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Sample records for greater copenhagen region

  1. Analysis of scenarios for sewerage, wastewater treatment and prioritised load on environment from the Greater City of Copenhagen.

    PubMed

    Harremoës, P; Andersen, H S; Dupont, R; Jacobsen, P; Rindel, K

    2002-01-01

    The sewer system for the Greater Copenhagen area covers an area of 4460 ha contributing to the runoff. The total area serves in total 8 municipalities, however it is dominated by the areas in the City of Copenhagen proper. The catchments merge into interceptors, which feed two large treatment plants. The effluent from the two treatment plants discharges during dry weather to Oresund, the sound between Denmark and Sweden. This large system has been analysed for selected scenarios with respect to handling runoff in an optimal way in order to minimise the loads on the most sensitive receiving waters and optimising treatment plant performance.

  2. Apparent Temperature and Cause-Specific Emergency Hospital Admissions in Greater Copenhagen, Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Janine; Andersen, Zorana; Ketzel, Matthias; Ellermann, Thomas; Loft, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    One of the key climate change factors, temperature, has potentially grave implications for human health. We report the first attempt to investigate the association between the daily 3-hour maximum apparent temperature (Tappmax) and respiratory (RD), cardiovascular (CVD), and cerebrovascular (CBD) emergency hospital admissions in Copenhagen, controlling for air pollution. The study period covered 1 January 2002−31 December 2006, stratified in warm and cold periods. A case-crossover design was applied. Susceptibility (effect modification) by age, sex, and socio-economic status was investigated. For an IQR (8°C) increase in the 5-day cumulative average of Tappmax, a 7% (95% CI: 1%, 13%) increase in the RD admission rate was observed in the warm period whereas an inverse association was found with CVD (−8%, 95% CI: −13%, −4%), and none with CBD. There was no association between the 5-day cumulative average of Tappmax during the cold period and any of the cause-specific admissions, except in some susceptible groups: a negative association for RD in the oldest age group and a positive association for CVD in men and the second highest SES group. In conclusion, an increase in Tappmax is associated with a slight increase in RD and decrease in CVD admissions during the warmer months. PMID:21829550

  3. Impact of regional afforestation on climatic conditions in metropolitan areas: case study of Copenhagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stysiak, Aleksander Andrzej; Bergen Jensen, Marina; Mahura, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Like most other places, European metropolitan areas will face a range of climate-related challenges over the next decades that may influence the nature of urban life across the continent. Under future urbanization and climate change scenarios the well-being and comfort of the urban population might become progressively compromised. In urban areas, the effects of the warming climate will be accelerated by combination of Urban Heat Island effect (UHI) and extreme heat waves. The land cover composition directly influences atmospheric variability, and can either escalate or downscale the projected changes. Vegetation, forest ecosystems in particular, are anticipated to play an important role in modulating local and regional climatic conditions, and to be vital factor in the process of adapting cities to warming climate. This study investigates the impact of forest and land-cover change on formation and development of temperature regimes in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area (CPH-MA). Potential to modify the UHI effect in CPH-MA is estimated. Using 2009 meteorological data, and up-to-date 2012 high resolution land-cover data we employed the online integrated meteorology-chemistry/aerosols Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - High Resolution Limited Area Model) modeling system to simulate air temperature (at 2 meter height) fields for a selected period in July 2009. Employing research tools (such as METGRAF meteorological software and Geographical Information Systems) we then estimated the influence of different afforestation and urbanization scenarios with new forests being located after the Danish national afforestation plan, after proximity to the city center, after dominating wind characteristics, and urbanization taking place as densification of the existing conurbation. This study showed the difference in temperature up to 3.25°C, and the decrease in the spatial extent of temperature fields up to 68%, depending on the selected scenario. Performed simulations demonstrated

  4. Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sherry A M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Mbuthia, Paul G; Mande, John D; Afakye, Kofi; Maingi, Ndichu

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of tissues of live vertebrate animals and humans with dipterous larvae. In sub-Saharan Africa, Cordylobia anthropohaga and Cordylobia rodhaini are known to be responsible for cutaneous myiasis in animals and humans. Human cases of myiasis, purportedly acquired in Ghana but diagnosed in other countries, have been reported; however, published data on its occurrence in animals in Ghana is unavailable. This study assessed the prevalence of canine myiasis among owned dogs in the Greater Accra region (GAR) of Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, selected for being the region with the highest estimated population density of owned dogs. Physical examination and demographic characteristics of the study dogs were assessed. Management of the dogs was assessed through a questionnaire administered to the dog owners. A total of 392 owned dogs were sampled. Twenty-nine (7.4%) had cutaneous myiasis caused by C. rodhaini. In addition, one (0.2%) of the dogs had intestinal myiasis, with Dermatobia hominis as the offending larvae. Among the breeds of dogs with myiasis, the mongrel was most affected, with 24 (82.8%) out of the 29 cases. The mongrels, majority of which (24; 82.8%) were males, were left to roam freely in the community. Results from this study demonstrate that C. rodhaini and D. hominis are important causes of myiasis in owned dogs in the GAR of Ghana. Dogs could play a role in the spread of myiasis to humans, with its attendant public health implications.

  5. Outreach impact study: the case of the Greater Midwest Region*

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Jeffrey T; Kean, Emily B; Fitzgerald, Philip D; Altman, Trina A; Young, Zach G; Dupin, Katherine M; Leskovec, Jacqueline; Holst, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the study was to assess the impact that funding from the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM), Greater Midwest Region (GMR), has on member institutions' ability to conduct outreach on behalf of NN/LM. Methods: The study employed both content analysis and survey methodologies. The final reports from select GMR-funded outreach projects (n = 20) were analyzed based on a set of evaluation criteria. Project principal investigators (n = 13) were then surveyed using the same evaluation criteria. Results: Results indicated that outreach projects supported by GMR funding improved access to biomedical information for professionals and the general public. Barriers to conducting outreach projects included time constraints or commitments, staffing, scheduling and absenteeism, inadequate space, and issues associated with technology (e.g., hardware and software, Internet connectivity and firewall issues, and creation and use of new technologies). Conclusions: The majority of project principal investigators indicated that their attempts to conduct outreach were successful. Moreover, most noted that outreach had a positive impact on professionals as well as the general public. In general, it seems that negative outcomes, as with most barriers to conducting outreach, can be mitigated by more thorough planning. PMID:22022223

  6. Vaccine preventability of meningococcal clone, Greater Aachen Region, Germany.

    PubMed

    Elias, Johannes; Schouls, Leo M; van de Pol, Ingrid; Keijzers, Wendy C; Martin, Diana R; Glennie, Anne; Oster, Philipp; Frosch, Matthias; Vogel, Ulrich; van der Ende, Arie

    2010-03-01

    Emergence of serogroup B meningococci of clonal complex sequence type (ST) 41/44 can cause high levels of disease, as exemplified by a recent epidemic in New Zealand. Multiplication of annual incidence rates (3.1 cases/100,000 population) of meningococcal disease in a defined German region, the city of Aachen and 3 neighboring countries (Greater Aachen) prompted us to investigate and determine the source and nature of this outbreak. Using molecular typing and geographic mapping, we analyzed 1,143 strains belonging to ST41/44 complex, isolated from persons with invasive meningococcal disease over 6 years (2001-2006) from 2 German federal states (total population 26 million) and the Netherlands. A spatially slowly moving clone with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis type 19, ST42, and antigenic profile B:P1.7-2,4:F1-5 was responsible for the outbreak. Bactericidal activity in serum samples from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccination campaign confirmed vaccine preventability. Because this globally distributed epidemic strain spreads slowly, vaccination efforts could possibly eliminate meningococcal disease in this area.

  7. Metalliferous deposits of the greater Helena mining region, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pardee, Joseph Thomas; Schrader, F.C.

    1933-01-01

    The ore deposits described in this bulletin are distributed through a region of about 3,000 square miles surrounding the city of Helena, Mont. In general the surface of this region is mountainous, but it includes several large intermontane valleys. Large areas in the northern and eastern parts of the region sire underlain by sedimentary rocks of the Algonkian Belt series, and on the northeast and southwest the Belt rocks are overlain without any noticeable angular unconformity by Paleozoic and Mesozoic beds. Oligocene, Miocene, and possibly Pliocene sediments, composed chiefly of volcanic ash and land waste of local origin, occupy large areas in the intermontane valleys and lie unconformably upon Cretaceous and older rocks. A thin veneer of Pleistocene and Recent alluvium generally overspreads the Tertiary. In the extreme northern part of the region are large deposits of glacial drift that represent two stages of the Pleistocene. The principal igneous body of the region is the northern part of the early Tertiary or late Cretaceous Boulder batholitb of quartz monzonite. The main exposure of this body occupies an area of nearly 1,200 square miles and extends southward beyond the limits of the particular region considered. Smaller areas of similar rocks are clustered around this exposure. Most of the exposures probably represent bodies that are connected in depth to form a single mass. The late Cretaceous and older sedimentary rocks are involved in a series of northwestward-trending folds. Along the east side of the region overthrust faults related to the great Lewis overthrust of Glacier National Park cause Belt rocks to overlie rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic ages. Large normal faults occur near Marysville and faults of moderate displacement near Helena. The Tertiary beds are slightly deformed by folds and faults that are unrelated to the structure of the older rock. The geologic history of the region includes two contrasting periods, the earlier of which was

  8. Earthshots: Satellite images of environmental change – Copenhagen, Denmark

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamson, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In the time that these images span, the population of Copenhagen has grown from 478,615 in 1985 to 580,184 in 2015. But the population of greater Copenhagen in 2014 was 1,246,611, up from 1,084,885 in 2006.

  9. Copenhagen quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollowood, Timothy J.

    2016-07-01

    In our quantum mechanics courses, measurement is usually taught in passing, as an ad-hoc procedure involving the ugly collapse of the wave function. No wonder we search for more satisfying alternatives to the Copenhagen interpretation. But this overlooks the fact that the approach fits very well with modern measurement theory with its notions of the conditioned state and quantum trajectory. In addition, what we know of as the Copenhagen interpretation is a later 1950s development and some of the earlier pioneers like Bohr did not talk of wave function collapse. In fact, if one takes these earlier ideas and mixes them with later insights of decoherence, a much more satisfying version of Copenhagen quantum mechanics emerges, one for which the collapse of the wave function is seen to be a harmless book keeping device. Along the way, we explain why chaotic systems lead to wave functions that spread out quickly on macroscopic scales implying that Schrödinger cat states are the norm rather than curiosities generated in physicists' laboratories. We then describe how the conditioned state of a quantum system depends crucially on how the system is monitored illustrating this with the example of a decaying atom monitored with a time of arrival photon detector, leading to Bohr's quantum jumps. On the other hand, other kinds of detection lead to much smoother behaviour, providing yet another example of complementarity. Finally we explain how classical behaviour emerges, including classical mechanics but also thermodynamics.

  10. Exploring contraceptive knowledge and use among women experiencing induced abortion in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Biney, Adriana A E

    2011-03-01

    Using a qualitative research methodology, twenty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted with women with induced abortion experiences at Korle Bu and Tema Hospitals in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana. Results suggest that these women tended not to have knowledge of contraceptive methods prior to the abortion, while others were informed but failed to use for a variety of reasons ranging from rumours of side effects to personal negative experiences with modem contraceptive methods. A few women also stated contraceptive failure as a reason for their unintended pregnancies that were later aborted. Peer and reproductive health education must be reinforced in communities in the Greater Accra Region to curb adolescents engaging in early sex and should challenge the existing rumours associated with contraception in Ghana. In addition, family planning services in terms of appropriate methods with no side effects must be made available to women in the reproductive ages.

  11. Interseismic deformation associated with three-dimensional faults in the greater Los Angeles region, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Scott T.; Cooke, Michele L.; Owen, Susan E.

    2009-12-01

    Existing interseismic models are not well-suited to simulate deformation within the network of finite, intersecting, nonplanar faults observed in the greater Los Angeles region. Instead of applying fault slip rates to a model a priori, we allow three-dimensional fault surfaces to interact and accumulate mechanically viable slip distributions and then use the deep nonseismogenic portion of slip to calculate interseismic deformation. We apply this approach to the Los Angeles region and find that the geologic timescale model results match well geologic slip rate data and the interseismic timescale model results match well the heterogeneous GPS velocity pattern in the Los Angeles region. Model results suggest that localized geodetic convergence in the San Gabriel basin can be achieved with slip on multiple active fault surfaces in the Los Angeles region including relatively fast slip on the Sierra Madre fault and slow slip on the Puente Hills thrusts, in agreement with geologic data. The ability of the three-dimensional model to reproduce well both geologic slip rates and interseismic geodetic velocity patterns suggests that current day contraction rates in the greater Los Angeles region are compatible with long-term geologic deformation rates and disputes suggestions of significant temporal variations in fault slip rates inferred from existing investigations.

  12. Climatological simulations of ozone and atmospheric aerosols in the Greater Cairo region

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, A. L.; Tawfik, A. B.; Shalaby, A.; Zakey, A. S.; Abdel Wahab, M. M.; Salah, Z.; Solmon, F.; Sillman, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2014-04-16

    An integrated chemistry-climate model (RegCM4-CHEM) simulates present-day climate, ozone and tropospheric aerosols over Egypt with a focus on Greater Cairo (GC) region. The densley populated GC region is known for its severe air quality issues driven by high levels of anthropogenic pollution in conjuction with natural sources such as dust and agricultural burning events. We find that current global emission inventories underestimate key pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and anthropogenic aerosol species. In the GC region, average-ground-based NO2 observations of 40-60 ppb are substantially higher than modeled estimates (5-10 ppb), likely due to model grid resolution, improper boundary layer representation, and poor emissions inventories. Observed ozone concentrations range from 35 ppb (winter) to 80 ppb (summer). The model reproduces the seasonal cycle fairly well, but modeled summer ozone is understimated by approximately 15 ppb and exhibits little interannual variability. For aerosols, springtime dust events dominate the seasonal aerosol cycle. The chemistry-climate model captures the springtime peak aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.7-1 but is slightly greater than satellite-derived AOD. Observed AOD decreases in the summer and increases again in the fall due to agricultural burning events in the Nile Delta, yet the model underestimates this fall observed AOD peak, as standard emissions inventories underestimate this burning and the resulting aerosol emissions. Our comparison of modeled gas and particulate phase atmospheric chemistry in the GC region indicates that improved emissions inventories of mobile sources and other anthropogenic activities are needed to improve air quality simulations in this region.

  13. Seismic investigations in downtown Copenhagen, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, K.; Mendoza, J. A.; Olsen, H.

    2009-12-01

    Near surface geophysics are gaining widespread use in major infrastructure projects with respect to geotechnical and engineering applications. The development of data acquisition, processing tools and interpretation methods have optimized survey production, reduced logistics costs and increase results reliability of seismic surveys during the last decades. However, the use of geophysical methods under urban environments continues to face challenges due to multiple noise sources and obstacles inherent to cities. A seismic investigation was conducted in Copenhagen aiming to produce information needed for hydrological, geotechnical and groundwater modeling assessments related to the planned Cityringen underground metro project. The particular objectives were a) map variations in subsurface Quaternary and limestone properties b) to map for near surface structural features. The geological setting in the Copenhagen region is characterized by several interlaced layers of glacial till and meltwater sand deposits. These layers, which are found unevenly distributed throughout the city and present in varying thicknesses, overlie limestone of different generations. There are common occurrences of incised valley structures containing localized instances of weathered or fractured limestone. The surveys consisted of combined seismic reflection and refraction profiles accounting for approximately 13 km along sections of the projected metro line. The data acquisition was carried out using standard 192 channels arrays, receiver groups with 5 m spacing and a Vibroseis as a source at 5 m spacing. In order to improve the resolution of the data, 29 Walkaway-Vertical Seismic Profiles were performed at selected wells along the surface seismic lines. The refraction data was processed with travel-time tomography and the reflection data underwent standard interpretation. The refraction data inversion was performed twofold; a surface refraction alone and combined with the VSP data. Three

  14. Molecular phylogenetics of Haemodoraceae in the Greater Cape and Southwest Australian Floristic Regions.

    PubMed

    Hopper, Stephen D; Smith, Rhian J; Fay, Michael F; Manning, John C; Chase, Mark W

    2009-04-01

    Molecular phylogenetic studies of Haemodoraceae in the Greater Cape and Southwest Australian Floristic Region (SWAFR) using trnL, trnL-F and matK sequence data affirm the presence of old and young rapidly radiated lineages in both regions. Commencement of tribal and generic divergence in the subfamilies occured in the Eocene in the two regions, but subsequent patterns of radiation differ slightly. The hypothesis of rapid recent speciation in these regions from the late Pliocene as the major explanation for endemic species richness is still repeated by several contemporary authors despite increasing molecular phylogenetic evidence to the contrary. Our estimates of the age of lineages in Haemodoraceae show significant lineage turnover occurring over the last 15 million years, since the mid-Miocene, with divergence of the major clades beginning in the Eocene. The search for independent evidence to date speciation episodes reliably and investigation of molecular analyses across a broad spectrum of these clades must be pursued to advance ideas rigorously concerning origins of species richness. These regions continue to confound attempts to develop theory concerning origins of global species richness, with consequent implications for conservation biology.

  15. Importance of regional variation in conservation planning: A rangewide example of the Greater Sage-Grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doherty, Kevin E; Evans, Jeffrey S.; Coates, Peter S.; Juliusson, Lara; Fedy, Bradley C.

    2016-01-01

    We developed rangewide population and habitat models for Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) that account for regional variation in habitat selection and relative densities of birds for use in conservation planning and risk assessments. We developed a probabilistic model of occupied breeding habitat by statistically linking habitat characteristics within 4 miles of an occupied lek using a nonlinear machine learning technique (Random Forests). Habitat characteristics used were quantified in GIS and represent standard abiotic and biotic variables related to sage-grouse biology. Statistical model fit was high (mean correctly classified = 82.0%, range = 75.4–88.0%) as were cross-validation statistics (mean = 80.9%, range = 75.1–85.8%). We also developed a spatially explicit model to quantify the relative density of breeding birds across each Greater Sage-Grouse management zone. The models demonstrate distinct clustering of relative abundance of sage-grouse populations across all management zones. On average, approximately half of the breeding population is predicted to be within 10% of the occupied range. We also found that 80% of sage-grouse populations were contained in 25–34% of the occupied range within each management zone. Our rangewide population and habitat models account for regional variation in habitat selection and the relative densities of birds, and thus, they can serve as a consistent and common currency to assess how sage-grouse habitat and populations overlap with conservation actions or threats over the entire sage-grouse range. We also quantified differences in functional habitat responses and disturbance thresholds across the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) management zones using statistical relationships identified during habitat modeling. Even for a species as specialized as Greater Sage-Grouse, our results show that ecological context matters in both the strength of habitat selection (i

  16. Sensitivity of summer climate to anthropogenic land-cover change over the Greater Phoenix, AZ, region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Georgescu, M.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Steyaert, L.T.; Weaver, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    This work evaluates the first-order effect of land-use/land-cover change (LULCC) on the summer climate of one of the nation's most rapidly expanding metropolitan complexes, the Greater Phoenix, AZ, region. High-resolution-2-km grid spacing-Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) simulations of three "wet" and three "dry" summers were carried out for two different land-cover reconstructions for the region: a circa 1992 representation based on satellite observations, and a hypothetical land-cover scenario where the anthropogenic landscape of irrigated agriculture and urban pixels was replaced with current semi-natural vegetation. Model output is evaluated with respect to observed air temperature, dew point, and precipitation. Our results suggest that development of extensive irrigated agriculture adjacent to the urban area has dampened any regional-mean warming due to urbanization. Consistent with previous observationally based work, LULCC produces a systematic increase in precipitation to the north and east of the city, though only under dry conditions. This is due to a change in background atmospheric stability resulting from the advection of both warmth from the urban core and moisture from the irrigated area. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. ESO Presentation in Copenhagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, C.; D'Odorico, S.

    2004-12-01

    On November 8, ESO continued its series of presentations in memberstates with an event in Copenhagen. So far events have been organised in Belgium, Finland, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The purpose of these presentations is to raise the awareness of ESO amongst decision-makers, academia and the media. Over time, the scope and specific focus of the national events have varied, considering the particular circumstances and the wishes of the national hosts, and accordingly, the presentation in Denmark was primarily oriented towards industry. The meeting was initiated by the Royal Danish Consulate General in Munich in conjunction with the Confederation of Danish Industries and the Ministry for Science, Technology and Innovation. Leading up to the meeting, several articles about ESO had appeared in the Danish press and the 2nd TV Channel featured a report on the ESO projects also in connection with the event.

  18. The formation and inversion of the western Greater Caucasus Basin and the uplift of the western Greater Caucasus: Implications for the wider Black Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Stephen J.; Braham, William; Lavrishchev, Vladimir A.; Maynard, James R.; Harland, Melise

    2016-12-01

    The western Greater Caucasus formed by the tectonic inversion of the western strand of the Greater Caucasus Basin, a Mesozoic rift that opened at the southern margin of Laurasia. Subsidence analysis indicates that the main phase of rifting occurred during the Aalenian to Bajocian synchronous with that in the eastern Alborz and, possibly, the South Caspian Basin. Secondary episodes of subsidence during the late Tithonian to Berriasian and Hauterivian to early Aptian are tentatively linked to initial rifting within the western, and possibly eastern, Black Sea and during the late Campanian to Danian to the opening of the eastern Black Sea. Initial uplift, subaerial exposure, and sediment derivation from the western Greater Caucasus occurred at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Oligocene and younger sediments on the southern margin of the former basin were derived from the inverting basin and uplifted parts of its northern margin, indicating that the western Greater Caucasus Basin had closed by this time. A predominance of pollen representing a montane forest environment (dominated by Pinacean pollen) within these sediments suggests that the uplifting Caucasian hinterland had a paleoaltitude of around 2 km from early Oligocene time. The closure of the western Greater Caucasus Basin and significant uplift of the range at approximately 34 Ma is earlier than stated in many studies and needs to be incorporated into geodynamic models for the Arabia-Eurasia region.

  19. Bovine Tuberculosis Surveillance System Evaluation, Greater-Accra Region, Ghana, 2006-2011

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Perdita Hilary; Akweongo, Patricia; Wurapa, Fred; Afari, Edwin; Sackey, Samuel; Ocansey, Dennis; Nyarko, Kofi Mensah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic, zoonotic, multi-species disease of cattle caused by Mycobacterium bovis. In developed countries, effective surveillance and enforcement of regulations on bTB control resulted in significant reduction of infections in cattle and hence, humans. However, in developing countries, weak surveillance systems affect accurate and timely reporting of bTB in humans and cattle. In Ghana, transhumance movement of cattle increases the risk of bTB importation and spread, however, the extent to which surveillance detects bTB is unknown. We therefore evaluated the bTB surveillance system in the Greater-Accra Region to determine its performance and assessed its attributes. Methods We interviewed stakeholders, and reviewed bTB surveillance data for all ten districts in the region from 2006-2011 using the CDC Guidelines for Evaluation of public health surveillance systems. Results From 2006-2011, bTB was suspected in 284/244,576 (0.12%) cattle slaughtered, of which 7/284 (2.5%) were submitted for laboratory confirmation and all tested positive. Predictive value positive was 100%. There is no standard case definition which guides bTB detection. Fifty percent of carcasses slip through inspection, and confirmed cases are not traced back. There were 99/284 (34.9%) condemnations from suspected carcasses and 57/97 (58.8%) from positive reactors from screening. Ninety percent (9/10) of districts submitted reports late to the region whereas representativeness was 30%. Regional and district data were manually stored with no electronic backups. The region's cattle population is unknown. Conclusion Although the bTB surveillance system is sensitive, it is under performing, and the possibility of bTB transmission from cattle to humans is high. PMID:28149435

  20. Assessment of energy crops alternative to maize for biogas production in the Greater Region.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Frédéric; Gerin, Patrick A; Noo, Anaïs; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Stilmant, Didier; Schmit, Thomas; Leclech, Nathael; Ruelle, Luc; Gennen, Jerome; von Francken-Welz, Herbert; Foucart, Guy; Flammang, Jos; Weyland, Marc; Delfosse, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    The biomethane yield of various energy crops, selected among potential alternatives to maize in the Greater Region, was assessed. The biomass yield, the volatile solids (VS) content and the biochemical methane potential (BMP) were measured to calculate the biomethane yield per hectare of all plant species. For all species, the dry matter biomass yield and the VS content were the main factors that influence, respectively, the biomethane yield and the BMP. Both values were predicted with good accuracy by linear regressions using the biomass yield and the VS as independent variable. The perennial crop miscanthus appeared to be the most promising alternative to maize when harvested as green matter in autumn and ensiled. Miscanthus reached a biomethane yield of 5.5 ± 1 × 10(3)m(3)ha(-1) during the second year after the establishment, as compared to 5.3 ± 1 × 10(3)m(3)ha(-1) for maize under similar crop conditions.

  1. Residential characteristics as correlates of occupants’ health in the greater Accra region, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Housing has been a relatively neglected site for public health action. However, it remains a place where human beings spend the most part of their day. As a result, the quality of housing has consequences for human health. We investigate residential characteristics associated with self-rated occupant health in five neighbourhoods in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana. Methods A cross sectional study using a semi-structured questionnaire was conducted among 500 informed adults aged 18 years and above to investigate residential characteristics associated with self-rated occupant health in five neighbourhoods in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana. Correlates of occupant rated health were determined using Pearson chi-square test and binary logistic regression. Results Forty-two per cent of houses were rented, 44% required repair and 46% shared sanitation facilities. One in twenty occupants reported poor health. Gender, employment status, income, ventilation, house wall material, odours, stale air, privacy, shared facilities, hand washing facility, type of house and house repair status were associated with poor health in the bivariate analysis. Only two variables were independently associated with poor self-rated health: occupants who lacked privacy were eight times more likely to report poor self-rated health when compared to peers who did not lack privacy [OR = 8.16, 95% CI 2.86-23.26] and women were three times more likely than men to report poor health [OR = 2.98, 95% CI 1.06-8.35]. Conclusion The results provide further evidence of housing as a determinant of occupants’ health, and identify housing characteristics and living conditions as issues for public health action in Ghana. PMID:24612884

  2. Metamorphic and tectonic evolution of the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex in Nyalam region, south Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Rubatto, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies evoke dispute whether the Himalayan metamorphic core - Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex (GHC) - was exhumed as a lateral crustal flow or a critical taper wedge during the India-Asia collision. This contribution investigated the evolution of the GHC in the Nyalam region, south Tibet, with comprehensive studies on structural kinematics, metamorphic petrology and geochronology. The GHC in the Nyalam region can be divided into the lower and upper GHC. Phase equilibria modelling and conventional thermobarometric results show that peak temperature conditions are lower in the lower GHC (~660-700°C) and higher in the upper GHC (~740-780°C), whereas corresponding pressure conditions at peak-T decrease from ~9-13 kbar to ~4 kbar northward. Monazite, zircon and rutile U-Pb dating results reveal two distinct blocks within the GHC of the Nyalam region. The upper GHC underwent higher degree of partial melting (15-25%, via muscovite dehydration melting) that initiated at ~32 Ma, peaked at ~29 Ma to 25 Ma, possibly ended at ~20 Ma. The lower GHC underwent lower degree of melting (0-10%) that lasted from 19 to 16 Ma, which was produced mainly via H2O-saturated melting. At different times, both the upper and lower blocks underwent initial slow cooling (35 ± 8 and 10 ± 5°C/Myr, respectively) and subsequent rapid cooling (120 ± 40°C/Myr). The established timescale of metamorphism suggests that high-temperature metamorphism within the GHC lasted a long duration (~15 Myr), whereas duration of partial melting lasted for ~3 Myr in the lower GHC and lasted for 7-12 Myr in the upper GHC. The documented diachronous metamorphism and discontinuity of peak P-T conditions implies the presence of the Nyalam Thrust in the study area. This thrust is probably connected to the other thrusts in Nepal and Sikkim Himalaya, which extends over ~800 km and is named the "High Himalayan Thrust". Timing of activity along this thrust is at ~25-16 Ma, which is coeval with active

  3. Maternal, neonatal, and child health in southeast Asia: towards greater regional collaboration.

    PubMed

    Acuin, Cecilia S; Khor, Geok Lin; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Achadi, Endang L; Htay, Thein Thein; Firestone, Rebecca; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2011-02-05

    Although maternal and child mortality are on the decline in southeast Asia, there are still major disparities, and greater equity is key to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. We used comparable cross-national data sources to document mortality trends from 1990 to 2008 and to assess major causes of maternal and child deaths. We present inequalities in intervention coverage by two common measures of wealth quintiles and rural or urban status. Case studies of reduction in mortality in Thailand and Indonesia indicate the varying extents of success and point to some factors that accelerate progress. We developed a Lives Saved Tool analysis for the region and for country subgroups to estimate deaths averted by cause and intervention. We identified three major patterns of maternal and child mortality reduction: early, rapid downward trends (Brunei, Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand); initially high declines (sustained by Vietnam but faltering in the Philippines and Indonesia); and high initial rates with a downward trend (Laos, Cambodia, and Myanmar). Economic development seems to provide an important context that should be coupled with broader health-system interventions. Increasing coverage and consideration of the health-system context is needed, and regional support from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations can provide increased policy support to achieve maternal, neonatal, and child health goals.

  4. Addressing the Health Needs of High-Risk Filipino Americans in the Greater Philadelphia Region.

    PubMed

    Bhimla, Aisha; Yap, Lauren; Lee, Minsun; Seals, Brenda; Aczon, Hermie; Ma, Grace X

    2017-04-01

    Filipino Americans represent one of the largest and most diverse immigrant populations in the United States. It has been established that chronic diseases are a significant public health issue affecting this population. We conducted a health needs assessment of 200 Filipino Americans aged 18 years or older residing in the greater Philadelphia region. Study participants were recruited from eight Filipino community-based organizations in the region. Information about demographic and acculturative characteristics, health behaviors, self-reported chronic health conditions, and chronic disease perception were collected. Participants were older and highly acculturated. With regards to health behaviors, several did not meet dietary fruit and vegetables intake and physical activity guidelines. The top five health conditions were high blood pressure (67.5 %), high blood cholesterol (57.1 %), arthritis (28.9 %), diabetes (21.8 %), and cancer (14.7 %). Majority of participants perceived high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and diabetes to be a concern in their community, and had high awareness of the risk factors associated with these diseases. Reported rates of hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes suggest that lifestyle interventions targeting diet and physical activity, in addition to health education, are needed in this population.

  5. Linking ecology to hydrology and geomorphology using river reach classification for the Greater Mekong Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouelette Dallaire, Camille; Lehner, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale development projects, such as hydropower dams, in the Greater Mekong Region (GMR) are putting high pressure on freshwater resources. Environmental impact assessments are needed in the region to understand the possible impacts of these projects. These assessments often require biodiversity data that can be costly to acquire both in terms of time and money. It is often assumed that river or ecosystem classes, based on geo-physical characteristics, can be used as biodiversity proxies in large scale assessments to account for a lack of biodiversity data. However, there has been little research to compare the spatial distribution of river classes and fish species. It is unclear how well river classes are able to represent the distribution of fish and, more generally, biodiversity. To address this question, a set of two classifications were compared to a newly available dataset of fish species distribution in the GMR (Allen et al., 2012). The classifications were derived from two different methods to test which could potentially better represent fish assemblages. The first classification is derived using regional expert knowledge and the second using K-mean analysis. Both are using the same geophysical datasets. The two datasets were used in a Redundancy Analysis (RDA) to calculate which proportion of the variability in the fish species data can be explained by the river classes. The RDA resulted in R2 of 0.44 for the supervised classification and 0.41for the statistical classification, showing a moderate correlation between the datasets. Based on these results, using river classes as biodiversity proxy is deemed reasonable. However, some of the variability in the distribution of fish species cannot be related simply to geophysical factors. River classes may capture different elements such as unique habitats and associated, possibly unknown, endemic species that indices based only on biological data do not. Hence, river classes can be a good alternative and

  6. River reach classification for the Greater Mekong Region at high spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouellet Dallaire, C.; Lehner, B.

    2014-12-01

    River classifications have been used in river health and ecological assessments as coarse proxies to represent aquatic biodiversity when comprehensive biological and/or species data is unavailable. Currently there are no river classifications or biological data available in a consistent format for the extent of the Greater Mekong Region (GMR; including the Irrawaddy, the Salween, the Chao Praya, the Mekong and the Red River basins). The current project proposes a new river habitat classification for the region, facilitated by the HydroSHEDS (HYDROlogical SHuttle Elevation Derivatives at multiple Scales) database at 500m pixel resolution. The classification project is based on the Global River Classification framework relying on the creation of multiple sub-classifications based on different disciplines. The resulting classes from the sub-classification are later combined into final classes to create a holistic river reach classification. For the GMR, a final habitat classification was created based on three sub-classifications: a hydrological sub-classification based only on discharge indices (river size and flow variability); a physio-climatic sub-classification based on large scale indices of climate and elevation (biomes, ecoregions and elevation); and a geomorphological sub-classification based on local morphology (presence of floodplains, reach gradient and sand transport). Key variables and thresholds were identified in collaboration with local experts to ensure that regional knowledge was included. The final classification is composed 54 unique final classes based on 3 sub-classifications with less than 15 classes each. The resulting classifications are driven by abiotic variables and do not include biological data, but they represent a state-of-the art product based on best available data (mostly global data). The most common river habitat type is the "dry broadleaf, low gradient, very small river". These classifications could be applied in a wide range of

  7. Spring hunting changes the regional movements of migrating greater snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bechet, A.; Giroux, J.-F.; Gauthier, G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    1. Human-induced disturbance such as hunting may influence the migratory behaviour of long-distance migrants. In 1999 and 2000 a spring hunt of greater snow geese Anser caerulescens atlanticus occurred for the first time in North America since 1916, aimed at stopping population growth to protect natural habitats. 2. We evaluated the impact of this hunt on the staging movements of geese along a 600-km stretch of the St. Lawrence River in southern Quebec, Canada. 3. We tracked radio-tagged female geese in three contiguous regions of the staging area from the south-west to the north-east: Lake St Pierre, Upper Estuary and Lower Estuary, in spring 1997 (n = 37) and 1998 (n = 70) before the establishment of hunting, and in 1999 (n = 60) and 2000 (n = 59) during hunting. 4. We used multi-state capture-recapture models to estimate the movement probabilities of radio-tagged females among these regions. To assess disturbance level, we tracked geese during their feeding trips and estimated the probability of completing a foraging bout without being disturbed. 5. In the 2 years without hunting, migration was strongly unidirectional from the south-west to the north-east, with very low westward movement probabilities. Geese gradually moved from Lake St Pierre to Upper Estuary and then from Upper Estuary to Lower Estuary. 6. In contrast, during the 2 years with hunting westward movement was more than four times more likely than in preceding years. Most of these backward movements occurred shortly after the beginning of the hunt, indicating that geese moved back to regions where they had not previously experienced hunting. 7. Overall disturbance level increased in all regions in years with hunting relative to years without hunting. 8. Synthesis and applications. We conclude that spring hunting changed the stopover scheduling of this long-distance migrant and might further impact population dynamics by reducing prenuptial fattening. The spring hunt may also have increased crop

  8. Regional correlations of VS30 averaged over depths less than and greater than 30 meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, David M.; Thompson, Eric M.; Cadet, Héloïse

    2011-01-01

    Using velocity profiles from sites in Japan, California, Turkey, and Europe, we find that the time-averaged shear-wave velocity to 30 m (VS30), used as a proxy for site amplification in recent ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and building codes, is strongly correlated with average velocities to depths less than 30 m (VSz, with z being the averaging depth). The correlations for sites in Japan (corresponding to the KiK-net network) show that VSz is systematically larger for a given VSz than for profiles from the other regions. The difference largely results from the placement of the KiK-net station locations on rock and rocklike sites, whereas stations in the other regions are generally placed in urban areas underlain by sediments. Using the KiK-net velocity profiles, we provide equations relating VS30 to VSz for z ranging from 5 to 29 m in 1-m increments. These equations (and those for California velocity profiles given in Boore, 2004b) can be used to estimate VS30 from VSz for sites in which velocity profiles do not extend to 30 m. The scatter of the residuals decreases with depth, but, even for an averaging depth of 5 m, a variation in logVS30 of ±1 standard deviation maps into less than a 20% uncertainty in ground motions given by recent GMPEs at short periods. The sensitivity of the ground motions to VS30 uncertainty is considerably larger at long periods (but is less than a factor of 1.2 for averaging depths greater than about 20 m). We also find that VS30 is correlated with VSz for z as great as 400 m for sites of the KiK-net network, providing some justification for using VS30 as a site-response variable for predicting ground motions at periods for which the wavelengths far exceed 30 m.

  9. Guide to the availability of hydrologic data, Greater Pittsburgh region, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beall, Robert M.

    1976-01-01

    A great variety of hydrologic data are collected by many governmental agencies and other entities for diverse purposes. Some of the data are compiled and reported in readily available, widely known publications; some are not. Continuing requests for information on the locations of data collection sites and on the sources of data have suggested the need for a guide to that information. Presently active primary-data-collection sites have been located on a map of the Greater Pittsburgh region (Allegheny, Armstrong, Beaver, Butler, Washington, and Westmoreland Counties in southwestern Pennsylvania), and the sources of data--by publication or responsible agency-have been described. Secondary data collection sites have not been shown on the map, but several agencies involved in this activity have been listed. Hydrologic data are collected at the following numbers of identified sites under the auspices of federal, state, and interstate organizations: Precipitation or temperature .......... 39 Surface-water stage or discharge ...... 82 Surface-water quality ................. 69 Ground-water levels ................... 7

  10. EURO-CORDEX regional climate model analysis for the Greater Alpine Region: Performance and expected future change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiatek, Gerhard; Kunstmann, Harald; Senatore, Alfonso

    2016-07-01

    Simulations from 13 highly resolved regional climate models run within the Coordinated Downscaling Experiment initiative at 0.11° resolution with boundary forcings from five different Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 global models are employed to derive future climate change signal for the Greater Alpine Region (GAR) and four smaller investigation areas. Evaluation statistics include mean temperature and precipitation, frequency of days with precipitation over 1 mm and over 15 mm, 90% quantile of the frequency distribution, and maximum number of consecutive dry days. The evaluation for the period from 1971 to 2000 indicates that the models reproduce spatial seasonal precipitation patterns. In general, the simulations underestimate the seasonal mean temperature and overestimate the mean precipitation values. In GAR the ensemble seasonal mean temperature bias ranges from -0.8 to -1.9°C. The bias in precipitation varies between +14.8% in summer and +41.6% in the winter season. Larger errors are found for other statistics and in the investigated regions. In general, no significant gains in the quality of reproduction of the observed precipitation and temperature statistics compared to previous experiments can be identified. The temperature calculations for 2071-2100 related to the period from 1971 to 2000 in the GAR area show ensemble mean increases in the seasonal mean 2 m temperature of 2.5°C in fall and winter, 2.4°C in summer, and 1.9°C in spring. In the same area, precipitation is simulated to increase up to 12.3% in winter and 5.7% in spring. Only minor changes of the ensemble mean are predicted with +2.3% in fall and -1.7% in summer.

  11. Strike-slip and extrusion tectonics of the Greater Caucasus-Kopetdagh region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, M. L.

    2012-04-01

    In the Paleogene-Early Miocene, the areas of the modern Greater Caucasus and Kopetdagh were occupied by marginal seas (parts of the Paratethys intracontinental sea) inheriting the Cretaceous back-arc basins. In the Early Miocene, a collisional compression of the seas began at the time when the Arabian plate detached from Africa to move northward. The compression proceeded in a good accordance with the Arabia movement that was manifested in a general synchroneity of the Late Alpine orogenies in the Caucasus and Kopetdagh with the rifting and spreading phases in the Aden Gulf and the Red Sea. The earliest orogeny was the Styrian one of the terminal Early Miocene. It corresponds to the initial stage of the rift opening and was mostly pronounced in the east, in Kopetdagh and East Iran, where a recent structure has been formed by the initial Middle Miocene. In the Greater Caucasus, the Styrian deformations occurred in its central part only (i.e., in front of the Arabian plate northern tip) where the main Caucasian thrusts and conjugate asymmetrical megaanticline of the Central Caucasus were formed. An essential feature of the earliest, Styrian, structure of the whole Caucasus-Kopetdagh region was a series of regional right-lateral strike-slip faults. In the Kopetdagh, the strike-slips have no submeridional but northwestern direction although they occurred in the northern continuation of the submeridional right-lateral strike-slip faults framing the Lut block. In the Caucasus, they became even sublatitudinal, in parallel with the North Anatolian fault, thus constituting a single domain with the latter. So, the right-lateral strike-slip faults of East Iran, Kopetdagh, and the Caucasus compose an extensive arc convex to the north and appeared probably as a result of the right-lateral shear caused by the known counterclockwise rotation of the Arabian lithospheric plate. The Middle Miocene was characterized by a tectonic pause both in the Red Sea-Aden rift system and in the

  12. Eimeria spp. infecting quenda (Isoodon obesulus) in the greater Perth region, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Alison E; Yang, Rongchang; Lymbery, Alan J; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2016-11-01

    Parasites of wildlife inhabiting urbanised and peri-urban environments are of interest regarding wildlife population health, and also veterinary public health in the case of parasites that can also infect humans and domestic animals. This study aimed to: identify, and estimate the prevalence of, species of Eimeria parasitic in quenda (Isoodon obesulus) in the greater Perth region, Western Australia; 2) morphologically describe and genetically characterise a novel observed species of Eimeria as E. angustus; and 3) genetically characterise E. kanyana. Eimeria spp. prevalence was 76.1% (95% CI 64.9-84.5%), and four putative species of Eimeria were identified. Eimeria kanyana was identified infecting quenda for the first time, with a prevalence of 54.9% (43.4-66.0%). Eimeria quenda was less prevalent, at 7.0% (3.1-15.5%). The novel species E. angustus was present in 45.1% of sampled quenda (34.0-56.6%). A second novel morphotype of Eimeria was present in 2.8% of sampled quenda (0.9-9.7%). Mixed Eimeria spp. infections were present in 21/71 quenda (29.6%, 95% CI 20.2-41.1%). Molecular phylogenetic analyses of E. kanyana and E. angustus were conducted at the 18S rRNA and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase loci. At both loci, two isolates identified as E. kanyana grouped in a phylogenetic clade with E. trichosuri. Five isolates identified as the novel E. angustus were most closely related to E. tropidura at the 18S locus. At the COI locus, no sequence data were available for E. tropidura; isolates of E. angustus grouped with E. sciurorum.

  13. Region of interest analysis; by selecting regions with denuded areas can we detect greater amounts of change?

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, David J.; Li, Ling; YQ, Zhang; Totterman, Saara; Tamez, Jose; Kwoh, C. Kent; Eaton, Charles B.; Le Graverand, Marie-Pierre Hellio; Beals, Chan R.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Based on recent analyses, the measures of short-term responsiveness of MRI derived cartilage morphometry may not be as large as earlier studies had suggested. We examined if by selecting regions of interest with denuded cartilage, if the remaining cartilage within this region of interest was susceptible to greater rates of cartilage loss. METHODS: Subjects included for this analysis are a subset of the approximately 4700 participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) Study. Bilateral radiographs and 3T MRI (Siemens Trio) of the knees and clinical data are obtained at baseline and annually in all participants.150 subjects from the OAI Progression subcohort all of whom had both frequent symptoms and, in the same knee, radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA defined as definite tibio-femoral osteophytes on x-ray) based on a screening reading done at the OAI clinics. One knee from each subject was selected for analysis. Using sagittal 3D DESSwe MR images from the baseline and 12 follow-up month visit, a segmentation algorithm was applied to the cartilage plates of the index knee to compute the cartilage volume, normalized cartilage volume (Volume normalized to bone surface interface area), and percent denuded area (Total Cartilage Bone Interface area denuded of cartilage). Summary statistics of the changes (absolute and percentage) from baseline at one year and the standardized response mean (SRM), i.e. mean change divided by the standard deviation of that change were calculated. Analyses are stratified into three groups according to baseline assessment of denuded area: those with no denuded area in the region of interest at baseline, and then 2 groups (intermediate denuded area (≤median) and severe (> median) denuded area) of equal sample size. RESULTS: On average the subjects were 60.9 years of age and obese with a mean BMI of 30.3 kg/m2. For the combined central medial femur and tibia the mean volume change for the whole sample was −48.2 (SD 159

  14. Differential influences of local subpopulations on regional diversity and differentiation for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Row, Jeffery R.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Fedy, Brad C.

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of spatial genetic variation across a region can shape evolutionary dynamics and impact population persistence. Local population dynamics and among-population dispersal rates are strong drivers of this spatial genetic variation, yet for many species we lack a clear understanding of how these population processes interact in space to shape within-species genetic variation. Here, we used extensive genetic and demographic data from 10 subpopulations of greater sage-grouse to parameterize a simulated approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) model and (i) test for regional differences in population density and dispersal rates for greater sage-grouse subpopulations in Wyoming, and (ii) quantify how these differences impact subpopulation regional influence on genetic variation. We found a close match between observed and simulated data under our parameterized model and strong variation in density and dispersal rates across Wyoming. Sensitivity analyses suggested that changes in dispersal (via landscape resistance) had a greater influence on regional differentiation, whereas changes in density had a greater influence on mean diversity across all subpopulations. Local subpopulations, however, varied in their regional influence on genetic variation. Decreases in the size and dispersal rates of central populations with low overall and net immigration (i.e. population sources) had the greatest negative impact on genetic variation. Overall, our results provide insight into the interactions among demography, dispersal and genetic variation and highlight the potential of ABC to disentangle the complexity of regional population dynamics and project the genetic impact of changing conditions.

  15. Differential influences of local subpopulations on regional diversity and differentiation for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus).

    PubMed

    Row, Jeffrey R; Oyler-McCance, Sara J; Fedy, Bradley C

    2016-09-01

    The distribution of spatial genetic variation across a region can shape evolutionary dynamics and impact population persistence. Local population dynamics and among-population dispersal rates are strong drivers of this spatial genetic variation, yet for many species we lack a clear understanding of how these population processes interact in space to shape within-species genetic variation. Here, we used extensive genetic and demographic data from 10 subpopulations of greater sage-grouse to parameterize a simulated approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) model and (i) test for regional differences in population density and dispersal rates for greater sage-grouse subpopulations in Wyoming, and (ii) quantify how these differences impact subpopulation regional influence on genetic variation. We found a close match between observed and simulated data under our parameterized model and strong variation in density and dispersal rates across Wyoming. Sensitivity analyses suggested that changes in dispersal (via landscape resistance) had a greater influence on regional differentiation, whereas changes in density had a greater influence on mean diversity across all subpopulations. Local subpopulations, however, varied in their regional influence on genetic variation. Decreases in the size and dispersal rates of central populations with low overall and net immigration (i.e. population sources) had the greatest negative impact on genetic variation. Overall, our results provide insight into the interactions among demography, dispersal and genetic variation and highlight the potential of ABC to disentangle the complexity of regional population dynamics and project the genetic impact of changing conditions.

  16. Trihalomethanes in drinking water of greater Québec region (Canada): occurrence, variations and modelling.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Manuel J; Vinette, Yannick; Sérodes, Jean-B; Bouchard, Christian

    2003-11-01

    The levels of trihalomethanes (THMs)--the main species of by-product from water chlorination--were monitored in the distribution systems of the five major drinking water utilities of the greater area of Québec City in order to investigate and model their occurrence on a spatial and seasonal basis. Data for THMs and other water quality and operational parameters associated with their formation were generated through a 16 month sampling program involving several sites representing variable water residence times, from the plant to the system extremity. The results demonstrate that the differences in measured THM levels between the five utilities are mainly due to the variable quality of raw waters, the type of water treatment process being used and the type and levels of applied disinfectant. Depending on the utility, average THM levels were from 1.3 to 2.5 times higher in the system extremities than in the water leaving the treatment plant. Also, average levels of THMs measured in summer at the distribution system extremities were, depending on the utility, from 2.5 to 5 times higher than the average levels measured in winter. The seasonal differences were found to be significantly greater than those observed by others in water utilities in the United States and Europe and are explained in large part by the considerable changes, over the year, in the quality and temperature of surface waters in Southern Quebec. For the live utilities under study, multivariate regression models were developed in order to predict spatial and seasonal variations of THMs. Both residual chlorine demand and temperature were found to be better, statistically, as predictors for THM occurrence. The usefulness of the developed models for routine and long term water quality management, as well as for assessment of human exposure to THMs, are also discussed.

  17. Martian Impact Craters Modified by Post-impact Processes in the Greater Hellas Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitala, J.; Kostama, V.-P.; Aittola, M.; Lahtela, H.

    2003-04-01

    The appearance of the impact craters on the Martian surface depends on numerous factors beginning from the size, mass, velocity, type, and impact angle of the approaching projectile [1]. These all have affected on the impact energy delivered into the surface. The bedrock properties have then resulted in additional effects. Besides some major phenomena (Pre-existing faults and fractures, permafrost-saturated layers) there may have been numerous more delicate variations due to local projectile-bedrock combinations. Various post-impact deformation processes may then have changed the appearance of an impact crater to the extent that it is difficult to identify any original crater characteristics in great details. The changes in the crater appearances can, however, be looked in a positive way to provide crucial information on the local surface geology, bedrock properties and, more generally, on the whole post-impact geological evolution of the area studied [2,3,4]. We have characterized and studied the various crater deformation types found from within the large Hellas area. As it is one of the possible previous water body areas on Mars and lies also close to the southern permafrost and the south-pole environment, many craters locating within the greater Hellas Basin area have undergone substantial fluvial processes. Still, many of their surviving geologic features are enough well preserved. The good state of preservation is due partly to the relative youth of the craters and/or partly to Martian relative dryness. The absence of permanent water cover limits the weathering of surface materials, while it optimizes the site's exposure for geologic surveys by remote-sensing. This allows to estimate that the effects related to permafrost, water, erosion and sedimentation have been far more important within the greater Hellas area than what was earlier assumed using the previous data sets which have had defects either in resolution or in areal coverage. The still

  18. Mapping regional distribution of a single tree species: Whitebark pine in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landenburger, L.; Lawrence, R.L.; Podruzny, S.; Schwartz, C.C.

    2008-01-01

    Moderate resolution satellite imagery traditionally has been thought to be inadequate for mapping vegetation at the species level. This has made comprehensive mapping of regional distributions of sensitive species, such as whitebark pine, either impractical or extremely time consuming. We sought to determine whether using a combination of moderate resolution satellite imagery (Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus), extensive stand data collected by land management agencies for other purposes, and modern statistical classification techniques (boosted classification trees) could result in successful mapping of whitebark pine. Overall classification accuracies exceeded 90%, with similar individual class accuracies. Accuracies on a localized basis varied based on elevation. Accuracies also varied among administrative units, although we were not able to determine whether these differences related to inherent spatial variations or differences in the quality of available reference data.

  19. Normal values of regional left ventricular myocardial thickness, mass and distribution-assessed by 320-detector computed tomography angiography in the Copenhagen General Population Study.

    PubMed

    Hindsø, Louise; Fuchs, Andreas; Kühl, Jørgen Tobias; Nilsson, Emma Julia P; Sigvardsen, Per Ejlstrup; Køber, Lars; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Kofoed, Klaus Fuglsang

    2017-03-01

    Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is associated with cardiovascular complications and the geometry is important for prognosis. In some cardiovascular diseases, myocardial hypertrophy or dilation occurs regionally without modifying the global size of the heart. It is therefore relevant to determine regional normal reference values of the left ventricle. The aim of this study was to derive reference values of regional LV myocardial thickness (LVMT) and mass (LVMM) from a healthy study group of the general population using cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA). We wanted to introduce LV myocardial distribution (LVMD) as a measure of regional variation of the LVMT. Moreover, we wanted to determine whether these parameters varied between men and women. We studied 568 (181 men; 32%) adults, free of cardiovascular disease and risk factors, who underwent 320-detector CCTA. Mean age was 55 (range 40-84) years. Regional LVMT and LVMM were measured, according to the American Heart Association's 17 segment model, using semi-automatic software. Mean LVMT were 6.6 mm for men and 5.4 mm for women (p < 0.001). The normal LV was thickest in the basal septum (segment 3; men = 8.3 mm; women = 7.2 mm) and thinnest in the mid-ventricular anterior wall (segment 7; men = 5.6 mm; women = 4.5 mm) for both men and women. However, the regional LVMD differed between men and women, with the LV being most heterogenic in women. The normal human LV is morphologically heterogenic, and showed same overall pattern but different regional distribution for men and women. This study introduces LVMD and provides gender specific reference values for regional LVMT, LVMM, and LVMD.

  20. Wintering greater scaup as biomonitors of metal contamination in federal wildlife refuges in the Long Island Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, J.B.; Barclay, J.S.; Major, A.R.; Fisher, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Tissues of greater scaup (Aythya marila mariloides) and components of their habitat (sediment, plankton, macroalgae, and invertebrates) were collected for heavy metal analysis in the winter of 1996-97 from US Department of the Interior wildlife refuges in the Long Island region. Geographic and temporal relationships between the concentration of nine metals in tissue and in habitat components were examined. In greater scaup tissues and habitat components, concentrations of As and Se were highest in Branford, Connecticut; Pb values were greatest in Oyster Bay, New York; and Hg concentrations were largest in Sandy Hook, New Jersey. Over the course of the winter, the concentration of Hg in liver increased, and concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se, and Zn in kidney decreased. Based on several criteria derived from geographic and temporal trends, metals were ranked using the apparent biomonitoring efficacy of greater scaup (As = Cr > Cu = Pb = Zn = Hg > Se = Cd > Ni). Although the seasonal migration and daily mobility of greater scaup are drawbacks to using this species as a sentinel for metal pollution, it was possible to demonstrate a relationship between geographic and temporal patterns of metals in habitat and greater scaup tissue. However, most metal concentrations in tissue were below thresholds known to adversely affect health of waterfowl.

  1. Wintering greater scaup as biomonitors of metal contamination in federal wildlife refuges in the Long Island region.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J B; Barclay, J S; Major, A R; Fisher, J P

    2000-01-01

    Tissues of greater scaup (Aythya marila mariloides) and components of their habitat (sediment, plankton, macroalgae, and invertebrates) were collected for heavy metal analysis in the winter of 1996-97 from US Department of the Interior wildlife refuges in the Long Island region. Geographic and temporal relationships between the concentration of nine metals in tissue and in habitat components were examined. In greater scaup tissues and habitat components, concentrations of As and Se were highest in Branford, Connecticut; Pb values were greatest in Oyster Bay, New York; and Hg concentrations were largest in Sandy Hook, New Jersey. Over the course of the winter, the concentration of Hg in liver increased, and concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se, and Zn in kidney decreased. Based on several criteria derived from geographic and temporal trends, metals were ranked using the apparent biomonitoring efficacy of greater scaup (As = Cr > Cu = Pb = Zn = Hg > Se = Cd > Ni). Although the seasonal migration and daily mobility of greater scaup are drawbacks to using this species as a sentinel for metal pollution, it was possible to demonstrate a relationship between geographic and temporal patterns of metals in habitat and greater scaup tissue. However, most metal concentrations in tissue were below thresholds known to adversely affect health of waterfowl.

  2. Copenhagen Campaigners: An Active Citizens Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Rohan

    2010-01-01

    In the lead-up to the Copenhagen Climate talks in December 2009, Islington Council's Sustainable Schools Officer involved seven local schools in an engaging citizenship project entitled "Copenhagen Campaigners". The aim of the project was to raise pupil's awareness of this historic global event and empower them to take action on a local…

  3. Basement geology and tectonic development of the greater New Zealand region: an interpretation from regional magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Rupert

    1999-07-01

    The basement geology of New Zealand is composed of early Palaeozoic terranes of the Western Province, that are separated from late Palaeozoic-Mesozoic Eastern Province terranes by a suite of Carboniferous-Cretaceous arc-related igneous rocks (Median Tectonic Zone, MTZ). The Stokes Magnetic Anomaly System (SMAS) is associated with MTZ rocks and volcanogenic basement terranes of the Eastern Province. Offshore, it can be traced north along the northern margin of the New Caledonia Basin, and correlative Eastern Province rocks are found in New Caledonia. It can also be traced south across the Great South Basin, until a significant ENE-trending tectonic boundary is encountered on the central Campbell Plateau. This boundary is defined by linear gravity and magnetic anomalies (Campbell Magnetic Anomaly System, CMAS), and narrow fault-bounded sedimentary basins. If the sources of CMAS anomalies are correlative with those of the SMAS, then magnetic data require a ˜400 km dextral offset of basement rocks by faults along the northern margin of the CMAS prior to 80 Ma. The geometry of correlative Western Province and MTZ rocks in Marie Byrd Land supports the hypothesis that CMAS anomalies are sourced by MTZ-correlative rocks. A NNE-trending boundary on the central Challenger Plateau marks a change from high amplitude magnetic anomalies to weakly magnetic basement, and appears to represent a fundamental change in crustal character. The western Challenger Plateau and Lord Howe Rise (south of 30°S) are characterised by high amplitude magnetic and gravity anomalies with a NW-trending fabric, but the source of magnetic anomalies is unresolved. The magnetic character, combined with Cretaceous reconstruction, supports basement rock correlations with the east Lachlan Fold Belt or New England Fold Belt in Australia, rather than Western Province rocks in New Zealand. The magnetic signature of marginal ocean crust around New Zealand also offers clues into the region's tectonic history

  4. Climate sensitivity runs and regional hydrologic modeling for predicting the response of the greater Florida Everglades ecosystem to climate change.

    PubMed

    Obeysekera, Jayantha; Barnes, Jenifer; Nungesser, Martha

    2015-04-01

    It is important to understand the vulnerability of the water management system in south Florida and to determine the resilience and robustness of greater Everglades restoration plans under future climate change. The current climate models, at both global and regional scales, are not ready to deliver specific climatic datasets for water resources investigations involving future plans and therefore a scenario based approach was adopted for this first study in restoration planning. We focused on the general implications of potential changes in future temperature and associated changes in evapotranspiration, precipitation, and sea levels at the regional boundary. From these, we developed a set of six climate and sea level scenarios, used them to simulate the hydrologic response of the greater Everglades region including agricultural, urban, and natural areas, and compared the results to those from a base run of current conditions. The scenarios included a 1.5 °C increase in temperature, ±10 % change in precipitation, and a 0.46 m (1.5 feet) increase in sea level for the 50-year planning horizon. The results suggested that, depending on the rainfall and temperature scenario, there would be significant changes in water budgets, ecosystem performance, and in water supply demands met. The increased sea level scenarios also show that the ground water levels would increase significantly with associated implications for flood protection in the urbanized areas of southeastern Florida.

  5. Climatic effects of 30 years of landscape change over the Greater Phoenix, Arizona, region: 1. Surface energy budget changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Georgescu, M.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Steyaert, L.T.; Weaver, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is part 1 of a two-part study that evaluates the climatic effects of recent landscape change for one of the nation's most rapidly expanding metropolitan complexes, the Greater Phoenix, Arizona, region. The region's landscape evolution over an approximate 30-year period since the early 1970s is documented on the basis of analyses of Landsat images and land use/land cover (LULC) data sets derived from aerial photography (1973) and Landsat (1992 and 2001). High-resolution, Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), simulations (2-km grid spacing) are used in conjunction with consistently defined land cover data sets and associated biophysical parameters for the circa 1973, circa 1992, and circa 2001 time periods to quantify the impacts of intensive land use changes on the July surface temperatures and the surface radiation and energy budgets for the Greater Phoenix region. The main findings are as follows: since the early 1970s the region's landscape has been altered by a significant increase in urban/suburban land area, primarily at the expense of decreasing plots of irrigated agriculture and secondarily by the conversion of seminatural shrubland. Mean regional temperatures for the circa 2001 landscape were 0.12??C warmer than the circa 1973 landscape, with maximum temperature differences, located over regions of greatest urbanization, in excess of 1??C. The significant reduction in irrigated agriculture, for the circa 2001 relative to the circa 1973 landscape, resulted in dew point temperature decreases in excess of 1??C. The effect of distinct land use conversion themes (e.g., conversion from irrigated agriculture to urban land) was also examined to evaluate how the most important conversion themes have each contributed to the region's changing climate. The two urbanization themes studied (from an initial landscape of irrigated agriculture and seminatural shrubland) have the greatest positive effect on near-surface temperature, increasing maximum daily

  6. Very-Heavy Precipitation in the Greater New York City Region and Widespread Drought Alleviation Tied to Western US Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Travis D; Felzer, Benjamin S

    2015-01-01

    Observed intensification of precipitation extremes, responsible for extensive societal impacts, are widely attributed to anthropogenic sources, which may include indirect effects of agricultural irrigation. However quantifying the effects of irrigation on far-downstream climate remains a challenge. We use three paired Community Earth System Model simulations to assess mechanisms of irrigation-induced precipitation trends and extremes in the conterminous US and the effect on the terrestrial carbon sink. Results suggest precipitation enhancement in the central US reduced drought conditions and increased regional carbon uptake, while further downstream, the heaviest precipitation events were more frequent and intense. Specifically, moisture advection from irrigation in the western U.S. and recycling of enhanced local convective precipitation produced very-heavy storm events that were 11% more intense and occurred 23% more frequently in the densely populated greater New York City region.

  7. Very-Heavy Precipitation in the Greater New York City Region and Widespread Drought Alleviation Tied to Western US Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Travis D.; Felzer, Benjamin S.

    2015-01-01

    Observed intensification of precipitation extremes, responsible for extensive societal impacts, are widely attributed to anthropogenic sources, which may include indirect effects of agricultural irrigation. However quantifying the effects of irrigation on far-downstream climate remains a challenge. We use three paired Community Earth System Model simulations to assess mechanisms of irrigation-induced precipitation trends and extremes in the conterminous US and the effect on the terrestrial carbon sink. Results suggest precipitation enhancement in the central US reduced drought conditions and increased regional carbon uptake, while further downstream, the heaviest precipitation events were more frequent and intense. Specifically, moisture advection from irrigation in the western U.S. and recycling of enhanced local convective precipitation produced very-heavy storm events that were 11% more intense and occurred 23% more frequently in the densely populated greater New York City region. PMID:26642049

  8. Demonstration of Decision Support Tools for Sustainable Development - An Application on Alternative Fuels in the Greater Yellowstone-Teton Region

    SciTech Connect

    Shropshire, D.E.; Cobb, D.A.; Worhach, P.; Jacobson, J.J.; Berrett, S.

    2000-12-30

    The Demonstration of Decision Support Tools for Sustainable Development project integrated the Bechtel/Nexant Industrial Materials Exchange Planner and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory System Dynamic models, demonstrating their capabilities on alternative fuel applications in the Greater Yellowstone-Teton Park system. The combined model, called the Dynamic Industrial Material Exchange, was used on selected test cases in the Greater Yellow Teton Parks region to evaluate economic, environmental, and social implications of alternative fuel applications, and identifying primary and secondary industries. The test cases included looking at compressed natural gas applications in Teton National Park and Jackson, Wyoming, and studying ethanol use in Yellowstone National Park and gateway cities in Montana. With further development, the system could be used to assist decision-makers (local government, planners, vehicle purchasers, and fuel suppliers) in selecting alternative fuels, vehicles, and developing AF infrastructures. The system could become a regional AF market assessment tool that could help decision-makers understand the behavior of the AF market and conditions in which the market would grow. Based on this high level market assessment, investors and decision-makers would become more knowledgeable of the AF market opportunity before developing detailed plans and preparing financial analysis.

  9. A one health perspective on HPAI H5N1 in the Greater Mekong sub-region.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Otte, Martin J; Roland-Holst, David; Zilberman, David

    2013-05-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 has been a global concern for almost 10 years since its epidemic emergence in South-east Asia in 2003/2004. Despite large investment of resources into the region, the infection has not been eradicated and continues to result in outbreaks in poultry and a small number of human fatalities. This review synthesizes the knowledge base generated by a vast number of research activities conducted in the region and beyond, and adopts an interdisciplinary perspective consistent with the one health paradigm towards analysing the problem and formulating possible policy solutions. A key outcome of the work has been the need to integrate socio-economic and anthropological dimensions with any disease control and prevention activities traditionally informed by primarily epidemiological, virological and pathological attributes of the infection in poultry and wild waterbirds. Recommendations at a broad conceptual level are presented that acknowledge the diversity in the region with respect to livestock production, as well as the changing nature of the risk landscape as a consequence of the rapid economic development which some of the countries in the Greater Mekong sub-region are currently undergoing, as well as their strong trade links with China as the major economic power in East Asia.

  10. The Distribution of Fault Slip Rates and Oblique Slip Patterns in the Greater Los Angeles, CA Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, H.; Marshall, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Los Angeles basin is host to a complex network of active strike-slip, reverse, and oblique slip faults. Because of the large metropolitan region occupying the basin, even moderately large earthquakes (M6+) pose a significant natural hazard. Since geologic estimates have not fully characterized the distribution of active fault slip rates in the region, we use a mechanical model driven by geodetically-measured shortening rates to calculate the full three-dimensional fault slip rate distributions in the region. The modeled nonplanar fault geometries are relatively well-constrained, and use data from the SCEC community fault model. Area-weighted average fault slip rates predicted by the model match previously measured geologic slip rates in most cases; however, some geologic measurements were made in locations where the slip rate is non-characteristic of the fault (e.g. near a fault tip) and the geologic slip rate estimate disagrees with the model-predicted average slip rate. The largest discrepancy between the model predictions and geologic estimates occurs on the Sierra Madre fault, which has a model-predicted slip rate approximately 2 mm/yr greater than the geologic estimates. An advantage of the model is that it can predict the full three-dimensional mechanically compatible slip distribution along all modeled faults. The fault surface slip distribution maps show complex oblique slip patterns that arise due to the nonplanar geometries and mechanical interactions between intersecting and neighboring faults. For example, the Hollywood fault exhibits a net slip of 0.7 mm/yr at depth which increases to 1.6 mm/yr where it is intersected by the Santa Monica fault in the near-surface. Model results suggest that nearly all faults in the region have an oblique component of slip at depth, so slip rate estimates of only dip or strike-slip may underestimate the total net slip rates and seismic hazards in the region.

  11. Evaluating pharmaceuticals and caffeine as indicators of fecal contamination in drinking water sources of the Greater Montreal region.

    PubMed

    Daneshvar, Atlasi; Aboulfadl, Khadija; Viglino, Liza; Broséus, Romain; Sauvé, Sébastien; Madoux-Humery, Anne-Sophie; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A; Prévost, Michèle

    2012-06-01

    We surveyed four different river systems in the Greater Montreal region, upstream and downstream of entry points of contamination, from April 2007 to January 2009. The studied compounds belong to three different groups: PPCPs (caffeine, carbamazepine, naproxen, gemfibrozil, and trimethoprim), hormones (progesterone, estrone, and estradiol), and triazine herbicides and their metabolites (atrazine, deethylatrazine, deisopropylatrazine, simazine, and cyanazine). In the system A, B, and C having low flow rate and high TOC, we observed the highest detection frequencies and mass flows of PPCPs compared to the other compounds, reflecting discharge of urban contaminations through WWTPs and CSOs. However, in River D, having high flow rate and low TOC, comparable frequency of detection of triazine and their by-products and PPCPs, reflecting cumulative loads of these compounds from the Great Lakes as well as persistency against natural attenuation processes. Considering large differences in the removal efficiencies of caffeine and carbamazepine, a high ratio of caffeine/carbamazepine might be an indicative of a greater proportion of raw sewage versus treated wastewater in surface waters. In addition, caffeine appeared to be a promising indicator of recent urban fecal contaminations, as shown by the significant correlation with FC (R(2)=0.45), while carbamazepine is a good indicator of cumulative persistence compounds.

  12. A numerical model simulation of the regional air pollution meteorology of the greater Chesapeake Bay area - Summer day case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, M.; Pielke, R. A.; Mcnider, R. T.; Mcdougal, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    The mesoscale numerical model of the University of Virginia (UVMM), has been applied to the greater Chesapeake Bay area in order to provide a detailed description of the air pollution meteorology during a typical summer day. This model provides state of the art simulations for land-sea thermally induced circulations. The model-predicted results agree favorably with available observed data. The effects of synoptic flow and sea breeze coupling on air pollution meteorological characteristics in this region, are demonstrated by a spatial and temporal presentation of various model predicted fields. A transport analysis based on predicted wind velocities indicated possible recirculation of pollutants back onto the Atlantic coast due to the sea breeze circulation.

  13. Interseasonal movements of greater sage-grouse, migratory behavior, and an assessment of the core regions concept in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fedy, Bradley C.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Doherty, Kevin E.; O'Donnell, Michael S.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Bedrosian, Bryan; Holloran, Matthew J.; Johnson, Gregory D.; Kaczor, Nicholas W.; Kirol, Christopher P.; Mandich, Cheryl A.; Marshall, David; McKee, Gwyn; Olson, Chad; Swanson, Christopher C.; Walker, Brett L.

    2012-01-01

    Animals can require different habitat types throughout their annual cycles. When considering habitat prioritization, we need to explicitly consider habitat requirements throughout the annual cycle, particularly for species of conservation concern. Understanding annual habitat requirements begins with quantifying how far individuals move across landscapes between key life stages to access required habitats. We quantified individual interseasonal movements for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter sage-grouse) using radio-telemetry spanning the majority of the species distribution in Wyoming. Sage-grouse are currently a candidate for listing under the United States Endangered Species Act and Wyoming is predicted to remain a stronghold for the species. Sage-grouse use distinct seasonal habitats throughout their annual cycle for breeding, brood rearing, and wintering. Average movement distances in Wyoming from nest sites to summer-late brood-rearing locations were 8.1 km (SE = 0.3 km; n = 828 individuals) and the average subsequent distances moved from summer sites to winter locations were 17.3 km (SE = 0.5 km; n = 607 individuals). Average nest-to-winter movements were 14.4 km (SE = 0.6 km; n = 434 individuals). We documented remarkable variation in the extent of movement distances both within and among sites across Wyoming, with some individuals remaining year-round in the same vicinity and others moving over 50 km between life stages. Our results suggest defining any of our populations as migratory or non-migratory is innappropriate as individual strategies vary widely. We compared movement distances of birds marked using Global Positioning System (GPS) and very high frequency (VHF) radio marking techniques and found no evidence that the heavier GPS radios limited movement. Furthermore, we examined the capacity of the sage-grouse core regions concept to capture seasonal locations. As expected, we found the core regions approach, which was

  14. The mortality effect of ship-related fine particulate matter in the Sydney greater metropolitan region of NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Broome, Richard A; Cope, Martin E; Goldsworthy, Brett; Goldsworthy, Laurie; Emmerson, Kathryn; Jegasothy, Edward; Morgan, Geoffrey G

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates the mortality effect of primary and secondary PM2.5 related to ship exhaust in the Sydney greater metropolitan region of Australia. A detailed inventory of ship exhaust emissions was used to model a) the 2010/11 concentration of ship-related PM2.5 across the region, and b) the reduction in PM2.5 concentration that would occur if ships used distillate fuel with a 0.1% sulfur content at berth or within 300 km of Sydney. The annual loss of life attributable to 2010/11 levels of ship-related PM2.5 and the improvement in survival associated with use of low-sulfur fuel were estimated from the modelled concentrations. In 2010/11, approximately 1.9% of the region-wide annual average population weighted-mean concentration of all natural and human-made PM2.5 was attributable to ship exhaust, and up to 9.4% at suburbs close to ports. An estimated 220 years of life were lost by people who died in 2010/11 as a result of ship exhaust-related exposure (95% CIβ: 140-290, where CIβ is the uncertainty in the concentration-response coefficient only). Use of 0.1% sulfur fuel at berth would reduce the population weighted-mean concentration of PM2.5 related to ship exhaust by 25% and result in a gain of 390 life-years over a twenty year period (95% CIβ: 260-520). Use of 0.1% sulfur fuel within 300 km of Sydney would reduce the concentration by 56% and result in a gain of 920 life-years over twenty years (95% CIβ: 600-1200). Ship exhaust is an important source of human exposure to PM2.5 in the Sydney greater metropolitan region. This assessment supports intervention to reduce ship emissions in the GMR. Local strategies to limit the sulfur content of fuel would reduce exposure and will become increasingly beneficial as the shipping industry expands. A requirement for use of 0.1% sulfur fuel by ships within 300 km of Sydney would provide more than twice the mortality benefit of a requirement for ships to use 0.1% sulfur fuel at berth.

  15. Differences between the MODIS Collection 6 and 5.1 aerosol datasets over the greater Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgoulias, A. K.; Alexandri, G.; Kourtidis, K. A.; Lelieveld, J.; Zanis, P.; Amiridis, V.

    2016-12-01

    The most recent release of MODIS atmospheric product (Collection 6) is already used in studies concerning the greater Mediterranean region. However, an assessment of the differences and similarities of the last two MODIS collections (6 and 5.1) is missing. In this paper, a first comparison of the MODIS/Terra and Aqua Collection 6 and Collection 5.1 AOD at a wavelength of 550 nm (AOD550) data is presented with a focus on the Mediterranean region. It is shown that Collection 6 AODs are either higher or lower than Collection 5.1 AODs over different continental areas while, over ocean, Collection 6 AODs are higher almost everywhere (11% for MODIS/Terra and 8% for MODIS/Aqua). Generally, Collection 6 retrieves higher AODs than Collection 5.1, especially for MODIS/Terra. The evaluation of Collection 6 and 5.1 AOD550 data against sunphotometric observations from 23 AERONET stations in the area reveals that Collection 6 exhibits a better agreement with the ground-based data. The Collection 6 AOD550 data exhibit a statistically significant negative trend of the order of about -0.001/year (∼-0.5%/year) for MODIS/Terra and -0.002/year (∼-1.0%/year) for MODIS/Aqua. For the region studied, Collection 6 trends are largely reduced compared to Collection 5.1 trends by ∼0.003/year for MODIS/Terra data while for MODIS/Aqua data the trends have not changed significantly (only by ∼0.0003/year).

  16. Conserving the Greater Sage-grouse: A social-ecological systems case study from the California-Nevada region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duvall, Alison L; Metcalf, Alexander L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2016-01-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) continues to serve as one of the most powerful and contested federal legislative mandates for conservation. In the midst of heated debates, researchers, policy makers, and conservation practitioners champion the importance of cooperative conservation and social-ecological systems approaches, which forge partnerships at multiple levels and scales to address complex ecosystem challenges. However, few real-world examples exist to demonstrate how multifaceted collaborations among stakeholders who share a common goal of conserving at-risk species may be nested within a systems framework to achieve social and ecological goals. Here, we present a case study of Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) conservation efforts in the “Bi-State” region of California and Nevada, United States. Using key-informant interviews, we explored dimensions and drivers of this landscape-scale conservation effort. Three themes emerged from the interviews, including 1) ESA action was transformed into opportunity for system-wide conservation; 2) a diverse, locally based partnership anchored collaboration and engagement across multiple levels and scales; and 3) best-available science combined with local knowledge led to “certainty of effectiveness and implementation”—the criteria used by the US Fish and Wildlife Service to evaluate conservation efforts when making listing decisions. Ultimately, collaborative conservation through multistakeholder engagement at various levels and scales led to proactive planning and implementation of conservation measures and precluded the need for an ESA listing of the Bi-State population of Greater Sage-grouse. This article presents a potent example of how a systems approach integrating policy, management, and learning can be used to successfully overcome the conflict-laden and “wicked” challenges that surround at-risk species conservation.

  17. Seismic anisotropy beneath the greater region of the central External Dinarides from observations of SKS-splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subašić, Senad; Prevolnik, Snježan; Herak, Marijan

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of SKS wave splitting beneath greater region of the central External Dinarides (Dalmatia, Croatia) were made in order to investigate seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle and the lithosphere. The area is located in the broad and complex Africa-Eurasia convergent plate boundary zone, where Adriatic microplate interacts with the External Dinarides. We used broadband recordings (more than 3500 analyzed seismograms) from 10 permanent stations situated along the Croatian coastal region. The splitting parameters - fast axis and delay time - were measured using the Silver and Chan method. Seismic anisotropy was observed on all stations. Fast axis directions are fairly uniformly oriented approximately in the NE-SW to NNE-SSW direction, thus perpendicularly to the strike of the Dinarides. Average delay times range between 0.7 and 1.0 seconds. Slight counter-clockwise rotation in average fast axis directions was observed for the stations in the northern part of the studied area, as well as a small increase in average delay times, with respect to the stations in the southern part. We also observed differences in splitting parameters for back-azimuths sampling different tectonic units (Euroasian plate and Adria), however, due to poor back-azimuthal coverage and limited dataset, more measurements have to be made to enable reliable validation of this observation. Fast axis directions coincide with the direction of the maximum tectonic pressure in the crust and with observed fast directions of P-waves in the crust, which might imply a significant crustal component of measured anisotropy, alongside the component resulting from the upper mantle structures.

  18. Understanding handpump sustainability: Determinants of rural water source functionality in the Greater Afram Plains region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Michael B; Shields, Katherine F; Chan, Terence U; Christenson, Elizabeth; Cronk, Ryan D; Leker, Hannah; Samani, Destina; Apoya, Patrick; Lutz, Alexandra; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-10-01

    Safe drinking water is critical to human health and development. In rural sub-Saharan Africa, most improved water sources are boreholes with handpumps; studies suggest that up to one third of these handpumps are nonfunctional at any given time. This work presents findings from a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from 1509 water sources in 570 communities in the rural Greater Afram Plains (GAP) region of Ghana; one of the largest studies of its kind. 79.4% of enumerated water sources were functional when visited; in multivariable regressions, functionality depended on source age, management, tariff collection, the number of other sources in the community, and the district. A Bayesian network (BN) model developed using the same data set found strong dependencies of functionality on implementer, pump type, management, and the availability of tools, with synergistic effects from management determinants on functionality, increasing the likelihood of a source being functional from a baseline of 72% to more than 97% with optimal management and available tools. We suggest that functionality may be a dynamic equilibrium between regular breakdowns and repairs, with management a key determinant of repair rate. Management variables may interact synergistically in ways better captured by BN analysis than by logistic regressions. These qualitative findings may prove generalizable beyond the study area, and may offer new approaches to understanding and increasing handpump functionality and safe water access.

  19. Understanding handpump sustainability: Determinants of rural water source functionality in the Greater Afram Plains region of Ghana†

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Katherine F.; Chan, Terence U.; Christenson, Elizabeth; Cronk, Ryan D.; Leker, Hannah; Samani, Destina; Apoya, Patrick; Lutz, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Safe drinking water is critical to human health and development. In rural sub‐Saharan Africa, most improved water sources are boreholes with handpumps; studies suggest that up to one third of these handpumps are nonfunctional at any given time. This work presents findings from a secondary analysis of cross‐sectional data from 1509 water sources in 570 communities in the rural Greater Afram Plains (GAP) region of Ghana; one of the largest studies of its kind. 79.4% of enumerated water sources were functional when visited; in multivariable regressions, functionality depended on source age, management, tariff collection, the number of other sources in the community, and the district. A Bayesian network (BN) model developed using the same data set found strong dependencies of functionality on implementer, pump type, management, and the availability of tools, with synergistic effects from management determinants on functionality, increasing the likelihood of a source being functional from a baseline of 72% to more than 97% with optimal management and available tools. We suggest that functionality may be a dynamic equilibrium between regular breakdowns and repairs, with management a key determinant of repair rate. Management variables may interact synergistically in ways better captured by BN analysis than by logistic regressions. These qualitative findings may prove generalizable beyond the study area, and may offer new approaches to understanding and increasing handpump functionality and safe water access. PMID:27667863

  20. Evolutionary history of a keystone pollinator parallels the biome occupancy of angiosperms in the Greater Cape Floristic Region.

    PubMed

    de Jager, Marinus L; Ellis, Allan G

    2017-02-01

    The Greater Cape Floristic Region (GCFR) in South Africa has been extensively investigated for its phenomenal angiosperm diversity. A key emergent pattern is the occurrence of older plant lineages in the southern Fynbos biome and younger lineages in the northern Succulent Karoo biome. We know practically nothing, however, about the evolutionary history of the animals that pollinate this often highly-specialized flora. In this study, we explore the evolutionary history of an important GCFR fly pollinator, Megapalpus capensis, and ask whether it exhibits broadly congruent genetic structuring and timing of diversification to flowering plants within these biomes. We find that the oldest M. capensis lineages originated in Fynbos during the Miocene, while younger Succulent Karoo lineages diverged in the Pliocene and correspond to the proposed age of this recent biome. A strong signature of population expansion is also recovered for flies in this arid biome, consistent with recent colonization. Our first investigation into the evolutionary history of GCFR pollinators thus supports a recent origin of the SK biome, as inferred from angiosperm phylogenies, and suggests that plants and pollinators may have co-diverged within this remarkable area.

  1. Understanding handpump sustainability: Determinants of rural water source functionality in the Greater Afram Plains region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Michael B.; Shields, Katherine F.; Chan, Terence U.; Christenson, Elizabeth; Cronk, Ryan D.; Leker, Hannah; Samani, Destina; Apoya, Patrick; Lutz, Alexandra; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-10-01

    Safe drinking water is critical to human health and development. In rural sub-Saharan Africa, most improved water sources are boreholes with handpumps; studies suggest that up to one third of these handpumps are nonfunctional at any given time. This work presents findings from a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from 1509 water sources in 570 communities in the rural Greater Afram Plains (GAP) region of Ghana; one of the largest studies of its kind. 79.4% of enumerated water sources were functional when visited; in multivariable regressions, functionality depended on source age, management, tariff collection, the number of other sources in the community, and the district. A Bayesian network (BN) model developed using the same data set found strong dependencies of functionality on implementer, pump type, management, and the availability of tools, with synergistic effects from management determinants on functionality, increasing the likelihood of a source being functional from a baseline of 72% to more than 97% with optimal management and available tools. We suggest that functionality may be a dynamic equilibrium between regular breakdowns and repairs, with management a key determinant of repair rate. Management variables may interact synergistically in ways better captured by BN analysis than by logistic regressions. These qualitative findings may prove generalizable beyond the study area, and may offer new approaches to understanding and increasing handpump functionality and safe water access. This article was corrected on 11 Nov 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  2. Care Decision Making of Frontline Providers of Maternal and Newborn Health Services in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Oduro-Mensah, Ebenezer; Kwamie, Aku; Antwi, Edward; Amissah Bamfo, Sarah; Bainson, Helen Mary; Marfo, Benjamin; Coleman, Mary Amoakoh; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Agyepong, Irene Akua

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To explore the “how” and “why” of care decision making by frontline providers of maternal and newborn services in the Greater Accra region of Ghana and determine appropriate interventions needed to support its quality and related maternal and neonatal outcomes. Methods A cross sectional and descriptive mixed method study involving a desk review of maternal and newborn care protocols and guidelines availability, focus group discussions and administration of a structured questionnaire and observational checklist to frontline providers of maternal and newborn care. Results Tacit knowledge or ‘mind lines’ was an important primary approach to care decision making. When available, protocols and guidelines were used as decision making aids, especially when they were simple handy tools and in situations where providers were not sure what their next step in management had to be. Expert opinion and peer consultation were also used through face to face discussions, phone calls, text messages, and occasional emails depending on the urgency and communication medium access. Health system constraints such as availability of staff, essential medicines, supplies and equipment; management issues (including leadership and interpersonal relations among staff), and barriers to referral were important influences in decision making. Frontline health providers welcomed the idea of interventions to support clinical decision making and made several proposals towards the development of such an intervention. They felt such an intervention ought to be multi-faceted to impact the multiple influences simultaneously. Effective interventions would also need to address immediate challenges as well as more long-term challenges influencing decision-making. Conclusion Supporting frontline worker clinical decision making for maternal and newborn services is an important but neglected aspect of improved quality of care towards attainment of MDG 4 & 5. A multi-faceted intervention

  3. Investigating the impact of rice blast disease on the livelihood of the local farmers in greater Mwea region of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kihoro, Joseph; Bosco, Njoroge J; Murage, Hunja; Ateka, Elijah; Makihara, Daigo

    2013-12-01

    Rice is the most important cereal crop in Kenya coming third after maize and wheat. It forms a very important diet for a majority of families in Kenya. The demand for rice in Kenya has seen a dramatic increase over the last few years while production has remained low. This is because rice production has been faced by serious constraints notably plant diseases of which the most devastating is rice blast. Rice blast is known to cause approximately 60% -100% yield losses. It is caused by an Ascomycete fungus called Magnaporthe Oryzae. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of rice blast disease on the livelihood of the local farmers in Greater Mwea region and develop a rice blast disease distribution map using GIS approach. The study methodology employed a questionnaire survey which were subjected to sample population of households in the 7 sections with 70 blocks within Mwea region. The collected data was analysed using SAS Version 9.1. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the household characteristics, the farm characteristics and the farmers' perceptions of rice blast disease. In the questionnaire, farmers' response on whether they had been affected by rice blast disease and the total production per acreage was used to develop an attribute table with GPS points. The GPS points were interpolated to create a geographical distribution map of rice blast disease. From the research findings almost all the farmers' had awareness and knowledge of rice blast disease, 98% of the farmers interviewed were aware of rice blast disease. Out of the 98% with knowledge and awareness 76% have been affected by the disease, while 24% have never been affected. Farmers attributed rice blast disease to a range of different causes, including excessive use of nitrogen fertilizer, water shortage, lack of proper drainage canal and due to climate change. Majority of the farmers interviewed (72%) did not engage themselves in any other socio-economic activity even after

  4. Regional correlations of V s30 and velocities averaged over depths less than and greater than 30 meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.; Thompson, E.M.; Cadet, H.

    2011-01-01

    Using velocity profiles from sites in Japan, California, Turkey, and Europe, we find that the time-averaged shear-wave velocity to 30 m (V S30), used as a proxy for site amplification in recent ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and building codes, is strongly correlated with average velocities to depths less than 30 m (V Sz, with z being the averaging depth). The correlations for sites in Japan (corresponding to the KiK-net network) show that V S30 is systematically larger for a given V Sz than for profiles from the other regions. The difference largely results from the placement of the KiK-net station locations on rock and rocklike sites, whereas stations in the other regions are generally placed in urban areas underlain by sediments. Using the KiK-net velocity profiles, we provide equations relating V S30 to V Sz for z ranging from 5 to 29 m in 1-m increments. These equations (and those for California velocity profiles given in Boore, 2004b) can be used to estimate V S30 from V Sz for sites in which velocity profiles do not extend to 30 m. The scatter of the residuals decreases with depth, but, even for an averaging depth of 5 m, a variation in log V S30 of 1 standard deviation maps into less than a 20% uncertainty in ground motions given by recent GMPEs at short periods. The sensitivity of the ground motions to V S30 uncertainty is considerably larger at long periods (but is less than a factor of 1.2 for averaging depths greater than about 20 m). We also find that V S30 is correlated with V Sz for z as great as 400 m for sites of the KiK-net network, providing some justification for using V S30 as a site-response variable for predicting ground motions at periods for which the wavelengths far exceed 30 m.

  5. Kinematic evolution, metamorphism, and exhumation of the Greater Himalayan Series, Sutlej River and Zanskar regions of NW India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahr, Donald William, III

    The Himalayan orogen provides a natural laboratory to test models of orogenic development due to large-scale continental collision. The Greater Himalayan Series (GHS), a lithotectonic unit continuous along the entire length of the belt, comprises the metamorphic core of the Himalayan orogen and underlies the highest topography. GHS rocks are exposed as a moderately northdipping slab bounded below by the Main Central Thrust (MCT) and above by the South Tibetan Detachment System (STDS) of normal faults. Coeval reverse- and normal-sense motion on the crustal-scale MCT and STDS ductile shear zones allows the GHS to be modeled as an extruded wedge or channel of mid-crustal material. Due to this unique tectonic setting, the deformation path of rocks within the bounding shear zones and throughout the core of the GHS profoundly influences the efficiency of extrusion and exhumation processes. Attempts to quantify GHS deformation and metamorphic evolution have provided significant insight into Himalayan orogenic development, but these structural and petrologic studies are often conducted in isolation. Penetrative deformation fabrics developed under mid-upper amphibolite facies conditions within the GHS argue that deformation and metamorphism were coupled, and this should be considered in studies aimed at quantifying GHS teconometamorphic evolution. This work focuses on two projects related to the coupled deformation, thermal and metamorphic evolution during extrusion and exhumation of the GHS, focused on the lower and upper margins of the slab. A detailed examination of the P--T history of a schist collected from within the MCT zone of the Sutlej River, NW India, provides insight into the path experienced by these rocks as they traveled through the crust in response to the extreme shortening related to India-Asia collision. Combined forward thermodynamic and diffusion modeling indicates compositional zoning preserved in garnet has remained unmodified since growth and can be

  6. Development and application of a spatial IBM to forecast greater prairie-chicken population responses to land use in the Flint Hills region of Kansas - SCB meeting

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greater prairie-chicken (Tympanachus cupido) populations have been on the decline for decades. Recent efforts to reverse this trend are focusing on two specific disturbance regimes, cattle grazing and field burning, both prevalent in the Flint Hill region of Kansas -- an area of...

  7. Development and application of a spatial IBM to forecast greater prairie-chicken population responses to land use in the Flint Hills region of Kansas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greater prairie-chicken (Tympanachus cupido) populations have been on the decline for decades. Recent efforts to reverse this trend are focusing on two specific disturbance regimes, cattle grazing and field burning, both prevalent in the Flint Hill region of Kansas -- an area of...

  8. The Copenhagen City Heart Study (Østerbroundersøgelsen)

    PubMed Central

    Aguib, Yasmine; Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2015-01-01

    The Copenhagen City Heart Study, also known as “Østerbroundersøgelsen”, is a large prospective cardio-vascular population study of 20,000 women and men that was launched in 1975 by Dr Peter Schnohr and Dr Gorm Jensen together with statistician Jørgen Nyboe and Prof. A. Tybjærg Hansen. The original purpose of the study was to focus on prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke. During the years many other aspects have been added to the study: pulmonary diseases, heart failure, arrhythmia, alcohol, arthrosis, eye diseases, allergy, epilepsia, dementia, stress, vital exhaustion, social network, sleep-apnoe, ageing and genetics. In this review we highlight unique aspects of the Copenhagen City Heat Study (CCHS) and its outcome in investigations of clinical and molecular aspects of health and disease in the regional and global population. To increase the impact of population studies with a focus on risk and prevention of cardiovascular and related diseases and to maximize the likelihood of identifying disease causes and effective therapeutics, lessons learned from past research should be applied to the design, implementation and interpretation of future studies. PMID:26779513

  9. Merging Disparate Data Sources Into a Paleoanthropological Geodatabase for Research, Education, and Conservation in the Greater Hadar Region (Afar, Ethiopia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campisano, C. J.; Dimaggio, E. N.; Arrowsmith, J. R.; Kimbel, W. H.; Reed, K. E.; Robinson, S. E.; Schoville, B. J.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding the geographic, temporal, and environmental contexts of human evolution requires the ability to compare wide-ranging datasets collected from multiple research disciplines. Paleoanthropological field- research projects are notoriously independent administratively even in regions of high transdisciplinary importance. As a result, valuable opportunities for the integration of new and archival datasets spanning diverse archaeological assemblages, paleontological localities, and stratigraphic sequences are often neglected, which limits the range of research questions that can be addressed. Using geoinformatic tools we integrate spatial, temporal, and semantically disparate paleoanthropological and geological datasets from the Hadar sedimentary basin of the Afar Rift, Ethiopia. Applying newly integrated data to investigations of fossil- rich sediments will provide the geospatial framework critical for addressing fundamental questions concerning hominins and their paleoenvironmental context. We present a preliminary cyberinfrastructure for data management that will allow scientists, students, and interested citizens to interact with, integrate, and visualize data from the Afar region. Examples of our initial integration efforts include generating a regional high-resolution satellite imagery base layer for georeferencing, standardizing and compiling multiple project datasets and digitizing paper maps. We also demonstrate how the robust datasets generated from our work are being incorporated into a new, digital module for Arizona State University's Hadar Paleoanthropology Field School - modernizing field data collection methods, on-the-fly data visualization and query, and subsequent analysis and interpretation. Armed with a fully fused database tethered to high-resolution satellite imagery, we can more accurately reconstruct spatial and temporal paleoenvironmental conditions and efficiently address key scientific questions, such as those regarding the

  10. From Copenhagen to the consulting room: Pauli and Jung in Copenhagen.

    PubMed

    Gieser, Suzanne

    2014-04-01

    In this paper the city of Copenhagen is used as a starting point to highlight some critical historical events, both concerning the exchange of ideas between the physicist Wolfgang Pauli and C.G. Jung and the history of psychotherapy in Scandinavia. Pauli's years in Copenhagen under the influence of Niels Bohr and his philosophy prepared him mentally to receiveC.G. Jung's ideas. The paper also recounts the one occasion that Jung was in Scandinavia, attending the 9th conference of the General Medical Society for Psychotherapy in Copenhagen, just before going to New York in 1937 to give his final seminars on Pauli's dreams. The reason for focusing on these particular events is that they also constitute part of the history of the reception of psychodynamic psychology in Sweden and Scandinavia.

  11. Map showing areas serviced by public water-supply agencies in 1973 Greater Pittsburgh region, southwestern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beall, Robert M.

    1974-01-01

    Urban water planning, development, and management are many sectored, costly efforts, subject to a multitude of controls and demands including those imposed by nature. One primary concern in development is for providing a dependable and safe water supply. In spite of a bountiful natural availability, the process of satisfying consumer needs involves the resolution of a variety of problems, not the least of which are cooperation and coordination among suppliers. One of the fundamental requisites in seeking sound solutions to developmental and environmental problems is inventory documentation. This map is one facet of documentation; the data listing, given on sheet 2, is the companion inventory. These supplement State, regional, and local efforts directed toward both long-range planning and current evaluation programs. Such documentation also assists the assessment of the effect of one water-management subsystem on hydrologic characteristics.

  12. Isotope and chemical compositions of meteoric and thermal waters and snow from the greater Yellowstone National Park region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Thordsen, James J.; White, Lloyd D.

    2002-01-01

    An intensive hydrogeologic investigation, mandated by U.S. Congress and centered on the Norris-Mammoth corridor was conducted by USGS and other scientists during 1988-90 to determine the effects of using thermal water from a private well located in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area, Montana, on the thermal springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP), especially Mammoth Hot Springs. As part of this investigation, we carried out a detailed study of the isotopic and chemical compositions of meteoric water from cold springs and wells, of thermal water, especially from the Norris-Mammoth corridor and of snow. Additional sampling of meteoric and thermal waters from YNP and surrounding region in northwest Wyoming, southwest Montana and southeast Idaho was carried out in 1991-92 to characterize the distribution of water isotopes in this mountainous region and to determine the origin and possible recharge locations of thermal waters in and adjacent to the Park. The D and 18O values for 40 snow samples range from ?88 to ?178? and ?12.5 to ?23.9?, respectively, and define a well constrained line given by D = 8.2 18O + 14.7 (r2 = 0.99) that is nearly identical to the Global Meteoric Water Line. The D and 18O values of 173 cold water samples range from ?115 to ?153? and ?15.2 to ?20.2?, respectively, and exhibit a similar relationship although with more scatter and with some shift to heavier isotopes, most likely due to evaporation effects. The spatial distribution of cold-water isotopes shows a roughly circular pattern with isotopically lightest waters centered on the mountains and high plateau in the northwest corner of Yellowstone National Park and becoming heavier in all directions. The temperature effect due to altitude is the dominant control on stable water isotopes throughout the region; however, this effect is obscured in narrow 'canyons' and areas of high topographic relief. The effects due to distance (i.e. 'continental') and latitude on water

  13. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the greater North Sea region - Part 1: Current emissions and concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulinger, A.; Matthias, V.; Zeretzke, M.; Bieser, J.; Quante, M.; Backes, A.

    2016-01-01

    The North Sea is one of the areas with the highest ship traffic densities worldwide. At any time, about 3000 ships are sailing its waterways. Previous scientific publications have shown that ships contribute significantly to atmospheric concentrations of NOx, particulate matter and ozone. Especially in the case of particulate matter and ozone, this influence can even be seen in regions far away from the main shipping routes. In order to quantify the effects of North Sea shipping on air quality in its bordering states, it is essential to determine the emissions from shipping as accurately as possible. Within Interreg IVb project Clean North Sea Shipping (CNSS), a bottom-up approach was developed and used to thoroughly compile such an emission inventory for 2011 that served as the base year for the current emission situation. The innovative aspect of this approach was to use load-dependent functions to calculate emissions from the ships' current activities instead of averaged emission factors for the entire range of the engine loads. These functions were applied to ship activities that were derived from hourly records of Automatic Identification System signals together with a database containing the engine characteristics of the vessels that traveled the North Sea in 2011. The emission model yielded ship emissions among others of NOx and SO2 at high temporal and spatial resolution that were subsequently used in a chemistry transport model in order to simulate the impact of the emissions on pollutant concentration levels. The total emissions of nitrogen reached 540 Gg and those of sulfur oxides 123 Gg within the North Sea - including the adjacent western part of the Baltic Sea until 5° W. This was about twice as much of those of a medium-sized industrialized European state like the Netherlands. The relative contribution of ships to, for example, NO2 concentration levels ashore close to the sea can reach up to 25 % in summer and 15 % in winter. Some hundred kilometers

  14. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the Greater North Sea region - Part 1: Current emissions and concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulinger, A.; Matthias, V.; Zeretzke, M.; Bieser, J.; Quante, M.; Backes, A.

    2015-04-01

    The North Sea is one of the areas with the highest ship traffic densities worldwide. At any time, about 3000 ships are sailing its waterways. Previous scientific publications have shown that ships contribute significantly to atmospheric concentrations of NOx, particulate matter and ozone. Especially in the case of particulate matter and ozone this influence can even be seen in regions far away from the main shipping routes. In order to quantify the effects of North Sea shipping on air quality in its bordering states, it is essential to determine the emissions from shipping as accurately as possible. Within the Interreg IVb project Clean North Sea Shipping (CNSS) a bottom-up approach was developed and used to thoroughly compile such an emission inventory for 2011 that served as the base year for the current emission situation. The innovative aspect of this approach was to use load dependent functions to calculate emissions from the ships' current activities instead of averaged emission factors for the entire range of the engine loads. These functions were applied to ship activities that were derived from hourly records of Automatic Identification System signals together with a data base containing the engine characteristics of the vessels that traveled the North Sea in 2011. The emission model yielded ship emissions among others of NOx and SO2 in high temporal and spatial resolution that were subsequently used in a chemistry transport model in order to simulate the impact of the emissions on pollutant concentration levels. The total emissions of nitrogen reached 540 Gg and of sulfur oxides 123 Gg within the North Sea, which was about twice as much of those of a medium-sized industrialized European state like the Netherlands. The relative contribution of ships to, for example, NO2 concentration levels ashore close to the sea can reach up to 25% in summer and 15% in winter. Some hundred kilometers away from the sea the contribution was about 6% in summer and 4% in

  15. Quantum mechanical reality according to Copenhagen 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Din, Allan M.

    2016-05-01

    The long-standing conceptual controversies concerning the interpretation of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics are argued, on one hand, to be due to its incompleteness, as affirmed by Einstein. But on the other hand, it appears to be possible to complete it at least partially, as Bohr might have appreciated it, in the framework of its standard mathematical formalism with observables as appropriately defined self-adjoint operators. This completion of quantum mechanics is based on the requirement on laboratory physics to be effectively confined to a bounded space region and on the application of the von Neumann deficiency theorem to properly define a set of self-adjoint extensions of standard observables, e.g. the momenta and the Hamiltonian, in terms of certain isometries on the region boundary. This is formalized mathematically in the setting of a boundary ontology for the so-called Qbox in which the wave function acquires a supplementary dependence on a set of Additional Boundary Variables (ABV). It is argued that a certain geometric subset of the ABV parametrizing Quasi-Periodic Translational Isometries (QPTI) has a particular physical importance by allowing for the definition of an ontic wave function, which has the property of epitomizing the spatial wave function “collapse.” Concomitantly the standard wave function in an unbounded geometry is interpreted as an epistemic wave function, which together with the ontic QPTI wave function gives rise to the notion of two-wave duality, replacing the standard concept of wave-particle duality. More generally, this approach to quantum physics in a bounded geometry provides a novel analytical basis for a better understanding of several conceptual notions of quantum mechanics, including reality, nonlocality, entanglement and Heisenberg’s uncertainty relation. The scope of this analysis may be seen as a foundational update of the multiple versions 1.x of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, which is

  16. The physics of Copenhagen for students and the general public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergström, L.; Johansson, K. E.; Nilsson, Ch

    2001-09-01

    The play Copenhagen has attracted the attention of a large audience in several countries. The hypothetical discussion in Copenhagen between two of the giants in physics, Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg, has inspired us to start a theoretical and experimental exploration of quantum physics. This theme has been used in Stockholm Science Laboratory for audiences of both students and the general public.

  17. [Pictures from the Dolphin Pharmacy in Copenhagen].

    PubMed

    Kruse, Poul R; Kruse, Edith; Norn, Svend; Permin, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The development of the pharmacy in the 19th and 20th centuries is illustrated by education and activity in the Dolphin Pharmacy in Copenhagen. The career within chemistry and pharmacy started with an apprenticeship of 4 year in the pharmacies. The Dolphin Pharmacy was responsible for part of the examination, i.e. the examination of the preparation of medicine. Passing the examination the chemist's assistant was free to prepare and to dispense medicine. Graduation as a pharmaceutical candidate was necessary to obtain license. Lectures in chemistry, physics, pharmacy, botany and pharmacognosy were obtained at the University of Copenhagen and the Polytechnic, but no curriculum was available. A rational education was obtained later on by the establishment of the School of Pharmacy in 1892. The proprietor pharmacists of the Dolphin Pharmacy were excellent scientists who contributed to the development of pharmacy. Pictures of the pharmacy from about the 1930s show the manufacture of medicines on the basis of a prescription and a pharmacopoeia. Ointments containing zinc white, sulphur and tar were used for various skin diseases and for the tiresome cough; cough mixtures containing codeine or extract of ipecacuanha root were used. In the 1930s the medicine for injection was sterilized and the tablet machine was the breakthrough for a rational production in the pharmacy. However, at the end of the 1900s it was no more possible to compete with the pharmaceutical industry and all the production of medicine was taken over by the industry.

  18. High ploidy diversity and distinct patterns of cytotype distribution in a widespread species of Oxalis in the Greater Cape Floristic Region

    PubMed Central

    Krejčíková, Jana; Sudová, Radka; Lučanová, Magdalena; Trávníček, Pavel; Urfus, Tomáš; Vít, Petr; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Kolano, Bożena; Oberlander, Kenneth; Dreyer, Leanne L.; Suda, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Genome duplication is widely acknowledged as a major force in the evolution of angiosperms, although the incidence of polyploidy in different floras may differ dramatically. The Greater Cape Floristic Region of southern Africa is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots and is considered depauperate in polyploids. To test this assumption, ploidy variation was assessed in a widespread member of the largest geophytic genus in the Cape flora: Oxalis obtusa. Methods DNA flow cytometry complemented by confirmatory chromosome counts was used to determine ploidy levels in 355 populations of O. obtusa (1014 individuals) across its entire distribution range. Ecological differentiation among cytotypes was tested by comparing sets of vegetation and climatic variables extracted for each locality. Key Results Three majority (2x, 4x, 6x) and three minority (3x, 5x, 8x) cytotypes were detected in situ, in addition to a heptaploid individual originating from a botanical garden. While single-cytotype populations predominate, 12 mixed-ploidy populations were also found. The overall pattern of ploidy level distribution is quite complex, but some ecological segregation was observed. Hexaploids are the most common cytotype and prevail in the Fynbos biome. In contrast, tetraploids dominate in the Succulent Karoo biome. Precipitation parameters were identified as the most important climatic variables associated with cytotype distribution. Conclusions Although it would be premature to make generalizations regarding the role of genome duplication in the genesis of hyperdiversity of the Cape flora, the substantial and unexpected ploidy diversity in Oxalis obtusa is unparalleled in comparison with any other cytologically known native Cape plant species. The results suggest that ploidy variation in the Greater Cape Floristic Region may be much greater than currently assumed, which, given the documented role of polyploidy in speciation, has direct implications for radiation

  19. Copenhagen delegates advance phaseout of ozone depleters

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, E.

    1992-12-09

    As expected, delegates at the United Nations Ozone Layer Conference in Copenhagen sped up ozone depleter phaseouts from the 1987 Montreal Protocol and the 1990 London amendments. The changes bring the worldwide production phaseout of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone depleters in developed countries in line with U.S. and European plans announced earlier this year. Adjustments to the protocol, which are binding on the signatories, change the phaseout for CFC, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform production and consumption to January 1, 1996 from 2000. The 75% reduction of 1986 levels from CFCs by January 1, 1994 is a compromise between European pressure for an 85% cut and the US goal of 70%. Halon production is to end January 1, 1994, as anticipated. Developing countries continue to have a 10-year grace period. Friends of the Earth ozone campaign director Liz Cook counters that the phaseout dates were scheduled with concern for the chemical industry, not for the ozone layer.

  20. Crash test for the Copenhagen problem.

    PubMed

    Nagler, Jan

    2004-06-01

    The Copenhagen problem is a simple model in celestial mechanics. It serves to investigate the behavior of a small body under the gravitational influence of two equally heavy primary bodies. We present a partition of orbits into classes of various kinds of regular motion, chaotic motion, escape and crash. Collisions of the small body onto one of the primaries turn out to be unexpectedly frequent, and their probability displays a scale-free dependence on the size of the primaries. The analysis reveals a high degree of complexity so that long term prediction may become a formidable task. Moreover, we link the results to chaotic scattering theory and the theory of leaking Hamiltonian systems.

  1. Classification and categorization of treatment methods for ash generated by municipal solid waste incineration: a case for the 2 greater metropolitan regions of Greece.

    PubMed

    Karagiannidis, A; Kontogianni, St; Logothetis, D

    2013-02-01

    The primary goal of managing MSW incineration residues is to avoid any impact on human health or the environment. Incineration residues consist of bottom ash, which is generally considered as rather harmless and fly ash which usually contains compounds which are potentially harmful for public health. Small quantities of ash (both bottom and fly) are produced currently in Greece, mainly from the healthcare waste incineration facility in Attica region. Once incineration plants for MSW (currently under planning) are constructed in Greece, the produced ash quantities will increase highly. Thus, it is necessary to organize, already at this stage, a roadmap towards disposal/recovery methods of these ash quantities expected. Certain methods, related to the treatment of the future generated ash which are more appropriate to be implemented in Greece are highlighted in the present paper. The performed analysis offers a waste management approach, having 2016 as a reference year for two different incineration rates; 30% and 100% of the remaining MSW after recycling process. The results focus on the two greater regions of Greece: Attica and Central Macedonia. The quantity of potential future ash generation ranges from 137 to 459 kt for Attica region and from 62 to 207 kt for central Macedonia region depending on the incineration rate applied. Three alternative scenarios for the treatment of each kind of ash are compiled and analysed. Metal recovery and reuse as an aggregate in concrete construction proved to be the most advantageous -in terms of economy-bottom ash management scenario. Concerning management of the fly ash, chemical treatment with phosphoric solution addition results to be the lowest total treatment cost and is considered as the most profitable solution. The proposed methodology constitutes a safe calculation model for operators of MSW incineration plants regardless of the region or country they are located in.

  2. Strontium isotope investigation of ungulate movement patterns on the Pleistocene Paleo-Agulhas Plain of the Greater Cape Floristic Region, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, Sandi R.; Cawthra, Hayley C.; Fisher, Erich C.; Lee-Thorp, Julia A.; Cowling, Richard M.; le Roux, Petrus J.; Hodgkins, Jamie; Marean, Curtis W.

    2016-04-16

    Middle Stone Age sites located within the Greater Cape Floristic Region on the South African southern coast have material culture with early evidence for key modern human behaviors such as projectile weaponry, large animal hunting, and symbolic behavior. In order to interpret how and why these changes evolved, it is necessary to understand their ecological context as it has direct relevance to foraging behavior. During periods of lowered sea level, a largely flat and vast expanse of land existed south of the modern coastline, but it is now submerged by higher sea levels. This exposed area, the Paleo-Agulhas Plain, likely created an ecological context unlike anything in the region today, as evidenced by fossil assemblages dominated by migratory ungulates. One hypothesis is that the Paleo-Agulhas Plain supported a migration ecosystem of large grazers driven by summer rainfall, producing palatable forage during summer in the east, and winter rainfall, producing palatable forage during winter in the west. Furthermore, ungulates may have been moving from the coastal plain in the south to the interior north of the Cape Fold Mountains, as observed for elephants in historic times.

  3. Strontium isotope investigation of ungulate movement patterns on the Pleistocene Paleo-Agulhas Plain of the Greater Cape Floristic Region, South Africa

    DOE PAGES

    Copeland, Sandi R.; Cawthra, Hayley C.; Fisher, Erich C.; ...

    2016-04-16

    Middle Stone Age sites located within the Greater Cape Floristic Region on the South African southern coast have material culture with early evidence for key modern human behaviors such as projectile weaponry, large animal hunting, and symbolic behavior. In order to interpret how and why these changes evolved, it is necessary to understand their ecological context as it has direct relevance to foraging behavior. During periods of lowered sea level, a largely flat and vast expanse of land existed south of the modern coastline, but it is now submerged by higher sea levels. This exposed area, the Paleo-Agulhas Plain, likelymore » created an ecological context unlike anything in the region today, as evidenced by fossil assemblages dominated by migratory ungulates. One hypothesis is that the Paleo-Agulhas Plain supported a migration ecosystem of large grazers driven by summer rainfall, producing palatable forage during summer in the east, and winter rainfall, producing palatable forage during winter in the west. Furthermore, ungulates may have been moving from the coastal plain in the south to the interior north of the Cape Fold Mountains, as observed for elephants in historic times.« less

  4. The course of the greater occipital nerve in the suboccipital region: a proposal for setting landmarks for local anesthesia in patients with occipital neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Natsis, K; Baraliakos, X; Appell, H J; Tsikaras, P; Gigis, I; Koebke, J

    2006-05-01

    The anatomical relationships of the greater occipital nerve (GON) to the semispinalis capitis muscle (SCM) and the trapezius muscle aponeurosis (TMA) were examined to identify topographic landmarks for use in anesthetic blockade of the GON in occipital neuralgia. The course and the diameter of the GON were studied in 40 cadavers (29 females, 11 males), and the points where it pierced the SCM and the TMA were identified. The course of the GON did not differ between males and females. A left-right difference was detected in the site of the GON in the TMA region but not in the SCM region. The nerve became wider towards the periphery. This may be relevant to entrapment of the nerve in the development of occipital neuralgia. In three cases, the GON split into two branches before piercing the TMA and reunited after having passed the TMA, and it pierced the obliquus capitis inferior muscle in another three cases. The GON and the lesser occipital nerve reunited at the level of the occiput in 80% of the specimens. The occiput and the nuchal midline are useful topographic landmarks to guide anesthetic blockade of the GON for diagnosis and therapy of occipital neuralgia. The infiltration is probably best aimed at the site where the SCM is pierced by the GON.

  5. Assessing the Climate Change Impact on Snow-Glacier Melting Dominated Basins in the Greater Himalaya Region Using a Distributed Glacio-Hydrologic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wi, S.; Yang, Y. C. E.; Khalil, A.

    2014-12-01

    Glacier and snow melting is main source of water supply making a large contribution to streamflow of major river basins in the Greater Himalaya region including the Syr Darya, the Amu Darya, the Indus, the Ganges and the Brahmaputra basins. Due to the critical role of glacier and snow melting as water supply for both food production and hydropower generation in the region (especially during the low flow season), it is important to evaluate the vulnerability of snow and glacier melting streamflow to different climate conditions. In this study, a distributed glacio-hydrologic model with high resolution climate input is developed and calibrated that explicitly simulates all major hydrological processes and the glacier and snow dynamics for area further discretized by elevation bands. The distributed modeling structure and the glacier and snow modules provide a better understanding about how temperature and precipitation alterations are likely to affect current glacier ice reserves. Climate stress test is used to explore changes in the total streamflow change, snow/glacier melting contribution and glacier accumulation and ablation under a variety of different temperature and precipitation conditions. The latest future climate projections provided from the World Climate Research Programme's Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) is used to inform the possibility of different climate conditions.

  6. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Eric J; Nho, Shane J; Kelly, Bryan T

    2010-06-01

    Originally defined as "tenderness to palpation over the greater trochanter with the patient in the side-lying position," greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) as a clinical entity, has expanded to include a number of disorders of the lateral, peritrochanteric space of the hip, including trochanteric bursitis, tears of the gluteus medius and minimus and external coxa saltans (snapping hip). Typically presenting with pain and reproducible tenderness in the region of the greater trochanter, buttock, or lateral thigh, GTPS is relatively common, reported to affect between 10% and 25% of the general population. Secondary to the relative paucity of information available on the diagnosis and management of components of GTPS, the presence of these pathologic entities may be underrecognized, leading to extensive workups and delays in appropriate treatment. This article aims to review the present understanding of the lesions that comprise GTPS, discussing the relevant anatomy, diagnostic workup and recommended treatment for trochanteric bursitis, gluteus medius and minimus tears, and external coxa saltans.

  7. Strontium isotope investigation of ungulate movement patterns on the Pleistocene Paleo-Agulhas Plain of the Greater Cape Floristic Region, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copeland, Sandi R.; Cawthra, Hayley C.; Fisher, Erich C.; Lee-Thorp, Julia A.; Cowling, Richard M.; le Roux, Petrus J.; Hodgkins, Jamie; Marean, Curtis W.

    2016-06-01

    Middle Stone Age sites located within the Greater Cape Floristic Region on the South African southern coast have material culture with early evidence for key modern human behaviors such as projectile weaponry, large animal hunting, and symbolic behavior. In order to interpret how and why these changes evolved, it is necessary to understand their ecological context as it has direct relevance to foraging behavior. During periods of lowered sea level, a largely flat and vast expanse of land existed south of the modern coastline, but it is now submerged by higher sea levels. This exposed area, the Paleo-Agulhas Plain, likely created an ecological context unlike anything in the region today, as evidenced by fossil assemblages dominated by migratory ungulates. One hypothesis is that the Paleo-Agulhas Plain supported a migration ecosystem of large grazers driven by summer rainfall, producing palatable forage during summer in the east, and winter rainfall, producing palatable forage during winter in the west. Alternatively, ungulates may have been moving from the coastal plain in the south to the interior north of the Cape Fold Mountains, as observed for elephants in historic times. In this study, we assess ungulate movement patterns with inter- and intra-tooth enamel samples for strontium isotopes in fossil fauna from Pinnacle Point sites PP13B and PP30. To accomplish our goals we created a bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr isoscape for the region by collecting plants at 171 sampling sites and developing a geospatial model. The strontium isotope results indicate that ungulates spent most of their time on the Paleo-Agulhas Plain and avoided dissected plain, foothill, and mountain habitats located more than about 15 km north of the modern coastline. The results clearly exclude a north-south (coastal-interior) movement or migration pattern, and cannot falsify the east-west movements hypothesized in the south coast migration ecosystem hypothesis.

  8. Incorporating Medium-Range Weather Forecasts in Seasonal Crop Scenarios over the Greater Horn of Africa to Support National/Regional/Local Decision Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Husak, G. J.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The USAID's Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) provides seasonal assessments of crop conditions over the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) and other food insecure regions. These assessments and current livelihood, nutrition, market conditions and conflicts are used to generate food security scenarios that help national, regional and local decision makers target their resources and mitigate socio-economic losses. Among the various tools that FEWS NET uses is the FAO's Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI). The WRSI is a simple yet powerful crop assessment model that incorporates current moisture conditions (at the time of the issuance of forecast), precipitation scenarios, potential evapotranspiration and crop parameters to categorize crop conditions into different classes ranging from "failure" to "very good". The WRSI tool has been shown to have a good agreement with local crop yields in the GHA region. At present, the precipitation scenarios used to drive the WRSI are based on either a climatological forecast (that assigns equal chances of occurrence to all possible scenarios and has no skill over the forecast period) or a sea-surface temperature anomaly based scenario (which at best have skill at the seasonal scale). In both cases, the scenarios fail to capture the skill that can be attained by initial atmospheric conditions (i.e., medium-range weather forecasts). During the middle of a cropping season, when a week or two of poor rains can have a devastating effect, two weeks worth of skillful precipitation forecasts could improve the skill of the crop scenarios. With this working hypothesis, we examine the value of incorporating medium-range weather forecasts in improving the skill of crop scenarios in the GHA region. We use the NCEP's Global Ensemble Forecast system (GEFS) weather forecasts and examine the skill of crop scenarios generated using the GEFS weather forecasts with respect to the scenarios based solely on the climatological forecast

  9. Economic aspects of global warming in a post-Copenhagen environment

    PubMed Central

    Nordhaus, William D.

    2010-01-01

    The science of global warming has reached a consensus on the high likelihood of substantial warming over the coming century. Nations have taken only limited steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions since the first agreement in Kyoto in 1997, and little progress was made at the Copenhagen meeting in December 2009. The present study examines alternative outcomes for emissions, climate change, and damages under different policy scenarios. It uses an updated version of the regional integrated model of climate and the economy (RICE model). Recent projections suggest that substantial future warming will occur if no abatement policies are implemented. The model also calculates the path of carbon prices necessary to keep the increase in global mean temperature to 2 °C or less in an efficient manner. The carbon price for 2010 associated with that goal is estimated to be $59 per ton (at 2005 prices), compared with an effective global average price today of around $5 per ton. However, it is unlikely that the Copenhagen temperature goal will be attained even if countries meet their ambitious stated objectives under the Copenhagen Accord. PMID:20547856

  10. Ecological aspects of phlebotomine fauna (Diptera, Psychodidae) of Serra da Cantareira, Greater São Paulo Metropolitan region, state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moschin, José Carlos; Ovallos, Fredy Galvis; Sei, Iole Arumi; Galati, Eunice A B

    2013-03-01

    Human cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) have been recorded in Serra da Cantareira, in the Greater São Paulo Metropolitan Region, where two conservation units are situated, the Parque Estadual da Cantareira and the Parque Estadual Alberto Löfgren. The present study aimed to identify the sandfly fauna and some of its ecological aspects in these two parks and their surrounding area to investigate Leishmania sp. vectors. The captures were undertaken monthly from January to December 2009, from 6:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m., with automatic light traps installed in forests and peridomicile areas and with modified black/white Shannon traps in the peridomicile. A total of 12 species and 5,436 sandflies were captured: with automatic light traps (141), Shannon traps (5,219) and attempting to bite the researchers while they were conducting the collection in Shannon traps (76). Pintomyia fischeri and Migonemyia migonei were the most abundant species. Pi. fischeri predominated in all three kinds of captures (49%, 88.8% and 65.8%, respectively). Mg. migonei was the second most prevalent in Shannon traps (10.0%) and attempting to bite the researchers (22.4%). Pi. fischeri females were significantly more attracted to black and those of Mg. migonei to white Shannon traps. A positive and significant correlation was observed between the numbers of Pi. fischeri and the mean of minimum relative humidity values on the fifteen days prior to capture, while there was a negative and significant correlation between the relative humidity on the capture day and the two most abundant species. The anthropophilia and high frequencies of Pi. fischeri and Mg. migonei suggest that both species may be transmitting ACL agents in this region.

  11. Classification of savanna tree species, in the Greater Kruger National Park region, by integrating hyperspectral and LiDAR data in a Random Forest data mining environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidoo, L.; Cho, M. A.; Mathieu, R.; Asner, G.

    2012-04-01

    The accurate classification and mapping of individual trees at species level in the savanna ecosystem can provide numerous benefits for the managerial authorities. Such benefits include the mapping of economically useful tree species, which are a key source of food production and fuel wood for the local communities, and of problematic alien invasive and bush encroaching species, which can threaten the integrity of the environment and livelihoods of the local communities. Species level mapping is particularly challenging in African savannas which are complex, heterogeneous, and open environments with high intra-species spectral variability due to differences in geology, topography, rainfall, herbivory and human impacts within relatively short distances. Savanna vegetation are also highly irregular in canopy and crown shape, height and other structural dimensions with a combination of open grassland patches and dense woody thicket - a stark contrast to the more homogeneous forest vegetation. This study classified eight common savanna tree species in the Greater Kruger National Park region, South Africa, using a combination of hyperspectral and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)-derived structural parameters, in the form of seven predictor datasets, in an automated Random Forest modelling approach. The most important predictors, which were found to play an important role in the different classification models and contributed to the success of the hybrid dataset model when combined, were species tree height; NDVI; the chlorophyll b wavelength (466 nm) and a selection of raw, continuum removed and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) bands. It was also concluded that the hybrid predictor dataset Random Forest model yielded the highest classification accuracy and prediction success for the eight savanna tree species with an overall classification accuracy of 87.68% and KHAT value of 0.843.

  12. Simultaneous detection of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia duodenalis and cryptosporidia by immunochromatographic assay in stool samples from patients living in the Greater Cairo Region, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Banisch, Dagmar M; El-Badry, Ayman; Klinnert, Jorge V; Ignatius, Ralf; El-Dib, Nadia

    2015-08-01

    Gastrointestinal infection due to intestinal parasites is an enormous health problem in developing countries and its reliable diagnosis is demanding. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating a commercially available immunochromatographic assay (ICA) for the detection of cryptosporidia, Giardia duodenalis, and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar for its usefulness in the Greater Cairo Region, Egypt. Stool samples of 104 patients who presented between October 2012 and March 2013 with gastrointestinal symptoms or for the exclusion of parasites at Kasr-Al-Ainy University Medical School were examined by light microscopy of wet mounts and the triple ICA. Microscopy revealed in 20% of the patients [95% confidence interval (CI), 13.5-29.0%] parasites with Hymenolepis nana, E. histolytica/dispar and Blastocystis hominis being the most frequent ones, but was not able to detect G. duodenalis and cryptosporidia, whereas ICA was positive in 21% (95% CI, 14.3-30.0%) and detected E. histolytica/dispar in 12.5% (95% CI, 7.3-20.4%), cryptosporidia in 6.7% (95% CI, 3.1-13.5%) and G. duodenalis in 15.4% (95% CI, 9.6-23.6%) of the patients. Detection of one or more pathogens was associated with access to water retrieved from a well or pump (p = 0.01). Patients between 20 and 29 years of age (p = 0.08) and patients with symptoms of 5 days or longer (p = 0.07) tended to have a higher risk to be infected than patients of other age groups or with shorter-lasting symptoms. In conclusion, the ICA was easy to perform and timesaving. Importantly, it enabled the detection of cryptosporidia, which cannot be found microscopically in unstained smears, demonstrated a higher sensitivity for the detection of G. duodenalis than microscopy, and was more specific for distinguishing E. histolytica/dispar from apathogenic amoeba.

  13. Life cycle assessment of three water systems in Copenhagen--a management tool of the future.

    PubMed

    Godskesen, B; Zambrano, K C; Trautner, A; Johansen, N-B; Thiesson, L; Andersen, L; Clauson-Kaas, J; Neidel, T L; Rygaard, M; Kløverpris, N H; Albrechtsen, H-J

    2011-01-01

    Environmental life-cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to evaluate three different water systems of the water sector in Copenhagen, Denmark, including technologies within water supply, facilities recycling water and treatment of sewer overflow. In these three water systems LCA was used to evaluate the environmental impacts of each of the processes involved. The overall conclusion was that LCA is suitable as a decision support tool in the water sector as it provides a holistic evaluation platform of the considered alternatives categorised in environmental impact categories. The use of LCA in the water sector of this region has limitations since it does not yet consider impact categories assessing freshwater scarcity and ecological sustainability.

  14. Teaching about U.S. Climate Policy and the 2009 Copenhagen Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 Copenhagen Conference will take place December 7-18 in the Bella Conference Center just a few miles from the Copenhagen airport. Emissaries from 170 nations are expected, with several other smaller countries sending representatives. More than 8,000 people are expected to attend, including members of the press. The Copenhagen Conference is…

  15. Organizations of Language among Adolescents in Superdiverse Copenhagen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Møller, Janus Spindler; Jørgensen, Jens Normann

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyze how adolescents in a Copenhagen school classify and systematically organize the different types of language they come across in their linguistic everyday. Furthermore, we analyse descriptions of how this metapragmatic system affect the adolescents' language use in their daily life. Our primary data consist of 74 essays on…

  16. The Physics of "Copenhagen" for Students and the General Public.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergstrom, L.; Johansson, K. E.; Nilsson, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    The play Copenhagen has attracted the attention of a large audience in several countries. The hypothetical discussion between two of the giants in physics, Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg, has inspired us to start a theoretical and experimental exploration of quantum physics. This theme has been used in Stockholm Science Laboratory for audiences…

  17. Online Course Use in New York High Schools: Results from a Survey in the Greater Capital Region. REL 2015-075

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Margaret; Pazzaglia, Angela M.; Zweig, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    As in most states, New York does not currently have a state-level protocol for collecting data about schools' objectives or methods for offering online courses. The goals of the study conducted by the Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast and Islands' Northeast Rural Districts Research Alliance (NRDRA) were (1) to create a survey tool capable…

  18. Online Course Use in New York High Schools: Results from a Survey in the Greater Capital Region. REL 2015-074. Stated Briefly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Margaret; Pazzaglia, Angela M.; Zweig, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    This "Stated Briefly" report is a companion piece that summarizes the results of another report of the same name. The goal of the study conducted by the Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast and Islands' Northeast Rural Districts Research Alliance (NRDRA) was to provide information about how and why high schools in the Greater…

  19. Synchronous climate-driven regime shifts at the onset of the Holocene inferred from diatom records in lakes of the Greater Yellowstone region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y.; Stone, J.; Fritz, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Diatom records covering the late-glacial and early Holocene periods were recovered from three lakes in different areas of Yellowstone National Park to investigate the impacts of large-scale climatic change on aquatic ecosystem evolution following deglaciation. All lakes show synchronous diatom community shifts from the dominance of tychoplanktic Fragilaria species to benthic species in the interval of 11,300-11500 cal yr BP, indicating a regional decrease in effective moisture. The synchroneity of changes in diatom community structure suggests the influence of overlying large-scale climatic change on lacustrine ecosystems. A major shift in the same interval also is evident in other proxy records, such as pollen and charcoal, throughout the Yellowstone region at the late-glacial/early-Holocene transition. This suggests that the summer insolation maximum induced a widespread and rapid reorganization of ecosystem structure and function.

  20. Greater functional connectivity between reading and error-detection regions following training with the reading acceleration program in children with reading difficulties.

    PubMed

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Holland, Scott K

    2015-04-01

    The Reading Acceleration Program is a computerized program that improves reading and the activation of the error-detection mechanism in individuals with reading difficulty (RD) and typical readers (TRs). The current study aims to find the neural correlates for this effect in English-speaking 8-12-year-old children with RD and TRs using a functional connectivity analysis. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected during a lexical decision task before and after 4 weeks of training with the program, together with reading and executive functions measures. Results indicated improvement in reading, visual attention, and speed of processing in children with RD. Following training, greater functional connectivity was observed between the left fusiform gyrus and the right anterior cingulate cortex in children with RD and between the left fusiform gyrus and the left anterior cingulate cortex in TRs. The change in functional connectivity after training was correlated with increased behavioral scores for word reading and visual attention in both groups. The results support previous findings of improved monitoring and mental lexicon after training with the Reading Acceleration Program in children with RD and TRs. The differences in laterality of the anterior cingulate cortex in children with RD and the presumable role of the cingulo-opercular control network in language processing are discussed.

  1. Effect of recycling activities on the heating value of solid waste: case study of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (Metro Vancouver).

    PubMed

    Abedini, Ali R; Atwater, James W; Fu, George Yuzhu

    2012-08-01

    Two main goals of the integrated solid waste management system (ISWMS) of Metro Vancouver (MV) include further recycling of waste and energy recovery via incineration of waste. These two very common goals, however, are not always compatible enough to fit in an ISWMS depending on waste characteristics and details of recycling programs. This study showed that recent recycling activities in MV have negatively affected the net heating value (NHV) of municipal solid waste (MSW) in this regional district. Results show that meeting MV's goal for additional recycling of MSW by 2015 will further reduce the NHV of waste, if additional recycling activities are solely focused on more extensive recycling of packaging materials (e.g. paper and plastic). It is concluded that 50% additional recycling of paper and plastic in MV will increase the overall recycling rate to 70% (as targeted by the MV for 2015) and result in more than 8% reduction in NHV of MSW. This reduction translates to up to 2.3 million Canadian dollar (CAD$) less revenue at a potential waste-to-energy (WTE) plant with 500 000 tonnes year(-1) capacity. Properly designed recycling programmes, however, can make this functional element of ISWMS compatible with green goals of energy recovery from waste. Herein an explanation of how communities can increase their recycling activities without affecting the feasibility of potential WTE projects is presented.

  2. A 3-D evaluation of the MACC reanalysis dust product over the greater European region using CALIOP/CALIPSO satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgoulias, Aristeidis K.; Tsikerdekis, Athanasios; Amiridis, Vassilis; Marinou, Eleni; Benedetti, Angela; Zanis, Prodromos; Kourtidis, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    Significant amounts of dust are being transferred on an annual basis over the Mediterranean Basin and continental Europe from Northern Africa (Sahara Desert) and Middle East (Arabian Peninsula) as well as from other local sources. Dust affects a number of processes in the atmosphere modulating weather and climate also having an impact on human health and the economy. Therefore, the ability of simulating adequately the amount and optical properties of dust is essential. This work focuses on the evaluation of the MACC reanalysis dust product over the regions mentioned above. The evaluation procedure is based on pure dust satellite retrievals from CALIOP/CALIPSO that cover the period 2007-2012. The CALIOP/CALIPSO data utilized here come from an optimized retrieval scheme that was originally developed within the framework of the LIVAS (Lidar Climatology of Vertical Aerosol Structure for Space-Based LIDAR Simulation Studies) project. CALIOP/CALIPSO dust extinction coefficients and dust optical depth patterns at 532 nm are used for the validation of MACC natural aerosol extinction coefficients and dust optical depth patterns at 550 nm. Overall, it is shown in this work that space-based lidars may play a major role in the improvement of the MACC aerosol product. This research has been financed under the FP7 Programme MarcoPolo (Grand Number 606953, Theme SPA.2013.3.2-01).

  3. Daytime CO2 Urban-Regional Scale Surface Fluxes from Airborne Measurements, Eddy-Covariance Observations and Emissions Inventories in Greater London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, A. M.; Grimmond, S. B.; Morgui, J. A.; Kotthaus, S.; Priestman, M.; Barratt, B.

    2014-12-01

    As the global population becomes increasingly urbanized, spatially concentrated centres of anthropogenic CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHG) arise. While mitigation measures exist at national and international scales, their implementation will be more effective if linked to the urban-scale of the sources. Routine top-down approaches that quantify emissions of GHG from cities and megacities are needed to understand the dynamics of the urban carbon cycle to eventually define relevant policy decisions. London is the biggest urban conurbation in Western Europe with more than 8 million inhabitants. It emitted roughly 45000 ktn CO2 in 20101. To understand the carbon dynamics and quantify anthropogenic emissions from London, airborne surveys of atmospheric CO2, O3, particles and meteorological variables were carried out over the city, onboard the NERC-ARSF Dornier-228 UK research aircraft. We applied an Integrative Mass Boundary Layer method (IMBL) using airborne CO2 observations obtained in horizontal transects crossing London at 360 m at different times of the day and by sampling upwind-downwind profiles. IMBL CO2 fluxes were compared to an emissions inventory and neighbourhood-scale eddy-covariance fluxes in central London. Daytime fluxes in October 2011 from the IMBL calculations ranged from 46 to 104 μmolCO2 m-2 s-1 and covered 30-70% of the urban region. The IMBL CO2 fluxes were the same order of magnitude as observed eddy-covariance fluxes and were statistically comparable to the emission inventory for the same footprint area. A sensitivity analysis suggested that horizontal variability of the CO2 field in the urban mixing layer is the most critical factor affecting IMBL fluxes. The determination of the boundary height and vertical wind speed had more impact on fluxes calculated from upwind-downwind profiles. Furthermore, low-altitude airborne measurements of CO2 provide the advantage of direct observation of the CO2 urban dome of a megacity and relate the

  4. Regaining momentum for international climate policy beyond Copenhagen

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The 'Copenhagen Accord' fails to deliver the political framework for a fair, ambitious and legally-binding international climate agreement beyond 2012. The current climate policy regime dynamics are insufficient to reflect the realities of topical complexity, actor coalitions, as well as financial, legal and institutional challenges in the light of extreme time constraints to avoid 'dangerous' climate change of more than 2°C. In this paper we analyze these stumbling blocks for international climate policy and discuss alternatives in order to regain momentum for future negotiations. PMID:20525341

  5. Copenhagen Revisited: why the Germansdid not Achieve AN Atomic Bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustig, Harry

    2002-10-01

    Michael Frayn's highly acclaimed play "Copenhagen", which reenacts the 1941 visit by Werner Heisenberg to Niels Bohr in Nazi-occupied Copenhagen, has now closed after a production in New York that won a Pulitzer Prize, and a successful tour of many cities in the US. Symposia in New York, Washington, Cambridge, Pasadena, and Raleigh have presented the science - quantum mechanics and nuclear physics - that undergirds the play, have debated its historical accuracy, and have celebrated its theatrical realization. The play, the symposia, and recently released documents have led to a new and heightened debate about old questions, among them why Heisenberg visited Bohr, what went on during their uncongenial meeting, and why the Germans did not succeed in building an atomic bomb. This in turn has resulted in a plethora of sometimes polemical articles in journals and magazines, that try to answer the questions. In this talk I will review some of the evidence, in particular about the German failure to make a bomb. While I will concentrate on the physics, the "political" factors will also be adumbrated.

  6. [Greater trochanteric pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gollwitzer, H; Opitz, G; Gerdesmeyer, L; Hauschild, M

    2014-01-01

    Greater trochanteric pain is one of the common complaints in orthopedics. Frequent diagnoses include myofascial pain, trochanteric bursitis, tendinosis and rupture of the gluteus medius and minimus tendon, and external snapping hip. Furthermore, nerve entrapment like the piriformis syndrome must be considered in the differential diagnosis. This article summarizes essential diagnostic and therapeutic steps in greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Careful clinical evaluation, complemented with specific imaging studies and diagnostic infiltrations allows determination of the underlying pathology in most cases. Thereafter, specific nonsurgical treatment is indicated, with success rates of more than 90 %. Resistant cases and tendon ruptures may require surgical intervention, which can provide significant pain relief and functional improvement in most cases.

  7. Unravelling Copenhagen's stride into the Anthropocene using lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Norman; Andersen, Thorbjørn J.; Frei, Robert; Ilsøe, Peter; Louchouarn, Patrick; Andersen, Kenneth; Funder, Svend; Rasmussen, Peter; Andresen, Camilla S.; Odgaard, Bent; Kjær, Kurt H.

    2014-05-01

    Industrialization including the effects of expanding energy consumption and metallurgy production as well as population growth and demographic pressure increased heavy-metal pollution loads progressively since the Industrial Revolution. Especially the burning of fossil fuels mobilizes heavy metals like lead and zinc on a large scale. By wet and dry deposition, these loads end up in the aquatic environment where sediments serve as sinks for these contaminations. In this study, we examine the pollution history of Copenhagen, Denmark. A sediment core was retrieved for the lake in the Botanical Gardens in central Copenhagen using a rod-operated piston corer. The water body used to be part of the old town's defence-wall system and was turned into a lake by terrain levelling in the mid 17th century. After initial X-ray fluorescence core scanning, element concentrations were determined using emission spectroscopy. The onset of gyttja accumulation in the lake is assumed to start immediately after the construction of the fortification in approximately AD 1645. An age model representing the last approximately 135 years for the uppermost 60cm was established by lead-210 and cesium-137 dating. The older part was dated via recognition of markedly increased levels of levoglucosan which are interpreted to be linked with recorded fires in Copenhagen. Similarly, two distinct layers interstratify the sediment column and mark pronounced increases of minerogenic material inflow which can be linked to known historical events. Significant pollution load increases are evident from the 1700s along with urban growth and extended combustion of carbon carriers fuels such as wood and coals. However, a more pronounced increase in lead and zinc deposition only begins by the mid-19th century. Maxima for the latter two pollutants are reached in the late 1970s followed by a reduction of emissions in accordance with stricter environmental regulations. Here, especially the phasing-out of tetraethyl

  8. Calculation of odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport.

    PubMed

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Oxbøl, Arne

    2006-07-31

    In a new approach the odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport are calculated using actual fuel flow and emission measurements (one main engine and one APU: Auxiliary Power Unit), odour panel results, engine specific data and aircraft operational data for seven busy days. The calculation principle assumes a linear relation between odour and HC emissions. Using a digitalisation of the aircraft movements in the airport area, the results are depicted on grid maps, clearly reflecting aircraft operational statistics as single flights or total activity during a whole day. The results clearly reflect the short-term temporal fluctuations of the emissions of odour (and exhaust gases). Aircraft operating at low engine thrust (taxiing, queuing and landing) have a total odour emission share of almost 98%, whereas the shares for the take off/climb out phases (2%) and APU usage (0.5%) are only marginal. In most hours of the day, the largest odour emissions occur, when the total amount of fuel burned during idle is high. However, significantly higher HC emissions for one specific engine cause considerable amounts of odour emissions during limited time periods. The experimentally derived odour emission factor of 57 OU/mg HC is within the range of 23 and 110 OU/mg HC used in other airport odour studies. The distribution of odour emission results between aircraft operational phases also correspond very well with the results for these other studies. The present study uses measurement data for a representative engine. However, the uncertainties become large when the experimental data is used to estimate the odour emissions for all aircraft engines. More experimental data is needed to increase inventory accuracy, and in terms of completeness it is recommended to make odour emission estimates also for engine start and the fuelling of aircraft at Copenhagen Airport in the future.

  9. The Kantian element in the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cale, David Lee

    In Quantum Physics and the Philosophical Tradition, Aage Petersen makes the troubling claim that the entirety of the tradition of Western philosophy is "deconstructed" by quantum mechanics. This viewpoint applies, especially, to the relationship between Kantian philosophy and quantum theory. It is generally accepted that quantum mechanics, in its Copenhagen interpretation, has destroyed all validity for the classical belief in a deterministic underlying reality, a belief sustained throughout the nineteenth century through a philosophical ground in Kant's critical philosophy. This dissertation takes on the daunting task of determining what, if any, relationship can be had between contemporary physics and Kantian philosophy. It begins with a historical review of the challenges posed for Kant's arguments and proposed solutions, especially those offered by Cassirer. It then turns to the task of providing the Western philosophical tradition with an interpretation apart from Petersen's, which sees it as concerned only with the problem of being. The offered solution is the suggestion that Western philosophy be understood as a struggle, between epistemological and ontological perspectives, to provide a context for the various descriptions of nature provided by human scientific progress. Kant's philosophy is then interpreted as an effort to provide Newtonian physics with a valid context in the face of Hume's skepticism. The finding is that Kant was the first to suggest that an object does not acquire the spatio-temporal properties used in its physical description until introduced to an observer. The dissertation concludes that the authors of the Copenhagen interpretation were essentially engaged in Kant's enterprise through their attempt to provide an observer based context for the spatio-temporal descriptive principles used in the physics of their time.

  10. Safety of the intradermal Copenhagen 1331 BCG vaccine in neonates in Durban, South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Jeena, P. M.; Chhagan, M. K.; Topley, J.; Coovadia, H. M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety of the intradermal Copenhagen BCG vaccine in neonates at different levels of delivery and neonatal units of the Durban Functional Region and surrounding regions. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out over a two-year period between July 1997 and June 1999. All neonates who had been vaccinated with the intradermal vaccine were evaluated at immunization clinics six weeks after immunization, or earlier if adverse effects occurred. FINDINGS: In total, 9763 neonates were examined: in 95.4% the vaccination scar had healed and 1.5% had no visible scar. Adverse events occurred in 3.1%. The proportion of neonates with no visible vaccination scars decreased over the study period, as did the number with adverse events. The lowest rate of adverse events and the highest rates of healed vaccination scars were seen in the tertiary hospital and regional and district hospitals that were in close proximity to the academic centre involved in this study. CONCLUSIONS: In the study sites, the transition from the percutaneous to intradermal route of administration of BCG vaccine was successful and took place without incurring unacceptably high rates of adverse events. To minimize adverse events, however, it is essential to continue training health personnel involved in implementing intradermal BCG vaccination programmes. PMID:11357213

  11. A Symposium Associated with the Opening of the Play Copenhagen in Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Brian

    2002-12-31

    On March 2, 2002 a special all day symposium was held in conjunction with the opening of the play Copenhagen in Washington. The play Copenhagen reenacts the 1941 visit of Werner Heisenberg, who was then in charge of the Nazi nuclear power program, to Niels Bohr, his mentor, and collaborator in creating quantum mechanics, complementarity, and the uncertainty principle, in German-occupied Denmark. The symposium entitled: THE COPENHAGEN INTERPRETATION: SCIENCE AND HISTORY ON STAGE was presented at the Baird Auditorium, in the National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution. The program consisted of three two-hour sessions: (1) The Science of Copenhagen and its Influence of the 20th Century. (2) Bohr and Heisenberg: A strong Interaction. (3) Theater as Science ??? Science as Theater. The speakers included: Robert C. Card, Under Secretary of Energy; Ulrik Federspiel, Danish Ambassador to the US; John Marburger, III, Science Advisor President Bush; Jerome I. Friedman, MIT; Lene Vestergaard Hau, Harvard University; Richard Rhodes, Author; Rita Colwell, Director, NSF; Jeremy Bernstein, Author; Jochen H. Heisenberg, University of New Hampshire; Finn Aaserud, Director of the Niels Bohr Archive; Vilhelm A. Bohr, NIH; Thomas Powers, Author; Paul Lawrence Rose, Penn State University; Steven Barfield, University of Westminster, Jennifer Uphoff Gray, Associate Director, Copenhagen; Elizabeth Ireland McCann, Producer, Copenhagen; Lloyd Rose, Washington Post. Details of he program and useful information on the play Copenhagen are available on the web site http://web.gc.cuny.edu/ashp/nml/artsci/copenhagen.shtml . The complete symposium was video recorded and the set of 3 two-hour tapes can be obtained through the web site. The symposium was organized by Brian Schwartz, The Graduate Center, CUNY, Harry Lustig, Provost Emeritus at the City College of New York and Arthur Molella, Director, Lemelson Center, Smithsonian Institution. For further information contact Brian

  12. [Relationship between Copenhagen and Göttingen regarding earth magnetism].

    PubMed

    Reich, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Hans Christian Oersted is mostly known as the discoverer of electromagnetism and for being one of the physicists who were deeply influenced and fascinated by the romantic natural philosophy. In this article another side of Oersted is presented. What is underestimated until now is Oersted's contribution to the research of geomagnetism. Oersted stood in close contact with Carl Friedrich Gauss and Wilhelm Weber, whom he visited in 1834 in Göttingen. Oersted's aim was to learn the new developments in geomagnetism. Afterwards he was crucial in the building of a new magnetic observatory in Copenhagen as well as a second one with better equipment. Oersted formed a huge team for magnetic observations and the gathered data were sent to Gauss and Weber who published them. The correspondence between Oersted, Gauss and Weber was mostly dedicated to the transmission of these data, details about instruments and the best way of building a magnetic observatory. Unfortunately, Gauss and Weber had to stop their very successful collaboration in 1843, because Weber belonged to the Göttingen Seven and later on Oersted stopped his observations, because he had lost his partners in this research project.

  13. Determining the Newton-Raphson basins of attraction in the electromagnetic Copenhagen problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotos, Euaggelos E.

    2017-04-01

    The Copenhagen problem where the primaries of equal masses are magnetic dipoles is used in order to determine the Newton-Raphson basins of attraction associated with the equilibrium points. The parametric variation of the position as well as of the stability of the Lagrange points are monitored when the value of the ratio $\\lambda$ of the magnetic moments varies in predefined intervals. The regions on the configuration $(x,y)$ plane occupied by the basins of convergence are revealed using the multivariate version of the Newton-Raphson iterative scheme. The correlations between the basins of attraction of the libration points and the corresponding number of iterations needed for obtaining the desired accuracy are also illustrated. We perform a thorough and systematic numerical investigation by demonstrating how the dynamical quantity $\\lambda$ influences the shape, the geometry and also the degree of fractality of the attracting domains. Our numerical results strongly indicate that the ratio $\\lambda$ is indeed a very influential parameter in the electromagnetic binary system.

  14. Intestinal Parasite Infections and Accuracy of Direct Thin and Thick Smear, Formol-Ether Sedimentation, Centrifugal Flotation, and Mini-FLOTAC Techniques among Patients with Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders from the Greater Cairo Region, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Atef H; Rashed, Samia M; El-Hayawan, Ibrahim A; Ali, Nagwa S; Abou Ouf, Eman A; Ali, Amira T

    2017-01-16

    The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency of intestinal parasitic infection among patients with gastrointestinal tract disorders from the Greater Cairo region, Egypt. In addition, a comparison was made of the accuracy of direct thin and thick smear, formol-ether sedimentation (FEC), centrifugal flotation (CF), and mini-FLOTAC techniques in the diagnosis of infection. Out of 100 patients, the overall prevalence of parasitic infection was 51%. Only 6% had dual infection. Giardia lamblia was the most common parasite (26%), followed by Hymenolepis nana (20%), Entamoeba coli (8%), and Enterobius vermicularis (3%). Except the statistically significant association between E. vermicularis infection and perianal itching and insomnia (P < 0.001), age, gender, and complaints of the examined individuals had no association with prevalence of parasitic infection. Both FEC and CF were equally the most accurate techniques (accuracy = 98.2%, confidence interval [CI] = 0.95-1.0, and κ index = 0.962), whereas the Kato-Katz method was the least accurate (accuracy = 67.5%, CI = 0.57-0.78, and κ index = 0.333). However, mini-FLOTAC-ZnSO4 was the most accurate for diagnosis of helminthic infection, and FEC was more accurate for diagnosis of protozoal infection (accuracy = 100%, CI = 1.0-1.0, and κ index = 1).

  15. From Identity to Facility--The New Buildings for the Faculty of Humanities at the University of Copenhagen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabrielsen, Magnus; Saugstad, Tone

    2007-01-01

    This analysis seeks to unite both an architectural and an educational perspective on the transformation of the university into a postmodern institution. Our point of departure is an analysis of the new buildings for the Faculty of Humanities University of Copenhagen which are located on the island area of Amager, to the south of Copenhagen's…

  16. Mapping a buried Quaternary valley and pre-Quaternary faults through seismic methods in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Kerim; Alfredo Mendoza, Jose; Henrik, Olsen

    2010-05-01

    Limited knowledge of the subsurface geology motivates the use of geophysical techniques before large engineering projects are conducted. These applications are normally restricted to satisfy the project aims, like mapping the near surface sediments, unconsolidated rocks and/or geological structures that may affect the construction locally. However, the applications can also contribute to the general knowledge of the regional geology around the location of interest. This report highlights the mapping of a buried Quaternary valley and identification of regional faults by a reflection and refraction seismic survey performed in Copenhagen. A 13.9 Km seismic survey was carried out at Copenhagen city along six crooked lines in order to determine the velocity fields in the near subsurface segment of a planned metro line and reflection patterns in deeper levels. The aim of the survey was to collect information needed for designing the underground metro. In particular it was sought to map the interface between Quaternary sedimentary layers of clay, till and sand, and the underlying layers of Palaeogene limestone found between 7 and 40 m below the ground surface. The data acquisition was carried out using a 192 channels array, receiver groups with 5 m spacing and a Vibroseis as a source at 5 m spacing following a roll along technique to complete the survey spreads. The urban environment demanded extensive survey planning including traffic control, notifications to residents and a fluent coordination with municipal authorities in order to minimize disturbances and ensure data acquisition. The reflection data was processed under a conventional scheme and the refraction data was interpreted using a non-linear traveltime tomography algorithm. The reflection results indicate the presence of faults oriented NW-SE to NNW-SSE affecting the limestone sequences. The faults may be associated to the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone at the transition between the Danish Basin and the Baltic

  17. Greater Sao Paulo Newer Library Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Dulce Didio

    1991-01-01

    This followup to a 1981 study presents descriptions of automated projects or activities in academic, public, and special libraries or information centers in the Greater Sao Paulo region that developed from 1981 through 1987. It is noted that an overall increase in the level of automation since 1981 has been observed. (four references) (Author/MAB)

  18. The Effect of Stakeholders on the Reflective Practice of School Principals: Practices in Istanbul and Copenhagen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalgiç, Gülay; Bakioglu, Aysen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine with whom Turkish and Danish school principals engage in reflective practice and how this interaction helps to develop them as reflective practitioners. A phenomenological approach was followed in the study. Data were collected from 37 school principals (24 from Istanbul and 13 from Copenhagen) who were…

  19. Small opacities among dental laboratory technicians in Copenhagen.

    PubMed Central

    Sherson, D; Maltbaek, N; Olsen, O

    1988-01-01

    After a case of advanced pneumoconiosis occurred in a dental laboratory technician, 31 other dental technicians and 30 control subjects controlled for smoking habits, sex, and age were investigated. More technicians (55%) than controls (30%) had at least grade 1 dyspnoea (p greater than 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that 13 technicians who had produced dental prostheses for at least 15 years had consistently lower lung function (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, MEF50, and DCO single breath), although the differences were not statistically significant. All mean lung function values for technicians and controls were within normal limits. Increases in MEF50 after breathing 80% helium and 20% O2 failed to show small airways dysfunction among the technicians. Of the six with radiological pneumoconiosis (5 simple, 1 advanced) four had symptoms. All three biopsy specimens showed varying degrees of pulmonary fibrosis. DCO single breath was diminished in four of the six. One male dental technician had scleroderma and possibly Erasmus syndrome. Blind readings showed an increased number of suspicious chest x rays films (greater than or equal to category 0/1) among older smokers and ex-smokers (p = 0.013) regardless of occupation. Our results support other evidence that dental technicians are at risk of developing pneumoconiosis. Therefore, adequate hygienic control of dental laboratories is indicated. PMID:3378011

  20. The impact of climate change on mental health (but will mental health be discussed at Copenhagen?).

    PubMed

    Page, L A; Howard, L M

    2010-02-01

    Climate change will shortly be assuming centre stage when Copenhagen hosts the United Nations Climate Change Conference in early December 2009. In Copenhagen, delegates will discuss the international response to climate change (i.e. the ongoing increase in the Earth's average surface temperature) and the meeting is widely viewed as the most important of its kind ever held (http://en.cop15.dk/). International agreement will be sought on a treaty to replace the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. At the time of writing it is not known whether agreement will be reached on the main issues of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and financing the impacts of climate change, and it appears that the impact of climate change on mental health is unlikely to be on the agenda. We discuss here how climate change could have consequences for global mental health and consider the implications for future research and policy.

  1. Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides…

  2. Bison in the greater Yellowstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meagher, Mary

    1994-01-01

    In the Greater Yellowstone Area, free-ranging bison occur in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, and Yellowstone National Park. The Yellowstone population is discussed, with emphasis on changes in numbers from approximately 400 in 1968 to about 3500 now. Major influences for change initially were natural; more recently the winter road system used by snowmobiles appeared to be the dominant factor. The situation is in a state of flux. Interagency planning is in progress to address management alternatives for conflicts outside the park.

  3. Water Sensitive Urban Design retrofits in Copenhagen - 40% to the sewer, 60% to the city.

    PubMed

    Fryd, O; Backhaus, A; Birch, H; Fratini, C F; Ingvertsen, S T; Jeppesen, J; Panduro, T E; Roldin, M; Jensen, M B

    2013-01-01

    Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) is emerging in Denmark. This interdisciplinary desk study investigated the options for WSUD retrofitting in a 15 km(2) combined sewer catchment area in Copenhagen. The study was developed in collaboration with the City of Copenhagen and its water utility, and involved researchers representing hydrogeology, sewer hydraulics, environmental chemistry/economics/engineering, landscape architecture and urban planning. The resulting catchment strategy suggests the implementation of five sub-strategies. First, disconnection is focused within sites that are relatively easy to disconnect, due to stormwater quality, soil conditions, stakeholder issues, and the provision of unbuilt sites. Second, stormwater runoff is infiltrated in areas with relatively deep groundwater levels at a ratio that doesn't create a critical rise in the groundwater table to the surface. Third, neighbourhoods located near low-lying streams and public parks are disconnected from the sewer system and the sloping terrain is utilised to convey runoff. Fourth, the promotion of coherent blue and green wedges in the city is linked with WSUD retrofits and urban climate-proofing. Fifth, WSUD is implemented with delayed and regulated overflows to the sewer system. The results are partially adopted by the City of Copenhagen and currently under pilot testing.

  4. Benzene exposure and the effect of traffic pollution in Copenhagen, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skov, Henrik; Hansen, Asger B.; Lorenzen, Gitte; Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Løfstrøm, Per; Christensen, Carsten S.

    Benzene is a carcinogenic compound, which is emitted from petrol-fuelled cars and thus is found ubiquitous in all cities. As part of the project Monitoring of Atmospheric Concentrations of Benzene in European Towns and Homes (MACBETH) six campaigns were carried out in the Municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark. The campaigns were distributed over 1 year. In each campaign, the personal exposure to benzene of 50 volunteers (non-smokers living in non-smoking families) living and working in Copenhagen was measured. Simultaneously, benzene was measured in their homes and in an urban network distributed over the municipality. The Radiello diffusive sampler was applied to sample 5 days averages of benzene and other hydrocarbons. Comparison of the results with those from a BTX-monitor showed excellent agreement. The exposure and the concentrations in homes and in the urban area were found to be close to log-normal distribution. The annual averages of the geometrical mean values were 5.22, 4.30 and 2.90 μg m -3 for personal exposure, home concentrations and urban concentrations, respectively. Two main parameters are controlling the general level of benzene in Copenhagen: firstly, the emission from traffic and secondly, dispersion due to wind speed. The general level of exposure to benzene and home concentrations of benzene were strongly correlated with the outdoor level of benzene, which indicated that traffic is an important source for indoor concentrations of benzene and for the exposure to benzene.

  5. The psychologist as a poet: Kierkegaard and psychology in 19th-century Copenhagen.

    PubMed

    Pind, Jörgen L

    2016-11-01

    Psychology had an early start at the University of Copenhagen in the first half of the 19th century, where it was taught as the major part of a compulsory course required of all first-year students. Particularly important in the establishment of psychology at the university was Frederik Christian Sibbern, who was professor of philosophy from 1813 to 1870. Sibbern wrote numerous works on psychology throughout his career. In his first book on psychology, Sibbern expressed the view that the ideal psychologist should also be a poet. Søren Kierkegaard, Sibbern's student, was precisely such a poet-psychologist. Kierkegaard discussed psychology in many of his works, reflecting the gathering momentum of psychology in 19th-century Copenhagen, Denmark. The article brings out some aspects of Kierkegaard's poetic and literary-imaginative approach to psychology. In his opinion, psychology was primarily a playful subject and limited in the questions about human nature it could answer, especially when it came up against the "eternal" in man's nature. Kierkegaard had a positive view of psychology, which contrasts sharply with his negative views on the rise of statistics and the natural sciences. In the latter half of the 19th century, psychology turned positivistic at the University of Copenhagen. This left little room for Kierkegaard's kind of poetic psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Paleotectonic and paleogeographic evolution of greater China

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O. )

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we utilize plate tectonic history of Central Asia to constrain understanding of sedimentary basin development and to show how regional scale tectonic events affect play elements for major basins of greater China. Tectonic framework and paleogeography are used as a constraint on models for basin formation, climate distribution and accommodation which in turn control distribution of reservoir, source, seal and trap. Greater China is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonics. It has a protracted history of continental deformation as amalgamation of crustal blocks and island arc/subduction and accretion complexes occurred. Early Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are dominated by extensive carbonate platform and Permian and younger systems are dominated by continental and lacustrine sedimentation. The basement of greater China consists of continental and accretion crust. The crustal blocks include South and North China, Indochina, Tibet and Tarim, and accretion blocks include the Altaids and Manchurides. The relative positions and interactions of these blocks during Paleozic and Mesozoic time resulted in formation of greater China. Final amalgamation and deformation occurred in Eocene time when India collided with Asia. The discussions consist of presentation of a model for tectonic evolution of these blocks and their paleogeography through Phanerozoic time. This is done with maps at 1:8 million scale covering nine time slices, three in the Paleozoic, three in the Mesozoic and three in the Cenozoic.

  7. Effects of inherited cores and magmatic overgrowths on zircon (U-Th)/He ages and age-eU trends from Greater Himalayan sequence rocks, Mount Everest region, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orme, Devon A.; Reiners, Peter W.; Hourigan, Jeremy K.; Carrapa, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    Previous constraints on the timing and rate of exhumation of the footwall of the South Tibetan detachment system (STDS) north of Mount Everest suggest rapid Miocene cooling from ˜ 700°C to 120°C between ˜14-17 Ma. However, 25 new single grain zircon He ages from leucogranites intruding Greater Himalayan Sequence rocks in the footwall of the STDS are between 9.9 and 15 Ma, with weighted mean ages between 10 and 12 Ma. Zircon grains exhibit a positive correlation between age and effective uranium (eU). Laser ablation zircon U-Pb geochronology, detailed SEM observations, and laser ablation depth-profiling of these zircons reveal low-eU 0.5-2.5 Ga inherited cores overgrown by high-eU 17-22 Ma rims. This intragranular zonation produces ages as much as 32% too young when a standard alpha-ejection correction assuming uniform eU distribution is applied. Modeling of the effects of varying rim thickness and rim eU concentration on the bulk grain eU and alpha-ejection correction suggests that zonation also exerts the primary control on the form of the age-eU correlation observed. Application of grain-specific zonation-dependent age corrections to our data yields zircon He ages between 14 and 17 Ma, in agreement with AFT and 40Ar/39Ar ages. Growth of magmatic rims followed by cooling to < 120°C within 1-6 million years supports rapid tectonic exhumation associated with slip along the STDS in the Miocene. This study highlights the importance of characterizing parent nuclide zonation in zircon He studies which seek to understand the timing of exhumation along exhumed crustal blocks.

  8. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    PubMed

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  9. Dominant simple-shear deformation during peak metamorphism for the lower portion of the Greater Himalayan Sequence in West Nepal: New implications for hybrid channel flow-type mechanisms in the Dolpo region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassi, Chiara

    2015-12-01

    I conducted new vorticity and deformation temperatures studies to test competing models of the exhumation of the mid-crustal rocks exposed in the Dolpo region (West Nepal). My results indicate that the Main Central Thrust is located ∼5 km structurally below the previous mapped locations. Deformation temperature increasing up structural section from ∼450 °C to ∼650 °C and overlap with peak metamorphic temperature indicating that penetrative shearing was responsible for the exhumation of the GHS occurred at "close" to peak metamorphic conditions. I interpreted the telescoping and the inversion of the paleo-isotherms at the base of the GHS as produced mainly by a sub-simple shearing (Wm = 0.88-1) pervasively distributed through the lower portion of the GHS. My results are consistent with hybrid channel flow-type models where the boundary between lower and upper portions of the GHS, broadly corresponding to the tectonometamorphic discontinuity recently documented in west Nepal, represents the limit between buried material, affected by dominant simple shearing, and exhumed material affected by a general flow dominates by pure shearing. This interpretation is consistent with the recent models suggesting the simultaneous operation of channel flow- and critical wedge-type processes at different structural depth.

  10. Geographical distribution of torture: An epidemiological study of torture reported by asylum applicants examined at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen.

    PubMed

    Busch, J; Hansen, S H; Hougen, H P

    2015-01-01

    Using reports from 154 examinations of alleged torture victims among asylum applicants to Denmark conducted by the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen, between 2001 and 2013, we have categorized the victims into four geographical regions, as well as according to the conflict that caused them to flee. The torture incidents described by the victims were divided into 12 different categories defined by the Istanbul Protocol. These data were cross referenced in order to identify any differences in the prevalence of the 12 forms of torture. The study showed that crush injuries were only reported by refugees from Asia, including Afghanistan and Pakistan, and that incidents of electrical torture were reported twice as frequently by torture victims from Middle Eastern and North African countries, though it was lower among Iraqis, Iranians and ethnic Kurds. Sexual torture was reported by 78% of females and 25% of males.

  11. Increase in prevalence and severity of asthma in young adults in Copenhagen

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, E. F.; Rappeport, Y.; Vestbo, J.; Lange, P.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—It is the general impression that the prevalence of asthma has increased during recent decades. A study was undertaken to investigate asthma prevalence, respiratory symptoms, and lung function in young adults in the City of Copenhagen 15 years apart.
METHODS—Men and women aged 20-35 years were sampled from the general population living in a defined area of central Copenhagen. The first examination took place in 1976-8 and comprised 1034 subjects (response rate 67.2%). A new sample comprising 1104 subjects (response rate 62.6%) from exactly the same area was examined 15 years later in 1991-4. All participants answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and diseases and performed spirometric tests with measurement of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC).
RESULTS—The prevalence of self-reported asthma increased from 1.5% in the first survey to 4.8% in the second survey (p<0.001). Asthmatic subjects had, on average, poorer lung function than non-asthmatic subjects in terms of FEV1 and this difference was more pronounced in the second survey than in the first (10.0% of predicted versus 2.4% of predicted). Smoking decreased significantly from 62% in 1976-8 to 45% in 1991-4 (p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS—The prevalence of self-reported asthma has increased significantly among young adults in Copenhagen over a 15 year period. The severity of asthma, as judged by the level of FEV1, has also increased. These findings cannot be explained by changes in smoking habits.

 PMID:10992534

  12. The Washington Conference on Theoretical Physics: Bringing the Spirit of Copenhagen to Foggy Bottom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, Paul

    2010-02-01

    When George Gamow was offered a position at George Washington University in 1934, one of the conditions he set for acceptance was the establishment of an annual physics conference at that university, co-sponsored by the Carnegie Institution. Foggy Bottom, the Washington neighborhood where GWU is located, was not particularly known for physics. Gamow, however, wished to bring the ``spirit of Copenhagen'' to that locale and attract an international group of theorists. The Washington Conference on Theoretical Physics first convened in 1935 and assembled annually until 1947, except for a three year break during the war. Ironically, just like the Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen itself, the conference was galvanized the most by Bohr's actual presence. In its fifth, and best known meeting, held in 1939, Bohr stunned the audience when he announced the successful completion of nuclear fission. After the tenth meeting in 1947, Gamow's focus had been turning from nuclear physics to cosmology, he had begun to work more closely with graduate students and local collaborators and, in light of diminished interest, the conference was no longer held. In this talk I will delineate the successes and limitations of the Washington Conference on Theoretical Physics. )

  13. Health Impact Assessment of increased cycling to place of work or education in Copenhagen

    PubMed Central

    Glümer, Charlotte; Diderichsen, Finn

    2012-01-01

    Objective To quantify the effects of increased cycling on both mortality and morbidity. Design Health Impact Assessment. Setting Cycling to place of work or education in Copenhagen, Denmark. Population Effects were calculated based on the working-age population of Copenhagen. Main outcome measures The primary outcome measure was change in burden of disease (measured as disability-adjusted life years (DALY)) due to changed exposure to the health determinants physical inactivity, air pollution (particulate matter <2.5 μm) and traffic accidents. Results Obtainment of the proposed increase in cycling could reduce the burden of disease in the study population by 19.5 DALY annually. This overall effect comprised a reduction in the burden of disease from health outcomes associated with physical inactivity (76.0 DALY) and an increase in the burden of disease from outcomes associated with air pollution and traffic accidents (5.4 and 51.2 DALY, respectively). Conclusion This study illustrates how quantitative Health Impact Assessment can help clarify potential effects of policies: increased cycling involves opposing effects from different outcomes but with the overall health effect being positive. This result illustrates the importance of designing policies that promote the health benefits and minimise the health risks related to cycling. PMID:22833650

  14. Does intake of trace elements through urban gardening in Copenhagen pose a risk to human health?

    PubMed

    Warming, Marlies; Hansen, Mette G; Holm, Peter E; Magid, Jakob; Hansen, Thomas H; Trapp, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates the potential health risk from urban gardening. The concentrations of the trace elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in five common garden crops from three garden sites in Copenhagen were measured. Concentrations (mg/kg dw) of As were 0.002-0.21, Cd 0.03-0.25, Cr < 0.09-0.38, Cu 1.8-8.7, Ni < 0.23-0.62, Pb 0.05-1.56, and Zn 10-86. Generally, elemental concentrations in the crops do not reflect soil concentrations, nor exceed legal standards for Cd and Pb in food. Hazard quotients (HQs) were calculated from soil ingestion, vegetable consumption, measured trace element concentrations and tolerable intake levels. The HQs for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn do not indicate a health risk through urban gardening in Copenhagen. Exposure to Pb contaminated sites may lead to unacceptable risk not caused by vegetable consumption but by unintentional soil ingestion.

  15. Copenhagen 2009: Could a Cap-and-Trade Market Combat Global Warming and Conserve Earth's Tropical Forests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beedle, Harold; Calhoun, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    As the world increasingly comes to terms with the reality of global warming, international negotiators are struggling to work out the terms of a new climate change framework to be finalized this December in Copenhagen, Denmark. One aspect being discussed is a plan to compensate developing countries for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by…

  16. Minority Language Rights before and after the 2004 EU Enlargement: The Copenhagen Criteria in the Baltic States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrey, Jean-Bernard

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of the recent European Union (EU) enlargement on minority language policies in the Baltic states, and in particular in Latvia and Estonia. I first look at the so-called Copenhagen political criteria conditioning EU accession and at the European Commission's monitoring system for assessing applicant countries'…

  17. Tripping points: barriers and bargaining chips on the road to Copenhagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinnah, Sikina; Bushey, Douglas; Muñoz, Miquel; Kulovesi, Kati

    2009-07-01

    This letter aims to help scholars and practitioners alike prepare for the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP15) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), to be held in Copenhagen in December 2009, by providing a bird's eye view of the increasingly complex terrain of the global climate negotiations. It identifies and explains the most important and contentious 'tripping points' for reaching any agreement on a post-2012 framework, by explaining the primary barriers among countries to reaching consensus and the bargaining chips that countries may draw upon to get there. Namely, the letter details the contours of the ongoing debates on: developed and developing country mitigation; reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD); technology transfer; adaptation; and finance.

  18. Apparent temperature and cause-specific mortality in Copenhagen, Denmark: a case-crossover analysis.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Janine; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Ketzel, Matthias; Ellermann, Thomas; Loft, Steffen

    2011-09-01

    Temperature, a key climate change indicator, is expected to increase substantially in the Northern Hemisphere, with potentially grave implications for human health. This study is the first to investigate the association between the daily 3-hour maximum apparent temperature (Tapp(max)), and respiratory, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality in Copenhagen (1999-2006) using a case-crossover design. Susceptibility was investigated for age, sex, socio-economic status and place of death. For an inter-quartile range (7 °C) increase in Tapp(max), an inverse association was found with cardiovascular mortality (-7% 95% CI -13%; -1%) and none with respiratory and cerebrovascular mortality. In the cold period all associations were inverse, although insignificant.

  19. To Wise King Ehrenfest: Humorous Writings by Oskar Klein and Others from 1930s Copenhagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, Paul

    2005-04-01

    In the late 1920s and early 1930s, Copenhagen, the center of the development of quantum physics, was also the home of abundant humor. As a respite from the intensive and highly competitive efforts taking place to characterize fundamental interactions on an atomic scale, physicists took the time to develop satirical letters, articles, plays and other works. Written in German, English and other languages, many of these efforts were quite pointed and clever. This paper will focus on several examples of these humorous contributions, including letters exchanged between Oskar Klein and Paul Ehrenfest in 1930, articles written for the ``Journal of Jocular Physics,'' and a well-known parody of Faust. We'll show how these pieces reflect the political and scientific climate of the era, and attempt to characterize the personal styles of the some of the researchers involved.

  20. Water quality improvement plan for Greater Vancouver

    SciTech Connect

    Foellmi, S.N. . Environmental Div.); Neden, D.G. ); Dawson, R.N. )

    1993-10-01

    The Greater Vancouver Regional District commissioned an 18-month planning and predesign study to define the components in a comprehensive water and predesign study to define the components in a comprehensive water quality improvement plan for its 2,500-ML/d (660-mgd) system. The study included three primary tasks: (1) predesign of disinfection and corrosion control facilities, (2) a 12-month pilot testing program using parallel pilot plants at the Seymour and Capilano water supply reservoirs, and (3) planning for future filtration plants. The results of the study identified chlorine, ammonia, sulfur dioxide, soda ash, and carbon dioxide in a two-stage treatment approach as the recommended disinfection and corrosion control scheme for the low-pH, low-alkalinity water supplies. The pilot-plant studies confirmed that direct filtration using deep-bed monomedium filters operating at a loading rate of 22.5 m/h provided excellent treatment performance and productivity over a wide range of raw-water quality. Ozonation was studied extensively and found not to be beneficial in the overall treatment performance. The phased improvement plan for the disinfection, corrosion control, and filtration facilities has an estimated capital cost of about Can$459 million.

  1. Triatoma infestans in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gajate, P; Pietrokovsky, S; Abramo Orrego, L; Pérez, O; Monte, A; Belmonte, J; Wisnivesky-Colli, C

    2001-05-01

    The Health Administration Agencies of many municipalities in Greater Buenos Aires (GBA) receive frequent reports on triatomines in houses. The aim of this work was to identify and describe the dispersal foci of Triatoma infestans in an urban neighborhood of GBA, and contribute to the knowledge of the epidemiological situation in the region. In June 1998, potentially infested places were entomologically evaluated. T. infestans was only detected in a hen building for egg production, which housed approximately 6,000 birds. A total of 2,930 insects were collected. Density was about 9 triatomines/m(2). The proportions of fifth instar nymphs and adults were significantly higher than those of the other stages (p<0.001). The number of triatomines collected largely exceeded the highest domestic infestation found in one house from rural endemic areas of Argentina. Though triatomines were negative for Trypanosoma cruzi, they could acquire the parasite by coming in contact with infected people living in GBA. Besides, the numerous and widely distributed places housing hens and chickens, would favor the settlement of the vector. Together, both facts may constitute a risk of parasitic vectorial transmission. It is recommended to intensify systematic activities of vector search and case detection in GBA.

  2. A tale of two psychologies: The Høffding-Lehmann controversy and the establishment of experimental psychology at the University of Copenhagen.

    PubMed

    Pind, Jörgen L

    2009-01-01

    Alfred Lehmann (1858-1921) was the pioneer of experimental psychology in Denmark. He established a laboratory of psychophysics in Copenhagen in 1886 after spending a winter in Wundt's laboratory. Philosophical psychology had been taught for the better part of the nineteenth century at the University of Copenhagen and had enjoyed a positivistic turn with the philosophers Harald Høffding (1843-1931) and Kristian Kroman (1846-1925). Shortly after establishing his laboratory, Lehmann criticized Høffding's theory of "unmediated recognition," which led to a sharp dispute between them on the nature of recognition. It has been claimed that this was a direct cause of Lehmann's slow advance at the University of Copenhagen. Archival sources show that Høffding, though having a very different conception of psychology from Lehmann, was on most occasions supportive of Lehmann and thus played an important role in establishing experimental psychology at the University of Copenhagen. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The emergence of Quantum Schools: Munich, Göttingen and Copenhagen as new centers of atomic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, M.

    2001-01-01

    The institutes of Arnold Sommerfeld in Munich, Niels Bohr in Copenhagen, and Max Born in Göttingen became the leading centers for the study of quantum theory in the first decades of the twentieth century. Although founded for a broader range of theoretical physics, the quantum became the major topic of research in Munich after the Bohr-Sommerfeld-model of the atom (1913-16). The heyday came in the 1920s, when Bohr's and Born's institutes started operation and became further attractive centers for ambitious theorists all over the world. The discovery of quantum mechanics (1925) should be regarded not only as the achievement of a few young geniuses (in particular Werner Heisenberg and Wolfgang Pauli) but also as the result of a collaborative effort emerging in the new social and intellectual environment of their teachers' schools in Munich, Göttingen and Copenhagen.

  4. Report Urges Greater Coordination of European Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2007-01-01

    A new report assessing the state of doctoral education in Europe says that, even as 47 European nations enter the final phase of harmonizing their degree programs, Ph.D.-level education across Europe suffers from a lack of coordination and cooperation. "There is an urgent need for greater consultation and coordination at the regional,…

  5. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions.

  6. Holistic assessment of a secondary water supply for a new development in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Rygaard, M; Godskesen, B; Jørgensen, C; Hoffmann, B

    2014-11-01

    Increasing stress on water resources is driving urban water utilities to establish new concepts for water supply. This paper presents the consequences of proposed alternative water supply options using a unique combination of quantitative and qualitative methods from different research fields. A former industrial harbor area in Copenhagen, Denmark, is currently under development and all infrastructure will be updated to accommodate 40,000 inhabitants and 40,000 jobs in the future. To reduce stress on water resources it has been proposed to establish a secondary water supply in the area as an alternative to the conventional groundwater-based drinking water supply. Four alternative concepts for a secondary water supply have been considered: 1) slightly polluted groundwater for use in toilets and laundry, 2) desalinated brackish water for use in toilets, laundry, and dishwashers, 3) desalinated brackish water for all uses, including drinking water, and 4) local reclamation of rain and gray water for use in toilets and laundry. The concepts have been evaluated for their technical feasibility, economy, health risks, and public acceptance, while the concepts' environmental sustainability has been assessed using lifecycle assessment and freshwater use impact methods. The holistic assessment method exposes conflicting preference solutions depending on assessment criteria, and reveals multi-faceted consequences for choices in urban water management. Not one concept turns out unambiguously positive based on the evaluation criteria included here, but the systematic evaluation will leave decision-makers informed on the consequences of their choices.

  7. Sexually transmitted diseases in hetero-, homo- and bisexual males in Copenhagen.

    PubMed

    Christophersen, J; Menné, T; Friis-Møller, A; Nielsen, J O; Hansted, B; Ohlenschloeger, J

    1988-06-01

    This study is a mapping of intestinal protozoal and pathogenic bacterial infections, and sexually transmitted urethral and anorectal infections among 365 consecutive male patients attending a veneric disease (VD) clinic in Copenhagen. The profile of diseases was strongly correlated to sexual life-style. Amoebiasis and giardiasis were found respectively in 31.9% and 13.8% of homosexuals. None of the heterosexuals had pathogenic protozoa. Protozoal infections were correlated to anilingus. Forty-five percent of the patients were infected in Denmark. Travelling to endemic areas was of no obvious importance. Among males with homosexual partners, 14% had rectal infections. Gonococcal and chlamydial infections were equally frequent. Three percent had symptomatic anorectal herpes simplex infection and 11% anal warts. Gastrointestinal symptoms were not reliable indicators of gastrointestinal infection; symptoms were claimed frequently among homosexuals without infections compared to heterosexuals. Urethral gonorrhoea and/or chlamydia infections were diagnosed in 39% of the heterosexuals compared to only 10% of the homo-bisexuals. Twelve percent of the homosexuals had untreated early syphilis, whereas syphilis was exceptional among heterosexuals. The total burden of infections expressed as the actual number of infections was largest among homosexuals, 40.4%, 22.4%, and 5.3% having one, two, and three infections respectively.

  8. Sense of coherence and physical health. A "Copenhagen interpretation" of Antonovsky's SOC concept.

    PubMed

    Endler, P Christian; Haug, Thomas M; Spranger, Heinz

    2008-04-20

    According to Antonovsky's (Aaron Antonovsky, 1923-1994) sense of coherence (SOC) model, persons with a high SOC have the ability to benefit from their general defense mechanisms in order to overcome stressful situations. In a health-disease continuum, this leads to the development towards health. However, Antonovsky's global hypothesis that the strength of the SOC may influence the physical health status of a person could not be proven. Flensborg-Madsen et al. from Copenhagen were able to provide a new access regarding SOC and health. They investigated the mixture of emotional aspects and mental constructions as a possible cause for fairly low correlation between SOC and physical health. Thus, in an empirical way, they described "emotional coherence" in relation to physical health, while "mental coherence" was linked to psychological health. These authors introduced the idea of applying a shortened version of the original 29-item SOC questionnaire, but have not yet developed or tested the shortened questionnaire. Backed by their important findings, it appears to be promising to consider the use of the SOC questionnaire as standardized by Antonovsky, but cleared of the items regarding "predictability", i.e., Flensborg-Madsen et al. suggested that the items on "predictability" be excluded from the SOC scale when a correlation to physical health is to be investigated. Further investigations in this area of research will be of high impact, not only for health sciences, but also for medical practice.

  9. Risk factors for hepatitis B virus infection in heterosexuals attending a venereal disease clinic in Copenhagen.

    PubMed

    Kvinesdal, B B; Worm, A M; Gottschau, A

    1993-01-01

    Markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection were measured in 465 non-drug-abusing heterosexually transmitted disease (STD) patients. HBV markers were found in altogether 70 persons, of whom 7 were HBsAg carriers. Those chronically infected were all born in HBV intermediate/high endemic areas. Gonorrhoea was the only STD that was correlated to an increased risk of HBV markers. Number of sexual partners, sex and age was not correlated with HBV infection, irrespective of country of origin. The risk of having HBV markers in an STD clientele in Copenhagen was highly dependent on the country of birth, as the prevalences were 7% (21/307) in persons born in Denmark, 19% (9/47) in those born in other low endemic areas and 36% (40/111) in those born in intermediate/high endemic areas. Falling incidence of gonorrhoea and other STD may render it difficult to point out risk factors indicative of HBV immunization in heterosexual STD patients. In low-risk countries, screening for HBV markers should however be offered to all immigrants and refugees as a part of an HBV immunization program.

  10. Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion.

    PubMed

    Javaras, Kristin N; Schaefer, Stacey M; van Reekum, Carien M; Lapate, Regina C; Greischar, Lawrence L; Bachhuber, David R; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Ryff, Carol D; Davidson, Richard J

    2012-10-01

    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35-85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotional reactivity and recovery. Among middle-aged adults (35-65 years old), the measures of conscientiousness and self-control predicted greater recovery from, but not reactivity to, negative emotional stimuli. The effect of conscientiousness and self-control on recovery was not driven by other personality variables or by greater task adherence on the part of high conscientiousness individuals. In addition, the effect was specific to negative emotional stimuli and did not hold for neutral or positive emotional stimuli.

  11. Assessing the geologic evolution of Greater Thaumasia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Don R.; Judice, Taylor; Karunatillake, Suniti; Rogers, Deanne; Dohm, James M.; Susko, David; Carnes, Lorraine K.

    2016-09-01

    The Greater Thaumasia region consists of three chemical provinces that include Syria, Solis, and Thaumasia Planae, the Corprates Rise, part of the Thaumasia Highlands, and the transition zone northwest of the Argyre basin. Chemical signatures obtained from the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer suggest low abundances of K and Th to the west, with low H abundances and high Si abundances to the east, relative to the bulk Martian crust at midlatitudes. These observations are confirmed and quantified with a modified box and whisker analysis that simultaneously captures the degree of deviation and significance of the regionally anomalous chemistry. Motivated by regionally unique chemistry, as well as its diverse geological history, we characterize Greater Thaumasia in terms of chemistry, mineralogy, and mapped geology to determine how such complementary data record the evolution of this region. Our observations are inconsistent with a proposed salt-lubricated landslide origin, particularly given the lack of chemical or mineralogical signatures to support near-surface salt deposits that should arise over geological timescales. Our observations instead support magmatic processes, such as mantle evolution over geological time, which may impart the Si-enriched signature of the eastern portion of Greater Thaumasia as well as the K and Th depletion of the southeastern flank of Syria Planum. While the observed trend of decreasing K and Th from Noachian to Hesperian lavas is inconsistent with previous models of Martian mantle evolution, we see an increase in Ca content at the Noachian-Hesperian boundary, consistent with predictions from thermodynamic modeling.

  12. The State of Lithospheric Stress in Greater Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, B.; Furlong, K. P.; Pananont, P.; Pornsopin, P.

    2013-12-01

    Thailand and its surrounding regions occupy an important, but often overlooked, location in terms of plate tectonics and lithospheric deformation. The lateral extrusion of Tibet southeastward and eastward along deep strike slip faults to the north and the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone to the south and west bound the region of greater Thailand. While it is adjacent to some of the most seismically active plate boundaries and intra-plate regions on Earth, this region has experienced only a low level of background seismicity. Thus, the long-term seismic potential of greater Thailand remains highly uncertain. Although historic seismicity is one indicator for future seismicity it is not the only tool we have for determining seismic hazard; we can assess the state of lithospheric stress. The stress conditions in this apparent aseismic region will be controlled by the forces acting on it boundaries. We can analyze those conditions through a study of fault structure, earthquake activity, and kinematics in the boundary area. Using Global Seismic Network (GSN) data augmented with Thai seismic network data to constrain the kinematics, and numerical finite element modeling of crustal and lithospheric deformation of the region, we are able to determine to overall stress conditions. This stress model can be compared to the known fault states in Thailand to assess the potential for earthquake activity.

  13. The Copenhagen Accord for limiting global warming: criteria, constraints, and available avenues.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Xu, Yangyang

    2010-05-04

    At last, all the major emitters of greenhouse gases (GHGs) have agreed under the Copenhagen Accord that global average temperature increase should be kept below 2 degrees C. This study develops the criteria for limiting the warming below 2 degrees C, identifies the constraints imposed on policy makers, and explores available mitigation avenues. One important criterion is that the radiant energy added by human activities should not exceed 2.5 (range: 1.7-4) watts per square meter (Wm(-2)) of the Earth's surface. The blanket of man-made GHGs has already added 3 (range: 2.6-3.5) Wm(-2). Even if GHG emissions peak in 2015, the radiant energy barrier will be exceeded by 100%, requiring simultaneous pursuit of three avenues: (i) reduce the rate of thickening of the blanket by stabilizing CO(2) concentration below 441 ppm during this century (a massive decarbonization of the energy sector is necessary to accomplish this Herculean task), (ii) ensure that air pollution laws that reduce the masking effect of cooling aerosols be made radiant energy-neutral by reductions in black carbon and ozone, and (iii) thin the blanket by reducing emissions of short-lived GHGs. Methane and hydrofluorocarbons emerge as the prime targets. These actions, even if we are restricted to available technologies for avenues ii and iii, can reduce the probability of exceeding the 2 degrees C barrier before 2050 to less than 10%, and before 2100 to less than 50%. With such actions, the four decades we have until 2050 should be exploited to develop and scale-up revolutionary technologies to restrict the warming to less than 1.5 degrees C.

  14. [Significance of playroom area for morbidity in day care centers in Copenhagen].

    PubMed

    Rindel, A K; Christensen, M; Kronborg, D; Jensen, S T

    1997-10-13

    Absence due to illness among children in 24 daycare centres in Copenhagen was registered during two periods of one year each with a five year interval. The results from the first period have been reported earlier. In each period, the physical, environmental, hygienic and social conditions of the institutions were assessed, and the playroom area per child was registered. The total number of children increased from 855 in the first period to 921 in the second because 13 of the 24 institutions had increased their capacity in the intervening period. On average, the playroom area per child decreased with 0.27 square metre per child in the 13 institutions with an increased number of children. All children were less than three years of age. Absence due to sickness constituted 7.6% of the days during which the institutions were open. For the second period, where the childrens age had been exactly registered, the effect of age on absence due to sickness was found to be statistically significant. The direction of the effect was a decrease in illness with increasing age. However, due to a high correlation between age and time attending the institution, the effect of age could not be separated from the similar effect of length of time that the child had attended the institution. It was found that sickness will decrease with 7.8% per month that the age of the child and time attending the institution is increased. A statistically significant connection was found between the playroom area per child and absence due to sickness after correction for the influence of age in a multivariate analysis. In conclusion, the sickness will decrease with 10.8% per square metre the playroom area per child is increased.

  15. Spread of English across Greater China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Anwei

    2012-01-01

    Greater China is used in this article to refer to mainland China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and Macao. While a holistic approach is adopted to present and compare the rapid spread of English and development in English language education in these geographically close, and sociopolitically, culturally and economically interrelated but hugely…

  16. Waste Management in Greater Dhaka City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    This study focuses on the environmental degradation of Greater Dhaka City (GDC) resulting from pollution created by the indiscriminate disposal of industrial wastes, open dumping of solid wastes, inadequate treatment and disposal of domestic sewage, and unplanned disposal of leachate from agricultural land. Measures to protect the GDC environment…

  17. Greater trochanter apophysitis in the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Young, Simon W; Safran, Marc R

    2015-05-01

    Lower limb traction apophysitis is common in young athletes, occurring at sites such as the tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schlatter disease) and distal patella (Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease). Around the hip, iliac apophysitis is well recognized, but no cases of greater trochanter apophysitis have previously been reported. We describe the case of a 15-year-old male basketball player with a 2-month history of the right hip pain and significant functional limitation. X-rays revealed widening of the greater trochanter apophysis with subchondral sclerosis, consistent with a diagnosis of traction apophysitis. The patient was treated with a period of relative rest and anti-inflammatory medication. He gradually returned to full athletic activity, including basketball, without recurrence of pain or limitation. We describe the first reported case of traction apophysitis of the greater trochanter. The unique muscular anatomy of this apophysis with balanced forces explains the rarity of this condition. If encountered, rest and activity modification is the recommended treatment.

  18. Analysis of the Copenhagen Accord pledges and its global climatic impacts—a snapshot of dissonant ambitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelj, Joeri; Chen, Claudine; Nabel, Julia; Macey, Kirsten; Hare, William; Schaeffer, Michiel; Markmann, Kathleen; Höhne, Niklas; Krogh Andersen, Katrine; Meinshausen, Malte

    2010-07-01

    This analysis of the Copenhagen Accord evaluates emission reduction pledges by individual countries against the Accord's climate-related objectives. Probabilistic estimates of the climatic consequences for a set of resulting multi-gas scenarios over the 21st century are calculated with a reduced complexity climate model, yielding global temperature increase and atmospheric CO2 and CO2-equivalent concentrations. Provisions for banked surplus emission allowances and credits from land use, land-use change and forestry are assessed and are shown to have the potential to lead to significant deterioration of the ambition levels implied by the pledges in 2020. This analysis demonstrates that the Copenhagen Accord and the pledges made under it represent a set of dissonant ambitions. The ambition level of the current pledges for 2020 and the lack of commonly agreed goals for 2050 place in peril the Accord's own ambition: to limit global warming to below 2 °C, and even more so for 1.5 °C, which is referenced in the Accord in association with potentially strengthening the long-term temperature goal in 2015. Due to the limited level of ambition by 2020, the ability to limit emissions afterwards to pathways consistent with either the 2 or 1.5 °C goal is likely to become less feasible.

  19. Distribution of Permo-Carboniferous clastics of Greater Arabian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Laboun, A.A.

    1987-05-01

    Strikingly correlative sequences of sediments composed of sandstones, siltstones, shales, and thin argillaceous carbonate beds are present, practically everywhere, underlying the Late Permian carbonates in the Greater Arabian basin. The Greater Arabian basin as defined here occupies the broad Arabian Shelf that borders the Arabian shield. This basin is composed of several smaller basins. These clastics are exposed as thin bands and scattered small exposures in several localities around the margins of the basin. The Permo-Carboniferous clastics are represented by the Unayzah Formation of Arabia, the Doubayat Group of Syria, the Hazro Formation of southeast Turkey, the Ga'arah Formation of Iraq, the Faraghan Formation of southwest Iran, and the Haushi Group of Oman. A Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age is assigned to these clastics because they contain fossil plants and palynomorphs. These sediments represent time-transgressive fluctuating sea deposits following a phase of regional emergence, erosion, and structural disturbance which preceded the Permian transgression. The basal contact of these clastics is marked by a well-pronounced angular unconformity with various older units, ranging in age from early Carboniferous to late Precambrian. This regional unconformity is probably related to the Hercynian movements. The upper contact is conformable with the Permian carbonates. The porous sandstones of the Permo-Carboniferous sediments are important hydrocarbon exploration targets. These reservoir rocks sometimes overlie mature source rocks and are capped by shales, marls, and tight carbonates. Significant quantities of hydrocarbons are contained in these reservoirs in different parts of the Greater Arabian basin.

  20. Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanser, Steven E.; Manier, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The condition of the sagebrush ecosystem has been declining in the Western United States, and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a sagebrush-obligate species, has experienced concurrent decreases in distribution and population numbers. This has prompted substantial research and management over the past two decades to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and to address the observed decreases in distribution and population numbers. The amount of research and management has increased as the year 2015 approaches, which is when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is expected to make a final decision about whether or not to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act. In 2012, the Sage-Grouse Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lead the development of a Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy (hereafter Research Strategy). This request was motivated by a practical need to systematically connect existing research and conservation plans with persisting or emerging information needs. Managers and researchers also wanted to reduce redundancy and help focus limited funds on the highest priority research and management issues. The USGS undertook the development of this Research Strategy, which addresses information and science relating to the greater sage-grouse and its habitat across portions of 11 Western States. This Research Strategy provides an outline of important research topics to ensure that science information gaps are identified and documented in a comprehensive manner. Further, by identifying priority topics and critical information needed for planning, research, and resource management, it provides a structure to help coordinate members of an expansive research and management community in their efforts to conduct priority research.

  1. Primary torsion of the greater omentum.

    PubMed

    Gul, Y A; Jabbar, M F; Moissinac, K

    2001-01-01

    Primary or idiopathic greater omental torsion remains a rare cause of acute surgical abdomen in adults and children. The aetiology is as yet unknown and the treatment of choice, once diagnosis is established, is resection of the torted omentum. We report our experience with three such cases encountered over the last five years, two of which were diagnosed and subsequently managed laparoscopically. The performance of diagnostic laparoscopy for acute abdominal pain of an undetermined origin may lead to an increased detection of this condition and subsequent therapeutic intervention.

  2. Interspecific hybridization between greater kudu and nyala.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Desiré L; Tordiffe, Adrian; Luther, Ilse; Duran, Assumpta; van Wyk, Anna M; Brettschneider, Helene; Oosthuizen, Almero; Modiba, Catherine; Kotzé, Antoinette

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization of wildlife species, even in the absence of introgression, is of concern due to wasted reproductive effort and a reduction in productivity. In this study we detail an accidental mating between a female nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and a male greater kudu (T. strepsiceros). The hybrid was phenotypically nyala and was identified as such based on mitochondrial DNA. Further genetic analysis based on nine microsatellite markers, chromosome number and chromosome morphology however, confirmed its status as an F1 hybrid. Results obtained from a reproductive potential assessment indicated that this animal does not have the potential to breed successfully and can be considered as sterile.

  3. VISIONS for Greater Employment Opportunities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orangeburg-Calhoun Technical Coll., Orangeburg, SC.

    The VISIONS project, a workplace literacy program held in two manufacturing plants and a regional medical center, was conducted during an 18-month period from July 1, 1993 to December 31, 1994. During the project, staff were hired and trained, task analyses and orientation sessions were held, and tests and curricula were developed. Employees were…

  4. Health and Greater Manchester in Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    This article maps the history of health organisation across Greater Manchester (GM), primarily since the Second World War, to show how against a continuing backdrop of health inequalities, services have been driven (and constrained) by the needs and the politics of each period. Defining ‘success’ as benefits for patients the article identifies examples such as Salford’s mental health services (1950s and 1960s), public health in North Manchester (1970s and 1980s), the creation of centres for diabetes, sickle-cell and thalassaemia (1980s) and the formation of the Joint Health Unit in 2002. What this history shows is that over the period the common factors influencing the ‘success’ of health organisation across GM have been the championing of particular issues by multi-disciplinary groups working across health and social care and stability in structures and personnel. PMID:27499557

  5. The Prevalence of Mental Health Problems in Children 1 1/2 Years of Age--The Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Houmann, Tine; Christiansen, Eva; Landorph, Susanne; Jorgensen, Torben; Olsen, E. M.; Heering, K.; Kaas-Nielsen, S.; Samberg, V.; Lichtenberg, A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The Copenhagen Child Cohort, CCC 2000, was established to investigate developmental psychopathology prospectively from birth in a general population. Methods: A random sample of 211 children from the CCC 2000 was investigated when the children were 1 1/2 years of age. The prevalence and associates of mental health problems and…

  6. Conclusions from the HIV in Europe Copenhagen 2012 Conference and ways forward: working together for optimal HIV testing and earlier care.

    PubMed

    Raben, D; Delpech, V; de Wit, J; Sullivan, A; Lazarus, J V; Dedes, N; Coenen, T; Lundgren, J

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this article is to set the scene for this supplement by presenting and discussing the overall outcomes of the HIV in Europe Copenhagen 2012 Conference and how the HIV in Europe initiative intends to further address challenges and themes raised during the conference.

  7. Predictors (0-10 Months) of Psychopathology at Age 1 1/2 Years--A General Population Study in the Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovgaard, A. M.; Olsen, E. M.; Christiansen, E.; Houmann, T.; Landorph, S. L.; Jorgensen, T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life. Methods: A random general population sample of 210 children from the Copenhagen Child Birth Cohort CCC 2000 was investigated by data from National Danish…

  8. Job Burnout amongst the Institutional Caregivers Working with Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Utilization of the Chinese Version of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2013-01-01

    Burnout has been considered important to understand the well-being of people who work with individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and developmental disabilities (DD). To identify personal and workplace characteristics associated with burnout, this study aimed to utilize the Chinese version of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory to provide a…

  9. Multisensor Arrays for Greater Reliability and Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immer, Christopher; Eckhoff, Anthony; Lane, John; Perotti, Jose; Randazzo, John; Blalock, Norman; Ree, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Arrays of multiple, nominally identical sensors with sensor-output-processing electronic hardware and software are being developed in order to obtain accuracy, reliability, and lifetime greater than those of single sensors. The conceptual basis of this development lies in the statistical behavior of multiple sensors and a multisensor-array (MSA) algorithm that exploits that behavior. In addition, advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and integrated circuits are exploited. A typical sensor unit according to this concept includes multiple MEMS sensors and sensor-readout circuitry fabricated together on a single chip and packaged compactly with a microprocessor that performs several functions, including execution of the MSA algorithm. In the MSA algorithm, the readings from all the sensors in an array at a given instant of time are compared and the reliability of each sensor is quantified. This comparison of readings and quantification of reliabilities involves the calculation of the ratio between every sensor reading and every other sensor reading, plus calculation of the sum of all such ratios. Then one output reading for the given instant of time is computed as a weighted average of the readings of all the sensors. In this computation, the weight for each sensor is the aforementioned value used to quantify its reliability. In an optional variant of the MSA algorithm that can be implemented easily, a running sum of the reliability value for each sensor at previous time steps as well as at the present time step is used as the weight of the sensor in calculating the weighted average at the present time step. In this variant, the weight of a sensor that continually fails gradually decreases, so that eventually, its influence over the output reading becomes minimal: In effect, the sensor system "learns" which sensors to trust and which not to trust. The MSA algorithm incorporates a criterion for deciding whether there remain enough sensor readings that

  10. Greater Green River basin well-site selection

    SciTech Connect

    Frohne, K.H.; Boswell, R.

    1993-12-31

    Recent estimates of the natural gas resources of Cretaceous low-permeability reservoirs of the Greater Green River basin indicate that as much as 5000 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of gas may be in place (Law and others 1989). Of this total, Law and others (1989) attributed approximately 80 percent to the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group and Lewis Shale. Unfortunately, present economic conditions render the drilling of many vertical wells unprofitable. Consequently, a three-well demonstration program, jointly sponsored by the US DOE/METC and the Gas Research Institute, was designed to test the profitability of this resource using state-of-the-art directional drilling and completion techniques. DOE/METC studied the geologic and engineering characteristics of ``tight`` gas reservoirs in the eastern portion of the Greater Green River basin in order to identify specific locations that displayed the greatest potential for a successful field demonstration. This area encompasses the Rocks Springs Uplift, Wamsutter Arch, and the Washakie and Red Desert (or Great Divide) basins of southwestern Wyoming. The work was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of a regional geologic reconnaissance of 14 gas-producing areas encompassing 98 separate gas fields. In Phase 2, the top four areas were analyzed in greater detail, and the area containing the most favorable conditions was selected for the identification of specific test sites. In Phase 3, target horizons were selected for each project area, and specific placement locations were selected and prioritized.

  11. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

    1997-10-01

    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

  12. Self-experience in the early phases of schizophrenia: 5-year follow-up of the Copenhagen Prodromal Study

    PubMed Central

    PARNAS, JOSEF; RABALLO, ANDREA; HANDEST, PETER; JANSSON, LENNART; VOLLMER-LARSEN, ANNE; SAEBYE, DITTE

    2011-01-01

    Despite the avalanche of empirical data on prodromal/”at risk” conditions, the essential aspects of the vulnerability to the schizophrenia spectrum remain largely unaddressed. We report here the results of the Copenhagen Schizophrenia Prodromal Study, a prospective, observational study of first admission patients in putative state of beginning psychosis (N=151) with a follow-up length of 60 months. At follow-up, the rate of conversion to schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis was 37%, whereas the conversion rate from schizotypal disorder to schizophrenia was 25%. High levels of perplexity and self-disorders baseline scores yielded the best prediction of the subsequent development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Escalating transitions within the spectrum (i.e., from schizotypal disorder to schizophrenia) were not associated to any candidate psychopathological predictor. PMID:21991279

  13. Turning Microscopy in the Medical Curriculum Digital: Experiences from The Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences at University of Copenhagen

    PubMed Central

    Vainer, Ben; Mortensen, Niels Werner; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Sørensen, Allan Have; Olsen, Jørgen; Saxild, Hans Henrik; Johansen, Flemming Fryd

    2017-01-01

    Familiarity with the structure and composition of normal tissue and an understanding of the changes that occur during disease is pivotal to the study of the human body. For decades, microscope slides have been central to teaching pathology in medical courses and related subjects at the University of Copenhagen. Students had to learn how to use a microscope and envisage three-dimensional processes that occur in the body from two-dimensional glass slides. Here, we describe how a PathXL virtual microscopy system for teaching pathology and histology at the Faculty has recently been implemented, from an administrative, an economic, and a teaching perspective. This fully automatic digital microscopy system has been received positively by both teachers and students, and a decision was made to convert all courses involving microscopy to the virtual microscopy format. As a result, conventional analog microscopy will be phased out from the fall of 2016. PMID:28382225

  14. [Study on the effect of a biostimulant on the growth and toxigenic function of Clostridium tetani strain Copenhagen-471].

    PubMed

    Garib, F Iu; Petrov, V Iu; Komarova, E A; Sheremet'ev, N N

    2002-01-01

    Bakstim, a new biostimulating preparation obtained from the organs of the immune system of animals, was developed. The impact of Bakstim on the growth and toxigenic function of C. tetani production strain Copenhagen-471 was evaluated. The addition of the preparation to Gluzman commercial medium for obtaining tetanus toxoid led to an increase in the yield of bacterial biomass from 1.9 to 4-fold and an increase in the toxoid production from 2 to 2.8-fold. The optimum concentration of this biostimulant ensuring the maximum yield of tetanus toxin from the production culture was determined (1,000 mg/l). Bakstim will supposedly be used as additive to nutrient media for the production of tetanus toxoid.

  15. PREFACE: The IARU International Scientific Congress on Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions (10-12 March, Copenhagen, Denmark)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    by the IARU universities In keeping with normal scientific practice, a procedure for producing the synthesis report that has been adopted optimises the chances of arriving at a product that will receive a broad backing from the scientific community as being a message that can be sent to the non-scientific community and that explains current understanding in climate change science The Writing Team will also be responsible for writing the book Members of the Writing Team (in alphabetical order) Professor Joe Alcamo, University of Stellenbosch Dr Terry Barker, Cambridge University Professor Daniel Kammen, University of California - Berkeley Professor Rik Leemans, Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University Professor Diana Liverman, Oxford University Professor Mohan Munasinghe, Chairman, Munasinghe Institute for Development (MIND) Dr Balgis Osman-Elasha, Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources (HCENR), Sudan Professor Katherine Richardson, University of Copenhagen Professor John Schellnhuber, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and visiting professor at the University of Oxford Professor Will Steffen, Australian National University Professor Lord Nicholas Stern, London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) Professor Ole Wæver, University of Copenhagen 2 Key Messages from the Congress Key Message 1: Climatic Trends Recent observations confirm that, given high rates of observed emissions, the worst-case IPCC scenario trajectories (or even worse) are being realized For many key parameters, the climate system is already moving beyond the patterns of natural variability within which our society and economy have developed and thrived These parameters include global mean surface temperature, sea-level rise, ocean and ice sheet dynamics, ocean acidification, and extreme climatic events There is a significant risk that many of the trends will accelerate, leading to an increasing risk of abrupt or irreversible climatic shifts Key

  16. Greater Platte River Basins - Science to Sustain Ecosystems and Communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thormodsgard, June M.

    2009-01-01

    The Greater Platte River Basins (GPRB), located in the heartland of the United States, provides a collaborative opportunity for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners to understand the sustainability of natural and managed ecosystems under changing climate and resource requirements.The Greater Platte River Basins, an area of about 140,000 square miles, sustains thousands of acres of lakes and wetlands, which provide a staging and resting area for the North American Central Flyway. Part of the GPRB is within the U.S. Corn Belt, one of the most productive agricultural ecosystems on Earth. Changes in water and land use, changing patterns of snowmelt in the Rocky Mountains, drought, and increasing demands for irrigation have reduced flows in the Platte River. These changes raise questions about the sustainability of the region for both wildlife and agriculture.The USGS and partners are developing a science strategy that will help natural-resource managers address and balance the needs of this region.

  17. Stature in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A comparative study based on skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Jørkov, Marie Louise S

    2015-12-01

    Individual stature depends on multifactorial causes and is often used as a proxy for investigating the biological standard of living. While the majority of European studies on 19th and 20th century populations are based on conscript heights, stature derived from skeletal remains are scarce. For the first time in Denmark this study makes a comparison between skeletal stature and contemporary Danish conscript heights and investigates stature of males and females temporally and between socially distinct individuals and populations in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A total of 357 individuals (181 males, 176 females) excavated at the Assistens cemetery in Copenhagen is analyzed. Two stature regression formulae (Trotter, 1970; Boldsen, 1990) are applied using femur measurements and evaluated compared to conscript heights. The results indicate that mean male stature using Boldsen follows a similar trend as the Danish conscript heights and that Trotter overestimate stature by ca. 6cm over Boldsen. At an inter population level statistically significant differences in male stature are observed between first and second half of the 19th century towards a slight stature decrease and larger variation while there are no significant changes observed in female stature. There are insignificant differences in stature between middle and high class individuals, but male stature differs statistically between cemeteries (p=0.000) representing middle/high class, paupers and navy employees, respectively. Female stature had no significant wealth gradient (p=0.516). This study provides new evidence of stature among males and females during the 19th century and suggests that males may have been more sensitive to changes in environmental living and nutrition than females.

  18. Influence of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides on risk of cerebrovascular disease: the Copenhagen City Heart Study.

    PubMed Central

    Lindenstrøm, E.; Boysen, G.; Nyboe, J.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To estimate the influence of plasma total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides on risk of cerebrovascular disease. DESIGN--The Copenhagen City Heart Study is a prospective observational survey with two cardiovascular examinations at five year intervals. Non-fasting plasma lipids were measured in participants once at each examination, along with other variables. The Cox regression model was used to establish the effect of the factors recorded on cerebrovascular events of mostly, but not exclusively, ischaemic origin. SUBJECTS--19,698 women and men at least 20 years old, randomly selected after age stratification from an area of central Copenhagen. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Initial cases of stroke and transient ischaemic attack recorded from hospital records and death certificates from 1976 through 1988. RESULTS--660 non-haemorrhagic and 33 haemorrhagic events were recorded. Total cholesterol was positively associated with risk of non-haemorrhagic events, but only for levels > 8 mmol/l, corresponding to the upper 5% of the distribution in the study population. For lower plasma cholesterol values the relative risk remained nearly constant. Plasma triglyceride concentration was significantly, positively associated with risk of non-haemorrhagic events. The relative risk corresponding to an increase of 1 mmol/l was 1.12 (95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.16). There was a negative, log linear association between high density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of non-haemorrhagic events (0.53 (0.34 to 0.83)). There was no indication that the effects of plasma lipids were different in women and men. CONCLUSIONS--The pattern of the association between plasma cholesterol and risk of ischaemic cerebrovascular disease was not log linear, and the increased risk was confined to the upper 5% of the cholesterol distribution. Further studies should concentrate on the association between plasma cholesterol and verified haemorrhagic stroke. PMID

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of the epidemic multiresistant Escherichia coli ST131 clonal group among extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli isolates in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Bente; Hansen, Dennis S; Nilsson, Frida; Frimodt-Møller, Jakob; Leihof, Rikke Fleron; Struve, Carsten; Scheutz, Flemming; Johnston, Brian; Krogfelt, Karen A; Johnson, James R

    2013-06-01

    We report the characteristics of 115 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli clinical isolates, from 115 unique Danish patients, over a 1-year study interval (1 October 2008 to 30 September 2009). Forty-four (38%) of the ESBL isolates represented sequence type 131 (ST13)1, from phylogenetic group B2. The remaining 71 isolates were from phylogenetic groups D (27%), A (22%), B1 (10%), and B2 (3%). Serogroup O25 ST131 isolates (n = 42; 95% of ST131) comprised 7 different K antigens, whereas two ST131 isolates were O16:K100:H5. Compared to non-ST131 isolates, ST131 isolates were associated positively with CTX-M-15 and negatively with CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-14. They also were associated positively with 11 virulence genes, including afa and dra (Dr family adhesins), the F10 papA allele (P fimbria variant), fimH (type 1 fimbriae), fyuA (yersiniabactin receptor), iha (adhesin siderophore), iutA (aerobactin receptor), kpsM II (group 2 capsules), malX (pathogenicity island marker), ompT (outer membrane protease), sat (secreted autotransporter toxin), and usp (uropathogenicity-specific protein) and negatively with hra (heat-resistant agglutinin) and iroN (salmochelin receptor). The consensus virulence gene profile (>90% prevalence) of the ST131 isolates included fimH, fyuA, malX, and usp (100% each), ompT and the F10 papA allele (95% each), and kpsM II and iutA (93% each). ST131 isolates were also positively associated with community acquisition, extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) status, and the O25, K100, and H4 antigens. Thus, among ESBL E. coli isolates in Copenhagen, ST131 was the most prevalent clonal group, was community associated, and exhibited distinctive and comparatively extensive virulence profiles, plus a greater variety of capsular antigens than reported previously.

  20. Depressed adolescents demonstrate greater subgenual anterior cingulate activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tony T.; Simmons, Alan N.; Matthews, Scott C.; Tapert, Susan F.; Frank, Guido K.; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Lansing, Amy E.; Wu, Jing; Brown, Gregory G.; Paulus, Martin P.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies implicate the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) as a critical brain region in adult depression. However, unlike adult depression, little is known about the underlying neural substrates of adolescent depression, and there are no published data examining differences in sgACC activation between depressed and healthy adolescents. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine sgACC activity in twenty-six depressed and normal 13- to 17-year olds during the performance of a stop-signal task. Significantly greater sgACC activation was found in the depressed adolescents relative to controls. These results establish for the first time abnormal functioning of the sgACC in depressed adolescents and have important implications for understanding the underlying neural correlates and potential treatments of adolescent depression. PMID:19218875

  1. 3D stress field simulation for Greater Munich, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Moritz; Heidbach, Oliver; Reinecker, John; Przybycin, Anna Maria; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    Geotechnical applications such as tunneling, storage of waste, wellbore planning, or reservoir engineering requires detailed 3D information on the rock properties and behavior of the continuum. One of the key parameters is the contemporary crustal in-situ stress state. However, generally the availability of stress data on reservoir scale is scarce or no data exists at all. Furthermore, stress data is often limited to the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress. Hence, geomechanical-numerical modelling provides an approximation of a continuous description of the 3D in-situ stress state. We present a model workflow that shows (1) how to calibrate a regional scale model of Greater Munich with stress orientations and magnitudes mainly from borehole data and (2) how to derive from the regional model boundary conditions for a local high-resolution model of a geothermal reservoir site. This approach using two models is an alternative to the required trade-off between resolution, computational cost and a sufficient number of calibration data which is otherwise inevitable for a single model. The incorporated 3D geological models contain the topography from a digital elevation model and 6 stratigraphic units with different elasto-plastic rock properties. The local model mimics the area of a planned reservoir and its resolution is significantly higher than in the regional model and down to 10 m near the planned borehole trajectories using 21×106 tetrahedron finite elements with linear approximation functions. The uncertainties of the calibrated regional model are large since no information on the magnitude of the maximum horizontal stress is available. Even in the entire Greater Munich area only two reliable leak-off tests that deliver the magnitude of the minimum horizontal stress could be used. These uncertainties are transferred also to the local model. Hence we also show how to quantify for the workflow in general the systematic uncertainties and discuss

  2. Seismic site survey investigations in urban environments: The case of the underground metro project in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, K.; Mendoza, J. A.; Colberg-Larsen, J.; Ploug, C.

    2009-05-01

    Near surface geophysics applications are gaining more widespread use in geotechnical and engineering projects. The development of data acquisition, processing tools and interpretation methods have optimized survey time, reduced logistics costs and increase results reliability of seismic surveys during the last decades. However, the use of wide-scale geophysical methods under urban environments continues to face great challenges due to multiple noise sources and obstacles inherent to cities. A seismic pre-investigation was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using seismic methods to obtain information about the subsurface layer locations and media properties in Copenhagen. Such information is needed for hydrological, geotechnical and groundwater modeling related to the Cityringen underground metro project. The pre-investigation objectives were to validate methods in an urban environment and optimize field survey procedures, processing and interpretation methods in urban settings in the event of further seismic investigations. The geological setting at the survey site is characterized by several interlaced layers of clay, till and sand. These layers are found unevenly distributed throughout the city and present varying thickness, overlaying several different unit types of limestone at shallow depths. Specific results objectives were to map the bedrock surface, ascertain a structural geological framework and investigate bedrock media properties relevant to the construction design. The seismic test consisted of a combined seismic reflection and refraction analyses of a profile line conducted along an approximately 1400 m section in the northern part of Copenhagen, along the projected metro city line. The data acquisition was carried out using a 192 channels array, receiver groups with 5 m spacing and a Vibroseis as a source at 10 m spacing. Complementarily, six vertical seismic profiles (VSP) were performed at boreholes located along the line. The reflection

  3. Quaternary layer anomalies around the Carlsberg Fault zone mapped with high-resolution shear-wave seismics south of Copenhagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammann, Janina; Hübscher, Christian; Nielsen, Lars; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2015-04-01

    The Carlsberg Fault zone is located in the N-S striking Höllviken Graben and traverses the city of Copenhagen. The fault zone is a NNW-SSE striking structure in direct vicinity to the transition zone of the Danish Basin and the Baltic Shield. Recent small earthquakes indicate activity in the area, although none of the mapped earthquakes appear to have occurred on the Carlsberg Fault. We examined the fault evolution by a combination of very high resolution onshore shear-wave seismic data, one conventional onshore seismic profile and marine reflection seismic profiles. The chalk stratigraphy and the localization of the fault zone at depth was inferred from previous studies by other authors. We extrapolated the Jurassic and Triassic stratigraphy from the Pomeranian Bay to the area of investigation. The fault zone shows a flower structure in the Triassic as well as in Cretaceous sediments. The faulting geometry indicates strong influence of Triassic processes when subsidence and rifting prevailed in the Central European Basin System. Growth strata within the surrounding Höllviken Graben reveal syntectonic sedimentation in the lower Triassic, indicating the opening to be a result of Triassic rifting. In the Upper Cretaceous growth faulting documents continued rifting. This finding contrasts the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene inversion tectonics in neighbouring structures, as the Tornquist Zone. The high-resolution shear-wave seismic method was used to image structures in Quaternary layers in the Carlsberg Fault zone. The portable compact vibrator source ElViS III S8 was used to acquire a 1150 m long seismic section on the island Amager, south of Copenhagen. The shallow subsurface in the investigation area is dominated by Quaternary glacial till deposits in the upper 5-11 m and Danian limestone below. In the shear-wave profile, we imaged the 30 m of the upward continuation of the Carlsberg Fault zone. In our area of investigation, the fault zone appears to comprise

  4. Particle size distribution and particle mass measurements at urban,near-city and rural level in the Copenhagen area and Southern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketzel, M.; Wåhlin, P.; Kristensson, A.; Swietlicki, E.; Berkowicz, R.; Nielsen, O. J.; Palmgren, F.

    2004-02-01

    Particle size distribution (size-range 3-900nm) and PM10 was measured simultaneously at an urban background station in Copenhagen, a near-city background and a rural location during a period in September-November 2002. The study investigates the contribution from urban versus regional sources of particle number and mass concentration.

    The total particle number (ToN) and NOx are well correlated at the urban and near-city level and show a distinct diurnal variation, indicating the common traffic source. The average ToN at the three stations differs by a factor of 3. The observed concentrations are 2500#cm-3, 4500#cm-3 and 7700#cm-3 at rural, near-city and urban level, respectively.

    PM10 and total particle volume (ToV) are well correlated between the three different stations and show similar concentration levels, in average within 30% relative difference, indicating a common source from long-range transport that dominates the concentrations at all locations.

    Measures to reduce the local urban emissions of NOx and ToN are likely to affect both the street level and urban background concentrations, while for PM10 and ToV only measurable effects at the street level are probable. Taking into account the supposed stronger health effects of ultrafine particles reduction measures should address particle number emissions.

    The traffic source contributes strongest in the 10-200nm particle size range. The maximum of the size distribution shifts from about 20-30nm at kerbside to 50-60nm at rural level. Particle formation events were observed in the 3-20nm size range at rural location in the afternoon hours, mainly under conditions with low concentrations of pre-existing aerosol particles.

    The maximum in the size distribution of the "traffic contribution" seems to be shifted to about 28nm in the urban location compared to 22nm at

  5. 78 FR 65701 - Notice of Availability of the Nevada and Northeastern California Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Land...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ...] Notice of Availability of the Nevada and Northeastern California Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Land Use Plan... Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Land Use Plan (LUP) Amendments and Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS... Northeastern California Sub-region Greater Sage-Grouse Draft LUP Amendments/Draft EIS by any of the...

  6. [Morbidity of children attending day care centers in Copenhagen illustrated by social, physical, environmental and hygienic factors].

    PubMed

    Rindel, A K; Kronborg, D; Jensen, S T

    1992-07-27

    Sick leave among the children in 24 day nurseries in Copenhagen was registered during a period of one year. The physical, environmental and hygienic conditions of the institutions were assessed by means of interviews and inspection, supplemented by information from the local authorities. Sick leave constitutes 7.5% of the days during which the institutions were open and the average number of sick days per child varied from 14.6 to 24.4. Comparisons with similar investigations are inclusive on account of variations in the methods of registration and age distributions. It was characteristic of the institutions investigated that these included a number of old institutions in flats, many in streets with considerable traffic and where the conditions of ventilation and space do not conform with present-day standards. In some of the institutions, the hygiene is unsatisfactory, particularly where ventilation, outdoor activities and hand-washing are concerned. A statistically significant connection was found between amount of traffic at the institution, the hygiene and playroom area per child, on one hand, and absence due to sickness, on the other, as assessed by a statistical model for sick leave for child in a given institution. In order to prevent sickness, it is concluded that efforts to improve hygiene and space are desirable and, similarly, further research concerning the effects of atmospheric pollution is relevant.

  7. Personal protective equipment, hygiene behaviours and occupational risk of illness after July 2011 flood in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, O P; Holt, J; Kjerulf, A; Müller, L; Ethelberg, S; Mølbak, K

    2013-08-01

    Incidence of various diseases can increase following a flood. We aimed to identify professionals in Copenhagen who became ill after contact with 2 July 2011 floodwater/sediment and determine risks and protective factors associated with illness. We conducted a cohort study of employees engaged in post-flood management activities. Participants completed a questionnaire collecting information about demographics, floodwater/sediment exposure, compliance with standard precautions, and symptoms of illness. Overall, 257 professionals participated, with 56 (22%) cases. Risk of illness was associated with not washing hands after floodwater/sediment contact [relative risk (RR) 2∙45], exposure to floodwater at work and home (RR 2∙35), smoking (RR 1∙92), direct contact with floodwater (RR 1∙86), and eating/drinking when in contact with floodwater (RR 1∙77). Professionals need to follow standard precautions when in contact with floodwater/sediment, especially proper hand hygiene after personal protective equipment use and before eating/drinking and smoking.

  8. The Iranian version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) for assessment of psychological risk factors at work

    PubMed Central

    Aminian, Mohammad; Dianat, Iman; Miri, Anvar; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) is a widely used tool for evaluation of psychosocial risk factors at work. The aims of this study were to describe the short version of Farsi COPSOQ and to present its psychometric properties. Methods: A total of 427 administrative health care staff participated in this descriptive methodological study. Forward–backward procedure was adopted to translate the questionnaire from English into Farsi. Content validity was assessed by a panel of 10 experts. Construct validity was evaluated by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed using Cronbach’s α and intraclass correlation coefficient(ICC), respectively. The feasibility was assessed using ceiling and floor effect. Results: The short version of Farsi COPSOQ was configured with 16 dimensions (32 items).Content validity of the questionnaire was established. Factor analysis supported the conceptual multi-dimensionality (four factors), and therefore confirmed the construct validity of the Farsi COPSOQ. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s α ranging between 0.75 and 0.89) and test retest reliability (ICC values ranged from 0.75 to 0.89) were both approved and the results showed no ceiling or floor effect. Conclusion: The results support the use of Farsi COPSOQ for evaluation of psychological risks and for research purposes in Iranian population. PMID:28058236

  9. Debris Flows Within The Greater Caucasus Northern Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panova, S.

    Debris flows are recorded everywhere within the Greater Caucasus northern slope. In last decades studies of debris flows appeared to be very important due to an intensive anthropogenic activity in the mountainous areas. Debris flow spatial distribution, as well as their genesis and means of protection are critical, too. The studied terri- tory has significant absolute altitudes, especially in the central and eastern parts. Also large amount of atmospheric precipitation with maximum in a warm period is typical for the region. Modern glaciation with soil-covered moraine deposits of modern and Holocene age is developed in the region. Geological and geomorphological conditions lead to debris flows formation within the entire territory. However, the amount of atmospheric precipitation drastically decreases from west to east and in the eastern part (Dagestan) debris flow is less active than in the central even under the presence of enormous amounts of loose detrital material of different genesis. In the western part debris flows are less developed due to insignificant altitudes and considerable forest coverage and soil-cover. Powerful modern glaciation with vast development of purely moraine and fluvial-glacial deposits results in intensive debris flow activity in the central part of the northern slope (the Terek river basin). In the upper reaches of all the Terek tributaries moraine deposits reach up to several dozen meters. They are widespread at altitudes higher than 2000 m (above the forest boundary) and almost everywhere uncovered by soils. They are a key source of sediments under debris flow formation. Within the Greater Caucasus northern slope there are 1700 debris flow basins with the total area about 7000 km2. Their average area is 4.0 km2 with minimum 0.20 km2 and maximum 173.8 km2. Moreover, there are many riverbeds in the area where form mountain mud floods more than 3000 km long. Debris flows occur between January and October with clear altitudinal zoning

  10. Guidance on Compatibility of UST Systems with Ethanol Blends Greater Than 10 Percent and Biodiesel Blends Greater Than 20 Percent

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA guidance on complying with the federal compatibility requirement for underground storage tank (UST) systems storing gasoline containing greater than 10 percent ethanol or diesel containing greater than 20 percent biodiesel.

  11. Malaria Modeling and Surveillance for the Greater Mekong Subregion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Soika, Valerii; Nigro, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    At 4,200 km, the Mekong River is the tenth longest river in the world. It directly and indirectly influences the lives of hundreds of millions of inhabitants in its basin. The riparian countries - Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and a small part of China - form the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). This geographical region has the misfortune of being the world's epicenter of falciparum malaria, which is the most severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Depending on the country, approximately 50 to 90% of all malaria cases are due to this species. In the Malaria Modeling and Surveillance Project, we have been developing techniques to enhance public health's decision capability for malaria risk assessments and controls. The main objectives are: 1) Identifying the potential breeding sites for major vector species; 2) Implementing a malaria transmission model to identify the key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission; and 3) Implementing a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity. The potential benefits are: 1) Increased warning time for public health organizations to respond to malaria outbreaks; 2) Optimized utilization of pesticide and chemoprophylaxis; 3) Reduced likelihood of pesticide and drug resistance; and 4) Reduced damage to environment. Environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. These parameters are extracted from NASA Earth science data sets. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records.

  12. Greater commitment to the domestic violence training is required.

    PubMed

    Leppäkoski, Tuija Helena; Flinck, Aune; Paavilainen, Eija

    2015-05-01

    Domestic violence (DV) is a major public health problem with high health and social costs. A solution to this multi-faceted problem requires that various help providers work together in an effective and optimal manner when dealing with different parties of DV. The objective of our research and development project (2008-2013) was to improve the preparedness of the social and healthcare professionals to manage DV. This article focuses on the evaluation of interprofessional education (IPE) to provide knowledge and skills for identifying and intervening in DV and to improve collaboration among social and health care professionals and other help providers at the local and regional level. The evaluation data were carried out with an internal evaluation. The evaluation data were collected from the participants orally and in the written form. The participants were satisfied with the content of the IPE programme itself and the teaching methods used. Participation in the training sessions could have been more active. Moreover, some of the people who had enrolled for the trainings could not attend all of them. IPE is a valuable way to develop intervening in DV. However, greater commitment to the training is required from not only the participants and their superiors but also from trustees.

  13. Major life events increase the risk of stroke but not of myocardial infarction: results from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Kornerup, Henriette; Osler, Merete; Boysen, Gudrun; Barefoot, John; Schnohr, Peter; Prescott, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background More attention has been paid to psychosocial conditions as possible risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the impact of accumulated major life events (MLE) on the development of CVD has received little attention. Design The aim of this study was to explore the influences of MLE on CVD risk in a large cohort study. Methods The study population consisted of 9542 randomly selected adults free of CVD examined in the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1991–1994 and followed up for CVD defined as myocardial infarction or ischaemic stroke until 2001. MLE were analysed using an 11-item questionnaire and hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results During follow-up there were 443 myocardial infarctions (MI) and 350 ischaemic strokes. Financial problems in both childhood and adulthood were associated with risk of stroke with an HR of 1.71 (95% CI: 1.29–2.26) and 1.60 (1.12–2.30), respectively. Accumulation of MLE was also associated with risk of stroke with HR reaching a maximum of 1.41 (95% CI: 1.06–1.90) for more than one event in childhood and 1.49 (95% CI: 1.09–2.04) for more than one event in adulthood. MLE accumulated over a life course showed a dose–response relationship with stroke. Associations were somewhat attenuated by adjustment for vital exhaustion suggesting a mediating role, but not by adjustment for behavioural risk factors. There were no associations between MLE and MI. Conclusion In this population-based cohort study, we found that MLE conveyed a moderately increased risk of stroke partly mediated through vital exhaustion. We found no association between MLE and the risk of MI. PMID:20038841

  14. Psychological stress and strain on employees in dialysis facilities: a cross-sectional study with the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Work in dialysis facilities involves long term contact with chronically ill patients. International comparisons make it clear that dialysis work is being concentrated, staff is being reduced and more patients are being treated. It is more than 20 years since the last German publication on job strains and job satisfaction experienced by dialysis staff was published. The present study examines the stress and strain currently experienced by the staff of German dialysis facilities. Methods The staff of 20 dialysis facilities were surveyed with the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). The questionnaire was extended by adding dialysis-specific questions. The data from the dialysis facilities were assessed by comparison with other professions in medical care - nurses and geriatric nurses - using data recorded in the German COPSOQ database. Results A total of 367 employees took part in the study, corresponding to a response rate of 55%. For almost all psychosocial aspects, the dialysis staff regarded the stress and strain as being more critical than did the geriatric nurses. There were some positive differences in comparison to hospital nursing, including less conflict between work and private life. However, there were also negative differences, such as fewer possibilities of influencing the work. Conclusions The results of the study show that dialysis work exhibits both positive and negative aspects in comparison with other healthcare professions. The results in the different facilities were highly variable, indicating that the deficits found in the individual scales are not inevitable consequences of working in dialysis in general, but are influenced and might be favourably altered by the individual facilities. PMID:24499468

  15. Application of the Copenhagen Soccer Test in high-level women players - locomotor activities, physiological response and sprint performance.

    PubMed

    Bendiksen, Mads; Pettersen, Svein Arne; Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Randers, Morten B; Brito, João; Mohr, Magni; Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-12-01

    We evaluated the physiological response, sprint performance and technical ability in various phases of the Copenhagen Soccer Test for Women (CSTw) and investigated whether the locomotor activities of the CSTw were comparable to competitive match-play (CM). Physiological measurements and physical/technical assessments were performed during CSTw for eleven Norwegian high-level women soccer players. The activity pattern during CSTw and CM was monitored using the ZXY tracking system. No differences were observed between CSTw and CM with regards to total distance covered (10093±94 and 9674±191m), high intensity running (1278±67 and 1193±115m) or sprinting (422±55 and 372±46m) (p>.05). During CSTw, average HR was 85±2%HRmax with 35±2% playing time >90%HRmax. Blood lactate increased (p<.05) from 1.4±0.3mM at rest to an average of 4.7±0.5mM during CSTw, with no changes during the test. Blood glucose was 5.4±0.3mM at rest and remained unaltered during CSTw. Sprint performance (2×20m) decreased (p<.05) by 3% during CSTw (8.19±0.06-8.47±0.10s). In conclusion, the locomotor activities during CSTw were comparable to that of high-level competitive match-play. The physiological demands of the CSTw were high, with no changes in heart rate, blood lactate or technical performance during the test, but a lowered sprint performance towards the end of the test.

  16. Evaluating lek occupancy of greater sage-grouse in relation to landscape cultivation in the Dakotas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joe T.; Flake, Lester D.; Higgins, Kenneth F.; Kobriger, Gerald D.; Homer, Collin G.

    2005-01-01

    Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have been declining in many states and provinces of North America, and North and South Dakota hold no exception to these declines. We studied effects of cultivated land on Greater Sage-Grouse lek abandonment in North and South Dakota. Landscape-level data were assessed using satellite imagery within a geographic information system. Comparisons were made of 1972-1976 and 1999-2000 percent cultivated and noncultivated land. These comparisons were made between land uses surrounding active leks versus inactive leks, active leks versus random locations, and abandoned regions versus active regions. The 1999-2000 imagery illustrated that percent cultivated land was greater near abandoned leks (4-km buffers) than near active leks in North Dakota or random sites, but this did not hold true in South Dakota. Comparison of an extensive region of abandoned leks with a region of active leks in North Dakota illustrated a similar increase as well as dispersion of cultivation within the abandoned region. However, 1972-1976 imagery revealed that this relationship between percentage of cultivated land and lek activity in North Dakota has been static over the last 30 years. Thus, if the decline of Greater Sage-Grouse is the result of cultivated land infringements, it occurred prior to 1972 in North Dakota.

  17. The Albanian National Question and the Myth of Greater Albania

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    minister of Greece, “neither race, nor language, nor skull could be used as the basis for determining the nationality and that national conscience...Serbia, in particular, has been very active in spreading propaganda about the danger posed by the prospect of Greater Albania. The term, alien to the...greater Albania plot.”62 However, for Albanians, despite of their living place, the term “Greater Albania” is alien .63 Instead, they use the term

  18. Obtaining Greater Efficiency and Productivity in Defense Spending

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-23

    Obtaining Greater Efficiency and Productivity in Defense Spending Gold Coast Conference Tim Dowd Director for Contracts Space and Naval...Greater Efficiency and Productivity in Defense Spending 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Obtaining Greater Efficiency and Productivity in Defense Spending ” 5   Present a competitive strategy at each program milestone *   Remove

  19. Summaries of plenary, symposia, and oral sessions at the XXII World Congress of Psychiatric Genetics, Copenhagen, Denmark, 12-16 October 2014.

    PubMed

    Aas, Monica; Blokland, Gabriëlla A M; Chawner, Samuel J R A; Choi, Shing-Wan; Estrada, Jose; Forsingdal, Annika; Friedrich, Maximilian; Ganesham, Suhas; Hall, Lynsey; Haslinger, Denise; Huckins, Laura; Loken, Erik; Malan-Müller, Stefanie; Martin, Joanna; Misiewicz, Zuzanna; Pagliaroli, Luca; Pardiñas, Antonio F; Pisanu, Claudia; Quadri, Giorgia; Santoro, Marcos L; Shaw, Alex D; Ranlund, Siri; Song, Jie; Tesli, Martin; Tropeano, Maria; van der Voet, Monique; Wolfe, Kate; Cormack, Freida K; DeLisi, Lynn

    2016-02-01

    The XXII World Congress of Psychiatric Genetics, sponsored by the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics, took place in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 12-16 October 2014. A total of 883 participants gathered to discuss the latest findings in the field. The following report was written by student and postdoctoral attendees. Each was assigned one or more sessions as a rapporteur. This manuscript represents topics covered in most, but not all of the oral presentations during the conference, and contains some of the major notable new findings reported.

  20. Dietary breadth of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gunther, Kerry A.; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Frey, Kevin L.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Cain, Steven L; van Manen, Frank T.; Fortin, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) are opportunistic omnivores that eat a great diversity of plant and animal species. Changes in climate may affect regional vegetation, hydrology, insects, and fire regimes, likely influencing the abundance, range, and elevational distribution of the plants and animals consumed by GYE grizzly bears. Determining the dietary breadth of grizzly bears is important to document future changes in food resources and how those changes may affect the nutritional ecology of grizzlies. However, no synthesis exists of all foods consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We conducted a review of available literature and compiled a list of species consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We documented >266 species within 200 genera from 4 kingdoms, including 175 plant, 37 invertebrate, 34 mammal, 7 fungi, 7 bird, 4 fish, 1 amphibian, and 1 algae species as well as 1 soil type consumed by grizzly bears. The average energy values of the ungulates (6.8 kcal/g), trout (Oncorhynchus spp., 6.1 kcal/g), and small mammals (4.5 kcal/g) eaten by grizzlies were higher than those of the plants (3.0 kcal/g) and invertebrates (2.7 kcal/g) they consumed. The most frequently detected diet items were graminoids, ants (Formicidae), whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis), clover (Trifolium spp.), and dandelion (Taraxacum spp.). The most consistently used foods on a temporal basis were graminoids, ants, whitebark pine seeds, clover, elk (Cervus elaphus), thistle (Cirsium spp.), and horsetail (Equisetum spp.). Historically, garbage was a significant diet item for grizzlies until refuse dumps were closed. Use of forbs increased after garbage was no longer readily available. The list of foods we compiled will help managers of grizzly bears and their habitat document future changes in grizzly bear food habits and how bears respond to changing food resources.

  1. Deviance and resistance: Malaria elimination in the greater Mekong subregion.

    PubMed

    Lyttleton, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Malaria elimination rather than control is increasingly globally endorsed, requiring new approaches wherein success is not measured by timely treatment of presenting cases but eradicating all presence of infection. This shift has gained urgency as resistance to artemisinin-combination therapies spreads in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) posing a threat to global health security. In the GMS, endemic malaria persists in forested border areas and elimination will require calibrated approaches to remove remaining pockets of residual infection. A new public health strategy called 'positive deviance' is being used to improve health promotion and community outreach in some of these zones. However, outbreaks sparked by alternative understandings of appropriate behaviour expose the unpredictable nature of 'border malaria' and difficulties eradication faces. Using a recent spike in infections allegedly linked to luxury timber trade in Thai borderlands, this article suggests that opportunities for market engagement can cause people to see 'deviance' as a means to material advancement in ways that increase disease vulnerability. A malaria outbreak in Ubon Ratchathani was investigated during two-week field-visit in November 2014 as part of longer project researching border malaria in Thai provinces. Qualitative data were collected in four villages in Ubon's three most-affected districts. Discussions with villagers focused primarily on changing livelihoods, experience with malaria, and rosewood cutting. Informants included ten men and two women who had recently overnighted in the nearby forest. Data from health officials and villagers are used to frame Ubon's rise in malaria transmission within moral and behavioural responses to expanding commodity supply-chains. The article argues that elimination strategies in the GMS must contend with volatile outbreaks among border populations wherein 'infectiousness' and 'resistance' are not simply pathogen characteristics but also

  2. Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Heterogeneity and Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Xu, Jianwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by ‘border malaria’ and ‘forest malaria’ with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. ‘Border malaria’ is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and P. vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is

  3. Language Education, Economic Development and Participation in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruthiaux, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The Mekong has long attracted interest although it remains economically insignificant. A group of riparian states known as the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS)--Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam and Yunnan Province (China)--now manage aspects of regional development including trade, water management and education. Standard GMS discourse…

  4. Integrating Ethics into International Business Teaching: Challenges and Methodologies in the Greater China Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitla, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the process of integrating ethics into the teaching of international business within the Greater China region. An example of how ethics is integrated into a required undergraduate international business course at a Hong Kong based university is presented. The contextual challenges of developing a course for use in the Greater…

  5. The Impact of English as a Global Language: Policy and Planning in Greater China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    2002-01-01

    Explores the issue of the emergence of English as a global language and how this is affecting educational policies and practices. Considers this question in relation to the Greater China region looking specifically at Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. Data are from multiple sources, including questionnaires, interviews, and documentary…

  6. Defining and Dividing the Greater Caribbean: Insights from the Biogeography of Shorefishes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Caribbean biogeographic region is the high-diversity heart of the Tropical West Atlantic, one of four global centers of tropical marine biodiversity. The traditional view of the Greater Caribbean is that it is limited to the Caribbean, West Indies, southwest Gulf of Mexico and tip of Florida, and that, due to its faunal homogeneity, lacks major provincial subdivisions. In this scenario the northern 2/3 of the Gulf of Mexico and southeastern USA represent a separate temperate, “Carolinian” biogeographic region. We completed a comprehensive re-assessment of the biogeography of the Greater Caribbean by comparing the distributions of 1,559 shorefish species within 45 sections of shelf waters of the Greater Caribbean and adjacent areas. This analysis shows that that the Greater Caribbean occupies a much larger area than usually thought, extending south to at least Guyana, and north to encompass the entire Carolinian area. Rather than being homogenous, the Greater Caribbean is divided into three major provinces, each with a distinctive, primarily tropical fauna: (1) a central, tropical province comprising the West Indies, Bermuda and Central America; (2) a southern, upwelling-affected province spanning the entire continental shelf of northern South America; and (iii) a northern, subtropical province that includes all of the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and southeastern USA. This three-province pattern holds for both reef- and soft bottom fishes, indicating a general response by demersal fishes to major variation in provincial shelf environments. Such environmental differences include latitudinal variation in sea temperature, availability of major habitats (coral reefs, soft bottom shorelines, and mangroves), and nutrient additions from upwelling areas and large rivers. The three-province arrangement of the Greater Caribbean broadly resembles and has a similar environmental basis to the provincial arrangement of its sister biogeographic region, the Tropical

  7. Defining and dividing the greater Caribbean: insights from the biogeography of shorefishes.

    PubMed

    Robertson, D Ross; Cramer, Katie L

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Caribbean biogeographic region is the high-diversity heart of the Tropical West Atlantic, one of four global centers of tropical marine biodiversity. The traditional view of the Greater Caribbean is that it is limited to the Caribbean, West Indies, southwest Gulf of Mexico and tip of Florida, and that, due to its faunal homogeneity, lacks major provincial subdivisions. In this scenario the northern 2/3 of the Gulf of Mexico and southeastern USA represent a separate temperate, "Carolinian" biogeographic region. We completed a comprehensive re-assessment of the biogeography of the Greater Caribbean by comparing the distributions of 1,559 shorefish species within 45 sections of shelf waters of the Greater Caribbean and adjacent areas. This analysis shows that that the Greater Caribbean occupies a much larger area than usually thought, extending south to at least Guyana, and north to encompass the entire Carolinian area. Rather than being homogenous, the Greater Caribbean is divided into three major provinces, each with a distinctive, primarily tropical fauna: (1) a central, tropical province comprising the West Indies, Bermuda and Central America; (2) a southern, upwelling-affected province spanning the entire continental shelf of northern South America; and (iii) a northern, subtropical province that includes all of the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and southeastern USA. This three-province pattern holds for both reef- and soft bottom fishes, indicating a general response by demersal fishes to major variation in provincial shelf environments. Such environmental differences include latitudinal variation in sea temperature, availability of major habitats (coral reefs, soft bottom shorelines, and mangroves), and nutrient additions from upwelling areas and large rivers. The three-province arrangement of the Greater Caribbean broadly resembles and has a similar environmental basis to the provincial arrangement of its sister biogeographic region, the Tropical Eastern

  8. 5 CFR 630.1210 - Greater leave entitlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1210 Greater leave entitlements. (a) An agency shall comply... greater family or medical leave entitlements to employees than those provided under this subpart. Nothing... or regulation. (d) The entitlements under sections 6381 through 6387 of title 5, United States...

  9. Comparative Education in Greater China: Contexts, Characteristics, Contrasts and Contributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Mark; Qin, Gui

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of comparative education in Greater China (mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau) has been influenced by size, culture, political ideologies, standard of living, and colonialism. Similarities and differences in conceptions of comparative education are identified among the four components and between Greater China and other…

  10. Modelling the impact of soakaway retrofits on combined sewage overflows in a 3 km2 urban catchment in Copenhagen, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldin, Maria; Fryd, Ole; Jeppesen, Jan; Mark, Ole; Binning, Philip J.; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2012-07-01

    SummaryStormwater infiltration measures such as soakaways are expected to be part of future urban drainage systems. However, few studies exist on the effect of extensive stormwater infiltration through soakaways on the overall urban water system, including sewers and groundwater, at city catchment scale. In particular such estimates have not been made in real urban settings with multiple physical and structural constraints. This paper presents a methodology for conducting such an analysis, and provides quantitative estimates of the effects on the urban water flows. Using an interdisciplinary, three-step approach that employed GIS analyses and physically distributed, dynamic pipe flow modelling in an iterative manner, this study estimates the impact of infiltration on combined sewage overflows (CSOs) in a 3 km2 urban catchment in Copenhagen. The first step was the creation of a baseline scenario. The second step led to a potential infiltration scenario where 65% of the total impervious area was connected to soakaways, and resulted in an estimated reduction in annual sewage overflow volume of 68%. This scenario was then further developed in the third step by adding groundwater constraints, which formed a more realistic scenario where only 8% of the impervious area was connected to soakaways and the reduction in CSO volume was 24%. The potential and realistic scenarios were modelled both with hydraulic coupling between soakaway and sewer, and as fully disconnected. Results show that infiltration is constrained mainly by the quality of the stormwater runoff from roads and limited land availability in the potential infiltration scenario, and by low-permeable soils and a problematically high groundwater level in the realistic infiltration scenario. The hydraulically coupled model gives higher CSO volume than the fully disconnected model for the potential infiltration scenario, whereas no difference is seen between these two models in the realistic infiltration scenario

  11. Emissions of NOx, particle mass and particle numbers from aircraft main engines, APU's and handling equipment at Copenhagen Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Ellermann, Thomas; Massling, Andreas; Nøjgaard, Jacob Klenø; Ketzel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed emission inventory for NOx, particle mass (PM) and particle numbers (PN) for aircraft main engines, APU's and handling equipment at Copenhagen Airport (CPH) based on time specific activity data and representative emission factors for the airport. The inventory has a high spatial resolution of 5 m × 5 m in order to be suited for further air quality dispersion calculations. Results are shown for the entire airport and for a section of the airport apron area ("inner apron") in focus. The methodology presented in this paper can be used to quantify the emissions from aircraft main engines, APU and handling equipment in other airports. For the entire airport, aircraft main engines is the largest source of fuel consumption (93%), NOx, (87%), PM (61%) and PN (95%). The calculated fuel consumption [NOx, PM, PN] shares for APU's and handling equipment are 5% [4%, 8%, 5%] and 2% [9%, 31%, 0%], respectively. At the inner apron area for handling equipment the share of fuel consumption [NOx, PM, PN] are 24% [63%, 75%, 2%], whereas APU and main engines shares are 43% [25%, 19%, 54%], and 33% [11%, 6%, 43%], respectively. The inner apron NOx and PM emission levels are high for handling equipment due to high emission factors for the diesel fuelled handling equipment and small for aircraft main engines due to small idle-power emission factors. Handling equipment is however a small PN source due to the low number based emission factors. Jet fuel sulphur-PM sensitivity calculations made in this study with the ICAO FOA3.0 method suggest that more than half of the PM emissions from aircraft main engines at CPH originate from the sulphur content of the fuel used at the airport. Aircraft main engine PN emissions are very sensitive to the underlying assumptions. Replacing this study's literature based average emission factors with "high" and "low" emission factors from the literature, the aircraft main engine PN emissions were estimated to change with a

  12. Late Paleozoic deformation of interior North America: The greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Hongzhuan |; Royden, L.; Burchfiel, C.; Schuepbach, M.

    1996-09-01

    Late Paleozoic deformation within interior North America has produced a series of north-northwest- to northwest-trending elongate basins that cover much of Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah. Each basin thickens asymmetrically toward an adjacent region of coeval basement uplift from which it is separated by synsedimentary faults with great vertical relief. The remarkable coincidence in timing, geometry, and apparent structural style throughout the region of late Paleozoic deformation strongly suggests that these paired regions of basin subsidence and basement uplift form a unified system of regional deformation, the greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains. Over this region, basin subsidence and basement uplift were approximately synchronous, beginning in the Chesterian-Morrowan, continuing through the Pennsylvanian, and ending in the Wolfcampian (although minor post-Wolfcampian deformation occurs locally). The basement uplifts show evidence for folding and faulting in the Pennsylvanian and Early Permian. Reverse faults and thrust faults have been drilled over many of the uplifts, but only in the Anadarko region has thrusting of the basement uplifts over the adjacent basin been clearly documented. Extensive basement-involved thrusting also occurs along the margins of the Delaware and Midland basins, and suggests that the entire greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains region probably formed as the result of northeast-southwest-directed-intraplate shortening. Deformation within the greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains was coeval with late Paleozoic subduction along much of the North American plate margin, and has traditionally been related to emplacement of thrust sheets within the Ouachita-Marathon orogenic belt. The nature, timing, and orientation of events along the Ouachita-Marathon belt make it difficult to drive the deformation of the greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains by emplacement of the Ouachita-Marathon belt along the southern margin of North America.

  13. Teaching Writing in Grades 4-6 in Urban Schools in the Greater China Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiang, Tien Ping; Graham, Steve

    2016-01-01

    A random sample of 1102 grade 4-6 Chinese language arts teachers in Beijing, Macao, and Taipei City were surveyed about their instructional writing practices. Seventy-eight percent (n = 857) of the teachers completed the survey. Teachers were generally positive about the usefulness of their college teacher preparation program. They slightly agreed…

  14. 40 CFR 81.22 - Greater Metropolitan Cleveland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES... of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial area of all municipalities (as defined in section 302(f) of the...

  15. 40 CFR 81.22 - Greater Metropolitan Cleveland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES... of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial area of all municipalities (as defined in section 302(f) of the...

  16. Massification of Higher Education, Graduate Employment and Social Mobility in the Greater China Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2016-01-01

    Globalisation and the evolution of the knowledge-based economy have caused dramatic worldwide changes in the character and functions of education, particularly higher education. In the search for global competitiveness, many emerging economies have begun to expand their higher education systems, which has significantly affected the relationship…

  17. Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties Over Greater Noida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; Singh, R. P.; Kumar, R.

    2015-12-01

    Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties over Greater NoidaManish Sharma1, Ramesh P. Singh2 and Rajesh Kumar3 1Research and Technology Development Centre, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. 2School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, Orange 92866, USA 3School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. Delhi capital of India is highly polluted during winter and summer seasons. Due to dominant westerly winds the air mass influence its neighboring city Greater Noida which is located 60 km south east of Delhi. Detailed analysis of multi satellite data and ground observations have been carried out during 2001-2015. The ground observation and satellite data show dynamic aerosol optical parameters over Greater Noida. During winter and summer seasons, dominant westerly wind outflow pollutants of Delhi that mix with the local anthropogenic emissions of Greater Noida influencing aerosol properties at different pressure levels. The characteristics of trace gases and aerosol parameters over Delhi and Greater Noida will be presented. The air quality is severely affected from the outflow of pollutants from Delhi which is threat to people living in the area. Due to dominant winds the air mass further transported towards eastern parts of Indo-Gangetic plains affecting weather conditions of the major cities.

  18. Spontaneous neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs (Setifer setosus).

    PubMed

    Khoii, Mina K; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Burns, Roy B; Carmichael, K Paige; Gyimesi, Zoltan S

    2008-09-01

    Little information is available about diseases and pathology of species within the family Tenrecidae, including the greater hedgehog tenrec (Setifer setosus), a Madagascan insectivore. This report summarizes necropsy and histopathologic findings of neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs. Although only four animals are included in this report, neoplasia seems to be a common and significant source of morbidity and mortality in greater hedgehog tenrecs. Types of neoplasia identified include a thyroid follicular-solid carcinoma, two urinary bladder transitional cell carcinomas, uterine endometrial polyps, and multicentric B-cell lymphoma. Due to small sample size, no etiology could be determined, but genetics, viral infection, pesticide treatment, nutrition, or other environmental factors might contribute to the development of neoplasia in this species. This is the first report of neoplasia in greater hedgehog tenrecs.

  19. Post-irradiation angiosarcoma of the greater omentum.

    PubMed

    Westenberg, A H; Wiggers, T; Henzen-Logmans, S C; Verweij, J; Meerwaldt, J A; van Geel, A N

    1989-04-01

    A case of angiosarcoma of the greater omentum is reported. This angiosarcoma developed 8 years after irradiation for cervical carcinoma and presented with an intra-abdominal hemorrhage. We describe her clinical course, treatment and follow-up. Although several other locations of irradiation-induced sarcomas have been published, this is the first report in literature of a postirradiation angiosarcoma in the greater omentum.

  20. GREAT-ER: a new tool for management and risk assessment of chemicals in river basins. Contribution to GREAT-ER #10.

    PubMed

    Schowanek, D; Fox, K; Holt, M; Schroeder, F R; Koch, V; Cassani, G; Matthies, M; Boeije, G; Vanrolleghem, P; Young, A; Morris, G; Gandolfi, C; Feijtel, T C

    2001-01-01

    The GREAT-ER (Geo-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers) project team has developed and validated an accurate aquatic chemical exposure prediction tool for use within environmental risk assessment schemes. The software system GREAT-ER 1.0 calculates the distribution of predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of consumer chemicals in surface waters, for individual river stretches as well as for entire catchments. The system uses an ARC/INFO-ArcView (ESRI) based Geographical Information System (GIS) for data storage and visualization, combined with simple mathematical models for prediction of chemical fate. At present, the system contains information for four catchments in Yorkshire, one catchment in Italy, and two in Germany, while other river basins are being added. Great-ER 1.0 has been validated by comparing simulations with the results of an extensive monitoring campaign for two 'down-the-drain' chemicals, i.e. the detergent ingredients boron and Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate (LAS). GREAT-ER 1.0 is currently being expanded with models for the terrestrial (diffuse input), air and estaurine compartments.

  1. ICAO safety management systems (SMS) development in environmental contexts: A field study of greater China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leib, Steven M.

    This was a mixed-methods exploratory study to investigate association between environmental context and the implementation status of Safety Management Systems (SMS) at airports in Greater China. Using a framework of Institutional Theory, this study looked at three regions of Greater China and explored internal and external environments of SMS at airports within each region. It used ICAO standards to evaluate the implementation status of SMS at those airports based on the perceptions of 126 participants. This research also employed snowballing technique to spread a survey tool to participants in Greater China through several key gatekeepers, and then applied the Delphi method for interviews with key gatekeepers themselves. Analysis of the data suggested several associations between various sub-concepts of the external environment and different components of SMS in the three regions. In addition, the data suggested a relationship between the internal environment as a whole and the overall status of SMS implementation in each region. Lastly, the study makes several recommendations for future research regarding global standards implemented in local environments, the evaluation of SMS implementation status, and the theoretical implications of this study.

  2. WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A BOEING 737-200 HAS BEEN TOWED IN FOR AN OVERNIGHT (BALANCE) CHECK. THE TAIL DOCK STANDS ARE IN POSITION AT THE REAR OF THE AIRCRAFT TO FACILITATE INSPECTION. MAINTENANCE CREWS PERFORM NIGHTLY SERVICE ON UP TO 6 AIRCRAFT. THE NORMAL SEQUENCE OF 12 ROUTINE CHECKS COVERS SEVEN BASIC AREAS: INTERIOR, EXTERIOR, WINGS, LANDING GEAR, TAIL, AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), AND ENGINES. THE WORK FORCE CONSISTS OF 5 INSPECTORS, 3 LEAD MECHANICS, AND 24 MECHANICS; NIGHTLY SCHEDULES ARE COORDINATED BY A PLANNER. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  3. Treatment of symptomatic greater trochanteric fracture after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Jeffrey I; Chuang, Michael J; Cerynik, Douglas L; Johanson, Norman A

    2009-08-01

    Isolated greater trochanter fractures after total hip arthroplasty are associated with major comorbidities such as debilitating weakness, pain, and dislocation. No definitive standard of care has been established for these fracture. However, it is well known that reestablishing osseous union in these patients is strongly associated with return of functional status. We report a case of an elderly patient with multiple hip revision surgeries now presenting with unilateral greater trochanter fracture. Treatment incorporated the use of a trochanteric claw plate, cerclage wiring, and adjuvant demineralized bone matrix allograft to achieve successful osseous union. This is the first reported use of adjuvant demineralized bone matrix for fixing these fractures.

  4. Sympathetic preganglionic efferent and afferent neurons mediated by the greater splanchnic nerve in rabbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torigoe, Yasuhiro; Cernucan, Roxana D.; Nishimoto, Jo Ann S.; Blanks, Robert H. I.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the study of the vestibular-autonomic pathways involved in motion sickness, the location and the morphology of preganglionic sympathetic neurons (PSNs) projecting via the greater splanchnic nerve were examined. Retrograde labeling of neurons was obtained by application of horseradish peroxidase to the cut end of the greater splanchnic nerve. Labeled PSNs were found, ipsilaterally, within the T1 to T11 spinal cord segments, with the highest density of neurons in T6. Most PSNs were located within the intermediolateral column, but a significant portion also occurred within the lateral funiculus, the intercalated region, and the central autonomic area; the proportion of labeling between the four regions depended on the spinal cord segment.

  5. Extended radical mastectomy versus simple mastectomy followed by radiotherapy in primary breast cancer. A fifty-year follow-up to the Copenhagen Breast Cancer randomised study.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Helge; Kaae, Sigvard; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Mouridsen, Henning T

    2008-01-01

    From November 1951 to December 1957, 666 consecutive patients with untreated primary breast cancer admitted to the Radium Center in Copenhagen were randomised before their operability was evaluated into two groups, simple mastectomy with postoperative radiotherapy or extended radical mastectomy. Following physical examination 241 of the patients were excluded, primarily due to tumours deemed inoperable due to clinical criteria (n =107) and due to poor general condition (n =69). Twenty-five years results of disease-free free survival and fifty years results of survival are presented, showing no difference between the two groups. Patients with clinical stage I did significantly better than patients with stage II-III tumours. Patients with grade I tumours had a better survival than patients with grade II-III. The breast cancer associated mortality was lower in premenopausal patients compared to postmenopausal patients. An excess mortality due to breast cancer was evident up to 20-25 years following the primary diagnosis.

  6. DOD Joint Bases: Management Improvements Needed to Achieve Greater Efficiencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    Joint Bases Realign Fort Eustis, VA, by relocating the installation management functions to Langley AFB, VA. Realign Fort Story , VA, by...the installation management functions to L·mglcy AFB, VA. Realign Fort Story , VA, by relocating the installation management functions to Commander...DOD JOINT BASES Management Improvements Needed to Achieve Greater Efficiencies Report to Congressional Addressees

  7. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  8. College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

  9. External Scan 2000: Environmental Scan of the Greater Sacramento Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachler, Judith

    This document provides a summary of the social, economic, and political changes at state and national levels that affect the Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD) in California. LRCCD consists of American River College (ARC), Cosumnes River College (CRC), and Sacramento City College (SCC). Demographic trends show that Greater Sacramento is…

  10. Regions and Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunt, Barry M.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that regional geography is undergoing important changes in its method of study to achieve a greater degree of relevancy in the context of a global system. Presents Western Europe as a case study to reflect this new approach. Includes 11 maps illustrating 6 generalizations applied to regional patterns. (CFR)

  11. Mercury source sector asssessment for the Greater Milwaukee Area

    SciTech Connect

    Obenauf, P.; Skavroneck, S.

    1997-09-01

    The Mercury Reduction Project for the Greater Milwaukee Area is a joint effort of the Pollution Prevention Partnership, Milwaukee Metropolitan Seweage District (MMSD) and Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Estimates of the amounts of mercury present, used and/or annually released to air, land and water within the MMSD service area are provided for 25 source sectors. This 420 square mile area (including Milwaukee County and parts of Waukesha, Racine, Ozaukee and Washington Counties) is home to just over 1 million people. The tables and figures summarize the relative amounts of mercury: annually released from purposeful uses; annually released due to trace impurities; and present or in use from the various source sectors in the Greater Milwaukee Area.

  12. Taxonomy of Greater White-fronted Geese (Aves: Anatidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Five subspecies of the Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769), have been named, all on the basis of wintering birds, and up to six subspecies have been recognized. There has been confusion over the application of some names, particularly in North America, because of lack of knowledge of the breeding ranges and type localities, and incorrect taxonomic decisions. There is one clinally varying subspecies in Eurasia, one that breeds in Greenland, and three in North America, one newly named herein.

  13. Integrating parasitology and marine ecology: Seven challenges towards greater synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Robert; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Randhawa, Haseeb S.

    2016-07-01

    Despite their very different historical origins as scientific disciplines, parasitology and marine ecology have already combined successfully to make important contributions to our understanding of the functioning of natural ecosystems. For example, robust assessments of the contribution of parasites to ecosystem biomass and energetics, and of their impact on community-wide biodiversity and food web structure, have all been made for the first time in marine systems. Nevertheless, for the marriage between parasitology and marine ecology to remain fruitful, several challenges must first be overcome. We discuss seven such challenges on the road to a greater synergy between these disciplines: (1) Raising awareness of parasitism as an ecological force by increasing the proportion of articles about parasites and diseases in marine ecology journals; (2) Making greater use of theory and conceptual frameworks from marine ecology to guide parasitological research; (3) Speeding up or at least maintaining the current rate at which marine parasites are found and described; (4) Elucidating a greater proportion of life cycles in all major groups of marine parasites; (5) Increasing the number of host-parasite model systems on which our knowledge is based; (6) Extending parasitological research offshore and into ocean depths; and (7) Developing, as needed, new epidemiological theory and transmission models for the marine environment. None of these challenges is insurmountable, and addressing just a few of them should guarantee that parasitology and marine ecology will continue to join forces and make further substantial contributions.

  14. Dietary phosphorus is associated with greater left ventricular mass.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kalani T; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; de Oliveira, Marcia C; Kostina, Alina; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Ix, Joachim H; Nguyen, Ha; Eng, John; Lima, Joao A C; Siscovick, David S; Weiss, Noel S; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2013-04-01

    Dietary phosphorus consumption has risen steadily in the United States. Oral phosphorus loading alters key regulatory hormones and impairs vascular endothelial function, which may lead to an increase in left ventricular mass (LVM). We investigated the association of dietary phosphorus with LVM in 4494 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a community-based study of individuals who were free of known cardiovascular disease. The intake of dietary phosphorus was estimated using a 120-item food frequency questionnaire and the LVM was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Regression models were used to determine associations of estimated dietary phosphorus with LVM and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Mean estimated dietary phosphorus intake was 1167 mg/day in men and 1017 mg/day in women. After adjustment for demographics, dietary sodium, total calories, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, and established LVH risk factors, each quintile increase in the estimated dietary phosphate intake was associated with an estimated 1.1 g greater LVM. The highest gender-specific dietary phosphorus quintile was associated with an estimated 6.1 g greater LVM compared with the lowest quintile. Higher dietary phosphorus intake was associated with greater odds of LVH among women, but not men. These associations require confirmation in other studies.

  15. Greater deciduous shrub abundance extends tundra peak season and increases modeled net CO2 uptake.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Shannan K; Griffin, Kevin L; Steltzer, Heidi; Gough, Laura; Boelman, Natalie T

    2015-06-01

    Satellite studies of the terrestrial Arctic report increased summer greening and longer overall growing and peak seasons since the 1980s, which increases productivity and the period of carbon uptake. These trends are attributed to increasing air temperatures and reduced snow cover duration in spring and fall. Concurrently, deciduous shrubs are becoming increasingly abundant in tundra landscapes, which may also impact canopy phenology and productivity. Our aim was to determine the influence of greater deciduous shrub abundance on tundra canopy phenology and subsequent impacts on net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) during the growing and peak seasons in the arctic foothills region of Alaska. We compared deciduous shrub-dominated and evergreen/graminoid-dominated community-level canopy phenology throughout the growing season using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). We used a tundra plant-community-specific leaf area index (LAI) model to estimate LAI throughout the green season and a tundra-specific NEE model to estimate the impact of greater deciduous shrub abundance and associated shifts in both leaf area and canopy phenology on tundra carbon flux. We found that deciduous shrub canopies reached the onset of peak greenness 13 days earlier and the onset of senescence 3 days earlier compared to evergreen/graminoid canopies, resulting in a 10-day extension of the peak season. The combined effect of the longer peak season and greater leaf area of deciduous shrub canopies almost tripled the modeled net carbon uptake of deciduous shrub communities compared to evergreen/graminoid communities, while the longer peak season alone resulted in 84% greater carbon uptake in deciduous shrub communities. These results suggest that greater deciduous shrub abundance increases carbon uptake not only due to greater leaf area, but also due to an extension of the period of peak greenness, which extends the period of maximum carbon uptake.

  16. The post-orgasmic prolactin increase following intercourse is greater than following masturbation and suggests greater satiety.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart; Krüger, Tillmann H C

    2006-03-01

    Research indicates that prolactin increases following orgasm are involved in a feedback loop that serves to decrease arousal through inhibitory central dopaminergic and probably peripheral processes. The magnitude of post-orgasmic prolactin increase is thus a neurohormonal index of sexual satiety. Using data from three studies of men and women engaging in masturbation or penile-vaginal intercourse to orgasm in the laboratory, we report that for both sexes (adjusted for prolactin changes in a non-sexual control condition), the magnitude of prolactin increase following intercourse is 400% greater than that following masturbation. The results are interpreted as an indication of intercourse being more physiologically satisfying than masturbation, and discussed in light of prior research reporting greater physiological and psychological benefits associated with coitus than with any other sexual activities.

  17. Sexual predators, energy development, and conservation in greater Yellowstone.

    PubMed

    Berger, Joel; Beckmann, Jon P

    2010-06-01

    In the United States, as elsewhere, a growing debate pits national energy policy and homeland security against biological conservation. In rural communities the extraction of fossil fuels is often encouraged because of the employment opportunities it offers, although the concomitant itinerant workforce is often associated with increased wildlife poaching. We explored possible positive and negative factors associated with energy extraction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), an area known for its national parks, intact biological diversity, and some of the New World's longest terrestrial migrations. Specifically, we asked whether counties with different economies-recreation (ski), agrarian (ranching or farming), and energy extractive (petroleum)-differed in healthcare (gauged by the abundance of hospital beds) and in the frequency of sexual predators. The absolute and relative frequency of registered sex offenders grew approximately two to three times faster in areas reliant on energy extraction. Healthcare among counties did not differ. The strong conflation of community dishevel, as reflected by in-migrant sexual predators, and ecological decay in Greater Yellowstone is consistent with patterns seen in similar systems from Ecuador to northern Canada, where social and environmental disarray exist around energy boomtowns. In our case, that groups (albeit with different aims) mobilized campaigns to help maintain the quality of rural livelihoods by protecting open space is a positive sign that conservation can matter, especially in the face of rampant and poorly executed energy extraction projects. Our findings further suggest that the public and industry need stronger regulatory action to instill greater vigilance when and where social factors and land conversion impact biological systems.

  18. Practicing more retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Tongtong; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2016-09-01

    A wealth of research has shown that retrieval practice plays a significant role in improving memory retention. The current study focused on one simple yet rarely examined question: would repeated retrieval using two different retrieval routes or using the same retrieval route twice lead to greater long-term memory retention? Participants elaborately learned 22 Japanese-Chinese translation word pairs using two different mediators. Half an hour after the initial study phase, the participants completed two retrieval sessions using either one mediator (Tm1Tm1) or two different mediators (Tm1Tm2). On the final test, which was performed 1week after the retrieval practice phase, the participants received only the cue with a request to report the mediator (M1 or M2) followed by the target (Experiment 1) or only the mediator (M1 or M2) with a request to report the target (Experiment 2). The results of Experiment 1 indicated that the participants who practiced under the Tm1Tm2 condition exhibited greater target retention than those who practiced under the Tm1Tm1 condition. This difference in performance was due to the significant disadvantage in mediator retrieval and decoding of the unpracticed mediator under the Tm1Tm1 condition. Although mediators were provided to participants on the final test in Experiment 2, decoding of the unpracticed mediators remained less effective than decoding of the practiced mediators. We conclude that practicing multiple retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention than focusing on a single retrieval route. Thus, increasing retrieval variability during repeated retrieval practice indeed significantly improves long-term retention in a delay test.

  19. Land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica using MODIS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, Chandra; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2005-01-01

    A new land cover database of Greater Mesoamerica has been prepared using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS, 500 m resolution) satellite data. Daily surface reflectance MODIS data and a suite of ancillary data were used in preparing the database by employing a decision tree classification approach. The new land cover data are an improvement over traditional advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based land cover data in terms of both spatial and thematic details. The dominant land cover type in Greater Mesoamerica is forest (39%), followed by shrubland (30%) and cropland (22%). Country analysis shows forest as the dominant land cover type in Belize (62%), Cost Rica (52%), Guatemala (53%), Honduras (56%), Nicaragua (53%), and Panama (48%), cropland as the dominant land cover type in El Salvador (60.5%), and shrubland as the dominant land cover type in Mexico (37%). A three-step approach was used to assess the quality of the classified land cover data: (i) qualitative assessment provided good insight in identifying and correcting gross errors; (ii) correlation analysis of MODIS- and Landsat-derived land cover data revealed strong positive association for forest (r2 = 0.88), shrubland (r2 = 0.75), and cropland (r2 = 0.97) but weak positive association for grassland (r2 = 0.26); and (iii) an error matrix generated using unseen training data provided an overall accuracy of 77.3% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.73608. Overall, MODIS 500 m data and the methodology used were found to be quite useful for broad-scale land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica.

  20. Greater Burgan of Kuwait: world's second largest oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Youash, Y.Y.

    1989-03-01

    Greater Burgan (Main burgan, Magwa, and Ahmadi) field is located in the Arabian Platform geologic province and the stable shelf tectonic environment of the Mesopotamian geosyncline, a sedimentary basin extending from the Arabian shield on the west to the complexly folded and faulted Zagros Mountains on the east. The structural development in Cretaceous time represents a major anticlinorium bounded by a basin to the west and a synclinorium to the east. Greater Burgan is located within this anticlinorium. The field consists of three dome structures 25 km wide and 65 km long with gentle dips of only few degrees. Faults have little throw and did not contribute to the trapping mechanism. The structural deformation may have been caused by halokinetic movements and most likely by basement block faulting that may have started in the Paleozoic. Greater Burgan was discovered in 1938. All production during the last 40 years has been by its natural pressure. Although natural gas injection has been carried out for some time, no waterflooding has been initiated yet. Recoverable reserves of the field are 87 billion bbl of oil. During the last 5 years giant reserves have been added in this field from the deeper strata of Jurassic age. Several deep wells have been drilled to the Permian for the purpose of discovering gas. So far, no Permian gas has been found in Kuwait. The Permian is 25,000 ft deep, and it is unlikely gas will be found there in the future. However, the potential of the Jurassic reservoirs will be a major target in the future. Also, there is a great possibility of discovering oil in stratigraphic traps, as several producing strata in the nearby fields pinch out on the flanks of this giant structure. Enhanced oil recovery should add significant reserves in the future.

  1. Project Summary (2012-2015) – Carbon Dynamics of the Greater Everglades Watershed and Implications of Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkle, Ross; Benscoter, Brian; Comas, Xavier; Sumner, David; DeAngelis, Donald

    2015-04-07

    Carbon Dynamics of the Greater Everglades Watershed and Implications of Climate Change The objectives of this project are to: 1) quantify above- and below-ground carbon stocks of terrestrial ecosystems along a seasonal hydrologic gradient in the headwaters region of the Greater Everglades watershed; 2) develop budgets of ecosystem gaseous carbon exchange (carbon dioxide and methane) across the seasonal hydrologic gradient; 3) assess the impact of climate drivers on ecosystem carbon exchange in the Greater Everglades headwater region; and 4) integrate research findings with climate-driven terrestrial ecosystem carbon models to examine the potential influence of projected future climate change on regional carbon cycling. Note: this project receives a one-year extension past the original performance period - David Sumner (USGS) is not included in this extension.

  2. Passalidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of the Greater and Lesser Antilles.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ferbans, Larry; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro; Schuster, Jack C

    2015-05-12

    We present a synthesis of the state of knowledge concerning the species of Passalidae (Coleoptera) of the West Indies and we present a key to the species. The recently described genus Antillanax Boucher renders the subgenus Passalus (Pertinax) Kaup paraphyletic, therefore we place Antillanax in synonymy with Passalus (Pertinax) and we propose a new combination for Passalus (Pertinax) doesburgi (Boucher). The island richest in species is Hispaniola, with five species, three of them endemic. Excluding Trinidad and Tobago, the passalid fauna of the West Indies comprises 13 species; this is low richness, but with high endemism (50%), especially for the Greater Antilles.

  3. Range-wide patterns of greater sage-grouse persistence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldridge, C.L.; Nielsen, S.E.; Beyer, H.L.; Boyce, M.S.; Connelly, J.W.; Knick, S.T.; Schroeder, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a shrub-steppe obligate species of western North America, currently occupies only half its historical range. Here we examine how broad-scale, long-term trends in landscape condition have affected range contraction. Location: Sagebrush biome of the western USA. Methods: Logistic regression was used to assess persistence and extirpation of greater sage-grouse range based on landscape conditions measured by human population (density and population change), vegetation (percentage of sagebrush habitat), roads (density of and distance to roads), agriculture (cropland, farmland and cattle density), climate (number of severe and extreme droughts) and range periphery. Model predictions were used to identify areas where future extirpations can be expected, while also explaining possible causes of past extirpations. Results: Greater sage-grouse persistence and extirpation were significantly related to sagebrush habitat, cultivated cropland, human population density in 1950, prevalence of severe droughts and historical range periphery. Extirpation of sage-grouse was most likely in areas having at least four persons per square kilometre in 1950, 25% cultivated cropland in 2002 or the presence of three or more severe droughts per decade. In contrast, persistence of sage-grouse was expected when at least 30 km from historical range edge and in habitats containing at least 25% sagebrush cover within 30 km. Extirpation was most often explained (35%) by the combined effects of peripherality (within 30 km of range edge) and lack of sagebrush cover (less than 25% within 30 km). Based on patterns of prior extirpation and model predictions, we predict that 29% of remaining range may be at risk. Main Conclusions: Spatial patterns in greater sage-grouse range contraction can be explained by widely available landscape variables that describe patterns of remaining sagebrush habitat and loss due to cultivation, climatic trends, human

  4. Ultradeep (greater than 300 kilometers), ultramafic upper mantle xenoliths.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, S E; Sautter, V

    1990-05-25

    Geophysical discontinuities in Earth's upper mantle and experimental data predict the structural transformation of pyroxene to garnet and the solid-state dissolution of pyroxene into garnet with increasing depth. These predictions are indirectly verified by omphacitic pyroxene exsolution in pyropic garnet-bearing xenoliths from a diamondiferous kimberlite. Conditions for silicon in octahedral sites in the original garnets are met at pressures greater than 130 kilobars, placing the origin of these xenoliths at depths of 300 to 400 kilometers. These ultradeep xenoliths support the theory that the 400-km seismic discontinuity is marked by a transition from peridotite to eclogite.

  5. Greater Coordination Required in Defense Planning for Intratheather Airlift Needs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-09

    AD-AIOI 292 GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE WASHINGTON DC PROCUREMENT -ETC F/6 15/5 GREATER COORDINATION REQUIRED IN DEFENSE PLANNING FOR INTRATHEA-(ETC(U...JUL 81 UNCLASSIFIED GAO/PLR-81-42 BY THE U.S. GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE Report To The Secretary Of Defense Q reater Coordination Required In Defense...11~~~I~ LF’A RD-1-42/ I1CCU4S JULY 9, 1981’ / 81 7 13 331 I Request for copies of GAO reports should be sent to: U.S. General Accounting Office

  6. Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs.

  7. BBilateral Neglected Anterior Shoulder Dislocation with Greater Tuberosity Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Upasani, Tejas; Bhatnagar, Abhinav; Mehta, Sonu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Shoulder dislocations are a very common entity in routine orthopaedic practice. Chronic unreduced anterior dislocations of the shoulder are not very common. Neurological and vascular complications may occur as a result of an acute anterior dislocation of the shoulder or after a while in chronic unreduced shoulder dislocation. Open reduction is indicated for most chronic shoulder dislocations. We report a case of neglected bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation with bilateral displaced greater tuberosity fracture. To the best of our knowledge, only a handful cases have been reported in literature with bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation with bilateral fractures. Delayed diagnosis/reporting is a scenario which makes the list even slimmer and management all the more challenging. Case Report: We report a case of a 35-year-old male who had bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation and bilateral greater tuberosity fracture post seizure and failed to report it for a period of 30 days. One side was managed conservatively with closed reduction and immobilization and the other side with open reduction. No neurovascular complications pre or post reduction of shoulder were seen. Conclusion: Shoulder dislocations should always be suspected post seizures and if found should be treated promptly. Treatment becomes difficult for any shoulder dislocation that goes untreated for considerable period of time PMID:27703939

  8. Occult fractures of the greater tuberosity of the humerus.

    PubMed

    Gumina, S; Carbone, S; Postacchini, F

    2009-02-01

    We studied the highest reported number of patients with occult fracture of the greater tuberosity of the humerus and we analysed why fracture was not diagnosed, shoulder function and prevalence of eventually associated rotator cuff tear (RCT). Twenty-four patients with a missed fracture of the greater tuberosity underwent MR study for a suspect RCT. We evaluated shoulder function and self-assessed comfort with the Constant score (CS) and Simple Shoulder Test (SST). Nine patients showed evidence of cuff tendinosis, 11 of partial (p) RCT (2: subscapularis; 6: supraspinatus and 3: supraspinatus and infraspinatus). All patients with pRCT were older than 40. Initially, the mean CS and SST were 54% and 5/12; at follow-up, values increased to 36% and 5 points. MR should be performed in patients apparently negative for fracture but with painful shoulders and decreased ROM. Of our patients, 45.8% had pRCT; nevertheless function recovery was verified in 16 weeks.

  9. Absorption spectrum of DNA for wavelengths greater than 300 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.C.; Griffin, K.P.

    1981-06-01

    Although DNA absorption at wavelengths greater than 300 nm is much weaker than that at shorter wavelengths, this absorption seems to be responsible for much of the biological damage caused by solar radiation of wavelengths less than 320 nm. Accurate measurement of the absorption spectrum of DNA above 300 nm is complicated by turbidity characteristic of concentrated solutions of DNA. We have measured the absorption spectra of DNA from calf thymus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, salmon testis, and human placenta using procedures which separate optical density due to true absorption from that due to turbidity. Above 300 nm, the relative absorption of DNA increases as a function of guanine-cytosine content, presumably because the absorption of guanine is much greater than the absorption of adenine at these wavelengths. This result suggests that the photophysical processes which follow absorption of a long-wavelength photon may, on the average, differ from those induced by shorter-wavelength photons. It may also explain the lower quantum yield for the killing of cells by wavelengths above 300 nm compared to that by shorter wavelengths.

  10. Thiafentanil-dexmedetomidine-telazol anesthesia in greater rheas (Rhea americana).

    PubMed

    Ter Beest, Julia; McClean, Modesto; Cushing, Andrew; Bildfell, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Ratite anesthetic events are often dangerous because these birds use their powerful legs and clawed feet as a defense, and physical restraint can result in self-trauma or injury to handlers. Although various combinations of opioids, alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, and dissociative agents have been employed in ratites, few effective chemical immobilization protocols have been documented for rheas (Rhea spp.). An intramuscular, remote-delivered combination of thiafentanil (0.30 +/- 0.08 mg/kg), dexmedetomidine (7.31 +/- 2.72 microg/kg), and tiletamine-zolazepam (5.09 +/- 2.31 mg/kg) was utilized in eight adult (four male, four female) greater rheas (Rhea americana). Smooth inductions were observed. During clinical procedures, birds were intubated and maintained on isoflurane gas, and atipamezole was administered to antagonize the dexmedetomidine. At recovery, naltrexone was administered to antagonize the thiafentanil, and midazolam was administered to smooth crate recoveries until release. This low-volume, high-potency, reversible drug combination demonstrated safe inductions and smooth recoveries and proved to be a reliable anesthetic regimen for greater rheas.

  11. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Ramón A.; Pacala, Stephen W.; Winebrake, James J.; Chameides, William L.; Hamburg, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH4 leakage were capped at a level 45–70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH4 losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

  12. Spatial variations in travel behavior within greater Toronto area

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaeli, R.; Hutchinson, B.G.

    1998-03-01

    Rapid suburbanization of housing and employment has produced severe traffic congestion in North American cities. One response to this problem in the greater Toronto area (GTA) has been to identify urban forms that are more supportive of public transport and require less vehicle kilometers of travel to support. The analytical tools used to assess the travel implications of different urban forms normally use travel demand parameters that are uniform across an area. This has yielded misleading estimates of travel demands. This paper describes analyses of the intraregional differences in travel behavior in the greater Toronto area. The analyses described are at two spatial scales: the suburb (municipality/planning district) level and the much finer traffic analysis zone level. The analysis units were grouped into high-growth, developing,a nd low-growth categories at both spatial scales. The analyses reported in this paper show that household characteristics and travel behavior are quite similar for both established and redeveloping zones in the older, stable suburbs. Significant differences in travel characteristics exist between the older, established zones and the growing zones in the developing suburbs. Household trip rates are shown to vary with household size, car ownership, and whether a household is located in a stable or growing suburb. Accessibility to public transport is shown to affect trip behavior differently in growing areas than in established areas. The paper concludes by discussing the public policy and transport systems analysis implications of the results.

  13. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Ramón A; Pacala, Stephen W; Winebrake, James J; Chameides, William L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2012-04-24

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH(4) leakage were capped at a level 45-70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH(4) losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas.

  14. Liver metal concentrations in Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus).

    PubMed

    Dailey, Rebecca N; Raisbeck, Merl F; Siemion, Roger S; Cornish, Todd E

    2008-04-01

    Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are a species of concern due to shrinking populations associated with habitat fragmentation and loss. Baseline health parameters for this species are limited or lacking, especially with regard to tissue metal concentrations. To obtain a range of tissue metal concentrations, livers were collected from 71 Greater Sage-grouse from Wyoming and Montana. Mean +/- SE metal concentrations (mg/kg wet weight) in liver were determined for vanadium (V) (0.12 +/- 0.01), chromium (Cr) (0.50 +/- 0.02), manganese (Mn) (2.68 +/- 0.11), iron (Fe) (1,019 +/- 103), nickel (Ni) (0.40 +/- 0.04), cobalt (Co) (0.08 +/- 0.02), copper (Cu) (6.43 +/- 0.40), mercury (Hg) (0.30 +/- 0.09), selenium (Se) (1.45 +/- 0.64), zinc (Zn) (59.2 +/- 4.70), molybdenum (Mo) (0.93 +/- 0.07), cadmium (Cd) (1.44 +/- 0.14), barium (Ba) (0.20 +/- 0.03), and lead (Pb) (0.17 +/- 0.03). In addition to providing baseline data, metal concentrations were compared between sex, age (juvenile/adult), and West Nile virus (WNv) groups (positive/negative). Adult birds had higher concentrations of Ni and Cd compared to juveniles. In addition, Zn and Cu concentrations were significantly elevated in WNv-positive birds.

  15. Molecular identification of novel intermediate host species of Angiostrongylus vasorum in Greater London.

    PubMed

    Patel, Zainab; Gill, A Christina; Fox, Mark T; Hermosilla, Carlos; Backeljau, Thierry; Breugelmans, Karin; Keevash, Esther; McEwan, Claudia; Aghazadeh, Mahdis; Elson-Riggins, Jocelyn G

    2014-12-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum is a parasitic nematode that can cause serious and potentially fatal disease in dogs and other canids. The aim of this study was to determine the intermediate slug species infected in nature by sampling sites in Greater London and Hertfordshire located within a known hyperendemic region. Overall, A. vasorum larvae were recovered from 6/381 slugs (1.6%) by tissue digestion, and their identity was confirmed by PCR. Infected slugs originated from three different sites in the Greater London area: one in Waltham Forest and two in Bromley. Slugs parasitised by A. vasorum were identified by a combination of external morphological characteristics and molecular techniques and belonged to three different families: the Arionidae, the Milacidae and the Limacidae. This includes two new host records for the parasite: Arion distinctus and Tandonia sowerbyi. This is the first record of A. vasorum in the family Milacidae, indicating that the parasite has a broader intermediate host range than previously recognised.

  16. Greater temperature sensitivity of plant phenology at colder sites: implications for convergence across northern latitudes.

    PubMed

    Prevéy, Janet; Vellend, Mark; Rüger, Nadja; Hollister, Robert D; Bjorkman, Anne D; Myers-Smith, Isla H; Elmendorf, Sarah C; Clark, Karin; Cooper, Elisabeth J; Elberling, Bo; Fosaa, Anna M; Henry, Gregory H R; Høye, Toke T; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S; Klanderud, Kari; Lévesque, Esther; Mauritz, Marguerite; Molau, Ulf; Natali, Susan M; Oberbauer, Steven F; Panchen, Zoe A; Post, Eric; Rumpf, Sabine B; Schmidt, Niels M; Schuur, Edward A G; Semenchuk, Phillip R; Troxler, Tiffany; Welker, Jeffrey M; Rixen, Christian

    2017-01-11

    Warmer temperatures are accelerating the phenology of organisms around the world. Temperature sensitivity of phenology might be greater in colder, higher latitude sites than in warmer regions, in part because small changes in temperature constitute greater relative changes in thermal balance at colder sites. To test this hypothesis, we examined up to 20 years of phenology data for 47 tundra plant species at 18 high-latitude sites along a climatic gradient. Across all species, the timing of leaf emergence and flowering was more sensitive to a given increase in summer temperature at colder than warmer high-latitude locations. A similar pattern was seen over time for the flowering phenology of a widespread species, Cassiope tetragona. These are among the first results highlighting differential phenological responses of plants across a climatic gradient and suggest the possibility of convergence in flowering times and therefore an increase in gene flow across latitudes as the climate warms.

  17. The Chako antiform: A folded segment of the Greater Himalayan sequence, Nar valley, Central Nepal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleeson, Thomas P.; Godin, Laurent

    2006-09-01

    Recent and previously published mapping in the Nar valley, north of the Annapurna massif in central Nepal, recognised an enigmatic metamorphic culmination of the Greater Himalayan sequence, surrounded by rocks correlated with the Tethyan sedimentary sequence. The map area is re-interpreted as two structural levels within the Greater Himalayan sequence. The Lower Level is correlated to the well-studied Greater Himalayan sequence of the Annapurna region, based on characteristic rock types, high-strain zones with south-verging shear-sense indicators, and high-grade metamorphism. The rocks of the Upper Level, previously mapped as the sub-greenschist or zeolite facies Tethyan sedimentary sequence, are garnet-bearing schists. Petrography and garnet-biotite thermometry suggest the Upper Level equilibrated at amphibolite facies (500-650 °C). These results support the recent contention that the Upper Level rocks are a component of the Greater Himalayan sequence, and thus indicate that components of the Himalayan metamorphic core vary considerably along strike. Structural, metamorphic and age constraints are integrated into a cohesive regional tectonometamorphic model. The Lower and Upper Levels both experienced D 1 deformation and peak metamorphism before ˜20 Ma. The Lower and Upper Levels were juxtaposed along the synmetamorphic Chame detachment after 20 Ma during retrograde metamorphism. After ˜19 Ma, the Phu detachment placed the unmetamorphosed Tethyan sedimentary sequence above the Lower and Upper Levels. The entire package was then subsequently folded, after 19 Ma, by a non-cylindrical antiform-synform pair with a ˜25 km wavelength creating an apparent dome. The proposed tectonometamorphic model reconciles previously contradictory interpretations of the transition between metamorphic core and overlying sediments in the Nar valley.

  18. Low glucose relates to greater aggression in married couples.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Brad J; Dewall, C Nathan; Pond, Richard S; Hanus, Michael D

    2014-04-29

    Intimate partner violence affects millions of people globally. One possible contributing factor is poor self-control. Self-control requires energy, part of which is provided by glucose. For 21 days, glucose levels were measured in 107 married couples. To measure aggressive impulses, each evening participants stuck between 0 and 51 pins into a voodoo doll that represented their spouse, depending how angry they were with their spouse. To measure aggression, participants competed against their spouse on a 25-trial task in which the winner blasted the loser with loud noise through headphones. As expected, the lower the level of glucose in the blood, the greater number of pins participants stuck into the voodoo doll, and the higher intensity and longer duration of noise participants set for their spouse.

  19. Discrimination reversal learning reveals greater female behavioural flexibility in guppies

    PubMed Central

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Bisazza, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural flexibility allows an animal to adapt its behaviour in response to changes in the environment. Research conducted in primates, rodents and domestic fowl suggests greater behavioural persistence and reduced behavioural flexibility in males. We investigated sex differences in behavioural flexibility in fish by comparing male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in a reversal learning task. Fish were first trained on a colour discrimination, which was learned equally rapidly by males and females. However, once the reward contingency was reversed, females were better at inhibiting the previous response and reached criterion twice as fast as males. When reward reversing was repeated, males gradually reduced the number of errors, and the two sexes had a comparable performance after four reversals. We suggest that sex differences in behavioural flexibility in guppies can be explained in terms of the different roles that males and females play in reproduction.

  20. Lakes in the greater Denver area, Front Range Urban Corridor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danielson, T.W.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of an inventory of the lakes in the central one-third of the Colorado Front Range Urban Corridor. This inventory provides information that might be helpful in planning the best and most beneficial use of lakes in an area of rapid population growth. The report includes data on lake size and water quality. Size data are included on most of the lakes of 2 hectares (20,000 m2, or about 5 acres) or greater, and water-quality data are provided on most lakes larger than 10 hectares (about 25 acres). Bodies of water resulting form excavation of gravel (borrow pits) were generally not included in the inventory.

  1. The Greater Plains Collaborative: a PCORnet Clinical Research Data Network.

    PubMed

    Waitman, Lemuel R; Aaronson, Lauren S; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Connolly, Daniel W; Campbell, James R

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Plains Collaborative (GPC) is composed of 10 leading medical centers repurposing the research programs and informatics infrastructures developed through Clinical and Translational Science Award initiatives. Partners are the University of Kansas Medical Center, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Iowa Healthcare, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Medical College of Wisconsin and Marshfield Clinic, the University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The GPC network brings together a diverse population of 10 million people across 1300 miles covering seven states with a combined area of 679 159 square miles. Using input from community members, breast cancer was selected as a focus for cohort building activities. In addition to a high-prevalence disorder, we also selected a rare disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  2. Slimness is associated with greater intercourse and lesser masturbation frequency.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart

    2004-01-01

    I examined the relationship of recalled and diary recorded frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (FSI), noncoital partnered sexual activity, and masturbation to measured waist and hip circumference in 120 healthy adults aged 19-38. Slimmer waist (in men and in the sexes combined) and slimmer hips (in men and women) were associated with greater FSI. Slimmer waist and hips were associated with rated importance of intercourse for men. Noncoital partnered sexual activity had a less consistent association with slimness. Slimmer waist and hips were associated with less masturbation (in men and in the sexes combined). I discuss the results in terms of differences between different sexual behaviors, attractiveness, emotional relatedness, physical sensitivity, sexual dysfunction, sociobiology, psychopharmacological aspects of excess fat and carbohydrate consumption, and implications for sex therapy.

  3. Risks of Brucella abortus spillover in the Greater Yellowstone area.

    PubMed

    Schumaker, B

    2013-04-01

    Recurrent spillover of Brucella abortus from wildlife reservoirs to domestic cattle in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) has prevented the United States from completely eradicating bovine brucellosis. Risks to cattle are a function of the size and location of wildlife and livestock populations, the degree and nature of spatio-temporal interactions between the various hosts, the level of disease in wildlife, and the susceptibility of livestock herds. While the brucellosis prevalence in wild, free-ranging GYA bison (Bison bison) is high, current management actions have successfully limited contact between bison and cattle. Under current management practices, the risks to cattle in the GYA are predominantly from wild elk (Cervus elaphus). Intra- and inter-species transmission events, while uncommon, are nevertheless crucial for the maintenance of brucellosis in the GYA. Future management actions should focus on decreasing elk herd densities and group sizes and on understanding the behavioural and environmental drivers that result in co-mingling that makes transmission possible.

  4. Evil genius? How dishonesty can lead to greater creativity.

    PubMed

    Gino, Francesca; Wiltermuth, Scott S

    2014-04-01

    We propose that dishonest and creative behavior have something in common: They both involve breaking rules. Because of this shared feature, creativity may lead to dishonesty (as shown in prior work), and dishonesty may lead to creativity (the hypothesis we tested in this research). In five experiments, participants had the opportunity to behave dishonestly by overreporting their performance on various tasks. They then completed one or more tasks designed to measure creativity. Those who cheated were subsequently more creative than noncheaters, even when we accounted for individual differences in their creative ability (Experiment 1). Using random assignment, we confirmed that acting dishonestly leads to greater creativity in subsequent tasks (Experiments 2 and 3). The link between dishonesty and creativity is explained by a heightened feeling of being unconstrained by rules, as indicated by both mediation (Experiment 4) and moderation (Experiment 5).

  5. Analyses of sexual dimorphism of reconstructed pelvic computed tomography images of contemporary Japanese using curvature of the greater sciatic notch, pubic arch and greater pelvis.

    PubMed

    Biwasaka, Hitoshi; Aoki, Yasuhiro; Sato, Kei; Tanijiri, Toyohisa; Fujita, Sachiko; Dewa, Koji; Yoshioka, Kunihiro; Tomabechi, Makiko

    2012-06-10

    Three-dimensional pelvic images were reconstructed from multi-slice CT data of contemporary Japanese (males: 124; females: 104, 25-92 years old), and curvature analysis to examine sexual dimorphism was carried out in the great sciatic notch (GSN), the pubic arch and the greater pelvis in the images. Reconstructed pelvic CT images were visualized fairly well and anatomical landmarks were easily recognizable. When calculating the radii (curvature radii) of the best-fit circles for the spline curve lines set along the edges of the GSNs and of the pubic arches, sexes from these regions were correctly identified in 89.1% (males: 93.8%; females: 83.7%) and 94.7% (males: 97.3%; females: 91.8%) of cases, respectively, by setting an appropriate cut-off value. Furthermore, sexing was possible even in deeper regions of the GSN which are relatively resistant to postmortem damage. Curvature radii of the best-fit spheres of greater pelves showed no significant difference between sexes. However, curvature of the best-fit sphere for the left iliac fossa was significantly larger than that of the right one (p<10(-24)) in males, and the ratios were >1.0 in 88% of all male specimens analyzed. Meanwhile, no significant difference was observed among female samples. Although some left-sided dominancy has been reported in 2-dimensional measurements of the human pelvis, this 3-dimensional laterality in males was much more significant, and is a potential index of sex difference.

  6. Ovarian follicle dynamics of female Greater Scaup during egg production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorman, K.B.; Flint, P.L.; Esler, Daniel; Williams, T.D.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of female waterfowl nutrient reserve use during egg production require a precise understanding of ovarian follicle dynamics to correctly interpret breeding status, and, therefore, derive proper inference. Concerns over numerical declines of North American scaup have increased the need to better understand the role of female condition in reproductive performance. We quantified ovarian follicle dynamics of female Greater Scaup (Aythya marila) breeding on the Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, using a method that accounts for within day variation in follicle size. We considered several models for describing changes in follicle growth with the best supported model estimating the duration of rapid follicle growth (RFG) to be 5.20 ± 0.52 days (±95% confidence intervals) for each developing follicle. Average diameter and dry mass of preovulatory follicles were estimated to be 9.36 mm and 0.26 g, respectively, at the onset of RFG, and these follicle characteristics were 41.47 mm and 15.57 g, respectively, at ovulation. The average diameter of postovulatory follicles immediately following ovulation was estimated to be 17.35 mm, regressing quickly over several days. In addition, we derived predictive equations using diameter and dry mass to estimate the number of days before, and after, ovulation for pre- and postovulatory follicles, as well as an equation to estimate dry mass of damaged follicles. Our results allow precise definition of RFG and nest initiation dates, clutch size, and the daily energetic and nutritional demands of egg production at the individual level. This study provides the necessary foundation for additional work on Greater Scaup reproductive energetics and physiology, and offers an approach for quantifying ovarian follicle dynamics in other species.

  7. Greater learnability is not sufficient to produce cultural universals.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Anna N; Griffiths, Thomas L; Ettlinger, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Looking across human societies reveals regularities in the languages that people speak and the concepts that they use. One explanation that has been proposed for these "cultural universals" is differences in the ease with which people learn particular languages and concepts. A difference in learnability means that languages and concepts possessing a particular property are more likely to be accurately transmitted from one generation of learners to the next. Intuitively, this difference could allow languages and concepts that are more learnable to become more prevalent after multiple generations of cultural transmission. If this is the case, the prevalence of languages and concepts with particular properties can be explained simply by demonstrating empirically that they are more learnable. We evaluate this argument using mathematical analysis and behavioral experiments. Specifically, we provide two counter-examples that show how greater learnability need not result in a property becoming prevalent. First, more learnable languages and concepts can nonetheless be less likely to be produced spontaneously as a result of transmission failures. We simulated cultural transmission in the laboratory to show that this can occur for memory of distinctive items: these items are more likely to be remembered, but not generated spontaneously once they have been forgotten. Second, when there are many languages or concepts that lack the more learnable property, sheer numbers can swamp the benefit produced by greater learnability. We demonstrate this using a second series of experiments involving artificial language learning. Both of these counter-examples show that simply finding a learnability bias experimentally is not sufficient to explain why a particular property is prevalent in the languages or concepts used in human societies: explanations for cultural universals based on cultural transmission need to consider the full set of hypotheses a learner could entertain and all of

  8. Effects of neck bands on survival of greater snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menu, S.; Hestbeck, J.B.; Gauthier, G.; Reed, A.

    2000-01-01

    Neck bands are a widely used marker in goose research. However, few studies have investigated a possible negative effect of this marker on survival. We tested the effect of neck bands on the survival of adult female greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) by marking birds with either a neck band and a metal leg band or a leg band only on Bylot Island (Nunavut, formerly included in the Northwest Territories, Canada) from 1990 to 1996. Annual survival was estimated using leg-band recoveries in fall and winter and using neck-band sightings in spring and fall. Recapture rates were estimated using summer recaptures. Using recovery data, the selected model yielded a survival similar for the neck-banded and leg-banded only birds (S = 0.845 ?? 0.070 vs. S = 0.811 ?? 0.107). The hypothesis of equality of survival between the 2 groups was easily accepted under most constraints imposed on survival or recovery rates. However, failure to account for a different direct recovery rate for neck-banded birds would lead us to incorrectly conclude a possible negative effect of neck bands on survival. Using sighting data, mean annual survival of neck-banded birds was independently estimated at 0.833 ?? 0.057, a value very similar to that estimated with band-recovery analysis. Raw recapture rates during summer were significantly lower for neck-banded birds compared to those marked with leg bands only (4.6% vs. 12.1%), but in this analysis, survival, site fidelity, reproductive status, and recapture rates were confounded. We conclude that neck bands did not affect survival of greater snow geese, but could possibly affect other demographic traits such as breeding propensity and emigration.

  9. Black breast cancer survivors experience greater upper extremity disability.

    PubMed

    Dean, Lorraine T; DeMichele, Angela; LeBlanc, Mously; Stephens-Shields, Alisa; Li, Susan Q; Colameco, Chris; Coursey, Morgan; Mao, Jun J

    2015-11-01

    Over one-third of breast cancer survivors experience upper extremity disability. Black women present with factors associated with greater upper extremity disability, including: increased body mass index (BMI), more advanced disease stage at diagnosis, and varying treatment type compared with Whites. No prior research has evaluated the relationship between race and upper extremity disability using validated tools and controlling for these factors. Data were drawn from a survey study among 610 women with stage I-III hormone receptor positive breast cancer. The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (QuickDASH) is an 11-item self-administered questionnaire that has been validated for breast cancer survivors to assess global upper extremity function over the past 7 days. Linear regression and mediation analysis estimated the relationships between race, BMI and QuickDASH score, adjusting for demographics and treatment types. Black women (n = 98) had 7.3 points higher average QuickDASH scores than White (n = 512) women (p < 0.001). After adjusting for BMI, age, education, cancer treatment, months since diagnosis, and aromatase inhibitor status, Black women had an average 4-point (95 % confidence interval 0.18-8.01) higher QuickDASH score (p = 0.04) than White women. Mediation analysis suggested that BMI attenuated the association between race and disability by 40 %. Even several years post-treatment, Black breast cancer survivors had greater upper extremity disability, which was partially mediated by higher BMIs. Close monitoring of high BMI Black women may be an important step in reducing disparities in cancer survivorship. More research is needed on the relationship between race, BMI, and upper extremity disability.

  10. Hygrophoraceae (Agaricales) of the Greater Antilles: Hygrocybe subgenus Pseudohygrocybe sections Coccineae and Neohygrocybe.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Sharon A; Lodge, D Jean

    2004-11-01

    A key to 17 species in the genus Hygrocybe, subgenus Pseudohygrocybe, sections Coccineae and Neohygrocybe sensu Boertmann is provided for the Greater Antilles. Five new species and five taxa that are new reports for the region are described. The new species in section Coccineae are H. pseudoadonis, H. viridiphylla, and H. zonata. The new species in section Neohygrocybe are H. albomarginata and H. ovinoides. The new reports are H. caespitosa, H. coccinea, H. cf. miniata, H. papillata, and H. subovina. Three new combinations are proposed: Hygrocybe mycenoides, H. papillata and H. subovina.

  11. Laws of distribution of the snow cover on the greater Caucasus (Soviet Union)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurtovaya, Y. Y.; Sulakvelidze, G. K.; Yashina, A. V.

    1985-01-01

    The laws of the distribution of the snow cover on the mountains of the greater Caucasus are discussed. It is shown that an extremely unequal distribution of the snow cover is caused by the complex orography of this territory, the diversity of climatic conditions and by the difference in altitude. Regions of constant, variable and unstable snow cover are distinguished because of the clearly marked division into altitude layers, each of which is characterized by climatic differences in the nature of the snow accumulation.

  12. San Andreas Fault, California, M 5.5 or greater Earthquakes 1800-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toppozada, T.; Branum, D.; Reichle, M.; Hallstrom, C.

    2001-12-01

    The San Andreas fault has been the most significant source of major California earthquakes since 1800. From 1812 to 1906 it generated four major earthquakes of M 7.2 or greater in two pairs on two major regions of the fault. A pair of major earthquakes occurred on the Central to Southern region, where the 1857 faulting overlapped the 1812 earthquake faulting. And a pair of major earthquakes occurred on the Northern region, where the 1906 faulting overlapped the 1838 earthquake faulting. The 1812 earthquake resulted from a rupture of up to about 200 km, from the region of Cajon Pass to as far as about 50 km west of Fort Tejon (Sieh and others, 1989). This rupture is the probable source of both the destructive 1812.12.8 "San Juan Capistrano" and the 1812.12.21 "Santa Barbara Channel" earthquakes. The 1838 earthquake's damage effects throughout the Bay area, from San Francisco to Santa Clara Valley and Monterey, were unequalled by any Bay area earthquake other than the 1906 event. The mainshock's effects, and numerous strong probable aftershocks in the San Juan Bautista vicinity in the following three years, suggest 1838 faulting from San Francisco to San Juan Bautista, and M about 7.4. The 630 km length of the San Andreas fault between San Francisco and Cajon Pass ruptured in the 1838 and 1857 earthquakes, except for about 75 km between Bitterwater and San Juan Bautista. The 1840-1841 probable aftershocks of the 1838 event occurred near San Juan Bautista, and the foreshocks and aftershocks of the 1857 event occurred near Bitterwater. In the Bitterwater area, strong earthquakes continued to occur until the 1885 earthquake of M 6.5. Near Parkfield, 40 to 70 km southeast of Bitterwater, M 5.5 or greater earthquakes have occurred from the 1870s to the 1960s. In the total Bitterwater to Parkfield zone bracketing the northern end of the 1857 rupture, the seismicity and moment release has decreased steadily since 1857, and has tended to migrate southeastward with time. The

  13. Bedrock Geologic Map of the Greater Lefkosia Area, Cyprus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Richard W.; Newell, Wayne; Panayides, Ioannis; Stone, Byron; Tsiolakis, Efthymios; Necdet, Mehmet; Batihanli, Hilmi; Ozhur, Ayse; Lord, Alan; Berksoy, Okan; Zomeni, Zomenia; Schindler, J. Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The island of Cyprus has a long historical record of earthquakes that have damaged pre-Roman to modern human settlements. Because the recurrent damaging earthquakes can have a significant economic and social impact on Cyprus, this project was initiated to develop a seismic-hazard assessment for a roughly 400 square kilometer area centered on Cyprus' capital and largest city, whose European name is Nicosia and whose local name is Lefkosia. In addition, geologic and seismotectonic evaluations for the project extended beyond the perimeter of the geologic map. Additional structural, stratigraphic, and paleontological data were collected island-wide as well as data from literature research throughout the eastern Mediterranean region, in order to accurately place the geology and seismic hazards of the Lefkosia area in a regional tectonic framework.

  14. Vital exhaustion increases the risk of ischemic stroke in women but not in men: Results from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Kornerup, Henriette; Marott, Jacob Louis; Schnohr, Peter; Boysen, Gudrun; Barefoot, John; Prescott, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have indicated an association between depression and the development of stroke, but few studies have focused on gender differences, although both depression and stroke are more common in women than in men. The aim of the present study was to describe whether vital exhaustion, a measure of fatigue and depression, prospectively predicts ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes in a large cohort, with particular focus on gender differences. Methods The cohort was composed of 5219 women and 3967 men without cardiovascular disease who were examined in the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1991–1994. Subjects were followed for 6–9 years. Fatal and nonfatal strokes were ascertained from the Danish National Register of Patients. Cox proportional hazards model was used to describe vital exhaustion as a potential risk factor for stroke. Results Four hundred nine validated strokes occurred. A dose–response relationship between vital exhaustion score and the risk of stroke was found in women reaching a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.27 (95% confidence interval: 1.42–3.62) for the group with the highest score. HR was only slightly attenuated by multivariate adjustment. There was no association between vital exhaustion score and stroke in men. HR was strongest for ischemic stroke, whereas no association was seen for hemorrhagic stroke. Conclusion Vital exhaustion, a measure of fatigue, conveyed an increased risk of ischemic stroke in women, but not in men, in this study sample. PMID:20105695

  15. Locked into Copenhagen pledges - Implications of short-term emission targets for the cost and feasibility of long-term climate goals

    SciTech Connect

    Riahi, Keywan; Kriegler, Elmar; Johnson, Nils; Bertram, Christoph; den Elzen, Michel; Eom, Jiyong; Schaeffer, Michiel; Edmonds, James A.; Isaac, Morna; Krey, Volker; Longden, Thomas; Luderer, Gunnar; Mejean, Aurelie; McCollum, David; Mima, Silvana; Turton, Hal; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Wada, Kenichi; Bosetti, Valentina; Capros, Pantelis; Criqui, Patrick; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kainuma, M.; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the AMPERE intermodeling comparison with focus on the implications of near-term policies for the costs and attainability of long-term climate objectives. Ten modeling teams participated in the project to explore the consequences of global emissions following the proposed policy stringency of the national pledges from the Copenhagen Accord and Cancún Agreements to 2030. Specific features compared to earlier assessments are the explicit consideration of near-term 2030 emissions targets as well as the systematic sensitivity analysis for the availability and potential of mitigation technologies. Our estimates show that a 2030 mitigation effort comparable to the pledges would result in a further "lock-in" of the energy system into fossil fuels and thus impede the required energy transformation to reach low greenhouse-gas stabilization levels (450ppm CO2e). Major implications include significant increases in mitigation costs, increased risk that low stabilization targets become unattainable, and reduced chances of staying below the proposed temperature change target of 2C. With respect to technologies, we find that following the pledge pathways to 2030 would narrow policy choices, and increases the risks that some currently optional technologies, such as nuclear or carbon capture and storage (CCS), will become "a must" by 2030.

  16. Dietary clofibrate stimulates the formation and size of estradiol-induced breast tumors in female August-Copenhagen Irish (ACI) rats.

    PubMed

    Mesia-Vela, Sonia; Sanchez, Rosa I; Roberts, Kathleen G; Reuhl, Kenneth R; Conney, Allan H; Kauffman, Frederick C

    2008-04-03

    Administration of 0.4% clofibrate in the diet stimulated estradiol (E(2))-induced mammary carcinogenesis in the August-Copenhagen Irish (ACI) rat without having an effect on serum levels of E(2). This treatment stimulated by several-fold the NAD(P)H-dependent oxidative metabolism of E(2) and oleyl-CoA-dependent esterification of E(2) to 17beta-oleyl-estradiol by liver microsomes. Glucuronidation of E(2) by microsomal glucuronosyltransferase was increased moderately. In contrast, the activity of NAD(P)H quinone reductase 1 (NQO1), a representative monofunctional phase 2 enzyme, was significantly decreased in liver cytosol of rats fed clofibrate. Decreases in hepatic NQO1 in livers of animals fed clofibrate were noted before the appearance of mammary tumors. E(2) was delivered in cholesterol pellets implanted in 7-8-week-old female ACI rats. The animals received AIN-76A diet containing 0.4% clofibrate for 6, 12 or 28 weeks. Control animals received AIN-76A diet. Dietary clofibrate increased the number and size of palpable mammary tumors but did not alter the histopathology of the E(2)-induced mammary adenocarcinomas. Collectively, these results suggest that the stimulatory effect of clofibrate on hepatic esterification of E(2) with fatty acids coupled with the inhibition of protective phase 2 enzymes, may in part, enhance E(2)-dependent mammary carcinogenesis in the ACI rat model.

  17. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.; Blong, R.; Sparks, S.; Shah, H.; Kennedy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105 000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M???8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10 000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300 000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M???7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M??? 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M??? 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates

  18. Experience-dependent natal philopatry of breeding greater flamingos.

    PubMed

    Balkiz, Ozge; Béchet, Arnaud; Rouan, Lauriane; Choquet, Rémi; Germain, Christophe; Amat, Juan A; Rendón-Martos, Manuel; Baccetti, Nicola; Nissardi, Sergio; Ozesmi, Uygar; Pradel, Roger

    2010-09-01

    1. Contrary to the generally high level of natal philopatry (i.e. likelihood that individuals breed at their natal colony) found in first-breeding colonial birds, little is known of natal philopatry later in life. Most hypotheses advanced to explain natal philopatry are valid at all ages. However, for young and inexperienced birds, the benefits of natal philopatry may be counterbalanced by the costs of intraspecific competition at the natal colony making dispersal temporarily advantageous. In turn, experience may increase competitive ability and make natal philopatry advantageous again. 2. We evaluated this hypothesis on the large-scale dispersal of greater flamingos Phoenicopterus roseus breeding among three colonies comprising >85% of the Western Mediterranean metapopulation. The Camargue (France) and Fuente de Piedra (Spain) are large and saturated colonies while Molentargius (Sardinia) is a recent and growing colony. 3. We used a 20-year capture-mark-resighting dataset of 4900 flamingos ringed as chicks in Camargue and Fuente de Piedra and breeding at the three colonies. We assessed the effects of natal colony and breeding experience (first-time observed breeders versus confirmed experienced breeders) on dispersal using multistate capture-recapture models. Dispersal to an unobservable state accounted for temporary emigration. 4. Fidelity was higher at the natal colony (>84%) than elsewhere. Fidelity increased with experience in the two large colonies (Camargue and Fuente de Piedra) suggesting a large-scale experience-related despotic distribution. Breeding dispersal was significant (up to 61% and 52% for first-time breeders and experienced breeders, respectively) so that colony dynamics is affected by exchanges with other colonies. Except for Fuente-born breeders leaving Molentargius, dispersal to the natal colony was higher than to any other colonies. 5. Survival was not higher at the natal colony. Inexperienced birds likely had lower breeding success at the

  19. Age or health status: which influences medical insurance enrollment greater?

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Cai, Gong–Jie; Li, Guan–Nan; Cao, Jing–Jing; Shi, Qiong–Hua; Bai, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background The New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) for peasantries implemented in 2003 and the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) for the urban unemployed implemented in 2007 have many similarities. They both apply the financing mode of individual premiums plus government’s subsidies, and the voluntary enrollment. The Chinese government plans to integrate these two systems and build a unified basic medical insurance system for the unemployed in order to achieve the medical equity and increase the general health level. Thus, to analyze the main influencing factors of the enrollment of the urban unemployed and rural residents is very important for improving the system and securing the stability of the system during the transition. Methods The study uses data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) and adopts logistic regression models to test which factors influence the enrollment of the URBMI and the NCMS under the background of rather high enrollment rate of Chinese basic medical insurances and strong fiscal support of the Chinese government, especially whether health status or age influences enrollment of these two insurances greater. Results There is indeed some adverse selection in the URBMI and the NCMS. Whether the individual has chronic diseases have significant influence on enrollments of both the urban unemployed and rural residents, while whether the individual got ill in last four weeks just influences enrollments of the urban unemployed. Age influences enrollment greater than health status. The older the insured are, the larger the enrollment rates are. Conclusion Because of the active support for basic medical insurances of the Chinese government, the enrollment performance of the urban unemployed and rural residents has already changed. When implementing the new policy, the government should pay attention to the willingness to enroll in and the change of enrollment performance of the insured. Therefore, under the policy of

  20. Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome: Epidemiology and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Neil A.; Felson, David T.; Torner, James C.; Zhu, Yanyan; Curtis, Jeffrey R.; Niu, Jingbo; Nevitt, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To describe the prevalence of greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS); to determine whether GTPS is associated with iliotibial band (ITB) tenderness, knee osteoarthritis (OA), body mass index (BMI), or low back pain (LBP); and to assess whether GTPS is associated with reduced hip internal rotation, physical activity, and mobility. Design Cross-sectional, population-based study. Setting Multicenter observational study. Participants Community-dwelling adults (N=3026) ages 50 to 79 years. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Greater trochanteric tenderness to palpation in subjects with complaints of hip pain and no signs of hip OA or generalized myofascial tenderness. Results The prevalence of unilateral and bilateral GTPS was 15.0% and 8.5% in women and 6.6% and 1.9% men. Odds ratio (OR) for women was 3.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.67–4.25), but age and race were not significantly associated with GTPS. In a multivariate model, adjusting for age, sex, ITB tenderness, ipsilateral and contralateral knee OA, BMI, and LBP, ITB tenderness (OR=1.72; 95% CI, 1.34–2.19), knee OA ipsilaterally (OR=3.47; 95% CI, 2.72–4.42) and con-tralaterally (OR=1.74; 95% CI, 1.32–2.28), and LBP (OR=2.79; 95% CI, 2.22–3.50) were positively related to GTPS. In this complete model, BMI was not associated with GTPS (OR=1.10; 95% CI, 0.80–1.52 when comparing ≥ 30 with <25kg/m2). Hip internal rotation range of motion did not differ based on GTPS status. After multivariate adjustment, GTPS did not alter physical activity score, but bilateal GTPS was significantly associated with a higher 20-meter walk time and chair stand time. Conclusions The higher prevalence of GTPS in women and in adults with ITB pain or knee OA indicates that altered lower-limb biomechanics may be related to GTPS. Slower functional performance in those with GTPS suggests that the study of targeted rehabilitation may be useful. A longitudinal study will be necessary to identify

  1. Spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic occurrence and association with bedrock geology in greater Augusta, Maine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Culbertson, Charles W; Marvinney, Robert G; Loiselle, Marc C; Locke, Daniel B; Cheek, Heidi; Thibodeau, Hilary; Zheng, Yan

    2009-04-15

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (10(0)-10(1) km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed, and 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic concentrations >10 microg/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 microg/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (approximately 40%). This probability differs significantly (p < 0.001) from those in the Silurian-Ordovician sandstone (24%),the Devonian granite (15%), and the Ordovician-Cambrian volcanic rocks (9%). The spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic distribution resembles the bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium, and high arsenic occurrences in four cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (approximately 1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 microg/L arsenic in groundwater.

  2. Spatial Pattern of Groundwater Arsenic Occurrence and Association with Bedrock Geology in Greater Augusta, Maine, USA

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Culbertson, Charles W.; Marvinney, Robert G.; Loiselle, Marc C.; Locke, Daniel B.; Cheek, Heidi; Thibodeau, Hilary; Zheng, Yan

    2009-01-01

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (100-101 km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed. 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic >10 μg/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 μg/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (~40%). This probability differs significantly (p<0.001) from those in the Silurian-Ordovician sandstone (24%), the Devonian granite (15%) and the Ordovician-Cambrian volcanic rocks (9%). The spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic distribution resembles the bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium and high arsenic occurrences in 4 cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (~1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 μg/L arsenic in groundwater. PMID:19475939

  3. Spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic occurrence and association with bedrock geology in greater augusta, maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, Q.; Jung, H.B.; Culbertson, C.W.; Marvinney, R.G.; Loiselle, M.C.; Locke, D.B.; Cheek, H.; Thibodeau, H.; Zheng, Yen

    2009-01-01

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (100-101 km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed, and 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic concentrations >10 ??g/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 ??g/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (???40%). This probability differs significantly (p < 0.001) from those in the Silurian - Ordovician sandstone (24%), the Devonian granite (15%), and the Ordovician - Cambrian volcanic rocks (9%). The spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic distribution resembles the bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium, and high arsenic occurrences in four cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (???1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 ??g/L arsenic in groundwater. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  4. Ethiopian agriculture has greater potential for carbon sequestration than previously estimated.

    PubMed

    Rimhanen, Karoliina; Ketoja, Elise; Yli-Halla, Markku; Kahiluoto, Helena

    2016-11-01

    More than half of the cultivation-induced carbon loss from agricultural soils could be restored through improved management. To incentivise carbon sequestration, the potential of improved practices needs to be verified. To date, there is sparse empirical evidence of carbon sequestration through improved practices in East-Africa. Here, we show that agroforestry and restrained grazing had a greater stock of soil carbon than their bordering pair-matched controls, but the difference was less obvious with terracing. The controls were treeless cultivated fields for agroforestry, on slopes not terraced for terracing, and permanent pasture for restrained grazing, representing traditionally managed agricultural practices dominant in the case regions. The gain by the improved management depended on the carbon stocks in the control plots. Agroforestry for 6-20 years led to 11.4 Mg ha(-1) and restrained grazing for 6-17 years to 9.6 Mg ha(-1) greater median soil carbon stock compared with the traditional management. The empirical estimates are higher than previous process-model-based estimates and indicate that Ethiopian agriculture has greater potential to sequester carbon in soil than previously estimated.

  5. Exposure simulation for pharmaceuticals in European surface waters with GREAT-ER.

    PubMed

    Schowanek, Diederik; Webb, Simon

    2002-05-10

    The Geo-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers (GREAT-ER) model was developed as an aquatic chemical exposure prediction tool for use within environmental risk assessment (ERA) schemes and river basin management. The GREAT-ER software calculates the distribution of predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of consumer chemicals in surface waters, for individual river stretches, as well as representative average PECs for entire catchments. The system uses an ARC/INFO-ArcView (ESRI) based Geographical Information System (GIS) for data storage and visualization, combined with simple mathematical models for prediction of chemical fate. Use of GREAT-ER 1.03 to derive PECs is illustrated for Ethinyl Oestradiol, Paracetamol, Aspirin, Dextropropoxyphene, Clofibrate and Oxytetracycline in three river basins, i.e. Aire (UK), Lambro (Italy) and Rur (Germany). In contrast with household consumer chemicals the transformation of pharmaceuticals in the human body needs to be incorporated in the emission estimation. The "PECinitial" of these pharmaceuticals in surface waters ranges from >1 microg/l (Oxytetracycline and Paracetamol) down to <1 ng/l (Ethinyl Oestradiol). Risk characterization employing PECs or measured environmental concentrations (MECs) and predicted-no-effect-concentrations (PNECs) from available ecotoxicity data is also reported.

  6. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome: a review of anatomy, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Williams, Bryan S; Cohen, Steven P

    2009-05-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) is a term used to describe chronic pain overlying the lateral aspect of the hip. This regional pain syndrome, once described as trochanteric bursitis, often mimics pain generated from other sources, including, but not limited to myofascial pain, degenerative joint disease, and spinal pathology. The incidence of greater trochanteric pain is reported to be approximately 1.8 patients per 1000 per year with the prevalence being higher in women, and patients with coexisting low back pain, osteoarthritis, iliotibial band tenderness, and obesity. Symptoms of GTPS consist of persistent pain in the lateral hip radiating along the lateral aspect of the thigh to the knee and occasionally below the knee and/or buttock. Physical examination reveals point tenderness in the posterolateral area of the greater trochanter. Most cases of GTPS are self-limited with conservative measures, such as physical therapy, weight loss, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and behavior modification, providing resolution of symptoms. Other treatment modalities include bursa or lateral hip injections performed with corticosteroid and local anesthetic. More invasive surgical interventions have anecdotally been reported to provide pain relief when conservative treatment modalities fail.

  7. Status on disposal of greater-than-Class C

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a plan for the management and disposal of commercially generated greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 made DOE responsible for disposal of GTCC waste. The act requires that GTCC waste be disposed in a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed facility. The NRC has amended 10 CFR 61 to express a preference for geologic disposal of GTCC waste. Based on reassessment studies, legislative guidance, and stakeholder involvement, a revised plan has been formulated to provide for total management of GTCC waste. The plan has four major thrusts: (1) plan for GTCC waste storage at the generator site until disposal is available, (2) establish storage for GTCC sealed sources posing health and safety risk to the public, (3) facilitate storage for other GTCC waste posing health and safety risk to the public, and (4) plan for co-disposal of GTCC waste in a geologic disposal site with similar waste types. The revised plan focuses on applying available resources to near- and long-term needs.

  8. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1991-12-31

    In 1985, Public Law 99-240 (Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985) made the Department of Energy (DOE) responsible for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW). DOE strategies for storage and disposal of GTCC LLW required characterization of volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate characteristics, project volumes, and determine radionuclide activities to the years 2035 and 2055. Twenty-year life extensions for 70% of the operating nuclear reactors were assumed to calculate the GTCC LLW available in 2055. The following categories of GTCC LLW were addressed: Nuclear Utilities Waste; Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW; DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW; and Other Generator Waste. It was determined that the largest volume of these wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear utilities. The Other Generator Waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035. Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW is less than 0.2% of the total projected volume. The base case total projected volume of GTCC LLW for all categories was 3,250 cubic meters. This was substantially less than previous estimates.

  9. Galactic Diffuse Gamma Ray Emission Is Greater than 10 Gev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    AGILE and Gamma-ray Large Area Telescope (GLAST) are the next high-energy gamma-ray telescopes to be flown in space. These instruments will have angular resolution about 5 times better than Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) above 10 GeV and much larger field of view. The on-axis effective area of AGILE will be about half that of EGRET, whereas GLAST will have about 6 times greater effective area than EGRET. The capabilities of ground based very high-energy telescopes are also improving, e.g. Whipple, and new telescopes, e.g. Solar Tower Atmospheric Cerenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE), Cerenkov Low Energy Sampling and Timing Experiment (CELESTE), and Mars Advanced Greenhouse Integrated Complex (MAGIC) are expected to have low-energy thresholds and sensitivities that will overlap the GLAST sensitivity above approximately 10 GeV. In anticipation of the results from these new telescopes, our current understanding of the galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, including the matter and cosmic ray distributions is reviewed. The outstanding questions are discussed and the potential of future observations with these new instruments to resolve these questions is examined.

  10. The Shifting Climate Portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Tercek, Michael T.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Ray, Andrew M.; Thoma, David P.; Hossack, Blake R.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Rodman, Ann W.; Olliff, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km) is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world’s most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948–2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA’s physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change. PMID:26674185

  11. Distribution of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, C.C.; Haroldson, M.A.; Gunther, K.; Moody, D.

    2006-01-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) proposed delisting the Yellowstone grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) in November 2005. Part of that process required knowledge of the most current distribution of the species. Here, we update an earlier estimate of occupied range (1990–2000) with data through 2004. We used kernel estimators to develop distribution maps of occupied habitats based on initial sightings of unduplicated females (n = 481) with cubs of the year, locations of radiomarked bears (n = 170), and spatially unique locations of conflicts, confrontations, and mortalities (n = 1,075). Although each data set was constrained by potential sampling bias, together they provided insight into areas in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) currently occupied by grizzly bears. The current distribution of 37,258 km2 (1990–2004) extends beyond the distribution map generated with data from 1990–2000 (34,416 km2 ). Range expansion is particularly evident in parts of the Caribou–Targhee National Forest in Idaho and north of Spanish Peaks on the Gallatin National Forest in Montana.

  12. The shifting climate portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam; Tercek, Mike T; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Ray, Andrew; Thoma, David P.; Hossack, Blake R.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Rodman, Ann; Olliff, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km) is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world’s most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948–2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA’s physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change.

  13. The Shifting Climate Portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, Adam J; Tercek, Michael T; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Ray, Andrew M; Thoma, David P; Hossack, Blake R; Pederson, Gregory T; Rodman, Ann W; Olliff, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km) is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world's most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948-2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA's physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change.

  14. Evaluation and management of greater trochanter pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Edward P; Middleton, Emily F; Brunette, Meredith

    2015-08-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is an enigmatic but common cause of lateral hip symptoms in middle-aged active women. The most common manifestation of this syndrome is a degenerative tendinopathy of the hip abductors similar to the intrinsic changes seen with rotator cuff pathology in the shoulder. There are no definitive tests to isolate the underlying pathology and palpation is a non-specific means by which to differentiate the source of the pain generator. The physical examination must comprehensively evaluate for a cluster of potential impairments and contributing factors that will need to be addressed to effectively manage the likely functional limitations and activity challenges the syndrome presents to the patient. Compressive forces through increased tension in the iliotibial band should be avoided. Intervention strategies should include education regarding postural avoidance, activity modifications, improvement of lumbopelvic control, and a patient approach to resolving hip joint restrictions and restoring the tensile capabilities of the deep rotators and abductors of the hip. A number of reliable and validated hip-specific self-report outcome tools are available to baseline a patient's status and monitor their progress. Further investigations to identify the epidemiological risk factors, establish effective treatment strategies, and predict prognosis are warranted.

  15. Seeking Signatures of Martian Magmatic Evolution within the Greater Thaumasia Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judice, T.; Karunatillake, S.; Rogers, D.; Dohm, J. M.; Susko, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    We characterize a plateau and proximal eastern regions, consisting of Thaumasia, Solis, and Syria Planae, in terms of chemistry, mineralogy, and mapped geology. We determine how such independent and complementary data bear upon the evolution of this region for mantle evolution models[1]. Three chemical provinces make up the Greater Thaumasia (GT) and are less obscured by unconsolidated layers of globally-derived < 40 μm-size sediments [Fig. 5][2]. This enables complementary insight from Visible/Near/Thermal-Infrared data[3]. Depleted H and enriched Si relative to their respective global averages[4] define region 70 to the East, with the southeastern parts of GT exposing many non-volcanic rocks dating to middle-late Noachian[5]. On the West, region 90 marks K and Th depletion. Region 75 is an overlap of regions 70 and 90. GT exposes Hesperian-aged units of mostly volcanic origin in the NW, with region 90 localized in Syria Planum and 75 in Solis Planum. Comparing elemental mass fractions derived from Mars Odyssey GRS of GT sub-regions to the rest of Mars (ROM), confirms Ca depletion in region 70. H2O depletion relative to ROM gets enhanced eastward to 70. Intriguingly, the intra-regional variation in Ca, as observed by the comparison with ROM, highlights its enrichment in 90 and 75. This may present an elemental signature supporting the detection of High-Ca Pyroxene (HCP) rocks by Rogers et al. [2014]. In detail, this convergence between regions 75 and 90, with the TES compositional class 8[3], indicate a possibility of HCP-rich volcanism. The enrichment of Si accompanied by H and Th depletion, across the Noachian-Hesperian transition in GT, diverges from mantle evolution models[1]. References [1] Balta, J. B. & McSween, H. Y., Geology 41,1115-1118 (2013) [2] Putzig, N. et al., Icarus 173,325-341 (2005) [3] Rogers, A. D. et al., LPSC 45,2-3 (2014) [4] Karunatillake, S. et al., J. Geophys. Res. 114,E12001 (2009) [5] Tanaka, K. L. et al., Geologic map of Mars: USGS

  16. Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Greater Long Island

    SciTech Connect

    ICF Kaiser.

    1999-05-20

    This coalition was the culmination a two-year joint effort by Long Island Lighting Company and the Long Island Regional Planning Board. The group's first alternative fuel project was a single fill compressed natural gas station and a converted Chevrolet Caprice. Since then, the coalition has made steady progress in the alternative fuel and alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) market. They have over 400 AFVs and 21 fueling stations in their operating area. Thanks to strong partnerships with local public and private organizations, they've also passed some of the most progressive state tax incentive legislation for AFVs in the country.

  17. Diversity at the Holarctic nexus: species of Arostrilepis (Eucestoda: Hymenolepididae) in arvicoline rodents (Cricetidae: Arvicolinae) from greater Beringia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously unrecognized species of hymenolepidid cestodes attributable to Arostrilepis Mas-Coma & Tenora, 1997 in arvicoline rodents from the greater Beringian region and western North America are described. Discovery and characterization of these tapeworms contributes to the recognition of a compl...

  18. Context of maternal lineages in the Greater Southwest.

    PubMed

    Carlyle, S W; Parr, R L; Hayes, M G; O'Rourke, D H

    2000-09-01

    We present mitochondrial haplogroup characterizations of the prehistoric Anasazi of the United States (US) Southwest. These data are part of a long-term project to characterize ancient Great Basin and US Southwest samples for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity. Three restriction site polymorphisms (RSPs) and one length polymorphism identify four common Native American matrilines (A, B, C, and D). The Anasazi (n = 27) are shown to have a moderate frequency of haplogroup A (22%), a high frequency of haplogroup B (56%), and a low frequency of C (15%). Haplogroup D has not yet been detected among the Anasazi. In comparison to modern Native American groups from the US Southwest, the Anasazi are shown to have a distribution of haplogroups similar to the frequency pattern exhibited by modern Pueblo groups. A principal component analysis also clusters the Anasazi with some modern (Pueblo) Southwestern populations, and away from other modern (Athapaskan speaking) Southwestern populations. The Anasazi are also shown to have a significantly different distribution of the four haplogroups as compared to the eastern Great Basin Great Salt Lake Fremont (n = 32), although both groups cluster together in a principal component analysis. The context of our data suggests substantial stability within the US Southwest, even in the face of the serious cultural and biological disruption caused by colonization of the region by European settlers. We conclude that although sample numbers are fairly low, ancient DNA (aDNA) data are useful for assessing long-term populational affinities and for discerning regional population structure.

  19. Observations of Reflected Ions and Plasma Turbulence for Satellite Potentials Greater than the Ion Ram Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. H., Jr.; Stone, N. H.; Sorensen, J.; Winningham, J. D.; Gurgiolo, C.

    1998-01-01

    During the TSS-1R mission, the behavior of the ions flowing from the forward hemisphere of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) satellite was examined as the potential of the satellite was changed from below to above 5 V. The ram energy of the ambient atomic oxygen ions is approximately 5 eV. For satellite potentials less than 5 V, no ions were observed on the ram side of the satellite. When the satellite potential was raised greater than 5 V, ions were observed to be flowing from the forward region of the satellite. In the region sampled, the ion flux was a few percent of the ambient with energies of approximately 5 eV. The temperature of the out-flowing ions was observed to be enhanced, relative to the ambient ionosphere. The net current to the probe package became much more noisy for satellite potentials greater than 5 V as compared with satellite potentials less than 5 V, indicating a more disturbed plasma environment.

  20. Humanitarian information systems and emergencies in the Greater Horn of Africa: logical components and logical linkages.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Daniel; Watkins, Ben

    2003-03-01

    Natural and man-made emergencies are regular occurrences in the Greater Horn of Africa region. The underlying impoverishment of whole populations is increasing, making it more difficult to distinguish between humanitarian crises triggered by shocks and those resulting from chronic poverty. Shocks and hazards can no longer be seen as one-off events that trigger a one-time response. In countries that are both poor and exposed to frequent episodes of debilitating drought or chronic conflict, information needs tend to be different from the straightforward early warning/commodity accounting models of information systems that have proven reliable in past emergencies. This paper describes the interdependent components of a humanitarian information system appropriate for this kind of complex environment, noting the analytical links between the components and operational links to programme and policy. By examining a series of case studies from the Greater Horn region, the paper demonstrates that systems lacking one or more of these components will fail to provide adequate information--and thus incur humanitarian costs. While information always comes with a cost, the price of poor information--or none--is higher. And in situations of chronic vulnerability, in which development interventions are likely to be interspersed with both safety nets and emergency interventions on a recurrent basis, investment in improved information is a good investment from both a humanitarian and a financial viewpoint.

  1. Did greater burial depth increase the seed size of domesticated legumes?

    PubMed

    Kluyver, Thomas A; Charles, Michael; Jones, Glynis; Rees, Mark; Osborne, Colin P

    2013-10-01

    The independent domestication of crop plants in several regions of the world formed the basis of human civilizations, and attracts considerable interest from archaeologists and biologists. Selection under cultivation led to a suite of domestication traits which distinguish crops from their wild progenitors, including larger seeds in most seed crops. This selection may be classified as 'conscious' or 'unconscious' selection according to whether humans were aware of the changes that they were driving. The hypothesis that human cultivation buried seeds deeper than natural dispersal, exerting unconscious selection favouring larger seeds with greater reserves, was tested. Using a comparative approach, accessions of eight grain legumes, originating from independent domestication centres across several continents, were sampled. Seeds were planted at different depths in a controlled environment, and seedling emergence scored for 5 weeks after sowing. Domestication in all species was associated with increased seed mass. In three species, greater mass was not correlated with increased ability to emerge from depth. In five species, emergence depth did correlate with mass, suggesting that selection during domestication may have acted on emergence depth. However, domestication only had a significant effect in two of these species (lentil and mung bean), and the increase in depth was no more than predicted by a cube-root allometric relationship with seed mass. The results do not support the hypothesis that burial under cultivation was a general selection mechanism for increased seed mass during the domestication of grain legumes, but it may have acted in particular species or regions.

  2. Continued warming could transform Greater Yellowstone fire regimes by mid-21st century.

    PubMed

    Westerling, Anthony L; Turner, Monica G; Smithwick, Erica A H; Romme, William H; Ryan, Michael G

    2011-08-09

    Climate change is likely to alter wildfire regimes, but the magnitude and timing of potential climate-driven changes in regional fire regimes are not well understood. We considered how the occurrence, size, and spatial location of large fires might respond to climate projections in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem (GYE) (Wyoming), a large wildland ecosystem dominated by conifer forests and characterized by infrequent, high-severity fire. We developed a suite of statistical models that related monthly climate data (1972-1999) to the occurrence and size of fires >200 ha in the northern Rocky Mountains; these models were cross-validated and then used with downscaled (~12 km × 12 km) climate projections from three global climate models to predict fire occurrence and area burned in the GYE through 2099. All models predicted substantial increases in fire by midcentury, with fire rotation (the time to burn an area equal to the landscape area) reduced to <30 y from the historical 100-300 y for most of the GYE. Years without large fires were common historically but are expected to become rare as annual area burned and the frequency of regionally synchronous fires increase. Our findings suggest a shift to novel fire-climate-vegetation relationships in Greater Yellowstone by midcentury because fire frequency and extent would be inconsistent with persistence of the current suite of conifer species. The predicted new fire regime would transform the flora, fauna, and ecosystem processes in this landscape and may indicate similar changes for other subalpine forests.

  3. Structure contour map of the greater Green River basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lickus, M.R.; Law, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Greater Green River basin of Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah contains five basins and associated major uplifts (fig. 1). Published structure maps of the region have commonly used the top of the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone as a structural datum (Petroleum Ownership Map Company (POMCO), 1984; Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists, 1972). However, because relatively few wells in this area penetrate the Dakota, the Dakota structural datum has to be constructed by projecting down from shallower wells. Extrapolating in this manner may produce errors in the map. The primary purpose of this report is to present a more reliable structure contour map of the Greater Green River basin based on datums that are penetrated by many wells. The final map shows the large- to small-scale structures present in the Greater Green River basin. The availability of subsurface control and the map scale determined whether or not a structural feature was included on the map. In general, large structures such as the Moxa arch, Pinedale anticline, and other large folds were placed on the map based solely on the structure contours. In comparison, smaller folds and some faults were placed on the map based on structure contours and other reports (Bader 1987; Bradley 1961; Love and Christiansen, 1985; McDonald, 1975; Roehler, 1979; Wyoming Geological Association Oil and Gas Symposium Committee, 1979). State geologic maps and other reports were used to position basin margin faults (Bryant, 1985; Gries, 1983a, b; Hansen 1986; Hintze, 1980; Love and Christiansen, 1985; Tweto, 1979, 1983). In addition, an interpreted east-west-trending regional seismic line by Garing and Tainter (1985), which shows the basin configuration in cross-section, was helpful in locating buried faults, such as the high-angle reverse or thrust fault along the west flank of the Rock Springs uplift.

  4. Understanding greater cardiomyocyte functions on aligned compared to random carbon nanofibers in PLGA.

    PubMed

    Asiri, Abdullah M; Marwani, Hadi M; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated greater cardiomyocyte density on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) aligned (compared to randomly oriented) in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composites. Although such studies demonstrated a closer mimicking of anisotropic electrical and mechanical properties for such aligned (compared to randomly oriented) CNFs in PLGA composites, the objective of the present in vitro study was to elucidate a deeper mechanistic understanding of how cardiomyocyte densities recognize such materials to respond more favorably. Results showed lower wettability (greater hydrophobicity) of CNFs embedded in PLGA compared to pure PLGA, thus providing evidence of selectively lower wettability in aligned CNF regions. Furthermore, the results correlated these changes in hydrophobicity with increased adsorption of fibronectin, laminin, and vitronectin (all proteins known to increase cardiomyocyte adhesion and functions) on CNFs in PLGA compared to pure PLGA, thus providing evidence of selective initial protein adsorption cues on such CNF regions to promote cardiomyocyte adhesion and growth. Lastly, results of the present in vitro study further confirmed increased cardiomyocyte functions by demonstrating greater expression of important cardiomyocyte biomarkers (such as Troponin-T, Connexin-43, and α-sarcomeric actin) when CNFs were aligned compared to randomly oriented in PLGA. In summary, this study provided evidence that cardiomyocyte functions are improved on CNFs aligned in PLGA compared to randomly oriented in PLGA since CNFs are more hydrophobic than PLGA and attract the adsorption of key proteins (fibronectin, laminin, and vironectin) that are known to promote cardiomyocyte adhesion and expression of important cardiomyocyte functions. Thus, future studies should use this knowledge to further design improved CNF:PLGA composites for numerous cardiovascular applications.

  5. Physician Payments from Industry Are Associated with Greater Medicare Part D Prescribing Costs

    PubMed Central

    Perlis, Roy H.; Perlis, Clifford S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The U.S. Physician Payments Sunshine Act mandates the reporting of payments or items of value received by physicians from drug, medical device, and biological agent manufacturers. The impact of these payments on physician prescribing has not been examined at large scale. Methods We linked public Medicare Part D prescribing data and Sunshine Act data for 2013. Physician payments were examined descriptively within specialties, and then for association with prescribing costs and patterns using regression models. Models were adjusted for potential physician-level confounding features, including sex, geographic region, and practice size. Results Among 725,169 individuals with Medicare prescribing data, 341,644 had documented payments in the OPP data (47.1%). Among all physicians receiving funds, mean payment was $1750 (SD $28336); median was $138 (IQR $48-$394). Across the 12 specialties examined, a dose-response relationship was observed in which greater payments were associated with greater prescribing costs per patient. In adjusted regression models, being in the top quintile of payment receipt was associated with incremental prescribing cost per patient ranging from $27 (general surgery) to $2931 (neurology). Similar associations were observed with proportion of branded prescriptions written. Conclusions While distribution and amount of payments differed widely across medical specialties, for each of the 12 specialties examined the receipt of payments was associated with greater prescribing costs per patient, and greater proportion of branded medication prescribing. We cannot infer a causal relationship, but interventions aimed at those physicians receiving the most payments may present an opportunity to address prescribing costs in the US. PMID:27183221

  6. Wise Detections of Known QSOS at Redshifts Greater Than Six

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blain, Andrew W.; Assef, Roberto; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Bridge, Carrie; Benford, Dominic; Jarrett, Tom; Cutri, Roc; Petty, Sara; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.

    2013-01-01

    We present WISE All-Sky mid-infrared (IR) survey detections of 55 % (17/31) of the known QSOs at z greater than 6 from a range of surveys: the SDSS, the CFHT-LS, FIRST, Spitzer and UK1DSS. The WISE catalog thus provides a substantial increase in tiie quantity of IR data available for these sources: 17 are detected in the WISE Wl (3.4 micrometer) band, 16 in W2 (4.6 micrometers), 3 in W3 (12 micrometers) and 0 in W4 (22micrometers). This is particularly important with Spitzer in its warm-mission phase and no faint follow-up capability at wavelengths longwards of 5 micrometers until the launch of JWST. WISE thus provides a useful tool for understanding QSOs found in forthcoming large-area optical/IR sky surveys, using PanSTARRS, SkyMapper, VISTA, DES and LSST. The rest-UV properties of the WISE-detected and the WISE-non-detected samples differ: the detections have brighter i/z-band magnitudes and redder rest-UV colors. This suggests thai a more aggressive hunt for very-high-redshift QSOs, by combining WISE Wl and W2 data with red observed optical colors could be effective at least, for a subset of dusty candidate QSOs. Stacking the WISE images of the WISE-non-detected QSOs indicates that they are on average significantly fainter than the WISE-detccted examples, and are thus not narrowly missing detection in the WISE catalog. The WISE-catalog detection of three of our sample in the W3 band indicates that their mid-ID flux can be detected individually, although there is no stacked W3 detection of sources detected in Wl but not. W3. Stacking analyses of WISE data for large AGN samples will be a useful tool, and high-redshifl. QSOs of all types will be easy targets for JWST.

  7. Home range dynamics, habitat selection, and survival of Greater Roadrunners

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, S.W.; Ransom, D.; Butcher, J.A.; Schulz, G.G.; Surber, B.W.; Pinchak, W.E.; Santamaria, C.A.; Hurtado, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Greater Roadrunners (Geococcyx californianus) are common, poorly studied birds of arid and semi-arid ecosystems in the southwestern United States. Conservation of this avian predator requires a detailed understanding of their movements and spatial requirements that is currently lacking. From 2006 to 2009, we quantified home-range and core area sizes and overlap, habitat selection, and survival of roadrunners (N= 14 males and 20 females) in north-central Texas using radio-telemetry and fixed kernel estimators. Median home-range and core-area sizes were 90.4 ha and 19.2 ha for males and 80.1 ha and 16.7 ha for females, respectively. The size of home range and core areas did not differ significantly by either sex or season. Our home range estimates were twice as large (x??= 108.9 ha) as earlier published estimates based on visual observations (x??= 28-50 ha). Mean percent overlap was 38.4% for home ranges and 13.7% for core areas. Male roadrunners preferred mesquite woodland and mesquite savanna cover types, and avoided the grass-forb cover type. Female roadrunners preferred mesquite savanna and riparian woodland cover types, and avoided grass-forb habitat. Kaplan-Meier annual survival probabilities for females (0.452 ?? 0.118[SE]) were twice that estimated for males (0.210 ?? 0.108), but this difference was not significant. Mortality rates of male roadrunners were higher than those of females during the spring when males call from elevated perches, court females, and chase competing males. Current land use practices that target woody-shrub removal to enhance livestock forage production could be detrimental to roadrunner populations by reducing availability of mesquite woodland and mesquite savanna habitat required for nesting and roosting and increasing the amount of grass-forb habitat that roadrunners avoid. ??2011 The Authors. Journal of Field Ornithology ??2011 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  8. Minimally Invasive Hysterectomy for Uteri Greater Than One Kilogram

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Maria V.; Moawad, Gaby N.; Opoku-Anane, Jessica; Shu, Michael K. M.; Marfori, Cherie Q.; Robinson, James K.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To assess the feasibility and safety of minimally invasive hysterectomy for uteri >1 kg. Methods: Clinical and surgical characteristics were collected for patients in an academic tertiary care hospital. Included were patients who underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy by 1 of 3 fellowship-trained gynecologists from January 1, 2009, to July 1, 2015 and subsequently had confirmed uterine weights of 1 kg or greater on pathology report. Both robotic and conventional laparoscopic procedures were included. Results: During the study period, 95 patients underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy with confirmed uterine weight over 1 kg. Eighty-eight percent were performed with conventional laparoscopy and 12.6% with robot-assisted laparoscopy. The median weight (range) was 1326 g (range, 1000–4800). The median estimated blood loss was 200 mL (range, 50–2000), and median operating time was 191 minutes (range, 75–478). Five cases were converted to laparotomy (5.2%). Four cases were converted secondary to hemorrhage and one secondary to extensive adhesions. There were no conversions after 2011. Intraoperative transfusion was given in 6.3% of cases and postoperative transfusion in 6.3% of cases. However, after 2013, the rate of intraoperative transfusion decreased to 1.0% and postoperative transfusion to 2.1%. Of the 95 cases, there were no cases with malignancy. Conclusions: This provides the largest case series of hysterectomy over 1 kg completed by a minimally invasive approach. Our complication rate improved with experience and was comparable to other studies of minimally invasive hysterectomy for large uteri. When performed by experienced surgeons, minimally invasive hysterectomy for uteri >1 kg can be considered feasible and safe. PMID:28352147

  9. Lancet dynamics in greater horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum.

    PubMed

    He, Weikai; Pedersen, Scott C; Gupta, Anupam K; Simmons, James A; Müller, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Echolocating greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) emit their biosonar pulses nasally, through nostrils surrounded by fleshy appendages ('noseleaves') that diffract the outgoing ultrasonic waves. Movements of one noseleaf part, the lancet, were measured in live bats using two synchronized high speed video cameras with 3D stereo reconstruction, and synchronized with pulse emissions recorded by an ultrasonic microphone. During individual broadcasts, the lancet briefly flicks forward (flexion) and is then restored to its original position. This forward motion lasts tens of milliseconds and increases the curvature of the affected noseleaf surfaces. Approximately 90% of the maximum displacements occurred within the duration of individual pulses, with 70% occurring towards the end. Similar lancet motions were not observed between individual pulses in a sequence of broadcasts. Velocities of the lancet motion were too small to induce Doppler shifts of a biologically-meaningful magnitude, but the maximum displacements were significant in comparison with the overall size of the lancet and the ultrasonic wavelengths. Three finite element models were made from micro-CT scans of the noseleaf post mortem to investigate the acoustic effects of lancet displacement. The broadcast beam shapes were found to be altered substantially by the observed small lancet movements. These findings demonstrate that-in addition to the previously described motions of the anterior leaf and the pinna-horseshoe bat biosonar has a third degree of freedom for fast changes that can happen on the time scale of the emitted pulses or the returning echoes and could provide a dynamic mechanism for the encoding of sensory information.

  10. Greater risks of chemotherapy toxicity in elderly patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Lazzaro

    2003-01-01

    Complications of cytotoxic chemotherapy are more common in older patients (65 years of age and older) with cancer than in younger patients, and the occurrence of myelosuppression, mucositis, cardiodepression, peripheral neuropathy, and central neurotoxicity can complicate treatment. Age-related physiologic changes that can increase the toxicity of chemotherapy are decreased stem-cell reserves, decreased ability to repair cell damage, progressive loss of body protein, and accumulation of body fat. A decline in organ function can alter the pharmacokinetics of many of the commonly used chemotherapeutic agents in some elderly patients, making toxicity less predictable. Comorbidities increase the risk of toxicity through their effects on the body. Furthermore, the drugs used to treat comorbidities may interact with chemotherapeutic drugs, potentially increasing toxicity in elderly patients. Prospective trials in older patients with lymphoma or solid tumors have found that age is a risk factor for chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and its complications. Anemia may be present because of the disease or its treatment, and, if left uncorrected, it can alter drug activity and increase toxicity. Being able to predict which elderly patients are at greater risk of toxicity on the basis of pretreatment factors would be valuable, and there is a need for prospective trials to determine regimen- and patient-specific prognostic factors. Effective management of the toxicity associated with chemotherapy with appropriate supportive care is crucial, especially in the elderly population, to give them the best chance of cure and survival, or to provide palliation. For example, management of neutropenic complications with colony-stimulating factors makes treatment with standard-dose chemotherapy possible, which can lead to better outcomes. A better understanding of drug activity and toxicity in older patients is necessary for developing guidelines for safe and effective treatment. Few

  11. Interspecific nest parasitism by chukar on greater sage-grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fearon, Michelle L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Nest parasitism occurs when a female bird lays eggs in the nest of another and the host incubates the eggs and may provide some form of parental care for the offspring (Lyon and Eadie 1991). Precocial birds (e.g., Galliformes and Anseriformes) are typically facultative nest parasites of both their own and other species (Lyon and Eadie 1991). This behavior increases a female’s reproductive success when she parasitizes other nests while simultaneously raising her own offspring. Both interspecific and conspecific nest parasitism have been well documented in several families of the order Galliformes, particularly the Phasianidae (Lyon and Eadie 1991, Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001, Krakauer and Kimball 2009). The Chukar (Alectoris chukar) has been widely introduced as a game bird to western North America from Eurasia and is now well established within the Great Basin from northeastern California east to Utah and north to Idaho and Oregon (Christensen 1996). Over much of this range the Chukar occurs with other phasianids, including the native Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), within sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999, Connelly et al. 2000). Chukar typically exploit a broader range of habitats than do sage-grouse, but both species use the same species of sagebrush and other shrubs for nesting cover (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999). Chukar are known to parasitize nests of other individuals of their own species (Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001), but we are unaware of reported evidence that Chukar may parasitize nests of sage-grouse. Here we describe a case of a Chukar parasitizing a sage-grouse nest in the sagebrush steppe of western Nevada.

  12. Greater sage-grouse winter habitat selection and energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, K.E.; Naugle, D.E.; Walker, B.L.; Graham, J.M.

    2008-01-15

    Recent energy development has resulted in rapid and large-scale changes to western shrub-steppe ecosystems without a complete understanding of its potential impacts on wildlife populations. We modeled winter habitat use by female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana, USA, to 1) identify landscape features that influenced sage-grouse habitat selection, 2) assess the scale at which selection occurred, 3) spatially depict winter habitat quality in a Geographic Information System, and 4) assess the effect of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) development on winter habitat selection. We developed a model of winter habitat selection based on 435 aerial relocations of 200 radiomarked female sage-grouse obtained during the winters of 2005 and 2006. Percent sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) cover on the landscape was an important predictor of use by sage-grouse in winter. Sage-grouse were 1.3 times more likely to occupy sagebrush habitats that lacked CBNG wells within a 4-km{sup 2} area, compared to those that had the maximum density of 12.3 wells per 4 km{sup 2} allowed on federal lands. We validated the model with 74 locations from 74 radiomarked individuals obtained during the winters of 2004 and 2007. This winter habitat model based on vegetation, topography, and CBNG avoidance was highly predictive (validation R{sup 2} = 0.984). Our spatially explicit model can be used to identify areas that provide the best remaining habitat for wintering sage-grouse in the PRB to mitigate impacts of energy development.

  13. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  14. Quaternary geology and ecology of the Greater Yellowstone area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, Kenneth L.; Despain, D.G.; Whitlock, Cathy; Cannon, Kenneth P.; Meyer, Grant A.; Morgan, Lisa; Licciardi, Joseph M.

    2003-01-01

    This field guide focuses on the glacial geology, ecology, paleoecology, caldera unrest, and archeology in Yellowstone and Grand Teton national parks and vicinity (Fig. 1). Some previous field guides of Yellowstone are Locke et al. (1995) for the Yellowstone valley, Fournier et al. (1994) for hydrothermal and volcanic geology of Yellowstone, and Pierce and Good (1992) for the Quaternary of Jackson Hole. Non–technical overviews of Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks are Good and Pierce (1996) and Smith and Siegel (2000). Geologic maps are: Grand Teton (Love et al., 1992), and Yellowstone (bedrock and surficial geology (USGS, 1972a; 1972b). Christiansen (2001) extensively describes Yellowstone’s volcanic geology, and Pierce (1979) describes the glacial geology of the northern Yellowstone region. We suggest that you obtain detailed maps.

  15. Health equity and migrants in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Celia; Healy, Judith

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Migrant health is receiving increasing international attention, reflecting recognition of the health inequities experienced among many migrant populations and the need for health systems to adapt to diverse migrant populations. In the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) there is increasing migration associated with uneven economic integration and growth, socio-economic vulnerabilities, and disparities between countries. There has been limited progress, however, in improving migrant access to health services in the Subregion. This paper examines the health needs, access barriers, and policy responses to cross-border migrants in five GMS countries. Methods: A review of published literature and research was conducted on migrant health and health service access in Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam, as well as analysis of current migration trends and universal health coverage (UHC) indicators in the Subregion. The review included different migrant types: i.e. migrant workers, irregular migrants, victims of trafficking, refugees and asylum seekers, and casual cross-border migrants. Results: There is substantial diversity in the capacity of GMS health systems to address migrant populations. Thailand has sought to enhance migrant health coverage, including development of migrant health policies/programs, bilateral migrant worker agreements, and migrant health insurance schemes; Viet Nam provides health protection for emigrant workers. Overall, however, access to good quality health care remains weak for many citizens in GMS countries let alone migrants. Migrant workers – and irregular migrants in particular – face elevated health risks yet are not adequately covered and incur high out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for health services. Conclusions: UHC implies equity: UHC is only achieved when everyone has the opportunity to access and use good-quality health care. Efforts to achieve UHC in the GMS require

  16. Effectiveness of Greater Occipital Nerve Blocks in Migraine Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    İNAN, Nurten; İNAN, Levent E.; COŞKUN, Özlem; TUNÇ, Tuğba; İLHAN, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral nerve blocks have been used in primary headache treatment since a long time. In this study, we aimed to examine the efficiency of greater occipital nerve (GON) block in migraine prophylaxis. Methods Data from migraine without aura patients who had GON block were collected and divided into two groups: Group PGON (n=25), which included patients who were under medical prophylaxis and had GON block, and Group GON (n=53), which included patients who had only GON blocks. Migraine was diagnosed using International Headache Society (IHS) classification. Data of 78 patients were analyzed. Headache attack frequency, headache duration, and severity were compared between and within groups in a 3-month follow-up period. Results The decrease in headache parameters after GON block in both groups was significantly similar. Headache attack frequency decreased from 15.73±7.21 (pretreatment) to 4.52±3.61 (3rd month) in Group GON and from 13.76±8.07 to 3.28±2.15 in Group PGON (p<0.05). Headache duration decreased from 18.51±9.43 to 8.02±5.58 at 3rd month in Group GON and from 15.20±9.16 to 7.20±4.16 in Group PGON (p<0.05). Headache severity decreased from 8.26±1.32 to 5.16±2.64 in Group GON and from 8.08±0.90 to 5.96±1.20 in Group PGON (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in 3rd month after treatment (p>0.05). Conclusion This study showed significant decreases in headache parameters in both groups. As GON blocks were performed in patients unresponsive to medical prophylaxis, a decrease in the headache parameters in Group PGON similar to that in Group GON can be attributed to GON blocks. Consequently, these results show that repeated GON blocks with local anesthetic can be an effective alternative treatment in migraine patients who are unresponsive to medical prophylaxis or who do not prefer to use medical prophylaxis. PMID:28360765

  17. Latin American perspectives on the individual and the greater community.

    PubMed

    Siqueira Wiarda, I

    1983-08-01

    betterment; social justice; and individual dignity. In all these questions, there are legitimate rationales for childbearing or for contraceptive use from the individual's perspective, but from the point of view of the global community, continued high fertility appears to be a longterm plan for disaster. By taking into account the greater good of the community, the exercise of individual choices takes on new meaning.

  18. Exercising in environmental extremes : a greater threat to immune function?

    PubMed

    Walsh, Neil P; Whitham, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Athletes, military personnel, fire fighters, mountaineers and astronauts may be required to perform in environmental extremes (e.g. heat, cold, high altitude and microgravity). Exercising in hot versus thermoneutral conditions (where core temperature is > or = 1 degrees C higher in hot conditions) augments circulating stress hormones, catecholamines and cytokines with associated increases in circulating leukocytes. Studies that have clamped the rise in core temperature during exercise (by exercising in cool water) demonstrate a large contribution of the rise in core temperature in the leukocytosis and cytokinaemia of exercise. However, with the exception of lowered stimulated lymphocyte responses after exercise in the heat, and in exertional heat illness patients (core temperature > 40 degrees C), recent laboratory studies show a limited effect of exercise in the heat on neutrophil function, monocyte function, natural killer cell activity and mucosal immunity. Therefore, most of the available evidence does not support the contention that exercising in the heat poses a greater threat to immune function (vs thermoneutral conditions). From a critical standpoint, due to ethical committee restrictions, most laboratory studies have evoked modest core temperature responses (< 39 degrees C). Given that core temperature during exercise in the field often exceeds levels associated with fever and hyperthermia (approximately 39.5 degrees C) field studies may provide an opportunity to determine the effects of severe heat stress on immunity. Field studies may also provide insight into the possible involvement of immune modulation in the aetiology of exertional heat stroke (core temperature > 40.6 degrees C) and identify the effects of acclimatisation on neuroendocrine and immune responses to exercise-heat stress. Laboratory studies can provide useful information by, for example, applying the thermal clamp model to examine the involvement of the rise in core temperature in the

  19. Family stability in greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.

    1993-01-01

    I investigated the stability of parent-offspring bonds, and sibling-sibling bonds of neck-banded Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) during winters (September-May) in California and southern Oregon from 1979 to 1989. Geese captured at feeding sites were more likely to be in social groups than those captured at roosting sites. Offspring remained associated with their parents longer than reported for other geese, as 69% of yearlings, 39% of two-year-olds, and 38% of three-year-olds and older were observed with their parents during winter. The proportion of time offspring spent with their parents declined as they grew older, being 76% for juveniles, 32% for yearlings, and 15% for two-year-olds and older. The prevalence of extended family groups was corroborated by counts of landing groups of unmarked geese. Sibling bonds also persisted after the first year of life, with 74%, 50%, and 39% of siblings maintaining some degree of social contact at ages of one, two and three years or older, respectively. Older offspring were more likely to associate with brood mates than with parents. Intensive observations ended when the oldest known-age geese were 34 months old. Incidental sightings in subsequent years revealed that some offspring up to eight years of age still associated with their parents and/or siblings. The benefits of maintaining long-term family bonds were not readily apparent, as there was no difference in the reproductive success of parents with and without attendant offspring, and yearlings that associated with parents were not more likely to survive than yearlings that did not associate with parents. However, older offspring and their parents may benefit by remaining together if extended families are more dominant and have better access to limited food and safe roost sites. Parents benefit if their fitness is enhanced due to nest defense provided by older offspring, and subadults probably benefit from staying with their parents by learning

  20. The Centennial Trends Greater Horn of Africa precipitation dataset.

    PubMed

    Funk, Chris; Nicholson, Sharon E; Landsfeld, Martin; Klotter, Douglas; Peterson, Pete; Harrison, Laura

    2015-01-01

    East Africa is a drought prone, food and water insecure region with a highly variable climate. This complexity makes rainfall estimation challenging, and this challenge is compounded by low rain gauge densities and inhomogeneous monitoring networks. The dearth of observations is particularly problematic over the past decade, since the number of records in globally accessible archives has fallen precipitously. This lack of data coincides with an increasing scientific and humanitarian need to place recent seasonal and multi-annual East African precipitation extremes in a deep historic context. To serve this need, scientists from the UC Santa Barbara Climate Hazards Group and Florida State University have pooled their station archives and expertise to produce a high quality gridded 'Centennial Trends' precipitation dataset. Additional observations have been acquired from the national meteorological agencies and augmented with data provided by other universities. Extensive quality control of the data was carried out and seasonal anomalies interpolated using kriging. This paper documents the CenTrends methodology and data.

  1. High-resolution shear-wave seismics across the Carlsberg Fault zone south of Copenhagen - Implications for linking Mesozoic and late Pleistocene structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammann, Janina; Hübscher, Christian; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Nielsen, Lars

    2016-07-01

    The Carlsberg Fault zone (CFZ) is a NNW-SSE striking structure close to the transition zone between the Danish Basin and the Baltic Shield. We examine the fault evolution by combining very-high-resolution onshore shear-wave seismic data, one conventional onshore seismic profile and marine reflection seismic profiles. The faulting geometry indicates a strong influence of Triassic subsidence and rifting in the Central European Basin System. Growth strata within the CFZ surrounding Höllviken Graben reveal syntectonic sedimentation in the Lower Triassic, indicating the opening to be a result of Triassic rifting. In the Upper Cretaceous growth faulting documents continued rifting. These findings contrast the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene inversion tectonics in neighboring structures, such as the Tornquist Zone. The high-resolution shear-wave seismic method was used to image faulting in Quaternary and Danian layers in the CFZ. The portable compact vibrator source ElViS III S8 was used to acquire a 1150 m long seismic section on the island Amager, south of Copenhagen. The shallow subsurface in the investigation area is dominated by Quaternary glacial till deposits in the upper 5-11 m and Danian limestone below. In the shear-wave profile, we imaged the uppermost 30 m of the western part of CFZ. The complex fault zone comprises normal block faults and one reverse block fault. The observed faults cut through the Danian as well as the Quaternary overburden. Hence, there are strong indicators for ongoing faulting, like mapped faulting in Quaternary sediments and ongoing subsidence of the eastern block of the CFZ as interpreted by other authors. The lack of earthquakes localized in the fault zone implies that either the frequency of occurring earthquakes is too small to be recorded in the observation time-span, or that the movement of the shallow sub-surface layers may be due to other sources than purely tectonic processes.

  2. Morbidity and Mortality in 7,684 Women According to Personal Hair Dye Use: The Copenhagen City Heart Study followed for 37 Years

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Permanent hair dye contains aromatic amines which are carcinogenic, and can cause allergic skin reactions. In the long term personal use of hair dye might therefore influence both morbidity and mortality. Objectives We tested the hypothesis that personal use of hair dye in women is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the general population. Methods We included 7,684 women from the Copenhagen City Heart Study with information on the use of personal hair dye. We assessed the risk of cancer, skin diseases, other morbidities, and mortality during a median follow-up of 27 years (range 0–37). Results The multivariable adjusted hazard ratio for malignant melanoma in women with versus without personal use of hair dye was 2.07 (95% confidence interval 1.25–3.42). There was no increased risk of other cancer types. For other skin diseases and other major causes of morbidity we found no differences between the two groups, except for a minor excess of digestive diseases and increased risk of Parkinson’s disease among women using hair dye. Finally, we found no difference in all-cause mortality comparing women using personal hair dye or not. After correction for multiple comparisons, none of the results remained significant. However, in sensitivity analysis the excess risk of malignant melanoma remained increased with a hazard ratio of 2.58 (95%CI 1.33–5.03) among users of personal hair dye. Conclusions Personal use of hair dye does not have major influences on morbidity and mortality. Our finding of a 2-fold risk of malignant melanoma in women using hair dye is hypothesis generating. PMID:26986063

  3. Ancestral Puebloan mtDNA in Context of the Greater Southwest

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Kathy R.; Smith, David Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) was extracted from the human remains of seventy-three individuals from the Tommy and Mine Canyon sites (dated to PI-II and PIII, respectively), located on the B-Square Ranch in the Middle San Juan region of New Mexico. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups of forty-eight (65.7%) of these samples were identified, and their frequency distributions were compared with those of other prehistoric and modern populations from the Greater Southwest and Mexico. The haplogroup frequency distributions for the two sites were statistically significantly different from each other, with the Mine Canyon site exhibiting an unusually high frequency of haplogroup A for a Southwestern population, indicating the possible influence of migration or other evolutionary forces. However, both sites exhibited a relatively high frequency of haplogroup B, typical of Southwestern populations, suggesting continuity in the Southwest, as has been hypothesized by others (S. Carlyle 2003; Carlyle, et al. 2000; Kemp 2006; Malhi, et al. 2003; Smith, et al. 2000). The first hypervariable region of twenty-three individuals (31.5%) was also sequenced to confirm haplogroup assignments and compared with other sequences from the region. This comparison further strengthens the argument for population continuity in the Southwest without a detectable influence from Mesoamerica. PMID:20514346

  4. Modeling Phosphorus Transport and Cycling in the Greater Everglades Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, A. I.; Grace, K. A.; Jawitz, J. W.; Muller, S.; Munoz-Carpena, R.; Flaig, E. G.

    2005-12-01

    components. The model is linked with the South Florida Water Management District Regional Simulation Model (SFWMD/RSM), which provides the hydrodynamic data necessary to model chemical transport.

  5. Greater sexual reproduction contributes to differences in demography of invasive plants and their noninvasive relatives.

    PubMed

    Burns, Jean H; Pardini, Eleanor A; Schutzenhofer, Michele R; Chung, Y Anny; Seidler, Katie J; Knight, Tiffany M

    2013-05-01

    An understanding of the demographic processes contributing to invasions would improve our mechanistic understanding of the invasion process and improve the efficiency of prevention and control efforts. However, field comparisons of the demography of invasive and noninvasive species have not previously been conducted. We compared the in situ demography of 17 introduced plant species in St. Louis, Missouri, USA, to contrast the demographic patterns of invasive species with their less invasive relatives across a broad sample of angiosperms. Using herbarium records to estimate spread rates, we found higher maximum spread rates in the landscape for species classified a priori as invasive than for noninvasive introduced species, suggesting that expert classifications are an accurate reflection of invasion rate. Across 17 species, projected population growth was not significantly greater in invasive than in noninvasive introduced species. Among five taxonomic pairs of close relatives, however, four of the invasive species had higher projected population growth rates compared with their noninvasive relative. A Life Table Response Experiment suggested that the greater projected population growth rate of some invasive species relative to their noninvasive relatives was primarily a result of sexual reproduction. The greater sexual reproduction of invasive species is consistent with invaders having a life history strategy more reliant on fecundity than survival and is consistent with a large role of propagule pressure in invasion. Sexual reproduction is a key demographic correlate of invasiveness, suggesting that local processes influencing sexual reproduction, such as enemy escape, might be of general importance. However, the weak correlation of projected population growth with spread rates in the landscape suggests that regional processes, such as dispersal, may be equally important in determining invasion rate.

  6. Yearling greater sage-grouse response to energy development in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holloran, M.J.; Kaiser, R.C.; Hubert, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.)-dominated habitats in the western United States have experienced extensive, rapid changes due to development of natural-gas fields, resulting in localized declines of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations. It is unclear whether population declines in natural-gas fields are caused by avoidance or demographic impacts, or the age classes that are most affected. Land and wildlife management agencies need information on how energy developments affect sage-grouse populations to ensure informed land-use decisions are made, effective mitigation measures are identified, and appropriate monitoring programs are implemented (Sawyer et al. 2006). We used information from radio-equipped greater sage-grouse and lek counts to investigate natural-gas development influences on 1) the distribution of, and 2) the probability of recruiting yearling males and females into breeding populations in the Upper Green River Basin of southwestern Wyoming, USA. Yearling males avoided leks near the infrastructure of natural-gas fields when establishing breeding territories; yearling females avoided nesting within 950 m of the infrastructure of natural-gas fields. Additionally, both yearling males and yearling females reared in areas where infrastructure was present had lower annual survival, and yearling males established breeding territories less often, compared to yearlings reared in areas with no infrastructure. Our results supply mechanisms for population-level declines of sage-grouse documented in natural-gas fields, and suggest to land managers that current stipulations on development may not provide management solutions. Managing landscapes so that suitably sized and located regions remain undeveloped may be an effective strategy to sustain greater sage-grouse populations affected by energy developments. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  7. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, in Northeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Park, Yung Chul

    2016-01-01

    The greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, is an important model organism for studies on chiropteran phylogeographic patterns. Previous studies revealed the population history of R. ferrumequinum from Europe and most Asian regions, yet there continue to be arguments about their evolutionary process in Northeast Asia. In this study, we obtained mitochondrial DNA cyt b and D-loop data of R. ferrumequinum from Northeast China, South Korea and Japan to clarify their phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary process. Our results indicate a highly supported monophyletic group of Northeast Asian greater horseshoe bats, in which Japanese populations formed a single clade and clustered into the mixed branches of Northeast Chinese and South Korean populations. We infer that R. ferrumequinum in Northeast Asia originated in Northeast China and South Korea during a cold glacial period, while some ancestors likely arrived in Japan by flying or land bridge and subsequently adapted to the local environment. Consequently, during the warm Eemian interglaciation, the Korea Strait, between Japan and South Korea, became a geographical barrier to Japanese and inland populations, while the Changbai Mountains, between China and North Korea, did not play a significant role as a barrier between Northeast China and South Korea populations. PMID:27761309

  8. Histomorphology of the mandibular condylar cartilage in greater galagos (Otolemur spp.).

    PubMed

    Burrows, Anne M; Smith, Timothy D

    2007-01-01

    The functional morphology of the primate craniomandibular complex and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) components is frequently discussed in terms of gross skeletal structure. At the histomorphologic level, however, the TMJ has only been studied in Old World anthropoids. The present study is designed to describe the microanatomy of the condylar cartilage of the TMJ in two closely related species of greater galago: the exudativorous Otolemur crassicaudatus and the frugivorous O. garnettii. TMJs with intact joint capsules were harvested from adult, cadaveric specimens of these species (four O. crassicaudatus and five O. garnettii). The samples were decalcified, processed for paraffin sectioning, and sectioned at 10-18 microm in the coronal plane. The samples were then stained with hematoxylin/eosin, Gomori trichrome, and Alcian blue, and examined with a photomicroscope. Generally, condylar cartilage in O. crassicaudatus was thickest both laterally and centrally, while O. garnettii had the relatively thickest cartilage laterally. Both species displayed a superficial articular zone, a middle proliferative zone, and a deeply located hypertrophic zone in the condylar cartilage. O. crassicaudatus typically had the greatest cell density in each of these zones. In addition, O. crassicaudatus had focal concentrations of Alcian blue laterally and centrally, while O. garnettii had the greatest reactivity in the central portion only. These results suggest that O. crassicaudatus may be specialized to resist greater compressive force at the TMJ condylar cartilage in specific regions of the mandibular condyle.

  9. Earlier-season vegetation has greater temperature sensitivity of spring phenology in northern hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Shen, Miaogen; Tang, Yanhong; Chen, Jin; Yang, Xi; Wang, Cong; Cui, Xiaoyong; Yang, Yongping; Han, Lijian; Li, Le; Du, Jianhui; Zhang, Gengxin; Cong, Nan

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, satellite-derived start of vegetation growing season (SOS) has advanced in many northern temperate and boreal regions. Both the magnitude of temperature increase and the sensitivity of the greenness phenology to temperature-the phenological change per unit temperature-can contribute the advancement. To determine the temperature-sensitivity, we examined the satellite-derived SOS and the potentially effective pre-season temperature (T eff) from 1982 to 2008 for vegetated land between 30°N and 80°N. Earlier season vegetation types, i.e., the vegetation types with earlier SOSmean (mean SOS for 1982-2008), showed greater advancement of SOS during 1982-2008. The advancing rate of SOS against year was also greater in the vegetation with earlier SOSmean even the T eff increase was the same. These results suggest that the spring phenology of vegetation may have high temperature sensitivity in a warmer area. Therefore it is important to consider temperature-sensitivity in assessing broad-scale phenological responses to climatic warming. Further studies are needed to explore the mechanisms and ecological consequences of the temperature-sensitivity of start of growing season in a warming climate.

  10. Improving multimodel medium range forecasts over the Greater Horn of Africa using the FSU superensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipkogei, O.; Bhardwaj, A.; Kumar, V.; Ogallo, L. A.; Opijah, F. J.; Mutemi, J. N.; Krishnamurti, T. N.

    2016-08-01

    This study makes use of the WMO's multimodel data set called THORPEX integrated grand global ensemble (TIGGE) towards the construction of multimodel superensemble forecasts covering a period of 10 days. The goal of this study is to explore the forecast skill for precipitation forecasts over the Greater Horn of Africa (this is a consortium of 11 countries). The multimodels include forecast data set from a suite of models that include: The European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the Center for Weather Forecast and Climatic Studies (CPTEC) and the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO). After performing a training phase for the superensemble weights covering the previous 450 days of October, November and December months of 2008-2012, forecasts of precipitation were prepared for the multimodel superensemble. These covered day 1 to day 10 of forecasts over the region. Various skill metrics were prepared to validate the forecast rainfall against the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) observed rainfall data. This study shows that the construction of the multimodel superensemble was a worthwhile effort since it provided the best overall skills for the RMS errors, the spatial correlations and the equitable threat scores and their bias errors for precipitation forecasts from day 1 to day 10 over all of the countries covered by the Greater Horn of Africa. The best among the member model was the UKMO model. This study strongly suggests the usefulness of a product such as the multimodel superensemble for improved precipitation forecasts over East Africa.

  11. Fencing bodes a rapid collapse of the unique Greater Mara ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Løvschal, Mette; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Pilgaard, Jeppe; Amoke, Irene; Odingo, Alice; Thuo, Aggrey; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-01-25

    With land privatization and fencing of thousands of hectares of communal grazing areas, East Africa is struggling with one of the most radical cultural and environmental changes in its history. The 668,500-hectare Greater Mara is of crucial importance for the great migrations of large mammals and for Maasai pastoralist culture. However, the magnitude and pace of these fencing processes in this area are almost completely unknown. We provide new evidence that fencing is appropriating land in this area at an unprecedented and accelerating speed and scale. By means of a mapped series of multispectral satellite imagery (1985-2016), we found that in the conservancies with the most fences, areal cover of fenced areas has increased with >20% since 2010. This has resulted in a situation where fencing is rapidly increasing across the Greater Mara, threatening to lead to the collapse of the entire ecosystem in the near future. Our results suggest that fencing is currently instantiating itself as a new permanent self-reinforcing process and is about to reach a critical point after which it is likely to amplify at an even quicker pace, incompatible with the region's role in the great wildebeest migration, wildlife generally, as well as traditional Maasai pastoralism.

  12. The boreal winter Madden-Julian Oscillation's influence on summertime precipitation in the greater Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Scott; Gamble, Douglas W.

    2016-07-01

    Precipitation totals in the greater Caribbean are known to be affected by interannual variability. In particular, dry conditions in the spring-summer have been physically linked to the positive phase of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in the literature. In this study, it was found through regression analysis that an active Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in winter geographically focused over the Maritime Continent contributes to a positive NAO in March via the generation of Rossby waves in the Northern Hemisphere. Specifically, a negative Pacific-North American pattern develops in the winter and transitions to an Atlantic pattern in spring. The positive NAO is a transient feature of this evolving wave train, but a center of significant positive 200 hPa geopotential heights is entrenched over the southeast U.S. throughout the February to May time period and is manifested as high pressure at the surface. The southern flank of this system increases the speeds of the trade winds and leads to a cooling of the Caribbean sea surface temperatures and, thus, convection suppression and reduced precipitation. Thus, this study advances our understanding of the climate of the greater Caribbean by using climate teleconnections to relate the MJO to rainfall in the region.

  13. The possible subduction of continental material to depths greater than 200 km.

    PubMed

    Ye, K; Cong, B; Ye, D

    2000-10-12

    Determining the depth to which continental lithosphere can be subducted into the mantle at convergent plate boundaries is of importance for understanding the long-term growth of supercontinents as well as the dynamic processes that shape such margins. Recent discoveries of coesite and diamond in regional ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks has demonstrated that continental material can be subducted to depths of at least 120 km (ref. 1), and subduction to depths of 150-300 km has been inferred from garnet peridotites in orogenic UHP belts based on several indirect observations. But continental subduction to such depths is difficult to trace directly in natural UHP metamorphic crustal rocks by conventional mineralogical and petrological methods because of extensive late-stage recrystallization and the lack of a suitable pressure indicator. It has been predicted from experimental work, however, that solid-state dissolution of pyroxene should occur in garnet at depths greater than 150 km (refs 6-8). Here we report the observation of high concentrations of clinopyroxene, rutile and apatite exsolutions in garnet within eclogites from Yangkou in the Sulu UHP metamorphic belt, China. We interpret these data as resulting from the high-pressure formation of pyroxene solid solutions in subducted continental material. Appropriate conditions for the Na2O concentrations and octahedral silicon observed in these samples are met at depths greater than 200 km.

  14. Forest Aboveground Biomass Estimation in the Greater Mekong, Subregion and Russian Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yong; Li, Zengyuan; Sun, Gouqing; Zhang, Zhiyu; Schmullius, Christiane; Meng, Shili; Ma, Zhenyu; Lu, Hao; Li, Shiming; Liu, Qingwang; Bai, Lina; Tian, Xin

    2016-08-01

    Forests play a vital role in sustainable development and provide a range of economic, social and environmental benefits, including essential ecosystem services such as climate change mitigation and adaptation. We summarized works in forest aboveground biomass estimation in Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) and Russian Siberia (RuS). Both regions are rich in forest resources. These mapping and estimation works were based on multiple-source remote sensing data and some field measurements. Biomass maps were generated at 500 m and 30 m pixel size for RuS and GMS respectively. With the available of the 2015 PALSAR-2 mosaic at 25 m spacing, Sentinel-2 data at 20 m, we will work on the biomass mapping and dynamic study at higher spatial resolution.

  15. Monitoring changes in Greater Yellowstone Lake water quality following the 1988 wildfires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathrop, Richard G., Jr.; Vande Castle, John D.; Brass, James A.

    1994-01-01

    The fires that burned the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) during the summer of 1988 were the largest ever recorded for the region. Wildfire can have profound indirect effects on associated aquatic ecosystems by increased nutrient loading, sediment, erosion, and runoff. Satellite remote sensing and water quality sampling were used to compare pre- versus post-fire conditions in the GYA's large oliotrophic (high transparency, low productivity) lakes. Inputs of suspended sediment to Jackson Lake appear to have increased. Yellowstone Lake has not shown any discernable shift in water quality. The insights gained separately from the Landsat Thematic and NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) remote sensing systems, along with conventional in-situ sampling, can be combined into a useful water quality monitoring tool.

  16. Characterization of Greater Middle Eastern genetic variation for enhanced disease gene discovery

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Eric M.; Halees, Anason; Itan, Yuval; Spencer, Emily G.; He, Yupeng; Azab, Mostafa Abdellateef; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Belkadi, Aziz; Boisson, Bertrand; Abel, Laurent; Clark, Andrew G.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Gleeson, Joseph G.

    2016-01-01

    The Greater Middle East (GME) has been a central hub of human migration and population admixture. The tradition of consanguinity, variably practiced in the Gulf region, North Africa, and Central Asia 1–3, has resulted in an elevated burden of recessive disease4. Here we generated a whole exome GME variome from 1,111 unrelated subjects. We detected substantial diversity from sub-geographies, continental and subregional admixture, several ancient founder populations with little evidence of bottlenecks. Measured consanguinity was an order-of-magnitude above that of other sampled populations, and included an increased burden of runs of homozygosity (ROH), but no evidence for reduced burden of deleterious variation due to classically theorized ‘genetic purging’. Applying this database to unsolved GME recessive conditions reduced the number of potential disease-causing variants by 4–7-fold. These results reveal the variegated GME genetic architecture and support future human genetic discoveries in Mendelian and population genetics. PMID:27428751

  17. Cognitively Engaging Activity Is Associated with Greater Cortical and Subcortical Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Seider, Talia R.; Fieo, Robert A.; O’Shea, Andrew; Porges, Eric C.; Woods, Adam J.; Cohen, Ronald A.

    2016-01-01

    As the population ages and dementia becomes a growing healthcare concern, it is increasingly important to identify targets for intervention to delay or attenuate cognitive decline. Research has shown that the most successful interventions aim at altering lifestyle factors. Thus, this study examined how involvement in physical, cognitive, and social activity is related to brain structure in older adults. Sixty-five adults (mean age = 71.4 years, standard deviation = 8.9) received the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS), a questionnaire that polls everyday activities in which older adults may be involved, and also underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Stepwise regression with backward selection was used to predict weekly time spent in either social, cognitive, light physical, or heavy physical activity from the volume of one of the cortical or subcortical regions of interest (corrected by intracranial volume) as well as age, education, and gender as control variables. Regressions revealed that more time spent in cognitive activity was associated with greater volumes of all brain regions studied: total cortex (β = 0.289, p = 0.014), frontal (β = 0.276, p = 0.019), parietal (β = 0.305, p = 0.009), temporal (β = 0.275, p = 0.020), and occipital (β = 0.256, p = 0.030) lobes, and thalamus (β = 0.310, p = 0.010), caudate (β = 0.233, p = 0.049), hippocampus (β = 0.286, p = 0.017), and amygdala (β = 0.336, p = 0.004). These effects remained even after accounting for the positive association between cognitive activity and education. No other activity variable was associated with brain volumes. Results indicate that time spent in cognitively engaging activity is associated with greater cortical and subcortical brain volume. Findings suggest that interventions aimed at increasing levels of cognitive activity may delay cognitive consequences of aging and decrease the risk of developing dementia. PMID:27199740

  18. Seismic hazard assessment based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes: the Greater Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekrasova, A.; Kossobokov, V. G.

    2015-12-01

    Losses from natural disasters continue to increase mainly due to poor understanding by majority of scientific community, decision makers and public, the three components of Risk, i.e., Hazard, Exposure, and Vulnerability. Contemporary Science is responsible for not coping with challenging changes of Exposures and their Vulnerability inflicted by growing population, its concentration, etc., which result in a steady increase of Losses from Natural Hazards. Scientists owe to Society for lack of knowledge, education, and communication. In fact, Contemporary Science can do a better job in disclosing Natural Hazards, assessing Risks, and delivering such knowledge in advance catastrophic events. We continue applying the general concept of seismic risk analysis in a number of seismic regions worldwide by constructing regional seismic hazard maps based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), i.e. log N(M,L) = A - B•(M-6) + C•log L, where N(M,L) is the expected annual number of earthquakes of a certain magnitude M within an seismically prone area of linear dimension L. The parameters A, B, and C of USLE are used to estimate, first, the expected maximum magnitude in a time interval at a seismically prone cell of a uniform grid that cover the region of interest, and then the corresponding expected ground shaking parameters including macro-seismic intensity. After a rigorous testing against the available seismic evidences in the past (e.g., the historically reported macro-seismic intensity), such a seismic hazard map is used to generate maps of specific earthquake risks (e.g., those based on the density of exposed population). The methodology of seismic hazard and risks assessment based on USLE is illustrated by application to the seismic region of Greater Caucasus.

  19. Fire patterns in the range of the greater sage-grouse, 1984-2013 — Implications for conservation and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Matthew L.; Matchett, John R.; Shinneman, Douglas J.; Coates, Peter S.

    2015-09-10

    The results indicate that fire threats are higher in the four western than in the three eastern management zones. Among the four western management zones, the Snake River Plain and the Columbia Basin ranked somewhat higher than the Southern Great Basin and Northern Great Basin in terms of fire effects on sage-grouse habitat. These results support the previous high ranking of fire as a threat to the greater sage-grouse in the western region. In contrast, considering the low rankings for fire threats in the eastern region, it may be useful to reconsider the relative importance of wildfire as a threat to greater sage-grouse in those three management zones.

  20. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Neck Disability Index and Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale for patients with neck pain due to degenerative and discopathic disorders. Psychometric properties of the Polish versions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Even though there are several region-specific functional outcome questionnaires measuring neck disorders that have been developed in English-speaking countries, no Polish version has ever been validated. The purpose of our study was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale (CDS) for Polish-speaking patients with neck pain. Methods The translation was carried out according to the International Quality of Life Association (IQOLA) Project. Sixty patients were treated due to degenerative and discopathic disorders in the cervical spine filled out the NDI-PL and the CDS-PL. The pain level was evaluated using the Visual Analog Scale. The mean age of the assessed group was 47.1 years (SD 8.9). We used Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency. We assessed the test-retest reliability using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs). The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rS) was used to determine dependency between quantitative characteristics. The Mann-Whitney test was applied to determine dependency between quantitative and qualitative characteristics. Results The Cronbach's alpha values were excellent for the NDI-PL in the test and in the retest (0.84, 0.85, respectively), and for the CDS-PL (0.90 in the test and in the retest). Intraclass Correlation Coefficients were excellent for the CDS-PL and NDI-PL and equalled 0.93 (95% CI from 0.89 to 0.95) and 0.87 (95% CI from 0.80 to 0.92), respectively The concurrent validity was good in the test and in the retest (rs = 0.42 p < 0.001; rs = 0.40 p = 0.002, respectively) for NDI-PL and for CDS-PL (rs = 0.42 p < 0.001; rs = 0.40 p = 0.001, respectively). The adapted questionnaires showed a strong inter-correlation both in the test (0.87 p < 0.001) and in the retest (0.79 p < 0.001). Conclusions The present versions of the NDI-PL and CDS-PL, the first to be published in Polish, have proven to be reliable and valid for

  1. Greater widespread functional connectivity of the caudate in older adults who practice kripalu yoga and vipassana meditation than in controls.

    PubMed

    Gard, Tim; Taquet, Maxime; Dixit, Rohan; Hölzel, Britta K; Dickerson, Bradford C; Lazar, Sara W

    2015-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in understanding how contemplative practices affect brain functional organization. However, most studies have restricted their exploration to predefined networks. Furthermore, scientific comparisons of different contemplative traditions are largely lacking. Here we explored differences in whole brain resting state functional connectivity between experienced yoga practitioners, experienced meditators, and matched controls. Analyses were repeated in an independent sample of experienced meditators and matched controls. Analyses utilizing Network-Based Statistics (Zalesky et al., 2010) revealed difference components for yoga practitioners > controls and meditators > controls in which the right caudate was a central node. Follow up analyses revealed that yoga practitioners and meditators had significantly greater degree centrality in the caudate than controls. This greater degree centrality was not driven by single connections but by greater connectivity between the caudate and numerous brain regions. Findings of greater caudate connectivity in meditators than in controls was replicated in an independent dataset. These findings suggest that yoga and meditation practitioners have stronger functional connectivity within basal ganglia cortico-thalamic feedback loops than non-practitioners. Although we could not provide evidence for its mechanistic role, this greater connectivity might be related to the often reported effects of meditation and yoga on behavioral flexibility, mental health, and well-being.

  2. Greater widespread functional connectivity of the caudate in older adults who practice kripalu yoga and vipassana meditation than in controls

    PubMed Central

    Gard, Tim; Taquet, Maxime; Dixit, Rohan; Hölzel, Britta K.; Dickerson, Bradford C.; Lazar, Sara W.

    2015-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in understanding how contemplative practices affect brain functional organization. However, most studies have restricted their exploration to predefined networks. Furthermore, scientific comparisons of different contemplative traditions are largely lacking. Here we explored differences in whole brain resting state functional connectivity between experienced yoga practitioners, experienced meditators, and matched controls. Analyses were repeated in an independent sample of experienced meditators and matched controls. Analyses utilizing Network-Based Statistics (Zalesky et al., 2010) revealed difference components for yoga practitioners > controls and meditators > controls in which the right caudate was a central node. Follow up analyses revealed that yoga practitioners and meditators had significantly greater degree centrality in the caudate than controls. This greater degree centrality was not driven by single connections but by greater connectivity between the caudate and numerous brain regions. Findings of greater caudate connectivity in meditators than in controls was replicated in an independent dataset. These findings suggest that yoga and meditation practitioners have stronger functional connectivity within basal ganglia cortico-thalamic feedback loops than non-practitioners. Although we could not provide evidence for its mechanistic role, this greater connectivity might be related to the often reported effects of meditation and yoga on behavioral flexibility, mental health, and well-being. PMID:25852521

  3. Self‐Reported Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Prediction and Classification of Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Mortality and Longevity—A Prospective Investigation in the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn; Søgaard, Karen; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Prescott, Eva; Schnohr, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background The predictive value and improved risk classification of self‐reported cardiorespiratory fitness (SRCF), when added to traditional risk factors on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and longevity, are unknown. Methods and Results A total of 3843 males and 5093 females from the Copenhagen City Heart Study without CVD in 1991–1994 were analyzed using multivariate Cox hazards regression to assess the predictive value and survival benefit for CVD and all‐cause mortality from SRCF. The category‐free net reclassification improvement from SRCF was calculated at 15‐year follow‐up on CVD and all‐cause mortality. Overall, 1693 individuals died from CVD. In the fully adjusted Cox model, those reporting the same (hazard ratio [HR], 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.32) and lower (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.62 to 2.24) SRCF than peers had an increased risk of CVD mortality, compared with individuals with higher SRCF. Compared with individuals with higher SRCF, those with the same and lower SRCF had 1.8 (95% CI, 1.0 to 2.5) and 5.1 (95% CI, 4.1 to 6.2) years lower life expectancy, respectively. Individuals with lower SRCF had a significantly increased risk of CVD mortality, compared with individuals with higher SRCF, within each strata of leisure time physical activity and self‐rated health, and SRCF significantly predicted CVD mortality independently of self‐rated health and walking pace. A net reclassification improvement of 30.5% (95% CI, 22.1% to 38.9%) for CVD mortality was found when adding SRCF to traditional risk factors. Comparable findings were found for all‐cause mortality. Conclusions SRCF has independent predictive value, is related to a considerable survival benefit, and improves risk classification when added to traditional risk factors of CVD and all‐cause mortality. SRCF might prove useful in improved risk stratification in primary prevention. PMID:25628408

  4. Modelling reef zonation in the Greater St Lucia Wetland Park, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleyer, Michael H.; Celliers, Louis

    2005-05-01

    East Africa has a rich coral fauna that extends to Maputaland in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. At this latitude, considered high and marginal for coral distribution and development, they form a veneer on limited, late Pleistocene reefs rather than forming the accretive, aragonite structures known as coral reefs. It is thus more appropriate to refer to them in this region as coral communities, the environment being rendered marginal for their development by reduced temperatures, light and aragonite saturation state. Subsequent to their discovery, the reefs were afforded protection within two Marine Protected Areas (the St Lucia and Maputaland Marine Reserves). They are found primarily within three reef complexes, with only the central complex being readily accessible to the public for ecotourism at present. With the creation of the Greater St Lucia Wetland Park, a World Heritage Site, and the expectation of an accompanying increase in ecotourism, the status quo seems set to change. The reefs are thus the current focus of a modelling initiative to provide decision support in their management. This paper examines the unique nature of the South African communities, their vulnerability and importance in the regional and global context, and, using representative data from the model, how an anticipated increase in their use could affect their sustainability. The case for scientifically based zonation for their use is presented.

  5. Greater loss of object than spatial mnemonic discrimination in aged adults.

    PubMed

    Reagh, Zachariah M; Ho, Huy D; Leal, Stephanie L; Noche, Jessica A; Chun, Amanda; Murray, Elizabeth A; Yassa, Michael A

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies across species have established that the aging process adversely affects certain memory-related brain regions earlier than others. Behavioral tasks targeted at the function of vulnerable regions can provide noninvasive methods for assessing the integrity of particular components of memory throughout the lifespan. The present study modified a previous task designed to separately but concurrently test detailed memory for object identity and spatial location. Memory for objects or items is thought to rely on perirhinal and lateral entorhinal cortices, among the first targets of Alzheimer's related neurodegeneration. In line with prior work, we split an aged adult sample into "impaired" and "unimpaired" groups on the basis of a standardized word-learning task. The "impaired" group showed widespread difficulty with memory discrimination, whereas the "unimpaired" group showed difficulty with object, but not spatial memory discrimination. These findings support the hypothesized greater age-related impacts on memory for objects or items in older adults, perhaps even with healthy aging. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The economic implications of greater global trade in livestock and livestock products.

    PubMed

    Leslie, J; Upton, M

    1999-08-01

    The Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) established the World Trade Organization to supervise the reduction of barriers to, and liberalisation of, world trade. The application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures will be standardised to avoid use for protectionist purposes by countries or regional trade blocks. Harmonisation of animal disease control measures within regional blocks is essential if benefits to freer trade are to occur, but this harmonisation must be balanced against potential disease risks and costs associated with disease outbreaks. World trade in livestock products is concentrated among developed countries, although developing countries are responsible for approximately a third of poultry meat imports and exports. Despite liberalisation, the share of global trade by developing countries is unlikely to increase greatly in the short term. The benefits of trade and of freer trade are emphasised. Examples are given of the impacts of trade barriers on developing countries and of the harmonisation of European Union animal health standards. Economic implications for the future of greater global trade are assessed.

  7. Greater aerial moisture transport distances with warming amplify interbasin salinity contrasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Hansi K. A.; Donohoe, Aaron; Bitz, Cecilia M.; Nusbaumer, Jesse; Noone, David C.

    2016-08-01

    The distance atmospheric moisture travels is fundamental to Earth's hydrologic cycle, governing how much evaporation is exported versus precipitated locally. The present-day tropical Atlantic is one region that exports much locally evaporated moisture away, leading to more saline surface waters in the Atlantic compared to the Indo-Pacific at similar latitudes. Here we use a state-of-the-art global climate model equipped with numerical water tracers to show that over half of the atmospheric freshwater exported from the Atlantic originates as evaporation in the northern Atlantic subtropics, primarily between 10°N and 20°N, and is transported across Central America via prevailing easterlies into the equatorial Pacific. We find enhanced moisture export from the Atlantic to Pacific with warming is due to greater distances between moisture source and sink regions, which increases moisture export from the Atlantic at the expense of local precipitation. Distance traveled increases due to longer moisture residence times, not simply Clausius-Clapeyron scaling.

  8. Adherence barriers and facilitators for cervical screening amongst currently disadvantaged women in the greater Cape Town region of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    De Abreu, Chantelle; Horsfall, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In South Africa cervical cancer is the second most commonly occurring cancer amongst women, and black African women have the highest risk of developing this disease. Unfortunately, the majority of South African women do not adhere to recommended regular cervical screening. Objectives The purpose of this research was to explore the perceptions, experiences and knowledge regarding cervical screening of disadvantaged women in two informal settlements in South African urban areas. Method The Health Belief Model (HBM) provided a theoretical framework for this study. Four focus groups (n = 21) were conducted, using questions derived from the HBM, and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. The ages of the women who participated ranged from 21 to 53 years. Results The analysis revealed lack of knowledge about screening as a key structural barrier to treatment. Other structural barriers were: time, age at which free screening is available, and health education. The psychosocial barriers that were identified included: fear of the screening procedure and of the stigmatisation in attending screening. The presence of physical symptoms, the perception that screening provides symptom relief, HIV status, and the desire to know one's physical health status were identified as facilitators of cervical screening adherence. Conclusion This knowledge has the potential to inform healthcare policy and services in South Africa. As globalisation persists and individuals continue to immigrate or seek refugee status in foreign countries, increased understanding and knowledge is required for successful acculturation and integration. Developed countries may therefore also benefit from research findings in developing countries.

  9. EnergyWorks Final Report: A Better Buildings Neighborhood Program in the Five-County Greater Philadelphia Region

    SciTech Connect

    Gajewski, Katherine

    2014-03-05

    This report covers the grant performance period of July 1, 2010-September 30, 2013 and discusses of the program design, outcomes and best practices as they relate to the following six areas: 1. Institutional Design and Business Model; 2. Program Design and Customer Experience; 3. Driving Demand; 4. Workforce Development; 5. Financing and Incentives; 6. Data and Evaluation.

  10. The Free Trade Area of the Americas: Can Regional Economic Integration Lead to Greater Cooperation on Security?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    Varas and Cruz Johnson, eds., Percepciones de Amenza y Politica de Defensa en America Latina (Santiago: FLASCO, 1993). Sidney...hemisferica y la defensa nacional,” in Agusto Varas and Cruz Johnson, eds., Percepciones de Amenza y Politica de Defensa en America ... Latina (Santiago: FLASCO, 1993), 1-69. 2 security. Specifically, can the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) lead to enhanced

  11. History and origin of the HIV-1 subtype C epidemic in South Africa and the greater southern African region

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Eduan; Engelbrecht, Susan; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2015-01-01

    HIV has spread at an alarming rate in South Africa, making it the country with the highest number of HIV infections. Several studies have investigated the histories of HIV-1 subtype C epidemics but none have done so in the context of social and political transformation in southern Africa. There is a need to understand how these processes affects epidemics, as socio-political transformation is a common and on-going process in Africa. Here, we genotyped strains from the start of the epidemic and applied phylodynamic techniques to determine the history of the southern Africa and South African epidemic from longitudinal sampled data. The southern African epidemic’s estimated dates of origin was placed around 1960 (95% HPD 1956–64), while dynamic reconstruction revealed strong growth during the 1970s and 80s. The South African epidemic has a similar origin, caused by multiple introductions from neighbouring countries, and grew exponentially during the 1980s and 90s, coinciding with socio-political changes in South Africa. These findings provide an indication as to when the epidemic started and how it has grown, while the inclusion of sequence data from the start of the epidemic provided better estimates. The epidemic have stabilized in recent years with the expansion of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:26574165

  12. Assessing the Predictors of the Content and Pedagogical Knowledge of Fitness Instructors in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarpong, E. O.; Apaak, D.

    2016-01-01

    Fitness centers require professional instructors to ensure members obtain the safest and most effective exercise classes. Certification and licensure enable fitness instructors to demonstrate a strong desire to be knowledgeable and committed to expand their capabilities and offer more diverse services to their clientele. This study therefore…

  13. History and origin of the HIV-1 subtype C epidemic in South Africa and the greater southern African region.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Eduan; Engelbrecht, Susan; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2015-11-17

    HIV has spread at an alarming rate in South Africa, making it the country with the highest number of HIV infections. Several studies have investigated the histories of HIV-1 subtype C epidemics but none have done so in the context of social and political transformation in southern Africa. There is a need to understand how these processes affects epidemics, as socio-political transformation is a common and on-going process in Africa. Here, we genotyped strains from the start of the epidemic and applied phylodynamic techniques to determine the history of the southern Africa and South African epidemic from longitudinal sampled data. The southern African epidemic's estimated dates of origin was placed around 1960 (95% HPD 1956-64), while dynamic reconstruction revealed strong growth during the 1970s and 80s. The South African epidemic has a similar origin, caused by multiple introductions from neighbouring countries, and grew exponentially during the 1980s and 90s, coinciding with socio-political changes in South Africa. These findings provide an indication as to when the epidemic started and how it has grown, while the inclusion of sequence data from the start of the epidemic provided better estimates. The epidemic have stabilized in recent years with the expansion of antiretroviral therapy.

  14. Assessment of the integrity of structural shielding of four computed tomography facilities in the greater Accra region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Nkansah, A; Schandorf, C; Boadu, M; Fletcher, J J

    2013-08-01

    The structural shielding thicknesses of the walls of four computed tomography (CT) facilities in Ghana were re-evaluated to verify the shielding integrity using the new shielding design methods recommended by the National Council on Radiological Protection and Measurements (NCRP). The shielding thickness obtained ranged from 120 to 155 mm using default DLP values proposed by the European Commission and 110 to 168 mm using derived DLP values from the four CT manufacturers. These values are within the accepted standard concrete wall thickness ranging from 102 to 152 mm prescribed by the NCRP. The ultrasonic pulse testing of all walls indicated that these are of good quality and free of voids since pulse velocities estimated were within the range of 3.496±0.005 km s(-1). An average dose equivalent rate estimated for supervised areas is 3.4±0.27 µSv week(-1) and that for the controlled area is 18.0±0.15 µSv week(-1), which are within acceptable values.

  15. University Rankings as a Zoning Technology: A Taiwanese Perspective on an Imaginary Greater China Higher Education Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, William Yat Wai

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that global university rankings can be understood as a mechanism upholding Taiwan's interests in light of cross-national analysis of university ranking and recent discussion on regionalisation of higher education in Asia. To draw an analytical framework, it begins by delineating a conceptualisation of university ranking, in which…

  16. Isotope and Chemical Compositions of Meteoric and Thermal Waters and Snow From the Greater Yellowstone National Park Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Norris-Mammoth corridor that extends from Yellowstone caldera through Mammoth Hot Springs to Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area. The...water from a private well located in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area, Montana, on the thermal springs of Yellowstone National...south subsidence structure, extending ~40 km from the Yellowstone caldera to the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA) located north

  17. Greater Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Patrick J.

    2006-01-01

    Julius Bennett was once a disinterested student destined to become a dropout. Then he enrolled in Amistad Academy, an academically focused charter middle school intent on narrowing the achievement gap between urban and suburban kids located in New Haven, Connecticut. Now Julius is making plans for college. In this article the author details the…

  18. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 2: The point source catalog declination range 90 deg greater than delta greater than 30 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, IRAS surveyed 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 2, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range 90 deg greater than delta greater than 30 deg.

  19. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 5: The point source catalog declination range -30 deg greater than delta greater than -50 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, IRAS surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 5, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range -30 deg greater than delta greater than -50 deg.

  20. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 3: The point source catalog declination range 30 deg greater than delta greater than 0 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, IRAS surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 3, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range 30 deg greater than delta greater than 0 deg.

  1. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 6: The point source catalog declination range -50 deg greater than delta greater than -90 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, it surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 6, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range -50 deg greater than delta greater than -90 deg.

  2. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 4: The point source catalog declination range 0 deg greater than delta greater than -30 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched 26 January 1983. During its 300-day mission, it surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 4, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range 0 deg greater than delta greater than -30 deg.

  3. Body condition scoring system for greater one-horned rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis): Development and application.

    PubMed

    Heidegger, Eva M; von Houwald, Friederike; Steck, Beatrice; Clauss, Marcus

    2016-09-01

    Preventing obesity in zoo animals is increasingly recognized as an important husbandry objective. To achieve this goal, body condition scoring (BCS) systems are available for an ever-increasing number of species. Here, we present a BCS for the greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) based on an evaluation (on a scale from 1 to 5) of seven different body regions, and report resulting scores for 62 animals from 27 facilities, based on digital photographs. In animals above 4 years of age, this BCS correlated with the body mass:shoulder height ratio. Although differences between the sexes for individual regions were noted (with consistently higher scores in males for the neck and shoulder and in parous females for the abdomen), the average BCS of all regions did not differ significantly between males (4.3 ± 0.4) and females (4.1 ± 0.5). Linking the BCS to results of a questionnaire survey and studbook information, there were no differences in BCS between animals with and without foot problems or between parous and non-parous females. In a very limited sample of 11 females, those eight that had been diagnosed with leiomyoma in a previous study had a higher BCS (range 3.9-4.9) than the three that had been diagnosed as leiomyoma-free (range 3.5-3.7). The BCS was correlated to the amount of food offered as estimated from the questionnaire. Adjusting the amounts and the nutritional quality of the diet components is an evident measure to maintain animals at a target BCS (suggested as 3-3.5). Zoo Biol. 35:432-443, 2016. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Tectonic stratification and seismicity of the accretionary prism of the Azerbaijani part of Greater Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizade, Akif; Kangarli, Talat; Aliyev, Fuad

    2013-04-01

    The Greater Caucasus has formed during last stage of the tectogenesis in a geodynamic condition of the lateral compression, peculiar to the zone pseudo-subduction interaction zone between Northern and Southern Caucasian continental microplates. Its present day structure formed as a result of horizontal movements of the different phases and sub-phases of Alpine tectogenesis (from late Cimmerian to Valakhian), and is generally regarded as zone where, along Zangi deformation, the insular arc formations of the Northern edge of South Caucasian microplate thrust under the Meso-Cenozoic substantial complex contained in the facials of marginal sea of Greater Caucasus. The last, in its turn, has been pushed beneath the North-Caucasus continental margin of the Scythian plate along Main Caucasus Thrust fault. Data collected from the territory of Azerbaijan and its' sector of the Caspian area stands for pseudo-subduction interaction of microplates which resulted in the tectonic stratification of the continental slope of Alpine formations, marginal sea and insular arc into different scale plates of south vergent combined into napping complexes. In the orogeny's present structure, tectonically stratified Alpine substantial complex of the marginal sea of Greater Caucasus bordered by Main Caucasus and Zangi thrusts, is represented by allochthonous south vergent accretionary prism in the front of first deformation with its' root buried under the southern border of Scythian plate. Allocated beneath mentioned prism, the autochthonous bedding is presented by Meso-Cenosoic complex of the Northern flank of the South-Caucasian miroplate, which is in its' turn crushed and lensed into southward shifted tectonic microplates gently overlapping the northern flank of Kura flexure along Ganykh-Ayrichay-Alyat thrust. Data of real-time GPS measurement of regional geodynamics indicates that pseudo-subduction of South Caucasian microplate under the North Caucasian microplate still continues during

  5. Application of the GREAT-ER model for environmental risk assessment of nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lai; Cao, Yan; Hao, Xuewen; Zhang, Yongyong; Liu, Jianguo

    2015-12-01

    The environmental risk presented by "down-the-drain" chemicals to receiving rivers in large urban areas has received increasing attention in recent years. Geo-referenced Regional Environmental Assessment Tool for European Rivers (GREAT-ER) is a typical river catchment model that has been specifically developed for the risk assessment of these chemicals and applied in many European rivers. By utilizing the new version of the model, GREAT-ER 3.0, which is the first completely open source software for worldwide application, this study represents the first attempt to conduct an application of GREAT-ER in the Wenyu River of China. Aquatic exposure simulation and an environmental risk assessment of nonylphenol (NP) and its environmental precursor nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) were conducted effectively by GREAT-ER model, since NP is one of typical endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and its environmental precursor NPEOs as a "down-the-drain" chemical are extensively used in China. In the result, the predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of NP and NPEOs in the water of Wenyu River were 538 and 4320 ng/L, respectively, at the regional scale, and 1210 and 8990 ng/L, respectively, at the local scale. From the results profile of the RCR, the combination of high emissions from large STPs with insufficient dilution of the river caused the high RCR. The PECs of NP in the sediment were in the range of 216.8-8218.3 ng/g (dry weight), which was consistent with the available monitoring data. The study showed the worldwide applicability and reliability of GREAT-ER as a river catchment model for the risk assessment of these chemicals and also revealed the general environmental risks presented by NP and NPEOs in the Wenyu River catchment in Beijing due to the extensive use of these chemicals. The results suggest that specific control or treatment measures are probably warranted for these chemicals to reduce their discharge in major cities.

  6. Evaluation of the genetic distinctiveness of Greater Sage-grouse in the Bi-State Planning Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further characterize a distinct population of Greater Sage-grouse: the population located along the border between Nevada and California (Bi-State Planning Area) and centered around the Mono Basin. This population was previously determined to be genetically distinct from other Greater Sage-grouse populations across their range. Previous genetic work focused on characterizing genetic variation across the species' range and thereby used a coarse sampling approach for species characterization. The goal of this study was to investigate this population further by obtaining samples from breeding locations within the population and analyzing those samples with the same mitochondrial and microsatellite loci used in previous studies. Blood samples were collected in six locations within the Bi-State Planning Area. Genetic data from subpopulations were then compared with each other and also with two populations outside of the Bi-State Planning Area. Particular attention was paid to subpopulation boundaries and internal dynamics by drawing comparisons among particular regions within the Bi-State Planning Area and regions proximal to it. All newly sampled subpopulations contained mitochondrial haplotypes and allele frequencies that were consistent with the genetically unique Bi-State (Mono Basin) Greater Sage-grouse described previously. This reinforces the fact that this group of Greater Sage-grouse is genetically unique and warrants special attention. Maintaining the genetic integrity of this population could protect the evolutionary potential of this population of Greater Sage-grouse. Additionally, the White Mountains subpopulation was found to be significantly distinct from all other Bi-State subpopulations.

  7. Climate influences on whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Buotte, Polly C; Hicke, Jeffrey A; Preisler, Haiganoush K; Abatzoglou, John T; Raffa, Kenneth F; Logan, Jesse A

    2016-12-01

    Extensive mortality of whitebark pine, beginning in the early to mid-2000s, occurred in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) of the western USA, primarily from mountain pine beetle but also from other threats such as white pine blister rust. The climatic drivers of this recent mortality and the potential for future whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle are not well understood, yet are important considerations in whether to list whitebark pine as a threatened or endangered species. We sought to increase the understanding of climate influences on mountain pine beetle outbreaks in whitebark pine forests, which are less well understood than in lodgepole pine, by quantifying climate-beetle relationships, analyzing climate influences during the recent outbreak, and estimating the suitability of future climate for beetle outbreaks. We developed a statistical model of the probability of whitebark pine mortality in the GYE that included temperature effects on beetle development and survival, precipitation effects on host tree condition, beetle population size, and stand characteristics. Estimated probability of whitebark pine mortality increased with higher winter minimum temperature, indicating greater beetle winter survival; higher fall temperature, indicating synchronous beetle emergence; lower two-year summer precipitation, indicating increased potential for host tree stress; increasing beetle populations; stand age; and increasing percent composition of whitebark pine within a stand. The recent outbreak occurred during a period of higher-than-normal regional winter temperatures, suitable fall temperatures, and low summer precipitation. In contrast to lodgepole pine systems, area with mortality was linked to precipitation variability even at high beetle populations. Projections from climate models indicate future climate conditions will likely provide favorable conditions for beetle outbreaks within nearly all current whitebark pine habitat in the GYE by

  8. Damage to left frontal regulatory circuits produces greater positive emotional reactivity in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Virginia E; Yokoyama, Jennifer S; Eckart, Janet A; Zakrzewski, Jessica; Rosen, Howard J; Miller, Bruce L; Seeley, William W; Levenson, Robert W

    2015-03-01

    Positive emotions foster social relationships and motivate thought and action. Dysregulation of positive emotion may give rise to debilitating clinical symptomatology such as mania, risk-taking, and disinhibition. Neuroanatomically, there is extensive evidence that the left hemisphere of the brain, and the left frontal lobe in particular, plays an important role in positive emotion generation. Although prior studies have found that left frontal injury decreases positive emotion, it is not clear whether selective damage to left frontal emotion regulatory systems can actually increase positive emotion. We measured happiness reactivity in 96 patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a neurodegenerative disease that targets emotion-relevant neural systems and causes alterations in positive emotion (i.e., euphoria and jocularity), and in 34 healthy controls. Participants watched a film clip designed to elicit happiness and a comparison film clip designed to elicit sadness while their facial behavior, physiological reactivity, and self-reported emotional experience were monitored. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses revealed that atrophy in predominantly left hemisphere fronto-striatal emotion regulation systems including left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior insula, and striatum was associated with greater happiness facial behavior during the film (pFWE < .05). Atrophy in left anterior insula and bilateral frontopolar cortex was also associated with higher cardiovascular reactivity (i.e., heart rate and blood pressure) but not self-reported positive emotional experience during the happy film (p < .005, uncorrected). No regions emerged as being associated with greater sadness reactivity, which suggests that left-lateralized fronto-striatal atrophy is selectively associated with happiness dysregulation. Whereas previous models have proposed that left frontal injury decreases positive emotional responding, we argue that

  9. Pliocene-Quaternary Post-collisional Magmatism in the Greater Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bewick, Samuel; Harris, Nigel; Parkinson, Ian; Hammond, Sam; Adamia, Shota

    2014-05-01

    Whole-rock elemental and isotopic analyses are presented for Pliocene-Quaternary volcanism from northern Georgia. Intense magmatic activity erupted through the thickened crust (50-60km) of the Greater Caucasus mountain belt, tens of millions of years following continental collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. Compositions range from basaltic-andesite to dacite (56-67 wt% SiO2). Enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light rare earth elements (LREEs) relative to the high field strength elements (HFSEs) is seen in all samples. Rare earth element patterns have small enrichments in the middle to heavy REE ((Dy/Yb)N ratios (1.22-1.65)). Strontium (87Sr/86Sr of 0.7041-0.7049) and Pb isotope ratios suggest a source that has been enriched relative to DMM with Pb isotopes plotting on an array sub-parallel to, but enriched compared to the northern hemisphere reference line (Δ7/6 = 10.7-11.3). LILE enrichment may be indicative of a source enriched by subduction related fluids. Compositions are also similar to local crustal samples. On Pb isotope plots, samples lie on a trend extending towards radiogenic crustal values. Trace elements and isotopes are used to decipher the importance of these two signatures. Heavy REE data provide evidence melting was relatively shallow ( 10wt%) indicate fractionation occurred deep in the crust. Further investigation will allow the sources for Greater Caucasus magmatism to be better constrained and the petrologic evolution of the magmas to be compared with those from the wider Arabia-Eurasia collision zone and hence integrated into a post-collisional tectonic model for the region.

  10. Characterizing the fabric of the urban environment: A case study of Greater Houston, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Leanna Shea; Akbari, Hashem; Taha, Haider

    2003-01-15

    In this report, the materials and various surface types that comprise a city are referred to as the ''urban fabric.'' Urban fabric data are needed in order to estimate the impact of light-colored surfaces (roofs and pavements) and urban vegetation (trees, grass, shrubs) on the meteorology and air quality of a city, and to design effective urban environmental implementation programs. We discuss the results of a semi-automatic Monte-Carlo statistical approach used to develop data on surface-type distribution and city-fabric makeup (percentage of various surface-types) using aerial color orthophotography. The digital aerial photographs for Houston covered a total of about 52 km2 (20 mi2). At 0.30-m resolution, there were approximately 5.8 x 108 pixels of data. Four major land-use types were examined: (1) commercial, (2) industrial, (3) educational, and (4) residential. On average, for the regions studied, vegetation covers about 39 percent of the area, roofs cover about 21 percent, and paved surfaces cover about 29 percent. For the most part, trees shade streets, parking lots, grass, and sidewalks. At ground level, i.e., view from below the vegetation canopies, paved surfaces cover about 32 percent of the study area. GLOBEIS model data from University of Texas and land-use/land-cover (LULC) information from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) were used to extrapolate these results from neighborhood scales to Greater Houston. It was found that in an area of roughly 3,430 km2, defining most of Greater Houston, over 56 percent is residential. The total roof area is about 740 km2, and the total paved surface area (roads, parking areas, sidewalks) covers about 1000 km2. Vegetation covers about 1,320 km2.

  11. Seafloor spreading and microcontinent formation during Mesozoic breakup between Australia and Greater India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, S.; Whittaker, J.; Müller, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Perth Abyssal Plain (PAP) formed at the nexus of rifting and breakup between three major continents within Gondwana - India, Australia and Antarctica. Oceanic crust within the PAP records the history of Mesozoic seafloor spreading as India moved away from Australia. However, despite the clear importance of the seafloor spreading history of the PAP in constraining the relative motions of these continents during the early stages of breakup, little attention has been paid to the PAP, and particularly its western flank largely due to a lack of new data in collected in this region. We present new observations to constrain the evolution of the PAP, collected during voyage ss2011/v06 of the Southern Surveyor in late 2011. The new data comprise magnetic anomaly profile data, swath bathymetry, and dredge samples collected from 7 sites. The most significant dredge results were obtained from the Batavia Knoll (BK) and Gulden Draak Knoll (GDK), two prominent bathymetric features located >1000 km west of the Australian continental margin. Previous tectonic reconstructions typically treat these bathymetric features as igneous plateaus emplaced on older oceanic crust. However, dredges carried out on the western flanks of each of these knolls recovered continental basement rocks, revealing that both knolls are continental fragments. Estimates of the depths to magnetic sources for shiptrack profiles across the knolls provide evidence for variations in sediment thickness within the knolls. We use forward modeling of shiptrack magnetic profiles combined with gravity anomalies derived from satellite altimetry to make first-order estimates of the extent and spatial variation in thickness of the continental crust. New magnetic anomaly profiles provide evidence for previously unidentified M-series anomalies in the western part of the Perth Abyssal Plain, east of the BK and GDK. These observations both support a reconstruction model in which the microcontinents rifted away from

  12. Fibrosis and inflammation are greater in muscles of beta-sarcoglycan-null mouse than mdx mouse.

    PubMed

    Gibertini, Sara; Zanotti, Simona; Savadori, Paolo; Curcio, Maurizio; Saredi, Simona; Salerno, Franco; Andreetta, Francesca; Bernasconi, Pia; Mantegazza, Renato; Mora, Marina

    2014-05-01

    The Sgcb-null mouse, with knocked-down β-sarcoglycan, develops severe muscular dystrophy as in type 2E human limb girdle muscular dystrophy. The mdx mouse, lacking dystrophin, is the most used model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Unlike DMD, the mdx mouse has mild clinical features and shows little fibrosis in limb muscles. To characterize ECM protein deposition and the progression of muscle fibrosis, we evaluated protein and transcript levels of collagens I, III and VI, decorin, and TGF-β1, in quadriceps and diaphragm, at 2, 4, 8, 12, 26, and 52 weeks in Sgcb-null mice, and protein levels at 12, 26, and 52 weeks in mdx mice. In Sgcb-null mice, severe morphological disruption was present from 4 weeks in both quadriceps and diaphragm, and included conspicuous deposition of extracellular matrix components. Histopathological features of Sgcb-null mouse muscles were similar to those of age-matched mdx muscles at all ages examined, but, in the Sgcb-null mouse, the extent of connective tissue deposition was generally greater than mdx. Furthermore, in the Sgcb-null mouse, the amount of all three collagen isoforms increased steadily, while, in the mdx, they remained stable. We also found that, at 12 weeks, macrophages were significantly more numerous in mildly inflamed areas of Sgcb-null quadriceps compared to mdx quadriceps (but not in highly inflamed regions), while, in the diaphragm, macrophages did not differ significantly between the two models, in either region. Osteopontin mRNA was also significantly greater at 12 weeks in laser-dissected highly inflamed areas of the Sgcb-null quadriceps compared to the mdx quadriceps. TGF-β1 was present in areas of degeneration-regeneration, but levels were highly variable and in general did not differ significantly between the two models and controls. The roles of the various subtypes of macrophages in muscle repair and fibrosis in the two models require further study. The Sgcb-null mouse, which develops early fibrosis

  13. Characterization of aerosol composition and sources in the greater Atlanta area by aerosol mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, N. L.; Xu, L.; Suresh, S.; Weber, R. J. J.; Baumann, K.; Edgerton, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    regional nature of aerosols in the Atlanta area. Taken together, results from these extensive field studies provide invaluable insights into the sources and processing of aerosols in the greater Atlanta area. The effects of anthropogenic emissions on biogenic SOA formation at multiple sites in the region and in different seasons will be discussed.

  14. 21 CFR 1312.15 - Shipments in greater or less amount than authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipments in greater or less amount than... in greater or less amount than authorized. (a) If the shipment made under an import permit is greater... amount by less than 1 percent may be released to the importer upon the filing by him of an amended...

  15. Editorial Commentary: Save the Subchondral Bone in Rotator Cuff Repair Greater Tuberosity Preparation.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-04-01

    Results from a recent investigation into the practice of greater tuberosity decortication before rotator cuff repair showed that decortication significantly reduced the ultimate failure load. Although the potential of greater tuberosity treatment for solving the rotator cuff healing quandary still exists, the biomechanics are clear, one should not decorticate the greater tuberosity to cancellous bone.

  16. 75 FR 42079 - Treatment of Letters Stating That the USPTO's Patent Term Adjustment Determination Is Greater...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... Determination Is Greater Than What the Applicant or Patentee Believes Is Appropriate AGENCY: United States... notification, or patent, is greater than what the applicant or patentee believes is appropriate. The USPTO will... notification, or patent is greater than what the applicant or patentee believes is appropriate. DATES:...

  17. Modelling urban δ13C variations in the Greater Toronto Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugliese, S.; Vogel, F. R.; Murphy, J. G.; Worthy, D. E. J.; Zhang, J.; Zheng, Q.; Moran, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Even in urbanized regions, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are derived from a variety of biogenic and anthropogenic sources and are influenced by atmospheric transport across borders. As policies are introduced to reduce the emission of CO2, there is a need for independent verification of emissions reporting. In this work, we aim to use carbon isotope (13CO2 and 12CO2) simulations in combination with atmospheric measurements to distinguish between CO2 sources in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. This is being done by developing an urban δ13C framework based on existing CO2 emission data and forward modelling using a chemistry transport model, CHIMERE. The framework is designed to use region specific δ13C signatures of the dominant CO2 sources together with a CO2 inventory at a fine spatial and temporal resolution; the product is compared against highly accurate 13CO2 and 12CO2 ambient data. The strength of this framework is its potential to estimate both locally produced and regionally transported CO­2. Locally, anthropogenic CO­2 in urban areas is often derived from natural gas combustion (for heating) and gasoline/diesel combustion (for transportation); the isotopic signatures of these processes are significantly different (approximately d13CVPDB = -40 ‰ and -26 ‰ respectively) and can be used to infer their relative contributions. Furthermore, the contribution of transported CO2 can also be estimated as nearby regions often rely on other sources of heating (e.g. coal combustion), which has a very different signature (approximately d13CVPDB = -23 ‰). We present an analysis of the GTA in contrast to Paris, France where atmospheric observations are also available and 13CO2 has been studied. Utilizing our δ13C framework and differences in sectoral isotopic signatures, we quantify the relative contribution of CO2 sources on the overall measured concentration and assess the ability of this framework as a tool for tracing the evolution of sector

  18. Greater V˙O2peak is correlated with greater skeletal muscle deoxygenation amplitude and hemoglobin concentration within individual muscles during ramp-incremental cycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Okushima, Dai; Poole, David C; Barstow, Thomas J; Rossiter, Harry B; Kondo, Narihiko; Bowen, T Scott; Amano, Tatsuro; Koga, Shunsaku

    2016-12-01

    It is axiomatic that greater aerobic fitness (V˙O2peak) derives from enhanced perfusive and diffusive O2 conductances across active muscles. However, it remains unknown how these conductances might be reflected by regional differences in fractional O2 extraction (i.e., deoxy [Hb+Mb] and tissue O2 saturation [StO2]) and diffusive O2 potential (i.e., total[Hb+Mb]) among muscles spatially heterogeneous in blood flow, fiber type, and recruitment (vastus lateralis, VL; rectus femoris, RF). Using quantitative time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy during ramp cycling in 24 young participants (V˙O2peak range: ~37.4-66.4 mL kg(-1) min(-1)), we tested the hypotheses that (1) deoxy[Hb+Mb] and total[Hb+Mb] at V˙O2peak would be positively correlated with V˙O2peak in both VL and RF muscles; (2) the pattern of deoxygenation (the deoxy[Hb+Mb] slopes) during submaximal exercise would not differ among subjects differing in V˙O2peak Peak deoxy [Hb+Mb] and StO2 correlated with V˙O2peak for both VL (r = 0.44 and -0.51) and RF (r = 0.49 and -0.49), whereas for total[Hb+Mb] this was true only for RF (r = 0.45). Baseline deoxy[Hb+Mb] and StO2 correlated with V˙O2peak only for RF (r = -0.50 and 0.54). In addition, the deoxy[Hb+Mb] slopes were not affected by aerobic fitness. In conclusion, while the pattern of deoxygenation (the deoxy[Hb+Mb] slopes) did not differ between fitness groups the capacity to deoxygenate [Hb+Mb] (index of maximal fractional O2 extraction) correlated significantly with V˙O2peak in both RF and VL muscles. However, only in the RF did total[Hb+Mb] (index of diffusive O2 potential) relate to fitness.

  19. P wave crustal velocity structure in the greater Mount Rainier area from local earthquake tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, S.C.; Lees, J.M.; Malone, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    We present results from a local earthquake tomographic imaging experiment in the greater Mount Rainier area. We inverted P wave arrival times from local earthquakes recorded at permanent and temporary Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network seismographs between 1980 and 1996. We used a method similar to that described by Lees and Crosson [1989], modified to incorporate the parameter separation method for decoupling the hypocenter and velocity problems. In the upper 7 km of the resulting model there is good correlation between velocity anomalies and surface geology. Many focal mechanisms within the St. Helens seismic zone have nodal planes parallel to the epicentral trend as well as to a north-south trending low-velocity trough, leading us to speculate that the trough represents a zone of structural weakness in which a moderate (M 6.5-7.0) earthquake could occur. In contrast, the western Rainier seismic zone does not correlate in any simple way with anomaly patterns or focal mechanism fault planes, leading us to infer that it is less likely to experience a moderate earthquake. A ???10 km-wide low-velocity anomaly occurs 5 to 18 km beneath the summit of Mount Rainier, which we interpret to be a signal of a region composed of hot, fractured rock with possible small amounts of melt or fluid. No systematic velocity pattern is observed in association with the southern Washington Cascades conductor. A midcrustal anomaly parallels the Olympic-Wallowa lineament as well as several other geophysical trends, indicating that it may play an important role in regional tectonics. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Status and conservation of parrots and parakeets in the Greater Antilles, Bahama Islands, and Cayman Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    In the 1490s a minimum of 28 species of psittacines occurred in the West Indies. Today, only 43% (12) of the species survive. All macaws and most parakeet species have been lost. Although the surviving parrot fauna of the Greater Antilles, Cayman Islands, and Bahama Islands has fared somewhat better than that of the Lesser Antilles, every species has undergone extensive reductions of populations and all but two have undergone extensive reductions in range, mostly as a result of habitat loss, but also from persecution as agricultural pests, conflicts with exotic species, harvesting for pets, and natural disasters. The Cayman Brac Parrot Amazona leucocephala hesterna with its tiny population (less than 150 individuals in the wild) and range, and the Puerto Rican Parrot A. vittata, with about 22-23 birds in the wild and 56 individuals in captivity, must be considered on the verge of extinction and in need of (in the latter's case, continuing) aggressive programmes of research and management. Other populations declining in numbers and range include the Yellow-billed Amazona collaria, and Black-billed A. agilis Parrots of Jamaica, Hispaniolan Parakeet Aratinga chloroptera, Hispaniolan Parrot Amazona ventralis, Cuban Parrot A. leucocephala leucocephala and, most seriously, Cuban Parakeet Aratinga euops. The population of the Grand Cayman Parrot (Amazona leucocephala caymanensis), although numbering only about 1,000 birds, appears stable and the current conservation programme gives hope for the survival of the race. An active conservation and public education programme has begun for the Bahama Parrot A. l. bahamensis, which still occurs in good numbers on Great Inagua Island, but is threatened on Abaco Island. Recommendations for conservation of parrots and parakeets in the region include (1) instituting long-term programmes of research to determine distribution, status, and ecology of each species; (2) developing conservation programmes through education and management

  1. Ultrasonographic examination of the small intestine, large intestine and greater omentum in 30 Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Steininger, K; Tschuor, A; Hässig, M

    2011-09-01

    The small and large intestine of 30 healthy Saanen goats were examined ultrasonographically using a 5.0 MHz-linear transducer. The goats were examined on the right side, from the eighth rib to the caudal aspect of the flank. The small and large intestine could be easily differentiated. The descending duodenum could be imaged in 19 goats, and the jejunum and ileum seen in all goats. The jejunum and ileum were most often seen in cross-section and rarely in longitudinal section in the ventral region of the right flank. The intestinal contents were usually homogenously echoic, and active motility was observed in all the goats. The diameter of the small intestine was 0.8-2.7 cm (1.6 [0.33] cm). The spiral ansa of the colon was imaged in all the goats, and in 21 the caecum was also seen. Both these sections of large intestine were most commonly seen in the dorsal region of the right flank. The spiral ansa of the colon was easily identified by its spiral arrangement of centripetal and centrifugal gyri, which had a garland-like appearance. Because of intraluminal gas, only the wall of the colon closest to the transducer could be imaged. The diameter of the spiral colon ranged from 0.8 to 2.0 cm (1.1 [0.24] cm). Usually only the wall of the caecum closest to the transducer could be imaged and it appeared as a thick, echoic, slightly undulating line. The greater omentum could be seen in all the goats.

  2. Greater sage-grouse winter habitat use on the eastern edge of their range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Christopher C.; Rumble, Mark A.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Kaczor, Nicholas W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Herman-Brunson, Katie M.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Jensen, Kent C.

    2013-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) at the western edge of the Dakotas occur in the transition zone between sagebrush and grassland communities. These mixed sagebrush (Artemisia sp.) and grasslands differ from those habitats that comprise the central portions of the sage-grouse range; yet, no information is available on winter habitat selection within this region of their distribution. We evaluated factors influencing greater sage-grouse winter habitat use in North Dakota during 2005–2006 and 2006–2007 and in South Dakota during 2006–2007 and 2007–2008. We captured and radio-marked 97 breeding-age females and 54 breeding-age males from 2005 to 2007 and quantified habitat selection for 98 of these birds that were alive during winter. We collected habitat measurements at 340 (177 ND, 163 SD) sage-grouse use sites and 680 random (340 each at 250 m and 500 m from locations) dependent sites. Use sites differed from random sites with greater percent sagebrush cover (14.75% use vs. 7.29% random; P 2 use vs. 0.94 plants/m2 random; P ≤ 0.001), but lesser percent grass cover (11.76% use vs. 16.01% random; P ≤ 0.001) and litter cover (4.34% use vs. 5.55% random; P = 0.001) and lower sagebrush height (20.02 cm use vs. 21.35 cm random; P = 0.13) and grass height (21.47 cm use vs. 23.21 cm random; P = 0.15). We used conditional logistic regression to estimate winter habitat selection by sage-grouse on continuous scales. The model sagebrush cover + sagebrush height + sagebrush cover × sagebrush height (wi = 0.60) was the most supported of the 13 models we considered, indicating that percent sagebrush cover strongly influenced selection. Logistic odds ratios indicated that the probability of selection by sage-grouse increased by 1.867 for every 1% increase in sagebrush cover (95% CI = 1.627–2.141) and by 1.041 for every 1 cm increase in sagebrush height (95% CI = 1.002–1.082). The

  3. Isotope and chemical age of the Greater Caucasus basement metamorphic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konilov, A. N.; Somin, M. L.; Mukhanova, A. A.

    2009-04-01

    complexes independently of baric type seem to be formed roughly synchronously during Variscan epoch. References: Gamkrelidze I.P., Shengelia D.M. ( 2005).The Precambrian-Paleozoic Regional Metamorphism, Granitoid Magmatism, and Geodynamics of the Caucasus. M: Nauchnyi Mir [in Russian]. Pyle J.M., Frank S. Spear F.S. et al. (2001). Monazite-Xenotime-Garnet Equilibrium in Metapelites and a New Monazite-Garnet Thermometer. Journal of Petrology, , 42, 2083-2107. Slagstad T. (2006).Chemical (U-Th-Pb) dating of monazite: Analytical protocol for a LEO 1450VP scanning electron microscope and examples from Rogaland and Finnmark, Norway. Norges geologiske undersøkelse Bulletin, 446, 11-18. Somin M.L. (2007a). Pre-Alpine basement of the Greater Caucasus: main features. In: Alpine history of the Greater Caucasus (Yu.G. Leonovб Ed.). GEOS. Moscow. P.15-38. Somin M.L., Lepekhina E.N., Konilov A.N. ( 2007b). Age of the High-Temperature Gneiss Core of the Central Caucasus. Doklady Earth Sciences, 415, 690-694. Somin M.L., Levchenkov O.A., Kotov A.B. et al. (2007c). The Paleozoic Age of High-Pressure Metamorphic Rocks in the Dakhov Salient, North-Western Caucasus: Results of U-Pb Geochronological Investigations. Doklady Earth Sciences, 416, 1018-1021. Suzuki K., Adachi M. (1991). Precambrian provenance and Silurian metamorphism of the Tsunosava paragneiss in South Kitakami terrane, northeast Japan, revealed by the chemical Th-U-total Pb isochron ages of monazite, zircon and xenotime. Journal of Geochemistry, 25, 357-376.

  4. Characterization of Greater Middle Eastern genetic variation for enhanced disease gene discovery.

    PubMed

    Scott, Eric M; Halees, Anason; Itan, Yuval; Spencer, Emily G; He, Yupeng; Azab, Mostafa Abdellateef; Gabriel, Stacey B; Belkadi, Aziz; Boisson, Bertrand; Abel, Laurent; Clark, Andrew G; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Gleeson, Joseph G

    2016-09-01

    The Greater Middle East (GME) has been a central hub of human migration and population admixture. The tradition of consanguinity, variably practiced in the Persian Gulf region, North Africa, and Central Asia, has resulted in an elevated burden of recessive disease. Here we generated a whole-exome GME variome from 1,111 unrelated subjects. We detected substantial diversity and admixture in continental and subregional populations, corresponding to several ancient founder populations with little evidence of bottlenecks. Measured consanguinity rates were an order of magnitude above those in other sampled populations, and the GME population exhibited an increased burden of runs of homozygosity (ROHs) but showed no evidence for reduced burden of deleterious variation due to classically theorized 'genetic purging'. Applying this database to unsolved recessive conditions in the GME population reduced the number of potential disease-causing variants by four- to sevenfold. These results show variegated genetic architecture in GME populations and support future human genetic discoveries in Mendelian and population genetics.

  5. Greater hippocampal neuronal recruitment in food-storing than in non-food-storing birds.

    PubMed

    Hoshooley, Jennifer S; Sherry, David F

    2007-03-01

    Previous research has shown heightened recruitment of new neurons to the chickadee hippocampus in the fall. The present study was conducted to determine whether heightened fall recruitment is associated with the seasonal onset of food-storing by comparing neurogenesis in chickadees and a non-food-storing species, the house sparrow. Chickadees and house sparrows were captured in the wild in fall and spring and received multiple injections of the cell birth marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Birds were held in captivity and the level of hippocampal neuron recruitment was assessed after 6 weeks. Chickadees showed significantly more hippocampal neuronal recruitment than house sparrows. We found no seasonal differences in hippocampal neuronal recruitment in either species. In chickadees and in house sparrows, one-third of new cells labeled for BrdU also expressed the mature neuronal protein, NeuN. In a region adjacent to the hippocampus, the hyperpallium apicale, we observed no significant differences in neuronal recruitment between species or between seasons. Hippocampal volume and total neuron number both were greater in spring than in fall in chickadees, but no seasonal differences were observed in house sparrows. Enhanced neuronal recruitment in the hippocampus of food-storing chickadees suggests a degree of neurogenic specialization that may be associated with the spatial memory requirements of food-storing behavior.

  6. Phylogenetic correlates of extinction risk in mammals: species in older lineages are not at greater risk.

    PubMed

    Verde Arregoitia, Luis Darcy; Blomberg, Simon P; Fisher, Diana O

    2013-08-22

    Phylogenetic information is becoming a recognized basis for evaluating conservation priorities, but associations between extinction risk and properties of a phylogeny such as diversification rates and phylogenetic lineage ages remain unclear. Limited taxon-specific analyses suggest that species in older lineages are at greater risk. We calculate quantitative properties of the mammalian phylogeny and model extinction risk as an ordinal index based on International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List categories. We test for associations between lineage age, clade size, evolutionary distinctiveness and extinction risk for 3308 species of terrestrial mammals. We show no significant global or regional associations, and three significant relationships within taxonomic groups. Extinction risk increases for evolutionarily distinctive primates and decreases with lineage age when lemurs are excluded. Lagomorph species (rabbits, hares and pikas) that have more close relatives are less threatened. We examine the relationship between net diversification rates and extinction risk for 173 genera and find no pattern. We conclude that despite being under-represented in the frequency distribution of lineage ages, species in older, slower evolving and distinct lineages are not more threatened or extinction-prone. Their extinction, however, would represent a disproportionate loss of unique evolutionary history.

  7. Science in the Public Sphere: Greater Sage-grouse Conservation Planning from a Transdisciplinary Perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torregrosa, Alicia; Casazza, Michael L.; Caldwell, Margaret R.; Mathiasmeier, Teresa A.; Morgan, Peter M.; Overton, Cory T.

    2010-01-01

    Integration of scientific data and adaptive management techniques is critical to the success of species conservation, however, there are uncertainties about effective methods of knowledge exchange between scientists and decisionmakers. The conservation planning and implementation process for Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; ) in the Mono Basin, Calif. region, was used as a case study to observe the exchange of scientific information among stakeholders with differing perspectives; resource manager, scientist, public official, rancher, and others. The collaborative development of a risk-simulation model was explored as a tool to transfer knowledge between stakeholders and inform conservation planning and management decisions. Observations compiled using a transdisciplinary approach were used to compare the exchange of information during the collaborative model development and more traditional interactions such as scientist-led presentations at stakeholder meetings. Lack of congruence around knowledge needs and prioritization led to insufficient commitment to completely implement the risk-simulation model. Ethnographic analysis of the case study suggests that further application of epistemic community theory, which posits a strong boundary condition on knowledge transfer, could help support application of risk simulation models in conservation-planning efforts within similarly complex social and bureaucratic landscapes.

  8. Sex-biased gene flow among elk in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    , Brian K. Hand; , Shanyuan Chen; , N. Anderson; , A. Beja-Pereira; Cross, Paul C.; , M. Ebinger; , H. Edwards; , R.A. Garrott; , M.D. Kardos; Kauffman, Matthew J.; , E.L. Landguth; , A. Middleton; , B. Scurlock; , P.J. White; , P. Zager; , M.K. Schwartz; , G. Luikart

    2014-01-01

    We quantified patterns of population genetic structure to help understand gene flow among elk populations across the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We sequenced 596 base pairs of the mitochondrial control region of 380 elk from eight populations. Analysis revealed high mitochondrial DNA variation within populations, averaging 13.0 haplotypes with high mean gene diversity (0.85). The genetic differentiation among populations for mitochondrial DNA was relatively high (FST = 0.161; P = 0.001) compared to genetic differentiation for nuclear microsatellite data (FST = 0.002; P = 0.332), which suggested relatively low female gene flow among populations. The estimated ratio of male to female gene flow (mm/mf = 46) was among the highest we have seen reported for large mammals. Genetic distance (for mitochondrial DNA pairwise FST) was not significantly correlated with geographic (Euclidean) distance between populations (Mantel’s r = 0.274, P = 0.168). Large mitochondrial DNA genetic distances (e.g., FST > 0.2) between some of the geographically closest populations (<65 km) suggested behavioral factors and/or landscape features might shape female gene flow patterns. Given the strong sex-biased gene flow, future research and conservation efforts should consider the sexes separately when modeling corridors of gene flow or predicting spread of maternally transmitted diseases. The growing availability of genetic data to compare male vs. female gene flow provides many exciting opportunities to explore the magnitude, causes, and implications of sex-biased gene flow likely to occur in many species

  9. Phenotypic flexibility in the energetic strategy of the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Flávio G; Tapisso, Joaquim T; Monarca, Rita I; Cerveira, Ana M; Mathias, Maria L

    2016-02-01

    The balance between energetic acquisition and expenditure depends on the amount of energy allocated to biological functions such as thermoregulation, growth, reproduction and behavior. Ambient temperature has a profound effect on this balance, with species inhabiting colder climates often needing to invest more energy in thermoregulation to maintain body temperature. This leads to local behavioral and physiological adaptations that increase energetic efficiency. In this study, we investigated the role of activity, behavior and thermogenic capacity in the ability of the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, to cope with seasonal changes. Individuals were captured in the Sintra-Cascais Natural Park, a Mediterranean region, and separated into three experimental groups: a control group, acclimated to a 12L:12D photoperiod and temperature of 18-20°C; a winter group, acclimatized to natural winter fluctuations of light and temperature; and a summer group, acclimatized to natural summer fluctuations of light and temperature. No differences were found in resting metabolic rate and nonshivering thermogenesis between the three groups. However, winter shrews significantly reduced their activity, particularly at night, compared to the control and summer groups. Differences in torpor use were also found between groups, with winter shrews entering torpor more frequently and during shorter periods of time than summer and control shrews. Our results indicate C. russula from Sintra relies on the flexibility of energy saving mechanisms, namely daily activity level and torpor use, to cope with seasonal changes in a Mediterranean climate, rather than mechanisms involving body heat production.

  10. Local extinction in the bird assemblage in the greater Beijing area from 1877 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Chouteau, Philippe; Jiang, Zhigang; Bravery, Benjamin D; Cai, Jing; Li, Zhongqiu; Pedrono, Miguel; Pays, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Recent growth in industrialization and the modernization of agricultural activities, combined with human population growth, has greatly modified China's natural environment, particularly in the vicinity of large cities. We compared avifauna checklists made between 1877 and 1938 with current checklists to determine the extent of local bird extinctions during the last century in the greater Beijing area. Our study shows that of the 411 bird species recorded from 1877-1938, 45 (10.9%) were no longer recorded from 2004-2006. Birds recorded as 'rare' in 1938 were more likely to have disappeared in subsequent years. Migrant status also influenced the probability of local bird extinction with winter migrants being the most affected class. Moreover, larger birds were more likely to have disappeared than smaller ones, potentially explained by differential ecological requirements and anthropogenic exploitation. Although our habitat descriptions and diet classification were not predictors of local bird extinction, the ecological processes driving local bird extinction are discussed in the light of historical changes that have impacted this region since the end of the 1930 s. Our results are of importance to the broader conservation of bird wildlife.

  11. Airborne Bacterial Diversity from the Low Atmosphere of Greater Mexico City.

    PubMed

    García-Mena, Jaime; Murugesan, Selvasankar; Pérez-Muñoz, Ashael Alfredo; García-Espitia, Matilde; Maya, Otoniel; Jacinto-Montiel, Monserrat; Monsalvo-Ponce, Giselle; Piña-Escobedo, Alberto; Domínguez-Malfavón, Lilianha; Gómez-Ramírez, Marlenne; Cervantes-González, Elsa; Núñez-Cardona, María Teresa

    2016-07-01

    Greater Mexico City is one of the largest urban centers in the world, with an estimated population by 2010 of more than 20 million inhabitants. In urban areas like this, biological material is present at all atmospheric levels including live bacteria. We sampled the low atmosphere in several surveys at different points by the gravity method on LB and blood agar media during winter, spring, summer, and autumn seasons in the years 2008, 2010, 2011, and 2012. The colonial phenotype on blood agar showed α, β, and γ hemolytic activities among the live collected bacteria. Genomic DNA was extracted and convenient V3 hypervariable region libraries of 16S rDNA gene were high-throughput sequenced. From the data analysis, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the more abundant phyla in all surveys, while the genera from the family Enterobacteriaceae, in addition to Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., Erwinia spp., Gluconacetobacter spp., Proteus spp., Exiguobacterium spp., and Staphylococcus spp. were also abundant. From this study, we conclude that it is possible to detect live airborne nonspore-forming bacteria in the low atmosphere of GMC, associated to the microbial cloud of its inhabitants.

  12. Local Extinction in the Bird Assemblage in the Greater Beijing Area from 1877 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Chouteau, Philippe; Jiang, Zhigang; Bravery, Benjamin D.; Cai, Jing; Li, Zhongqiu; Pedrono, Miguel; Pays, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Recent growth in industrialization and the modernization of agricultural activities, combined with human population growth, has greatly modified China’s natural environment, particularly in the vicinity of large cities. We compared avifauna checklists made between 1877 and 1938 with current checklists to determine the extent of local bird extinctions during the last century in the greater Beijing area. Our study shows that of the 411 bird species recorded from 1877–1938, 45 (10.9%) were no longer recorded from 2004–2006. Birds recorded as ‘rare’ in 1938 were more likely to have disappeared in subsequent years. Migrant status also influenced the probability of local bird extinction with winter migrants being the most affected class. Moreover, larger birds were more likely to have disappeared than smaller ones, potentially explained by differential ecological requirements and anthropogenic exploitation. Although our habitat descriptions and diet classification were not predictors of local bird extinction, the ecological processes driving local bird extinction are discussed in the light of historical changes that have impacted this region since the end of the 1930 s. Our results are of importance to the broader conservation of bird wildlife. PMID:22768146

  13. A pilot study on iodine in soils of Greater Kabul and Nangarhar provinces of Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Watts, M J; Mitchell, C J

    2009-08-01

    A robust and rapid methodology for the determination of iodine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in environmental samples is presented. Data were initially obtained for the validation of the analytical measurements, using 17 commercially available soil reference materials. The methodology was then tested on soil and water samples collected in Afghanistan where iodine deficiency and its effects are reportedly prevalent. Sample collections were conducted in Greater Kabul; the iodine in agricultural soils was determined to be in the range of 1.6-4.2 mg/kg and that in water drawn for drinking and irrigation was found to range from 9.9 to 22.7 microg/L. Samples were also collected in a second region, Nangarhar province, which is located to the east of Kabul, where goitres in the local population had been reported. The iodine content in soils and water at this location was 0.5-1.9 mg/kg and 5.4-9.4 microg/L, respectively. The organic content of soils in Kabul was found to be in the range of 1.9-4.2%; in Nangarhar, organic content ranged from 1.7 to 4.5%. All of the Afghan soils were slightly alkaline at pH 7.6-8.2.

  14. Air quality and climate impacts of alternative bus technologies in Greater London.

    PubMed

    Chong, Uven; Yim, Steve H L; Barrett, Steven R H; Boies, Adam M

    2014-04-15

    The environmental impact of diesel-fueled buses can potentially be reduced by the adoption of alternative propulsion technologies such as lean-burn compressed natural gas (LB-CNG) or hybrid electric buses (HEB), and emissions control strategies such as a continuously regenerating trap (CRT), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), or selective catalytic reduction with trap (SCRT). This study assessed the environmental costs and benefits of these bus technologies in Greater London relative to the existing fleet and characterized emissions changes due to alternative technologies. We found a >30% increase in CO2 equivalent (CO2e) emissions for CNG buses, a <5% change for exhaust treatment scenarios, and a 13% (90% confidence interval 3.8-20.9%) reduction for HEB relative to baseline CO2e emissions. A multiscale regional chemistry-transport model quantified the impact of alternative bus technologies on air quality, which was then related to premature mortality risk. We found the largest decrease in population exposure (about 83%) to particulate matter (PM2.5) occurred with LB-CNG buses. Monetized environmental and investment costs relative to the baseline gave estimated net present cost of LB-CNG or HEB conversion to be $187 million ($73 million to $301 million) or $36 million ($-25 million to $102 million), respectively, while EGR or SCRT estimated net present costs were $19 million ($7 million to $32 million) or $15 million ($8 million to $23 million), respectively.

  15. [The regional vaccination program in Europe (1991-1993)].

    PubMed

    Roure, C

    1994-01-01

    The European region is passing through a period of rapid transition with the most dramatic changes in the countries of central and eastern Europe (CCEE) and the former USSR. These countries are now facing serious economic problems, a dramatic rise in unemployment and social unrest which has had an impact on the development of the regional immunization programme. The provision of an adequate vaccine supply has become a priority for many States in the region in their efforts to sustain immunization activities. New operational targets for the EPI in Europe in the 1990s were established by the European Advisory Group (Copenhagen, February 1993). These operational targets identify the steps to be followed by countries in order to achieve, by the year 2000, no indigenous cases of poliomyelitis, diphtheria, neonatal tetanus, measles, mumps and congenital rubella. They also include a sustained and continuing reduction in the incidence and adverse consequences of other communicable diseases, notably HIV infection (European target 5). Immunization coverage is generally high and stable in the Region. It was observed in 1990-1992 that pockets of non-immunized persons in any country can lead to outbreaks of disease. Most Member States, however, do not yet use immunization coverage for operational purposes despite being encouraged to monitor by geographical unit. Insufficient protection against pertussis has been observed in countries including Italy, the Russian Federation and Sweden (where pertussis immunization is not obligatory) and represents the build-up of a large susceptible population.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Off-line consolidation of motor sequence learning results in greater integration within a cortico-striatal functional network.

    PubMed

    Debas, Karen; Carrier, Julie; Barakat, Marc; Marrelec, Guillaume; Bellec, Pierre; Hadj Tahar, Abdallah; Karni, Avi; Ungerleider, Leslie G; Benali, Habib; Doyon, Julien

    2014-10-01

    The consolidation of motor sequence learning is known to depend on sleep. Work in our laboratory and others have shown that the striatum is associated with this off-line consolidation process. In this study, we aimed to quantify the sleep-dependent dynamic changes occurring at the network level using a measure of functional integration. We directly compared changes in connectivity before and after sleep or the simple passage of daytime. As predicted, the results revealed greater integration within the cortico-striatal network after sleep, but not an equivalent daytime period. Importantly, a similar pattern of results was also observed using a data-driven approach; the increase in integration being specific to a cortico-striatal network, but not to other known functional networks. These findings reveal, for the first time, a new signature of motor sequence consolidation: a greater between-regions interaction within the cortico-striatal system.

  17. Gold deposits and occurrences of the Greater Caucasus, Georgia Republic: Their genesis and prospecting criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kekelia, S.A.; Kekelia, M.A.; Kuloshvili, S.I.; Sadradze, N.G.; Gagnidze, N.E.; Yaroshevich, V.Z.; Asatiani, G.G.; Doebrich, J.L.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Marsh, E.E.

    2008-01-01

    The south-central part of the Greater Caucasus region, Georgia Republic, represents an extremely prospective region for significant orogenic gold deposits. Gold-bearing quartz veins are concentrated in two extensive WNW-trending belts, the Mestia-Racha and Svaneti districts, within the northern margin of the Southern Slope Zone of the Great Caucasus orogen. This metalliferous region is dominated by Early to Middle Jurassic slates, which are part of a terrane that likely accreted to the continental margin from late Paleozoic to Jurassic. The slates were subsequently intruded by both Middle to Late Jurassic and Neogene granitoids. Quartz veins in the more carbonaceous slate units are most consistently enriched in As, Au, Hg, Sb, and W, and show mineralization styles most consistent with typical orogenic gold deposits. Quartz veins in the Mestia-Racha district were mined in Soviet times for As, Sb, and W, but many of these are now being recognized as gold resource targets. The veins occur in the footwall of a thrust fault between the Southern Slope zone and an earlier accreted terrane, the Main Zone, to the north. Many veins in the district continue along strike for > 1??km and some cut Neogene intrusions, constraining ore formation to the most recent 4 to 5??million years. Gold deposition thus correlates with final collision of the Arabian plate to the south and uplift of the ore-hosting Greater Caucasus. The Zopkhito deposit, previously mined for antimony, contains an estimated 55??t Au at a cutoff grade of 0.5??g/t. The veins are localized in an area where smaller-order structures show a major change in strike from N-S to more E-W trends. A pyrite-arsenopyrite ore stage includes gold concentrated in both sulfide phases; it is overprinted by a later stibnite-dominant stage. Fluid-inclusion studies of ore samples from the Zopkhito deposit indicate minimum trapping temperatures of 300 to 350????C and 200 to 300????C for the two stages, respectively, and minimum

  18. A Comparison of Recent Post-Collisional Volcanism in the Lesser and Greater Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bewick, Samuel; Harris, Nigel; Parkinson, Ian; Hammond, Sam; Adamia, Shota; Sadradze, Nino

    2015-04-01

    The southern margin of the Eurasian plate is a well studied region of continental collision. The Caucasus lie in the centre of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt, and differ from their better studied neighbours by the presence of intense post-collisional volcanism. The Lesser Caucasus (LC) represent a Jurassic-Cretaceous-early Palaeogene arc formed from the northward subduction of the Neotethys Ocean. The back-arc basins that opened behind this arc closed during the Oligocene Arabia-Eurasian collision, forming the Greater Caucasus (GC). Late Miocene-Quaternary volcanism has erupted through the thickened crust (45-60km), tens of millions of years following continental collision. The source of magmatism in this region of significantly thickened crust is poorly constrained. We present bulk rock major and trace element, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data to unravel the complexity of the orogenic zone and assess the role of asthenosphere, lithosphere and crust in the contemporaneous Greater and Lesser Caucasus volcanism. Rock types from the LC cover a wide range of compositions from basalts to dacites (50-70 wt% SiO2). Those from the GC range from andesites to rhyolites, although high Mg# (up to 85) cores of olivines and clinopyroxenes, suggest more mafic melts exist that have not been recognised at the surface. Significant fractionation from a primitive source is required to produce the range of compositions measured. Enrichment in large-ion lithophiles and negative Ti and Nb-Ta anomalies are indicative of a source enriched by subduction related fluids. Flat heavy rare earths patterns ((Dy/Yb)N = 1.14-1.42) require shallow (<70km) melting for the LC magmas, while the GC volcanics ((Dy/Yb)N = 1.2-1.65) require a small input from deeper melts. Middle rare earth patterns show amphibole fractionation played a significant role in LC magmatism. Variations in radiogenic isotopic compositions (Sr, Nd, Pb, Hf) require interaction with local GC and LC crust. Our results are consistent

  19. Physical Activity Is Linked to Greater Moment-To-Moment Variability in Spontaneous Brain Activity in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Voss, Michelle W.; Cooke, Gillian E.; Gothe, Neha P.; Fanning, Jason; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) in old age are associated with greater brain structural and functional integrity, and higher cognitive functioning. However, it is not known how different aspects of lifestyle such as sedentariness, light PA (LI-PA), or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MV-PA) relate to neural activity in aging. In addition, it is not known whether the effects of PA on brain function differ or overlap with those of CRF. Here, we objectively measured CRF as oxygen consumption during a maximal exercise test and measured PA with an accelerometer worn for 7 days in 100 healthy but low active older adults (aged 60–80 years). We modeled the relationships between CRF, PA, and brain functional integrity using multivariate partial least squares analysis. As an index of functional brain integrity we used spontaneous moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal (SDBOLD), known to be associated with better cognitive functioning in aging. We found that older adults who engaged more in LI-PA and MV-PA had greater SDBOLD in brain regions that play a role in integrating segregated functional domains in the brain and benefit from greater CRF or PA, such as precuneus, hippocampus, medial and lateral prefrontal, and temporal cortices. Our results suggest that engaging in higher intensity PA may have protective effects on neural processing in aging. Finally, we demonstrated that older adults with greater overall WM microstructure were those showing more LI-PA and MV-PA and greater SDBOLD. We conclude that SDBOLD is a promising correlate of functional brain health in aging. Future analyses will evaluate whether SDBOLD is modifiable with interventions aimed to increase PA and CRF in older adults. PMID:26244873

  20. Impact of lake breezes on ozone and nitrogen oxides in the Greater Toronto Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentworth, G. R.; Murphy, J. G.; Sills, D. M. L.

    2015-05-01

    Meteorological and air quality datasets from summertime (May to September, 2010-2012) were analysed in order to assess the influence of lake-breeze circulations on pollutant levels in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). While previous estimates of the frequency of summer days experiencing lake breezes range between 25 and 32 % for the GTA, a simple algorithm using surface meteorological observations suggested Lake Ontario breezes occurred on 56% of summer days, whereas a more reliable multiplatform approach yielded a frequency of 74%. Data from five air quality stations across the GTA were used to compare air quality on days during which a lake-breeze circulation formed ("lake breeze days") versus days when one did not ("non-lake breeze days"). Average daytime O3 maxima were 13.6-14.8 ppb higher on lake breeze days relative to non-lake breeze days. Furthermore, the Ontario Ambient Air Quality Criteria (AAQC) for 1-h average O3 (80 ppb) and 8-h average O3 (65 ppb) were exceeded only on lake breeze days and occurred on a total of 30 and 54 days throughout the study period, respectively. A causal link between lake-breeze circulations and enhanced O3 was identified by examining several days in which only some of the air quality sites were inside the lake-breeze circulation. O3 mixing ratios at sites located within the circulation were at least 30 ppb higher than sites outside the circulation, despite similar temperatures, cloud conditions and synoptic regimes across the region. Rapid O3 increases were concurrent with the arrival of the lake-breeze front, suggesting O3-rich air from over the lake is being advected inland throughout the day. Lake-breeze circulations were found to have less impact on nitrogen oxide (NOx) levels. Morning NOx was greater on lake breeze days, probably due to the stagnant conditions favourable for lake breeze formation. During the late afternoon, only inland sites experience increased NOx on lake breeze days, likely as a result of being downwind

  1. The intertidal soft sediments and their macrofauna in the Greater Swansea Bay area (Worm's Head to Nash Point), South Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shackley, Susan E.

    1981-05-01

    The zonation and abundance of the infauna of 11 soft shores in the Greater Swansea Bay area are described in relation to sediment grain size composition and exposure to wave action. Faunal associations are more characteristic of a boreal sand community but with reduced species diversity. Exposure to wave action accounts, at least in part, for this reduced fauna but the combined effects of industrial and urban development in the Swansea Bay area cannot be ignored. This study provides a baseline for future work in a region subject to pollution, completing the infaunal species lists for the northern coastline of the Bristol Channel.

  2. Effects of management practices on grassland birds: Greater Sage-Grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowland, Mary M.

    2004-01-01

    Information on the habitat requirements and effects of habitat management on Greater Sage-Grouse was summarized from information in more than 5,500 published and unpublished papers. A range map is provided to indicate the current range of Greater Sage-Grouse (adapted from Schroeder et al. 2004). Although birds may be observed outside the breeding range indicated, the maps are intended to show areas where managers might concentrate their attention. It may be ineffectual to manage habitat at a site for a species that rarely occurs in an area. The species account begins with a brief capsule statement, which provides the fundamental components or keys to management for the species. A section on breeding range outlines the current breeding distribution of the species in North America. The suitable habitat section describes the breeding habitat and occasionally microhabitat characteristics of the species. Details on habitat and microhabitat requirements often provide clues to how a species will respond to a particular management practice. A table near the end of the account complements the section on suitable habitat, and lists the specific habitat characteristics for the species by individual studies. A special section on prey habitat is included for those predatory species that have more specific prey requirements. The area requirements section provides details on territory and home range sizes, minimum area requirements, and the effects of patch size, edges, and other landscape and habitat features on abundance and productivity. It may be futile to manage a small block of suitable habitat for a species that has minimum area requirements that are larger than the area being managed. The Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) is an obligate brood parasite of many grassland birds. The section on cowbird brood parasitism summarizes rates of cowbird parasitism, host responses to parasitism, and factors that influence parasitism, such as nest concealment and host density. The

  3. Identifying Common Patterns in Diverse Systems: Effects of Exurban Development on Birds of the Adirondack Park and the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glennon, Michale J.; Kretser, Heidi E.; Hilty, Jodi A.

    2015-02-01

    We examined the impacts of exurban development on bird communities in Essex County, New York and Madison County, Montana by comparing differences in abundance of songbirds between subdivisions and control sites in both regions. We hypothesized that impacts to bird communities would be greater in the relatively homogeneous, closed canopy Adirondack forest of northern New York State than they would be in the more naturally heterogeneous grasslands interspersed with trees and shrubs of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We examined birds in five functional groups expected to be responsive to exurban development, and determined relative abundance within subdivisions and control sites across these two distinct regions. We found little support for our hypothesis. For birds in the area-sensitive, low nesting, and Neotropical migrant functional groups, relative abundance was lower in subdivisions in the Adirondacks and in Madison County, while relative abundance of edge specialists was greater in subdivisions in both regions. The direction and magnitude of change in the avian communities between subdivisions and controls was similar in both regions for all guilds except microhabitat specialists. These similarities across diverse ecosystems suggest that the ecological context of the encompassing region may be less important than other elements in shaping avian communities in exurban systems. This finding suggests that humans and their specific behaviors and activities in exurban areas may be underappreciated but potentially important drivers of change in these regions.

  4. Identifying common patterns in diverse systems: effects of exurban development on birds of the Adirondack Park and the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA.

    PubMed

    Glennon, Michale J; Kretser, Heidi E; Hilty, Jodi A

    2015-02-01

    We examined the impacts of exurban development on bird communities in Essex County, New York and Madison County, Montana by comparing differences in abundance of songbirds between subdivisions and control sites in both regions. We hypothesized that impacts to bird communities would be greater in the relatively homogeneous, closed canopy Adirondack forest of northern New York State than they would be in the more naturally heterogeneous grasslands interspersed with trees and shrubs of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We examined birds in five functional groups expected to be responsive to exurban development, and determined relative abundance within subdivisions and control sites across these two distinct regions. We found little support for our hypothesis. For birds in the area-sensitive, low nesting, and Neotropical migrant functional groups, relative abundance was lower in subdivisions in the Adirondacks and in Madison County, while relative abundance of edge specialists was greater in subdivisions in both regions. The direction and magnitude of change in the avian communities between subdivisions and controls was similar in both regions for all guilds except microhabitat specialists. These similarities across diverse ecosystems suggest that the ecological context of the encompassing region may be less important than other elements in shaping avian communities in exurban systems. This finding suggests that humans and their specific behaviors and activities in exurban areas may be underappreciated but potentially important drivers of change in these regions.

  5. Sex-biased gene flow among elk in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hand, Brian K.; Chen, Shanyuan; Anderson, Neil; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Cross, Paul C.; Ebinger, Michael R.; Edwards, Hank; Garrott, Robert A.; Kardos, Marty D.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Landguth, Erin L.; Middleton, Arthur; Scurlock, Brandon M.; White, P.J.; Zager, Pete; Schwartz, Michael K.; Luikart, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    We quantified patterns of population genetic structure to help understand gene flow among elk populations across the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We sequenced 596 base pairs of the mitochondrial control region of 380 elk from eight populations. Analysis revealed high mitochondrial DNA variation within populations, averaging 13.0 haplotypes with high mean gene diversity (0.85). The genetic differentiation among populations for mitochondrial DNA was relatively high (FST  =  0.161; P  =  0.001) compared to genetic differentiation for nuclear microsatellite data (FST  =  0.002; P  =  0.332), which suggested relatively low female gene flow among populations. The estimated ratio of male to female gene flow (mm/mf  =  46) was among the highest we have seen reported for large mammals. Genetic distance (for mitochondrial DNA pairwise FST) was not significantly correlated with geographic (Euclidean) distance between populations (Mantel's r  =  0.274, P  =  0.168). Large mitochondrial DNA genetic distances (e.g., FST > 0.2) between some of the geographically closest populations (<65 km) suggested behavioral factors and/or landscape features might shape female gene flow patterns. Given the strong sex-biased gene flow, future research and conservation efforts should consider the sexes separately when modeling corridors of gene flow or predicting spread of maternally transmitted diseases. The growing availability of genetic data to compare male vs. female gene flow provides many exciting opportunities to explore the magnitude, causes, and implications of sex-biased gene flow likely to occur in many species.

  6. Assessing Malaria Risks in Greater Mekong Subregion based on Environmental Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard; Soika, Valerii; Adimi, Farida; Nigro, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    At 4,200 km, the Mekong River is the tenth longest river in the world. It directly and indirectly influences the lives of hundreds of millions of inhabitants in its basin. The riparian countries - Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and a small part of China - form the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). This geographical region has the misfortune of being the world's epicenter of falciparum malaria, which is the most severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Depending on the country, approximately 50 to 90% of all malaria cases are due to this species. In the Malaria Modeling and Surveillance Project, we have been developing techniques to enhance public health s decision capability for malaria risk assessments and controls. The main objectives are: 1) identifying the potential breeding sites for major vector species; 2) implementing a malaria transmission model to identify the key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission; and 3) implementing a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity. The potential benefits are: 1) increased warning time for public health organizations to respond to malaria outbreaks; 2) optimized utilization of pesticide and chemoprophylaxis; 3) reduced likelihood of pesticide and drug resistance; and 4) reduced damage to environment. Environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. The NASA Earth science data sets that have been used for malaria surveillance and risk assessment include AVHRR Pathfinder, TRMM, MODIS, NSIPP, and SIESIP. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records. Socioeconomic factors that may influence malaria transmissions will also be incorporated into the predictive models.

  7. Changes in nutrient dynamics of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese during spring migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Krapu, Gary L.; Cox, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Waterfowl and other migratory birds commonly store nutrients at traditional staging areas during spring for later use during migration and reproduction. We investigated nutrient-storage dynamics in the midcontinent population of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons; hereafter white-fronted geese) at spring staging sites in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska during February-April and in southern Saskatchewan during April-May, 1998 and 1999. In Nebraska, lipid content of white-fronted geese did not increase, and protein content changed little over time for most age and sex categories. In Saskatchewan, lipids increased 11.4 g/day (SE = 1.7) and protein content increased 1.6 g/day (SE = 0.6) in the sample of adult geese collected over a 3-week period. A study conducted during 1979-1980 in the Rainwater Basin reported that white-fronted geese gained 8.8-17.7 g of lipids per day during spring, differing greatly from our results 2 decades later. In addition, lipid levels were less in the 1990s compared to spring 1980 for adult geese nearing departure from staging sites in Saskatchewan. This shift in where geese acquired nutrient stores from Nebraska to more northern staging sites coincided with a decrease in availability of waste corn in Nebraska, their primary food source while staging at that stopover site, and an increase in cultivation of high-energy pulse crops in Saskatchewan. White-fronted geese exhibited flexibility in nutrient dynamics during spring migration, likely in response to landscape-level variation in food availability caused by changes in agricultural trends and practices. Maintaining a wide distribution of wetlands in the Great Plains may allow springstaging waterfowl to disperse across the region and facilitate access to high-energy foods over a larger cropland base.

  8. Integrating science into management of ecosystems in the Greater Blue Mountains.

    PubMed

    Chapple, Rosalie S; Ramp, Daniel; Bradstock, Ross A; Kingsford, Richard T; Merson, John A; Auld, Tony D; Fleming, Peter J S; Mulley, Robert C

    2011-10-01

    Effective management of large protected conservation areas is challenged by political, institutional and environmental complexity and inconsistency. Knowledge generation and its uptake into management are crucial to address these challenges. We reflect on practice at the interface between science and management of the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area (GBMWHA), which covers approximately 1 million hectares west of Sydney, Australia. Multiple government agencies and other stakeholders are involved in its management, and decision-making is confounded by numerous plans of management and competing values and goals, reflecting the different objectives and responsibilities of stakeholders. To highlight the complexities of the decision-making process for this large area, we draw on the outcomes of a recent collaborative research project and focus on fire regimes and wild-dog control as examples of how existing knowledge is integrated into management. The collaborative research project achieved the objectives of collating and synthesizing biological data for the region; however, transfer of the project's outcomes to management has proved problematic. Reasons attributed to this include lack of clearly defined management objectives to guide research directions and uptake, and scientific information not being made more understandable and accessible. A key role of a local bridging organisation (e.g., the Blue Mountains World Heritage Institute) in linking science and management is ensuring that research results with management significance can be effectively transmitted to agencies and that outcomes are explained for nonspecialists as well as more widely distributed. We conclude that improved links between science, policy, and management within an adaptive learning-by-doing framework for the GBMWHA would assist the usefulness and uptake of future research.

  9. Combined Effects of Energy Development and Disease on Greater Sage-Grouse

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Rebecca L.; Tack, Jason D.; Naugle, David E.; Mills, L. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Species of conservation concern are increasingly threatened by multiple, anthropogenic stressors which are outside their evolutionary experience. Greater sage-grouse are highly susceptible to the impacts of two such stressors: oil and gas (energy) development and West Nile virus (WNv). However, the combined effects of these stressors and their potential interactions have not been quantified. We used lek (breeding ground) counts across a landscape encompassing extensive local and regional variation in the intensity of energy development to quantify the effects of energy development on lek counts, in years with widespread WNv outbreaks and in years without widespread outbreaks. We then predicted the effects of well density and WNv outbreak years on sage-grouse in northeast Wyoming. Absent an outbreak year, drilling an undeveloped landscape to a high permitting level (3.1 wells/km2) resulted in a 61% reduction in the total number of males counted in northeast Wyoming (total count). This was similar in magnitude to the 55% total count reduction that resulted from an outbreak year alone. However, energy-associated reductions in the total count resulted from a decrease in the mean count at active leks, whereas outbreak-associated reductions resulted from a near doubling of the lek inactivity rate (proportion of leks with a last count = 0). Lek inactivity quadrupled when 3.1 wells/km2 was combined with an outbreak year, compared to no energy development and no outbreak. Conservation measures should maintain sagebrush landscapes large and intact enough so that leks are not chronically reduced in size due to energy development, and therefore vulnerable to becoming inactive due to additional stressors. PMID:23940732

  10. Geographic variation in migration chronology and winter distribution of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.; Nieman, Daniel J.; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Hines, James E.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated spatial and temporal differences in migratory behavior among different breeding groups of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) using band-recovery data and observations of neck collared geese during migration and winter. Birds from different breeding areas were initially delineated by geographic distance into 6 banding reference areas (BRAs): 1) interior Alaska, 2) North Slope of Alaska, 3) western Northwest Territories (NWT), 4) western Nunavut, 5) central Nunavut, and 6) eastern Nunavut. The banding groups also differed by breeding habitat, with geese from interior Alaska nesting in the boreal forest (taiga), and all other groups breeding in tundra habitats. Geese from interior Alaska migrated earlier during autumn, and were more likely to winter farther south (in Mexico) than geese from other breeding areas. Geese banded in central and eastern Nunavut (Queen Maud Gulf and Inglis River) wintered farther east (in Louisiana) than geese from other breeding areas. Small-scale (within-state) geographic segregation of wintering flocks was evidenced by the recent (post-1990) nearly exclusive use of a new wintering area in north central Texas by geese from interior Alaska. Segregation among BRAs was also apparent in Mexico, where taiga geese were found predominantly in the central Highlands (states of Zacatecas and Durango), whereas tundra geese mostly used states along the Gulf Coast (primarily Tamaulipas). Interior Alaska birds initiated spring migration earlier than geese from other areas, and were more likely than others to stop in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska, a region where cholera outbreaks periodically kill thousands of geese. Geese from interior Alaska were the first to arrive at spring staging areas in prairie Canada where BRAs exhibited spatial delineation (a longitudinal cline) in relation to breeding areas. Our results show significant geographic and temporal variation among taiga and tundra breeding cohorts during

  11. Patterns and variability of projected bioclimatic habitat for Pinus albicaulis in the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tony; Hansen, Andrew J; Piekielek, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Projected climate change at a regional level is expected to shift vegetation habitat distributions over the next century. For the sub-alpine species whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), warming temperatures may indirectly result in loss of suitable bioclimatic habitat, reducing its distribution within its historic range. This research focuses on understanding the patterns of spatiotemporal variability for future projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) through a bioclimatic envelope approach. Since intermodel variability from General Circulation Models (GCMs) lead to differing predictions regarding the magnitude and direction of modeled suitable habitat area, nine bias-corrected statistically down-scaled GCMs were utilized to understand the uncertainty associated with modeled projections. P.albicaulis was modeled using a Random Forests algorithm for the 1980-2010 climate period and showed strong presence/absence separations by summer maximum temperatures and springtime snowpack. Patterns of projected habitat change by the end of the century suggested a constant decrease in suitable climate area from the 2010 baseline for both Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 8.5 and 4.5 climate forcing scenarios. Percent suitable climate area estimates ranged from 2-29% and 0.04-10% by 2099 for RCP 8.5 and 4.5 respectively. Habitat projections between GCMs displayed a decrease of variability over the 2010-2099 time period related to consistent warming above the 1910-2010 temperature normal after 2070 for all GCMs. A decreasing pattern of projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat area change was consistent across GCMs, despite strong differences in magnitude. Future ecological research in species distribution modeling should consider a full suite of GCM projections in the analysis to reduce extreme range contractions/expansions predictions. The results suggest that restoration strageties such as planting of seedlings and controlling

  12. Combined effects of energy development and disease on greater sage-grouse.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rebecca L; Tack, Jason D; Naugle, David E; Mills, L Scott

    2013-01-01

    Species of conservation concern are increasingly threatened by multiple, anthropogenic stressors which are outside their evolutionary experience. Greater sage-grouse are highly susceptible to the impacts of two such stressors: oil and gas (energy) development and West Nile virus (WNv). However, the combined effects of these stressors and their potential interactions have not been quantified. We used lek (breeding ground) counts across a landscape encompassing extensive local and regional variation in the intensity of energy development to quantify the effects of energy development on lek counts, in years with widespread WNv outbreaks and in years without widespread outbreaks. We then predicted the effects of well density and WNv outbreak years on sage-grouse in northeast Wyoming. Absent an outbreak year, drilling an undeveloped landscape to a high permitting level (3.1 wells/km²) resulted in a 61% reduction in the total number of males counted in northeast Wyoming (total count). This was similar in magnitude to the 55% total count reduction that resulted from an outbreak year alone. However, energy-associated reductions in the total count resulted from a decrease in the mean count at active leks, whereas outbreak-associated reductions resulted from a near doubling of the lek inactivity rate (proportion of leks with a last count = 0). Lek inactivity quadrupled when 3.1 wells/km² was combined with an outbreak year, compared to no energy development and no outbreak. Conservation measures should maintain sagebrush landscapes large and intact enough so that leks are not chronically reduced in size due to energy development, and therefore vulnerable to becoming inactive due to additional stressors.

  13. Integrating Science into Management of Ecosystems in the Greater Blue Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapple, Rosalie S.; Ramp, Daniel; Bradstock, Ross A.; Kingsford, Richard T.; Merson, John A.; Auld, Tony D.; Fleming, Peter J. S.; Mulley, Robert C.

    2011-10-01

    Effective management of large protected conservation areas is challenged by political, institutional and environmental complexity and inconsistency. Knowledge generation and its uptake into management are crucial to address these challenges. We reflect on practice at the interface between science and management of the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area (GBMWHA), which covers approximately 1 million hectares west of Sydney, Australia. Multiple government agencies and other stakeholders are involved in its management, and decision-making is confounded by numerous plans of management and competing values and goals, reflecting the different objectives and responsibilities of stakeholders. To highlight the complexities of the decision-making process for this large area, we draw on the outcomes of a recent collaborative research project and focus on fire regimes and wild-dog control as examples of how existing knowledge is integrated into management. The collaborative research project achieved the objectives of collating and synthesizing biological data for the region; however, transfer of the project's outcomes to management has proved problematic. Reasons attributed to this include lack of clearly defined management objectives to guide research directions and uptake, and scientific information not being made more understandable and accessible. A key role of a local bridging organisation (e.g., the Blue Mountains World Heritage Institute) in linking science and management is ensuring that research results with management significance can be effectively transmitted to agencies and that outcomes are explained for nonspecialists as well as more widely distributed. We conclude that improved links between science, policy, and management within an adaptive learning-by-doing framework for the GBMWHA would assist the usefulness and uptake of future research.

  14. Methods to estimate distribution and range extent of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haroldson, Mark A.; Schwartz, Charles C.; , Daniel D. Bjornlie; , Daniel J. Thompson; , Kerry A. Gunther; , Steven L. Cain; , Daniel B. Tyers; Frey, Kevin L.; Aber, Bryan C.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population has expanded into areas unoccupied since the early 20th century. Up-to-date information on the area and extent of this distribution is crucial for federal, state, and tribal wildlife and land managers to make informed decisions regarding grizzly bear management. The most recent estimate of grizzly bear distribution (2004) utilized fixed-kernel density estimators to describe distribution. This method was complex and computationally time consuming and excluded observations of unmarked bears. Our objective was to develop a technique to estimate grizzly bear distribution that would allow for the use of all verified grizzly bear location data, as well as provide the simplicity to be updated more frequently. We placed all verified grizzly bear locations from all sources from 1990 to 2004 and 1990 to 2010 onto a 3-km × 3-km grid and used zonal analysis and ordinary kriging to develop a predicted surface of grizzly bear distribution. We compared the area and extent of the 2004 kriging surface with the previous 2004 effort and evaluated changes in grizzly bear distribution from 2004 to 2010. The 2004 kriging surface was 2.4% smaller than the previous fixed-kernel estimate, but more closely represented the data. Grizzly bear distribution increased 38.3% from 2004 to 2010, with most expansion in the northern and southern regions of the range. This technique can be used to provide a current estimate of grizzly bear distribution for management and conservation applications.

  15. Patterns and Variability of Projected Bioclimatic Habitat for Pinus albicaulis in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tony; Hansen, Andrew J.; Piekielek, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Projected climate change at a regional level is expected to shift vegetation habitat distributions over the next century. For the sub-alpine species whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), warming temperatures may indirectly result in loss of suitable bioclimatic habitat, reducing its distribution within its historic range. This research focuses on understanding the patterns of spatiotemporal variability for future projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) through a bioclimatic envelope approach. Since intermodel variability from General Circulation Models (GCMs) lead to differing predictions regarding the magnitude and direction of modeled suitable habitat area, nine bias-corrected statistically down-scaled GCMs were utilized to understand the uncertainty associated with modeled projections. P.albicaulis was modeled using a Random Forests algorithm for the 1980–2010 climate period and showed strong presence/absence separations by summer maximum temperatures and springtime snowpack. Patterns of projected habitat change by the end of the century suggested a constant decrease in suitable climate area from the 2010 baseline for both Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 8.5 and 4.5 climate forcing scenarios. Percent suitable climate area estimates ranged from 2–29% and 0.04–10% by 2099 for RCP 8.5 and 4.5 respectively. Habitat projections between GCMs displayed a decrease of variability over the 2010–2099 time period related to consistent warming above the 1910–2010 temperature normal after 2070 for all GCMs. A decreasing pattern of projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat area change was consistent across GCMs, despite strong differences in magnitude. Future ecological research in species distribution modeling should consider a full suite of GCM projections in the analysis to reduce extreme range contractions/expansions predictions. The results suggest that restoration strageties such as planting of seedlings and

  16. Crop classification modelling using remote sensing and environmental data in the Greater Platte River Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, Daniel M.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Tieszen, Larry L.

    2012-01-01

    With an ever expanding population, potential climate variability and an increasing demand for agriculture-based alternative fuels, accurate agricultural land-cover classification for specific crops and their spatial distributions are becoming critical to researchers, policymakers, land managers and farmers. It is important to ensure the sustainability of these and other land uses and to quantify the net impacts that certain management practices have on the environment. Although other quality crop classification products are often available, temporal and spatial coverage gaps can create complications for certain regional or time-specific applications. Our goal was to develop a model capable of classifying major crops in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB) for the post-2000 era to supplement existing crop classification products. This study identifies annual spatial distributions and area totals of corn, soybeans, wheat and other crops across the GPRB from 2000 to 2009. We developed a regression tree classification model based on 2.5 million training data points derived from the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) Cropland Data Layer (CDL) in relation to a variety of other relevant input environmental variables. The primary input variables included the weekly 250 m US Geological Survey Earth Observing System Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer normalized differential vegetation index, average long-term growing season temperature, average long-term growing season precipitation and yearly start of growing season. An overall model accuracy rating of 78% was achieved for a test sample of roughly 215 000 independent points that were withheld from model training. Ten 250 m resolution annual crop classification maps were produced and evaluated for the GPRB region, one for each year from 2000 to 2009. In addition to the model accuracy assessment, our validation focused on spatial distribution and county-level crop area totals in comparison with the

  17. Third Advisory Committee on the Health Manpower Development Medium-Term Programme. Report on a Meeting (Copenhagen, Denmark, November 3-5, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    A report of the 1981 Health Manpower Development Medium-Term Programme, sponsored by the World Health Organization's (WHO) Regional Office for Europe, is presented. The document "European Regional Strategy for Attaining Health for All by the Year 2000" was reviewed, and attention was directed to the present structure of the Regional…

  18. Methodology for Air Quality Forecast Downscaling from Regional- to Street-Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Mahura, Alexander; Amstrup, Bjarne; Hansen Saas, Bent; Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Lorenzen, Thomas; Weismann, Jakob

    2010-05-01

    The most serious air pollution events occur in cities where there is a combination of high population density and air pollution, e.g. from vehicles. The pollutants can lead to serious human health problems, including asthma, irritation of the lungs, bronchitis, pneumonia, decreased resistance to respiratory infections, and premature death. In particular air pollution is associated with increase in cardiovascular disease and lung cancer. In 2000 WHO estimated that between 2.5 % and 11 % of total annual deaths are caused by exposure to air pollution. However, European-scale air quality models are not suited for local forecasts, as their grid-cell is typically of the order of 5 to 10km and they generally lack detailed representation of urban effects. Two suites are used in the framework of the EC FP7 project MACC (Monitoring of Atmosphere Composition and Climate) to demonstrate how downscaling from the European MACC ensemble to local-scale air quality forecast will be carried out: one will illustrate capabilities for the city of Copenhagen (Denmark); the second will focus on the city of Bucharest (Romania). This work is devoted to the first suite, where methodological aspects of downscaling from regional (European/ Denmark) to urban scale (Copenhagen), and from the urban down to street scale. The first results of downscaling according to the proposed methodology are presented. The potential for downscaling of European air quality forecasts by operating urban and street-level forecast models is evaluated. This will bring a strong support for continuous improvement of the regional forecast modelling systems for air quality in Europe, and underline clear perspectives for the future regional air quality core and downstream services for end-users. At the end of the MACC project, requirements on "how-to-do" downscaling of European air-quality forecasts to the city and street levels with different approaches will be formulated.

  19. 46 CFR 111.30-24 - Generation systems greater than 3000 kw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-24 Generation systems greater than 3000 kw... Outer Continental Shelf facility, when the total installed electric power of the ship's service... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Generation systems greater than 3000 kw....

  20. 46 CFR 111.30-24 - Generation systems greater than 3000 kw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-24 Generation systems greater than 3000 kw... Outer Continental Shelf facility, when the total installed electric power of the ship's service... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Generation systems greater than 3000 kw....

  1. Personalisation: A Theoretical Possibility to Reinvigorate Children's Interest in Storybook Reading and Facilitate Greater Book Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucirkova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2010s, there has been a proliferation of new platforms for children's stories (e.g. storybook apps or iBooks), but not necessarily greater diversity of story content or children's greater interest in reading. This article argues for a new approach to address the apparent paradox of a wider availability of children's literature…

  2. 21 CFR 50.51 - Clinical investigations not involving greater than minimal risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical investigations not involving greater than... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Safeguards for Children in Clinical Investigations § 50.51 Clinical investigations not involving greater than minimal risk. Any...

  3. Observations of territorial breeding common ravens caching eggs of greater sage-grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, Kristy B.; Coates, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations using continuous video monitoring of greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus nests have unambiguously identified common ravens Corvus corax as an important egg predator within the western United States. The quantity of greater sage-grouse eggs an individual common raven consumes during the nesting period and the extent to which common ravens actively hunt greater sage-grouse nests are largely unknown. However, some evidence suggests that territorial breeding common ravens, rather than nonbreeding transients, are most likely responsible for nest depredations. We describe greater sage-grouse egg depredation observations obtained opportunistically from three common raven nests located in Idaho and Nevada where depredated greater sage-grouse eggs were found at or in the immediate vicinity of the nest site, including the caching of eggs in nearby rock crevices. We opportunistically monitored these nests by counting and removing depredated eggs and shell fragments from the nest sites during each visit to determine the extent to which the common raven pairs preyed on greater sage-grouse eggs. To our knowledge, our observations represent the first evidence that breeding, territorial pairs of common ravens cache greater sage-grouse eggs and are capable of depredating multiple greater sage-grouse nests.

  4. 45 CFR 46.404 - Research not involving greater than minimal risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Children Involved as Subjects in Research § 46.404 Research not involving greater than minimal risk. HHS will conduct or fund research in which the IRB finds that no greater than minimal risk to children is presented, only if the IRB finds that...

  5. 40 CFR 26.404 - Observational research not involving greater than minimal risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Observational Research: Additional Protections for Children Involved... not involving greater than minimal risk. EPA will conduct or fund observational research in which the IRB finds that no greater than minimal risk to children is presented, only if the IRB finds...

  6. Less wiring, more firing: low-performing older adults compensate for impaired white matter with greater neural activity.

    PubMed

    Daselaar, Sander M; Iyengar, Vijeth; Davis, Simon W; Eklund, Karl; Hayes, Scott M; Cabeza, Roberto E

    2015-04-01

    The reliable neuroimaging finding that older adults often show greater activity (over-recruitment) than younger adults is typically attributed to compensation. Yet, the neural mechanisms of over-recruitment in older adults (OAs) are largely unknown. Rodent electrophysiology studies have shown that as number of afferent fibers within a circuit decreases with age, the fibers that remain show higher synaptic field potentials (less wiring, more firing). Extrapolating to system-level measures in humans, we proposed and tested the hypothesis that greater activity in OAs compensates for impaired white-matter connectivity. Using a neuropsychological test battery, we measured individual differences in executive functions associated with the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and memory functions associated with the medial temporal lobes (MTLs). Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared activity for successful versus unsuccessful trials during a source memory task. Finally, we measured white-matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging. The study yielded 3 main findings. First, low-executive OAs showed greater success-related activity in the PFC, whereas low-memory OAs showed greater success-related activity in the MTLs. Second, low-executive OAs displayed white-matter deficits in the PFC, whereas low-memory OAs displayed white-matter deficits in the MTLs. Finally, in both prefrontal and MTL regions, white-matter decline and success-related activations occurred in close proximity and were negatively correlated. This finding supports the less-wiring-more-firing hypothesis, which provides a testable account of compensatory over-recruitment in OAs.

  7. Neural Signatures of the Reading-Writing Connection: Greater Involvement of Writing in Chinese Reading than English Reading

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Fan; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Research on cross-linguistic comparisons of the neural correlates of reading has consistently found that the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) is more involved in Chinese than in English. However, there is a lack of consensus on the interpretation of the language difference. Because this region has been found to be involved in writing, we hypothesize that reading Chinese characters involves this writing region to a greater degree because Chinese speakers learn to read by repeatedly writing the characters. To test this hypothesis, we recruited English L1 learners of Chinese, who performed a reading task and a writing task in each language. The English L1 sample had learned some Chinese characters through character-writing and others through phonological learning, allowing a test of writing-on-reading effect. We found that the left MFG was more activated in Chinese than English regardless of task, and more activated in writing than in reading regardless of language. Furthermore, we found that this region was more activated for reading Chinese characters learned by character-writing than those learned by phonological learning. A major conclusion is that writing regions are also activated in reading, and that this reading-writing connection is modulated by the learning experience. We replicated the main findings in a group of native Chinese speakers, which excluded the possibility that the language differences observed in the English L1 participants were due to different language proficiency level. PMID:27992505

  8. Characterization of aerosol episodes in the greater Mediterranean Sea area from satellite observations (2000-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkikas, A.; Hatzianastassiou, N.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Torres, O.

    2016-03-01

    An algorithm able to identify and characterize episodes of different aerosol types above sea surfaces of the greater Mediterranean basin (GMB), including the Black Sea and the Atlantic Ocean off the coasts of Iberia and northwest Africa, is presented in this study. Based on this algorithm, five types of intense (strong and extreme) aerosol episodes in the GMB are identified and characterized using daily aerosol optical properties from satellite measurements, namely MODIS-Terra, Earth Probe (EP)-TOMS and OMI-Aura. These aerosol episodes are: (i) biomass-burning/urban-industrial (BU), (ii) desert dust (DD), (iii) dust/sea-salt (DSS), (iv) mixed (MX) and (v) undetermined (UN). The identification and characterization is made with our algorithm using a variety of aerosol properties, namely aerosol optical depth (AOD), Ångström exponent (α), fine fraction (FF), effective radius (reff) and Aerosol Index (AI). During the study period (2000-2007), the most frequent aerosol episodes are DD, observed primarily in the western and central Mediterranean Sea, and off the northern African coasts, 7 times/year for strong episodes and 4 times/year for extreme ones, on average. The DD episodes yield 40% of all types of strong aerosol episodes in the study region, while they account for 71.5% of all extreme episodes. The frequency of occurrence of strong episodes exhibits specific geographical patterns, for example the BU are mostly observed along the coasts of southern Europe and off the Atlantic coasts of Portugal, the MX episodes off the Spanish Mediterranean coast and over the Adriatic and northern Aegean Sea, while the DSS ones over the western and central Mediterranean Sea. On the other hand, the extreme episodes for all but DD aerosol display more patchy spatial patterns. The strong episodes exhibit AOD at 550 nm as high as 1.6 in the southernmost parts of central and eastern Mediterranean Sea, which rise up to 5 for the extreme, mainly DD and DSS, episodes. Although more

  9. Geo-information for sustainable urban development of Greater Dhaka City, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Andreas; Asaduzzaman, Atm; Bahls, Rebecca; Ludwig, Rüdiger; Ashraful Kamal, Mohammad; Nahar Faruqa, Nurun

    2015-04-01

    Greater Dhaka City (including Dhaka and five adjacent municipal areas) is one of the fastest developing urban regions in the world. Densely build-up areas in the developed metropolitan area of Dhaka City are subject to extensive restructuring as common six-storied buildings are replaced by higher and heavier constructions. Additional stories are built on existing houses, frequently exceeding the allowable bearing pressure on the subsoil as supported by the foundations. In turn, newly developing areas are projected in marshy areas modified by extensive, largely unengineered landfills. In many areas, these terrains bear unfavorable building ground conditions, and reliable geospatial information is a major prerequisite for risk-sensitive urban planning. Within a collaborative technical cooperation project between Bangladesh and Germany, BGR supports GSB in the provision of geo-information for the Capital Development authority (RAJUK). For general urban planning, RAJUK successively develops a detailed area plan (DAP) at scale 1 : 50000 for the whole Greater Dhaka City area. Geospatial information have not been considered in the present DAP. Within the project, GSB prepared a detailed geomorphologic map matching the DAP both in areal extent and scale. The geomorphological setting can be used as an important spatial proxy for the characterization of the subsurface since highly segmented, elevated terraces consisting of consolidated sandy Pliocene deposits overlain by stiff Plio-Pleistocene sediments are sharply bordered by low lying-areas. The floodplain and marsh areas are consisting of thick, mechanically weak Holocene fluvial sandy-silty sediments that are sometimes alternated by organic layers. A first expert-based engineering geological reclassification of the geomorphological map resulting in five building ground suitability classes is highly supported by the spatial analysis of extensive archive borehole information consisting of depth-continuous standard

  10. Assessing greater sage-grouse breeding habitat with aerial and ground imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthropogenic disturbances, wildfires, and weedy-plant invasions have destroyed and fragmented sagebrush (Artemisia L. spp.) habitats. Sagebrush-dependent species like greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter, sage-grouse) are vulnerable to these changes, emphasizing the importance ...

  11. 34 CFR 97.404 - Research not involving greater than minimal risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.404 Research not involving greater than minimal risk. ED conducts or funds research in which the IRB finds that no...

  12. 34 CFR 97.404 - Research not involving greater than minimal risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.404 Research not involving greater than minimal risk. ED conducts or funds research in which the IRB finds that no...

  13. 34 CFR 97.404 - Research not involving greater than minimal risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.404 Research not involving greater than minimal risk. ED conducts or funds research in which the IRB finds that no...

  14. 34 CFR 97.404 - Research not involving greater than minimal risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.404 Research not involving greater than minimal risk. ED conducts or funds research in which the IRB finds that no...

  15. 34 CFR 97.404 - Research not involving greater than minimal risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.404 Research not involving greater than minimal risk. ED conducts or funds research in which the IRB finds that no...

  16. The Greater Houston P-16+ Council: Systemic Pathways to Birth-to-Career Access and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimpelberg, Robert K.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes efforts of the Greater Houston P-16+ Council (GHPC) to find effective ways to promote student participation and success across the P-16 continuum, from pre-kindergarten through postsecondary education and work related training.

  17. Regional geothermal 3D modelling in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulsen, S. E.; Balling, N.; Bording, T. S.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2012-04-01

    In the pursuit of sustainable and low carbon emission energy sources, increased global attention has been given to the exploration and exploitation of geothermal resources within recent decades. In 2009 a national multi-disciplinary geothermal research project was established. As a significant part of this project, 3D temperature modelling is to be carried out, with special emphasis on temperatures of potential geothermal reservoirs in the Danish area. The Danish subsurface encompasses low enthalpy geothermal reservoirs of mainly Triassic and Jurassic age. Geothermal plants at Amager (Copenhagen) and Thisted (Northern Jutland) have the capacity of supplying the district heating network with up to 14 MW and 7 MW, respectively, by withdrawing warm pore water from the Gassum (Lower Jurassic/Upper Triassic) and Bunter (Lower Triassic) sandstone reservoirs, respectively. Explorative studies of the subsurface temperature regime typically are based on a combination of observations and modelling. In this study, the open-source groundwater modelling code MODFLOW is modified to simulate the subsurface temperature distribution in three dimensions by taking advantage of the mathematical similarity between saturated groundwater flow (Darcy flow) and heat conduction. A numerical model of the subsurface geology in Denmark is built and parameterized from lithological information derived from joint interpretation of seismic surveys and borehole information. Boundary conditions are constructed from knowledge about the heat flow from the Earth's interior and the shallow ground temperature. Matrix thermal conductivities have been estimated from analysis of high-resolution temperature logs measured in deep wells and porosity-depth relations are included using interpreted main lithologies. The model takes into account the dependency of temperature and pressure on thermal conductivity. Moreover, a transient model based correction of the paleoclimatic thermal disturbance caused by the

  18. Land use and land cover change in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: 1975-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parmenter, A.W.; Hansen, A.; Kennedy, R.E.; Cohen, W.; Langner, U.; Lawrence, R.; Maxwell, B.; Gallant, A.; Aspinall, R.

    2003-01-01

    Shifts in the demographic and economic character of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) are driving patterns of land cover and land use change in the region. Such changes may have important consequences for ecosystem functioning. The objective of this paper is to quantify the trajectories and rates of change in land cover and use across the GYE for the period 1975-1995 using satellite imagery. Spectral and geographic variables were used as inputs to classification tree regression analysis (CART) to find "rules" which defined land use and land cover classes on the landscape. The resulting CART functions were used to map land cover and land use across seven Landsat TM scenes for 1995. We then used a thresholding technique to identify locations that differed in spectral properties between the 1995 and 1985 time periods. These "changed" locations were classified using CART functions derived from spectral and geographic data from 1985. This was similarly done for the year 1975 based on Landsat MSS data. Differences between the 1975, 1985, and 1995 maps were considered change in land cover and use. We calibrated and tested the accuracy of our models using data acquired through manual interpretation of aerial photos. Elevation and vegetative indices derived from the remotely sensed satellite imagery explained the most variance in the land use and land cover classes (-i.e., defined the "rules" most often). Overall accuracies from our study were good, ranging from 94% at the coarsest level of detail to 74% at the finest. The largest changes over the study period were the increases in burned, urban, and mixed conifer-herbaceous classes and decreases in woody deciduous, mixed woody deciduous-herbaceous, and conifer habitats. These changes have important implications for ecological function and biodiversity. The expansion of mixed conifer classes may increase fuel loads and enhance risk to the growing number of rural homes. The reduction of woody deciduous cover types is

  19. Persistence of canine distemper virus in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem's carnivore community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almberg, E.S.; Cross, P.C.; Smith, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is an acute, highly immunizing pathogen that should require high densities and large populations of hosts for long-term persistence, yet CDV persists among terrestrial carnivores with small, patchily distributed groups. We used CDV in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem's (GYE) wolves (Canis lupus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) as a case study for exploring how metapopulation structure, host demographics, and multi-host transmission affect the critical community size and spatial scale required for CDV persistence. We illustrate how host spatial connectivity and demographic turnover interact to affect both local epidemic dynamics, such as the length and variation in inter-epidemic periods, and pathogen persistence using stochastic, spatially explicit susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered simulation models. Given the apparent absence of other known persistence mechanisms (e.g., a carrier or environmental state, densely populated host, chronic infection, or a vector), we suggest that CDV requires either large spatial scales or multi-host transmission for persistence. Current GYE wolf populations are probably too small to support endemic CDV. Coyotes are a plausible reservoir host, but CDV would still require 50 000-100 000 individuals for moderate persistence (>50% over 10 years), which would equate to an area of 1-3 times the size of the GYE (60000-200000 km2). Coyotes, and carnivores in general, are not uniformly distributed; therefore, this is probably a gross underestimate of the spatial scale of CDV persistence. However, the presence of a second competent host species can greatly increase the probability of long-term CDV persistence at much smaller spatial scales. Although no management of CDV is currently recommended for the GYE, wolf managers in the region should expect periodic but unpredictable CDV-related population declines as often as every 2-5 years. Awareness and monitoring of such outbreaks will allow corresponding

  20. Persistence of canine distemper virus in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem's carnivore community.

    PubMed

    Almberg, Emily S; Cross, Paul C; Smith, Douglas W

    2010-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is an acute, highly immunizing pathogen that should require high densities and large populations of hosts for long-term persistence, yet CDV persists among terrestrial carnivores with small, patchily distributed groups. We used CDV in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem's (GYE) wolves (Canis lupus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) as a case study for exploring how metapopulation structure, host demographics, and multi-host transmission affect the critical community size and spatial scale required for CDV persistence. We illustrate how host spatial connectivity and demographic turnover interact to affect both local epidemic dynamics, such as the length and variation in inter-epidemic periods, and pathogen persistence using stochastic, spatially explicit susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered simulation models. Given the apparent absence of other known persistence mechanisms (e.g., a carrier or environmental state, densely populated host, chronic infection, or a vector), we suggest that CDV requires either large spatial scales or multi-host transmission for persistence. Current GYE wolf populations are probably too small to support endemic CDV. Coyotes are a plausible reservoir host, but CDV would still require 50000-100000 individuals for moderate persistence (> 50% over 10 years), which would equate to an area of 1-3 times the size of the GYE (60000-200000 km2). Coyotes, and carnivores in general, are not uniformly distributed; therefore, this is probably a gross underestimate of the spatial scale of CDV persistence. However, the presence of a second competent host species can greatly increase the probability of long-term CDV persistence at much smaller spatial scales. Although no management of CDV is currently recommended for the GYE, wolf managers in the region should expect periodic but unpredictable CDV-related population declines as often as every 2-5 years. Awareness and monitoring of such outbreaks will allow corresponding adjustments

  1. Seismic source zoning and maximum credible earthquake prognosis of the Greater Kashmir Territory, NW Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, Hamid; Nath, Sankar Kumar

    2016-09-01

    We present the seismic source zoning of the tectonically active Greater Kashmir territory of the Northwestern Himalaya and seismicity analysis (Gutenberg-Richter parameters) and maximum credible earthquake (m max) estimation of each zone. The earthquake catalogue used in the analysis is an extensive one compiled from various sources which spans from 1907 to 2012. Five seismogenic zones were delineated, viz. Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis, Karakorum Seismic Zone, Kohistan Seismic Zone, Nanga Parbat Syntaxis, and SE-Kashmir Seismic Zone. Then, the seismicity analysis and maximum credible earthquake estimation were carried out for each zone. The low b value (<1.0) indicates a higher stress regime in all the zones except Nanga Parbat Syntaxis Seismic Zone and SE-Kashmir Seismic Zone. The m max was estimated following three different methodologies, the fault parameter approach, convergence rates using geodetic measurements, and the probabilistic approach using the earthquake catalogue and is estimated to be M w 7.7, M w 8.5, and M w 8.1, respectively. The maximum credible earthquake (m max) estimated for each zone shows that Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis Seismic Zone has the highest m max of M w 8.1 (±0.36), which is espoused by the historical 1555 Kashmir earthquake of M w 7.6 as well as the recent 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake of M w 7.6. The variation in the estimated m max by the above discussed methodologies is obvious, as the definition and interpretation of the m max change with the method. Interestingly, historical archives (˜900 years) do not speak of a great earthquake in this region, which is attributed to the complex and unique tectonic and geologic setup of the Kashmir Himalaya. The convergence is this part of the Himalaya is distributed not only along the main boundary faults but also along the various active out-of-sequence faults as compared to the Central Himalaya, where it is mainly adjusted along the main boundary fault.

  2. Assessing Greenhouse Gas emissions in the Greater Toronto Area using atmospheric observations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, F. R.; Chan, E.; Huang, L.; Levin, I.; Worthy, D.

    2013-12-01

    Urban areas are said to be responsible for approximately 75% of anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emissions while comprising only two percent of the land area [1]. This limited spatial expansion should facilitate a monitoring of anthropogenic GHGs from atmospheric observations. As major sources of emissions, cities also have a huge potential to drive emissions reductions. To effectively manage emissions, cities must however, first measure and report these publicly [2]. Modelling studies and measurements of CO2 from fossil fuel burning (FFCO2) in densely populated areas does, however, pose several challenges: Besides continuous in-situ observations, i.e. finding an adequate atmospheric transport model, a sufficiently fine-grained FFCO2 emission model and the proper background reference observations to distinguish the large-scale from the local/urban contributions to the observed FFCO2 concentration offsets ( ΔFFCO2) are required. Pilot studies which include the data from two 'sister sites*' in the vicinity of Toronto, Canada helped to derive flux estimates for Non-CO2 GHGs [3] and improve our understanding of urban FFCO2 emissions. Our 13CO2 observations reveal that the contribution of natural gas burning (mostly due to domestic heating) account for 80%×7% of FFCO2 emissions in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) during winter. Our 14CO2 observations in the GTA, furthermore, show that the local offset of CO2 (ΔCO2) between our two sister sites can be largely attributed to urban FFCO2 emissions. The seasonal cycle of the observed ΔFFCO2 in Toronto, combined with high-resolution atmospheric modeling, helps to independently assess the contribution from different emission sectors (transportation, primary energy and industry, domestic heating) as predicted by a dedicated city-scale emission inventory, which deviates from a UNFCCC-based inventory. [1] D. Dodman. 2009. Blaming cities for climate change? An analysis of urban greenhouse gas emissions inventories

  3. Th-Pb Monazite-in-Garnet Ages From the Greater Himalayan Sequence of Central Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, G.; Decelles, P.; Martin, A.

    2007-12-01

    431 new Th-Pb ages have been determined from rocks of the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) of central Nepal. Some of these ages are reported by Martin et al. (2007, Chem. Geol.), most have not been reported previously. 42 samples were collected from transects along Kali Gandaki, Modi Khola, Seti Nadi, Madi Nadi, Nayu Ridge, and Marsyangdi Nadi in the Annapurna region, with three transects extending across the GHS and three transects concentrated near the base of the sequence. Garnet crystals were extracted from the samples, and monazite inclusions were identified by BSE imaging and then analyzed by LA-MC-ICPMS with a 10 micron laser beam. Where possible, inclusions were sampled from both cores and rims of the garnet crystals. The resulting ages belong to four groups: (1) 3 ages (all cores) between 801 Ma and 1407 Ma that are inherited from GHS protoliths, (2) 42 ages (all cores) from 550 Ma to 400 Ma (peak age of 487 Ma) that record early Paleozoic prograde metamorphism, (3) 102 ages (nearly all cores) scattered between 400 Ma and ~50 Ma that are interpreted as early Paleozoic grains which have experienced either Pb loss or overgrowth of Tertiary monazite, and (4) 284 ages (2/3 cores, 1/3 rims) between ca. 50 Ma and ca. 10 Ma, with cores only slightly (avg of 1.5 m.y.) older than rims. The Tertiary ages consistently young northward/upsection from ca. 35 to ca. 18 Ma, and in Marsyangdi Nadi define two separate panels that are interpreted to be imbricated along a north-dipping thrust fault. This fault is near the base of sillimanite-bearing rocks, similar to the Langtang thrust (Kohn et al. 2005, JMG), and may be partly responsible for the inverted metamorphic gradient discussed by many previous workers. Our preferred structural scenario is that the Tertiary monazite ages record progressive burial of the GHS by shortening in the Tethyan thrust belt between ca. 35 and ca. 18 Ma, termination of this metamorphism due to onset of motion along the MCT, and ca. 10 Ma

  4. Velocity Drives Greater Power Observed During Back Squat Using Cluster Sets.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Jonathan M; Kreutzer, Andreas; Jenke, Shane C; Phillips, Melody D; Mitchell, Joel B; Jones, Margaret T

    2016-01-01

    This investigation compared the kinetics and kinematics of cluster sets (CLU) and traditional sets (TRD) during back squat in trained (RT) and untrained (UT) men. Twenty-four participants (RT = 12, 25 ± 1 year, 179.1 ± 2.2 cm, 84.6 ± 2.1 kg; UT = 12, 25 ± 1 year, 180.1 ± 1.8 cm, 85.4 ± 3.8 kg) performed TRD (4 × 10, 120-second rest) and CLU (4 × (2 × 5) 30 seconds between clusters; 90 seconds between sets) with 70% one repetition maximum, randomly. Kinematics and kinetics were sampled through force plate and linear position transducers. Resistance-trained produced greater overall force, velocity, and power; however, similar patterns were observed in all variables when comparing conditions. Cluster sets produced significantly greater force in isolated repetitions in sets 1-3, while consistently producing greater force due to a required reduction in load during set 4 resulting in greater total volume load (CLU, 3302.4 ± 102.7 kg; TRD, 3274.8 ± 102.8 kg). Velocity loss was lessened in CLU resulting in significantly higher velocities in sets 2 through 4. Furthermore, higher velocities were produced by CLU during later repetitions of each set. Cluster sets produced greater power output for an increasing number of repetitions in each set (set 1, 5 repetitions; sets 2 and 3, 6 repetitions; set 4, 8 repetitions), and the difference between conditions increased over subsequent sets. Time under tension increased over each set and was greater in TRD. This study demonstrates greater power output is driven by greater velocity when back squatting during CLU; therefore, velocity may be a useful measure by which to assess power.

  5. Access to primary care in Hong Kong, Greater London and New York City.

    PubMed

    Chau, Pui Hing; Woo, Jean; Gusmano, Michael K; Weisz, Daniel; Rodwin, Victor G; Chan, Kam Che

    2013-01-01

    We investigate avoidable hospital conditions (AHC) in three world cities as a way to assess access to primary care. Residents of Hong Kong are healthier than their counterparts in Greater London or New York City. In contrast to their counterparts in New York City, residents of both Greater London and Hong Kong face no financial barriers to an extensive public hospital system. We compare residence-based hospital discharge rates for AHC, by age cohorts, in these cities and find that New York City has higher rates than Hong Kong and Greater London. Hong Kong has the lowest hospital discharge rates for AHC among the population 15-64, but its rates are nearly as high as those in New York City among the population 65 and over. Our findings suggest that in contrast to Greater London, older residents in Hong Kong and New York face significant barriers in accessing primary care. In all three cities, people living in lower socioeconomic status neighborhoods are more likely to be hospitalized for an AHC, but neighborhood inequalities are greater in Hong Kong and New York than in Greater London.

  6. Will greater shrub abundance greatly impact tundra surface-atmosphere exchanges of energy and carbon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, E.; Lafleur, P.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing deciduous shrub abundance, productivity, and range in the Arctic comes with the potential for both negative and positive feedbacks to the climate system. This study presents six seasons of eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and latent and sensible heat fluxes along a shrub gradient in Canada's Low Arctic. Three flux tower sites with 17, 45, and 64% dwarf birch cover were established within a few kilometers of each other to investigate differences in microclimate, energy and carbon exchanges. As expected, there was greater winter snow depth but less summer soil thaw with greater shrub cover. However, snowmelt timing and speed were usually similar among sites. Despite a reduction in albedo in spring and greater leaf area through summer, latent heat fluxes were consistently lower with greater shrub cover. Offset by small differences in sensible heat fluxes, total seasonal atmospheric heating (combined sensible and latent heat fluxes) was similar among sites. We anticipated greater net uptake of CO2 through the growing season with greater shrub cover. However, that was only the case in some years. There was much more week-to-week and year-to-year variability in CO2 fluxes at the shrubbiest site suggesting photosynthesis and respiration processes were more sensitive to weather variations. Shrub abundance does impact tundra surface-atmosphere exchanges of energy and carbon but these observations also highlight the complexity involved in predicting the net climate feedback effect of current and future Arctic vegetation change.

  7. Wechsler performance IQ greater than Verbal IQ index in a forensic sample: a reconsideration.

    PubMed

    DeWolfe, A S; Ryan, J J

    1984-01-01

    Explored the relationships of the Performance IQ (PIQ) greater than Verbal IQ (VIQ) to type of crime, ethnicity, and reading disability in a corrections sample of 70 adult males incarcerated on felony charges. The PIQ greater than VIQ sign was not related to Full Scale IQ or to violent vs. nonviolent crime, per se. The PIQ greater than VIQ sign showed a trend toward association with Ethnicity (black vs. white) and was related significantly to reading disability, with the reading disabled inmates more likely to show the sign, and to type of crime, with perpetrators of sex crimes most likely (87%) to show the sign and those incarcerated for murder or attempted murder least likely (33%) to show it. The difference in the proportion of inmates who showed the sign in these two classes of violent crimes (murder and sex crimes) was significant, and further analysis showed that with murder excluded, PIQ greater than VIQ occurred significantly more frequently in those accused of violent crimes than for nonviolent crimes. The latter findings suggested that differences between studies in the relationship of PIQ greater than VIQ and violence may be the result of differences in the proportion of murderers in the violent samples. Additional analyses indicated that the significant relationships between PIQ greater than VIQ and both type of crime and reading disability were most likely independent of ethnicity and each other.

  8. Nesting habitat of the Tule Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons elgasi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, R.V.; Ely, C.R.; Bollinger, K.S.; Kratzer, S.; Udevitz, M.S.; Fehringer, D.J.; Rothe, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the first information on the availability and use of nesting habitat by the rare Tule Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons elgasi. The breeding range was sampled by marking geese with radio transmitters on wintering and moulting areas, and tracking them to nest sites in Alaska. Nesting habitat was described at the scales of ecoregion, wetland ecosystem (National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) maps), vegetation type within wetland (Alaska Vegetation Classification (AVC) maps based on satellite imagery), and nest site. Tule Greater White-fronted Goose nests were located in boreal forest wetlands in the upper Cook Inlet Basin ecoregion. Nesting Tule Greater White-fronted Geese selected NWT Palustrine Seasonally Flooded wetlands and used NWI Palustrine Saturated wetlands in proportion to availability. Within these wetlands, Tule Greater White-fronted Geese used Needleleaf Forest, Low Shrub and Herbaceous (mostly graminoid) AVC classes for nest sites in proportion to availability Most (93%) Tule Greater White-fronted Geese nested > 75 m from open water ponds or lakes, and many nested in wetlands with little or no open water. Tule Greater White-fronted Geese nest only in a small breeding area near the most human-impacted area of the state, and continued development may limit the use of suitable nesting habitat.

  9. Gas, Oil, and Water Production from Jonah, Pinedale, Greater Wamsutter, and Stagecoach Draw Fields in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.; Ewald, Shauna M.; Santus, Stephen L.; Trainor, Patrick K.

    2010-01-01

    Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from selected wells in four gas fields in rocks of Late Cretaceous age in southwestern Wyoming. This study is one of a series of reports examining fluid production from tight-gas reservoirs, which are characterized by low permeability, low porosity, and the presence of clay minerals in pore space. Production from each well is represented by two samples spaced five years apart, the first sample typically taken two years after commencement of production. For each producing interval, summary diagrams of oil versus gas and water versus gas production show fluid production rates, the change in rates during five years, the water-gas and oil-gas ratios, and the fluid type. These diagrams permit well-to-well and field-to-field comparisons. Fields producing water at low rates (water dissolved in gas in the reservoir) can be distinguished from fields producing water at moderate or high rates, and the water-gas ratios are quantified. The ranges of first-sample gas rates in Pinedale field and Jonah field are quite similar, and the average gas production rate for the second sample, taken five years later, is about one-half that of the first sample for both fields. Water rates are generally substantially higher in Pinedale than in Jonah, and water-gas ratios in Pinedale are roughly a factor of ten greater in Pinedale than in Jonah. Gas and water production rates from each field are fairly well grouped, indicating that Pinedale and Jonah fields are fairly cohesive gas-water systems. Pinedale field appears to be remarkably uniform in its flow behavior with time. Jonah field, which is internally faulted, exhibits a small spread in first-sample production rates. In the Greater Wamsutter field, gas production from the upper part of the Almond Formation is greater than from the main part of the Almond. Some wells in the main and the combined (upper and main parts) Almond show increases in water production with time, whereas increases

  10. Habitat prioritization across large landscapes, multiple seasons, and novel areas: an example using greater sage-grouse in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fedy, Bradley C.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; O'Donnell, Michael S.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Bedrosian, Bryan; Gummer, David; Holloran, Matthew J.; Johnson, Gregory D.; Kaczor, Nicholas W.; Kirol, Christopher P.; Mandich, Cheryl A.; Marshall, David; McKee, Gwyn; Olson, Chad; Pratt, Aaron C.; Swanson, Christopher C.; Walker, Brett L.

    2014-01-01

    Animal habitat selection is an important and expansive area of research in ecology. In particular, the study of habitat selection is critical in habitat prioritization efforts for species of conservation concern. Landscape planning for species is happening at ever-increasing extents because of the appreciation for the role of landscape-scale patterns in species persistence coupled to improved datasets for species and habitats, and the expanding and intensifying footprint of human land uses on the landscape. We present a large-scale collaborative effort to develop habitat selection models across large landscapes and multiple seasons for prioritizing habitat for a species of conservation concern. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter sage-grouse) occur in western semi-arid landscapes in North America. Range-wide population declines of this species have been documented, and it is currently considered as “warranted but precluded” from listing under the United States Endangered Species Act. Wyoming is predicted to remain a stronghold for sage-grouse populations and contains approximately 37% of remaining birds. We compiled location data from 14 unique radiotelemetry studies (data collected 1994–2010) and habitat data from high-quality, biologically relevant, geographic information system (GIS) layers across Wyoming. We developed habitat selection models for greater sage-grouse across Wyoming for 3 distinct life stages: 1) nesting, 2) summer, and 3) winter. We developed patch and landscape models across 4 extents, producing statewide and regional (southwest, central, northeast) models for Wyoming. Habitat selection varied among regions and seasons, yet preferred habitat attributes generally matched the extensive literature on sage-grouse seasonal habitat requirements. Across seasons and regions, birds preferred areas with greater percentage sagebrush cover and avoided paved roads, agriculture, and forested areas. Birds consistently preferred

  11. Geo-referenced modeling of zinc concentrations in the Ruhr river basin (Germany) using the model GREAT-ER.

    PubMed

    Hüffmeyer, Nina; Klasmeier, Jörg; Matthies, Michael

    2009-03-15

    Zinc enters surface waters from a variety of different emission sources. The geo-referenced model GREAT-ER (Geo-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers) was applied to simulate spatially resolved zinc concentrations in the Ruhr river basin. The model links geo-referenced emissions (loads) to concentrations at local and regional scales and allows for evaluating the relative importance of emission sources. For each emission from point sources (household, industry, urban runoff) and non-point sources (agriculture, natural background), zinc loads were independently estimated using appropriate reference parameters (number of inhabitants, surface area drained, agricultural area, zinc ore regions). For point emissions from industry and mine drainage loads were taken directly from available data compilations. Simulated total zinc concentrations agree well with monitoring data. The strength of the modeling tool became evident from the unequivocal link that could be established between observed surface water concentrations and the large zinc input from geogenic sources and abandoned mines. These emission sources are regional characteristics of the Ruhr river basin and due to the fact that some regions are relatively rich in zinc ore, which was extracted over a long period of time. Although most of these emissions occur in the upper part of the catchment, they contribute to approximately one-third to the zinc load at the confluence with the Rhine River. Urban emissions from household, traffic (road) and buildings (roof) were shown to be responsible for approximately half of the concentration in the Ruhr at the confluence with the Rhine River.

  12. Effects of management practices on grassland birds: Greater Prairie-Chicken

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Svedarsky, W.D.; Toepfer, J.E.; Westemeier, R.L.; Robel, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Information on the habitat requirements and effects of habitat management on grassland birds were summarized from information in more than 5,500 published and unpublished papers. A range map is provided to indicate the breeding distribution of Greater Prairie-Chicken in the United States and southern Canada. Although birds frequently are observed outside the breeding range indicated, the maps are intended to show areas where managers might concentrate their attention. It may be ineffectual to manage habitat at a site for a species that rarely occurs in an area. The species account begins with a brief capsule statement, which provides the fundamental components or keys to management for the species. A section on breeding range outlines the current breeding distribution of the species in North America. The suitable habitat section describes the breeding habitat and occasionally microhabitat characteristics of the species, especially those habitats that occur in the Great Plains. Details on habitat and microhabitat requirements often provide clues to how a species will respond to a particular management practice. A table near the end of the account complements the section on suitable habitat, and lists the specific habitat characteristics for the species by individual studies. A special section on prey habitat is included for those predatory species that have more specific prey requirements. The area requirements section provides details on territory and home range sizes, minimum area requirements, and the effects of patch size, edges, and other landscape and habitat features on abundance and productivity. It may be futile to manage a small block of suitable habitat for a species that has minimum area requirements that are larger than the area being managed. The section on breeding-season phenology and site fidelity includes details on spring arrival and fall departure for migratory populations in the Great Plains, peak breeding periods, the tendency to renest after

  13. Conference Proceedings on Atmospheric Propagation in the UV, Visible, IR and MM-Wave Region and Related Systems Aspects Held in Copenhagen, Denmark on 9- 13th October 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    Atlas, D., Kerker, M. and Hitchfield, W. "Scattering and attenuation by non-spherical particles". J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 3, 1953 , 108-119. 19. Yilmaz...surface," Proc. IRE, vol. 41, pp. 142- 146, 1953 . 1161 O.M. Phillips, Dynamics of the Upper Ocean. London: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1966. [17] H.J. Liebe...of 40.6 lum. The rss bump height, expressing the surface roughness, is derived from Kirchoff-iHuygons Theory (see Amen’,, 1953 ; Phillipm, 1966). C

  14. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization. Appendix G: Evaluation of potential for greater-than-Class C classification of irradiated hardware generated by utility-operated reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, J.E.

    1991-08-01

    This study compiles and evaluates data from many sources to expand a base of data from which to estimate the activity concentrations and volumes of greater-than-Class C low-level waste that the Department of Energy will receive from the commercial power industry. Sources of these data include measurements of irradiated hardware made by or for the utilities that was classified for disposal in commercial burial sites, measurements of neutron flux in the appropriate regions of the reactor pressure vessel, analyses of elemental constituents of the particular structural material used for the components, and the activation analysis calculations done for hardware. Evaluations include results and assumptions in the activation analyses. Sections of this report and the appendices present interpretation of data and the classification definitions and requirements.

  15. AIDS and the Newborn. Report on a WHO Consultation (Copenhagen, Denmark, April 9-10, 1987). Health for All 2000 Target 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    Reflecting worldwide concern over the spread of the AIDS epidemic, the Sexuality and Family Planning Unit of the World Health Organization's Regional Office for Europe brought advisors from seven European countries and the United States together to engage in a discussion of AIDS and the newborn, and that consultation forms the basis of this…

  16. Greater decision-making competence is associated with greater expected-value sensitivity, but not overall risk taking: an examination of concurrent validity.

    PubMed

    Parker, Andrew M; Weller, Joshua A

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making competence reflects individual differences in the susceptibility to committing decision-making errors, measured using tasks common from behavioral decision research (e.g., framing effects, under/overconfidence, following decision rules). Prior research demonstrates that those with higher decision-making competence report lower incidence of health-risking and antisocial behaviors, but there has been less focus on intermediate processes that may impact real-world decisions, and, in particular, those implicated by normative models. Here we test the associations between measures of youth decision-making competence (Y-DMC) and one such process, the degree to which individuals make choices consistent with maximizing expected value (EV). Using a task involving hypothetical gambles, we find that greater EV sensitivity is associated with greater Y-DMC. Higher Y-DMC scores are associated with (a) choosing risky options when EV favors those options and (b) avoiding risky options when EV favors a certain option. This relationship is stronger for gambles that involved potential losses. The results suggest that Y-DMC captures decision processes consistent with standard normative evaluations of risky decisions.

  17. Oxygen cost of exercise hyperpnoea is greater in women compared with men

    PubMed Central

    Dominelli, Paolo B; Render, Jacqueline N; Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Foster, Glen E; Romer, Lee M; Sheel, A William

    2015-01-01

    We compared the oxygen cost of breathing () in healthy men and women over a wide range of exercise ventilations (). Eighteen subjects (nine women) completed 4 days of testing. First, a step-wise maximal cycle exercise test was completed for the assessment of spontaneous breathing patterns. Next, subjects were familiarized with the voluntary hyperpnoea protocol used to estimate . During the final two visits, subjects mimicked multiple times (four to six) the breathing patterns associated with five or six different exercise stages. Each trial lasted 5 min, and on-line pressure–volume and flow–volume loops were superimposed on target loops obtained during exercise to replicate the work of breathing accurately. At ∼55 l min−1 , was significantly greater in women. At maximal ventilation, the absolute was not different (P > 0.05) between the sexes, but represented a significantly greater fraction of whole-body in women (13.8 ± 1.5 vs. 9.4 ± 1.1% ). During heavy exercise at 92 and 100% , the unit cost of was +0.7 and +1.1 ml O2 l−1 greater in women (P < 0.05). At , men and women who developed expiratory flow limitation had a significantly greater than those who did not (435 ± 44 vs. 331 ± 30 ml O2 min−1). In conclusion, women have a greater for a given , and this represents a greater fraction of whole-body . The greater in women may have implications for the integrated physiological response to exercise. PMID:25652549

  18. Genetic evaluation of a proposed introduction: the case of the greater prairie chicken and the extinct heath hen.

    PubMed

    Palkovacs, Eric P; Oppenheimer, Adam J; Gladyshev, Eugene; Toepfer, John E; Amato, George; Chase, Thomas; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2004-07-01

    Population introduction is an important tool for ecosystem restoration. However, before introductions should be conducted, it is important to evaluate the genetic, phenotypic and ecological suitability of possible replacement populations. Careful genetic analysis is particularly important if it is suspected that the extirpated population was unique or genetically divergent. On the island of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, the introduction of greater prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) to replace the extinct heath hen (T. cupido cupido) is being considered as part of an ecosystem restoration project. Martha's Vineyard was home to the last remaining heath hen population until its extinction in 1932. We conducted this study to aid in determining the suitability of greater prairie chickens as a possible replacement for the heath hen. We examined mitochondrial control region sequences from extant populations of all prairie grouse species (Tympanuchus) and from museum skin heath hen specimens. Our data suggest that the Martha's Vineyard heath hen population represents a divergent mitochondrial lineage. This result is attributable either to a long period of geographical isolation from other prairie grouse populations or to a population bottleneck resulting from human disturbance. The mtDNA diagnosability of the heath hen contrasts with the network of mtDNA haplotypes of other prairie grouse (T. cupido attwateri, T. pallidicinctus and T. phasianellus), which do not form distinguishable mtDNA groupings. Our findings suggest that the Martha's Vineyard heath hen was more genetically isolated than are current populations of prairie grouse and place the emphasis for future research on examining prairie grouse adaptations to different habitat types to assess ecological exchangeability between heath hens and greater prairie chickens.

  19. Sex difference in pathology of the ageing gut mediates the greater response of female lifespan to dietary restriction

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Jennifer C; Khericha, Mobina; Dobson, Adam J; Bolukbasi, Ekin; Rattanavirotkul, Nattaphong; Partridge, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Women live on average longer than men but have greater levels of late-life morbidity. We have uncovered a substantial sex difference in the pathology of the aging gut in Drosophila. The intestinal epithelium of the aging female undergoes major deterioration, driven by intestinal stem cell (ISC) division, while lower ISC activity in males associates with delay or absence of pathology, and better barrier function, even at old ages. Males succumb to intestinal challenges to which females are resistant, associated with fewer proliferating ISCs, suggesting a trade-off between highly active repair mechanisms and late-life pathology in females. Dietary restriction reduces gut pathology in aging females, and extends female lifespan more than male. By genetic sex reversal of a specific gut region, we induced female-like aging pathologies in males, associated with decreased lifespan, but also with a greater increase in longevity in response to dietary restriction. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10956.001 PMID:26878754

  20. Lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) distribution, activity patterns and relative abundance in the Greater Madidi-Tambopata Landscape.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Robert; Ayala, Guido; Viscarra, Maria

    2012-12-01

    Lowland tapir distribution is described in northwestern Bolivia and southeastern Peru within the Greater Madidi-Tambopata Landscape, a priority Tapir Conservation Unit, using 1255 distribution points derived from camera trapping efforts, field research and interviews with park guards from 5 national protected areas and hunters from 19 local communities. A total of 392 independent camera trapping events from 14 camera trap surveys at 11 sites demonstrated the nocturnal and crepuscular activity patterns (86%) of the lowland tapir and provide 3 indices of relative abundance for spatial and temporal comparison. Capture rates for lowland tapirs were not significantly different between camera trapping stations placed on river beaches versus those placed in the forest. Lowland tapir capture rates were significantly higher in the national protected areas of the region versus indigenous territories and unprotected portions of the landscape. Capture rates through time suggested that lowland tapir populations are recovering within the Tuichi Valley, an area currently dedicated towards ecotourism activities, following the creation (1995) and subsequent implementation (1997) of the Madidi National Park in Bolivia. Based on our distributional data and published conservative estimates of population density, we calculated that this transboundary landscape holds an overall lowland tapir population of between 14 540 and 36 351 individuals, of which at least 24.3% are under protection from national and municipal parks. As such, the Greater Madidi-Tambopata Landscape should be considered a lowland tapir population stronghold and priority conservation efforts are discussed in order to maintain this population.

  1. The Greater St. Louis LGBT Health and Human Services Needs Assessment: an examination of the Silent and Baby Boom generations.

    PubMed

    Jenkins Morales, Meghan; King, M Denise; Hiler, Hattie; Coopwood, Martin S; Wayland, Sherrill

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to understand differences and similarities between lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) Baby Boomers and members of the Silent generation in the greater St. Louis region in relation to perceived barriers to service use, LGBT identity disclosure, experiences of violence and victimization, and mental health. An online survey was completed by 118 Baby Boomers and 33 Silents. Baby Boomers were found to perceive more barriers to health care and legal services, have fewer legal documents in place, feel less safe in their communities, and have experienced an increased rate of verbal harassment compared to their predecessors. Differences may be attributed to higher levels of LGBT identity disclosure among Baby Boomers across their lifetime. These findings support the current work of Services and Advocacy for GLBT Elders Metro St. Louis, with implications for other communities, and shed light on the need for continued advancement in the development and implementation of programs as LGBT Baby Boomers age.

  2. Greater role for Atlantic inflows on sea-ice loss in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Polyakov, Igor V; Pnyushkov, Andrey V; Alkire, Matthew B; Ashik, Igor M; Baumann, Till M; Carmack, Eddy C; Goszczko, Ilona; Guthrie, John; Ivanov, Vladimir V; Kanzow, Torsten; Krishfield, Richard; Kwok, Ronald; Sundfjord, Arild; Morison, James; Rember, Robert; Yulin, Alexander

    2017-04-06

    Arctic sea-ice loss is a leading indicator of climate change and can be attributed, in large part, to atmospheric forcing. Here, we show that recent ice reductions, weakening of the halocline, and shoaling of intermediate-depth Atlantic Water layer in the eastern Eurasian Basin have increased winter ventilation in the ocean interior, making this region structurally similar to that of the western Eurasian Basin. The associated enhanced release of oceanic heat has reduced winter sea-ice formation at a rate now comparable to losses from atmospheric thermodynamic forcing, thus explaining the recent reduction in sea-ice cover in the eastern Eurasian Basin. This encroaching "atlantification" of the Eurasian Basin represents an essential step toward a new Arctic climate state, with a substantially greater role for Atlantic inflows.

  3. Greater performance impairment of black runners than white runners when running in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Santos-Concejero, J; Tucker, R; Myburgh, K H; Essen-Gustavsson, B; Kohn, T A

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to compare the response of performance-matched black and white runners during maximal and sub-maximal running in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. 14 well-trained runners (8 black, 6 white) performed 2 incremental maximal exercise tests and 2 fatigue resistance tests at 21% O2 (normoxia) or 14% O2 (hypoxia). Respiratory parameters, heart rate (HR), lactate concentration ([La(-)]) as well as arterial saturation (SpO2) were measured. Enzyme activities and myosin heavy chain content (MHC) were also measured. White runners reached a significantly greater peak treadmill speed and a higher HRmax than black runners in hypoxia (p<0.05). Additionally, White runners achieved a greater time to fatigue than black runners (p<0.05), with black runners displaying a greater decline in performance in hypoxia compared to normoxia (20.3% vs. 13.4%, black vs. white, respectively). However, black runners presented lower [La(-)] and higher SpO2 than white runners in hypoxia (p<0.05). Black runners had a higher proportion of MHC IIa and higher lactate dehydrogenase activity (p<0.05). The greater performance impairment observed in black runners in hypoxia suggests a greater performance sensitivity to this condition, despite the maintenance of physiological variables such as SpO2 and [La (-) ] within a smaller range than white runners.

  4. Incubation behaviour of Greater Scaup Aythya marila on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the incubation behaviour of Greater Scaup Aythya marila on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. The goals of the study were to describe the incubation behaviour of Greater Scaup in terms of incubation constancy, recess frequency and recess length. The use of endogenous reserves by Greater Scaup was examined by determining weight loss over the incubation period. Further, intraspecific variation in incubation constancy was considered in terms of hypotheses regarding timing of reproduction. Constancy (% time on nest) averaged 59% during egg laying and increased to 83% during incubation. Patterns of daily incubation constancy varied among females, with no overall trend. Females took an average of 4.3 recesses per day, with an average length of 57 minutes. Body mass declined by 6.4 g day-1 and females initiating nests later tended to be lighter. These data suggest that while Greater Scaup utilise some stored reserves during incubation, they probably meet most of their energetic demands by foraging during incubation recesses. These data are not consistent with the hypothesis that females are initiating nests before adequate forage is available in the spring to meet the demands of egg production and maintenance. Thus, the observed delay in the onset of nesting by Greater Scaup, relative to other sympatric nesting species, does not appear to be related to inadequate forage to meet nutritional requirements.

  5. A multilocus population genetic survey of greater sage-grouse across their range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oyler-McCance, S.J.; Taylor, S.E.; Quinn, T.W.

    2005-01-01

    The distribution and abundance of the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have declined dramatically, and as a result the species has become the focus of conservation efforts. We conducted a range-wide genetic survey of the species which included 46 populations and over 1000 individuals using both mitochondrial sequence data and data from seven nuclear microsatellites. Nested clade and STRUCTURE analyses revealed that, in general, the greater sage-grouse populations follow an isolation-by-distance model of restricted gene flow. This suggests that movements of the greater sage-grouse are typically among neighbouring populations and not across the species, range. This may have important implications if management is considering translocations as they should involve neighbouring rather than distant populations to preserve any effects of local adaptation. We identified two populations in Washington with low levels of genetic variation that reflect sever habitat loss and dramatic population decline. Managers of these populations may consider augmentation from geographically close populations. One population (Lyon/Mono) on the southwestern edge of the speciesa?? range appears to have been isolated from all other greater sage-grouse populations. This population is sufficiently genetically distinct that it warrants protection and management as a separate unit. The genetic data presented here, in conjunction with large-scale demographic and habitat data, will provide an integrated approach to conservation efforts for the greater sage-grouse.

  6. Greater sage-grouse of Grand Teton National Park: where do they roam?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chong, G.W.; Wetzel, W.C.; Holloran, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) population declines may be caused by range-wide degradation of sagebrush (woody Artemisia spp.) steppe ecosystems. Understanding how greater sage-grouse use the landscape is essential for successful management. We assessed greater sage-grouse habitat selection on a landscape level in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. We used a Geographic Information System (GIS) and radio-collared sage-grouse to compare habitat used and the total available landscape. Greater sage-grouse selected mountain big sagebrush (A. tridentata var. vaseyana) communities or mixed mountain big sagebrush–antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata) communities and avoided low-sagebrush (A. arbuscula) dwarf shrubland. In spring and summer, sage-grouse primarily used sagebrush-dominated habitats on the valley floor and did not concentrate in mesic areas later in the summer as is typical of the species. The diversity of habitats used in winter exceeds that reported in the literature. In winter, Jackson Hole greater sage-grouse moved to hills, where they used various communities in proportion to their availability, including tall deciduous shrublands, cottonwood (Populus angustifolia) stands, exposed hillsides, and aspen (P. tremuloides) stands. Because seasonal habitat selection is not necessarily consistent across populations residing in different landscapes, habitat management should be specific to each population and landscape. This sage-grouse population provides an example that may offer insight into other species with seasonal habitat needs.

  7. Age-related arterial telomere uncapping and senescence is greater in women compared with men.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ashley E; Morgan, R Garrett; Ives, Stephen J; Cawthon, Richard M; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Noyes, Dirk; Lesniewski, Lisa A; Richardson, Russell S; Donato, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Telomere uncapping increases with advancing age in human arteries and this telomere uncapping is associated with increased markers of senescence, independent of mean telomere length. However, whether there are sex specific differences in arterial telomere uncapping is unknown. We found that telomere uncapping (serine 139 phosphorylated histone γ-H2A.X in telomeres) in arteries was ~2.5 fold greater in post-menopausal women (n=17, 63±2 years) compared with pre-menopausal women (n=11, 30±2 years, p=0.02), while there was only a trend towards greater telomere uncapping in older men (n=26, 66±2 years) compared with young men (n=11, 31±2, p=0.11). Senescence markers, p53 bound to the p21 gene promoter and p21 gene expression, were 3-4 fold greater in post-menopausal compared with pre-menopausal women (p=0.01-0.02), but only 1.5-2 fold greater in older compared with young men (p=0.02-0.08). Blood glucose was related to telomere uncapping in women, while systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and serum creatinine were related to telomere uncapping in men. Mean arterial telomere length decreased similarly in women and men with age (p<0.01). Thus, the age-related increase in arterial telomere uncapping and senescence is greater in women than men, despite similar age-related reductions in mean telomere length in both sexes.

  8. Nesting success and resource selection of greater sage grouse in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaczor, Nicholas W.; Jensen, Kent C.; Klaver, Robert W.; Rumble, Mark A.; Herman-Brunson, Katie M.; Swanson, Christopher C.; Sandercock, Brett K.; Martin, Kathy; Segelbacher, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    Declines of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in South Dakota are a concern because further population declines may lead to isolation from populations in Wyoming and Montana. Furthermore, little information exists about reproductive ecology and resource selection of sage grouse on the eastern edge of their distribution. We investigated Greater Sage-Grouse nesting success and resource selection in South Dakota during 2006-2007. Radiomarked females were tracked to estimate nesting rates, nest success, and habitat resources selected for nesting. Nest initiation was 98.0%, with a maximum likelihood estimate of nest success of 45.6 ± 5.3%. Females selected nest sites that had greater sagebrush canopy cover and visual obstruction of the nest bowl compared to random sites. Nest survival models indicated that taller grass surrounding nests increased nest survival. Tall grass may supplement the low sagebrush cover in this area in providing suitable nest sites for Greater Sage-Grouse. Land managers on the eastern edge of Greater Sage-Grouse range could focus on increasing sagebrush density while maintaining tall grass by developing range management practices that accomplish this goal. To achieve nest survival rates similar to other populations, predictions from our models suggest 26 cm grass height would result in approximately 50% nest survival. Optimal conditions could be accomplished by adjusting livestock grazing systems and stocking rates.

  9. Demersal Fish Assemblages on Seamounts and Other Rugged Features in Deep Waters of the Greater and Lesser Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaytor, J. D.; Quattrini, A.; Demopoulos, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    Caribbean fish communities in shallow waters have been well studied along the Greater and Lesser Antilles for decades; however, the deep (>200 m) assemblages remain poorly known due to the technical challenges associated with focused surveys at these greater depths. The numerous geological features (e.g., seamounts, island ridges, banks) that punctuate the insular margins increase habitat heterogeneity, which may lead to enhanced diversity of the deep demersal fish community in the region. Recent (2013-2014) expeditions in the area using the E/V Nautilus and the ROV Hercules surveyed fish communities during 17 dives across different seafloor features at depths ranging from 64 to 2944 m. These surveys enabled us to investigate whether demersal fish assemblages differed among these seafloor features and/or in response to other environmental factors. Preliminary analyses suggested that assemblage differences are influenced by depth, dissolved oxygen, and differences in benthic microhabitat (i.e., soft substrate, rock outcrop, slope angle). Notably, both abundance and diversity of fishes was low at depths >700 m on seamounts in the Anegada Passage. This pattern is likely due to limited food supply in the region. ROV surveys further elucidated the biogeography of numerous species, as several range and depth extensions were documented. For instance, the morid Lepidion sp., previously known only from the eastern Atlantic and the western North Atlantic, was documented on Norrôit Seamount. A new species, Polylepion sp. A, known only from Curacao, was documented on Conrad Seamount. Also, many common, mesophotic reef species were observed deeper than previously known, including the butterflyfishes Chaetodon sedentarius and Prognathodes aculeatus. This study further supports the importance of environmental conditions influencing local-scale distribution of deep-sea fishes, while demonstrating how little is still known about the biogeography of numerous deep-sea and mesophotic

  10. Age-related greater Achilles tendon compliance is not associated with larger plantar flexor muscle fascicle strains in senior women

    PubMed Central

    Csapo, R.; Malis, V.; Hodgson, J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the age-associated decrease of tendon stiffness would necessitate greater muscle fascicle strains to produce similar levels of force during isometric contraction. Greater fascicle strains could force sarcomeres to operate in less advantageous regions of their force-length and force-velocity relationships, thus impairing the capacity to generate strong and explosive contractions. To test this hypothesis, sagittal-plane dynamic velocity-encoded phase-contrast magnetic resonance images of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle and Achilles tendon (AT) were acquired in six young (YW; 26.1 ± 2.3 yr) and six senior (SW; 76.7 ± 8.3 yr) women during submaximal isometric contraction (35% maximum voluntary isometric contraction) of the plantar flexor muscles. Multiple GM fascicle lengths were continuously determined by automatically tracking regions of interest coinciding with the end points of muscle fascicles evenly distributed along the muscle's proximo-distal length. AT stiffness and Young's modulus were measured as the slopes of the tendon's force-elongation and stress-strain curves, respectively. Despite significantly lower AT stiffness at older age (YW: 120.2 ± 52.3 N/mm vs. SW: 53.9 ± 44.4 N/mm, P = 0.040), contraction-induced changes in GM fascicle lengths were similar in both age groups at equal levels of absolute muscular force (4–5% fascicle shortening in both groups), and even significantly larger in YW (YW: 11–12% vs. SW: 6–8% fascicle shortening) at equal percentage of maximum voluntary contraction. These results suggest that factors other than AT stiffness, such as age-associated changes in muscle composition or fascicle slack, might serve as compensatory adaptations, limiting the degree of fascicle strains upon contraction. PMID:24505104

  11. Regional technical cooperation.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, P H

    1997-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic threatens economic development in Asia because Asia offers fertile conditions for unchecked transmission and because the epidemic has the most impact on young adults who make up a large sector of the work force. Prevention is still possible, however, and should be viewed as an investment in the future. Effective prevention strategies will have regional as well as domestic components and will recognize the hierarchy of interventions and spread the burden among the public sector, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and the private sector in each country. The public sector should 1) ensure that markets function well and do not discriminate against infected individuals; 2) provide a supportive macroeconomic framework of fiscal, trade, and credit policies; and 3) provide public and quasipublic goods, such as information and training. The contribution of NGOs should are vital for reducing the suffering involved with HIV/AIDS. Private sector contributions can include care facilities, research and development, and funding. The private sector must realize that the threat to the stock of human capital posed by HIV/AIDS will reduce profits. The regional dimensions of the HIV/AIDS epidemic relate 1) to factors that contribute to transmission and 2) to approaches that can be taken to prevent transmission and curb its impact. The Greater Mekong Subregion Work Program on HIV/AIDS is a good example of a cooperative regional effort to prevent and control HIV/AIDS. The epidemic requires cooperation among sectors and among countries.

  12. Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA) Genotype Predicts Greater Aggression Through Impulsive Reactivity to Negative Affect

    PubMed Central

    Chester, David S.; DeWall, C. Nathan; Derefinko, Karen J.; Estus, Steven; Peters, Jessica R.; Lynam, Donald R.; Jiang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Low functioning MAOA genotypes have been reliably linked to increased reactive aggression, yet the psychological mechanisms of this effect remain largely unknown. The low functioning MAOA genotype’s established link to diminished inhibition and greater reactivity to conditions of negative affect suggest that negative urgency, the tendency to act impulsively in the context of negative affect, may fill this mediating role. Such MAOA carriers may have higher negative urgency, which may in turn predict greater aggressive responses to provocation. To test these hypotheses, 277 female and male participants were genotyped for an MAOA SNP yet to be linked to aggression (rs1465108), and then reported their negative urgency and past aggressive behavior. We replicated the effect of the low functioning MAOA genotype on heightened aggression, which was mediated by greater negative urgency. These results suggest that disrupted serotonergic systems predispose individuals towards aggressive behavior by increasing impulsive reactivity to negative affect. PMID:25637908

  13. GREATER KUDU (TRAGELAPHUS STREPSICEROS) MORTALITY IN EUROPEAN ZOOLOGICAL INSTITUTIONS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Antoine; Lamglait, Benjamin; Petit, Thierry; Roman, Yannick; Jebram, Joerg

    2016-06-01

    A questionnaire was sent to 39 European institutions holding greater kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), in order to determine the causes of captive greater kudu mortality. All reported macroscopic lesions and histopathologic observations, as well as other information regarding individuals that died, were analyzed to determine the most affected body systems and causes of death. Overall response rate was 31%, and 131 individuals were included in the study. The most frequently affected body systems were the digestive system (47%), respiratory system (38%), musculoskeletal system (37%), and cardiovascular system (32%). Most frequent causes of death were infectious diseases (27%) and trauma/accidents (18%); the cause was undetermined in 28% of cases. Nutrition-related disorders were difficult to assess, but results highlight possible nutritional imbalances. This retrospective study represents the first overview of greater kudu mortality in a captive population.

  14. Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype predicts greater aggression through impulsive reactivity to negative affect.

    PubMed

    Chester, David S; DeWall, C Nathan; Derefinko, Karen J; Estus, Steven; Peters, Jessica R; Lynam, Donald R; Jiang, Yang

    2015-04-15

    Low functioning MAOA genotypes have been reliably linked to increased reactive aggression, yet the psychological mechanisms of this effect remain largely unknown. The low functioning MAOA genotype's established link to diminished inhibition and greater reactivity to conditions of negative affect suggest that negative urgency, the tendency to act impulsively in the context of negative affect, may fill this mediating role. Such MAOA carriers may have higher negative urgency, which may in turn predict greater aggressive responses to provocation. To test these hypotheses, 277 female and male participants were genotyped for an MAOA SNP yet to be linked to aggression (rs1465108), and then reported their negative urgency and past aggressive behavior. We replicated the effect of the low functioning MAOA genotype on heightened aggression, which was mediated by greater negative urgency. These results suggest that disrupted serotonergic systems predispose individuals towards aggressive behavior by increasing impulsive reactivity to negative affect.

  15. Can genetically based clines in plant defence explain greater herbivory at higher latitudes?

    PubMed

    Anstett, Daniel N; Ahern, Jeffrey R; Glinos, Julia; Nawar, Nabanita; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-12-01

    Greater plant defence is predicted to evolve at lower latitudes in response to increased herbivore pressure. However, recent studies question the generality of this pattern. In this study, we tested for genetically based latitudinal clines in resistance to herbivores and underlying defence traits of Oenothera biennis. We grew plants from 137 populations from across the entire native range of O. biennis. Populations from lower latitudes showed greater resistance to multiple specialist and generalist herbivores. These patterns were associated with an increase in total phenolics at lower latitudes. A significant proportion of the phenolics were driven by the concentrations of two major ellagitannins, which exhibited opposing latitudinal clines. Our analyses suggest that these findings are unlikely to be explained by local adaptation of herbivore populations or genetic variation in phenology. Rather greater herbivory at high latitudes can be explained by latitudinal clines in the evolution of plant defences.

  16. Recent summer precipitation trends in the Greater Horn of Africa and the emerging role of Indian Ocean sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, A. Park; Funk, Chris; Michaelsen, Joel; Rauscher, Sara A.; Robertson, Iain; Wils, Tommy H. G.; Koprowski, Marcin; Eshetu, Zewdu; Loader, Neil J.

    2012-11-01

    We utilize a variety of climate datasets to examine impacts of two mechanisms on precipitation in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) during northern-hemisphere summer. First, surface-pressure gradients draw moist air toward the GHA from the tropical Atlantic Ocean and Congo Basin. Variability of the strength of these gradients strongly influences GHA precipitation totals and accounts for important phenomena such as the 1960s-1980s rainfall decline and devastating 1984 drought. Following the 1980s, precipitation variability became increasingly influenced by the southern tropical Indian Ocean (STIO) region. Within this region, increases in sea-surface temperature, evaporation, and precipitation are linked with increased exports of dry mid-tropospheric air from the STIO region toward the GHA. Convergence of dry air above the GHA reduces local convection and precipitation. It also produces a clockwise circulation response near the ground that reduces moisture transports from the Congo Basin. Because precipitation originating in the Congo Basin has a unique isotopic signature, records of moisture transports from the Congo Basin may be preserved in the isotopic composition of annual tree rings in the Ethiopian Highlands. A negative trend in tree-ring oxygen-18 during the past half century suggests a decline in the proportion of precipitation originating from the Congo Basin. This trend may not be part of a natural cycle that will soon rebound because climate models characterize Indian Ocean warming as a principal signature of greenhouse-gas induced climate change. We therefore expect surface warming in the STIO region to continue to negatively impact GHA precipitation during northern-hemisphere summer.

  17. Surgical treatment for greater sphenoid wing fracture (orbital blow-in fracture).

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, N; Tominaga, Y; Motomura, H; Muraoka, M

    1999-01-01

    The authors present 2 patients with greater sphenoid wing fractures that were treated surgically. This type of fracture is classified as a blow-in fracture of the lateral orbital wall. The first patient was a 16-year-old boy who was involved in a motor vehicle accident. Computed tomography (CT) disclosed a medial displacement of the inner wall of the greater sphenoid wing of the left orbit. He was unconscious for 3 days. After he recovered consciousness, he presented limited abduction of the left eye with diplopia in all gaze directions and mild left proptosis. Although these symptoms did not improve for 1 week, displaced bone fragments of the greater sphenoid wing were removed via the lateral orbital approach. The patient had a good postoperative course with progressive improvement in eye movement over the next several weeks. The second patient was a 22-year-old man whose face was hit in a fight. CT disclosed medial displacement of the inner wall of the greater sphenoid wing of the left orbit. Although the patient also presented limited abduction of the left eye on admission, this symptom improved gradually. However, diplopia in all gaze directions and mild left proptosis did not improve. Therefore, the displaced inner wall of the greater sphenoid wing was reduced via the lateral orbital approach. The patient showed a good postoperative course with progressive improvement over the next several weeks. This type of orbital fracture, which is classified as an orbital blow-in fracture, is relatively rare. This type of greater sphenoid wing fracture is caused by buckling of the orbital wall secondary to severe compression of the orbital rim. Surgical treatment using the lateral orbital approach through a hemicoronal skin incision afforded a wider operative field and better cosmetic result.

  18. Range-wide connectivity of priority areas for Greater Sage-Grouse: Implications for long-term conservation from graph theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crist, Michele R.; Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steven E.

    2017-01-01

    The delineation of priority areas in western North America for managing Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) represents a broad-scale experiment in conservation biology. The strategy of limiting spatial disturbance and focusing conservation actions within delineated areas may benefit the greatest proportion of Greater Sage-Grouse. However, land use under normal restrictions outside priority areas potentially limits dispersal and gene flow, which can isolate priority areas and lead to spatially disjunct populations. We used graph theory, representing priority areas as spatially distributed nodes interconnected by movement corridors, to understand the capacity of priority areas to function as connected networks in the Bi-State, Central, and Washington regions of the Greater Sage-Grouse range. The Bi-State and Central networks were highly centralized; the dominant pathways and shortest linkages primarily connected a small number of large and centrally located priority areas. These priority areas are likely strongholds for Greater Sage-Grouse populations and might also function as refugia and sources. Priority areas in the Central network were more connected than those in the Bi-State and Washington networks. Almost 90% of the priority areas in the Central network had ≥2 pathways to other priority areas when movement through the landscape was set at an upper threshold (effective resistance, ER12). At a lower threshold (ER4), 83 of 123 priority areas in the Central network were clustered in 9 interconnected subgroups. The current conservation strategy has risks; 45 of 61 priority areas in the Bi-State network, 68 of 123 in the Central network, and all 4 priority areas in the Washington network had ≤1 connection to another priority area at the lower ER4threshold. Priority areas with few linkages also averaged greater environmental resistance to movement along connecting pathways. Without maintaining corridors to larger priority areas or a clustered group

  19. Dumb-bell shaped tuberculous abscess across the greater sciatic notch compressing both sciatic nerves.

    PubMed

    Baba, H; Okumura, Y; Furusawa, N; Omori, H; Kawahara, H; Fujita, T; Katayama, K; Noriki, S

    1998-08-01

    We report an instructive case of a 65-year-old man who presented with a dumb-bell shaped tuberculous abscess across the greater sciatic notch bilaterally compressing both sciatic nerves. Clinical symptoms progressed slowly and mimicked lumbar radiculopathy, thus delaying an accurate diagnosis. Anterolateral retroperitoneal and posterolateral gluteal approaches of the greater sciatic notch as well as the acetabulum on both sides were followed in order to provide safe viewing and resection of the abscess. The abscess wall was adherent to the sciatic nerve and surrounding blood vessels. The symptoms completely disappeared after resection of the abscess.

  20. Metastasis of greater wing of sphenoid bone in bronchogenic carcinoma: a unusual case report.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prashant K; Mital, Mukta; Dwivedi, Amit; Gupta, Kumkum

    2011-01-01

    Orbital metastasis in systemic cancer is known to occur and occurs in up to 7% of all systemic cancers. Orbital features typically present after the diagnosis of the primary tumor. In about 20% of cases, there is no known primary cancer at the time of presentation with orbital metastatic disease. Here we report a case of a 60-year-old male smoker, in whom proptosis, due to metastasis in greater wing of left sphenoid bone secondary to bronchogenic carcinoma, was the initial symptom. We could not find in literature metastasis to greater wing of sphenoid bone due to small cell carcinoma of lung.

  1. Development of FEC and ESC performance characteristics for IDR carriers greater than 10 Mb/s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, Francisco; Koga, Keiichiro

    1988-12-01

    The requirement for restoration of high capacity fiber optic cables and the new tariffs approved for Intelsat digital services has created a requirement to develop performance characteristics for intermediate data rate (IDR) carriers greater than 10 Mb/s. This paper presents the trade-offs used in this development, and estimates the coding gains needed to meet these requirements. A number of forward error correction schemes are evaluated and a rate 3/4 convolutional code with soft decision Viterbi decoding is selected. Engineering service circuits performance characteristics for IDR carriers greater than 10 Mb/s are presented.

  2. Summary of science, activities, programs, and policies that influence the ra