, as well as it is one of the most frequently visited sightseeing of Armenia. In recent years, the Observatory has also taken the initiative of the coordination of the Cultural Astronomy in Armenia and in this field, unites the astronomers, historians, archaeologists, ethnographers, culturologists, literary critics, linguists, art historians and other experts.

  6. NASA Awards Chandra X-Ray Observatory Follow-On Contract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-08-01

    NASA has awarded a contract to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Mass., to provide science and operational support for the Chandra X-ray Observatory, one of the world's most powerful tools to better understand the structure and evolution of the universe. The contract will have a period of performance from August 31, 2003, through July 31, 2010, with an estimated value of 373 million. It is a follow-on contract to the existing contract with Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory that has provided science and operations support to the Observatory since its launch in July 1999. At launch the intended mission life was five years. As a result of Chandra's success, NASA extended the mission from five to 10 years. The value of the original contract was 289 million. The follow-on contract with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory will continue through the 10-year mission. The contract type is cost reimbursement with no fee. The contract covers mission operations and data analysis, which includes the observatory operations, science data processing and the general and guaranteed time observer (astronomer) support. The observatory operations tasks include monitoring the health and status of the observatory and developing and up linking the observation sequences during Chandra's communication coverage periods. The science data processing tasks include the competitive selection, planning, and coordination of science observations with the general observers and processing and delivery of the resulting scientific data. There are approximately 200 to 250 observing proposals selected annually out of about 800 submitted, with a total amount of observing time of about 20 million seconds. Chandra has exceeded expectations of scientists, giving them unique insight into phenomena light years away, such as exotic celestial objects, matter falling into black holes, and stellar explosions. X-ray astronomy can only be performed from space because Earth's atmosphere

  7. Whither the Great Books?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casement, William

    2002-01-01

    The decades since the 1960s have been unfortunate in many respects for American higher education, but things are not uniformly bleak. Here and there, the study of Great Books persists. The general picture that is available, then, of the health of great-books study in colleges today is mixed. High-visibility news stories, along with curriculum…

  8. Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ron

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology…

  9. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  10. The Next Great Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, K. V.

    2007-12-01

    value of systems-level thinking, and it makes good sense to make this the essential mantra of Earth science undergraduate and graduate programs of the future. We must emphasize that Earth science plays a central role in understanding processes that have shaped our planet since the origin of our species, processes that have thus influenced the rise and fall of human societies. By studying the co-evolution of Earth and human societies, we lay a critical part of the foundation for future environmental policymaking. If we can make this point persuasively, Earth science might just be the "next great science".

  11. Were megalithic tombs solar observatories?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänel, Andreas

    The orientations of the entrances of several hundred neolithic tombs in Northwest Germany, the Netherlands, Bretagne (Brittany) and the eastern Pyrenees (Roussillon and Catalunya) have been measured with a compass. Comparing these measurements with other authors, we could determine systematic errors and combine the measurements. The results are presented as polar coordinate histograms. The passage graves of Northwest Germany and the Netherlands are oriented east-west. For some of the tombs, entrances are preserved always on the southern side. We assume therefore, that all tombs had entrances on the southern side and we conclude that they are mainly oriented to the south, the direction where celestial objects, and especially the sun, reach their highest position in the sky. Similar results were found by Hamel (1985) for tombs in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The tombs in Brittany show a different orientation to the southeast, the azimuth of the rising sun on winter solstice. Tombs in the eastern Pyrenees have a similar orientation, as has also been found by other authors for several regions in southern France and the Iberian peninsula (Iund 2002, Chevalier 1999, Hoskin 2002). But in the eastern Pyrenees and from there north to the Provence and on the Balearic Islands exists a group of tombs that are oriented towards the southwest, where the winter sun sets (Chevalier 1999). But most of the entrances of the tombs are oriented towards the sun. The tombs certainly were no precise astronomical observatories, but their orientations might have had a ritual reason and the course of the sun in the sky was well known at that time.

  12. Interoperability of Heliophysics Virtual Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieman, J.; Roberts, A.; King, T.; King, J.; Harvey, C.

    2008-01-01

    If you'd like to find interrelated heliophysics (also known as space and solar physics) data for a research project that spans, for example, magnetic field data and charged particle data from multiple satellites located near a given place and at approximately the same time, how easy is this to do? There are probably hundreds of data sets scattered in archives around the world that might be relevant. Is there an optimal way to search these archives and find what you want? There are a number of virtual observatories (VOs) now in existence that maintain knowledge of the data available in subdisciplines of heliophysics. The data may be widely scattered among various data centers, but the VOs have knowledge of what is available and how to get to it. The problem is that research projects might require data from a number of subdisciplines. Is there a way to search multiple VOs at once and obtain what is needed quickly? To do this requires a common way of describing the data such that a search using a common term will find all data that relate to the common term. This common language is contained within a data model developed for all of heliophysics and known as the SPASE (Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) Data Model. NASA has funded the main part of the development of SPASE but other groups have put resources into it as well. How well is this working? We will review the use of SPASE and how well the goal of locating and retrieving data within the heliophysics community is being achieved. Can the VOs truly be made interoperable despite being developed by so many diverse groups?

  13. The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesnell, W. Dean; Thompson, B. J.; Chamberlin, P. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) was launched on 11 February 2010 at 15:23 UT from Kennedy Space Center aboard an Atlas V 401 (AV-021) launch vehicle. A series of apogee-motor firings lifted SDO from an initial geosynchronous transfer orbit into a circular geosynchronous orbit inclined by 28° about the longitude of the SDO-dedicated ground station in New Mexico. SDO began returning science data on 1 May 2010. SDO is the first space-weather mission in NASA’s Living With a Star (LWS) Program. SDO’s main goal is to understand, driving toward a predictive capability, those solar variations that influence life on Earth and humanity’s technological systems. The SDO science investigations will determine how the Sun’s magnetic field is generated and structured, how this stored magnetic energy is released into the heliosphere and geospace as the solar wind, energetic particles, and variations in the solar irradiance. Insights gained from SDO investigations will also lead to an increased understanding of the role that solar variability plays in changes in Earth’s atmospheric chemistry and climate. The SDO mission includes three scientific investigations (the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE), and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI)), a spacecraft bus, and a dedicated ground station to handle the telemetry. The Goddard Space Flight Center built and will operate the spacecraft during its planned five-year mission life; this includes: commanding the spacecraft, receiving the science data, and forwarding that data to the science teams. The science investigations teams at Stanford University, Lockheed Martin Solar Astrophysics Laboratory (LMSAL), and University of Colorado Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) will process, analyze, distribute, and archive the science data. We will describe the building of SDO and the science that it will provide to NASA.

  14. The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Ford, Linda A.; Fernanda Zambrano Marin, Luisa; Aponte Hernandez, Betzaida; Soto, Sujeily; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.

    2016-10-01

    The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy (AOSA) is an intense fifteen-week pre-college research program for qualified high school students residing in Puerto Rico, which includes ten days for hands-on, on site research activities. Our mission is to prepare students for their professional careers by allowing them to receive an independent and collaborative research experience on topics related to the multidisciplinary field of space science. Our objectives are to (1) supplement the student's STEM education via inquiry-based learning and indirect teaching methods, (2) immerse students in an ESL environment, further developing their verbal and written presentation skills, and (3) foster in every student an interest in the STEM fields by harnessing their natural curiosity and knowledge in order to further develop their critical thinking and investigation skills. Students interested in participating in the program go through an application, interview and trial period before being offered admission. They are welcomed as candidates the first weeks, and later become cadets while experiencing designing, proposing, and conducting research projects focusing in fields like Physics, Astronomy, Geology, Chemistry, and Engineering. Each individual is evaluated with program compatibility based on peer interaction, preparation, participation, and contribution to class, group dynamics, attitude, challenges, and inquiry. This helps to ensure that specialized attention can be given to students who demonstrate a dedication and desire to learn. Deciding how to proceed in the face of setbacks and unexpected problems is central to the learning experience. At the end of the semester, students present their research to the program mentors, peers, and scientific staff. This year, AOSA students also focused on science communication and were trained by NASA's FameLab. Students additionally presented their research at this year's International Space Development Conference (ISDC), which was held in

  15. The SIM Lite Astrometric Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.

    2009-05-01

    SIM Lite is an observatory mission dedicated to precision astrometry. With a single measurement accuracy of 1 microarcsecond (µas) and a noise floor below 0.035 µas it will have the capability to do an extensive search for Earth-mass planets in the `habitable zone’ around several dozen of the nearest stars. SIM Lite maintains its wide-angle accuracy of 4 µas for all targets down to V = 19, limited only by observing time. This opens up a wide array of astrophysical problems. As a flexibly pointed instrument, it is a natural complement to sky surveys such as JMAPS and Gaia, and will tackle questions that don't require the acquisition of statistics on a large number of targets. It will provide accurate masses for the first time for a variety of exotic star types, including X-ray binaries; it will study the structure and evolution of our Galaxy through tidal streams from dwarf spheroidals and the trajectories of halo stars and galaxies. Its faint-target capability will enable the use of astrometric and photometric variability as a probe of the disk accretion and jet formation processes in blazars. SIM Lite will have an extensive GO (General Observer) program, open to all categories of astrometric science. The project successfully completed a series of technology milestones in 2005, and is currently under study by by NASA as a flight mission. The research described in this talk was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  16. The Extreme Universe Space Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Jim; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This talk will describe the Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) mission. EUSO is an ESA mission to explore the most powerful energy sources in the universe. The mission objectives of EUSO are to investigate EECRs, those with energies above 3x10(exp 19) eV, and very high-energy cosmic neutrinos. These objectives are directly related to extreme conditions in the physical world and possibly involve the early history of the big bang and the framework of GUTs. EUSO tackles the basic problem posed by the existence of these extreme-energy events. The solution could have a unique impact on fundamental physics, cosmology, and/or astrophysics. At these energies, magnetic deflection is thought to be so small that the EECR component would serve as the particle channel for astronomy. EUSO will make the first measurements of EAS from space by observing atmospheric fluorescence in the Earth's night sky. With measurements of the airshower track, EUSO will determine the energy and arrival direction of these extreme-energy events. EUSO will make high statistics observations of CRs beyond the predicted GZK cutoff energy and widen the channel for high-energy neutrino astronomy. The energy spectra, arrival directions, and shower profiles will be analyzed to distinguish the nature of these events and search for their sources. With EUSO data, we will have the possibility to discover a local EECR source, test Z-burst scenarios and other theories, and look for evidence of the breakdown of the relativity principle at extreme Lorentz factors.

  17. Atmospheric aerosols from Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Zoller, W.H.; Holmes, J.L. )

    1993-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have been collected for chemical analysis at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii since 1979. The samples were collected in two wind quadrants, a clean [open quotes]down-slope[close quotes] quadrant and a more contaminated [open quotes]up-slope[close quotes] quadrant. Some of the findings of this work have been the identification of Asian dust traveling to the Hawaiian Islands every spring of the year, and this dust dominates the yearly record because it is very intense and contains predominantly crustal dust along with pollutants from the Asian mainland, such as coal combustion in China. Additional interpretation of the data set of weekly samples has shown the presence of pollutants from both North and South America as well as different areas of Asia that are transported by wind systems to the central Pacific Ocean. By subtracting these episodic transport events, one can look at the oceanic background aerosols that are originating from the ocean and look at the occurrence of the natural aerosol generating systems in the oceanic region that are related to climatic change. One of the important groups of elements are the sulfur and halogen families and the naturally occurring volatile elements (selenium, arsenic, antimony, etc.) that are produced by biogenic activity in the world's oceans and affect the chemistry of the atmosphere, particularly clouds in remote marine areas. Investigations such as this work allow one to evaluate the importance of natural versus anthropogenic sources of the volatile elements to the atmosphere, allowing us to have a much better understanding of man's impact on climate. The nuclear analytical techniques are particularly well suited to this type of sample because it consists of aerosols deposited on a clean Teflon or cellulose substrate, which normally offers very little interference with the analysis.

  18. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Image of a Massive Star Explosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory has captured this spectacular image of G292.0+1.8, a young, oxygen-rich supernova remnant with a pulsar at its center surrounded by outflowing material. This image shows a rapidly expanding shell of gas that is 36 light-years across and contains large amounts of elements such as oxygen, neon, magnesium, silicon and sulfur. Embedded in this cloud of multimillion-degree gas is a key piece of evidence linking neutron stars and supernovae produced by the collapse of massive stars. With an age estimated at 1,600 years, G292.0+1.8 is one of three known oxygen-rich supernovae in our galaxy. These supernovae are of great interest to astronomers because they are one of the primary sources of the heavy elements necessary to form planets and people. Scattered through the image are bluish knots of emissions containing material that is highly enriched in newly created oxygen, neon, and magnesium produced deep within the original star and ejected by the supernova explosion.

  19. Pro-Amateur Observatories as a Significant Resource for Professional Astronomers - Taurus Hill Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haukka, H.; Hentunen, V.-P.; Nissinen, M.; Salmi, T.; Aartolahti, H.; Juutilainen, J.; Vilokki, H.

    2013-09-01

    Taurus Hill Observatory (THO), observatory code A95, is an amateur observatory located in Varkaus, Finland. The observatory is maintained by the local astronomical association of Warkauden Kassiopeia [8]. THO research team has observed and measured various stellar objects and phenomena. Observatory has mainly focuse d on asteroid [1] and exoplanet light curve measurements, observing the gamma rays burst, supernova discoveries and monitoring [2]. We also do long term monitoring projects [3]. THO research team has presented its research work on previous EPSC meetings ([4], [5],[6], [7]) and got very supportive reactions from the European planetary science community. The results and publications that pro-amateur based observatories, like THO, have contributed, clearly demonstrates that pro-amateurs area significant resource for the professional astronomers now and even more in the future.

  20. In Brief: Deep-sea observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-11-01

    The first deep-sea ocean observatory offshore of the continental United States has begun operating in the waters off central California. The remotely operated Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) will allow scientists to monitor the deep sea continuously. Among the first devices to be hooked up to the observatory are instruments to monitor earthquakes, videotape deep-sea animals, and study the effects of acidification on seafloor animals. ``Some day we may look back at the first packets of data streaming in from the MARS observatory as the equivalent of those first words spoken by Alexander Graham Bell: `Watson, come here, I need you!','' commented Marcia McNutt, president and CEO of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, which coordinated construction of the observatory. For more information, see http://www.mbari.org/news/news_releases/2008/mars-live/mars-live.html.

  1. Virtual Observatories: Are We Virtually There Yet?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurman, J. B.

    2004-01-01

    Virtual observatories are tools for simplifying access to and use of astronomical data from an increasing number of data sources of rapidly growing volume. Now that a variety of virtual observatory development efforts are under way around the world, a cursory review of the efforts outside solar physics, and an only slightly more detailed consideration of those within, demonstrates a commonality of conceptual model if not of approach or application. The linkages among virtual observatories optimized for different scientific communities present an interesting challenge to the designers: should virtual observatories be designed for the most expert users? For the least? For everyone? It is too early to provide definitive answers, but examination of current efforts does offer some clues.

  2. Observing at Kitt Peak National Observatory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Martin

    1981-01-01

    Presents an abridged version of a chapter from the author's book "In Quest of Telescopes." Includes personal experiences at Kitt Peak National Observatory, and comments on telescopes, photographs, and making observations. (SK)

  3. Astronomical research at the Hopkins Phoenix Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    After trying astrophotography and radio astronomy it was decided that the best way to do meaningful astronomical research at a small private observatory was by doing photoelectric photometry. Having the observatory located in the back yard of a private residence affors the luxury of observing any time the sky conditions permit. Also modest equipment is all that is needed to do accurate UBV photometry of stars 8th magnitude and brighter. Since beginning in 1980 the Hopkins Phoenix Observatory has published papers on several RS CVn star systems, 31 Cygni, 22 Vul, 18 Tau Per, and has followed the 1982-1984 eclipse of Epsilon Aurigae from its start to the present with over 1000 UBV measurements. In addition the Hopkins Phoenix Observatory has developed several pieces of photometry equipment including the HPO PEPH-101 photometer head and photon counting electronics.

  4. Series of disasters strikes Peruvian Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Jim

    A midday blaze severely damaged the Geophysical Observatory at Huancayo, Peru, high in the Andes above Lima on August 28, 1996. The fire, which started accidentally, was one of a series of misfortunes suffered by the Peruvian Geophysical Institute (IGP) in recent years.The observatory, which was built in 1919 by the Carnegie Institution of Washington, is a 4-hour drive by bus from the Pacific coast between cosmopolitan Lima and the Amazonian lowlands. From the late 1980s until 1992, the observatory was isolated from the international community due to political developments in Peru, namely the Maoist Communist insurrection known as Sendero Luminoso. The turmoil resulted in the loss of nearly all cooperative contracts with American universities for research at Huancayo. IGP did maintain a few contracts, such as one with Cornell for the Radio Observatory at Jicamarca in the northern part of the country.

  5. HAWC: The high altitude water Cherenkov observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Jordan A.

    2013-02-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC) is currently being deployed at 4100m above sea level on the Vulcan Sierra Negra near Puebla, Mexico. The HAWC observatory will consist of 250-300 Water Cherenkov Detectors totaling approximately 22,000 m2 of instrumented area. The water Cherenkov technique allows HAWC to have a nearly 100% duty cycle and large field of view, making the HAWC observatory an ideal instrument for the study of transient phenomena. With its large effective area, excellent angular and energy resolutions, and efficient gamma-hadron separation, HAWC will survey the TeV gamma-ray sky, measure spectra of galactic sources from 1 TeV to beyond 100 TeV, and map galactic diffuse gamma ray emission. The science goals, instrument performance and status of the HAWC observatory will be presented.

  6. SOFIA Observatory Conducts Night Checkout Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    This spectacular video captures NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy as it flew a nighttime checkout flight over northern and central California the first week of March 2013. The...

  7. The Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith. M. W. E.; Fox, D. B.; Cowen, D. F.; Meszaros, P.; Tesic, G.; Fixelle, J.; Bartos, I.; Sommers, P.; Ashtekar, Abhay; Babu, G. Jogesh; Barthelmy, S. D.; Coutu, S.; DeYoung, T.; Falcone, A. D.; Gao, Shan; Hashemi, B.; Homeier, A.; Marka, S.; Owen, B. J.; Taboada, I.

    2013-01-01

    We summarize the science opportunity, design elements, current and projected partner observatories, and anticipated science returns of the Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON). AMON will link multiple current and future high-energy, multimessenger, and follow-up observatories together into a single network, enabling near real-time coincidence searches for multimessenger astrophysical transients and their electromagnetic counterparts. Candidate and high-confidence multimessenger transient events will be identified, characterized, and distributed as AMON alerts within the network and to interested external observers, leading to follow-up observations across the electromagnetic spectrum. In this way, AMON aims to evoke the discovery of multimessenger transients from within observatory subthreshold data streams and facilitate the exploitation of these transients for purposes of astronomy and fundamental physics. As a central hub of global multimessenger science, AMON will also enable cross-collaboration analyses of archival datasets in search of rare or exotic astrophysical phenomena.

  8. Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    CTIO is operated by the ASSOCIATION OF UNIVERSITIES FOR RESEARCH IN ASTRONOMY Inc. (AURA), under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation as part of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories....

  9. Annals of Shanghai Observatory, Academia Sinica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cheng; Jiang, Dong-Rong; Li, Zhi-Fang; Wan, Ning-Shan; Wang, Lan-Juan; Wang, Jia-Ji; Jiang, Xiao-Yuan; Zhu, Neng-Hong; Xu, Hua-Guan; Li, Zhi-Fang; Yan, Hao-Jian; Jin, Wen-Jing; Zheng, Da-Wei; Liang, Shi-Guang; Huang, Cheng; Fu, Cheng-Qi; Zhai, Zao-Cheng; Tan, De-Tong

    1996-01-01

    This is a report of scientific researches at Shanghai Observatory. Topics presented include achievements in the fields of astro-geodynamics, astrophysics, time and frequency, and development of astronomical instrumentation.

  10. Asteroid Photometry from the Preston Gott Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Maurice

    2013-07-01

    Asteroid period and amplitude results obtained at the Preston Gott Observatory are presented for six asteroids observed in 2012: 271 Penthesilea, 3872 Akirafujii, 5953 Shelton, 8077 Hoyle, 8417 Lancetaylor, and (46436) 2002 LH5.

  11. Asteroid Lightcurves from the Preston Gott Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Maurice

    2012-04-01

    Results of analysis of CCD photometry observations obtained at the Preston Gott Observatory of asteroids 970 Primula, 3015 Candy, 3751 Kiang, 6746 Zagar, 7750 McEwen, 10046 Creighton, and 19251 Totziens are presented.

  12. Asteroid Lightcurves from the Chiro Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Maurice

    2008-06-01

    Asteroid period and amplitude results obtained at the Chiro Observatory in Western Australia are presented for asteroids 3885 Bogorodskij, 4554 Fanynka, 7169 Linda, 7186 Tomioka, (9928) 1981 WE9, (24391) 2000 AU178, and (43203) 2000 AV70.

  13. Renewable Energy for the Paranal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weilenmann, U.

    2012-06-01

    The operation of observatories at remote sites presents significant demands for electrical energy. The use of renewable energy may become the solution to cope with the ever-rising prices for electrical energy produced from fossil fuels. There is not only a purely commercial aspect, but also the carbon footprint of observatory activities has to be considered. As a first step on the way to a "greener" Paranal Observatory, we propose the installation of a solar cooling system for the cooling of the telescope enclosures, using the abundant insolation that is freely available in the north of Chile. Further into the future, feasible options for photovoltaic and wind energy could supply the needs of the Paranal Observatory in a sustainable manner.

  14. Astronomical observatories of the Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, Dmitrii Nikolaevich

    Various types of astronomical instruments are described, including optical telescopes, radio telescopes, and radiation detectors. Soviet ground-based astronomical observatories are described as well as those aboard satellites and space stations.

  15. The Eastern Region Public Health Observatory.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kerri

    2014-06-03

    The Eastern Region Public Health Observatory (ERPHO) became part of Public Health England on April 1 2013. Its website provides population health data, analysis and interpretation to support healthcare professionals in commissioning, prioritising and improving health outcomes.

  16. The Baker Observatory Robotic Autonomous Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Mike D.; Thompson, Matthew A.; Hicks, L. L.; Baran, A. S.

    2011-03-01

    The objective of our project is to have an autonomous observatory to obtain long duration time-series observations of pulsating stars. Budget constraints dictate an inexpensive facility. In this paper, we discuss our solution.

  17. Exploring the Digital Universe with Europe's Astrophysical Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    digitally reconstructed in the databanks! The richness and complexity of data and information available to the astronomers is overwhelming. This has created a major problem as to how astronomers can manage, distribute and analyse this great wealth of data . The Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (AVO) will allow astronomers to overcome the challenges and enable them to "put the Universe online". AVO is supported by the European Commission The AVO is a three-year project, funded by the European Commission under its Research and Technological Development (RTD) scheme, to design and implement a virtual observatory for the European astronomical community. The European Commission awarded a contract valued at 4 million Euro for the AVO project , starting 15 November 2001. AVO will provide software tools to enable astronomers to access the multi-wavelength data archives over the Internet and so give them the capability to resolve fundamental questions about the Universe by probing the digital sky. Equivalent searches of the 'real' sky would, in comparison, be both costly and take far too long. Towards a Global Virtual Observatory The need for virtual observatories has also been recognised by other astronomical communities. The National Science Foundation in the USA has awarded 10 million Dollar (approx. 11.4 million Euro) for a National Virtual Observatory (NVO). The AVO project team has formed a close alliance with the NVO and both teams have representatives on their respective committees. It is clear to the NVO and AVO communities that there are no intrinsic boundaries to the virtual observatory concept and that all astronomers should be working towards a truly global virtual observatory that will enable new science to be carried out on the wealth of astronomical data held in the growing number of first class international astronomical archives. The AVO involves six partner organisations led by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Munich (Germany). The other partner

  18. SOFIA: Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, E. F.; Davidson, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    SOFIA, (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) is a planned 2.5 meter telescope to be installed in a Boeing 747 aircraft and operated at altitudes from 41,000 to 46,000 feet. It will permit routine measurement of infrared radiation inaccessible from the ground-based sites, and observation of astronomical objects and transient events from anywhere in the world. The concept is based on 18 years of experience with NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), which SOFIA would replace.

  19. Power systems for ocean regional cabled observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Junichi; Asakawa, Kenichi; Howe, Bruce M.; Kirkham, Harold

    2004-01-01

    Development of power systems is the most challenging technical issue in the design of ocean regional cabled observatories. ARENA and NEPTUNE are two ocean regional cabled observatory networks with aims that are at least broadly similar. Yet the two designs are quite different in detail. This paper outlines the both systems and explores the reasons for the divergence of design, and shows that it arose because of differences in the priority of requirements.

  20. Information Hub of the Russian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, Oleg; Dluzhnevskaya, Olga; Kilpio, Elena; Kilpio, Alexander; Kovaleva, Dana

    The ultimate goal of the Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO) initiative is to provide every astronomer with on-line access to the rich volumes of data and metadata that have been and will continue to be produced by astronomical survey projects. The information hub of the RVO has a main goal of integrating resources of astronomical data accumulated in Russian observatories and institutions, and providing transparent access for scientific and educational purposes to the distributed information and data services that comprise its content.

  1. A Green Robotic Observatory for Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Archer, K.

    2008-09-01

    With the development of robotic telescopes and stable remote observing software, it is currently possible for a small institution to have an affordable astronomical facility for astronomy education. However, a faculty member has to deal with the light pollution (observatory location on campus), its nightly operations and regular maintenance apart from his day time teaching and research responsibilities. While building an observatory at a remote location is a solution, the cost of constructing and operating such a facility, not to mention the environmental impact, are beyond the reach of most institutions. In an effort to resolve these issues we have developed a robotic remote observatory that can be operated via the internet from anywhere in the world, has a zero operating carbon footprint and minimum impact on the local environment. The prototype observatory is a clam-shell design that houses an 8-inch telescope with a SBIG ST-10 CCD detector. The brain of the observatory is a low draw 12-volt harsh duty computer that runs the dome, telescope, CCD camera, focuser, and weather monitoring. All equipment runs of a 12-volt AGM-style battery that has low lead content and hence more environmental-friendly to dispose. The total power of 12-14 amp/hrs is generated from a set of solar panels that are large enough to maintain a full battery charge for several cloudy days. This completely eliminates the need for a local power grid for operations. Internet access is accomplished via a high-speed cell phone broadband connection or satellite link eliminating the need for a phone network. An independent observatory monitoring system interfaces with the observatory computer during operation. The observatory converts to a trailer for transportation to the site and is converted to a semi-permanent building without wheels and towing equipment. This ensures minimal disturbance to local environment.

  2. Tonantzintla's Observatory Astronomy Teaching Laboratory project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfias, F.; Bernal, A.; Martínez, L. A.; Sánchez, L.; Hernández, H.; Langarica, R.; Iriarte, A.; Peña, J. H.; Tinoco, S.; Ángeles, F.

    2008-07-01

    In the last two years the National Observatory at Tonantzintla Puebla, México (OAN Tonantzintla), has been undergoing several facilities upgrades in order to bring to the observatory suitable conditions to operate as a modern Observational Astronomy Teaching Laboratory. In this paper, we present the management, requirement definition and project advances. We made a quantitative diagnosis about of the functionality of the Tonantzintla Observatory (mainly based in the 1m f/15 telescope) to take aim to educational objectives. Through this project we are taking the steps to correct, to actualize and to optimize the observatory astronomical instrumentation according to modern techniques of observation. We present the design and the first actions in order to get a better and efficient use of the main astronomical instrumentation, as well as, the telescope itself, for the undergraduate, postgraduate levels Observacional Astronomy students and outreach publics programs for elementary school. The project includes the development of software and hardware components based in as a common framework for the project management. The Observatory is located at 150 km away from the headquarters at the Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (IAUNAM), and one of the goals is use this infrastructure for a Remote Observatory System.

  3. Observatories of Sawai Jai Singh II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson-Roehr, Susan N.

    Sawai Jai Singh II, Maharaja of Amber and Jaipur, constructed five observatories in the second quarter of the eighteenth century in the north Indian cities of Shahjahanabad (Delhi), Jaipur, Ujjain, Mathura, and Varanasi. Believing the accuracy of his naked-eye observations would improve with larger, more stable instruments, Jai Singh reengineered common brass instruments using stone construction methods. His applied ingenuity led to the invention of several outsize masonry instruments, the majority of which were used to determine the coordinates of celestial objects with reference to the local horizon. During Jai Singh's lifetime, the observatories were used to make observations in order to update existing ephemerides such as the Zīj-i Ulugh Begī. Jai Singh established communications with European astronomers through a number of Jesuits living and working in India. In addition to dispatching ambassadorial parties to Portugal, he invited French and Bavarian Jesuits to visit and make use of the observatories in Shahjahanabad and Jaipur. The observatories were abandoned after Jai Singh's death in 1743 CE. The Mathura observatory was disassembled completely before 1857. The instruments at the remaining observatories were restored extensively during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

  4. Gemini Observatory base facility operations: systems engineering process and lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serio, Andrew; Cordova, Martin; Arriagada, Gustavo; Adamson, Andy; Close, Madeline; Coulson, Dolores; Nitta, Atsuko; Nunez, Arturo

    2016-08-01

    Gemini North Observatory successfully began nighttime remote operations from the Hilo Base Facility control room in November 2015. The implementation of the Gemini North Base Facility Operations (BFO) products was a great learning experience for many of our employees, including the author of this paper, the BFO Systems Engineer. In this paper we focus on the tailored Systems Engineering processes used for the project, the various software tools used in project support, and finally discuss the lessons learned from the Gemini North implementation. This experience and the lessons learned will be used both to aid our implementation of the Gemini South BFO in 2016, and in future technical projects at Gemini Observatory.

  5. The Chandra X-ray Observatory: An Astronomical Facility Available to the World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Randall K.

    2006-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray observatory, one of NASA's "Great Observatories," provides high angular and spectral resolution X-ray data which is freely available to all. In this review I describe the instruments on chandra along with their current calibration, as well as the chandra proposal system, the freely-available Chandra analysis software package CIAO, and the Chandra archive. As Chandra is in its 6th year of operation, the archive already contains calibrated observations of a large range of X-ray sources. The Chandra X-ray Center is committed to assisting astronomers from any country who wish to use data from the archive or propose for observations

  6. "Route of astronomical observatories'' project: classical observatories from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    2015-08-01

    Observatories offer a good possibility for serial transnational applications. A well-known example for a thematic programme is the Struve arc, already recognized as World Heritage.I will discuss what has been achieved and show examples, like the route of astronomical observatories or the transition from classical astronomy to modern astrophysics (La Plata, Hamburg, Nice, etc.), visible in the architecture, the choice of instruments, and the arrangement of the observatory buildings in an astronomy park. This corresponds to the main categories according to which the ``outstanding universal value'' (UNESCO criteria ii, iv and vi) of the observatories have been evaluated: historic, scientific, and aesthetic. This proposal is based on the criteria of a comparability of the observatories in terms of the urbanistic complex and the architecture, the scientific orientation, equipment of instruments, authenticity and integrity of the preserved state, as well as in terms of historic scientific relations and scientific contributions.Apart from these serial transnational applications one can also choose other groups like baroque or neo-classical observatories, solar physics observatories or a group of observatories equipped with the same kind of instruments and made by the same famous firm. I will also discuss why the implementation of the Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative is difficult and why there are problems to nominate observatories for election in the national Tentative Lists

  7. Great Barrier Reef

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Australia's Great Barrier Reef     View Larger Image ... reef, but a vast maze of reefs, passages, and coral cays (islands that are part of the reef). This nadir true-color image was acquired by ...

  8. The Little Thompson Observatory's Astronomy Education Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Andrea E.

    2008-05-01

    The Little Thompson Observatory is a community-built E/PO observatory and is a member of the Telescopes in Education (TIE) project. The observatory is located on the grounds of Berthoud High School in northern Colorado. Annually we have approximately 5,000 visitors, which is roughly equal to the population of the small town of Berthoud, CO. In spring 2008, we offered a special training session to boost participation in the GLOBE at Night international observing program. During 2005-2007 we used the funding from our NASA ROSS E/PO grant to expand our teacher workshop programs, and included the baseball-sized meteorite that landed in Berthoud four years ago. Our teacher programs are ongoing, and include scientists from the Southwest Research Institute and from Fiske Planetarium at CU-Boulder. We thank the NASA ROSS E/PO program for providing this funding! Statewide, we are a founding member of Colorado Project ASTRO-GEO, and the observatory offers high-school astronomy courses to students from the surrounding school districts. We continue to support the development and construction of three new educational observatories in Colorado, located in Estes Park, Keystone and Gunnison. The LTO is grateful to have received the retired 24-inch telescope from Mount Wilson Observatory as part of the TIE program. To provide a new home for this historic telescope, we have doubled the size of the observatory and are building a second dome (almost all construction done with volunteer labor). During 2008 we will be building a custom pier and refurbishing the telescope.

  9. Big Bang Day : The Great Big Particle Adventure - 3. Origins

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    In this series, comedian and physicist Ben Miller asks the CERN scientists what they hope to find. If the LHC is successful, it will explain the nature of the Universe around us in terms of a few simple ingredients and a few simple rules. But the Universe now was forged in a Big Bang where conditions were very different, and the rules were very different, and those early moments were crucial to determining how things turned out later. At the LHC they can recreate conditions as they were billionths of a second after the Big Bang, before atoms and nuclei existed. They can find out why matter and antimatter didn't mutually annihilate each other to leave behind a Universe of pure, brilliant light. And they can look into the very structure of space and time - the fabric of the Universe

  10. Big Bang Day : The Great Big Particle Adventure - 3. Origins

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-13

    In this series, comedian and physicist Ben Miller asks the CERN scientists what they hope to find. If the LHC is successful, it will explain the nature of the Universe around us in terms of a few simple ingredients and a few simple rules. But the Universe now was forged in a Big Bang where conditions were very different, and the rules were very different, and those early moments were crucial to determining how things turned out later. At the LHC they can recreate conditions as they were billionths of a second after the Big Bang, before atoms and nuclei existed. They can find out why matter and antimatter didn't mutually annihilate each other to leave behind a Universe of pure, brilliant light. And they can look into the very structure of space and time - the fabric of the Universe

  11. Sylvester II Bukowiec Observatory: a "piece de theatre" for the inauguration day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksym, P. M.

    The 21st of May 2010 has been the day of inauguration of the Astronomical Observatory of Bukowiec "Pope Sylvester II". This observatory, a fixed station of the European network of asteroidal and lunar occultations for high resolution astrometry, is built in the territory of the school dedicated to Nicolas Copernicus, the most famous polish astronomer. This new observatory starts its activity in the international year of astronomy, which celebrates the 400th anniversary of the astronomical use of the telescope by Galileo Galilei. The polish astronomer Bohdan Paczy?ski is the fourth protagonist of the pièce théatrale written for the day of inauguration. Here is reported the text of this pièce, which was a powerful way to introduce people to the knowledge of Sylvester II, great scholar and teacher of the 10th century, who founded the first diocesis in Poland when he was Pope.

  12. Simon Newcomb, America’s First Great Astronomer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    46 February 2009 Physics Today © 2009 American Institute of Physics, S-0031-9228-0902-030-4 In 1854, at age 19, Simon Newcomb stood outside the...powerful friend in Congress, Newcomb soon found himself selected to lead the highly visible and costly Simon Newcomb, America’s first great astronomer...His daugh- ter, Merri Sue Carter, is an astronomer at the US Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, Arizona. Figure 1. Simon Newcomb circa 1871, the

  13. 195-year history of Mykolayiv Observatory: events and people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulga, O. V.; Yanishevska, L. M.

    2017-02-01

    The basic stages of the history of the Mykolaiv Astronomical Observatory are shown. The main results of the Observatory activities are presented by the catalogs of star positions, major and minor planets in the Solar system, space objects in the Earth orbit. The information on the qualitative and quantitative structure of the Observatory, cooperation with the observatories of Ukraine and foreign countries as well as major projects carried out in the Observatory is provided.

  14. Description of atmospheric conditions at the Pierre Auger Observatory using the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antiči'C, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badescu, A. M.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bäuml, J.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos Diaz, J.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Domenico, M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Del Peral, L.; Del Río, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; di Giulio, C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Fajardo Tapia, I.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Guzman, A.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lahurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Mi'Canovi'C, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H. H.; Sima, O.; 'Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcău, O.; Tavera Ruiz, C. G.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Varela, E.; Vargascárdenas, B.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric conditions at the site of a cosmic ray observatory must be known for reconstructing observed extensive air showers. The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) is a global atmospheric model predicated on meteorological measurements and numerical weather predictions. GDAS provides altitude-dependent profiles of the main state variables of the atmosphere like temperature, pressure, and humidity. The original data and their application to the air shower reconstruction of the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. By comparisons with radiosonde and weather station measurements obtained on-site in Malargüe and averaged monthly models, the utility of the GDAS data is shown.

  15. Description of Atmospheric Conditions at the Pierre Auger Observatory using the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U., ICN /Santiago de Compostela U.

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric conditions at the site of a cosmic ray observatory must be known for reconstructing observed extensive air showers. The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) is a global atmospheric model predicated on meteorological measurements and numerical weather predictions. GDAS provides altitude-dependent profiles of the main state variables of the atmosphere like temperature, pressure, and humidity. The original data and their application to the air shower reconstruction of the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. By comparisons with radiosonde and weather station measurements obtained on-site in Malargue and averaged monthly models, the utility of the GDAS data is shown.

  16. Plate Boundary Observatory in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Tsai, C.

    2003-12-01

    The island of Taiwan is situated in the plate boundary zone between the Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plates. The Philippine Sea plate is subducting northwestward underneath the Eurasian plate along the Ryukyu Trench in the north, while the Eurasian plate underthrusts the Philippine Sea plate along the Manila Trench in the south. Taking advantage of the extremely high strain rate in the Taiwan area, an integrated National Science Council project, Plate Boundary Observatory in Taiwan (PBOT), was initiated following the idea of US PBO. The scientific goal of PBOT is to observe the crustal deformation on various temporal and spatial scales in the Taiwan plate boundary zone employing available state of the art techniques for measuring crustal strain. The techniques include seismology, Global Positioning System (GPS), Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), borehole strainmeter, and earthquake geology. They are complementary to each other and form a complete spectrum of measuring various periods of crustal strain. The process of crustal deformation is generally quite slow. To obtain a reliable result, we usually need to persist in the observations for several years or even decades. Thus the PBOT should be a long-term project. In the first phase of 3 years period from 2003 to 2006, we will focus on the two areas, i.e. the plate suture zone in the Longitudinal Valley area and the western Taiwan where the higher seismic hazard is expected. A five-year national program, entitled ­Program for Earthquake and Active-fault Research (PEAR)­" was initiated after the disastrous 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw 7.6). As part of the PEAR, a dense continuous GPS array consisting of 150 new and about 50 pre-existing stations will be completed in the Taiwan area by the end of 2005 through a joint effort by the Central Weather Bureau and the Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica. The 50 new stations are going to be evenly distributed around the Taiwan Island. The other

  17. ESA innovation rescues Ultraviolet Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-10-01

    experience to have the opportunity to do an in-depth review of operational procedures established in 1978 and be given the chance to streamline these through the application of the tools available to engineers and scientists in 1995." The innovative arrangements were designed and developed at the ESA IUE Observatory, which is located in Spain at ESA's Villafranca Satellite Tracking Station in Villanueva de la Canada near Madrid. As a result, ESA is now performing all of WE's science observations (16 hours per day) from the Villafranca station. All the processing of the observations transmitted by the satellite and the subsequent rapid data distribution to the research scientists world-wide is now done from Villafranca. NASA does maintain its role in the programme in the area of operational spacecraft maintenance support, satellite communications and data re-processing for IUE's Final Archive. Thus the IUE Project could be extended and the final IUE observing program can now be implemented. In particular, this will involve critical studies on comets (e,g. on Comet Hale-Bopp), on stellar wind structures, on the enigmatic mini-quasars (which are thought to power the nuclei of Active Galaxies), as well as performing pre- studies which will optimize the utilization of the Hubble Space Telescope. Prof. R.M. Bonnet, Director of the ESA Science Programme comments "I am quite pleased that we have been able to secure the extension of our support for the scientists in Europe and the world to this highly effective mission. Also the scientists can be proud of the utilization of IUE, with more than 3000 learned publications and 200 Doctoral dissertations based on data from IUE. Through this they demonstrate in turn to be very appreciative of our efforts in the Science Programme".

  18. Proposed Ozark Plateaus Province Hydrologic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R. K.; Brahana, J. V.; Matlock, M. D.; Chaubey, I.; Pavlowsky, R. T.; Gilzow, F.

    2004-12-01

    The Upper White River, which drains about 40 percent of the Ozarks Ecoregion, is the main drain for the Ozark Plateaus and is characteristic of rivers draining other karst areas within the United States and the world. The proposed Ozark Plateaus Hydrologic Observatory (OPHO) encompasses twelve 8-digit hydrologic units covering about 67,000 km2 in parts of three states (Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma). Six major U.S. Army Corps of Engineers reservoirs are within the OPHO including four on the main stem of the White River and one on the Illinois River. Karst features are prominent in the Salem, Ozark, and Springfield Plateaus of the OPHO, and include numerous solutionally enlarged fractures, caves, sinkholes, and sinking streams. Within the basin are numerous and diverse biological communities, representing influences from 1) eastern deciduous forest, 2) Great Plains prairies, 3) arid southwest, and 4) relicts of northern species from the Pleistocene Ice Age. Also contain in the OPHO is a diverse and unique array of mussels, an imperiled river organism (38 species), and crayfish. In the extensive karst regions of the OPHO are found largely endemic subterranean organisms also dependent on good water quality: for example, the Ozark Cavefish, Bristly Cave Crayfish and the recently federally- listed Tumbling Creek Cave Snail. Mantled karst aquifers characteristic of the Ozark Plateaus Region represent a coupled atmospheric/surface water/groundwater system that is highly susceptible to external forcing. Little attenuation of contaminants occurs as water moves from surface sources into and through the mantled karst aquifer to discharge naturally at springs and streams throughout the Ozark Plateau Region, and to wells. Because of the very open character of the aquifer, extremely dynamic biogeochemical cycling of nutrients occurs. Upper White River Reservoir development, filling and operation historically have altered and continue to alter the hydrologic and ecosystems

  19. The Platte River Hydrologic Observatory (PRIVHO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, F.; Ramirez, J. A.; Thurow, T. L.

    2004-12-01

    The Platte River Hydrologic Observatory (PRIVHO), located within the Platte River Basin, of the U.S. central Great Plains, affords excellent interdisciplinary and multi-disciplinary research opportunities for scientists to examine the impacts of scaling, to investigate forcing feedbacks and coupling of various interconnected hydrological, geological, climatological and biological systems, and to test the applicability and limits of prediction in keeping with all five of CUAHSI's priority science criteria; linking hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, sustainability of water resources, hydrologic and ecosystem interactions, hydrologic extremes, and fate and transport of contaminants. In addition, PRIVHO is uniquely positioned to investigate many human dimension questions such as those related to interstate and intrastate conflicts over water use, evolution of water policy and law in the wake of advancing science, societal and economic changes that are driven by water use, availability and management, and human impacts on climate and land use changes. The Platte River traverses several important environmental gradients, including temperature and precipitation-to-evaporation ratio, is underlain by the High Plains Aquifer under much of its reach, crosses a number of terrestrial ecoregions, and in central Nebraska, serves as a vital link in the Central Flyway, providing habitat for 300 species of migratory birds and many threatened or endangered species. The Platte River flows through metropolitan, urban and agricultural settings and is impacted by both point and non-point pollution. The Platte River is one of the most over-appropriated rivers in the country with 15 major dams, hundreds of small reservoirs, and thousands of irrigation wells. The river provides municipal and industrial water supplies for about 3.5 million people, irrigation water for millions of acres of farmland, and generates millions of dollars of hydroelectric power. PRIVHO will allow researchers to

  20. Astronomical Data Integration Beyond the Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemson, G.; Laurino, O.

    2015-09-01

    "Data integration" generally refers to the process of combining data from different source data bases into a unified view. Much work has been devoted in this area by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA), allowing users to discover and access databases through standard protocols. However, different archives present their data through their own schemas and users must still select, filter, and combine data for each archive individually. An important reason for this is that the creation of common data models that satisfy all sub-disciplines is fraught with difficulties. Furthermore it requires a substantial amount of work for data providers to present their data according to some standard representation. We will argue that existing standards allow us to build a data integration framework that works around these problems. The particular framework requires the implementation of the IVOA Table Access Protocol (TAP) only. It uses the newly developed VO data modelling language (VO-DML) specification, which allows one to define extensible object-oriented data models using a subset of UML concepts through a simple XML serialization language. A rich mapping language allows one to describe how instances of VO-DML data models are represented by the TAP service, bridging the possible mismatch between a local archive's schema and some agreed-upon representation of the astronomical domain. In this so called local-as-view approach to data integration, “mediators" use the mapping prescriptions to translate queries phrased in terms of the common schema to the underlying TAP service. This mapping language has a graphical representation, which we expose through a web based graphical “drag-and-drop-and-connect" interface. This service allows any user to map the holdings of any TAP service to the data model(s) of choice. The mappings are defined and stored outside of the data sources themselves, which allows the interface to be used in a kind of crowd-sourcing effort

  1. Maintenance management at La Silla Paranal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montano, Nelson

    2008-07-01

    From the beginning of the VLT project, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) considered the application of a competent maintenance strategy a fundamental aspect for future operations of the Paranal Observatory. For that purpose, a special maintenance philosophy was developed during the project stage and applied during the initial years of operations. The merging of the La Silla and Paranal Observatories in 2005 added a new managerial challenge to the regular operational requirements (high availability and reliability) which motivated ESO Management to develop a stronger strategy for the operations of the new merged Observatory. Part of the new strategy considered the creation of a dedicated department for the management of all maintenance activities, separating this support from the traditional scheme where the Engineering Department had the responsibility for the entire technical support to operations. In order to keep a competent level of maintenance operations for the new unified Observatory, the La Silla Paranal (LSP) Maintenance Department has been using a well known maintenance management model used in various industrial applications as a guide. Today the operations of the Maintenance Department are concentrated on developing and implementing practices regarding concepts such as Maintenance Tactics, Planning, Data Management, Performance Indicators and Material Management. In addition to that, advances related to Reliability Analysis been taken in order to reach a superior level of excellence. The results achieved by the LSP Maintenance Department are reflected in a reduced rate of functional failures, allowing uninterrupted operations of the Observation sites.

  2. The Livingston Island Geomagnetic and Ionospheric Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altadill, David; Marsal, Santiago; Blanch, Estefania; Miquel Torta, J.; Quintana-Seguí, Pere; Germán Solé, J.; Cid, Òscar; José Curto, Juan; Ibáñez, Miguel; Segarra, Antoni; Lluís Pijoan, Joan; Juan, Juan Miguel

    2014-05-01

    The Ebre Observatory Institute manages a geophysical observatory installed at the Spanish Antarctic Station (SAS) Juan Carlos I. It was set up in 1995 and it has been updated yearly by our team throughout several projects carried out since then. Nowadays, it hosts a magnetic station providing 1-second data of the 3 components (X, Y, Z) and the total force (F) during the entire year, and an ionospheric station providing vertical and oblique data during austral summer. This observatory has provided long data series of high scientific value from this remote region of the Earth. They have been used to improve the knowledge of the climate and weather behavior of the geomagnetic field and ionosphere in the area, and to model and expand the capacity of data transmission. This contribution aims to present a brief review of the instruments installed at SAS, the research results obtained from their data, and the developing activities under the current project. Finally, future perspectives are outlined with regard to adapting our geophysical observatory to the evolving needs of observatory practice.

  3. An international network of magnetic observatories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Chulliat, A.

    2013-01-01

    Since its formation in the late 1980s, the International Real-Time Magnetic Observatory Network (INTERMAGNET), a voluntary consortium of geophysical institutes from around the world, has promoted the operation of magnetic observatories according to modern standards [eg. Rasson, 2007]. INTERMAGNET institutes have cooperatively developed infrastructure for data exchange and management ads well as methods for data processing and checking. INTERMAGNET institute have also helped to expand global geomagnetic monitoring capacity, most notably by assisting magnetic observatory institutes in economically developing countries by working directly with local geophysicists. Today the INTERMAGNET consortium encompasses 57 institutes from 40 countries supporting 120 observatories (see Figures 1a and 1b). INTERMAGNET data record a wide variety of time series signals related to a host of different physical processes in the Earth's interiors and in the Earth's surrounding space environment [e.g., Love, 2008]. Observatory data have always had a diverse user community, and to meet evolving demand, INTERMAGNET has recently coordinated the introduction of several new data services.

  4. The New North Georgia Astronomical Observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. H.; Chapman, E. K.

    1999-12-01

    The mission of NGCSU's observatory over the last 30 years has been to provide a quality environment for student and public viewing and a professional platform for student/faculty research. During the fall of 1997 a large illuminated parking lot was constructed less than 100 feet from the old observatory site. Fortunately, the administration at that time recognized the impact that the lot would have on the observatory's mission and was able to find funds to relocate the Boller & Chivens 16 inch telescope to a new observatory built on school property four miles west of the campus. The new observatory became operational at the beginning of the fall semester 1999. We report here on the outcome of the many unique design features which we tried to incorporate into the building. Features for optimizing student and public viewing such as a "downslope" roll away enclosure and a wide "no steps" observing deck entrance. An ongoing student project to measure and compare photometric calibration coefficients as well as zenith sky brightness and "seeing" parameters with previously determined parameters will evaluate the building features which were designed to enhance the performance of the telescope and its instrumentation. We would especially like to thank university president (retired) Dr. Sherman R. Day for supporting this project, not only financially, but also for supporting the legacy of astronomical education and student research at NGCSU. We also would like to thank the current president, Dr. Nathaniel Hansford, and his administration for continuing that support.

  5. Fostering Student Awareness in Observatory STEM Careers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keonaonaokalauae Acohido, Alexis Ann; Michaud, Peter D.; Gemini Public Information and Outreach Staff

    2016-01-01

    It takes more than scientists to run an observatory. Like most observatories, only about 20% of Gemini Observatory's staff is PhD. Scientists, but 100% of those scientists would not be able to do their jobs without the help of engineers, administrators, and other support staff that make things run smoothly. Gemini's Career Brochure was first published in 2014 to show that there are many different career paths available (especially in local host communities) at an astronomical observatory. Along with the printed career brochure, there are supplementary videos available on Gemini's website and Youtube pages that provide a more detailed and personal glimpse into the day-in-the-life of a wide assortment of Gemini employees. A weakness in most observatory's outreach programming point to the notion that students (and teachers) feel there is a disconnect between academics and where students would like to end up in their career future. This project is one of the ways Gemini addresses these concerns. During my 6-month internship at Gemini, I have updated the Career Brochure website conducted more in-depth interviews with Gemini staff to include as inserts with the brochure, and expanded the array of featured careers. The goal of my work is to provide readers with detailed and individualized employee career paths to show; 1) that there are many ways to establish a career in the STEM fields, and 2), that the STEM fields are vastly diverse.

  6. The University of Montana's Blue Mountain Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, D. B.

    2004-12-01

    The University of Montana's Department of Physics and Astronomy runs the state of Montana's only professional astronomical observatory. The Observatory, located on nearby Blue Mountain, houses a 16 inch Boller and Chivens Cassegrain reflector (purchased in 1970), in an Ash dome. The Observatory sits just below the summit ridge, at an elevation of approximately 6300 feet. Our instrumentation includes an Op-Tec SSP-5A photoelectric photometer and an SBIG ST-9E CCD camera. We have the only undergraduate astronomy major in the state (technically a physics major with an astronomy option), so our Observatory is an important component of our students' education. Students have recently carried out observing projects on the photometry of variable stars and color photometry of open clusters and OB associations. In my poster I will show some of the data collected by students in their observing projects. The Observatory is also used for public open houses during the summer months, and these have become very popular: at times we have had 300 visitors in a single night.

  7. Design of a Lunar Farside Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The design of a mantendable lunar farside observatory and science base is presented. A farside observatory will allow high accuracy astronomical observations, as well as the opportunity to perform geological and low gravity studies on the Moon. The requirements of the observatory and its support facilities are determined, and a preliminary timeline for the project development is presented. The primary areas of investigation include observatory equipment, communications, habitation, and surface operations. Each area was investigated to determine the available options, and each option was evaluated to determine the advantages and disadvantages. The options selected for incorporation into the design of the farside base are presented. The observatory equipment deemed most suitable for placement on the lunar farside consist of large optical and radio arrays and seismic equipment. A communications system consisting of a temporary satellite about the L sub 2 libration point and followed by a satellite at the stable L sub 5 libration point was selected. A space station common module was found to be the most practical option for housing the astronauts at the base. Finally, a support system based upon robotic construction vehicles and the use of lunar materials was determined to be a necessary component of the base.

  8. Magdalena Ridge Observatory: the start-up of a new observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, Eric J.; Westpfahl, David; Loos, Gary

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses the challenges faced in designing and building a new astronomical observatory. Which factors drive an organization (e.g. university) to invest considerable funding and human resources, and experience considerable risk to establish a new research facility? We identify four main drivers for establishing a new observatory: support for education, research, economic development, and technology development. For public observatories, research is generally the main driver. For nonpublic observatories, the situation is more complex and is for each situation different. A detailed description is presented on the drivers and opportunities that resulted in establishing the Magdalena Ridge Observatory. Three main opportunities are identified: a developed site, surplus equipment, and economic development of the Socorro area.

  9. The Great Salt Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hassibe, W.R.; Keck, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    The western part of the conterminous United States is often thought of as being a desert without any large bodies of water. In the desert area of western Utah, however, lies Great Salt Lake, which in 1986 covered approximately 2,300 square miles and contained 30 million acre-feet of water (an acre-foot is the amount of water necessary to cover 1 acre of land with water 1 foot in depth or about 326,000 gallons). To emphasize its size, the Great Salt Lake is the largest lake west of the Mississippi River, larger than the states of Rhode Island and Delaware.

  10. The Great Lakes whitefish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Oosten, John; Elliot, Charles

    1942-01-01

    In every one of the Great Lakes- Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michigan, and Superior- the most valuable fishes are declining, and there is no evidence that this trend will be reversed. Under existing conditions of a diversity of regulations that vary between states and between the two countries, and with the present methods of fishing, the Great Lakes fisheries are doomed. This chapter deals with the common whitefish, a valuable species which many believe to be the next that will go unless positive action is forthcoming soon.

  11. Great Lakes Harbors Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-11-01

    Locally.assigned Library of Congress number: HE396 S25 U55 Nj 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side if necessary and identify by block number) 1. HARBORS 2... WATER TRANSPORTATION 3. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 4. GREAT LJAKES - 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on ie.er.se side It necesaty nd identify by blocA number) Harbor...Scope 2 DESCRIPTION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 3 Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Navigation System 2 4 Navigation Season 3 5 Water Levels 4 6 Tributary Area 6

  12. Exploring the Frontier of Exoplanet Atmosphere Dynamics with NASA's Great Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreidberg, Laura; Bean, Jacob; Stevenson, Kevin; Showman, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan; Line, Michael; Desert, Jean-Michel

    2014-12-01

    We propose a joint Spitzer+HST program to explore the frontier of exoplanet atmosphere dynamics. We will pursue a multi-wavelength approach to create detailed maps of the thermal structure of two of the best target hot Jupiters. First, we will perform secondary eclipse mapping for WASP-18b with Spitzer at 4.5 microns to complement existing Spitzer+HST phase curve observations. The combination of these data will yield the first ever map of an exoplanet's thermal structure as a function of latitude, longitude, and altitude, and provide a benchmark for 3D atmospheric circulation models of highly irradiated planets. Second, we will use a new technique pioneered by our team to observe full-orbit phase curves for WASP-103b with Spitzer and HST/WFC3. These observations will reveal the planet's phase-resolved emission spectrum and determine the global temperature-pressure profile and atmospheric composition, as well as its heat redistribution and Bond albedo. This program will significantly expand the sample of thoroughly characterized exoplanets and enable comparative planetology beyond the Solar System. Spitzer and HST are the facilities that have made the strongest contributions to our understanding of exoplanet atmospheres thus far, and we are now in a position to combine their powers in a strategic way to yield unprecedentedly detailed characterization of hot Jupiter atmospheric dynamics. This program will set the stage for even more precise investigations that will be possible with JWST.

  13. The Newest Hot Jupiter Archetype Through the Eyes of NASA's Great Observatories, Part 2 of 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Kevin; Bean, Jacob; Desert, Jean-Michel; Fortney, Jonathan; Line, Michael; Kreidberg, Laura; Showman, Adam; Kataria, Tiffany

    2014-12-01

    Until recently, WASP-43b was an unfamiliar name within a sea of confirmed transiting exoplanets. However, it is now one of the most intensely scrutinized exoplanets to date, joining the ranks of exoplanet archetypes HD 209458b and HD 189733b. In an in-depth investigation into this hot Jupiter's atmospheric composition and circulation, we dedicated 61 HST orbits to obtain a spectroscopic phase curve (the first of its kind with any telescope) from 1.1 to 1.7 microns. With the recent publication of our findings in Science and ApJL, WASP-43b is becoming the subject of numerous theoretical and observational follow-up investigations. Last cycle, we were awarded 26 hours of DDT to observe the transmission, dayside emission, and phase-resolved emission of WASP-43b at 4.5 microns. Here we propose to complete our IR spectrum by repeating our high-precision measurement at 3.6 microns. Data from just one Spitzer channel does not allow for a direct comparison with other Spitzer phase-curve targets and is insufficient to achieve our goals. This is because it is the flux variation between the two Spitzer channels (in conjunction with the HST data) that will enable us to determine the oxygen and carbon abundances in the planet's atmosphere, measure the variation of hot spot offset as a function of altitude, and resolve competing hypotheses on the large day-night WFC3 flux variations. This final point is particularly important because, up until now, Spitzer has been our only window into these planets' day-night contrasts and HST is telling us a different story. With exoplanet phase curves sure to be one of the main enduring Spitzer legacies, we must connect what we have learned from Spitzer to current and future HST data so that we can properly interpret these important measurements of benchmark exoplanets. This will allow us to connect all phase-curve measurements under one theory and predict future spectroscopic results with JWST.

  14. Compton Gamma Ray Observatory: Lessons Learned in Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, G. A.; Joseph, G. W.; Behrens, H. W.; Asato, D. I.; Carlson, R. A.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory was the second of NASA's Great Observatories. At 17 1/2 tons. it was the heaviest astrophysical payload ever flown at the time of its launch on April 5, 1991 aboard the Space Shuttle. During initial, on-orbit priming of the spacecraft's monopropellant hydrazine propulsion system, a severe waterhammer transient was experienced. At that time, anomalous telemetry readings were received from on-board propulsion system instrumentation. This led to ground analyses and laboratory investigations as to the root cause of the waterhammer, potential damage to system integrity and functionality, and risks for switching from the primary (A-side) propulsion system to the redundant (B-side) system. The switchover to B-side was ultimately performed successfully and the spacecraft completed its basic and extended missions in this configuration. Nine years later, following a critical control gyroscope failure, Compton was safely deorbited and re-entered the Earth's atmosphere on June 4, 2000. Additional risk assessments concerning viability of A- and B-sides were necessary to provide confidence in attitude and delta-V authority and reliability to manage the precisely controlled reentry. This paper summarizes the design and operation of the propulsion system used on the spacecraft and provides "lessons learned" from the system engineering investigations into the propellant loading procedures, the initial priming anomaly, mission operations, and the commanded re-entry following the gyro failure.

  15. The Digitation of the Astronomical Plates of Catania Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massimino, P.; Catalano, S.; Cigna, M.; Greco, V., Mangano, A.; Marilli, E.; Blanco, C.

    2006-07-01

    To make easily available the great amount of highly valuable information stored in the photographic archives of many Italian Observatories and of the Specola Vaticana, a large-scale National Project to digitize the plates was financially supported by the Italian Ministry of Education (MIUR) (Barbieri et al. 2003, 2004). The contribution of the Catania Astrophysical Observatory and of the Physics and Astronomy Department of Catania University to the Project is to digitize the image plates of the "Carte du Ciel" and of the Astrographic Catalogue obtained from 1896 to 1907. Moreover plates of the 1910 passage of Halley's comet and other plates obtained during the XX Century (Massimino et al. 2004) have been digitized. A set of identical systems, composed of a commercial flat-bed-retro-illuminated scanner, a dedicated personal computer and an acquisition software, has been installed in the Institutes involved in the Project. The main characteristics of Astroplates, a software program developed in Catania, that uses the IDL libraries to manage the astronomical images acquired with the scanner from photographic plates are presented.

  16. Re-development of the Mount Evans Womble Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stencel, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Mount Evans in the Colorado Front Range hosts one of the highest altitude observatories in the USA, at an elevation of 14,148 ft (4,312 m). The observatory is operated under a Forest Service use permit, recently renewed for another 30 years. At times, observing conditions (seeing, water vapor column, etc.) can be as good as anywhere. The existing twin 0.72 m f/21 R-C telescopes are solar powered and internet connected. However, jet stream winds in 2012 destroyed the 15 year old, 22.5 ft diameter Ash dome. The replacement, custom dome design/install was rushed, and suffers from a number of flaws. Given that, plus the aging telescope and operating system, we are planning, and seeking partners and investor funds, to re-develop the facility. Facets of this may include replacing the twin apertures with a single full-aperture telescope for remote operations and sky monitoring, replacing the flawed dome with an innovative dome design, renewable power upgrades, and outreach programs for the many thousands of mountain visitors seasonally. As elsewhere, we are grappling with increases in atmospheric water vapor and out-of-control regional light pollution growth, but believe that the site continues to hold great potential. Interested parties are invited to contact the first author for further information. Website: http://www.du.edu/~rstencel/MtEvans .

  17. The Infrared-Optical Telescope (IRT) of the Exist Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutyrev, Alexander; Bloom, Joshua; Gehrels, Neil; Golisano, Craig; Gong, Quan; Grindlay, Jonathan; Moseley, Samuel; Woodgate, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The IRT is a 1.1m visible and infrared passively cooled telescope, which can locate, identify and obtain spectra of GRB afterglows at redshifts up to z 20. It will also acquire optical-IR, imaging and spectroscopy of AGN and transients discovered by the EXIST (The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope). The IRT imaging and spectroscopic capabilities cover a broad spectral range from 0.32.2m in four bands. The identical fields of view in the four instrument bands are each split in three subfields: imaging, objective prism slitless for the field and objective prism single object slit low resolution spectroscopy, and high resolution long slit on single object. This allows the instrument, to do simultaneous broadband photometry or spectroscopy of the same object over the full spectral range, thus greatly improving the efficiency of the observatory and its detection limits. A prompt follow up (within three minutes) of the transient discovered by the EXIST makes IRT a unique tool for detection and study of these events, which is particularly valuable at wavelengths unavailable to the ground based observatories.

  18. The Great Poetry Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitcher, Sharon M.

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that parent involvement improves academic achievement, but in the busy world in which we live it is often difficult to promote. Many researchers suggest that successful programs value parents' limited time constraints, diversity of literacy skills, and availability of materials. The Great Poetry Race provides an easy vehicle to…

  19. 1 Great Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nethery, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an ideal question that can take an art teacher and his or her students through all the levels of thought in Bloom's taxonomy--perfect for modeling the think-aloud process: "How many people is the artist inviting into this picture?" This great question always helps the students look beyond the obvious and dig…

  20. Taga the Great.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Frances S.

    Legends can be incorporated into elementary social studies curricula to help students understand how people transmitted history and culture from one generation to another before they learned to read and write. Taga the Great is a legend which helps explain the 16-feet high latte stones on the Mariana Islands, Tinian and Rota. According to legend,…

  1. The Great Lakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seasons, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human…

  2. The Great Mathematician Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Sabrina R.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Mathematician Project (GMP) introduces both mathematically sophisticated and struggling students to the history of mathematics. The rationale for the GMP is twofold: first, mathematics is a uniquely people-centered discipline that is used to make sense of the world; and second, students often express curiosity about the history of…

  3. Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A better than average view of the Great Barrier Reef was captured by SeaWiFS on a recent overpass. There is sunglint northeast of the reef and there appears to be some sort of filamentous bloom in the Capricorn Channel.

  4. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  5. Variable Star Research from the MUSK Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Miriam

    2004-10-01

    I plan to present on the Delta Scuti variable star IP Uma. I will present light curves of the star from May 2003, and June 2004. From these light curves, I have determined the points of maximum light which I have used to refine the period of the star. I will also talk about the quality of the telescopes that I used to take my data. The data taken in 2004 were taken with the BYU 12' telescope. The data taken in 2003 were taken at the MUSK observatory at the Mars Desert Research Station. I will go into depth about the MUSK observatory and explain why I think that the telescope at the MUSK observatory is a useful research tool.

  6. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The family of High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) instruments consisted of three unmarned scientific observatories capable of detecting the x-rays emitted by the celestial bodies with high sensitivity and high resolution. The celestial gamma-ray and cosmic-ray fluxes were also collected and studied to learn more about the mysteries of the universe. High-Energy rays cannot be studied by Earth-based observatories because of the obscuring effects of the atmosphere that prevent the rays from reaching the Earth's surface. They had been observed initially by sounding rockets and balloons, and by small satellites that do not possess the needed instrumentation capabilities required for high data resolution and sensitivity. The HEAO carried the instrumentation necessary for this capability. In this photograph, an artist's concept of three HEAO spacecraft is shown: HEAO-1, launched on August 12, 1977; HEAO-2, launched on November 13, 1978; and HEAO-3, launched on September 20. 1979.

  7. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becklin, E. E.; Young, E. T.; Savage, M. L.

    2016-09-01

    The joint U.S. and German Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), project has been operating airborne astronomy flights from Palmdale, California since 2011. The observatory consists of a modified 747-SP aircraft with a 2.5-meter telescope in its aft section. SOFIA has a suite of eight science instruments spanning visible to far-infrared wavelengths. For the majority of the year SOFIA operates out of the Armstrong Flight Research Center in Palmdale, California, giving access to Northern Hemisphere targets. SOFIA's mobility also allows observations in the Southern Hemisphere (Christchurch, New Zealand), of objects such as the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, the Galactic Center, and Eta Carinae In 2016, SOFIA added polarimetry capability on SOFIA, with HAWC+ commissioning flights. Selected science results, current instrument suite status, new capabilities, and some expectations of future instrument developments over the lifetime of the observatory will be discussed.

  8. Developing an astronomical observatory in Paraguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troche-Boggino, Alexis E.

    Background: Paraguay has some heritage from the astronomy of the Guarani Indians. Buenaventura Suarez S.J. was a pioneer astronomer in the country in the XVIII century. He built various astronomical instruments and imported others from England. He observed eclipses of Jupiter's satellites and of the Sun and Moon. He published his data in a book and through letters. The Japanese O.D.A. has collaborated in obtaining equipment and advised their government to assist Paraguay in building an astronomical observatory, constructing a moving-roof observatory and training astronomers as observatory operators. Future: An astronomical center is on the horizon and some possible fields of research are being considered. Goal: To improve education at all possible levels by not only observing sky wonders, but also showing how instruments work and teaching about data and image processing, saving data and building a data base. Students must learn how a modern scientist works.

  9. Environmental effects on lunar astronomical observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Wetzel, John P.

    1992-09-01

    The Moon offers a stable platform with excellent seeing conditions for astronomical observations. Some troublesome aspects of the lunar environment will need to be overcome to realize the full potential of the Moon as an observatory site. Mitigation of negative effects of vacuum, thermal radiation, dust, and micrometeorite impact is feasible with careful engineering and operational planning. Shields against impact, dust, and solar radiation need to be developed. Means of restoring degraded surfaces are probably essential for optical and thermal control surfaces deployed in long-lifetime lunar facilities. Precursor missions should be planned to validate and enhance the understanding of the lunar environment (e.g., dust behavior without and with human presence) and to determine environmental effects on surfaces and components. Precursor missions should generate data useful in establishing keepout zones around observatory facilities where rocket launches and landings, mining, and vehicular traffic could be detrimental to observatory operation.

  10. OSO-7 Orbiting Solar Observatory program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The seventh Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO-7) in the continuing series designed to gather solar and celestial data that cannot be obtained from the earth's surface is described. OSO-7 was launched September 29, 1971. It has been highly successful in returning scientific data giving new and important information about solar flare development, coronal temperature variations, streamer dynamics of plasma flow, and solar nuclear processes. OSO-7 is expected to have sufficient lifetime to permit data comparisons with the Skylab A mission during 1973. The OSO-7 is a second generation observatory. It is about twice as large and heavy as its predecessors, giving it considerably greater capability for scientific measurements. This report reviews mission objectives, flight history, and scientific experiments; describes the observatory; briefly compares OSO-7 with the first six OSO's; and summarizes the performance of OSO-7.

  11. The Lowell Observatory Predoctoral Scholar Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Belle, Gerard; Prato, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Lowell Observatory is pleased to solicit applications for our Predoctoral Scholar Fellowship Program. Now beginning its eighth year, this program is designed to provide unique research opportunities to graduate students in good standing, currently enrolled at Ph.D. granting institutions. Lowell staff research spans a wide range of topics, from astronomical instrumentation, to icy bodies in our solar system, exoplanet science, stellar populations, star formation, and dwarf galaxies. The Observatory's new 4.3 meter Discovery Channel Telescope has successfully begun science operations and we anticipate the commissioning of new instruments in 2015, making this a particularly exciting time in our history. Student research is expected to lead to a thesis dissertation appropriate for graduation at the doctoral level at the student's home institution. The Observatory provides competitive compensation and full benefits to student scholars. For more information, see http://www2.lowell.edu/rsch/predoc.php and links therein. Applications for Fall 2016 are due by May 1, 2016.

  12. Environmental effects on lunar astronomical observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Wetzel, John P.

    1992-01-01

    The Moon offers a stable platform with excellent seeing conditions for astronomical observations. Some troublesome aspects of the lunar environment will need to be overcome to realize the full potential of the Moon as an observatory site. Mitigation of negative effects of vacuum, thermal radiation, dust, and micrometeorite impact is feasible with careful engineering and operational planning. Shields against impact, dust, and solar radiation need to be developed. Means of restoring degraded surfaces are probably essential for optical and thermal control surfaces deployed in long-lifetime lunar facilities. Precursor missions should be planned to validate and enhance the understanding of the lunar environment (e.g., dust behavior without and with human presence) and to determine environmental effects on surfaces and components. Precursor missions should generate data useful in establishing keepout zones around observatory facilities where rocket launches and landings, mining, and vehicular traffic could be detrimental to observatory operation.

  13. Site Protection Efforts at the AURA Observatory in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. Chris; Smith, Malcolm G.; Sanhueza, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    The AURA Observatory (AURA-O) was the first of the major international observatories to be established in northern Chile to exploit the optimal astronomical conditions available there. The site was originally established in 1962 to host the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). It now hosts more than 20 operational telescopes, including some of the leading U.S. and international astronomical facilities in the southern hemisphere, such as the Blanco 4m telescope on Cerro Tololo and the Gemini-South and SOAR telescopes on Cerro Pachón. Construction of the next generation facility, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), has recently begun on Cerro Pachón, while additional smaller telescopes continue to be added to the complement on Cerro Tololo.While the site has become a major platform for international astronomical facilities over the last 50 years, development in the region has led to an ever-increasing threat of light pollution around the site. AURA-O has worked closely with local, regional, and national authorities and institutions (in particular with the Chilean Ministries of Environment and Foreign Relations) in an effort to protect the site so that future generations of telescopes, as well as future generations of Chileans, can benefit from the dark skies in the region. We will summarize our efforts over the past 15 years to highlight the importance of dark sky protection through education and public outreach as well as through more recent promotion of IDA certifications in the region and support for the World Heritage initiatives described by others in this conference.

  14. What great managers do.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Marcus

    2005-03-01

    Much has been written about the qualities that make a great manager, but most of the literature overlooks a fundamental question: What does a great manager actually do? While there are countless management styles, one thing underpins the behavior of all great managers. Above all, an exceptional manager comes to know and value the particular quirks and abilities of her employees. She figures out how to capitalize on her staffers' strengths and tweaks her environment to meet her larger goals. Such a specialized approach may seem like a lot of work. But in fact, capitalizing on each person's uniqueness can save time. Rather than encourage employees to conform to strict job descriptions that may include tasks they don't enjoy and aren't good at, a manager who develops positions for his staff members based on their unique abilities will be rewarded with behaviors that are far more efficient and effective than they would be otherwise. This focus on individuals also makes employees more accountable. Because staffers are evaluated on their particular strengths and weaknesses, they are challenged to take responsibility for their abilities and to hone them. Capitalizing on a person's uniqueness also builds a stronger sense of team. By taking the time to understand what makes each employee tick, a great manager shows that he sees his people for who they are. This personal investment not only motivates individuals but also galvanizes the entire team. Finally, this approach shakes up existing hierarchies, which leads to more creative thinking. To take great managing from theory to practice, the author says, you must know three things about a person: her strengths, the triggers that activate those strengths, and how she learns. By asking the right questions, squeezing the right triggers, and becoming aware of your employees' learning styles, you will discover what motivates each person to excel.

  15. Lessons Learned During the Refurbishment and Testing of an Observatory After Long-Term Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawk, John; Peabody, Sharon; Stavely, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS) 2015, Silver Spring, MD NCTS 21070-15. This paper addresses the lessons learned during the refurbishment and testing of the thermal control system for a spacecraft which was placed into long-term storage. The DSCOVR (Deep Space Climate Observatory) Observatory (formerly known as Triana) was originally scheduled to launch on the Space Shuttle in 2002. With the Triana spacecraft nearly complete, the mission was canceled and the satellite was abruptly put into storage in 2001. In 2008 the observatory was removed from storage to begin refurbishment and testing. Problems arose associated with hardware that was not currently manufactured, coatings degradation, and a significant lack of documentation. Also addressed is the conversion of the thermal and geometric math models for use with updated thermal analysis software tools.

  16. The Classical Plotline of "The Great Gatsby"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slattery, Dennis P.

    1975-01-01

    Argues that an understanding of the craft of fiction is furthered by a return to the original creation, concluding that "The Great Gatsby" is one of the best examples of Aristotle's description of tragedy as set forth in "The Poetics." (RB)

  17. Long term monitoring of mountain sites in the National Ecological Observatory Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, A.; Berukoff, S. J.; Buur, H.; DeNicholas, J.; Denslow, M.; Kampe, T. U.; Roehm, C. L.; Stewart, M.; Taylor, J. R.; Tazik, D.

    2013-12-01

    Currently under construction, the nation's first continental-scale ecological observatory, the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will quantify the impacts of climate change, land use, and biological invasions by collecting instrumental and observational data for 30 years at 106 aquatic and terrestrial sites across the U.S., including Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico. The sites have been strategically selected to represent a range of vegetation, landforms, climates, and land uses. Several are located in high elevation areas, including three terrestrial and two aquatic sites in the central Rocky Mountains situated along a transect from the Great Basin in the west to the Colorado Plateau in the east. In the Intermountain West, dust resulting from urban and agricultural land use is transported over long distances. When deposited on the snowpack in the mountains, it alters the surface albedo, affecting snowmelt timing and altering local and regional feedbacks to climate and impacting water quality of streams. In addition, nitrogen compounds produced in the densely settled Front Range corridor of Colorado can be recirculated back to the mountains, affecting the local biogeochemistry and biodiversity. Standardized measurements of key climate, atmospheric, soil, organismal, and aquatic variables will allow for comparison of responses to dust and nitrogen deposition. In addition, other environmental changes between sites both along the Great Basin-central Rocky Mountains-Colorado Plateau transect and within the observatory as a whole can be evaluated. NEON is applying Systems Engineering, a discipline that uses a requirements-based approach to scope, design, build and manage complex systems throughout their lifecycle, as a critical component of the observatory to ensure standardization across sites. In this talk, we will discuss the benefits and challenges of applying Systems Engineering to an ecological observatory, utilizing the science and technical

  18. Three Worlds of the Megalithic Observatory Kokino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenev, G.

    2011-06-01

    Mountain in its symbolic presentation can be considered as a world axis and place for alliance of three worlds: heavenly world, ours or middle world and underworld. Image of the three worlds represents also intellectual establishment, proportion and unity among Gods, Cosmos and Man. The three observation posts of the Megalithic Observatory Kokino actually are symbols of those three worlds in the ancient people's imagination, defining ritual activities. At the same time, they were used for organizing all agricultural and stock breeding activities of the early agricultural communities in the wider region surrounding the ancient observatory.

  19. SOFIA: The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, Roger H.; Davidson, Jacqueline A.

    1990-01-01

    SOFIA, an airborne observatory intended to be carried aboard a Boeing 747 high performance aircraft, is described. The observatory is predicted to provide a threefold greater aperture than that of the Kuiper telescope. The Boeing aircraft will carry the 2.5 diameter telescope and its observers to altitudes of 14,000 and above where the atmosphere is very nearly transparent at all wavelengths. Various aspects and specific missions of the SOFIA project, a cooperative venture of the U.S. and Germany, are described.

  20. The Mauna Loa Observatory Photochemistry Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, B. A.; Robinson, E.

    1992-06-01

    The goal of the Mauna Loa Observatory Photochemistry Experiment is to investigate the distributions, trends, and behavior of reactive photochemically related species in the remote Pacific. Concurrent measurements of selected odd nitrogen constituents, hydrocarbons, peroxides, organic acids, formaldehyde, and other species were carried out from May 1 to June 4, 1988 at the Mauna Loa Observatory. The emphasis of the experiment was on the budget and partitioning of odd species. Results provide a first glimpse of the magnitude and possible causes of the temporal variability of short-lived species at a remote maritime site.

  1. Required technologies for lunar astronomical observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Wetzel, John P.

    1992-01-01

    Each of the major new observatories proposed to take advantage of the characteristics of the lunar environment requires appropriate advances in technology. These technologies are in the areas of contamination/interference control, test and evaluation, manufacturing, construction, autonomous operations and maintenance, power and heating/cooling, stable precision structures, optics, parabolic antennas, and communications/control. Telescopes for the lunar surface need to be engineered to operate for long periods with minimal intervention by humans or robots. What is essential for lunar observatory operation is enforcement of a systems engineering approach that makes compatible all lunar operations associated with habitation, resource development, and science.

  2. The Michael Britton Observatory of Dickinson College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Morgan, W. A.; Drake, J.; Connelly, J. L.

    2004-12-01

    The Tome Scientific Building, built as a new home for the Physics and Astronomy, Mathematics and Computer Sciences programs of Dickinson College, includes a distinctive architectural feature known as the "conoid". A structurally separate unit, the conoid serves as the home for Dickinson's Kanev Planetarium and Britton Observatory. The 24 inch DFM Engineering telescope of the Britton Observatory has been used to support a number of student research projects as well as laboratory exercises for upper level astrophysics courses. Several typical projects will be discussed.

  3. Current Status of the Russian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, Oleg Y.; Dluzhnevskaya, Olga B.; Kilpio, Elena Y.; Kilpio, Alexander A.; Kovaleva, Dana A.

    The Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO) has been officially recognized as one of the key projects of the Scientific Council on Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences since December 2001. The ultimate goal of the RVO initiative is to integrate resources of astronomical data accumulated in Russian observatories and institutions and to provide Russian data to the rest of the world. One of the principal goals of the project is to provide Russian researchers with on-line access to the rich volumes of data and metadata that have been and will continue to be produced by astronomical survey projects. RVO architecture main tasks and roadmap are discussed in the presentation.

  4. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Arrives at KSC for Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    's most powerful X-ray telescope to allow scientists to monitor cosmic events that are invisible to conventional optical telescopes. Chandra's X-ray images will yield new insight into celestial phenomena such as the temperature and extent of gas clouds that comprise clusters of galaxies and the superheating of gas and dust particles as they swirl into black holes. Chandra, previously known as the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), is the third in NASA's family of Great Observatories that includes the Hubble Space Telescope and the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. NASA News National Aeronautics and Space Administration John F. Kennedy Space Center Kennedy Space Center, Florida 32899

  5. Fatigue Management Strategies for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendrick, Gregg

    2012-01-01

    Operation of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy entails a great deal of night-time work, with the potential for both acute and chronic sleep loss, as well as circadian rhythm dysynchrony. Such fatigue can result in performance decrements, with an increased risk of operator error. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center manages this fatigue risk by means of a layered approach, to include: 1) Education and Training 2) Work Schedule Scoring 3) Obtained Sleep Metrics 4) Workplace and Operational Mitigations and 5) Incident or Accident Investigation. Specifically, quantitative estimation of the work schedule score, as well as the obtained sleep metric, allows Supervisors and Managers to better manage the risk of fatigue within the context of mission requirements.

  6. UBV Photometry of P Cygni at the Abastumani Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochiashvili, N.; Beradze, S.; Kochiashvili, I.; Janiashvili, E.; Natsvlishvili, R.; Urushadze, T.; Vardosanidze, M.

    2014-09-01

    We present B photometric data of 1935-1937 years period and recalculated UBV photometric observational data of the Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) star, hypergiant P Cygni, which were gathered during more than 30 years at the Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory. Until recent decades, it was considered that all LBVs are single, massive, high luminosity stars. Now for several of this type of stars the companion is found. The opinion exists that P Cygni also has a companion with orbital period of about seven years. According to this hypothesis a well-known powerful eruption could happen near periastron point. Around P Cygni there exists the nebula arising after the giant eruption. Because the real reason of characteristic light variability of P Cygni not established yet, therefore, it is of great significance in any of the observational data, which may be very important for specification of parameters during a model calculations. So, we think above mentioned photoelectric observations would be also interesting.

  7. AugerPrime: the upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarazin, Frederic; Pierre Auger Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The nature and origin of ultra-high energy cosmic-rays (UHECRs) remain largely a mystery despite a wealth of new information obtained in recent years at the Pierre Auger Observatory and elsewhere. Mass composition studies performed at Auger appear to challenge the historical view that the UHECR primaries (at least for energies greater than 1019 eV) are all protons, and the observation of a GZK-like flux suppression in the cosmic-ray spectrum is counterbalanced by the absence of point source observations and the relatively weak anisotropy of the UHECR sky. In order to resolve this apparent contradiction, the Pierre Auger collaboration is embarking in an upgrade of the Observatory (``AugerPrime'') with the goal of extending the mass composition measurements beyond the observed flux suppression. In this presentation, the science case for the upgrade and its technical realization will be described and discussed especially with regards to the existence of GZK photons and neutrinos. NSF PHY-1506486.

  8. Gamma-Ray Astronomy with the Hawc Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, Robert J.

    2014-03-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is a wide field-of-view gamma-ray detector, sensitive to primary energies between 50 GeV and 100 TeV. The array is being built at an altitude of 4,100 m on the Sierra Negra volcano in Puebla, Mexico. With a duty cycle close to 100% and a daily coverage of 8 sr of the sky above it, HAWC is ideally suited to detect bright transient events at TeV energies such as gamma-ray bursts or flares from active galactic nuclei. The array will provide an unbiased survey of gamma-ray sources at energies above 100 GeV and probe the origins of astrophysical photon emission at the highest energies. The modular design of HAWC made it possible to start data taking in September 2012 with a partial array. Operation continues while the number of water Cherenkov detectors is growing, which allowed a smooth transition to full scientific operation with 111 detectors in August 2013. The completion of the full array with 300 detectors is planned for the summer of 2014. In these proceedings, we will give an overview of the status and performance of the HAWC observatory and discuss observation strategies for various gamma-ray phenomena.

  9. Possible Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of gravitational waves was established by the discovery of the Binary Pulsar PSR 1913+16 by Hulse and Taylor in 1974, for which they were awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize. However, it is the exploitation of these gravitational waves for the extraction of the astrophysical parameters of the sources that will open the first new astronomical window since the development of gamma ray telescopes in the 1970's and enable a new era of discovery and understanding of the Universe. Direct detection is expected in at least two frequency bands from the ground before the end of the decade with Advanced LIGO and Pulsar Timing Arrays. However, many of the most exciting sources will be continuously observable in the band from 0.1-100 mHz, accessible only from space due to seismic noise and gravity gradients in that band that disturb ground-based observatories. This poster will discuss a possible mission concept, Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory (SGO-Mid) developed from the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) reference mission but updated to reduce risk and cost.

  10. Great magnetic storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Lee, Yen T.; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Tang, Frances

    1992-01-01

    The five largest magnetic storms that occurred between 1971 to 1986 are studied to determine their solar and interplanetary causes. All of the events are found to be associated with high speed solar wind streams led by collisionless shocks. The high speed streams are clearly related to identifiable solar flares. It is found that: (1) it is the extreme values of the southward interplanetary magnetic fields rather than solar wind speeds that are the primary causes of great magnetic storms, (2) shocked and draped sheath fields preceding the driver gas (magnetic cloud) are at least as effective in causing the onset of great magnetic storms (3 of 5 events) as the strong fields within the driver gas itself, and (3) precursor southward fields ahead of the high speed streams allow the shock compression mechanism (item 2) to be particularly geoeffective.

  11. The Plate Boundary Observatory Cascadia Network: Development and Installation of a Large Scale Real-time GPS Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, K. E.; Blume, F.; Berglund, H. T.; Dittman, T.; Feaux, K.; Gallaher, W. W.; Mattioli, G. S.; Mencin, D.; Walls, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), through a NSF-ARRA supplement, has enhanced the geophysical infrastructure in in the Pacific Northwest by upgrading 232 Plate Boundary Observatory GPS stations to allow the collection and distribution of high-rate (1 Hz), low-latency (<1 s) data streams (RT-GPS). These upgraded stations supplemented the original 100 RT-GPS stations in the PBO GPS network. The addition of the new RT-GPS sites in the Pacific Northwest should spur new volcano and earthquake research opportunities in an area of great scientific interest and high geophysical hazard. Streaming RT-GPS data will enable researchers to detect and investigate strong ground motion during large geophysical events, including a possible plate-interface earthquake, which has implications for earthquake hazard mitigation. A total of 282 PBO stations were upgraded and added to the UNAVCO real-time GPS system, along with addition of 22 new meteorological instruments to existing PBO stations. Extensive testing of BGAN satellite communications systems has been conducted to support the Cascadia RT-GPS upgrades and the installation of three BGAN satellite fail over systems along the Cascadia margin will allow for the continuation of data flow in the event of a loss of primary communications during in a large geophysical event or other interruptions in commercial cellular networks. In summary, with these additional upgrades in the Cascadia region, the PBO RT-GPS network will increase to 420 stations. Upgrades to UNAVCO's data infrastructure included evaluation and purchase of the Trimble Pivot Platform, servers, and additional hardware for archiving the high rate data. UNAVCO staff is working closely with the UNAVCO community to develop data standards, protocols, and a science plan for the use of RT-GPS data.

  12. Great Lakes Demonstration 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Representatives from CG Districts 1, 5 , 13, and 17  Enbridge Pipeline, Co.  EPA  National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)  Observers (CG...distances from the vessel‟s hull. (Figure 5 ) In that configuration, the recovery hose and hydraulic lines dragged across the surface of the nearby...No. CG-D-08-12 2. Government Accession Number 3. Recipient’s Catalog No. 4. Title and Subtitle Great Lakes Demonstration 2 Final Report 5

  13. Not so Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, “September of My Years” “Early Bird,” the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  14. Not so Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, "September of My Years;" "Early Bird," the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  15. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J. Iwan

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  16. NASA Announces Contest to Name X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-04-01

    NASA is searching for a new name for the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), currently scheduled for launch Dec. 3, 1998, from the Space Shuttle Columbia. AXAF is the third of NASA's Great Observatories, after the Hubble Space Telescope and the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Once in orbit around Earth, it will explore hot, turbulent regions in the universe where X-rays are produced. Dr. Alan Bunner, director of NASA's Structure and Evolution of the universe science program, will announce April 18 at the National Science Teacher's Association meeting in Las Vegas, NV, the start of a contest, open to people worldwide, to find a new name for the observatory. Entries should contain the name of a person (not living), place, or thing from history, mythology, or fiction. Contestants should describe in a few sentences why this choice would be a good name for AXAF. The name must not have been used before on space missions by NASA or other organizations or countries. The grand prize will be a trip to NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, FL, to see the launch of the satellite aboard the Space Shuttle. Ten runner-up prizes will be awarded and all entrants will receive an AXAF poster. The grand prize is sponsored by TRW Inc., AXAF's prime contractor. The AXAF Science Center in Cambridge, MA, will run the contest for NASA. NASA will announce the final selection of the winning name later this year. Entries also can be mailed to: AXAF Contest, AXAF Science Center, Office of Education and Public Outreach, 60 Garden Street, MS 83, Cambridge, MA 02138. Mailed entries must be postmarked no later than June 30, 1998. All entries must state a name for the mission, along with the reason the name would make a good choice. The observatory, now in the final stages of assembly and testing at TRW's facility in Redondo Beach, CA, is more than 45 feet long and weighs 10,500 pounds. AXAF is the largest and most powerful X-ray observatory ever constructed, and its images will be

  17. Great Basin Paleontological Bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, Robert B.; Zhang, Ning; Hofstra, Albert H.; Morrow, Jared R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This work was conceived as a derivative product for 'The Metallogeny of the Great Basin' project of the Mineral Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. In the course of preparing a fossil database for the Great Basin that could be accessed from the Internet, it was determined that a comprehensive paleontological bibliography must first be compiled, something that had not previously been done. This bibliography includes published papers and abstracts as well as unpublished theses and dissertations on fossils and stratigraphy in Nevada and adjoining portions of California and Utah. This bibliography is broken into first-order headings by geologic age, secondary headings by taxonomic group, followed by ancillary topics of interest to both paleontologists and stratigraphers; paleoecology, stratigraphy, sedimentary petrology, paleogeography, tectonics, and petroleum potential. References were derived from usage of Georef, consultation with numerous paleontologists and geologists working in the Great Basin, and literature currently on hand with the authors. As this is a Web-accessible bibliography, we hope to periodically update it with new citations or older references that we have missed during this compilation. Hence, the authors would be grateful to receive notice of any new or old papers that the readers think should be added. As a final note, we gratefully acknowledge the helpful reviews provided by A. Elizabeth J. Crafford (Anchorage, Alaska) and William R. Page (USGS, Denver, Colorado).

  18. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  19. International lunar observatory / power station: from Hawaii to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durst, S.

    Astronomy's great advantages from the Moon are well known - stable surface, diffuse atmosphere, long cool nights (14 days), low gravity, far side radio frequency silence. A large variety of astronomical instruments and observations are possible - radio, optical and infrared telescopes and interferometers; interferometry for ultra- violet to sub -millimeter wavelengths and for very long baselines, including Earth- Moon VLBI; X-ray, gamma-ray, cosmic ray and neutrino detection; very low frequency radio observation; and more. Unparalleled advantages of lunar observatories for SETI, as well as for local surveillance, Earth observation, and detection of Earth approaching objects add significant utility to lunar astronomy's superlatives. At least nine major conferences in the USA since 1984 and many elsewhere, as well as ILEWG, IAF, IAA, LEDA and other organizations' astronomy-from-the-Moon research indicate a lunar observatory / power station, robotic at first, will be one of the first mission elements for a permanent lunar base. An international lunar observatory will be a transcending enterprise, highly principled, indispensable, soundly and broadly based, and far- seeing. Via Astra - From Hawaii to the Moon: The astronomy and scie nce communities, national space agencies and aerospace consortia, commercial travel and tourist enterprises and those aspiring to advance humanity's best qualities, such as Aloha, will recognize Hawaii in the 21st century as a new major support area and pan- Pacific port of embarkation to space, the Moon and beyond. Astronomical conditions and facilities on Hawaii's Mauna Kea provide experience for construction and operation of observatories on the Moon. Remote and centrally isolated, with diffuse atmosphere, sub-zero temperature and limited working mobility, the Mauna Kea complex atop the 4,206 meter summit of the largest mountain on the planet hosts the greatest collection of large astronomical telescopes on Earth. Lunar, extraterrestrial

  20. Benthic long-term Observatories based on Lander Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linke, P.; Pfannkuche, O.; Sommer, S.; Gubsch, S.; Gust, G.

    2003-04-01

    Landers are autonomous carrier systems for a wide range of scientific applications. The GEOMAR Lander System is based on a tripod-shaped platform for various scientific payloads to monitor, measure and experiment at the deep sea floor. These landers can be deployed using hybrid fibre optical or coaxial cables with a special launching device or in the conventional free falling mode. The launcher enables accurate positioning on meter scale, soft deployment and rapid disconnection of lander and launcher by an electric release. The bi-directional video and data telemetry provides on line video transmission, power supply and surface control of various relay functions. Within the collaborative project LOTUS novel long-term observatories have been developed and integrated into the GEOMAR Lander System. An overview of the recent developments is presented. Two new observatories are presented in detail to study the temporal variability of physico-chemical and biogeochemical mechanisms, flux- and turnover rates related to the decomposition and formation of near surface gas hydrates embedded in their original sedimentary matrix. With the Biogeochemical Observatory, BIGO, the temporal variability of the biologically facilitated methane turnover in the sediment and fluxes across the sediment water interface is studied in two mesocosms. Inside the mesocosms the oxygen content can be maintained by a chemostat. The in situ flow regime is measured outside the mesocosms and is reproduced within the chamber with an intelligent stirring system. This approach represents a major step in the development of benthic chambers from stationary to dynamic systems. The Fluid-Flux Observatory (FLUFO) measures the different types of fluid fluxes at the benthic boundary layer of sediments overlying near surface gas hydrates and monitors relevant environmental parameters as temperature, pressure and near bottom currents. FLUFO consists of two chamber units. Both units separate the gas phase from the

  1. Metsahovi Radio Observatory - IVS Network Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uunila, Minttu; Zubko, Nataliya; Poutanen, Markku; Kallunki, Juha; Kallio, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, Metsahovi Radio Observatory together with Finnish Geodetic Institute officially became an IVS Network Station. Eight IVS sessions were observed during the year. Two spacecraft tracking and one EVN X-band experiment were also performed. In 2012, the Metsahovi VLBI equipment was upgraded with a Digital Base Band Converter, a Mark 5B+, a FILA10G, and a FlexBuff.

  2. Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) accommodations requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Results of an accommodations analysis for the Advanced Solar Observatory on Space Station Freedom are reported. Concepts for the High Resolution Telescope Cluster, Pinhole/Occulter Facility, and High Energy Cluster were developed which can be accommodated on Space Station Freedom. It is shown that workable accommodations concepts are possible. Areas of emphasis for the next stage of engineering development are identified.

  3. Education and public engagement in observatory operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabor, Pavel; Mayo, Louis; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2016-07-01

    Education and public engagement (EPE) is an essential part of astronomy's mission. New technologies, remote observing and robotic facilities are opening new possibilities for EPE. A number of projects (e.g., Telescopes In Education, MicroObservatory, Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope and UNC's Skynet) have developed new infrastructure, a number of observatories (e.g., University of Arizona's "full-engagement initiative" towards its astronomy majors, Vatican Observatory's collaboration with high-schools) have dedicated their resources to practical instruction and EPE. Some of the facilities are purpose built, others are legacy telescopes upgraded for remote or automated observing. Networking among institutions is most beneficial for EPE, and its implementation ranges from informal agreements between colleagues to advanced software packages with web interfaces. The deliverables range from reduced data to time and hands-on instruction while operating a telescope. EPE represents a set of tasks and challenges which is distinct from research applications of the new astronomical facilities and operation modes. In this paper we examine the experience with several EPE projects, and some lessons and challenges for observatory operation.

  4. SOFIA - Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, E. F.

    1992-01-01

    The features and scientific aims of SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy), a planned 2.5 m telescope to be installed in an aircraft and operated at altitudes from 41,000 to 46,000 ft, are discussed. A brief overview of the SOFIA program is given.

  5. The Cape Observatory: all Categories of Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Ian S.

    2012-09-01

    In this presentation I will give an outline of the various types of heritage related to the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope, established in 1820 and now the headquarters campus of the South African Astronomical Observatory, located quite close to downtown Cape Town. In terms of tangible, fixed heritage, the campus itself, the domes and the various other buildings are obviously relevant. This category includes the Classical Revival Main Building of 1828 and the McClean dome of 1895 by the leading colonial architect Herbert Baker as well as many other buildings and even the graves of two directors. Tangible movable items include, in principle, the telescopes, the accessory instruments and many pieces of apparatus that have been preserved. In addition, extensive collections of antique paintings, drawings, furniture and books add to the site's cultural significance. Many of the Observatory's archives are still kept locally. The intangible heritage of the Observatory consists for example of its history, its major discoveries, its interaction with the City, its central role in the history of science in South Africa and its appeal as a living cultural institution. Especially notable were the observations by Henderson (ca 1831) leading to the distance of a Cen and the early sky survey known as the Cape Photographic Durchmusterung.

  6. Reengineering observatory operations for the time domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, Robert L.; Vestrand, W. T.; Hessman, Frederic V.

    2014-07-01

    Observatories are complex scientific and technical institutions serving diverse users and purposes. Their telescopes, instruments, software, and human resources engage in interwoven workflows over a broad range of timescales. These workflows have been tuned to be responsive to concepts of observatory operations that were applicable when various assets were commissioned, years or decades in the past. The astronomical community is entering an era of rapid change increasingly characterized by large time domain surveys, robotic telescopes and automated infrastructures, and - most significantly - of operating modes and scientific consortia that span our individual facilities, joining them into complex network entities. Observatories must adapt and numerous initiatives are in progress that focus on redesigning individual components out of the astronomical toolkit. New instrumentation is both more capable and more complex than ever, and even simple instruments may have powerful observation scripting capabilities. Remote and queue observing modes are now widespread. Data archives are becoming ubiquitous. Virtual observatory standards and protocols and astroinformatics data-mining techniques layered on these are areas of active development. Indeed, new large-aperture ground-based telescopes may be as expensive as space missions and have similarly formal project management processes and large data management requirements. This piecewise approach is not enough. Whatever challenges of funding or politics facing the national and international astronomical communities it will be more efficient - scientifically as well as in the usual figures of merit of cost, schedule, performance, and risks - to explicitly address the systems engineering of the astronomical community as a whole.

  7. The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafá, Miguel A.

    2014-10-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a large field of view, continuously operated, TeV γ-ray experiment under construction at 4,100 m a.s.l. in Mexico. The HAWC observatory will have an order of magnitude better sensitivity, angular resolution, and background rejection than its predecessor, the Milagro experiment. The improved performance will allow us to detect both the transient and steady emissions, to study the Galactic diffuse emission at TeV energies, and to measure or constrain the TeV spectra of GeV γ-ray sources. In addition, HAWC will be the only ground-based instrument capable of detecting prompt emission from γ-ray bursts above 50 GeV. The HAWC observatory will consist of an array of 300 water Cherenkov detectors (WCDs), each with four photomultiplier tubes. This array is currently under construction on the flanks of the Sierra Negra volcano near the city of Puebla, Mexico. The first 30 WCDs (forming an array approximately the size of Milagro) were deployed in Summer 2012, and 100 WCDs will be taking data by May, 2013. We present in this paper the motivation for constructing the HAWC observatory, the status of the deployment, and the first results from the constantly growing array.

  8. The Arecibo Observatory Visitor and Educational Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altschuler, Daniel R.

    1994-12-01

    As the world's largest single-dish radio telescope, Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico attracts thousands of visitors each year of all ages and from many countries. Pride in the Observatory has caused local Puerto Rican organizations to contribute the funds necessary for the construction of the new Arecibo Observatory Visitor and Educational Facility (AOVEF). Funds to develop the exhibits were obtained through a grant from the National Science Foundation. The Observatory is the main facility of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, which is operated by Cornell University under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. The AOVEF consists of approximately 9,000 square feet of building and outdoor program space. It will house about 3500 square feet of exhibits, a 100 person multi-purpose theater, a science merchandise store and appropriate meeting rooms and workspace. We expect to be able to begin construction in early 1995. Based on current experience, we anticipate that half of the expected 100,000 visitors per year will be school children brought by buses from their schools and half will be families and individuals, coming for a visit on their own. Details about our project and a discussion of the contents of the exhibitions which are being prepared will be presented.

  9. MMS Observatory TV Results Contamination Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosecrans, Glenn; Brieda, Lubos; Errigo, Therese

    2014-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission is a constellation of 4 observatories designed to investigate the fundamental plasma physics of reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere. The various instrument suites measure electric and magnetic fields, energetic particles, and plasma composition. Each spacecraft has undergone extensive environmental testing to prepare it for its minimum 2 year mission. In this paper, we report on the extensive thermal vacuum testing campaign. The testing was performed at the Naval Research Laboratory utilizing the "Big Blue" vacuum chamber. A total of ten thermal vacuum tests were performed, including two chamber certifications, three dry runs, and five tests of the individual MMS observatories. During the test, the observatories were enclosed in a thermal enclosure known as the "hamster cage". The enclosure allowed for a detailed thermal control of various observatory zone, but at the same time, imposed additional contamination and system performance requirements. The environment inside the enclosure and the vacuum chamber was actively monitored by several QCMs, RGA, and up to 18 ion gauges. Each spacecraft underwent a bakeout phase, which was followed by 4 thermal cycles. Unique aspects of the TV campaign included slow pump downs with a partial represses, thruster firings, Helium identification, and monitoring pressure spikes with ion gauges. Selected data from these TV tests is presented along with lessons learned.

  10. The Russian Virtual Observatory: Recent Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, O.; Dluzhnevskaya, O.; Kilpio, E.; Kovaleva, D.

    2006-04-01

    The Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO) is a collaborative effort by Russian astronomy researches and computer scientists to develop astronomical data and tools which have proved to be very useful for the international astronomical community. The paper reviews the current status of the RVO project and planned developments.

  11. The Baker Observatory Robotic Autonomous Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, L. L.; Reed, M. D.; Thompson, M. A.; Gilker, J. T.

    We describe the Baker Observatory Robotic Autonomous Telescope project. The hardware includes a 16 inch Meade LX-200 telescope, an AstroHaven 7 feet dome, an Apogee U47 CCD camera and filter wheel, a Boltwood Cloud Sensor II, and various other minor hardware. We are implementing RTS2 for the Telescope Control System and incorporating custom drivers for ancillary systems.

  12. Remote Control Southern Hemisphere SSA Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, I.; Pearson, M.; Sang, J.

    2013-09-01

    EOS Space Systems (EOSSS) is a research and development company which has developed custom observatories, camera and telescope systems for space surveillance since 1996, as well as creating several evolutions of systems control software for control of observatories and laser tracking systems. Our primary reserach observatory is the Space Reserach Centre (SRC) at Mount Stromlo Asutralia. The current SRC control systems are designed such that remote control can be offered for real time data collection, noise filtering and flexible session management. Several imaging fields of view are available simultaneously for tracking orbiting objects, with real time imaging to Mag 18. Orbiting objects can have the centroids post processed into orbital determination/ orbital projection (OD/OP) elements. With or without laser tracking of orbiting objects, they can be tracked in terminator conditions and their OD/OP data created, then enhanced by proprietary methods involving ballistic coefficient estimation and OD convergence pinning, using a priori radar elements. Sensors in development include a thermal imager for satellite thermal signature detection. Extending laser tracking range by use of adaptive optics beam control is also in development now. This Southern Hemisphere observatory is in a unique position to facilitate the study of space debris, either stand-alone or as part of a network such as Falcon. Current national and international contracts will enhance the remote control capabilities further, creating a resource ready to go for a wide variety of SSA missions.

  13. Microbial diversity within Juan de Fuca ridge basement fluids sampled from oceanic borehole observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungbluth, S.; Bowers, R.; Lin, H.; Hsieh, C.; Cowen, J. P.; Rappé, M.

    2012-12-01

    Three generations of sampling and instrumentation platforms known as Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK) observatories affixed to Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) boreholes are providing unrivaled access to fluids originating from 1.2-3.5 million-years (Myr) old basaltic crust of the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca ridge. Borehole fluid samples obtained via a custom seafloor fluid pumping and sampling system coupled to CORK continuous fluid delivery lines are yielding critical insights into the biogeochemistry and nature of microbial life inhabiting the sediment-covered basement environment. Direct microscopic enumeration revealed microbial cell abundances that are 2-41% of overlying bottom seawater. Snapshots of basement fluid microbial diversity and community structure have been obtained through small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene cloning and sequencing from five boreholes that access a range of basement ages and temperatures at the sediment-basement interface. SSU rRNA gene clones were derived from four different CORK installations (1026B, 1301A, 1362A, and 1362B) accessing relatively warmer (65°C) and older (3.5 Myr) ridge flank, and one location (1025C) accessing relatively cooler (39°C) and younger (1.2 Myr) ridge flank, revealing that warmer basement fluids had higher microbial diversity. A sampling time-series collected from borehole 1301A has revealed a microbial community that is temporally variable, with the dominant lineages changing between years. Each of the five boreholes sampled contained a unique microbial assemblage, however, common members are found from both cultivated and uncultivated lineages within the archaeal and bacterial domains, including meso- and thermophilic microbial lineages involved with sulfur cycling (e.g Thiomicrospira, Sulfurimonas, Desulfocapsa, Desulfobulbus). In addition, borehole fluid environmental gene clones were also closely related to uncultivated lineages

  14. Building a Cloud Infrastructure for a Virtual Environmental Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-khatib, Y.; Blair, G. S.; Gemmell, A. L.; Gurney, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental science is often fragmented: data is collected by different organizations using mismatched formats and conventions, and models are misaligned and run in isolation. Cloud computing offers a lot of potential in the way of resolving such issues by supporting data from different sources and at various scales, and integrating models to create more sophisticated and collaborative software services. The Environmental Virtual Observatory pilot (EVOp) project, funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council, aims to demonstrate how cloud computing principles and technologies can be harnessed to develop more effective solutions to pressing environmental issues. The EVOp infrastructure is a tailored one constructed from resources in both private clouds (owned and managed by us) and public clouds (leased from third party providers). All system assets are accessible via a uniform web service interface in order to enable versatile and transparent resource management, and to support fundamental infrastructure properties such as reliability and elasticity. The abstraction that this 'everything as a service' principle brings also supports mashups, i.e. combining different web services (such as models) and data resources of different origins (in situ gauging stations, warehoused data stores, external sources, etc.). We adopt the RESTful style of web services in order to draw a clear line between client and server (i.e. cloud host) and also to keep the server completely stateless. This significantly improves the scalability of the infrastructure and enables easy infrastructure management. For instance, tasks such as load balancing and failure recovery are greatly simplified without the need for techniques such as advance resource reservation or shared block devices. Upon this infrastructure, we developed a web portal composed of a bespoke collection of web-based visualization tools to help bring out relationships or patterns within the data. The portal was

  15. Bruce Medalists at the Mt. Wilson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenn, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    The institution which succeeded the Mt. Wilson Station of Yerkes Observatory in 1904 has had six names and three sites. From 1948-1980 it was united with Caltech's Palomar Observatory, and since then its main observatory has been in Chile, though still headquartered on Santa Barbara Street in Pasadena. For more than half of the twentieth century it was the leading observatory in the world. One bit of evidence for this is the amazing number of its staff members awarded the Bruce Medal. The Catherine Wolfe Bruce Gold Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific has been awarded for lifetime contributions to astronomy since 1898. It is an international award. It wasn't until 1963 that the number of medalists who had worked primarily in the United States reached half the total. Yet fourteen of the first 87 medalists spent most of their careers at Mt. Wilson, including the period when it was Mt. Wilson and Palomar, and another three were Caltech observers who used the telescopes of the jointly operated observatory. Several more medalists made substantial use of the telescopes on Mt. Wilson and Palomar Mountain. We will discuss highlights of the careers of a number of these distinguished astronomers: directors George Ellery Hale, Walter Adams, Ira Bowen, and Horace Babcock; solar observer and satellite discoverer Seth Nicholson; instrument builder Harold Babcock; galactic and cosmological observers Frederick Seares, Edwin Hubble, Walter Baade, Rudolph Minkowski, and Allan Sandage; and spectroscopists Paul Merrill, Alfred Joy, Olin Wilson, Jesse Greenstein, Maarten Schmidt, and Wallace Sargent. We will touch briefly on others who used Mt. Wilson and/or Palomar, including Harlow Shapley, Joel Stebbins, Charlotte Moore Sitterly, Donald Osterbrock, and Albert Whitford.

  16. Development of Armenian-Georgian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Kochiashvili, Nino; Astsatryan, Hrach; Harutyunian, Haik; Magakyan, Tigran; Chargeishvili, Ketevan; Natsvlishvili, Rezo; Kukhianidze, Vasil; Ramishvili, Giorgi; Sargsyan, Lusine; Sinamyan, Parandzem; Kochiashvili, Ia; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2009-10-01

    The Armenian-Georgian Virtual Observatory (ArGVO) project is the first initiative in the world to create a regional VO infrastructure based on national VO projects and regional Grid. The Byurakan and Abastumani Astrophysical Observatories are scientific partners since 1946, after establishment of the Byurakan observatory . The Armenian VO project (ArVO) is being developed since 2005 and is a part of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). It is based on the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS, the digitized version of famous Markarian survey) and other Armenian archival data. Similarly, the Georgian VO will be created to serve as a research environment to utilize the digitized Georgian plate archives. Therefore, one of the main goals for creation of the regional VO is the digitization of large amounts of plates preserved at the plate stacks of these two observatories. The total amount of plates is more than 100,000 units. Observational programs of high importance have been selected and some 3000 plates will be digitized during the next two years; the priority is being defined by the usefulness of the material for future science projects, like search for new objects, optical identifications of radio, IR, and X-ray sources, study of variability and proper motions, etc. Having the digitized material in VO standards, a VO database through the regional Grid infrastructure will be active. This partnership is being carried out in the framework of the ISTC project A-1606 "Development of Armenian-Georgian Grid Infrastructure and Applications in the Fields of High Energy Physics, Astrophysics and Quantum Physics".

  17. Robust control system for the new 1.2-m telescopes of the Geneva Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russiniello, Giovanni B.; Huguenin, Daniel; Wildi, Francois P.

    2000-06-01

    This paper presents the distributed hardware and software architecture of this 1.2-meter telescope control system, entirely designed and built by the Geneva Observatory. The modular concept and the choices of hardware tested in industrial automation made it possible to obtain great operational robustness and guarantee for long-term maintenance. The adopted solution is based on a transputer tree-network. The interactions between telescope and observer are transparent and completely integrated in the observation software of the attached instrument.

  18. Measurements of airglow on Maunakea at Gemini Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Katherine C.; Smith, Adam; Stephens, Andrew; Smirnova, Olesja

    2016-07-01

    Gemini Observatory on Maunakea has been collecting optical and infrared science data for almost 15 years. We have begun a program to analyze imaging data from two of the original facility instruments, GMOS and NIRI, in order to measure sky brightness levels in multiple infrared and optical broad-band filters. The present work includes data from mid-2016 back through late-2008. We present measured background levels as a function of several operational quantities (e.g. moon phase, hours from twilight, season). We find that airglow is a significant contributor to background levels in several filters. Gemini is primarily a queue scheduled telescope, with observations being optimally executed in order to provide the most efficient use of telescope time. We find that while most parameters are well-understood, the atmospheric airglow remains challenging to predict. This makes it difficult to schedule observations which require dark skies in these filters, and we suggest improvements to ensure data quality.

  19. Great Basin paleontological database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, N.; Blodgett, R.B.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has constructed a paleontological database for the Great Basin physiographic province that can be served over the World Wide Web for data entry, queries, displays, and retrievals. It is similar to the web-database solution that we constructed for Alaskan paleontological data (www.alaskafossil.org). The first phase of this effort was to compile a paleontological bibliography for Nevada and portions of adjacent states in the Great Basin that has recently been completed. In addition, we are also compiling paleontological reports (Known as E&R reports) of the U.S. Geological Survey, which are another extensive source of l,egacy data for this region. Initial population of the database benefited from a recently published conodont data set and is otherwise focused on Devonian and Mississippian localities because strata of this age host important sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Au, Zn, and barite resources and enormons Carlin-type An deposits. In addition, these strata are the most important petroleum source rocks in the region, and record the transition from extension to contraction associated with the Antler orogeny, the Alamo meteorite impact, and biotic crises associated with global oceanic anoxic events. The finished product will provide an invaluable tool for future geologic mapping, paleontological research, and mineral resource investigations in the Great Basin, making paleontological data acquired over nearly the past 150 yr readily available over the World Wide Web. A description of the structure of the database and the web interface developed for this effort are provided herein. This database is being used ws a model for a National Paleontological Database (which we am currently developing for the U.S. Geological Survey) as well as for other paleontological databases now being developed in other parts of the globe. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  20. Operations of and Future Plans for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Performance and operation of the Surface Detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) Extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory using high-elevation fluorescence telescopes (HEAT); (3) AMIGA - Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Radio detection of Cosmic Rays at the southern Auger Observatory; (5) Hardware Developments for the AMIGA enhancement at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (6) A simulation of the fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory using GEANT 4; (7) Education and Public Outreach at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (8) BATATA: A device to characterize the punch-through observed in underground muon detectors and to operate as a prototype for AMIGA; and (9) Progress with the Northern Part of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  1. DETAIL, LOOKING EAST, OF PORTICO OF STANDARDIZING MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL, LOOKING EAST, OF PORTICO OF STANDARDIZING MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY. - Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Standardizing Magnetic Observatory, 5241 Broad Branch Drive Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. VIEW OF SOUTH FACADE OF STANDARDIZING MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY, LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTH FACADE OF STANDARDIZING MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY, LOOKING NORTH. - Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Standardizing Magnetic Observatory, 5241 Broad Branch Drive Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, OF PORTICO OF STANDARDIZING MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW, LOOKING EAST, OF PORTICO OF STANDARDIZING MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY. - Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Standardizing Magnetic Observatory, 5241 Broad Branch Drive Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. INTERIOR OF VESTIBULE OF STANDARDIZING MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY, LOOKING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF VESTIBULE OF STANDARDIZING MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Standardizing Magnetic Observatory, 5241 Broad Branch Drive Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. VIEW OF WEST AND NORTH FACADES OF STANDARDIZING MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WEST AND NORTH FACADES OF STANDARDIZING MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Standardizing Magnetic Observatory, 5241 Broad Branch Drive Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. Receipt of the Observatory at the Orbital Processing Facility

    NASA Video Gallery

    These series of photos show the receipt of the observatory at the Orbital processing facility at VAFB. The observatory was received on April 16, 2013 and transferred to its handling fixture and the...

  7. Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at the Danhenge Observatory Apr - Aug 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coley, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The lightcurves for three main-belt asteroids, 1413 Roucarie, 3385 Bronnina, and 39890 Bobstephens. All observations were taken from the DanHenge Observatory, one of 13 observatories at Goat Mountain Astronomical Research Station (GMARS - MPC G79).

  8. The Plate Boundary Observatory Cascadia Network: Development and Installation of a Large Scale Real-time GPS Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, K. E.; Blume, F.; Berglund, H. T.; Feaux, K.; Gallaher, W. W.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Mattioli, G. S.; Mencin, D.

    2014-12-01

    The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), through a NSF-ARRA supplement, has enhanced the geophysical infrastructure in in the Pacific Northwest by upgrading a total of 282 Plate Boundary Observatory GPS stations to allow the collection and distribution of high-rate (1 Hz), low-latency (<1 s) data streams (RT-GPS). These upgraded stations supplemented the original 100 RT-GPS stations in the PBO GPS network. The addition of the new RT-GPS sites in Cascadia should spur new volcano and earthquake research opportunities in an area of great scientific interest and high geophysical hazard. Streaming RT-GPS data will enable researchers to detect and investigate strong ground motion during large geophysical events, including a possible plate-interface earthquake, which has implications for earthquake hazard mitigation. A Mw 6.9 earthquake occurred on March 10, 2014, off the coast of northern California. As a response, UNAVCO downloaded high-rate GPS data from Plate Boundary Observatory stations within 500 km of the epicenter of the event, providing a good test of network performance.In addition to the 282 stations upgraded to real-time, 22 new meteorological instruments were added to existing PBO stations. Extensive testing of BGAN satellite communications systems has been conducted to support the Cascadia RT-GPS upgrades and the installation of three BGAN satellite fail over systems along the Cascadia margin will allow for the continuation of data flow in the event of a loss of primary communications during in a large geophysical event or other interruptions in commercial cellular networks. In summary, with these additional upgrades in the Cascadia region, the PBO RT-GPS network will increase to 420 stations. Upgrades to the UNAVCO data infrastructure included evaluation and purchase of the Trimble Pivot Platform, servers, and additional hardware for archiving the high rate data, as well as testing and implementation of GLONASS and Trimble RTX positioning on the

  9. Studying the Light Pollution around Urban Observatories: Columbus State University’s WestRock Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, Brendon Andrew; Johnson, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Light pollution plays an ever increasing role in the operations of observatories across the world. This is especially true in urban environments like Columbus, GA, where Columbus State University’s WestRock Observatory is located. Light pollution’s effects on an observatory include high background levels, which results in a lower signal to noise ratio. Overall, this will limit what the telescope can detect, and therefore limit the capabilities of the observatory as a whole.Light pollution has been mapped in Columbus before using VIIRS DNB composites. However, this approach did not provide the detailed resolution required to narrow down the problem areas around the vicinity of the observatory. The purpose of this study is to assess the current state of light pollution surrounding the WestRock observatory by measuring and mapping the brightness of the sky due to light pollution using light meters and geographic information system (GIS) software.Compared to VIIRS data this study allows for an improved spatial resolution and a direct measurement of the sky background. This assessment will enable future studies to compare their results to the baseline established here, ensuring that any changes to the way the outdoors are illuminated and their effects can be accurately measured, and counterbalanced.

  10. The great human expansion.

    PubMed

    Henn, Brenna M; Cavalli-Sforza, L L; Feldman, Marcus W

    2012-10-30

    Genetic and paleoanthropological evidence is in accord that today's human population is the result of a great demic (demographic and geographic) expansion that began approximately 45,000 to 60,000 y ago in Africa and rapidly resulted in human occupation of almost all of the Earth's habitable regions. Genomic data from contemporary humans suggest that this expansion was accompanied by a continuous loss of genetic diversity, a result of what is called the "serial founder effect." In addition to genomic data, the serial founder effect model is now supported by the genetics of human parasites, morphology, and linguistics. This particular population history gave rise to the two defining features of genetic variation in humans: genomes from the substructured populations of Africa retain an exceptional number of unique variants, and there is a dramatic reduction in genetic diversity within populations living outside of Africa. These two patterns are relevant for medical genetic studies mapping genotypes to phenotypes and for inferring the power of natural selection in human history. It should be appreciated that the initial expansion and subsequent serial founder effect were determined by demographic and sociocultural factors associated with hunter-gatherer populations. How do we reconcile this major demic expansion with the population stability that followed for thousands years until the inventions of agriculture? We review advances in understanding the genetic diversity within Africa and the great human expansion out of Africa and offer hypotheses that can help to establish a more synthetic view of modern human evolution.

  11. Original Misunderstanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Humorist Josh Billings quipped, "About the most originality that any writer can hope to achieve honestly is to steal with good judgment." Billings was harsh in his view of originality, but his critique reveals a tension faced by students every time they write a history paper. Research is the essence of any history paper. Especially in high school,…

  12. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was

  13. Virtual Observatory and Distributed Data Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borne, Kirk D.

    2012-03-01

    New modes of discovery are enabled by the growth of data and computational resources (i.e., cyberinfrastructure) in the sciences. This cyberinfrastructure includes structured databases, virtual observatories (distributed data, as described in Section 20.2.1 of this chapter), high-performance computing (petascale machines), distributed computing (e.g., the Grid, the Cloud, and peer-to-peer networks), intelligent search and discovery tools, and innovative visualization environments. Data streams from experiments, sensors, and simulations are increasingly complex and growing in volume. This is true in most sciences, including astronomy, climate simulations, Earth observing systems, remote sensing data collections, and sensor networks. At the same time, we see an emerging confluence of new technologies and approaches to science, most clearly visible in the growing synergism of the four modes of scientific discovery: sensors-modeling-computing-data (Eastman et al. 2005). This has been driven by numerous developments, including the information explosion, development of large-array sensors, acceleration in high-performance computing (HPC) power, advances in algorithms, and efficient modeling techniques. Among these, the most extreme is the growth in new data. Specifically, the acquisition of data in all scientific disciplines is rapidly accelerating and causing a data glut (Bell et al. 2007). It has been estimated that data volumes double every year—for example, the NCSA (National Center for Supercomputing Applications) reported that their users cumulatively generated one petabyte of data over the first 19 years of NCSA operation, but they then generated their next one petabyte in the next year alone, and the data production has been growing by almost 100% each year after that (Butler 2008). The NCSA example is just one of many demonstrations of the exponential (annual data-doubling) growth in scientific data collections. In general, this putative data-doubling is an

  14. Orbiting Astronomical Observatory-C (OAO-C): Press kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allaway, H. G.

    1972-01-01

    Mission planning for the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory-C (OAO-C) is presented. The characteristics of the observatory and its capabilities are described. The following experiments are discussed: (1) Princeton Experiment Package, (2) X-ray experiment, and (3) guest investigator program. Results of the OAO-2 observatory are presented. A tabulation of flight events is included.

  15. Native Great Lakes wolves were not restored.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Jennifer A; Wayne, Robert K

    2008-02-23

    Wolves from the Great Lakes area were historically decimated due to habitat loss and predator control programmes. Under the protection of the US Endangered Species Act, the population has rebounded to approximately 3000 individuals. We show that the pre-recovery population was dominated by mitochondrial DNA haplotypes from an endemic American wolf referred to here as the Great Lakes wolf. In contrast, the recent population is admixed, and probably derives also from the grey wolf (Canis lupus) of Old World origin and the coyote (Canis latrans). Consequently, the pre-recovery population has not been restored, casting doubt on delisting actions.

  16. ESO's First Observatory Celebrates 40th Anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    ESO's La Silla Observatory, which is celebrating its 40th anniversary, became the largest astronomical observatory of its time. It led Europe to the frontline of astronomical research, and is still one of the most scientifically productive in ground-based astronomy. ESO PR Photo 12a/09 La Silla Aerial View ESO PR Photo 12b/09 The ESO New Technology Telescope ESO PR Photo 12c/09 SEST on La Silla ESO PR Photo 12d/09 Looking for the best site ESO PR Video 12a/09 ESOcast 5 With about 300 refereed publications attributable to the work of the observatory per year, La Silla remains at the forefront of astronomy. It has led to an enormous number of scientific discoveries, including several "firsts". The HARPS spectrograph is the world's foremost exoplanet hunter. It detected the system around Gliese 581, which contains what may be the first known rocky planet in a habitable zone, outside the Solar System (ESO 22/07). Several telescopes at La Silla played a crucial role in discovering that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating (ESO 21/98) and in linking gamma-ray bursts -- the most energetic explosions in the Universe since the Big Bang - with the explosions of massive stars (ESO 15/98). Since 1987, the ESO La Silla Observatory has also played an important role in the study and follow-up of the nearest supernova, SN 1987A (ESO 08/07). "The La Silla Observatory continues to offer the astronomical community exceptional capabilities," says ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. "It was ESO's first presence in Chile and as such, it triggered a very long and fruitful collaboration with this country and its scientific community." The La Silla Observatory is located at the edge of the Chilean Atacama Desert, one of the driest and loneliest areas of the world. Like other observatories in this geographical area, La Silla is located far from sources of polluting light and, as the Paranal Observatory that houses the Very Large Telescope, it has one of the darkest and clearest

  17. The Great Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, Jack

    1989-11-01

    This lively history of the development of science and its relationship to society combines vivid biographies of twelve pivotal scientists, commentary on the social and historical events of their time, and over four hundred illustrations, including many in color. The biographies span from classical times to the Atomic Age, covering Aristotle, Galileo, Harvey, Newton, Lavoisier, Humboldt, Faraday, Darwin, Pasteur, Curie, Freud, and Einstein. Through the biographies and a wealth of other material, the volume reveals how social forces have influenced the course of science. Along with the highly informative color illustrations, it contains much archival material never before published, ranging from medieval woodcuts, etchings from Renaissance anatomy texts, and pages from Harvey's journal, to modern false-color x-rays and infrared photographs of solar flares. A beautifully-designed, fact-filled, stimulating work, The Great Scientists will fascinate anyone with an interest in science and how history can influence scientific discovery.

  18. The great human expansion

    PubMed Central

    Henn, Brenna M.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. L.; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic and paleoanthropological evidence is in accord that today’s human population is the result of a great demic (demographic and geographic) expansion that began approximately 45,000 to 60,000 y ago in Africa and rapidly resulted in human occupation of almost all of the Earth’s habitable regions. Genomic data from contemporary humans suggest that this expansion was accompanied by a continuous loss of genetic diversity, a result of what is called the “serial founder effect.” In addition to genomic data, the serial founder effect model is now supported by the genetics of human parasites, morphology, and linguistics. This particular population history gave rise to the two defining features of genetic variation in humans: genomes from the substructured populations of Africa retain an exceptional number of unique variants, and there is a dramatic reduction in genetic diversity within populations living outside of Africa. These two patterns are relevant for medical genetic studies mapping genotypes to phenotypes and for inferring the power of natural selection in human history. It should be appreciated that the initial expansion and subsequent serial founder effect were determined by demographic and sociocultural factors associated with hunter-gatherer populations. How do we reconcile this major demic expansion with the population stability that followed for thousands years until the inventions of agriculture? We review advances in understanding the genetic diversity within Africa and the great human expansion out of Africa and offer hypotheses that can help to establish a more synthetic view of modern human evolution. PMID:23077256

  19. [The great virus comeback].

    PubMed

    Forterre, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Viruses have been considered for a long time as by-products of biological evolution. This view is changing now as a result of several recent discoveries. Viral ecologists have shown that viral particles are the most abundant biological entities on our planet, whereas metagenomic analyses have revealed an unexpected abundance and diversity of viral genes in the biosphere. Comparative genomics have highlighted the uniqueness of viral sequences, in contradiction with the traditional view of viruses as pickpockets of cellular genes. On the contrary, cellular genomes, especially eukaryotic ones, turned out to be full of genes derived from viruses or related elements (plasmids, transposons, retroelements and so on). The discovery of unusual viruses infecting archaea has shown that the viral world is much more diverse than previously thought, ruining the traditional dichotomy between bacteriophages and viruses. Finally, the discovery of giant viruses has blurred the traditional image of viruses as small entities. Furthermore, essential clues on virus history have been obtained in the last ten years. In particular, structural analyses of capsid proteins have uncovered deeply rooted homologies between viruses infecting different cellular domains, suggesting that viruses originated before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). These studies have shown that several lineages of viruses originated independently, i.e., viruses are polyphyletic. From the time of LUCA, viruses have coevolved with their hosts, and viral lineages can be viewed as lianas wrapping around the trunk, branches and leaves of the tree of life. Although viruses are very diverse, with genomes encoding from one to more than one thousand proteins, they can all be simply defined as organisms producing virions. Virions themselves can be defined as infectious particles made of at least one protein associated with the viral nucleic acid, endowed with the capability to protect the viral genome and ensure its

  20. Mini-Spec: A Compact, Fiber-Coupled, VPH Grating Spectrograph for Small Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nations, H. L.; Haynes, P.; Brewer, P.

    2003-05-01

    We report on the development and testing of what we believe to be the first VPH grating based spectrograph developed primarily for use at telescopes of modest aperture. To date, the most common instrument suite for such observatories is typically that of a CCD camera with attached filter wheel. While there is no doubt that a wide range of interesting and good science has been done with such instrumentation, the addition of a robust and easy to operate spectrograph would greatly increase the utility of such installations. While some commercial spectrographs exist for use on small telescopes, the authors have found them to be, with few exceptions, either inefficient, difficult for inexperienced students or amateurs to use, or not remotely operable. Correcting these deficiencies is thus the primary motivation for Mini-Spec. The design of Mini-Spec has been influenced by previous work the authors have done on a full-sized fiber-coupled spectrograph (Nations and Pierce, 2002). Mini-Spec uses some of those original design features, only reduced drastically in size. This size reduction (the spectrograph fits within a 7 inch cube), along with a much more careful choice of some critical components, has resulted in a dramatic reduction in cost. The spectrograph uses a highly efficient 1200 l/mm, 40 mm diameter vph grating on loan from Richard Rallison. Focus, central wavelength selection, and comparison lamps are all controlled via an RS-232 link and a custom Visual Basic GUI. Sample spectra of stellar and non-stellar targets will be presented along with a discussion of research projects admirably suited for this instrument. Funding for equipment has been provided by a NASA EPSCoR grant to PI Ron Canterna. HLN has been partially funded by a Wyoming Space Grant Faculty Fellowship.