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  1. Analysis of scenarios for sewerage, wastewater treatment and prioritised load on environment from the Greater City of Copenhagen.

    PubMed

    Harremoës, P; Andersen, H S; Dupont, R; Jacobsen, P; Rindel, K

    2002-01-01

    The sewer system for the Greater Copenhagen area covers an area of 4460 ha contributing to the runoff. The total area serves in total 8 municipalities, however it is dominated by the areas in the City of Copenhagen proper. The catchments merge into interceptors, which feed two large treatment plants. The effluent from the two treatment plants discharges during dry weather to Oresund, the sound between Denmark and Sweden. This large system has been analysed for selected scenarios with respect to handling runoff in an optimal way in order to minimise the loads on the most sensitive receiving waters and optimising treatment plant performance.

  2. Apparent Temperature and Cause-Specific Emergency Hospital Admissions in Greater Copenhagen, Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Janine; Andersen, Zorana; Ketzel, Matthias; Ellermann, Thomas; Loft, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    One of the key climate change factors, temperature, has potentially grave implications for human health. We report the first attempt to investigate the association between the daily 3-hour maximum apparent temperature (Tappmax) and respiratory (RD), cardiovascular (CVD), and cerebrovascular (CBD) emergency hospital admissions in Copenhagen, controlling for air pollution. The study period covered 1 January 2002−31 December 2006, stratified in warm and cold periods. A case-crossover design was applied. Susceptibility (effect modification) by age, sex, and socio-economic status was investigated. For an IQR (8°C) increase in the 5-day cumulative average of Tappmax, a 7% (95% CI: 1%, 13%) increase in the RD admission rate was observed in the warm period whereas an inverse association was found with CVD (−8%, 95% CI: −13%, −4%), and none with CBD. There was no association between the 5-day cumulative average of Tappmax during the cold period and any of the cause-specific admissions, except in some susceptible groups: a negative association for RD in the oldest age group and a positive association for CVD in men and the second highest SES group. In conclusion, an increase in Tappmax is associated with a slight increase in RD and decrease in CVD admissions during the warmer months. PMID:21829550

  3. Greater Capital Region Career Pathways Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workforce Strategy Center, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This case study documents the activities of the Greater Capital Region Career Pathways Initiative (CPI), a partnership to develop regional, demand driven career pathways for the biotechnology sector in and around Albany, NY. This document is written for three primary audiences. First, it provides a report to the New York State Department of Labor…

  4. Fossil facies of the Greater Caspian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svitoch, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    The Pliocene-Pleistocene marine sediments of the Great Caspian region host various lithological fossil facies, which reflect specific sedimentation conditions caused by different structural-geomorphologic settings, tectonic regimes, climates, and hydrologies. The facies of shelf, epicontinental basins, ingression gulfs and estuaries, intermontane and mountainous basins, and deep-sea depressions form a hierarchy of geological bodies from types to subtypes. Paragenetic associations of fossil facies, which form various series in space and along the section, are typical of marine sediments.

  5. Impact of regional afforestation on climatic conditions in metropolitan areas: case study of Copenhagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stysiak, Aleksander Andrzej; Bergen Jensen, Marina; Mahura, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Like most other places, European metropolitan areas will face a range of climate-related challenges over the next decades that may influence the nature of urban life across the continent. Under future urbanization and climate change scenarios the well-being and comfort of the urban population might become progressively compromised. In urban areas, the effects of the warming climate will be accelerated by combination of Urban Heat Island effect (UHI) and extreme heat waves. The land cover composition directly influences atmospheric variability, and can either escalate or downscale the projected changes. Vegetation, forest ecosystems in particular, are anticipated to play an important role in modulating local and regional climatic conditions, and to be vital factor in the process of adapting cities to warming climate. This study investigates the impact of forest and land-cover change on formation and development of temperature regimes in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area (CPH-MA). Potential to modify the UHI effect in CPH-MA is estimated. Using 2009 meteorological data, and up-to-date 2012 high resolution land-cover data we employed the online integrated meteorology-chemistry/aerosols Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - High Resolution Limited Area Model) modeling system to simulate air temperature (at 2 meter height) fields for a selected period in July 2009. Employing research tools (such as METGRAF meteorological software and Geographical Information Systems) we then estimated the influence of different afforestation and urbanization scenarios with new forests being located after the Danish national afforestation plan, after proximity to the city center, after dominating wind characteristics, and urbanization taking place as densification of the existing conurbation. This study showed the difference in temperature up to 3.25°C, and the decrease in the spatial extent of temperature fields up to 68%, depending on the selected scenario. Performed simulations demonstrated

  6. Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sherry A M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Mbuthia, Paul G; Mande, John D; Afakye, Kofi; Maingi, Ndichu

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of tissues of live vertebrate animals and humans with dipterous larvae. In sub-Saharan Africa, Cordylobia anthropohaga and Cordylobia rodhaini are known to be responsible for cutaneous myiasis in animals and humans. Human cases of myiasis, purportedly acquired in Ghana but diagnosed in other countries, have been reported; however, published data on its occurrence in animals in Ghana is unavailable. This study assessed the prevalence of canine myiasis among owned dogs in the Greater Accra region (GAR) of Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, selected for being the region with the highest estimated population density of owned dogs. Physical examination and demographic characteristics of the study dogs were assessed. Management of the dogs was assessed through a questionnaire administered to the dog owners. A total of 392 owned dogs were sampled. Twenty-nine (7.4%) had cutaneous myiasis caused by C. rodhaini. In addition, one (0.2%) of the dogs had intestinal myiasis, with Dermatobia hominis as the offending larvae. Among the breeds of dogs with myiasis, the mongrel was most affected, with 24 (82.8%) out of the 29 cases. The mongrels, majority of which (24; 82.8%) were males, were left to roam freely in the community. Results from this study demonstrate that C. rodhaini and D. hominis are important causes of myiasis in owned dogs in the GAR of Ghana. Dogs could play a role in the spread of myiasis to humans, with its attendant public health implications.

  7. Vaccine preventability of meningococcal clone, Greater Aachen Region, Germany.

    PubMed

    Elias, Johannes; Schouls, Leo M; van de Pol, Ingrid; Keijzers, Wendy C; Martin, Diana R; Glennie, Anne; Oster, Philipp; Frosch, Matthias; Vogel, Ulrich; van der Ende, Arie

    2010-03-01

    Emergence of serogroup B meningococci of clonal complex sequence type (ST) 41/44 can cause high levels of disease, as exemplified by a recent epidemic in New Zealand. Multiplication of annual incidence rates (3.1 cases/100,000 population) of meningococcal disease in a defined German region, the city of Aachen and 3 neighboring countries (Greater Aachen) prompted us to investigate and determine the source and nature of this outbreak. Using molecular typing and geographic mapping, we analyzed 1,143 strains belonging to ST41/44 complex, isolated from persons with invasive meningococcal disease over 6 years (2001-2006) from 2 German federal states (total population 26 million) and the Netherlands. A spatially slowly moving clone with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis type 19, ST42, and antigenic profile B:P1.7-2,4:F1-5 was responsible for the outbreak. Bactericidal activity in serum samples from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccination campaign confirmed vaccine preventability. Because this globally distributed epidemic strain spreads slowly, vaccination efforts could possibly eliminate meningococcal disease in this area.

  8. Metalliferous deposits of the greater Helena mining region, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pardee, Joseph Thomas; Schrader, F.C.

    1933-01-01

    The ore deposits described in this bulletin are distributed through a region of about 3,000 square miles surrounding the city of Helena, Mont. In general the surface of this region is mountainous, but it includes several large intermontane valleys. Large areas in the northern and eastern parts of the region sire underlain by sedimentary rocks of the Algonkian Belt series, and on the northeast and southwest the Belt rocks are overlain without any noticeable angular unconformity by Paleozoic and Mesozoic beds. Oligocene, Miocene, and possibly Pliocene sediments, composed chiefly of volcanic ash and land waste of local origin, occupy large areas in the intermontane valleys and lie unconformably upon Cretaceous and older rocks. A thin veneer of Pleistocene and Recent alluvium generally overspreads the Tertiary. In the extreme northern part of the region are large deposits of glacial drift that represent two stages of the Pleistocene. The principal igneous body of the region is the northern part of the early Tertiary or late Cretaceous Boulder batholitb of quartz monzonite. The main exposure of this body occupies an area of nearly 1,200 square miles and extends southward beyond the limits of the particular region considered. Smaller areas of similar rocks are clustered around this exposure. Most of the exposures probably represent bodies that are connected in depth to form a single mass. The late Cretaceous and older sedimentary rocks are involved in a series of northwestward-trending folds. Along the east side of the region overthrust faults related to the great Lewis overthrust of Glacier National Park cause Belt rocks to overlie rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic ages. Large normal faults occur near Marysville and faults of moderate displacement near Helena. The Tertiary beds are slightly deformed by folds and faults that are unrelated to the structure of the older rock. The geologic history of the region includes two contrasting periods, the earlier of which was

  9. From Copenhagen to Neo-Copenhagen Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Muynck, Willem M.

    2007-12-01

    Positive and negative features of the Copenhagen interpretation are discussed. As positive features can be mentioned its pragmatism and its awareness of the crucial role of measurement. However, the main part of the contribution is devoted to the negative features, to wit, its pragmatism (once again), its confounding of preparation and measurement, its classical account of measurement, its completeness claims, the ambiguity of its notion of correspondence, its confused notion of complementarity. It is demonstrated how confusions and paradoxes stemming from the negative features of the Copenhagen interpretation can be dealt with in an amended interpretation, to be referred to as `neo-Copenhagen interpretation', in which the role of the measuring instrument is taken seriously by recognizing the quantum mechanical character of its interaction with the microscopic object. The ensuing necessity of extending the notion of a quantum mechanical observable from the Hermitian operator of the standard formalism to the positive operator-valued measure of a generalized formalism yields a sound mathematical basis for a transition from the Copenhagen contextualistic-realist interpretation to the neo-Copenhagen empiricist one. Applications to the uncertainty relations and to the Bell inequalities are briefly discussed.

  10. Metalliferous deposits of the greater Helena mining region, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pardee, Joseph Thomas; Schrader, F.C.

    1933-01-01

    The ore deposits described in this bulletin are distributed through a region of about 3,000 square miles surrounding the city of Helena, Mont. In general the surface of this region is mountainous, but it includes several large intermontane valleys. Large areas in the northern and eastern parts of the region sire underlain by sedimentary rocks of the Algonkian Belt series, and on the northeast and southwest the Belt rocks are overlain without any noticeable angular unconformity by Paleozoic and Mesozoic beds. Oligocene, Miocene, and possibly Pliocene sediments, composed chiefly of volcanic ash and land waste of local origin, occupy large areas in the intermontane valleys and lie unconformably upon Cretaceous and older rocks. A thin veneer of Pleistocene and Recent alluvium generally overspreads the Tertiary. In the extreme northern part of the region are large deposits of glacial drift that represent two stages of the Pleistocene. The principal igneous body of the region is the northern part of the early Tertiary or late Cretaceous Boulder batholitb of quartz monzonite. The main exposure of this body occupies an area of nearly 1,200 square miles and extends southward beyond the limits of the particular region considered. Smaller areas of similar rocks are clustered around this exposure. Most of the exposures probably represent bodies that are connected in depth to form a single mass. The late Cretaceous and older sedimentary rocks are involved in a series of northwestward-trending folds. Along the east side of the region overthrust faults related to the great Lewis overthrust of Glacier National Park cause Belt rocks to overlie rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic ages. Large normal faults occur near Marysville and faults of moderate displacement near Helena. The Tertiary beds are slightly deformed by folds and faults that are unrelated to the structure of the older rock. The geologic history of the region includes two contrasting periods, the earlier of which was

  11. Earthshots: Satellite images of environmental change – Copenhagen, Denmark

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamson, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In the time that these images span, the population of Copenhagen has grown from 478,615 in 1985 to 580,184 in 2015. But the population of greater Copenhagen in 2014 was 1,246,611, up from 1,084,885 in 2006.

  12. Copenhagen quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollowood, Timothy J.

    2016-07-01

    In our quantum mechanics courses, measurement is usually taught in passing, as an ad-hoc procedure involving the ugly collapse of the wave function. No wonder we search for more satisfying alternatives to the Copenhagen interpretation. But this overlooks the fact that the approach fits very well with modern measurement theory with its notions of the conditioned state and quantum trajectory. In addition, what we know of as the Copenhagen interpretation is a later 1950s development and some of the earlier pioneers like Bohr did not talk of wave function collapse. In fact, if one takes these earlier ideas and mixes them with later insights of decoherence, a much more satisfying version of Copenhagen quantum mechanics emerges, one for which the collapse of the wave function is seen to be a harmless book keeping device. Along the way, we explain why chaotic systems lead to wave functions that spread out quickly on macroscopic scales implying that Schrödinger cat states are the norm rather than curiosities generated in physicists' laboratories. We then describe how the conditioned state of a quantum system depends crucially on how the system is monitored illustrating this with the example of a decaying atom monitored with a time of arrival photon detector, leading to Bohr's quantum jumps. On the other hand, other kinds of detection lead to much smoother behaviour, providing yet another example of complementarity. Finally we explain how classical behaviour emerges, including classical mechanics but also thermodynamics.

  13. Exploring contraceptive knowledge and use among women experiencing induced abortion in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Biney, Adriana A E

    2011-03-01

    Using a qualitative research methodology, twenty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted with women with induced abortion experiences at Korle Bu and Tema Hospitals in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana. Results suggest that these women tended not to have knowledge of contraceptive methods prior to the abortion, while others were informed but failed to use for a variety of reasons ranging from rumours of side effects to personal negative experiences with modem contraceptive methods. A few women also stated contraceptive failure as a reason for their unintended pregnancies that were later aborted. Peer and reproductive health education must be reinforced in communities in the Greater Accra Region to curb adolescents engaging in early sex and should challenge the existing rumours associated with contraception in Ghana. In addition, family planning services in terms of appropriate methods with no side effects must be made available to women in the reproductive ages.

  14. Seismic investigations in downtown Copenhagen, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, K.; Mendoza, J. A.; Olsen, H.

    2009-12-01

    Near surface geophysics are gaining widespread use in major infrastructure projects with respect to geotechnical and engineering applications. The development of data acquisition, processing tools and interpretation methods have optimized survey production, reduced logistics costs and increase results reliability of seismic surveys during the last decades. However, the use of geophysical methods under urban environments continues to face challenges due to multiple noise sources and obstacles inherent to cities. A seismic investigation was conducted in Copenhagen aiming to produce information needed for hydrological, geotechnical and groundwater modeling assessments related to the planned Cityringen underground metro project. The particular objectives were a) map variations in subsurface Quaternary and limestone properties b) to map for near surface structural features. The geological setting in the Copenhagen region is characterized by several interlaced layers of glacial till and meltwater sand deposits. These layers, which are found unevenly distributed throughout the city and present in varying thicknesses, overlie limestone of different generations. There are common occurrences of incised valley structures containing localized instances of weathered or fractured limestone. The surveys consisted of combined seismic reflection and refraction profiles accounting for approximately 13 km along sections of the projected metro line. The data acquisition was carried out using standard 192 channels arrays, receiver groups with 5 m spacing and a Vibroseis as a source at 5 m spacing. In order to improve the resolution of the data, 29 Walkaway-Vertical Seismic Profiles were performed at selected wells along the surface seismic lines. The refraction data was processed with travel-time tomography and the reflection data underwent standard interpretation. The refraction data inversion was performed twofold; a surface refraction alone and combined with the VSP data. Three

  15. A Linguistically Informed Autosomal STR Survey of Human Populations Residing in the Greater Himalayan Region

    PubMed Central

    Kraaijenbrink, Thirsa; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J.; Zuniga, Sofia B.; Xue, Yali; Carvalho-Silva, Denise R.; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Jobling, Mark A.; Parkin, Emma J.; Su, Bing; Shi, Hong; Xiao, Chun-Jie; Tang, Wen-Ru; Kashyap, V. K.; Trivedi, R.; Sitalaximi, T.; Banerjee, Jheelam; Gaselô, Karma Tshering of; Tuladhar, Nirmal M.; Opgenort, Jean-Robert M. L.; van Driem, George L.; Barbujani, Guido; de Knijff, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The greater Himalayan region demarcates two of the most prominent linguistic phyla in Asia: Tibeto-Burman and Indo-European. Previous genetic surveys, mainly using Y-chromosome polymorphisms and/or mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms suggested a substantially reduced geneflow between populations belonging to these two phyla. These studies, however, have mainly focussed on populations residing far to the north and/or south of this mountain range, and have not been able to study geneflow patterns within the greater Himalayan region itself. We now report a detailed, linguistically informed, genetic survey of Tibeto-Burman and Indo-European speakers from the Himalayan countries Nepal and Bhutan based on autosomal microsatellite markers and compare these populations with surrounding regions. The genetic differentiation between populations within the Himalayas seems to be much higher than between populations in the neighbouring countries. We also observe a remarkable genetic differentiation between the Tibeto-Burman speaking populations on the one hand and Indo-European speaking populations on the other, suggesting that language and geography have played an equally large role in defining the genetic composition of present-day populations within the Himalayas. PMID:24614536

  16. ESO Presentation in Copenhagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, C.; D'Odorico, S.

    2004-12-01

    On November 8, ESO continued its series of presentations in memberstates with an event in Copenhagen. So far events have been organised in Belgium, Finland, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The purpose of these presentations is to raise the awareness of ESO amongst decision-makers, academia and the media. Over time, the scope and specific focus of the national events have varied, considering the particular circumstances and the wishes of the national hosts, and accordingly, the presentation in Denmark was primarily oriented towards industry. The meeting was initiated by the Royal Danish Consulate General in Munich in conjunction with the Confederation of Danish Industries and the Ministry for Science, Technology and Innovation. Leading up to the meeting, several articles about ESO had appeared in the Danish press and the 2nd TV Channel featured a report on the ESO projects also in connection with the event.

  17. Climatological simulations of ozone and atmospheric aerosols in the Greater Cairo region

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, A. L.; Tawfik, A. B.; Shalaby, A.; Zakey, A. S.; Abdel Wahab, M. M.; Salah, Z.; Solmon, F.; Sillman, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2014-04-16

    An integrated chemistry-climate model (RegCM4-CHEM) simulates present-day climate, ozone and tropospheric aerosols over Egypt with a focus on Greater Cairo (GC) region. The densley populated GC region is known for its severe air quality issues driven by high levels of anthropogenic pollution in conjuction with natural sources such as dust and agricultural burning events. We find that current global emission inventories underestimate key pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and anthropogenic aerosol species. In the GC region, average-ground-based NO2 observations of 40-60 ppb are substantially higher than modeled estimates (5-10 ppb), likely due to model grid resolution, improper boundary layer representation, and poor emissions inventories. Observed ozone concentrations range from 35 ppb (winter) to 80 ppb (summer). The model reproduces the seasonal cycle fairly well, but modeled summer ozone is understimated by approximately 15 ppb and exhibits little interannual variability. For aerosols, springtime dust events dominate the seasonal aerosol cycle. The chemistry-climate model captures the springtime peak aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.7-1 but is slightly greater than satellite-derived AOD. Observed AOD decreases in the summer and increases again in the fall due to agricultural burning events in the Nile Delta, yet the model underestimates this fall observed AOD peak, as standard emissions inventories underestimate this burning and the resulting aerosol emissions. Our comparison of modeled gas and particulate phase atmospheric chemistry in the GC region indicates that improved emissions inventories of mobile sources and other anthropogenic activities are needed to improve air quality simulations in this region.

  18. Importance of regional variation in conservation planning: A rangewide example of the Greater Sage-Grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doherty, Kevin E; Evans, Jeffrey S.; Coates, Peter S.; Juliusson, Lara; Fedy, Bradley C.

    2016-01-01

    We developed rangewide population and habitat models for Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) that account for regional variation in habitat selection and relative densities of birds for use in conservation planning and risk assessments. We developed a probabilistic model of occupied breeding habitat by statistically linking habitat characteristics within 4 miles of an occupied lek using a nonlinear machine learning technique (Random Forests). Habitat characteristics used were quantified in GIS and represent standard abiotic and biotic variables related to sage-grouse biology. Statistical model fit was high (mean correctly classified = 82.0%, range = 75.4–88.0%) as were cross-validation statistics (mean = 80.9%, range = 75.1–85.8%). We also developed a spatially explicit model to quantify the relative density of breeding birds across each Greater Sage-Grouse management zone. The models demonstrate distinct clustering of relative abundance of sage-grouse populations across all management zones. On average, approximately half of the breeding population is predicted to be within 10% of the occupied range. We also found that 80% of sage-grouse populations were contained in 25–34% of the occupied range within each management zone. Our rangewide population and habitat models account for regional variation in habitat selection and the relative densities of birds, and thus, they can serve as a consistent and common currency to assess how sage-grouse habitat and populations overlap with conservation actions or threats over the entire sage-grouse range. We also quantified differences in functional habitat responses and disturbance thresholds across the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) management zones using statistical relationships identified during habitat modeling. Even for a species as specialized as Greater Sage-Grouse, our results show that ecological context matters in both the strength of habitat selection (i

  19. Sensitivity of summer climate to anthropogenic land-cover change over the Greater Phoenix, AZ, region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Georgescu, M.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Steyaert, L.T.; Weaver, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    This work evaluates the first-order effect of land-use/land-cover change (LULCC) on the summer climate of one of the nation's most rapidly expanding metropolitan complexes, the Greater Phoenix, AZ, region. High-resolution-2-km grid spacing-Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) simulations of three "wet" and three "dry" summers were carried out for two different land-cover reconstructions for the region: a circa 1992 representation based on satellite observations, and a hypothetical land-cover scenario where the anthropogenic landscape of irrigated agriculture and urban pixels was replaced with current semi-natural vegetation. Model output is evaluated with respect to observed air temperature, dew point, and precipitation. Our results suggest that development of extensive irrigated agriculture adjacent to the urban area has dampened any regional-mean warming due to urbanization. Consistent with previous observationally based work, LULCC produces a systematic increase in precipitation to the north and east of the city, though only under dry conditions. This is due to a change in background atmospheric stability resulting from the advection of both warmth from the urban core and moisture from the irrigated area. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Stream reconnaissance for nutrients and other water-quality parameters, Greater Pittsburgh Region, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beall, Robert M.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-five stream sites in and near the six-county Greater Pittsburgh Region were sampled in mid-June 1971 in mid-October 1972. Data are reported for 89 sites because 4 substitute sites were sampled in the second period. Drainage areas of the basins sampled ranged from 4.1 to 19,5000 square miles (10.6 to 50,500 square kilometres). The chemical analyses included constituents of three general classes: (1) nutrients, (2) activity indicators, and (3) dominant anions. Modification of the natural chemical and physical characteristics of the surface waters by man's activities is evident in some of the data. However, the activities are so diverse in type and in areal extent that their influence in terms of cause and effect is often obscure. Nutrient concentrations were high enough to indicate potential problems at about a quarter of the sampling sites. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH values indicated a generally favorable capacity for regeneration or recovery from degradation, although a number a streams east of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers are marginal or lacking in the capacity. Regionally, sulfate is the dominant ion and was observed in concentrations of 40 milligrams per litre or more at 90 percent of the sites. Bicarbonate exceeded 100 milligrams per litre at 22 sites. A moderate to high degree of mineralization, as indicated by conductance readings of more than 500 micromhos per cetrimetre at half of the sampling sites, is a characteristic of the region's surface waters.

  1. Assessment of energy crops alternative to maize for biogas production in the Greater Region.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Frédéric; Gerin, Patrick A; Noo, Anaïs; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Stilmant, Didier; Schmit, Thomas; Leclech, Nathael; Ruelle, Luc; Gennen, Jerome; von Francken-Welz, Herbert; Foucart, Guy; Flammang, Jos; Weyland, Marc; Delfosse, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    The biomethane yield of various energy crops, selected among potential alternatives to maize in the Greater Region, was assessed. The biomass yield, the volatile solids (VS) content and the biochemical methane potential (BMP) were measured to calculate the biomethane yield per hectare of all plant species. For all species, the dry matter biomass yield and the VS content were the main factors that influence, respectively, the biomethane yield and the BMP. Both values were predicted with good accuracy by linear regressions using the biomass yield and the VS as independent variable. The perennial crop miscanthus appeared to be the most promising alternative to maize when harvested as green matter in autumn and ensiled. Miscanthus reached a biomethane yield of 5.5 ± 1 × 10(3)m(3)ha(-1) during the second year after the establishment, as compared to 5.3 ± 1 × 10(3)m(3)ha(-1) for maize under similar crop conditions.

  2. Status of radiation protection of medical x-ray facilities in Greater Accra region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Emi-Reynolds, Geoffrey; Mensah, Cynthia Kaikor; Gyekye, Prince Kwabena; Amekudzie, Ann Etornam

    2012-05-01

    The status of radiation protection and safety of diagnostic medical x-ray facilities in the Greater Accra region in Ghana have been evaluated. In all, 62 medical facilities with 86 diagnostic x-ray units were considered for the survey. Out of the 86 diagnostic units, there were 56 general radiograph, 13 dental radiography, 9 fluoroscopy, 5 computed tomography, and 3 mammography machines. The parameters evaluated include the tube voltage, type of film processor, and the required protective measures in an x-ray department. It was observed that none of the protective measures or equipment were fully present in the diagnostic units except lead aprons. The radiation protection and safety measures in the medical facilities need to be strengthened to protect patients, staff, and the general public. PMID:22470002

  3. Residential characteristics as correlates of occupants’ health in the greater Accra region, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Housing has been a relatively neglected site for public health action. However, it remains a place where human beings spend the most part of their day. As a result, the quality of housing has consequences for human health. We investigate residential characteristics associated with self-rated occupant health in five neighbourhoods in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana. Methods A cross sectional study using a semi-structured questionnaire was conducted among 500 informed adults aged 18 years and above to investigate residential characteristics associated with self-rated occupant health in five neighbourhoods in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana. Correlates of occupant rated health were determined using Pearson chi-square test and binary logistic regression. Results Forty-two per cent of houses were rented, 44% required repair and 46% shared sanitation facilities. One in twenty occupants reported poor health. Gender, employment status, income, ventilation, house wall material, odours, stale air, privacy, shared facilities, hand washing facility, type of house and house repair status were associated with poor health in the bivariate analysis. Only two variables were independently associated with poor self-rated health: occupants who lacked privacy were eight times more likely to report poor self-rated health when compared to peers who did not lack privacy [OR = 8.16, 95% CI 2.86-23.26] and women were three times more likely than men to report poor health [OR = 2.98, 95% CI 1.06-8.35]. Conclusion The results provide further evidence of housing as a determinant of occupants’ health, and identify housing characteristics and living conditions as issues for public health action in Ghana. PMID:24612884

  4. Youth at risk for obesity show greater activation of striatal and somatosensory regions to food.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja; Burger, Kyle S; Epstein, Leonard H; Small, Dana M

    2011-03-23

    Obese humans, compared with normal-weight humans, have less striatal D2 receptors and striatal response to food intake; weaker striatal response to food predicts weight gain for individuals at genetic risk for reduced dopamine (DA) signaling, consistent with the reward-deficit theory of obesity. Yet these may not be initial vulnerability factors, as overeating reduces D2 receptor density, D2 sensitivity, reward sensitivity, and striatal response to food. Obese humans also show greater striatal, amygdalar, orbitofrontal cortex, and somatosensory region response to food images than normal-weight humans do, which predicts weight gain for those not at genetic risk for compromised dopamine signaling, consonant with the reward-surfeit theory of obesity. However, after pairings of palatable food intake and predictive cues, DA signaling increases in response to the cues, implying that eating palatable food contributes to increased responsivity. Using fMRI, we tested whether normal-weight adolescents at high- versus low-risk for obesity showed aberrant activation of reward circuitry in response to receipt and anticipated receipt of palatable food and monetary reward. High-risk youth showed greater activation in the caudate, parietal operculum, and frontal operculum in response to food intake and in the caudate, putamen, insula, thalamus, and orbitofrontal cortex in response to monetary reward. No differences emerged in response to anticipated food or monetary reward. Data indicate that youth at risk for obesity show elevated reward circuitry responsivity in general, coupled with elevated somatosensory region responsivity to food, which may lead to overeating that produces blunted dopamine signaling and elevated responsivity to food cues.

  5. Youth at Risk for Obesity Show Greater Activation of Striatal and Somatosensory Regions to Food

    PubMed Central

    Stice, E; Yokum, S; Burger, KS; Epstein, LH; Small, DM

    2011-01-01

    Obese versus normal-weight humans have less striatal D2 receptors and striatal response to food intake, and weaker striatal response to food predicts weight gain for individuals at genetic risk for reduced dopamine (DA) signaling, consistent with the reward deficit theory of obesity. Yet these may not be initial vulnerability factors, as overeating reduces D2 receptor density, D2 sensitivity, reward sensitivity, and striatal response to food. Obese versus normal-weight humans also show greater striatal, amygdalar, orbitofrontal cortex, and somatosensory region response to food images, which predicts weight gain for those not at genetic risk for compromised dopamine signaling, consonant with the reward surfeit theory of obesity. However, after pairings of palatable food intake and predictive cues, DA signaling increases in response to the cues, implying that eating palatable food contributes to increased responsivity. We tested whether normal-weight adolescents at high- versus low-risk for obesity showed aberrant activation of reward circuitry in response to receipt and anticipated receipt of palatable food and monetary reward using fMRI. High-risk youth showed greater activation in the caudate, parietal operculum, and frontal operculum in response to food intake and in the caudate, putamen, insula, thalamus, and orbitofrontal cortex in response to monetary reward. No differences emerged in response to anticipated food or monetary reward. Data indicate that youth at risk for obesity show elevated reward circuitry responsivity in general coupled with elevated somatosensory region responsivity to food, which may lead to overeating that produces blunted dopamine signaling and elevated responsivity to food cues. PMID:21430137

  6. Youth at risk for obesity show greater activation of striatal and somatosensory regions to food.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja; Burger, Kyle S; Epstein, Leonard H; Small, Dana M

    2011-03-23

    Obese humans, compared with normal-weight humans, have less striatal D2 receptors and striatal response to food intake; weaker striatal response to food predicts weight gain for individuals at genetic risk for reduced dopamine (DA) signaling, consistent with the reward-deficit theory of obesity. Yet these may not be initial vulnerability factors, as overeating reduces D2 receptor density, D2 sensitivity, reward sensitivity, and striatal response to food. Obese humans also show greater striatal, amygdalar, orbitofrontal cortex, and somatosensory region response to food images than normal-weight humans do, which predicts weight gain for those not at genetic risk for compromised dopamine signaling, consonant with the reward-surfeit theory of obesity. However, after pairings of palatable food intake and predictive cues, DA signaling increases in response to the cues, implying that eating palatable food contributes to increased responsivity. Using fMRI, we tested whether normal-weight adolescents at high- versus low-risk for obesity showed aberrant activation of reward circuitry in response to receipt and anticipated receipt of palatable food and monetary reward. High-risk youth showed greater activation in the caudate, parietal operculum, and frontal operculum in response to food intake and in the caudate, putamen, insula, thalamus, and orbitofrontal cortex in response to monetary reward. No differences emerged in response to anticipated food or monetary reward. Data indicate that youth at risk for obesity show elevated reward circuitry responsivity in general, coupled with elevated somatosensory region responsivity to food, which may lead to overeating that produces blunted dopamine signaling and elevated responsivity to food cues. PMID:21430137

  7. Future drought scenarios for the Greater Alpine Region based on dynamical downscaling experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haslinger, Klaus; Anders, Ivonne; Schöner, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Large scale droughts have major ecologic, agricultural, economic as well as societal impacts by reducing crop yield, producing low flows in river systems or by limiting the public water supply. Under the perspective of rising temperatures and possibly altered precipitation regimes in the upcoming decades due to global climate change, we accomplish an assessment of future drought characteristics for the Greater Alpine Region (GAR) with regional climate model simulations. This study consists of two parts: First, the ability of the Regional Climate Model COSMO-CLM (CCLM) to simulate drought conditions in the past in space and time is evaluated. Second, an analysis of future drought scenarios for the GAR is conducted. As a drought index the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) is used. For the evaluation of the Regional Climate Model in the past, simulations driven by ERA-40 are compared to observations. The gridded observational datasets of the HISTALP-database are used for evaluation in the first place. To assess the skill of CCLM, correlation coefficients between the SPEI of model simulations and gridded observations stratified by seasons and time scales are accomplished. For the analysis of future changes in the drought characteristics, four scenario runs are investigated. These are ECHAM5 and HadCM3 driven CCLM runs for the SRES scenarios A1B, A2 and B1. The SPEI is calculated spanning both the C20 and the scenario runs and are therefore regarded as transient simulations. Generally, trends to dryer annual mean conditions are apparent in each of the scenario runs, whereas the signal is rather strong in summer, contradicted by winter which shows a slight increase in precipitation north of the Alps. This in turn leads to higher variability of the SPEI in the future, as differences between winter (wetter or no change) and summer (considerably dryer) grow larger.

  8. Metamorphic and tectonic evolution of the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex in Nyalam region, south Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Rubatto, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies evoke dispute whether the Himalayan metamorphic core - Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex (GHC) - was exhumed as a lateral crustal flow or a critical taper wedge during the India-Asia collision. This contribution investigated the evolution of the GHC in the Nyalam region, south Tibet, with comprehensive studies on structural kinematics, metamorphic petrology and geochronology. The GHC in the Nyalam region can be divided into the lower and upper GHC. Phase equilibria modelling and conventional thermobarometric results show that peak temperature conditions are lower in the lower GHC (~660-700°C) and higher in the upper GHC (~740-780°C), whereas corresponding pressure conditions at peak-T decrease from ~9-13 kbar to ~4 kbar northward. Monazite, zircon and rutile U-Pb dating results reveal two distinct blocks within the GHC of the Nyalam region. The upper GHC underwent higher degree of partial melting (15-25%, via muscovite dehydration melting) that initiated at ~32 Ma, peaked at ~29 Ma to 25 Ma, possibly ended at ~20 Ma. The lower GHC underwent lower degree of melting (0-10%) that lasted from 19 to 16 Ma, which was produced mainly via H2O-saturated melting. At different times, both the upper and lower blocks underwent initial slow cooling (35 ± 8 and 10 ± 5°C/Myr, respectively) and subsequent rapid cooling (120 ± 40°C/Myr). The established timescale of metamorphism suggests that high-temperature metamorphism within the GHC lasted a long duration (~15 Myr), whereas duration of partial melting lasted for ~3 Myr in the lower GHC and lasted for 7-12 Myr in the upper GHC. The documented diachronous metamorphism and discontinuity of peak P-T conditions implies the presence of the Nyalam Thrust in the study area. This thrust is probably connected to the other thrusts in Nepal and Sikkim Himalaya, which extends over ~800 km and is named the "High Himalayan Thrust". Timing of activity along this thrust is at ~25-16 Ma, which is coeval with active

  9. Enhanced recharge rates and a greater sensitivity to climate variations in regions with heterogeneous subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, A. J.; Gleeson, T.; Wagener, T.; Wada, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Subsurface heterogeneity has an important control on water balance. Groundwater recharge is one of its most relevant processes feeding the world's groundwater storages and therefore supplying fresh water to large parts of the global population for their drinking water and food production. However, large-scale hydrological models do not usually consider subsurface heterogeneity adequately to simulate groundwater recharge. In this study we compare the model simulations of two different representations of the subsurface, one with heterogeneous and the other with homogeneous subsurface, from present day to the future (1991-2099). We look at simulated recharge rates and their inter-annual variability. In addition, we calculate the elasticity of recharge rates concerning climate variability, in terms of annual precipitation, temperature and average intensity during strong rainfall events, to quantify their controls on simulated recharge and how these controls evolve in the future. Our model comparison shows that regions with strong subsurface heterogeneity have enhanced recharge rates with greater inter-annual variability compared to those with more homogenous subsurface properties. Furthermore, the heterogeneous representation shows stronger elasticity concerning climate variability than the homogeneous subsurface representation. This difference tends to increase towards the future. Our results suggest that water management in regions with heterogeneous subsurface can expect a higher water availability than estimated by most of the large-scale simulations. But measures should be taken to prepare for increasingly variable groundwater recharge rates.

  10. Linking ecology to hydrology and geomorphology using river reach classification for the Greater Mekong Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouelette Dallaire, Camille; Lehner, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale development projects, such as hydropower dams, in the Greater Mekong Region (GMR) are putting high pressure on freshwater resources. Environmental impact assessments are needed in the region to understand the possible impacts of these projects. These assessments often require biodiversity data that can be costly to acquire both in terms of time and money. It is often assumed that river or ecosystem classes, based on geo-physical characteristics, can be used as biodiversity proxies in large scale assessments to account for a lack of biodiversity data. However, there has been little research to compare the spatial distribution of river classes and fish species. It is unclear how well river classes are able to represent the distribution of fish and, more generally, biodiversity. To address this question, a set of two classifications were compared to a newly available dataset of fish species distribution in the GMR (Allen et al., 2012). The classifications were derived from two different methods to test which could potentially better represent fish assemblages. The first classification is derived using regional expert knowledge and the second using K-mean analysis. Both are using the same geophysical datasets. The two datasets were used in a Redundancy Analysis (RDA) to calculate which proportion of the variability in the fish species data can be explained by the river classes. The RDA resulted in R2 of 0.44 for the supervised classification and 0.41for the statistical classification, showing a moderate correlation between the datasets. Based on these results, using river classes as biodiversity proxy is deemed reasonable. However, some of the variability in the distribution of fish species cannot be related simply to geophysical factors. River classes may capture different elements such as unique habitats and associated, possibly unknown, endemic species that indices based only on biological data do not. Hence, river classes can be a good alternative and

  11. Spring hunting changes the regional movements of migrating greater snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bechet, A.; Giroux, J.-F.; Gauthier, G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    1. Human-induced disturbance such as hunting may influence the migratory behaviour of long-distance migrants. In 1999 and 2000 a spring hunt of greater snow geese Anser caerulescens atlanticus occurred for the first time in North America since 1916, aimed at stopping population growth to protect natural habitats. 2. We evaluated the impact of this hunt on the staging movements of geese along a 600-km stretch of the St. Lawrence River in southern Quebec, Canada. 3. We tracked radio-tagged female geese in three contiguous regions of the staging area from the south-west to the north-east: Lake St Pierre, Upper Estuary and Lower Estuary, in spring 1997 (n = 37) and 1998 (n = 70) before the establishment of hunting, and in 1999 (n = 60) and 2000 (n = 59) during hunting. 4. We used multi-state capture-recapture models to estimate the movement probabilities of radio-tagged females among these regions. To assess disturbance level, we tracked geese during their feeding trips and estimated the probability of completing a foraging bout without being disturbed. 5. In the 2 years without hunting, migration was strongly unidirectional from the south-west to the north-east, with very low westward movement probabilities. Geese gradually moved from Lake St Pierre to Upper Estuary and then from Upper Estuary to Lower Estuary. 6. In contrast, during the 2 years with hunting westward movement was more than four times more likely than in preceding years. Most of these backward movements occurred shortly after the beginning of the hunt, indicating that geese moved back to regions where they had not previously experienced hunting. 7. Overall disturbance level increased in all regions in years with hunting relative to years without hunting. 8. Synthesis and applications. We conclude that spring hunting changed the stopover scheduling of this long-distance migrant and might further impact population dynamics by reducing prenuptial fattening. The spring hunt may also have increased crop

  12. Regional correlations of VS30 averaged over depths less than and greater than 30 meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, David M.; Thompson, Eric M.; Cadet, Héloïse

    2011-01-01

    Using velocity profiles from sites in Japan, California, Turkey, and Europe, we find that the time-averaged shear-wave velocity to 30 m (VS30), used as a proxy for site amplification in recent ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and building codes, is strongly correlated with average velocities to depths less than 30 m (VSz, with z being the averaging depth). The correlations for sites in Japan (corresponding to the KiK-net network) show that VSz is systematically larger for a given VSz than for profiles from the other regions. The difference largely results from the placement of the KiK-net station locations on rock and rocklike sites, whereas stations in the other regions are generally placed in urban areas underlain by sediments. Using the KiK-net velocity profiles, we provide equations relating VS30 to VSz for z ranging from 5 to 29 m in 1-m increments. These equations (and those for California velocity profiles given in Boore, 2004b) can be used to estimate VS30 from VSz for sites in which velocity profiles do not extend to 30 m. The scatter of the residuals decreases with depth, but, even for an averaging depth of 5 m, a variation in logVS30 of ±1 standard deviation maps into less than a 20% uncertainty in ground motions given by recent GMPEs at short periods. The sensitivity of the ground motions to VS30 uncertainty is considerably larger at long periods (but is less than a factor of 1.2 for averaging depths greater than about 20 m). We also find that VS30 is correlated with VSz for z as great as 400 m for sites of the KiK-net network, providing some justification for using VS30 as a site-response variable for predicting ground motions at periods for which the wavelengths far exceed 30 m.

  13. Program issues in delivering targeted STI services through the public sector in the Greater Mekong region.

    PubMed

    O'Farrell, Nigel

    2007-03-01

    This review discusses the delivery of targeted STI services for both female sex workers (FSWs) and other high-risk groups through the public sector in the Greater Mekong region. Vaginal discharge algorithms for the general population are also discussed. High STI rates that justify targeted interventions have been reported recently amongst FSW in Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam. Such interventions need to take into account the different patterns of sex work in the three countries. In Cambodia, there are large numbers of brothel-based FSWs although this pattern is changing as more brothels are closed by the authorities. In Lao PDR, services targeted towards reducing the burden of HIV/STI in FSW/service women are probably best delivered through NGO-led clinics. In Vietnam, commune based district health centers appear to offer better services for FSW than STI clinics. Male clients of FSW are an important group to target, but reaching such a heterogeneous population is difficult. Provision of quality STI drugs to those places where men present with STI symptoms should be a priority. The optimal way to manage STIs in FSWs is still unclear in this region. Clinical and laboratory specialists are keen to promote laboratory tests for STIs but there is an over reliance on direct staining techniques. In areas with high STI prevalences, periodic presumptive treatment could offer an effective option to reduce STI levels in high-risk groups until syndromic management algorithms are evaluated for local use. Social patterns of sex work are changing continually and require close monitoring in the future so that services can be adapted to these changes.

  14. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths and management practices for dogs in the Greater Accra region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sherry Ama Mawuko; Gakuya, Daniel Waweru; Mbuthia, Paul Gichohi; Mande, John Demesi; Maingi, Ndichu

    2015-09-01

    Toxocariosis and ancylostomosis remain the most important parasitic infections affecting companion animals worldwide and pose a risk to animal and human health. Information on these infections in dogs in Ghana is inadequate. A cross sectional study was undertaken to determine the occurrence of gastrointestinal helminths infections and management practices of dogs in the Greater Accra Region (GAR) of Ghana. Faecal samples were obtained from 380 dogs from communities in 11 out of 16 districts in the GAR. Coprological examination of the samples was performed using the modified McMaster technique. Management practices for control of helminths in dogs were assessed through questionnaire interviews of the dog owners. Most dogs (70.7%) were kept for security reasons and were not housed (61.8%). Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths was 62.6%. Hookworm eggs were found in 178 (46.8%) dogs, Toxocara canis eggs in 22 (5.8%) and mixed infections of hookworms and T. canis in 38 (10.0%). Dipylidium caninum was found in 51 (13.4%) dogs, while Isospora species was in 33 (8.5%) dogs. Most households (68%; 133/194) of the sampled dogs had at least a child below the age of 5 years. Hookworm, T. canis and D. caninum were the zoonotic gastrointestinal helminths prevalent in dogs in the study area. Lack of housing for dogs creates ideal conditions for infection and spread of the zoonotic parasites. PMID:27441216

  15. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths and management practices for dogs in the Greater Accra region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sherry Ama Mawuko; Gakuya, Daniel Waweru; Mbuthia, Paul Gichohi; Mande, John Demesi; Maingi, Ndichu

    2015-09-01

    Toxocariosis and ancylostomosis remain the most important parasitic infections affecting companion animals worldwide and pose a risk to animal and human health. Information on these infections in dogs in Ghana is inadequate. A cross sectional study was undertaken to determine the occurrence of gastrointestinal helminths infections and management practices of dogs in the Greater Accra Region (GAR) of Ghana. Faecal samples were obtained from 380 dogs from communities in 11 out of 16 districts in the GAR. Coprological examination of the samples was performed using the modified McMaster technique. Management practices for control of helminths in dogs were assessed through questionnaire interviews of the dog owners. Most dogs (70.7%) were kept for security reasons and were not housed (61.8%). Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths was 62.6%. Hookworm eggs were found in 178 (46.8%) dogs, Toxocara canis eggs in 22 (5.8%) and mixed infections of hookworms and T. canis in 38 (10.0%). Dipylidium caninum was found in 51 (13.4%) dogs, while Isospora species was in 33 (8.5%) dogs. Most households (68%; 133/194) of the sampled dogs had at least a child below the age of 5 years. Hookworm, T. canis and D. caninum were the zoonotic gastrointestinal helminths prevalent in dogs in the study area. Lack of housing for dogs creates ideal conditions for infection and spread of the zoonotic parasites.

  16. EURO-CORDEX regional climate model analysis for the Greater Alpine Region: Performance and expected future change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiatek, Gerhard; Kunstmann, Harald; Senatore, Alfonso

    2016-07-01

    Simulations from 13 highly resolved regional climate models run within the Coordinated Downscaling Experiment initiative at 0.11° resolution with boundary forcings from five different Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 global models are employed to derive future climate change signal for the Greater Alpine Region (GAR) and four smaller investigation areas. Evaluation statistics include mean temperature and precipitation, frequency of days with precipitation over 1 mm and over 15 mm, 90% quantile of the frequency distribution, and maximum number of consecutive dry days. The evaluation for the period from 1971 to 2000 indicates that the models reproduce spatial seasonal precipitation patterns. In general, the simulations underestimate the seasonal mean temperature and overestimate the mean precipitation values. In GAR the ensemble seasonal mean temperature bias ranges from -0.8 to -1.9°C. The bias in precipitation varies between +14.8% in summer and +41.6% in the winter season. Larger errors are found for other statistics and in the investigated regions. In general, no significant gains in the quality of reproduction of the observed precipitation and temperature statistics compared to previous experiments can be identified. The temperature calculations for 2071-2100 related to the period from 1971 to 2000 in the GAR area show ensemble mean increases in the seasonal mean 2 m temperature of 2.5°C in fall and winter, 2.4°C in summer, and 1.9°C in spring. In the same area, precipitation is simulated to increase up to 12.3% in winter and 5.7% in spring. Only minor changes of the ensemble mean are predicted with +2.3% in fall and -1.7% in summer.

  17. Strike-slip and extrusion tectonics of the Greater Caucasus-Kopetdagh region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, M. L.

    2012-04-01

    In the Paleogene-Early Miocene, the areas of the modern Greater Caucasus and Kopetdagh were occupied by marginal seas (parts of the Paratethys intracontinental sea) inheriting the Cretaceous back-arc basins. In the Early Miocene, a collisional compression of the seas began at the time when the Arabian plate detached from Africa to move northward. The compression proceeded in a good accordance with the Arabia movement that was manifested in a general synchroneity of the Late Alpine orogenies in the Caucasus and Kopetdagh with the rifting and spreading phases in the Aden Gulf and the Red Sea. The earliest orogeny was the Styrian one of the terminal Early Miocene. It corresponds to the initial stage of the rift opening and was mostly pronounced in the east, in Kopetdagh and East Iran, where a recent structure has been formed by the initial Middle Miocene. In the Greater Caucasus, the Styrian deformations occurred in its central part only (i.e., in front of the Arabian plate northern tip) where the main Caucasian thrusts and conjugate asymmetrical megaanticline of the Central Caucasus were formed. An essential feature of the earliest, Styrian, structure of the whole Caucasus-Kopetdagh region was a series of regional right-lateral strike-slip faults. In the Kopetdagh, the strike-slips have no submeridional but northwestern direction although they occurred in the northern continuation of the submeridional right-lateral strike-slip faults framing the Lut block. In the Caucasus, they became even sublatitudinal, in parallel with the North Anatolian fault, thus constituting a single domain with the latter. So, the right-lateral strike-slip faults of East Iran, Kopetdagh, and the Caucasus compose an extensive arc convex to the north and appeared probably as a result of the right-lateral shear caused by the known counterclockwise rotation of the Arabian lithospheric plate. The Middle Miocene was characterized by a tectonic pause both in the Red Sea-Aden rift system and in the

  18. Regional models of the upper mantle structure in the greater Alpine area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plomerova, J.; Babuska, V.; Vecsey, L.; Munzarova, H.; Karousova, H.

    2012-04-01

    Large-scale international passive seismic experiments proved their essential role in acquiring digital waveform data for studies of deep structure of the Earth, particularly of the upper mantle or specifically, of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system. The Alps developed at a collision zone of the Eurasian and African plates and their fragments, however an extensive passive seismic experiment similar to those in other European provinces has not been carried out yet. Interactions of European lithosphere with plates colliding from the south were not simple and resulted in complicated geometry of subductions in the Western and Eastern Alps, where two separated Alpine roots developed (Babuska et al., Tectonophysics 1990; Lippitsch et al., JGR 2003, Kissling et al., ELD 2006). Standard tomographic images of the velocity or velocity perturbations detect predominantly isotropic structure of the upper mantle. By evaluating large-scale seismic anisotropy of the upper mantle we can model its fabric and map in detail structure of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system. Studies of the mantle fabrics in 3D, exploiting body-wave anisotropic parameters, shed more light on development of the complex Alpine region and its surroundings. We present isotropic and anisotropic models of the upper mantle in tectonically different provinces of the greater Alpine area, retrieved from joint inversion/interpretation of both directional terms of relative travel-time deviations of longitudinal waves and shear-wave splitting. The 3D self-consistent anisotropic models of the continental mantle lithosphere exhibit often sharply bounded domains of uniform fossil fabrics. We interpret the domain-like structure of the mantle lithosphere as representing individual continental fragments, which are able to retain their original anisotropy, which was created a long time before their assembly (Babuska and Plomerova, PEPI 2006; Plomerova and Babuska, Lithos 2010). Deciphering the structure of paleo-plates in

  19. Differential influences of local subpopulations on regional diversity and differentiation for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus).

    PubMed

    Row, Jeffrey R; Oyler-McCance, Sara J; Fedy, Bradley C

    2016-09-01

    The distribution of spatial genetic variation across a region can shape evolutionary dynamics and impact population persistence. Local population dynamics and among-population dispersal rates are strong drivers of this spatial genetic variation, yet for many species we lack a clear understanding of how these population processes interact in space to shape within-species genetic variation. Here, we used extensive genetic and demographic data from 10 subpopulations of greater sage-grouse to parameterize a simulated approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) model and (i) test for regional differences in population density and dispersal rates for greater sage-grouse subpopulations in Wyoming, and (ii) quantify how these differences impact subpopulation regional influence on genetic variation. We found a close match between observed and simulated data under our parameterized model and strong variation in density and dispersal rates across Wyoming. Sensitivity analyses suggested that changes in dispersal (via landscape resistance) had a greater influence on regional differentiation, whereas changes in density had a greater influence on mean diversity across all subpopulations. Local subpopulations, however, varied in their regional influence on genetic variation. Decreases in the size and dispersal rates of central populations with low overall and net immigration (i.e. population sources) had the greatest negative impact on genetic variation. Overall, our results provide insight into the interactions among demography, dispersal and genetic variation and highlight the potential of ABC to disentangle the complexity of regional population dynamics and project the genetic impact of changing conditions.

  20. Differential influences of local subpopulations on regional diversity and differentiation for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus).

    PubMed

    Row, Jeffrey R; Oyler-McCance, Sara J; Fedy, Bradley C

    2016-09-01

    The distribution of spatial genetic variation across a region can shape evolutionary dynamics and impact population persistence. Local population dynamics and among-population dispersal rates are strong drivers of this spatial genetic variation, yet for many species we lack a clear understanding of how these population processes interact in space to shape within-species genetic variation. Here, we used extensive genetic and demographic data from 10 subpopulations of greater sage-grouse to parameterize a simulated approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) model and (i) test for regional differences in population density and dispersal rates for greater sage-grouse subpopulations in Wyoming, and (ii) quantify how these differences impact subpopulation regional influence on genetic variation. We found a close match between observed and simulated data under our parameterized model and strong variation in density and dispersal rates across Wyoming. Sensitivity analyses suggested that changes in dispersal (via landscape resistance) had a greater influence on regional differentiation, whereas changes in density had a greater influence on mean diversity across all subpopulations. Local subpopulations, however, varied in their regional influence on genetic variation. Decreases in the size and dispersal rates of central populations with low overall and net immigration (i.e. population sources) had the greatest negative impact on genetic variation. Overall, our results provide insight into the interactions among demography, dispersal and genetic variation and highlight the potential of ABC to disentangle the complexity of regional population dynamics and project the genetic impact of changing conditions. PMID:27483196

  1. Magnitude, decadal changes, and impact of regional background ozone transported into the greater Houston, Texas, area.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Shaena R; Langford, Andrew O; Estes, Mark; Dong, Melody; Parrish, David D

    2013-12-17

    Two independent analyses of the daily maximum 8 h average ozone concentrations measured during the high ozone season (May through October) at Continuous Ambient Monitoring Stations are used to quantify the regional background ozone transported into the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) area. The dependence on wind direction is examined, and long-term trends are determined using measurements made between 1998 and 2012. Both analyses show that the regional background ozone has declined during periods of continental outflow: i.e., the conditions associated with most high ozone episodes in HGB. The changes in regional background ozone found for northeasterly and southeasterly flow are -0.50 ± 0.54 and -0.79 ± 0.65 (95% confidence limit) ppbv yr(-1), respectively, which correspond to decreases of ∼7-11 ppbv between 1998 and 2012. This finding is consistent with the summertime downward trend of -0.45 ppbv yr(-1) (range of sites: -0.87 to +0.07 ppbv yr(-1)) for ozone in the eastern U.S. between 1990 and 2010 reported by Cooper et al. and shows that changing background concentrations are at least partially responsible for the decreased surface ozone in the HGB area over the past decade. Baseline ozone concentrations in air flowing into Texas from the Gulf of Mexico have not changed significantly over this period.

  2. Mapping Regional Distribution of a Single Tree Species: Whitebark Pine in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Landenburger, Lisa; Lawrence, Rick L.; Podruzny, Shannon; Schwartz, Charles C.

    2008-01-01

    Moderate resolution satellite imagery traditionally has been thought to be inadequate for mapping vegetation at the species level. This has made comprehensive mapping of regional distributions of sensitive species, such as whitebark pine, either impractical or extremely time consuming. We sought to determine whether using a combination of moderate resolution satellite imagery (Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus), extensive stand data collected by land management agencies for other purposes, and modern statistical classification techniques (boosted classification trees) could result in successful mapping of whitebark pine. Overall classification accuracies exceeded 90%, with similar individual class accuracies. Accuracies on a localized basis varied based on elevation. Accuracies also varied among administrative units, although we were not able to determine whether these differences related to inherent spatial variations or differences in the quality of available reference data.

  3. Mapping regional distribution of a single tree species: Whitebark pine in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landenburger, L.; Lawrence, R.L.; Podruzny, S.; Schwartz, C.C.

    2008-01-01

    Moderate resolution satellite imagery traditionally has been thought to be inadequate for mapping vegetation at the species level. This has made comprehensive mapping of regional distributions of sensitive species, such as whitebark pine, either impractical or extremely time consuming. We sought to determine whether using a combination of moderate resolution satellite imagery (Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus), extensive stand data collected by land management agencies for other purposes, and modern statistical classification techniques (boosted classification trees) could result in successful mapping of whitebark pine. Overall classification accuracies exceeded 90%, with similar individual class accuracies. Accuracies on a localized basis varied based on elevation. Accuracies also varied among administrative units, although we were not able to determine whether these differences related to inherent spatial variations or differences in the quality of available reference data.

  4. Wintering greater scaup as biomonitors of metal contamination in federal wildlife refuges in the Long Island Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, J.B.; Barclay, J.S.; Major, A.R.; Fisher, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Tissues of greater scaup (Aythya marila mariloides) and components of their habitat (sediment, plankton, macroalgae, and invertebrates) were collected for heavy metal analysis in the winter of 1996-97 from US Department of the Interior wildlife refuges in the Long Island region. Geographic and temporal relationships between the concentration of nine metals in tissue and in habitat components were examined. In greater scaup tissues and habitat components, concentrations of As and Se were highest in Branford, Connecticut; Pb values were greatest in Oyster Bay, New York; and Hg concentrations were largest in Sandy Hook, New Jersey. Over the course of the winter, the concentration of Hg in liver increased, and concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se, and Zn in kidney decreased. Based on several criteria derived from geographic and temporal trends, metals were ranked using the apparent biomonitoring efficacy of greater scaup (As = Cr > Cu = Pb = Zn = Hg > Se = Cd > Ni). Although the seasonal migration and daily mobility of greater scaup are drawbacks to using this species as a sentinel for metal pollution, it was possible to demonstrate a relationship between geographic and temporal patterns of metals in habitat and greater scaup tissue. However, most metal concentrations in tissue were below thresholds known to adversely affect health of waterfowl.

  5. Wintering greater scaup as biomonitors of metal contamination in federal wildlife refuges in the Long Island region.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J B; Barclay, J S; Major, A R; Fisher, J P

    2000-01-01

    Tissues of greater scaup (Aythya marila mariloides) and components of their habitat (sediment, plankton, macroalgae, and invertebrates) were collected for heavy metal analysis in the winter of 1996-97 from US Department of the Interior wildlife refuges in the Long Island region. Geographic and temporal relationships between the concentration of nine metals in tissue and in habitat components were examined. In greater scaup tissues and habitat components, concentrations of As and Se were highest in Branford, Connecticut; Pb values were greatest in Oyster Bay, New York; and Hg concentrations were largest in Sandy Hook, New Jersey. Over the course of the winter, the concentration of Hg in liver increased, and concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se, and Zn in kidney decreased. Based on several criteria derived from geographic and temporal trends, metals were ranked using the apparent biomonitoring efficacy of greater scaup (As = Cr > Cu = Pb = Zn = Hg > Se = Cd > Ni). Although the seasonal migration and daily mobility of greater scaup are drawbacks to using this species as a sentinel for metal pollution, it was possible to demonstrate a relationship between geographic and temporal patterns of metals in habitat and greater scaup tissue. However, most metal concentrations in tissue were below thresholds known to adversely affect health of waterfowl.

  6. Copenhagen Campaigners: An Active Citizens Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Rohan

    2010-01-01

    In the lead-up to the Copenhagen Climate talks in December 2009, Islington Council's Sustainable Schools Officer involved seven local schools in an engaging citizenship project entitled "Copenhagen Campaigners". The aim of the project was to raise pupil's awareness of this historic global event and empower them to take action on a local level.

  7. Source origins, modeled profiles, and apportionments of halogenated hydrocarbons in the greater Pearl River Delta region, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H.; Ding, A. J.; Wang, T.; Simpson, I. J.; Blake, D. R.; Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Rowland, F. S.; Saunders, S. M.; Fu, T. M.; Hung, W. T.; Li, Y. S.

    2009-06-01

    We analyze 16-month data of 13 major halocarbons measured at a southern China coastal site in the greater Pearl River Delta (PRD). A total of 188 canister air samples were collected from August 2001 to December 2002. Overall inspection indicated that CH2Cl2, C2Cl4, and C2HCl3 had similar temporal variations while CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 showed the same emission patterns during the sampling period. Diurnal variations of halocarbons presented different patterns during ozone episode days, mainly related to emission strength, atmospheric dispersion, and photochemical lifetimes. For further statistics and source appointment, Lagrangian backward particle release simulations were conducted to help understand the potential source regions of all samples and classify them into different categories, including local Hong Kong, inner PRD, continental China, and marine air masses. With the exception of HCFC-142b, the mixing ratios of all halocarbons in marine air were significantly lower than those in urban and regional air (p < 0.01), whereas no significant difference was found between urban Hong Kong and inner PRD regional air, reflecting the dominant impact of the greater PRD regional air on the halocarbon levels. The halocarbon levels in this region were significantly influenced by anthropogenic sources, causing the halocarbon mixing ratios in South China Sea air to be higher than the corresponding background levels, as measured by global surface networks and by airborne missions such as Transport and Chemical Evolution Over the Pacific. Interspecies correlation analysis suggests that CHCl3 is mainly used as a solvent in Hong Kong but mostly as a feedstock for HCFC-22 in the inner PRD. Furthermore, CH3Cl is often used as a refrigerant and emitted from biomass/biofuel burning in the inner PRD. A positive matrix factorization receptor model was applied to the classified halocarbon samples in the greater PRD for source profiles and apportionments. Seven major sources were

  8. Climate sensitivity runs and regional hydrologic modeling for predicting the response of the greater Florida Everglades ecosystem to climate change.

    PubMed

    Obeysekera, Jayantha; Barnes, Jenifer; Nungesser, Martha

    2015-04-01

    It is important to understand the vulnerability of the water management system in south Florida and to determine the resilience and robustness of greater Everglades restoration plans under future climate change. The current climate models, at both global and regional scales, are not ready to deliver specific climatic datasets for water resources investigations involving future plans and therefore a scenario based approach was adopted for this first study in restoration planning. We focused on the general implications of potential changes in future temperature and associated changes in evapotranspiration, precipitation, and sea levels at the regional boundary. From these, we developed a set of six climate and sea level scenarios, used them to simulate the hydrologic response of the greater Everglades region including agricultural, urban, and natural areas, and compared the results to those from a base run of current conditions. The scenarios included a 1.5 °C increase in temperature, ±10 % change in precipitation, and a 0.46 m (1.5 feet) increase in sea level for the 50-year planning horizon. The results suggested that, depending on the rainfall and temperature scenario, there would be significant changes in water budgets, ecosystem performance, and in water supply demands met. The increased sea level scenarios also show that the ground water levels would increase significantly with associated implications for flood protection in the urbanized areas of southeastern Florida.

  9. Climatic effects of 30 years of landscape change over the Greater Phoenix, Arizona, region: 1. Surface energy budget changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, M.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Steyaert, L. T.; Weaver, C. P.

    2009-03-01

    This paper is part 1 of a two-part study that evaluates the climatic effects of recent landscape change for one of the nation's most rapidly expanding metropolitan complexes, the Greater Phoenix, Arizona, region. The region's landscape evolution over an approximate 30-year period since the early 1970s is documented on the basis of analyses of Landsat images and land use/land cover (LULC) data sets derived from aerial photography (1973) and Landsat (1992 and 2001). High-resolution, Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), simulations (2-km grid spacing) are used in conjunction with consistently defined land cover data sets and associated biophysical parameters for the circa 1973, circa 1992, and circa 2001 time periods to quantify the impacts of intensive land use changes on the July surface temperatures and the surface radiation and energy budgets for the Greater Phoenix region. The main findings are as follows: since the early 1970s the region's landscape has been altered by a significant increase in urban/suburban land area, primarily at the expense of decreasing plots of irrigated agriculture and secondarily by the conversion of seminatural shrubland. Mean regional temperatures for the circa 2001 landscape were 0.12°C warmer than the circa 1973 landscape, with maximum temperature differences, located over regions of greatest urbanization, in excess of 1°C. The significant reduction in irrigated agriculture, for the circa 2001 relative to the circa 1973 landscape, resulted in dew point temperature decreases in excess of 1°C. The effect of distinct land use conversion themes (e.g., conversion from irrigated agriculture to urban land) was also examined to evaluate how the most important conversion themes have each contributed to the region's changing climate. The two urbanization themes studied (from an initial landscape of irrigated agriculture and seminatural shrubland) have the greatest positive effect on near-surface temperature, increasing maximum daily

  10. Climatic effects of 30 years of landscape change over the Greater Phoenix, Arizona, region: 1. Surface energy budget changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Georgescu, M.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Steyaert, L.T.; Weaver, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is part 1 of a two-part study that evaluates the climatic effects of recent landscape change for one of the nation's most rapidly expanding metropolitan complexes, the Greater Phoenix, Arizona, region. The region's landscape evolution over an approximate 30-year period since the early 1970s is documented on the basis of analyses of Landsat images and land use/land cover (LULC) data sets derived from aerial photography (1973) and Landsat (1992 and 2001). High-resolution, Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), simulations (2-km grid spacing) are used in conjunction with consistently defined land cover data sets and associated biophysical parameters for the circa 1973, circa 1992, and circa 2001 time periods to quantify the impacts of intensive land use changes on the July surface temperatures and the surface radiation and energy budgets for the Greater Phoenix region. The main findings are as follows: since the early 1970s the region's landscape has been altered by a significant increase in urban/suburban land area, primarily at the expense of decreasing plots of irrigated agriculture and secondarily by the conversion of seminatural shrubland. Mean regional temperatures for the circa 2001 landscape were 0.12??C warmer than the circa 1973 landscape, with maximum temperature differences, located over regions of greatest urbanization, in excess of 1??C. The significant reduction in irrigated agriculture, for the circa 2001 relative to the circa 1973 landscape, resulted in dew point temperature decreases in excess of 1??C. The effect of distinct land use conversion themes (e.g., conversion from irrigated agriculture to urban land) was also examined to evaluate how the most important conversion themes have each contributed to the region's changing climate. The two urbanization themes studied (from an initial landscape of irrigated agriculture and seminatural shrubland) have the greatest positive effect on near-surface temperature, increasing maximum daily

  11. Very-Heavy Precipitation in the Greater New York City Region and Widespread Drought Alleviation Tied to Western US Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Travis D.; Felzer, Benjamin S.

    2015-01-01

    Observed intensification of precipitation extremes, responsible for extensive societal impacts, are widely attributed to anthropogenic sources, which may include indirect effects of agricultural irrigation. However quantifying the effects of irrigation on far-downstream climate remains a challenge. We use three paired Community Earth System Model simulations to assess mechanisms of irrigation-induced precipitation trends and extremes in the conterminous US and the effect on the terrestrial carbon sink. Results suggest precipitation enhancement in the central US reduced drought conditions and increased regional carbon uptake, while further downstream, the heaviest precipitation events were more frequent and intense. Specifically, moisture advection from irrigation in the western U.S. and recycling of enhanced local convective precipitation produced very-heavy storm events that were 11% more intense and occurred 23% more frequently in the densely populated greater New York City region. PMID:26642049

  12. Very-Heavy Precipitation in the Greater New York City Region and Widespread Drought Alleviation Tied to Western US Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Travis D; Felzer, Benjamin S

    2015-01-01

    Observed intensification of precipitation extremes, responsible for extensive societal impacts, are widely attributed to anthropogenic sources, which may include indirect effects of agricultural irrigation. However quantifying the effects of irrigation on far-downstream climate remains a challenge. We use three paired Community Earth System Model simulations to assess mechanisms of irrigation-induced precipitation trends and extremes in the conterminous US and the effect on the terrestrial carbon sink. Results suggest precipitation enhancement in the central US reduced drought conditions and increased regional carbon uptake, while further downstream, the heaviest precipitation events were more frequent and intense. Specifically, moisture advection from irrigation in the western U.S. and recycling of enhanced local convective precipitation produced very-heavy storm events that were 11% more intense and occurred 23% more frequently in the densely populated greater New York City region.

  13. Demonstration of Decision Support Tools for Sustainable Development - An Application on Alternative Fuels in the Greater Yellowstone-Teton Region

    SciTech Connect

    Shropshire, D.E.; Cobb, D.A.; Worhach, P.; Jacobson, J.J.; Berrett, S.

    2000-12-30

    The Demonstration of Decision Support Tools for Sustainable Development project integrated the Bechtel/Nexant Industrial Materials Exchange Planner and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory System Dynamic models, demonstrating their capabilities on alternative fuel applications in the Greater Yellowstone-Teton Park system. The combined model, called the Dynamic Industrial Material Exchange, was used on selected test cases in the Greater Yellow Teton Parks region to evaluate economic, environmental, and social implications of alternative fuel applications, and identifying primary and secondary industries. The test cases included looking at compressed natural gas applications in Teton National Park and Jackson, Wyoming, and studying ethanol use in Yellowstone National Park and gateway cities in Montana. With further development, the system could be used to assist decision-makers (local government, planners, vehicle purchasers, and fuel suppliers) in selecting alternative fuels, vehicles, and developing AF infrastructures. The system could become a regional AF market assessment tool that could help decision-makers understand the behavior of the AF market and conditions in which the market would grow. Based on this high level market assessment, investors and decision-makers would become more knowledgeable of the AF market opportunity before developing detailed plans and preparing financial analysis.

  14. Biomonitoring airborne parent and alkylated three-ring PAHs in the Greater Cologne Conurbation II: regional distribution patterns.

    PubMed

    Lehndorff, E; Schwark, L

    2009-05-01

    The spatial distribution of an important air pollutant class, three-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives (PAH-3), has been monitored for the Greater Cologne Conurbation (GCC) using pine needle as passive samplers. The GCC comprises one of the most heavily populated, trafficked, and industrialized regions in Germany. Here, 71 locations covering 3600 km(2) were sampled and, for the first time, isopleths maps constructed to investigate the regional variability in PAH-3 concentration and composition. The highest PAH-3 loads on needles (1000-1500 ng g(-1)) were detected downwind of three lignite fuelled power plants, followed by Cologne City (600-700 ng g(-1)) and smaller towns (400-600 ng g(-1)), whereas rural and forest regions yielded PAH-3 loads of 60-300 ng g(-1). PAH-3 ratios facilitated source reconciliation, with high dibenzothiophene versus retene values indicating lignite combustion and high 9/(9+1)-methylphenanthrene ratios depicting traffic emissions in inner cities. PAH-3 ratios depended on topography and outlined the heavily industrialized Rhine Valley, demonstrating atmospheric dispersal of PAH-3. PMID:19157662

  15. Biomonitoring airborne parent and alkylated three-ring PAHs in the Greater Cologne Conurbation II: regional distribution patterns.

    PubMed

    Lehndorff, E; Schwark, L

    2009-05-01

    The spatial distribution of an important air pollutant class, three-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives (PAH-3), has been monitored for the Greater Cologne Conurbation (GCC) using pine needle as passive samplers. The GCC comprises one of the most heavily populated, trafficked, and industrialized regions in Germany. Here, 71 locations covering 3600 km(2) were sampled and, for the first time, isopleths maps constructed to investigate the regional variability in PAH-3 concentration and composition. The highest PAH-3 loads on needles (1000-1500 ng g(-1)) were detected downwind of three lignite fuelled power plants, followed by Cologne City (600-700 ng g(-1)) and smaller towns (400-600 ng g(-1)), whereas rural and forest regions yielded PAH-3 loads of 60-300 ng g(-1). PAH-3 ratios facilitated source reconciliation, with high dibenzothiophene versus retene values indicating lignite combustion and high 9/(9+1)-methylphenanthrene ratios depicting traffic emissions in inner cities. PAH-3 ratios depended on topography and outlined the heavily industrialized Rhine Valley, demonstrating atmospheric dispersal of PAH-3.

  16. Evaluating pharmaceuticals and caffeine as indicators of fecal contamination in drinking water sources of the Greater Montreal region.

    PubMed

    Daneshvar, Atlasi; Aboulfadl, Khadija; Viglino, Liza; Broséus, Romain; Sauvé, Sébastien; Madoux-Humery, Anne-Sophie; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A; Prévost, Michèle

    2012-06-01

    We surveyed four different river systems in the Greater Montreal region, upstream and downstream of entry points of contamination, from April 2007 to January 2009. The studied compounds belong to three different groups: PPCPs (caffeine, carbamazepine, naproxen, gemfibrozil, and trimethoprim), hormones (progesterone, estrone, and estradiol), and triazine herbicides and their metabolites (atrazine, deethylatrazine, deisopropylatrazine, simazine, and cyanazine). In the system A, B, and C having low flow rate and high TOC, we observed the highest detection frequencies and mass flows of PPCPs compared to the other compounds, reflecting discharge of urban contaminations through WWTPs and CSOs. However, in River D, having high flow rate and low TOC, comparable frequency of detection of triazine and their by-products and PPCPs, reflecting cumulative loads of these compounds from the Great Lakes as well as persistency against natural attenuation processes. Considering large differences in the removal efficiencies of caffeine and carbamazepine, a high ratio of caffeine/carbamazepine might be an indicative of a greater proportion of raw sewage versus treated wastewater in surface waters. In addition, caffeine appeared to be a promising indicator of recent urban fecal contaminations, as shown by the significant correlation with FC (R(2)=0.45), while carbamazepine is a good indicator of cumulative persistence compounds.

  17. A numerical model simulation of the regional air pollution meteorology of the greater Chesapeake Bay area - Summer day case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, M.; Pielke, R. A.; Mcnider, R. T.; Mcdougal, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    The mesoscale numerical model of the University of Virginia (UVMM), has been applied to the greater Chesapeake Bay area in order to provide a detailed description of the air pollution meteorology during a typical summer day. This model provides state of the art simulations for land-sea thermally induced circulations. The model-predicted results agree favorably with available observed data. The effects of synoptic flow and sea breeze coupling on air pollution meteorological characteristics in this region, are demonstrated by a spatial and temporal presentation of various model predicted fields. A transport analysis based on predicted wind velocities indicated possible recirculation of pollutants back onto the Atlantic coast due to the sea breeze circulation.

  18. Interseasonal movements of greater sage-grouse, migratory behavior, and an assessment of the core regions concept in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fedy, Bradley C.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Doherty, Kevin E.; O'Donnell, Michael S.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Bedrosian, Bryan; Holloran, Matthew J.; Johnson, Gregory D.; Kaczor, Nicholas W.; Kirol, Christopher P.; Mandich, Cheryl A.; Marshall, David; McKee, Gwyn; Olson, Chad; Swanson, Christopher C.; Walker, Brett L.

    2012-01-01

    Animals can require different habitat types throughout their annual cycles. When considering habitat prioritization, we need to explicitly consider habitat requirements throughout the annual cycle, particularly for species of conservation concern. Understanding annual habitat requirements begins with quantifying how far individuals move across landscapes between key life stages to access required habitats. We quantified individual interseasonal movements for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter sage-grouse) using radio-telemetry spanning the majority of the species distribution in Wyoming. Sage-grouse are currently a candidate for listing under the United States Endangered Species Act and Wyoming is predicted to remain a stronghold for the species. Sage-grouse use distinct seasonal habitats throughout their annual cycle for breeding, brood rearing, and wintering. Average movement distances in Wyoming from nest sites to summer-late brood-rearing locations were 8.1 km (SE = 0.3 km; n = 828 individuals) and the average subsequent distances moved from summer sites to winter locations were 17.3 km (SE = 0.5 km; n = 607 individuals). Average nest-to-winter movements were 14.4 km (SE = 0.6 km; n = 434 individuals). We documented remarkable variation in the extent of movement distances both within and among sites across Wyoming, with some individuals remaining year-round in the same vicinity and others moving over 50 km between life stages. Our results suggest defining any of our populations as migratory or non-migratory is innappropriate as individual strategies vary widely. We compared movement distances of birds marked using Global Positioning System (GPS) and very high frequency (VHF) radio marking techniques and found no evidence that the heavier GPS radios limited movement. Furthermore, we examined the capacity of the sage-grouse core regions concept to capture seasonal locations. As expected, we found the core regions approach, which was

  19. The mortality effect of ship-related fine particulate matter in the Sydney greater metropolitan region of NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Broome, Richard A; Cope, Martin E; Goldsworthy, Brett; Goldsworthy, Laurie; Emmerson, Kathryn; Jegasothy, Edward; Morgan, Geoffrey G

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates the mortality effect of primary and secondary PM2.5 related to ship exhaust in the Sydney greater metropolitan region of Australia. A detailed inventory of ship exhaust emissions was used to model a) the 2010/11 concentration of ship-related PM2.5 across the region, and b) the reduction in PM2.5 concentration that would occur if ships used distillate fuel with a 0.1% sulfur content at berth or within 300 km of Sydney. The annual loss of life attributable to 2010/11 levels of ship-related PM2.5 and the improvement in survival associated with use of low-sulfur fuel were estimated from the modelled concentrations. In 2010/11, approximately 1.9% of the region-wide annual average population weighted-mean concentration of all natural and human-made PM2.5 was attributable to ship exhaust, and up to 9.4% at suburbs close to ports. An estimated 220 years of life were lost by people who died in 2010/11 as a result of ship exhaust-related exposure (95% CIβ: 140-290, where CIβ is the uncertainty in the concentration-response coefficient only). Use of 0.1% sulfur fuel at berth would reduce the population weighted-mean concentration of PM2.5 related to ship exhaust by 25% and result in a gain of 390 life-years over a twenty year period (95% CIβ: 260-520). Use of 0.1% sulfur fuel within 300 km of Sydney would reduce the concentration by 56% and result in a gain of 920 life-years over twenty years (95% CIβ: 600-1200). Ship exhaust is an important source of human exposure to PM2.5 in the Sydney greater metropolitan region. This assessment supports intervention to reduce ship emissions in the GMR. Local strategies to limit the sulfur content of fuel would reduce exposure and will become increasingly beneficial as the shipping industry expands. A requirement for use of 0.1% sulfur fuel by ships within 300 km of Sydney would provide more than twice the mortality benefit of a requirement for ships to use 0.1% sulfur fuel at berth.

  20. Conserving the Greater Sage-grouse: A social-ecological systems case study from the California-Nevada region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duvall, Alison L; Metcalf, Alexander L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2016-01-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) continues to serve as one of the most powerful and contested federal legislative mandates for conservation. In the midst of heated debates, researchers, policy makers, and conservation practitioners champion the importance of cooperative conservation and social-ecological systems approaches, which forge partnerships at multiple levels and scales to address complex ecosystem challenges. However, few real-world examples exist to demonstrate how multifaceted collaborations among stakeholders who share a common goal of conserving at-risk species may be nested within a systems framework to achieve social and ecological goals. Here, we present a case study of Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) conservation efforts in the “Bi-State” region of California and Nevada, United States. Using key-informant interviews, we explored dimensions and drivers of this landscape-scale conservation effort. Three themes emerged from the interviews, including 1) ESA action was transformed into opportunity for system-wide conservation; 2) a diverse, locally based partnership anchored collaboration and engagement across multiple levels and scales; and 3) best-available science combined with local knowledge led to “certainty of effectiveness and implementation”—the criteria used by the US Fish and Wildlife Service to evaluate conservation efforts when making listing decisions. Ultimately, collaborative conservation through multistakeholder engagement at various levels and scales led to proactive planning and implementation of conservation measures and precluded the need for an ESA listing of the Bi-State population of Greater Sage-grouse. This article presents a potent example of how a systems approach integrating policy, management, and learning can be used to successfully overcome the conflict-laden and “wicked” challenges that surround at-risk species conservation.

  1. Climatic effects of 30 years of landscape change over the Greater Phoenix, Arizona, region: 2. Dynamical and thermodynamical response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, M.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Steyaert, L. T.; Weaver, C. P.

    2009-03-01

    This paper is part 2 of a two-part study evaluating the climatic effect of one of the nation's most rapidly expanding metropolitan complexes, the Greater Phoenix, Arizona, region. Part 1, using a set of sensitivity experiments, estimated the potential impact of observed landscape evolution, since the dawn of the Landsat satellite era on the near surface climate, with a primary focus on the alteration of the surface radiation and energy budgets and through use of high-resolution, 2km grid spacing, Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) simulations with circa 1973, circa 1992, and circa 2001 landscape data sets. In this paper, part 2, we address the role of the previously discussed surface budget changes and subsequent repartitioning of energy on the mesoscale dynamics and thermodynamics of the region, the effect on convective rainfall, and their association with the large-scale North American Monsoon System (NAMS). Our results show that contrasts in surface heating resulting from landscape change are responsible for the development of preferentially located mesoscale circulations, on most days, which were stronger for the 2001 compared to the 1973 landscape, due to increased planetary boundary layer (PBL) heating via enhanced turbulent heat flux. The effect of these stronger circulations was to warm and dry the lower part of the PBL and moisten the upper part of the PBL for the 2001 relative to the 1973 landscape. The precise physical pathway(s) whereby precipitation enhancement is initiated with evolving landscape, since the early 1970s, reveals a complicated interplay among scales (from the turbulent to the synoptic scale) that warrants future research. Precipitation recycling, however, was found to be an important driver in the overall sustenance of rainfall enhancement. Although this study was not designed to investigate other radiative forcing factors such as greenhouse gas emissions and aerosols, the results of our sensitivity experiments do suggest that

  2. Seismic anisotropy beneath the greater region of the central External Dinarides from observations of SKS-splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subašić, Senad; Prevolnik, Snježan; Herak, Marijan

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of SKS wave splitting beneath greater region of the central External Dinarides (Dalmatia, Croatia) were made in order to investigate seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle and the lithosphere. The area is located in the broad and complex Africa-Eurasia convergent plate boundary zone, where Adriatic microplate interacts with the External Dinarides. We used broadband recordings (more than 3500 analyzed seismograms) from 10 permanent stations situated along the Croatian coastal region. The splitting parameters - fast axis and delay time - were measured using the Silver and Chan method. Seismic anisotropy was observed on all stations. Fast axis directions are fairly uniformly oriented approximately in the NE-SW to NNE-SSW direction, thus perpendicularly to the strike of the Dinarides. Average delay times range between 0.7 and 1.0 seconds. Slight counter-clockwise rotation in average fast axis directions was observed for the stations in the northern part of the studied area, as well as a small increase in average delay times, with respect to the stations in the southern part. We also observed differences in splitting parameters for back-azimuths sampling different tectonic units (Euroasian plate and Adria), however, due to poor back-azimuthal coverage and limited dataset, more measurements have to be made to enable reliable validation of this observation. Fast axis directions coincide with the direction of the maximum tectonic pressure in the crust and with observed fast directions of P-waves in the crust, which might imply a significant crustal component of measured anisotropy, alongside the component resulting from the upper mantle structures.

  3. Understanding handpump sustainability: Determinants of rural water source functionality in the Greater Afram Plains region of Ghana†

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Katherine F.; Chan, Terence U.; Christenson, Elizabeth; Cronk, Ryan D.; Leker, Hannah; Samani, Destina; Apoya, Patrick; Lutz, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Safe drinking water is critical to human health and development. In rural sub‐Saharan Africa, most improved water sources are boreholes with handpumps; studies suggest that up to one third of these handpumps are nonfunctional at any given time. This work presents findings from a secondary analysis of cross‐sectional data from 1509 water sources in 570 communities in the rural Greater Afram Plains (GAP) region of Ghana; one of the largest studies of its kind. 79.4% of enumerated water sources were functional when visited; in multivariable regressions, functionality depended on source age, management, tariff collection, the number of other sources in the community, and the district. A Bayesian network (BN) model developed using the same data set found strong dependencies of functionality on implementer, pump type, management, and the availability of tools, with synergistic effects from management determinants on functionality, increasing the likelihood of a source being functional from a baseline of 72% to more than 97% with optimal management and available tools. We suggest that functionality may be a dynamic equilibrium between regular breakdowns and repairs, with management a key determinant of repair rate. Management variables may interact synergistically in ways better captured by BN analysis than by logistic regressions. These qualitative findings may prove generalizable beyond the study area, and may offer new approaches to understanding and increasing handpump functionality and safe water access. PMID:27667863

  4. Natural fluoride and trace metal levels of ground and surface waters in the greater Accra region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Botchway, C A; Ansa-Asare, O D; Antwi, L A

    1996-01-01

    In a study of levels of fluoride and trace metals in ten different stations of both surface and groundwaters in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana, groundwaters were found to have lower pH than surface water, resulting in groundwaters having higher concentrations of dissolved ions. Groundwaters had higher fluoride levels than surface waters. The correlation coefficient for fluoride on total alkalinity and for fluoride on sodium were 0.56 and 0.27 respectively which implied that rock weathering played a minor role in the recorded fluoride enrichment of the underground waters. A likely mechanism for the higher underground fluoride levels could be bacterial decay of plant materials resulting in the release of fluoride to the underground waters. The levels of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn fell within the expected background ranges. 90% of the sites had Mn levels above the detection limits in both underground and surface waters. 70% of boreholes in Accra plains had Fe levels higher than the WHO recommended limits of 0.3 mg/l for drinking water. Generally, underground waters had higher concentration of fluoride and trace metals than surface waters.

  5. Understanding handpump sustainability: Determinants of rural water source functionality in the Greater Afram Plains region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Michael B.; Shields, Katherine F.; Chan, Terence U.; Christenson, Elizabeth; Cronk, Ryan D.; Leker, Hannah; Samani, Destina; Apoya, Patrick; Lutz, Alexandra; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-10-01

    Safe drinking water is critical to human health and development. In rural sub-Saharan Africa, most improved water sources are boreholes with handpumps; studies suggest that up to one third of these handpumps are nonfunctional at any given time. This work presents findings from a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from 1509 water sources in 570 communities in the rural Greater Afram Plains (GAP) region of Ghana; one of the largest studies of its kind. 79.4% of enumerated water sources were functional when visited; in multivariable regressions, functionality depended on source age, management, tariff collection, the number of other sources in the community, and the district. A Bayesian network (BN) model developed using the same data set found strong dependencies of functionality on implementer, pump type, management, and the availability of tools, with synergistic effects from management determinants on functionality, increasing the likelihood of a source being functional from a baseline of 72% to more than 97% with optimal management and available tools. We suggest that functionality may be a dynamic equilibrium between regular breakdowns and repairs, with management a key determinant of repair rate. Management variables may interact synergistically in ways better captured by BN analysis than by logistic regressions. These qualitative findings may prove generalizable beyond the study area, and may offer new approaches to understanding and increasing handpump functionality and safe water access. This article was corrected on 11 Nov 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  6. Low precipitation events in the European Greater Alpine Region and their space-time patterns in the past 210 years.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haslinger, Klaus; Holawe, Franz; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-04-01

    In this study space-time patterns of low precipitation events in the Greater Alpine Region (GAR) of Europe are investigated. A long term gridded dataset of monthly precipitation sums spanning the last 210 years is used to assess abnormally dry states by applying a monthly percentile deceedence threshold. Furthermore, these anomalies are calculated for 1, 3, 6 and 12 months moving averages. Contiguous areas of grid points below the threshold are recorded in a lookup table in order to assess the dry anomalies on an event-based approach. The overall event severity is determined by the mean deviation from the threshold level and the area affected. With this approach we are able to show that the most severe dry anomalies take place in the 1860s, 1850s and 1940s, although there are some differences in the occurrence over time in summer and winter. Winter dry anomalies are more frequent in the 19th century, whereas in summer no clear patterns are perceptible. A spatial clustering analysis of the anomaly fields also reveals distinct patterns in space, clearly indicating the Main Alpine Crest as a major divide of dry anomalies from North to South. A joint consideration of detected dry anomaly events and their associated temperature anomalies shows that in winter of the late 19th and early 20th century dry conditions are more often accompanied by cold temperatures in contrast to the last 50 years where dry anomalies are associated with above average winter temperatures. In general dry summers are more likely warmer than the long term mean, but there is also a considerable number of dry events with negative temperature anomalies, particularly in the late 19th and early 20th century.

  7. Depressive Symptoms in Mild Cognitive Impairment Predict Greater Atrophy in Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Regions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Grace J.; Lu, Po H.; Hua, Xue; Lee, Suh; Wu, Stephanie; Nguyen, Ken; Teng, Edmond; Leow, Alex D.; Jack, Clifford R.; Toga, Arthur W.; Weiner, Michael W.; Bartzokis, George; Thompson, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Depression has been associated with higher conversion rates from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and may be a potential clinical marker of prodromal AD that can be used to identify individuals with MCI who are most likely to progress to AD. Using tensor-based morphometry (TBM), we examined the longitudinal neuroanatomical changes associated with depressive symptoms in MCI. Methods 243 MCI subjects from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) who had brain MRI scans at baseline and 2-year follow-up were classified into depressed (DEP, n=44), non-depressed with other neuropsychiatric symptoms (OTHER, n=93), and no-symptom (NOSYMP, n=106) groups based on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q). TBM was used to create individual 3D-maps of 2-year brain changes that were compared between groups. Results DEP subjects had more frontal (p=0.024), parietal (p=0.030), and temporal (p=0.038) white matter atrophy than NOSYMP subjects. A subset of DEP subjects whose depressive symptoms persisted over 2-years also had higher conversion to AD and more decline on measures of global cognition, language abilities, and executive functioning compared to stable NOSYMP subjects. OTHER and NOSYMP groups exhibited no differences in rates of atrophy. Conclusions Depressive symptoms in MCI subjects were associated with greater atrophy in AD-affected regions, increased cognitive decline, and higher rates of conversion to AD. Depression in individuals with MCI may be associated with underlying neuropathological changes including prodromal AD. Thus, assessment of depressive symptoms may be a potentially useful clinical marker in identifying MCI patients who are most likely to progress to AD. PMID:22322105

  8. Regional correlations of V s30 and velocities averaged over depths less than and greater than 30 meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.; Thompson, E.M.; Cadet, H.

    2011-01-01

    Using velocity profiles from sites in Japan, California, Turkey, and Europe, we find that the time-averaged shear-wave velocity to 30 m (V S30), used as a proxy for site amplification in recent ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and building codes, is strongly correlated with average velocities to depths less than 30 m (V Sz, with z being the averaging depth). The correlations for sites in Japan (corresponding to the KiK-net network) show that V S30 is systematically larger for a given V Sz than for profiles from the other regions. The difference largely results from the placement of the KiK-net station locations on rock and rocklike sites, whereas stations in the other regions are generally placed in urban areas underlain by sediments. Using the KiK-net velocity profiles, we provide equations relating V S30 to V Sz for z ranging from 5 to 29 m in 1-m increments. These equations (and those for California velocity profiles given in Boore, 2004b) can be used to estimate V S30 from V Sz for sites in which velocity profiles do not extend to 30 m. The scatter of the residuals decreases with depth, but, even for an averaging depth of 5 m, a variation in log V S30 of 1 standard deviation maps into less than a 20% uncertainty in ground motions given by recent GMPEs at short periods. The sensitivity of the ground motions to V S30 uncertainty is considerably larger at long periods (but is less than a factor of 1.2 for averaging depths greater than about 20 m). We also find that V S30 is correlated with V Sz for z as great as 400 m for sites of the KiK-net network, providing some justification for using V S30 as a site-response variable for predicting ground motions at periods for which the wavelengths far exceed 30 m.

  9. Investigating the impact of rice blast disease on the livelihood of the local farmers in greater Mwea region of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kihoro, Joseph; Bosco, Njoroge J; Murage, Hunja; Ateka, Elijah; Makihara, Daigo

    2013-12-01

    Rice is the most important cereal crop in Kenya coming third after maize and wheat. It forms a very important diet for a majority of families in Kenya. The demand for rice in Kenya has seen a dramatic increase over the last few years while production has remained low. This is because rice production has been faced by serious constraints notably plant diseases of which the most devastating is rice blast. Rice blast is known to cause approximately 60% -100% yield losses. It is caused by an Ascomycete fungus called Magnaporthe Oryzae. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of rice blast disease on the livelihood of the local farmers in Greater Mwea region and develop a rice blast disease distribution map using GIS approach. The study methodology employed a questionnaire survey which were subjected to sample population of households in the 7 sections with 70 blocks within Mwea region. The collected data was analysed using SAS Version 9.1. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the household characteristics, the farm characteristics and the farmers' perceptions of rice blast disease. In the questionnaire, farmers' response on whether they had been affected by rice blast disease and the total production per acreage was used to develop an attribute table with GPS points. The GPS points were interpolated to create a geographical distribution map of rice blast disease. From the research findings almost all the farmers' had awareness and knowledge of rice blast disease, 98% of the farmers interviewed were aware of rice blast disease. Out of the 98% with knowledge and awareness 76% have been affected by the disease, while 24% have never been affected. Farmers attributed rice blast disease to a range of different causes, including excessive use of nitrogen fertilizer, water shortage, lack of proper drainage canal and due to climate change. Majority of the farmers interviewed (72%) did not engage themselves in any other socio-economic activity even after

  10. Kinematic evolution, metamorphism, and exhumation of the Greater Himalayan Series, Sutlej River and Zanskar regions of NW India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahr, Donald William, III

    The Himalayan orogen provides a natural laboratory to test models of orogenic development due to large-scale continental collision. The Greater Himalayan Series (GHS), a lithotectonic unit continuous along the entire length of the belt, comprises the metamorphic core of the Himalayan orogen and underlies the highest topography. GHS rocks are exposed as a moderately northdipping slab bounded below by the Main Central Thrust (MCT) and above by the South Tibetan Detachment System (STDS) of normal faults. Coeval reverse- and normal-sense motion on the crustal-scale MCT and STDS ductile shear zones allows the GHS to be modeled as an extruded wedge or channel of mid-crustal material. Due to this unique tectonic setting, the deformation path of rocks within the bounding shear zones and throughout the core of the GHS profoundly influences the efficiency of extrusion and exhumation processes. Attempts to quantify GHS deformation and metamorphic evolution have provided significant insight into Himalayan orogenic development, but these structural and petrologic studies are often conducted in isolation. Penetrative deformation fabrics developed under mid-upper amphibolite facies conditions within the GHS argue that deformation and metamorphism were coupled, and this should be considered in studies aimed at quantifying GHS teconometamorphic evolution. This work focuses on two projects related to the coupled deformation, thermal and metamorphic evolution during extrusion and exhumation of the GHS, focused on the lower and upper margins of the slab. A detailed examination of the P--T history of a schist collected from within the MCT zone of the Sutlej River, NW India, provides insight into the path experienced by these rocks as they traveled through the crust in response to the extreme shortening related to India-Asia collision. Combined forward thermodynamic and diffusion modeling indicates compositional zoning preserved in garnet has remained unmodified since growth and can be

  11. The Copenhagen City Heart Study (Østerbroundersøgelsen)

    PubMed Central

    Aguib, Yasmine; Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2015-01-01

    The Copenhagen City Heart Study, also known as “Østerbroundersøgelsen”, is a large prospective cardio-vascular population study of 20,000 women and men that was launched in 1975 by Dr Peter Schnohr and Dr Gorm Jensen together with statistician Jørgen Nyboe and Prof. A. Tybjærg Hansen. The original purpose of the study was to focus on prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke. During the years many other aspects have been added to the study: pulmonary diseases, heart failure, arrhythmia, alcohol, arthrosis, eye diseases, allergy, epilepsia, dementia, stress, vital exhaustion, social network, sleep-apnoe, ageing and genetics. In this review we highlight unique aspects of the Copenhagen City Heat Study (CCHS) and its outcome in investigations of clinical and molecular aspects of health and disease in the regional and global population. To increase the impact of population studies with a focus on risk and prevention of cardiovascular and related diseases and to maximize the likelihood of identifying disease causes and effective therapeutics, lessons learned from past research should be applied to the design, implementation and interpretation of future studies. PMID:26779513

  12. The Copenhagen City Heart Study (Østerbroundersøgelsen).

    PubMed

    Aguib, Yasmine; Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2015-01-01

    The Copenhagen City Heart Study, also known as "Østerbroundersøgelsen", is a large prospective cardio-vascular population study of 20,000 women and men that was launched in 1975 by Dr Peter Schnohr and Dr Gorm Jensen together with statistician Jørgen Nyboe and Prof. A. Tybjærg Hansen. The original purpose of the study was to focus on prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke. During the years many other aspects have been added to the study: pulmonary diseases, heart failure, arrhythmia, alcohol, arthrosis, eye diseases, allergy, epilepsia, dementia, stress, vital exhaustion, social network, sleep-apnoe, ageing and genetics. In this review we highlight unique aspects of the Copenhagen City Heat Study (CCHS) and its outcome in investigations of clinical and molecular aspects of health and disease in the regional and global population. To increase the impact of population studies with a focus on risk and prevention of cardiovascular and related diseases and to maximize the likelihood of identifying disease causes and effective therapeutics, lessons learned from past research should be applied to the design, implementation and interpretation of future studies. PMID:26779513

  13. From Copenhagen to the consulting room: Pauli and Jung in Copenhagen.

    PubMed

    Gieser, Suzanne

    2014-04-01

    In this paper the city of Copenhagen is used as a starting point to highlight some critical historical events, both concerning the exchange of ideas between the physicist Wolfgang Pauli and C.G. Jung and the history of psychotherapy in Scandinavia. Pauli's years in Copenhagen under the influence of Niels Bohr and his philosophy prepared him mentally to receiveC.G. Jung's ideas. The paper also recounts the one occasion that Jung was in Scandinavia, attending the 9th conference of the General Medical Society for Psychotherapy in Copenhagen, just before going to New York in 1937 to give his final seminars on Pauli's dreams. The reason for focusing on these particular events is that they also constitute part of the history of the reception of psychodynamic psychology in Sweden and Scandinavia.

  14. From Copenhagen to the consulting room: Pauli and Jung in Copenhagen.

    PubMed

    Gieser, Suzanne

    2014-04-01

    In this paper the city of Copenhagen is used as a starting point to highlight some critical historical events, both concerning the exchange of ideas between the physicist Wolfgang Pauli and C.G. Jung and the history of psychotherapy in Scandinavia. Pauli's years in Copenhagen under the influence of Niels Bohr and his philosophy prepared him mentally to receiveC.G. Jung's ideas. The paper also recounts the one occasion that Jung was in Scandinavia, attending the 9th conference of the General Medical Society for Psychotherapy in Copenhagen, just before going to New York in 1937 to give his final seminars on Pauli's dreams. The reason for focusing on these particular events is that they also constitute part of the history of the reception of psychodynamic psychology in Sweden and Scandinavia. PMID:24673271

  15. Development and application of a spatial IBM to forecast greater prairie-chicken population responses to land use in the Flint Hills region of Kansas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greater prairie-chicken (Tympanachus cupido) populations have been on the decline for decades. Recent efforts to reverse this trend are focusing on two specific disturbance regimes, cattle grazing and field burning, both prevalent in the Flint Hill region of Kansas -- an area of...

  16. Development and application of a spatial IBM to forecast greater prairie-chicken population responses to land use in the Flint Hills region of Kansas - SCB meeting

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greater prairie-chicken (Tympanachus cupido) populations have been on the decline for decades. Recent efforts to reverse this trend are focusing on two specific disturbance regimes, cattle grazing and field burning, both prevalent in the Flint Hill region of Kansas -- an area of...

  17. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the greater North Sea region - Part 2: Scenarios for 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthias, V.; Aulinger, A.; Backes, A.; Bieser, J.; Geyer, B.; Quante, M.; Zeretzke, M.

    2016-01-01

    Scenarios for future shipping emissions in the North Sea have been developed in the framework of the Clean North Sea Shipping project. The effects of changing NOx and SO2 emissions were investigated with the CMAQ chemistry transport model for the year 2030 in the North Sea area. It has been found that, compared to today, the contribution of shipping to the NO2 and O3 concentrations will increase due to the expected enhanced traffic by more than 20 and 5 %, respectively, by 2030 if no regulation for further emission reductions is implemented in the North Sea area. PM2.5 will decrease slightly because the sulfur contents in ship fuels will be reduced as international regulations foresee. The effects differ largely between regions, seasons and date of the implementation of stricter regulations for NOx emissions from newly built ships.

  18. Map showing areas serviced by public water-supply agencies in 1973 Greater Pittsburgh region, southwestern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beall, Robert M.

    1974-01-01

    Urban water planning, development, and management are many sectored, costly efforts, subject to a multitude of controls and demands including those imposed by nature. One primary concern in development is for providing a dependable and safe water supply. In spite of a bountiful natural availability, the process of satisfying consumer needs involves the resolution of a variety of problems, not the least of which are cooperation and coordination among suppliers. One of the fundamental requisites in seeking sound solutions to developmental and environmental problems is inventory documentation. This map is one facet of documentation; the data listing, given on sheet 2, is the companion inventory. These supplement State, regional, and local efforts directed toward both long-range planning and current evaluation programs. Such documentation also assists the assessment of the effect of one water-management subsystem on hydrologic characteristics.

  19. Isotope and chemical compositions of meteoric and thermal waters and snow from the greater Yellowstone National Park region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Thordsen, James J.; White, Lloyd D.

    2002-01-01

    An intensive hydrogeologic investigation, mandated by U.S. Congress and centered on the Norris-Mammoth corridor was conducted by USGS and other scientists during 1988-90 to determine the effects of using thermal water from a private well located in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area, Montana, on the thermal springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP), especially Mammoth Hot Springs. As part of this investigation, we carried out a detailed study of the isotopic and chemical compositions of meteoric water from cold springs and wells, of thermal water, especially from the Norris-Mammoth corridor and of snow. Additional sampling of meteoric and thermal waters from YNP and surrounding region in northwest Wyoming, southwest Montana and southeast Idaho was carried out in 1991-92 to characterize the distribution of water isotopes in this mountainous region and to determine the origin and possible recharge locations of thermal waters in and adjacent to the Park. The D and 18O values for 40 snow samples range from ?88 to ?178? and ?12.5 to ?23.9?, respectively, and define a well constrained line given by D = 8.2 18O + 14.7 (r2 = 0.99) that is nearly identical to the Global Meteoric Water Line. The D and 18O values of 173 cold water samples range from ?115 to ?153? and ?15.2 to ?20.2?, respectively, and exhibit a similar relationship although with more scatter and with some shift to heavier isotopes, most likely due to evaporation effects. The spatial distribution of cold-water isotopes shows a roughly circular pattern with isotopically lightest waters centered on the mountains and high plateau in the northwest corner of Yellowstone National Park and becoming heavier in all directions. The temperature effect due to altitude is the dominant control on stable water isotopes throughout the region; however, this effect is obscured in narrow 'canyons' and areas of high topographic relief. The effects due to distance (i.e. 'continental') and latitude on water

  20. Quantum mechanical reality according to Copenhagen 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Din, Allan M.

    2016-05-01

    The long-standing conceptual controversies concerning the interpretation of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics are argued, on one hand, to be due to its incompleteness, as affirmed by Einstein. But on the other hand, it appears to be possible to complete it at least partially, as Bohr might have appreciated it, in the framework of its standard mathematical formalism with observables as appropriately defined self-adjoint operators. This completion of quantum mechanics is based on the requirement on laboratory physics to be effectively confined to a bounded space region and on the application of the von Neumann deficiency theorem to properly define a set of self-adjoint extensions of standard observables, e.g. the momenta and the Hamiltonian, in terms of certain isometries on the region boundary. This is formalized mathematically in the setting of a boundary ontology for the so-called Qbox in which the wave function acquires a supplementary dependence on a set of Additional Boundary Variables (ABV). It is argued that a certain geometric subset of the ABV parametrizing Quasi-Periodic Translational Isometries (QPTI) has a particular physical importance by allowing for the definition of an ontic wave function, which has the property of epitomizing the spatial wave function “collapse.” Concomitantly the standard wave function in an unbounded geometry is interpreted as an epistemic wave function, which together with the ontic QPTI wave function gives rise to the notion of two-wave duality, replacing the standard concept of wave-particle duality. More generally, this approach to quantum physics in a bounded geometry provides a novel analytical basis for a better understanding of several conceptual notions of quantum mechanics, including reality, nonlocality, entanglement and Heisenberg’s uncertainty relation. The scope of this analysis may be seen as a foundational update of the multiple versions 1.x of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, which is

  1. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the greater North Sea region - Part 1: Current emissions and concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulinger, A.; Matthias, V.; Zeretzke, M.; Bieser, J.; Quante, M.; Backes, A.

    2016-01-01

    The North Sea is one of the areas with the highest ship traffic densities worldwide. At any time, about 3000 ships are sailing its waterways. Previous scientific publications have shown that ships contribute significantly to atmospheric concentrations of NOx, particulate matter and ozone. Especially in the case of particulate matter and ozone, this influence can even be seen in regions far away from the main shipping routes. In order to quantify the effects of North Sea shipping on air quality in its bordering states, it is essential to determine the emissions from shipping as accurately as possible. Within Interreg IVb project Clean North Sea Shipping (CNSS), a bottom-up approach was developed and used to thoroughly compile such an emission inventory for 2011 that served as the base year for the current emission situation. The innovative aspect of this approach was to use load-dependent functions to calculate emissions from the ships' current activities instead of averaged emission factors for the entire range of the engine loads. These functions were applied to ship activities that were derived from hourly records of Automatic Identification System signals together with a database containing the engine characteristics of the vessels that traveled the North Sea in 2011. The emission model yielded ship emissions among others of NOx and SO2 at high temporal and spatial resolution that were subsequently used in a chemistry transport model in order to simulate the impact of the emissions on pollutant concentration levels. The total emissions of nitrogen reached 540 Gg and those of sulfur oxides 123 Gg within the North Sea - including the adjacent western part of the Baltic Sea until 5° W. This was about twice as much of those of a medium-sized industrialized European state like the Netherlands. The relative contribution of ships to, for example, NO2 concentration levels ashore close to the sea can reach up to 25 % in summer and 15 % in winter. Some hundred kilometers

  2. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the Greater North Sea region - Part 1: Current emissions and concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulinger, A.; Matthias, V.; Zeretzke, M.; Bieser, J.; Quante, M.; Backes, A.

    2015-04-01

    The North Sea is one of the areas with the highest ship traffic densities worldwide. At any time, about 3000 ships are sailing its waterways. Previous scientific publications have shown that ships contribute significantly to atmospheric concentrations of NOx, particulate matter and ozone. Especially in the case of particulate matter and ozone this influence can even be seen in regions far away from the main shipping routes. In order to quantify the effects of North Sea shipping on air quality in its bordering states, it is essential to determine the emissions from shipping as accurately as possible. Within the Interreg IVb project Clean North Sea Shipping (CNSS) a bottom-up approach was developed and used to thoroughly compile such an emission inventory for 2011 that served as the base year for the current emission situation. The innovative aspect of this approach was to use load dependent functions to calculate emissions from the ships' current activities instead of averaged emission factors for the entire range of the engine loads. These functions were applied to ship activities that were derived from hourly records of Automatic Identification System signals together with a data base containing the engine characteristics of the vessels that traveled the North Sea in 2011. The emission model yielded ship emissions among others of NOx and SO2 in high temporal and spatial resolution that were subsequently used in a chemistry transport model in order to simulate the impact of the emissions on pollutant concentration levels. The total emissions of nitrogen reached 540 Gg and of sulfur oxides 123 Gg within the North Sea, which was about twice as much of those of a medium-sized industrialized European state like the Netherlands. The relative contribution of ships to, for example, NO2 concentration levels ashore close to the sea can reach up to 25% in summer and 15% in winter. Some hundred kilometers away from the sea the contribution was about 6% in summer and 4% in

  3. The physics of Copenhagen for students and the general public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergström, L.; Johansson, K. E.; Nilsson, Ch

    2001-09-01

    The play Copenhagen has attracted the attention of a large audience in several countries. The hypothetical discussion in Copenhagen between two of the giants in physics, Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg, has inspired us to start a theoretical and experimental exploration of quantum physics. This theme has been used in Stockholm Science Laboratory for audiences of both students and the general public.

  4. A tree-ring based precipitation reconstruction for the Mohe region in the northern Greater Higgnan Mountains, China, since AD 1724

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tongwen; Yuan, Yujiang; Wei, Wenshou; Yu, Shulong; Zhang, Ruibo; Chen, Feng; Shang, Huaming; Qin, Li

    2014-07-01

    August-July precipitation has been reconstructed back to AD 1724 for the Mohe region in the northern Greater Higgnan Mountains, China, using Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica tree-ring width. The reconstruction explains 39% of the variance in the precipitation observed from AD 1960-2008. Some droughts noted in historical documents are precisely captured in our reconstruction. Wet periods occurred during the periods of AD 1734-1785, AD 1805-1830, AD 1863-1880, AD 1922-1961, and AD 1983-1998; while the periods of AD 1786-1804, AD 1831-1862, AD 1881-1921, and AD 1962-1982 were relatively dry. Power spectral and wavelet analyses demonstrated the existence of significant 24-yr, 12-yr, and 2-yr cycles of variability. The results of the spatial correlations suggest that our reconstruction contains climatic signals for the southern Stanovoy Range and the northern Greater Higgnan Mountains. The positive correlations between the new reconstructed precipitation series and two precipitation reconstructions indicate that our precipitation reconstruction captures broad-scale regional climatic variations. A comparison between the weakening tendency of summer monsoon and the dry period of our reconstruction reveals that the annual precipitation in the Mohe region is partly influenced by the East Asian Summer Monsoon.

  5. Crash test for the Copenhagen problem.

    PubMed

    Nagler, Jan

    2004-06-01

    The Copenhagen problem is a simple model in celestial mechanics. It serves to investigate the behavior of a small body under the gravitational influence of two equally heavy primary bodies. We present a partition of orbits into classes of various kinds of regular motion, chaotic motion, escape and crash. Collisions of the small body onto one of the primaries turn out to be unexpectedly frequent, and their probability displays a scale-free dependence on the size of the primaries. The analysis reveals a high degree of complexity so that long term prediction may become a formidable task. Moreover, we link the results to chaotic scattering theory and the theory of leaking Hamiltonian systems. PMID:15244719

  6. Crash test for the Copenhagen problem.

    PubMed

    Nagler, Jan

    2004-06-01

    The Copenhagen problem is a simple model in celestial mechanics. It serves to investigate the behavior of a small body under the gravitational influence of two equally heavy primary bodies. We present a partition of orbits into classes of various kinds of regular motion, chaotic motion, escape and crash. Collisions of the small body onto one of the primaries turn out to be unexpectedly frequent, and their probability displays a scale-free dependence on the size of the primaries. The analysis reveals a high degree of complexity so that long term prediction may become a formidable task. Moreover, we link the results to chaotic scattering theory and the theory of leaking Hamiltonian systems.

  7. Copenhagen delegates advance phaseout of ozone depleters

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, E.

    1992-12-09

    As expected, delegates at the United Nations Ozone Layer Conference in Copenhagen sped up ozone depleter phaseouts from the 1987 Montreal Protocol and the 1990 London amendments. The changes bring the worldwide production phaseout of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone depleters in developed countries in line with U.S. and European plans announced earlier this year. Adjustments to the protocol, which are binding on the signatories, change the phaseout for CFC, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform production and consumption to January 1, 1996 from 2000. The 75% reduction of 1986 levels from CFCs by January 1, 1994 is a compromise between European pressure for an 85% cut and the US goal of 70%. Halon production is to end January 1, 1994, as anticipated. Developing countries continue to have a 10-year grace period. Friends of the Earth ozone campaign director Liz Cook counters that the phaseout dates were scheduled with concern for the chemical industry, not for the ozone layer.

  8. High ploidy diversity and distinct patterns of cytotype distribution in a widespread species of Oxalis in the Greater Cape Floristic Region

    PubMed Central

    Krejčíková, Jana; Sudová, Radka; Lučanová, Magdalena; Trávníček, Pavel; Urfus, Tomáš; Vít, Petr; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Kolano, Bożena; Oberlander, Kenneth; Dreyer, Leanne L.; Suda, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Genome duplication is widely acknowledged as a major force in the evolution of angiosperms, although the incidence of polyploidy in different floras may differ dramatically. The Greater Cape Floristic Region of southern Africa is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots and is considered depauperate in polyploids. To test this assumption, ploidy variation was assessed in a widespread member of the largest geophytic genus in the Cape flora: Oxalis obtusa. Methods DNA flow cytometry complemented by confirmatory chromosome counts was used to determine ploidy levels in 355 populations of O. obtusa (1014 individuals) across its entire distribution range. Ecological differentiation among cytotypes was tested by comparing sets of vegetation and climatic variables extracted for each locality. Key Results Three majority (2x, 4x, 6x) and three minority (3x, 5x, 8x) cytotypes were detected in situ, in addition to a heptaploid individual originating from a botanical garden. While single-cytotype populations predominate, 12 mixed-ploidy populations were also found. The overall pattern of ploidy level distribution is quite complex, but some ecological segregation was observed. Hexaploids are the most common cytotype and prevail in the Fynbos biome. In contrast, tetraploids dominate in the Succulent Karoo biome. Precipitation parameters were identified as the most important climatic variables associated with cytotype distribution. Conclusions Although it would be premature to make generalizations regarding the role of genome duplication in the genesis of hyperdiversity of the Cape flora, the substantial and unexpected ploidy diversity in Oxalis obtusa is unparalleled in comparison with any other cytologically known native Cape plant species. The results suggest that ploidy variation in the Greater Cape Floristic Region may be much greater than currently assumed, which, given the documented role of polyploidy in speciation, has direct implications for radiation

  9. Classification and categorization of treatment methods for ash generated by municipal solid waste incineration: a case for the 2 greater metropolitan regions of Greece.

    PubMed

    Karagiannidis, A; Kontogianni, St; Logothetis, D

    2013-02-01

    The primary goal of managing MSW incineration residues is to avoid any impact on human health or the environment. Incineration residues consist of bottom ash, which is generally considered as rather harmless and fly ash which usually contains compounds which are potentially harmful for public health. Small quantities of ash (both bottom and fly) are produced currently in Greece, mainly from the healthcare waste incineration facility in Attica region. Once incineration plants for MSW (currently under planning) are constructed in Greece, the produced ash quantities will increase highly. Thus, it is necessary to organize, already at this stage, a roadmap towards disposal/recovery methods of these ash quantities expected. Certain methods, related to the treatment of the future generated ash which are more appropriate to be implemented in Greece are highlighted in the present paper. The performed analysis offers a waste management approach, having 2016 as a reference year for two different incineration rates; 30% and 100% of the remaining MSW after recycling process. The results focus on the two greater regions of Greece: Attica and Central Macedonia. The quantity of potential future ash generation ranges from 137 to 459 kt for Attica region and from 62 to 207 kt for central Macedonia region depending on the incineration rate applied. Three alternative scenarios for the treatment of each kind of ash are compiled and analysed. Metal recovery and reuse as an aggregate in concrete construction proved to be the most advantageous -in terms of economy-bottom ash management scenario. Concerning management of the fly ash, chemical treatment with phosphoric solution addition results to be the lowest total treatment cost and is considered as the most profitable solution. The proposed methodology constitutes a safe calculation model for operators of MSW incineration plants regardless of the region or country they are located in. PMID:23206519

  10. Classification and categorization of treatment methods for ash generated by municipal solid waste incineration: a case for the 2 greater metropolitan regions of Greece.

    PubMed

    Karagiannidis, A; Kontogianni, St; Logothetis, D

    2013-02-01

    The primary goal of managing MSW incineration residues is to avoid any impact on human health or the environment. Incineration residues consist of bottom ash, which is generally considered as rather harmless and fly ash which usually contains compounds which are potentially harmful for public health. Small quantities of ash (both bottom and fly) are produced currently in Greece, mainly from the healthcare waste incineration facility in Attica region. Once incineration plants for MSW (currently under planning) are constructed in Greece, the produced ash quantities will increase highly. Thus, it is necessary to organize, already at this stage, a roadmap towards disposal/recovery methods of these ash quantities expected. Certain methods, related to the treatment of the future generated ash which are more appropriate to be implemented in Greece are highlighted in the present paper. The performed analysis offers a waste management approach, having 2016 as a reference year for two different incineration rates; 30% and 100% of the remaining MSW after recycling process. The results focus on the two greater regions of Greece: Attica and Central Macedonia. The quantity of potential future ash generation ranges from 137 to 459 kt for Attica region and from 62 to 207 kt for central Macedonia region depending on the incineration rate applied. Three alternative scenarios for the treatment of each kind of ash are compiled and analysed. Metal recovery and reuse as an aggregate in concrete construction proved to be the most advantageous -in terms of economy-bottom ash management scenario. Concerning management of the fly ash, chemical treatment with phosphoric solution addition results to be the lowest total treatment cost and is considered as the most profitable solution. The proposed methodology constitutes a safe calculation model for operators of MSW incineration plants regardless of the region or country they are located in.

  11. Crop harvest in Central Europe causes episodes of high airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skjøth, C. A.; Sommer, J.; Frederiksen, L.; Gosewinkel Karlson, U.

    2012-06-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that Danish agricultural areas are the main source to airborne Alternaria spores in Copenhagen, Denmark. We suggest that the source to the overall load is mainly local, but with intermittent Long Distance Transport (LDT) from more remote agricultural areas. This hypothesis is supported by investigating a 10 yr bi-hourly record of Alternaria spores in the air from Copenhagen. This record shows 232 clinically relevant episodes with a distinct daily profile. The data analysis also revealed potential LDT episodes almost every year. A source map and analysis of atmospheric transport suggest that LDT always originates from the main agricultural areas in Central Europe. A dedicated emission study in cereal crops under harvest during 2010 also supports our hypothesis. The emission study showed that although the fields had been treated against fungal infections, harvesting still produced large amounts of airborne fungal spores. It is likely that such harvesting periods can cause clinically relevant levels of fungal spores in the atmosphere. Our findings suggest that crop harvest in Central Europe causes episodes of high airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen as well as other urban areas in this region. It is likely that such episodes could be simulated using atmospheric transport models.

  12. Economic aspects of global warming in a post-Copenhagen environment

    PubMed Central

    Nordhaus, William D.

    2010-01-01

    The science of global warming has reached a consensus on the high likelihood of substantial warming over the coming century. Nations have taken only limited steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions since the first agreement in Kyoto in 1997, and little progress was made at the Copenhagen meeting in December 2009. The present study examines alternative outcomes for emissions, climate change, and damages under different policy scenarios. It uses an updated version of the regional integrated model of climate and the economy (RICE model). Recent projections suggest that substantial future warming will occur if no abatement policies are implemented. The model also calculates the path of carbon prices necessary to keep the increase in global mean temperature to 2 °C or less in an efficient manner. The carbon price for 2010 associated with that goal is estimated to be $59 per ton (at 2005 prices), compared with an effective global average price today of around $5 per ton. However, it is unlikely that the Copenhagen temperature goal will be attained even if countries meet their ambitious stated objectives under the Copenhagen Accord. PMID:20547856

  13. Strontium isotope investigation of ungulate movement patterns on the Pleistocene Paleo-Agulhas Plain of the Greater Cape Floristic Region, South Africa

    DOE PAGES

    Copeland, Sandi R.; Cawthra, Hayley C.; Fisher, Erich C.; Lee-Thorp, Julia A.; Cowling, Richard M.; le Roux, Petrus J.; Hodgkins, Jamie; Marean, Curtis W.

    2016-04-16

    Middle Stone Age sites located within the Greater Cape Floristic Region on the South African southern coast have material culture with early evidence for key modern human behaviors such as projectile weaponry, large animal hunting, and symbolic behavior. In order to interpret how and why these changes evolved, it is necessary to understand their ecological context as it has direct relevance to foraging behavior. During periods of lowered sea level, a largely flat and vast expanse of land existed south of the modern coastline, but it is now submerged by higher sea levels. This exposed area, the Paleo-Agulhas Plain, likelymore » created an ecological context unlike anything in the region today, as evidenced by fossil assemblages dominated by migratory ungulates. One hypothesis is that the Paleo-Agulhas Plain supported a migration ecosystem of large grazers driven by summer rainfall, producing palatable forage during summer in the east, and winter rainfall, producing palatable forage during winter in the west. Furthermore, ungulates may have been moving from the coastal plain in the south to the interior north of the Cape Fold Mountains, as observed for elephants in historic times.« less

  14. The course of the greater occipital nerve in the suboccipital region: a proposal for setting landmarks for local anesthesia in patients with occipital neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Natsis, K; Baraliakos, X; Appell, H J; Tsikaras, P; Gigis, I; Koebke, J

    2006-05-01

    The anatomical relationships of the greater occipital nerve (GON) to the semispinalis capitis muscle (SCM) and the trapezius muscle aponeurosis (TMA) were examined to identify topographic landmarks for use in anesthetic blockade of the GON in occipital neuralgia. The course and the diameter of the GON were studied in 40 cadavers (29 females, 11 males), and the points where it pierced the SCM and the TMA were identified. The course of the GON did not differ between males and females. A left-right difference was detected in the site of the GON in the TMA region but not in the SCM region. The nerve became wider towards the periphery. This may be relevant to entrapment of the nerve in the development of occipital neuralgia. In three cases, the GON split into two branches before piercing the TMA and reunited after having passed the TMA, and it pierced the obliquus capitis inferior muscle in another three cases. The GON and the lesser occipital nerve reunited at the level of the occiput in 80% of the specimens. The occiput and the nuchal midline are useful topographic landmarks to guide anesthetic blockade of the GON for diagnosis and therapy of occipital neuralgia. The infiltration is probably best aimed at the site where the SCM is pierced by the GON.

  15. Assessing the Climate Change Impact on Snow-Glacier Melting Dominated Basins in the Greater Himalaya Region Using a Distributed Glacio-Hydrologic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wi, S.; Yang, Y. C. E.; Khalil, A.

    2014-12-01

    Glacier and snow melting is main source of water supply making a large contribution to streamflow of major river basins in the Greater Himalaya region including the Syr Darya, the Amu Darya, the Indus, the Ganges and the Brahmaputra basins. Due to the critical role of glacier and snow melting as water supply for both food production and hydropower generation in the region (especially during the low flow season), it is important to evaluate the vulnerability of snow and glacier melting streamflow to different climate conditions. In this study, a distributed glacio-hydrologic model with high resolution climate input is developed and calibrated that explicitly simulates all major hydrological processes and the glacier and snow dynamics for area further discretized by elevation bands. The distributed modeling structure and the glacier and snow modules provide a better understanding about how temperature and precipitation alterations are likely to affect current glacier ice reserves. Climate stress test is used to explore changes in the total streamflow change, snow/glacier melting contribution and glacier accumulation and ablation under a variety of different temperature and precipitation conditions. The latest future climate projections provided from the World Climate Research Programme's Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) is used to inform the possibility of different climate conditions.

  16. Strontium isotope investigation of ungulate movement patterns on the Pleistocene Paleo-Agulhas Plain of the Greater Cape Floristic Region, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copeland, Sandi R.; Cawthra, Hayley C.; Fisher, Erich C.; Lee-Thorp, Julia A.; Cowling, Richard M.; le Roux, Petrus J.; Hodgkins, Jamie; Marean, Curtis W.

    2016-06-01

    Middle Stone Age sites located within the Greater Cape Floristic Region on the South African southern coast have material culture with early evidence for key modern human behaviors such as projectile weaponry, large animal hunting, and symbolic behavior. In order to interpret how and why these changes evolved, it is necessary to understand their ecological context as it has direct relevance to foraging behavior. During periods of lowered sea level, a largely flat and vast expanse of land existed south of the modern coastline, but it is now submerged by higher sea levels. This exposed area, the Paleo-Agulhas Plain, likely created an ecological context unlike anything in the region today, as evidenced by fossil assemblages dominated by migratory ungulates. One hypothesis is that the Paleo-Agulhas Plain supported a migration ecosystem of large grazers driven by summer rainfall, producing palatable forage during summer in the east, and winter rainfall, producing palatable forage during winter in the west. Alternatively, ungulates may have been moving from the coastal plain in the south to the interior north of the Cape Fold Mountains, as observed for elephants in historic times. In this study, we assess ungulate movement patterns with inter- and intra-tooth enamel samples for strontium isotopes in fossil fauna from Pinnacle Point sites PP13B and PP30. To accomplish our goals we created a bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr isoscape for the region by collecting plants at 171 sampling sites and developing a geospatial model. The strontium isotope results indicate that ungulates spent most of their time on the Paleo-Agulhas Plain and avoided dissected plain, foothill, and mountain habitats located more than about 15 km north of the modern coastline. The results clearly exclude a north-south (coastal-interior) movement or migration pattern, and cannot falsify the east-west movements hypothesized in the south coast migration ecosystem hypothesis.

  17. Incorporating Medium-Range Weather Forecasts in Seasonal Crop Scenarios over the Greater Horn of Africa to Support National/Regional/Local Decision Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Husak, G. J.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The USAID's Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) provides seasonal assessments of crop conditions over the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) and other food insecure regions. These assessments and current livelihood, nutrition, market conditions and conflicts are used to generate food security scenarios that help national, regional and local decision makers target their resources and mitigate socio-economic losses. Among the various tools that FEWS NET uses is the FAO's Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI). The WRSI is a simple yet powerful crop assessment model that incorporates current moisture conditions (at the time of the issuance of forecast), precipitation scenarios, potential evapotranspiration and crop parameters to categorize crop conditions into different classes ranging from "failure" to "very good". The WRSI tool has been shown to have a good agreement with local crop yields in the GHA region. At present, the precipitation scenarios used to drive the WRSI are based on either a climatological forecast (that assigns equal chances of occurrence to all possible scenarios and has no skill over the forecast period) or a sea-surface temperature anomaly based scenario (which at best have skill at the seasonal scale). In both cases, the scenarios fail to capture the skill that can be attained by initial atmospheric conditions (i.e., medium-range weather forecasts). During the middle of a cropping season, when a week or two of poor rains can have a devastating effect, two weeks worth of skillful precipitation forecasts could improve the skill of the crop scenarios. With this working hypothesis, we examine the value of incorporating medium-range weather forecasts in improving the skill of crop scenarios in the GHA region. We use the NCEP's Global Ensemble Forecast system (GEFS) weather forecasts and examine the skill of crop scenarios generated using the GEFS weather forecasts with respect to the scenarios based solely on the climatological forecast

  18. Soil Organic Carbon at Depth in Cultivated Fields is Greater than in Native Lands on Wet Mollisols of the U.S. Midwest Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matamala, R.; Jastrow, J. D.; Kirt, S. J.; Vugteveen, T.

    2006-12-01

    We compared the distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) at depth in cultivated versus native lands of the U.S. Midwest by using a paired rowcrop-prairie remnant field design across Iowa, Illinois, and Wisconsin. The sampled soils represented typical poorly drained Aquolls that occur within the glaciated Corn Belt region. Each study site consisted of a historically known tallgrass prairie remnant and a nearby long-term-cultivated field under corn/soybean rotation, in corn at the time of the study, on the same soil series. The soils were sampled to 1 m depth and sectioned at small intervals. Roots and organic debris were removed from each section and soils were dried at 65° C. Bulk density, texture, δ13C and SOC were quantified for each section of each soil. The paired sites were compared by using the relationship of cumulative soil mass to cumulative soil C to account for variations in horizon depth and soil mass caused by cultivation-induced changes in bulk density. Cultivated soils had lower C concentrations in surface soils that amounted to a 12 to 32% reduction in SOC to a depth of about 25 cm. This finding is in accordance with broadly reported declines in SOC due to cultivation practices. The reduction in SOC was constrained to the depth of plowing, where decades of tillage had lowered and homogenized the concentration of C throughout the volume of mixed soil. However, we also found that cumulative SOC for the entire profile was significantly greater in cultivated soils than in remnant soils. This increase varied from 8 to 30% depending on soil series, potentially accounting for as much as 4 kg C m-2. Carbon gains at depth appeared to result from the mixing of surface and subsurface soil during tillage practices, which distributed soil with greater C concentrations deeper in the soil profile. These results suggest that the depletion of SOC in cultivated lands located on poorly drained Mollisols in the U.S. Corn Belt might have been overestimated. Thus

  19. Copenhagen--a significant source of birch (Betula) pollen?

    PubMed

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Sommer, Janne; Brandt, Jørgen; Hvidberg, Martin; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, Kaj Mantzius; Hertel, Ole; Frohn, Lise M; Christensen, Jesper H

    2008-07-01

    Current aerobiological research applies the hypothesis that the main source of atmospheric birch (Betula) pollen is forest trees. Our results indicate that the measured levels in Copenhagen are not only due to birch trees in Danish forests but that the urban areas also seem to be a significant source of birch pollen. A number of episodes in 2003 with enhanced pollen levels in Copenhagen seem to be associated with parks and gardens inside and just outside the city. Our results also indicate one long-range transport episode from remote sources in Poland and Germany. Finally, our results show that the pollen levels vary considerably over the day and geographically between Copenhagen and the city of Roskilde, 40 km away. We suggest, that these differences in time and space in the pollen levels are mapped using an integrated monitoring strategy.

  20. New Solar Twins from the Geneva Copenhagen Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datson, J.; Flynn, C.; Portinari, L.

    2013-04-01

    When selecting candidate solar twins, both photometric and spectroscopic criteria have to be considered. We used Sun-like stars from the Geneva Copenhagen Survey, pre-selecting their absolute magnitude, b-y colour and metallicity to be close to the solar values. The aim was to find in this sample the objects which are spectroscopically closest to the Sun. We present the ten best stars fulfilling these combined photometric and spectroscopic criteria, of which six are new twins. We then use our sample of Sun-like stars to discuss the metallicity and temperature scales in the Geneva Copenhagen Survey.

  1. Classification of savanna tree species, in the Greater Kruger National Park region, by integrating hyperspectral and LiDAR data in a Random Forest data mining environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidoo, L.; Cho, M. A.; Mathieu, R.; Asner, G.

    2012-04-01

    The accurate classification and mapping of individual trees at species level in the savanna ecosystem can provide numerous benefits for the managerial authorities. Such benefits include the mapping of economically useful tree species, which are a key source of food production and fuel wood for the local communities, and of problematic alien invasive and bush encroaching species, which can threaten the integrity of the environment and livelihoods of the local communities. Species level mapping is particularly challenging in African savannas which are complex, heterogeneous, and open environments with high intra-species spectral variability due to differences in geology, topography, rainfall, herbivory and human impacts within relatively short distances. Savanna vegetation are also highly irregular in canopy and crown shape, height and other structural dimensions with a combination of open grassland patches and dense woody thicket - a stark contrast to the more homogeneous forest vegetation. This study classified eight common savanna tree species in the Greater Kruger National Park region, South Africa, using a combination of hyperspectral and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)-derived structural parameters, in the form of seven predictor datasets, in an automated Random Forest modelling approach. The most important predictors, which were found to play an important role in the different classification models and contributed to the success of the hybrid dataset model when combined, were species tree height; NDVI; the chlorophyll b wavelength (466 nm) and a selection of raw, continuum removed and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) bands. It was also concluded that the hybrid predictor dataset Random Forest model yielded the highest classification accuracy and prediction success for the eight savanna tree species with an overall classification accuracy of 87.68% and KHAT value of 0.843.

  2. Simultaneous detection of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia duodenalis and cryptosporidia by immunochromatographic assay in stool samples from patients living in the Greater Cairo Region, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Banisch, Dagmar M; El-Badry, Ayman; Klinnert, Jorge V; Ignatius, Ralf; El-Dib, Nadia

    2015-08-01

    Gastrointestinal infection due to intestinal parasites is an enormous health problem in developing countries and its reliable diagnosis is demanding. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating a commercially available immunochromatographic assay (ICA) for the detection of cryptosporidia, Giardia duodenalis, and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar for its usefulness in the Greater Cairo Region, Egypt. Stool samples of 104 patients who presented between October 2012 and March 2013 with gastrointestinal symptoms or for the exclusion of parasites at Kasr-Al-Ainy University Medical School were examined by light microscopy of wet mounts and the triple ICA. Microscopy revealed in 20% of the patients [95% confidence interval (CI), 13.5-29.0%] parasites with Hymenolepis nana, E. histolytica/dispar and Blastocystis hominis being the most frequent ones, but was not able to detect G. duodenalis and cryptosporidia, whereas ICA was positive in 21% (95% CI, 14.3-30.0%) and detected E. histolytica/dispar in 12.5% (95% CI, 7.3-20.4%), cryptosporidia in 6.7% (95% CI, 3.1-13.5%) and G. duodenalis in 15.4% (95% CI, 9.6-23.6%) of the patients. Detection of one or more pathogens was associated with access to water retrieved from a well or pump (p = 0.01). Patients between 20 and 29 years of age (p = 0.08) and patients with symptoms of 5 days or longer (p = 0.07) tended to have a higher risk to be infected than patients of other age groups or with shorter-lasting symptoms. In conclusion, the ICA was easy to perform and timesaving. Importantly, it enabled the detection of cryptosporidia, which cannot be found microscopically in unstained smears, demonstrated a higher sensitivity for the detection of G. duodenalis than microscopy, and was more specific for distinguishing E. histolytica/dispar from apathogenic amoeba.

  3. Teaching about U.S. Climate Policy and the 2009 Copenhagen Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 Copenhagen Conference will take place December 7-18 in the Bella Conference Center just a few miles from the Copenhagen airport. Emissaries from 170 nations are expected, with several other smaller countries sending representatives. More than 8,000 people are expected to attend, including members of the press. The Copenhagen Conference is…

  4. The Physics of "Copenhagen" for Students and the General Public.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergstrom, L.; Johansson, K. E.; Nilsson, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    The play Copenhagen has attracted the attention of a large audience in several countries. The hypothetical discussion between two of the giants in physics, Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg, has inspired us to start a theoretical and experimental exploration of quantum physics. This theme has been used in Stockholm Science Laboratory for audiences…

  5. Crop harvest in Denmark and Central Europe contributes to the local load of airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skjøth, C. A.; Sommer, J.; Frederiksen, L.; Gosewinkel Karlson, U.

    2012-11-01

    This study examines the hypothesis that Danish agricultural areas are the main source of airborne Alternaria spores in Copenhagen, Denmark. We suggest that the contribution to the overall load is mainly local or regional, but with intermittent long distance transport (LDT) from more remote agricultural areas. This hypothesis is supported by investigating a 10 yr bi-hourly record of Alternaria spores in the air from Copenhagen. This record shows 232 clinically relevant episodes (daily average spore concentration above 100 m-3) with a distinct daily profile. The data analysis also revealed potential LDT episodes almost every year. A source map and analysis of atmospheric transport suggest that LDT always originates from the main agricultural areas in Central Europe. A dedicated emission study in cereal crops under harvest during 2010 also supports our hypothesis. The emission study showed that although the fields had been treated against fungal infections, harvesting still produced large amounts of airborne fungal spores. It is likely that such harvesting periods can cause clinically relevant levels of fungal spores in the atmosphere. Our findings suggest that crop harvest in Central Europe causes episodes of high airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen as well as other urban areas in this region. It is likely that such episodes could be simulated using atmospheric transport models.

  6. Online Course Use in New York High Schools: Results from a Survey in the Greater Capital Region. REL 2015-074. Stated Briefly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Margaret; Pazzaglia, Angela M.; Zweig, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    This "Stated Briefly" report is a companion piece that summarizes the results of another report of the same name. The goal of the study conducted by the Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast and Islands' Northeast Rural Districts Research Alliance (NRDRA) was to provide information about how and why high schools in the Greater…

  7. Online Course Use in New York High Schools: Results from a Survey in the Greater Capital Region. REL 2015-075

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Margaret; Pazzaglia, Angela M.; Zweig, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    As in most states, New York does not currently have a state-level protocol for collecting data about schools' objectives or methods for offering online courses. The goals of the study conducted by the Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast and Islands' Northeast Rural Districts Research Alliance (NRDRA) were (1) to create a survey tool capable…

  8. Radiotherapy for solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma in the head-and-neck region: A dose greater than 45 gy to the target volume improves the local control

    SciTech Connect

    Tournier-Rangeard, Laetitia . E-mail: l.tournier@nancy.fnclcc.fr; Lapeyre, Michel; Graff-Caillaud, Pierre; Mege, Alice; Dolivet, Gilles; Toussaint, Bruno; Charra-Brunaud, Claire; Hoffstetter, Sylvette; Marchal, Christian; Peiffert, Didier

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: Our aim was to determine the dose to the clinical target volume (CTV) required for solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) in the head and neck (HN). Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients (15 Stage I and 2 Stage II) were treated for HN EMP at our institution between 1979 and 2003. The mean International Commission on Radiation Units (ICRU) dose prescribed to the CTV was 52.6 Gy (range, 40-65 Gy) over 24 fractions (range: 20-30). The Stage II patients received neck irradiation doses of 40 and 60 Gy. A mean dose of 36.4 Gy was used for 5 Stage I patients who received elective neck irradiation. Dose administrated to the CTV was evaluated from dosimetric data or from planning films when dosimetric data were not available. Two groups of patients were distinguished: CTV covered with a dose greater than 40 Gy and CTV covered with a dose greater than 45 Gy. Results: The 5-year local control was 72.8%. It was 100% for patients who received dose to the CTV {<=} 45 Gy vs. 50% for dose to the CTV <45 Gy (p = 0.034). The prognostic factor for 5-year disease-specific survival (81.6%) was local control (p = 0.058). The prognostic factors for disease-free survival (64.1%) were monoclonal immunoglobulin secretion (p = 0.008) and a CTV dose {<=} 45 Gy (p = 0.056) Conclusions: Local control of EMP in the HN seems to be improved when the dose to the CTV is {<=} 45 Gy. A minimum dose of 45 Gy should be recommended to the CTV.

  9. Synchronous climate-driven regime shifts at the onset of the Holocene inferred from diatom records in lakes of the Greater Yellowstone region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y.; Stone, J.; Fritz, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Diatom records covering the late-glacial and early Holocene periods were recovered from three lakes in different areas of Yellowstone National Park to investigate the impacts of large-scale climatic change on aquatic ecosystem evolution following deglaciation. All lakes show synchronous diatom community shifts from the dominance of tychoplanktic Fragilaria species to benthic species in the interval of 11,300-11500 cal yr BP, indicating a regional decrease in effective moisture. The synchroneity of changes in diatom community structure suggests the influence of overlying large-scale climatic change on lacustrine ecosystems. A major shift in the same interval also is evident in other proxy records, such as pollen and charcoal, throughout the Yellowstone region at the late-glacial/early-Holocene transition. This suggests that the summer insolation maximum induced a widespread and rapid reorganization of ecosystem structure and function.

  10. Greater functional connectivity between reading and error-detection regions following training with the reading acceleration program in children with reading difficulties.

    PubMed

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Holland, Scott K

    2015-04-01

    The Reading Acceleration Program is a computerized program that improves reading and the activation of the error-detection mechanism in individuals with reading difficulty (RD) and typical readers (TRs). The current study aims to find the neural correlates for this effect in English-speaking 8-12-year-old children with RD and TRs using a functional connectivity analysis. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected during a lexical decision task before and after 4 weeks of training with the program, together with reading and executive functions measures. Results indicated improvement in reading, visual attention, and speed of processing in children with RD. Following training, greater functional connectivity was observed between the left fusiform gyrus and the right anterior cingulate cortex in children with RD and between the left fusiform gyrus and the left anterior cingulate cortex in TRs. The change in functional connectivity after training was correlated with increased behavioral scores for word reading and visual attention in both groups. The results support previous findings of improved monitoring and mental lexicon after training with the Reading Acceleration Program in children with RD and TRs. The differences in laterality of the anterior cingulate cortex in children with RD and the presumable role of the cingulo-opercular control network in language processing are discussed.

  11. Effect of recycling activities on the heating value of solid waste: case study of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (Metro Vancouver).

    PubMed

    Abedini, Ali R; Atwater, James W; Fu, George Yuzhu

    2012-08-01

    Two main goals of the integrated solid waste management system (ISWMS) of Metro Vancouver (MV) include further recycling of waste and energy recovery via incineration of waste. These two very common goals, however, are not always compatible enough to fit in an ISWMS depending on waste characteristics and details of recycling programs. This study showed that recent recycling activities in MV have negatively affected the net heating value (NHV) of municipal solid waste (MSW) in this regional district. Results show that meeting MV's goal for additional recycling of MSW by 2015 will further reduce the NHV of waste, if additional recycling activities are solely focused on more extensive recycling of packaging materials (e.g. paper and plastic). It is concluded that 50% additional recycling of paper and plastic in MV will increase the overall recycling rate to 70% (as targeted by the MV for 2015) and result in more than 8% reduction in NHV of MSW. This reduction translates to up to 2.3 million Canadian dollar (CAD$) less revenue at a potential waste-to-energy (WTE) plant with 500 000 tonnes year(-1) capacity. Properly designed recycling programmes, however, can make this functional element of ISWMS compatible with green goals of energy recovery from waste. Herein an explanation of how communities can increase their recycling activities without affecting the feasibility of potential WTE projects is presented.

  12. A 3-D evaluation of the MACC reanalysis dust product over the greater European region using CALIOP/CALIPSO satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgoulias, Aristeidis K.; Tsikerdekis, Athanasios; Amiridis, Vassilis; Marinou, Eleni; Benedetti, Angela; Zanis, Prodromos; Kourtidis, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    Significant amounts of dust are being transferred on an annual basis over the Mediterranean Basin and continental Europe from Northern Africa (Sahara Desert) and Middle East (Arabian Peninsula) as well as from other local sources. Dust affects a number of processes in the atmosphere modulating weather and climate also having an impact on human health and the economy. Therefore, the ability of simulating adequately the amount and optical properties of dust is essential. This work focuses on the evaluation of the MACC reanalysis dust product over the regions mentioned above. The evaluation procedure is based on pure dust satellite retrievals from CALIOP/CALIPSO that cover the period 2007-2012. The CALIOP/CALIPSO data utilized here come from an optimized retrieval scheme that was originally developed within the framework of the LIVAS (Lidar Climatology of Vertical Aerosol Structure for Space-Based LIDAR Simulation Studies) project. CALIOP/CALIPSO dust extinction coefficients and dust optical depth patterns at 532 nm are used for the validation of MACC natural aerosol extinction coefficients and dust optical depth patterns at 550 nm. Overall, it is shown in this work that space-based lidars may play a major role in the improvement of the MACC aerosol product. This research has been financed under the FP7 Programme MarcoPolo (Grand Number 606953, Theme SPA.2013.3.2-01).

  13. Regaining momentum for international climate policy beyond Copenhagen

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The 'Copenhagen Accord' fails to deliver the political framework for a fair, ambitious and legally-binding international climate agreement beyond 2012. The current climate policy regime dynamics are insufficient to reflect the realities of topical complexity, actor coalitions, as well as financial, legal and institutional challenges in the light of extreme time constraints to avoid 'dangerous' climate change of more than 2°C. In this paper we analyze these stumbling blocks for international climate policy and discuss alternatives in order to regain momentum for future negotiations. PMID:20525341

  14. Copenhagen Revisited: why the Germansdid not Achieve AN Atomic Bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustig, Harry

    2002-10-01

    Michael Frayn's highly acclaimed play "Copenhagen", which reenacts the 1941 visit by Werner Heisenberg to Niels Bohr in Nazi-occupied Copenhagen, has now closed after a production in New York that won a Pulitzer Prize, and a successful tour of many cities in the US. Symposia in New York, Washington, Cambridge, Pasadena, and Raleigh have presented the science - quantum mechanics and nuclear physics - that undergirds the play, have debated its historical accuracy, and have celebrated its theatrical realization. The play, the symposia, and recently released documents have led to a new and heightened debate about old questions, among them why Heisenberg visited Bohr, what went on during their uncongenial meeting, and why the Germans did not succeed in building an atomic bomb. This in turn has resulted in a plethora of sometimes polemical articles in journals and magazines, that try to answer the questions. In this talk I will review some of the evidence, in particular about the German failure to make a bomb. While I will concentrate on the physics, the "political" factors will also be adumbrated.

  15. Unravelling Copenhagen's stride into the Anthropocene using lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Norman; Andersen, Thorbjørn J.; Frei, Robert; Ilsøe, Peter; Louchouarn, Patrick; Andersen, Kenneth; Funder, Svend; Rasmussen, Peter; Andresen, Camilla S.; Odgaard, Bent; Kjær, Kurt H.

    2014-05-01

    Industrialization including the effects of expanding energy consumption and metallurgy production as well as population growth and demographic pressure increased heavy-metal pollution loads progressively since the Industrial Revolution. Especially the burning of fossil fuels mobilizes heavy metals like lead and zinc on a large scale. By wet and dry deposition, these loads end up in the aquatic environment where sediments serve as sinks for these contaminations. In this study, we examine the pollution history of Copenhagen, Denmark. A sediment core was retrieved for the lake in the Botanical Gardens in central Copenhagen using a rod-operated piston corer. The water body used to be part of the old town's defence-wall system and was turned into a lake by terrain levelling in the mid 17th century. After initial X-ray fluorescence core scanning, element concentrations were determined using emission spectroscopy. The onset of gyttja accumulation in the lake is assumed to start immediately after the construction of the fortification in approximately AD 1645. An age model representing the last approximately 135 years for the uppermost 60cm was established by lead-210 and cesium-137 dating. The older part was dated via recognition of markedly increased levels of levoglucosan which are interpreted to be linked with recorded fires in Copenhagen. Similarly, two distinct layers interstratify the sediment column and mark pronounced increases of minerogenic material inflow which can be linked to known historical events. Significant pollution load increases are evident from the 1700s along with urban growth and extended combustion of carbon carriers fuels such as wood and coals. However, a more pronounced increase in lead and zinc deposition only begins by the mid-19th century. Maxima for the latter two pollutants are reached in the late 1970s followed by a reduction of emissions in accordance with stricter environmental regulations. Here, especially the phasing-out of tetraethyl

  16. The Kantian element in the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cale, David Lee

    In Quantum Physics and the Philosophical Tradition, Aage Petersen makes the troubling claim that the entirety of the tradition of Western philosophy is "deconstructed" by quantum mechanics. This viewpoint applies, especially, to the relationship between Kantian philosophy and quantum theory. It is generally accepted that quantum mechanics, in its Copenhagen interpretation, has destroyed all validity for the classical belief in a deterministic underlying reality, a belief sustained throughout the nineteenth century through a philosophical ground in Kant's critical philosophy. This dissertation takes on the daunting task of determining what, if any, relationship can be had between contemporary physics and Kantian philosophy. It begins with a historical review of the challenges posed for Kant's arguments and proposed solutions, especially those offered by Cassirer. It then turns to the task of providing the Western philosophical tradition with an interpretation apart from Petersen's, which sees it as concerned only with the problem of being. The offered solution is the suggestion that Western philosophy be understood as a struggle, between epistemological and ontological perspectives, to provide a context for the various descriptions of nature provided by human scientific progress. Kant's philosophy is then interpreted as an effort to provide Newtonian physics with a valid context in the face of Hume's skepticism. The finding is that Kant was the first to suggest that an object does not acquire the spatio-temporal properties used in its physical description until introduced to an observer. The dissertation concludes that the authors of the Copenhagen interpretation were essentially engaged in Kant's enterprise through their attempt to provide an observer based context for the spatio-temporal descriptive principles used in the physics of their time.

  17. Calculation of odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport.

    PubMed

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Oxbøl, Arne

    2006-07-31

    In a new approach the odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport are calculated using actual fuel flow and emission measurements (one main engine and one APU: Auxiliary Power Unit), odour panel results, engine specific data and aircraft operational data for seven busy days. The calculation principle assumes a linear relation between odour and HC emissions. Using a digitalisation of the aircraft movements in the airport area, the results are depicted on grid maps, clearly reflecting aircraft operational statistics as single flights or total activity during a whole day. The results clearly reflect the short-term temporal fluctuations of the emissions of odour (and exhaust gases). Aircraft operating at low engine thrust (taxiing, queuing and landing) have a total odour emission share of almost 98%, whereas the shares for the take off/climb out phases (2%) and APU usage (0.5%) are only marginal. In most hours of the day, the largest odour emissions occur, when the total amount of fuel burned during idle is high. However, significantly higher HC emissions for one specific engine cause considerable amounts of odour emissions during limited time periods. The experimentally derived odour emission factor of 57 OU/mg HC is within the range of 23 and 110 OU/mg HC used in other airport odour studies. The distribution of odour emission results between aircraft operational phases also correspond very well with the results for these other studies. The present study uses measurement data for a representative engine. However, the uncertainties become large when the experimental data is used to estimate the odour emissions for all aircraft engines. More experimental data is needed to increase inventory accuracy, and in terms of completeness it is recommended to make odour emission estimates also for engine start and the fuelling of aircraft at Copenhagen Airport in the future.

  18. Calculation of odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport.

    PubMed

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Oxbøl, Arne

    2006-07-31

    In a new approach the odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport are calculated using actual fuel flow and emission measurements (one main engine and one APU: Auxiliary Power Unit), odour panel results, engine specific data and aircraft operational data for seven busy days. The calculation principle assumes a linear relation between odour and HC emissions. Using a digitalisation of the aircraft movements in the airport area, the results are depicted on grid maps, clearly reflecting aircraft operational statistics as single flights or total activity during a whole day. The results clearly reflect the short-term temporal fluctuations of the emissions of odour (and exhaust gases). Aircraft operating at low engine thrust (taxiing, queuing and landing) have a total odour emission share of almost 98%, whereas the shares for the take off/climb out phases (2%) and APU usage (0.5%) are only marginal. In most hours of the day, the largest odour emissions occur, when the total amount of fuel burned during idle is high. However, significantly higher HC emissions for one specific engine cause considerable amounts of odour emissions during limited time periods. The experimentally derived odour emission factor of 57 OU/mg HC is within the range of 23 and 110 OU/mg HC used in other airport odour studies. The distribution of odour emission results between aircraft operational phases also correspond very well with the results for these other studies. The present study uses measurement data for a representative engine. However, the uncertainties become large when the experimental data is used to estimate the odour emissions for all aircraft engines. More experimental data is needed to increase inventory accuracy, and in terms of completeness it is recommended to make odour emission estimates also for engine start and the fuelling of aircraft at Copenhagen Airport in the future. PMID:16194561

  19. Safety of the intradermal Copenhagen 1331 BCG vaccine in neonates in Durban, South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Jeena, P. M.; Chhagan, M. K.; Topley, J.; Coovadia, H. M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety of the intradermal Copenhagen BCG vaccine in neonates at different levels of delivery and neonatal units of the Durban Functional Region and surrounding regions. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out over a two-year period between July 1997 and June 1999. All neonates who had been vaccinated with the intradermal vaccine were evaluated at immunization clinics six weeks after immunization, or earlier if adverse effects occurred. FINDINGS: In total, 9763 neonates were examined: in 95.4% the vaccination scar had healed and 1.5% had no visible scar. Adverse events occurred in 3.1%. The proportion of neonates with no visible vaccination scars decreased over the study period, as did the number with adverse events. The lowest rate of adverse events and the highest rates of healed vaccination scars were seen in the tertiary hospital and regional and district hospitals that were in close proximity to the academic centre involved in this study. CONCLUSIONS: In the study sites, the transition from the percutaneous to intradermal route of administration of BCG vaccine was successful and took place without incurring unacceptably high rates of adverse events. To minimize adverse events, however, it is essential to continue training health personnel involved in implementing intradermal BCG vaccination programmes. PMID:11357213

  20. Hemolymphangioma of Greater Omentum

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sagar; Fan, Miao; Chang, Dandan; Zhu, Junfeng; Zhu, Ying; Li, Ziping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hemolymphangioma is a rare vascular developmental error. It comprises malformed venous and lymphatic component in various proportion. To the best of our knowledge, only a few cases have been reported in the literature so far. Here, we report a case of huge intraperitoneal cystic mass in a 3-year-old boy that was presented to hospital with intractable abdominal pain. On examination, he had fever along with associated symptoms like cough and sputum. Abdomen was distended with no tenderness or rebound tenderness. On computed tomography scan, huge cystic mass was seen and was diagnosed as intraperitoneal benign cystic lesion. Excisional surgery of the lesion was planned. On surgery, lesion was found to be originated from greater omentum and no adhesion was seen in surrounding tissue. Complete excision of the lesion was done. Histopathological specimen after surgery suggested it to be hemolymphangioma. Follow-up for 6 months showed no recurrence. Hemolymphangioma of the greater omentum is benign tumor and accurate diagnosis before surgery is still a challenge. Presentation of disease may vary from simple well-defined cystic lesion to aggressive ill-defined lesion mimicking malignancy. Therefore, further research is needed to help doctor with preoperative radiological diagnosis and avoid unnecessary radical surgery. PMID:27124058

  1. Micropollutants in stormwater runoff and combined sewer overflow in the Copenhagen area, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Birch, H; Mikkelsen, P S; Jensen, J K; Lützhøft, H-C Holten

    2011-01-01

    Stormwater runoff contains a broad range of micropollutants. In Europe a number of these substances are regulated through the Water Framework Directive, which establishes Environmental Quality Standards (EQSs) for surface waters. Knowledge about discharge of these substances through stormwater runoff and combined sewer overflows (CSOs) is essential to ensure compliance with the EQSs. Results from a screening campaign including more than 50 substances at four stormwater discharge locations and one CSO in Copenhagen are reported here. Heavy metal concentrations were detected at levels similar to earlier findings, e.g., with copper found at concentrations up to 13 times greater than the Danish standard for surface waters. The concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exceeded the EQSs by factors up to 500 times for stormwater and 2,000 times for the CSO. Glyphosate was found in all samples whilst diuron, isoproturon, terbutylazine and MCPA were found only in some of the samples. Diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) was also found at all five locations in concentrations exceeding the EQS. The results give a valuable background for designing further monitoring programmes focusing on the chemical status of surface waters in urban areas. PMID:22097024

  2. A Symposium Associated with the Opening of the Play Copenhagen in Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Brian

    2002-12-31

    On March 2, 2002 a special all day symposium was held in conjunction with the opening of the play Copenhagen in Washington. The play Copenhagen reenacts the 1941 visit of Werner Heisenberg, who was then in charge of the Nazi nuclear power program, to Niels Bohr, his mentor, and collaborator in creating quantum mechanics, complementarity, and the uncertainty principle, in German-occupied Denmark. The symposium entitled: THE COPENHAGEN INTERPRETATION: SCIENCE AND HISTORY ON STAGE was presented at the Baird Auditorium, in the National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution. The program consisted of three two-hour sessions: (1) The Science of Copenhagen and its Influence of the 20th Century. (2) Bohr and Heisenberg: A strong Interaction. (3) Theater as Science ??? Science as Theater. The speakers included: Robert C. Card, Under Secretary of Energy; Ulrik Federspiel, Danish Ambassador to the US; John Marburger, III, Science Advisor President Bush; Jerome I. Friedman, MIT; Lene Vestergaard Hau, Harvard University; Richard Rhodes, Author; Rita Colwell, Director, NSF; Jeremy Bernstein, Author; Jochen H. Heisenberg, University of New Hampshire; Finn Aaserud, Director of the Niels Bohr Archive; Vilhelm A. Bohr, NIH; Thomas Powers, Author; Paul Lawrence Rose, Penn State University; Steven Barfield, University of Westminster, Jennifer Uphoff Gray, Associate Director, Copenhagen; Elizabeth Ireland McCann, Producer, Copenhagen; Lloyd Rose, Washington Post. Details of he program and useful information on the play Copenhagen are available on the web site http://web.gc.cuny.edu/ashp/nml/artsci/copenhagen.shtml . The complete symposium was video recorded and the set of 3 two-hour tapes can be obtained through the web site. The symposium was organized by Brian Schwartz, The Graduate Center, CUNY, Harry Lustig, Provost Emeritus at the City College of New York and Arthur Molella, Director, Lemelson Center, Smithsonian Institution. For further information contact Brian

  3. [Relationship between Copenhagen and Göttingen regarding earth magnetism].

    PubMed

    Reich, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Hans Christian Oersted is mostly known as the discoverer of electromagnetism and for being one of the physicists who were deeply influenced and fascinated by the romantic natural philosophy. In this article another side of Oersted is presented. What is underestimated until now is Oersted's contribution to the research of geomagnetism. Oersted stood in close contact with Carl Friedrich Gauss and Wilhelm Weber, whom he visited in 1834 in Göttingen. Oersted's aim was to learn the new developments in geomagnetism. Afterwards he was crucial in the building of a new magnetic observatory in Copenhagen as well as a second one with better equipment. Oersted formed a huge team for magnetic observations and the gathered data were sent to Gauss and Weber who published them. The correspondence between Oersted, Gauss and Weber was mostly dedicated to the transmission of these data, details about instruments and the best way of building a magnetic observatory. Unfortunately, Gauss and Weber had to stop their very successful collaboration in 1843, because Weber belonged to the Göttingen Seven and later on Oersted stopped his observations, because he had lost his partners in this research project. PMID:24195332

  4. [Relationship between Copenhagen and Göttingen regarding earth magnetism].

    PubMed

    Reich, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Hans Christian Oersted is mostly known as the discoverer of electromagnetism and for being one of the physicists who were deeply influenced and fascinated by the romantic natural philosophy. In this article another side of Oersted is presented. What is underestimated until now is Oersted's contribution to the research of geomagnetism. Oersted stood in close contact with Carl Friedrich Gauss and Wilhelm Weber, whom he visited in 1834 in Göttingen. Oersted's aim was to learn the new developments in geomagnetism. Afterwards he was crucial in the building of a new magnetic observatory in Copenhagen as well as a second one with better equipment. Oersted formed a huge team for magnetic observations and the gathered data were sent to Gauss and Weber who published them. The correspondence between Oersted, Gauss and Weber was mostly dedicated to the transmission of these data, details about instruments and the best way of building a magnetic observatory. Unfortunately, Gauss and Weber had to stop their very successful collaboration in 1843, because Weber belonged to the Göttingen Seven and later on Oersted stopped his observations, because he had lost his partners in this research project.

  5. An independent analysis of the Copenhagen sample of the Danish adoption study of schizophrenia. III. The relationship between paranoid psychosis (delusional disorder) and the schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Kendler, K S; Gruenberg, A M; Strauss, J S

    1981-09-01

    To genetic relationship between paranoid psychosis (delusional disorder) and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder) is examined by a blind independent diagnostic evaluation of the interviews of relatives from the greater Copenhagen sample of the Danish Adoption Study of Schizophrenia. While cases of schizophrenia spectrum disorders are strongly concentrated in the biologic relatives of the schizophrenic adoptees, this pattern is not found for delusional disorder. These results suggest that from a genetic perspective, delusional disorder is not part of the schizophrenia spectrum.

  6. Music Lending and Listening in Hospitals with Particular Reference to the Services Offered at Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, B.; Sorensen, M.

    Services provided by the library at Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark, are discussed, including patient and personnel lending, exhibitions, films, nursing school library, medical library, and music lending. (RAO)

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia infection in cystic fibrosis patients treated in Toronto and Copenhagen.

    PubMed

    Johansen, H K; Kovesi, T A; Koch, C; Corey, M; Høiby, N; Levison, H

    1998-08-01

    Differences in the course of pulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) may be altered by different treatment strategies in different CF centers. The Copenhagen clinic uses scheduled, regular and very aggressive treatment of lung infection. The Toronto clinic treats pulmonary infection with oral, inhaled, or intravenous antibiotics, and has emphasized aggressive nutritional therapy. This study compared the clinical status of CF patients treated in the two centers (Toronto, Canada, n=302, and Copenhagen, Denmark, n=214) using a cross-sectional design in terms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and Burkholderia cepacia (BC) lung infections, pulmonary function, and levels of PA and BC precipitating antibodies (precipitins). Median ages were similar, but the age distribution was significantly different, with a higher proportion of patients under 10 and > or = 25 years in Toronto, and higher proportion of patients 11-24 years of age in Copenhagen. A higher number of female patients was observed in Copenhagen than in Toronto. Seventy-nine percent of Copenhagen patients, and 52% of Toronto patients were deltaF508 homozygous. Of all the patients, 20.1% of Copenhagen patients and 38% of Toronto patients were deltaF508 heterozygous. Ten percent of Toronto patients had two uncommon mutations. Pulmonary function and nutritional status in both groups were similar despite varying treatment strategies. The prevalence of PA was lower in Danish children and higher in Danish adults than in Canada. These differences are probably due to cohort isolation, which was introduced in Copenhagen in 1981. The prevalence of BC was higher in Toronto than in Copenhagen patients at all ages. In both centers, the number of PA and BC precipitins increased with age in patients chronically infected with PA and BC, respectively, and the number of both PA and BC precipitins rose with declining lung function. This study suggests that the clinic populations had similar pulmonary and nutritional statuses

  8. From Identity to Facility--The New Buildings for the Faculty of Humanities at the University of Copenhagen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabrielsen, Magnus; Saugstad, Tone

    2007-01-01

    This analysis seeks to unite both an architectural and an educational perspective on the transformation of the university into a postmodern institution. Our point of departure is an analysis of the new buildings for the Faculty of Humanities University of Copenhagen which are located on the island area of Amager, to the south of Copenhagen's…

  9. Mapping a buried Quaternary valley and pre-Quaternary faults through seismic methods in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Kerim; Alfredo Mendoza, Jose; Henrik, Olsen

    2010-05-01

    Limited knowledge of the subsurface geology motivates the use of geophysical techniques before large engineering projects are conducted. These applications are normally restricted to satisfy the project aims, like mapping the near surface sediments, unconsolidated rocks and/or geological structures that may affect the construction locally. However, the applications can also contribute to the general knowledge of the regional geology around the location of interest. This report highlights the mapping of a buried Quaternary valley and identification of regional faults by a reflection and refraction seismic survey performed in Copenhagen. A 13.9 Km seismic survey was carried out at Copenhagen city along six crooked lines in order to determine the velocity fields in the near subsurface segment of a planned metro line and reflection patterns in deeper levels. The aim of the survey was to collect information needed for designing the underground metro. In particular it was sought to map the interface between Quaternary sedimentary layers of clay, till and sand, and the underlying layers of Palaeogene limestone found between 7 and 40 m below the ground surface. The data acquisition was carried out using a 192 channels array, receiver groups with 5 m spacing and a Vibroseis as a source at 5 m spacing following a roll along technique to complete the survey spreads. The urban environment demanded extensive survey planning including traffic control, notifications to residents and a fluent coordination with municipal authorities in order to minimize disturbances and ensure data acquisition. The reflection data was processed under a conventional scheme and the refraction data was interpreted using a non-linear traveltime tomography algorithm. The reflection results indicate the presence of faults oriented NW-SE to NNW-SSE affecting the limestone sequences. The faults may be associated to the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone at the transition between the Danish Basin and the Baltic

  10. Burnout and Wellbeing: Testing the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory in New Zealand Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milfont, Taciano L.; Denny, Simon; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Robinson, Elizabeth; Merry, Sally

    2008-01-01

    The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) is a public domain questionnaire measuring the degree of physical and psychological fatigue experienced in three sub-dimensions of burnout: personal, work-related, and client-related burnout. This study first examines the reliability and validity of the CBI in measuring burnout in New Zealand secondary school…

  11. The Copenhagen Neuroaesthetics Conference: Prospects and Pitfalls for an Emerging Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadal, Marcos; Pearce, Marcus T.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroaesthetics is a young field of research concerned primarily with the neural basis of cognitive and affective processes engaged when an individual takes an aesthetic or artistic approach towards a work of art, a non-artistic object or a natural phenomenon. In September 2009, the "Copenhagen Neuroaesthetics Conference" brought together leading…

  12. Periodic, escape and chaotic orbits in the Copenhagen and the (n + 1)-body ring problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrio, Roberto; Blesa, Fernando; Serrano, Sergio

    2009-05-01

    This paper studies the use of recent computational techniques in the numerical study of qualitative properties of two degrees of freedom Hamiltonian systems. Two particular problems, the Copenhagen and the (n + 1)-body ring problems, are studied by using Chaos Indicators, the Crash Test and by computing the skeleton of symmetric periodic orbits.

  13. The impact of climate change on mental health (but will mental health be discussed at Copenhagen?).

    PubMed

    Page, L A; Howard, L M

    2010-02-01

    Climate change will shortly be assuming centre stage when Copenhagen hosts the United Nations Climate Change Conference in early December 2009. In Copenhagen, delegates will discuss the international response to climate change (i.e. the ongoing increase in the Earth's average surface temperature) and the meeting is widely viewed as the most important of its kind ever held (http://en.cop15.dk/). International agreement will be sought on a treaty to replace the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. At the time of writing it is not known whether agreement will be reached on the main issues of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and financing the impacts of climate change, and it appears that the impact of climate change on mental health is unlikely to be on the agenda. We discuss here how climate change could have consequences for global mental health and consider the implications for future research and policy. PMID:20077587

  14. The impact of climate change on mental health (but will mental health be discussed at Copenhagen?).

    PubMed

    Page, L A; Howard, L M

    2010-02-01

    Climate change will shortly be assuming centre stage when Copenhagen hosts the United Nations Climate Change Conference in early December 2009. In Copenhagen, delegates will discuss the international response to climate change (i.e. the ongoing increase in the Earth's average surface temperature) and the meeting is widely viewed as the most important of its kind ever held (http://en.cop15.dk/). International agreement will be sought on a treaty to replace the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. At the time of writing it is not known whether agreement will be reached on the main issues of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and financing the impacts of climate change, and it appears that the impact of climate change on mental health is unlikely to be on the agenda. We discuss here how climate change could have consequences for global mental health and consider the implications for future research and policy.

  15. Small opacities among dental laboratory technicians in Copenhagen.

    PubMed Central

    Sherson, D; Maltbaek, N; Olsen, O

    1988-01-01

    After a case of advanced pneumoconiosis occurred in a dental laboratory technician, 31 other dental technicians and 30 control subjects controlled for smoking habits, sex, and age were investigated. More technicians (55%) than controls (30%) had at least grade 1 dyspnoea (p greater than 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that 13 technicians who had produced dental prostheses for at least 15 years had consistently lower lung function (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, MEF50, and DCO single breath), although the differences were not statistically significant. All mean lung function values for technicians and controls were within normal limits. Increases in MEF50 after breathing 80% helium and 20% O2 failed to show small airways dysfunction among the technicians. Of the six with radiological pneumoconiosis (5 simple, 1 advanced) four had symptoms. All three biopsy specimens showed varying degrees of pulmonary fibrosis. DCO single breath was diminished in four of the six. One male dental technician had scleroderma and possibly Erasmus syndrome. Blind readings showed an increased number of suspicious chest x rays films (greater than or equal to category 0/1) among older smokers and ex-smokers (p = 0.013) regardless of occupation. Our results support other evidence that dental technicians are at risk of developing pneumoconiosis. Therefore, adequate hygienic control of dental laboratories is indicated. PMID:3378011

  16. Benzene exposure and the effect of traffic pollution in Copenhagen, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skov, Henrik; Hansen, Asger B.; Lorenzen, Gitte; Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Løfstrøm, Per; Christensen, Carsten S.

    Benzene is a carcinogenic compound, which is emitted from petrol-fuelled cars and thus is found ubiquitous in all cities. As part of the project Monitoring of Atmospheric Concentrations of Benzene in European Towns and Homes (MACBETH) six campaigns were carried out in the Municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark. The campaigns were distributed over 1 year. In each campaign, the personal exposure to benzene of 50 volunteers (non-smokers living in non-smoking families) living and working in Copenhagen was measured. Simultaneously, benzene was measured in their homes and in an urban network distributed over the municipality. The Radiello diffusive sampler was applied to sample 5 days averages of benzene and other hydrocarbons. Comparison of the results with those from a BTX-monitor showed excellent agreement. The exposure and the concentrations in homes and in the urban area were found to be close to log-normal distribution. The annual averages of the geometrical mean values were 5.22, 4.30 and 2.90 μg m -3 for personal exposure, home concentrations and urban concentrations, respectively. Two main parameters are controlling the general level of benzene in Copenhagen: firstly, the emission from traffic and secondly, dispersion due to wind speed. The general level of exposure to benzene and home concentrations of benzene were strongly correlated with the outdoor level of benzene, which indicated that traffic is an important source for indoor concentrations of benzene and for the exposure to benzene.

  17. Water Sensitive Urban Design retrofits in Copenhagen - 40% to the sewer, 60% to the city.

    PubMed

    Fryd, O; Backhaus, A; Birch, H; Fratini, C F; Ingvertsen, S T; Jeppesen, J; Panduro, T E; Roldin, M; Jensen, M B

    2013-01-01

    Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) is emerging in Denmark. This interdisciplinary desk study investigated the options for WSUD retrofitting in a 15 km(2) combined sewer catchment area in Copenhagen. The study was developed in collaboration with the City of Copenhagen and its water utility, and involved researchers representing hydrogeology, sewer hydraulics, environmental chemistry/economics/engineering, landscape architecture and urban planning. The resulting catchment strategy suggests the implementation of five sub-strategies. First, disconnection is focused within sites that are relatively easy to disconnect, due to stormwater quality, soil conditions, stakeholder issues, and the provision of unbuilt sites. Second, stormwater runoff is infiltrated in areas with relatively deep groundwater levels at a ratio that doesn't create a critical rise in the groundwater table to the surface. Third, neighbourhoods located near low-lying streams and public parks are disconnected from the sewer system and the sloping terrain is utilised to convey runoff. Fourth, the promotion of coherent blue and green wedges in the city is linked with WSUD retrofits and urban climate-proofing. Fifth, WSUD is implemented with delayed and regulated overflows to the sewer system. The results are partially adopted by the City of Copenhagen and currently under pilot testing.

  18. Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides insights…

  19. Bison in the greater Yellowstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meagher, Mary

    1994-01-01

    In the Greater Yellowstone Area, free-ranging bison occur in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, and Yellowstone National Park. The Yellowstone population is discussed, with emphasis on changes in numbers from approximately 400 in 1968 to about 3500 now. Major influences for change initially were natural; more recently the winter road system used by snowmobiles appeared to be the dominant factor. The situation is in a state of flux. Interagency planning is in progress to address management alternatives for conflicts outside the park.

  20. Paleotectonic and paleogeographic evolution of greater China

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O. )

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we utilize plate tectonic history of Central Asia to constrain understanding of sedimentary basin development and to show how regional scale tectonic events affect play elements for major basins of greater China. Tectonic framework and paleogeography are used as a constraint on models for basin formation, climate distribution and accommodation which in turn control distribution of reservoir, source, seal and trap. Greater China is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonics. It has a protracted history of continental deformation as amalgamation of crustal blocks and island arc/subduction and accretion complexes occurred. Early Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are dominated by extensive carbonate platform and Permian and younger systems are dominated by continental and lacustrine sedimentation. The basement of greater China consists of continental and accretion crust. The crustal blocks include South and North China, Indochina, Tibet and Tarim, and accretion blocks include the Altaids and Manchurides. The relative positions and interactions of these blocks during Paleozic and Mesozoic time resulted in formation of greater China. Final amalgamation and deformation occurred in Eocene time when India collided with Asia. The discussions consist of presentation of a model for tectonic evolution of these blocks and their paleogeography through Phanerozoic time. This is done with maps at 1:8 million scale covering nine time slices, three in the Paleozoic, three in the Mesozoic and three in the Cenozoic.

  1. Paleotectonic and paleogeographic evolution of greater China

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O.

    1996-12-31

    In this study, we utilize plate tectonic history of Central Asia to constrain understanding of sedimentary basin development and to show how regional scale tectonic events affect play elements for major basins of greater China. Tectonic framework and paleogeography are used as a constraint on models for basin formation, climate distribution and accommodation which in turn control distribution of reservoir, source, seal and trap. Greater China is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonics. It has a protracted history of continental deformation as amalgamation of crustal blocks and island arc/subduction and accretion complexes occurred. Early Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are dominated by extensive carbonate platform and Permian and younger systems are dominated by continental and lacustrine sedimentation. The basement of greater China consists of continental and accretion crust. The crustal blocks include South and North China, Indochina, Tibet and Tarim, and accretion blocks include the Altaids and Manchurides. The relative positions and interactions of these blocks during Paleozic and Mesozoic time resulted in formation of greater China. Final amalgamation and deformation occurred in Eocene time when India collided with Asia. The discussions consist of presentation of a model for tectonic evolution of these blocks and their paleogeography through Phanerozoic time. This is done with maps at 1:8 million scale covering nine time slices, three in the Paleozoic, three in the Mesozoic and three in the Cenozoic.

  2. Effects of inherited cores and magmatic overgrowths on zircon (U-Th)/He ages and age-eU trends from Greater Himalayan sequence rocks, Mount Everest region, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orme, Devon A.; Reiners, Peter W.; Hourigan, Jeremy K.; Carrapa, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    Previous constraints on the timing and rate of exhumation of the footwall of the South Tibetan detachment system (STDS) north of Mount Everest suggest rapid Miocene cooling from ˜ 700°C to 120°C between ˜14-17 Ma. However, 25 new single grain zircon He ages from leucogranites intruding Greater Himalayan Sequence rocks in the footwall of the STDS are between 9.9 and 15 Ma, with weighted mean ages between 10 and 12 Ma. Zircon grains exhibit a positive correlation between age and effective uranium (eU). Laser ablation zircon U-Pb geochronology, detailed SEM observations, and laser ablation depth-profiling of these zircons reveal low-eU 0.5-2.5 Ga inherited cores overgrown by high-eU 17-22 Ma rims. This intragranular zonation produces ages as much as 32% too young when a standard alpha-ejection correction assuming uniform eU distribution is applied. Modeling of the effects of varying rim thickness and rim eU concentration on the bulk grain eU and alpha-ejection correction suggests that zonation also exerts the primary control on the form of the age-eU correlation observed. Application of grain-specific zonation-dependent age corrections to our data yields zircon He ages between 14 and 17 Ma, in agreement with AFT and 40Ar/39Ar ages. Growth of magmatic rims followed by cooling to < 120°C within 1-6 million years supports rapid tectonic exhumation associated with slip along the STDS in the Miocene. This study highlights the importance of characterizing parent nuclide zonation in zircon He studies which seek to understand the timing of exhumation along exhumed crustal blocks.

  3. Geographical distribution of torture: An epidemiological study of torture reported by asylum applicants examined at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen.

    PubMed

    Busch, J; Hansen, S H; Hougen, H P

    2015-01-01

    Using reports from 154 examinations of alleged torture victims among asylum applicants to Denmark conducted by the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen, between 2001 and 2013, we have categorized the victims into four geographical regions, as well as according to the conflict that caused them to flee. The torture incidents described by the victims were divided into 12 different categories defined by the Istanbul Protocol. These data were cross referenced in order to identify any differences in the prevalence of the 12 forms of torture. The study showed that crush injuries were only reported by refugees from Asia, including Afghanistan and Pakistan, and that incidents of electrical torture were reported twice as frequently by torture victims from Middle Eastern and North African countries, though it was lower among Iraqis, Iranians and ethnic Kurds. Sexual torture was reported by 78% of females and 25% of males. PMID:26932127

  4. Dominant simple-shear deformation during peak metamorphism for the lower portion of the Greater Himalayan Sequence in West Nepal: New implications for hybrid channel flow-type mechanisms in the Dolpo region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassi, Chiara

    2015-12-01

    I conducted new vorticity and deformation temperatures studies to test competing models of the exhumation of the mid-crustal rocks exposed in the Dolpo region (West Nepal). My results indicate that the Main Central Thrust is located ∼5 km structurally below the previous mapped locations. Deformation temperature increasing up structural section from ∼450 °C to ∼650 °C and overlap with peak metamorphic temperature indicating that penetrative shearing was responsible for the exhumation of the GHS occurred at "close" to peak metamorphic conditions. I interpreted the telescoping and the inversion of the paleo-isotherms at the base of the GHS as produced mainly by a sub-simple shearing (Wm = 0.88-1) pervasively distributed through the lower portion of the GHS. My results are consistent with hybrid channel flow-type models where the boundary between lower and upper portions of the GHS, broadly corresponding to the tectonometamorphic discontinuity recently documented in west Nepal, represents the limit between buried material, affected by dominant simple shearing, and exhumed material affected by a general flow dominates by pure shearing. This interpretation is consistent with the recent models suggesting the simultaneous operation of channel flow- and critical wedge-type processes at different structural depth.

  5. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    PubMed

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide. PMID:22039693

  6. Planning for greater confinement disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    A report that provides guidance for planning for greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste is being prepared. The report addresses procedures for selecting a GCD technology and provides information for implementing these procedures. The focus is on GCD; planning aspects common to GCD and shallow-land burial are covered by reference. Planning procedure topics covered include regulatory requirements, waste characterization, benefit-cost-risk assessment and pathway analysis methodologies, determination of need, waste-acceptance criteria, performance objectives, and comparative assessment of attributes that support these objectives. The major technologies covered include augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, hydrofracture, improved waste forms, and high-integrity containers. Descriptive information is provided, and attributes that are relevant for risk assessment and operational requirements are given. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. [The eye department at Copenhagen municipal hospital. Part 3: the epoch of Braendstrup, 1957-1980].

    PubMed

    Norn, M

    1999-01-01

    Poul Braendstrup (PB 1912-80) was the best qualified to become head of the eye department at Kommunehospitalet (KH) in 1957, with an eminent great scientific production. He continued this work all his life. Three assistant doctors with different specialities were appointed 1966-72: M. Norn (external eye), K. Norskov (strabism) and Sv. E. Lorentzen (retina). Reasons for the ideal cooperation in the department are described (staff-meetings, christmas-staff-arrangements, meetings, courses etc). The number of operations increased steadily in the period, especially cataract-extractions. The newest techniques and instruments were used (cornea-grafting, vitreous surgery, xenoncoagulation (PB study tour in 1962) before laser-treatment etc). The scientific production increases, surpassing Rigshospitalet after 1967. The education was effective at all levels: In the eye-department, doctors evenings, A-and B-courses for eye specialists to become, referring eye specialists, students (from 1972 as an independent part (sect IV) of the University of Copenhagen with an ordinary professor from 1975). It was disturbing with the many removals at KH and at last the final total removal to KKHH (Hvidovre), causing loss of some of the best staff members, instrument breaks, increasing waiting lists up to one year, inconvenience for the patients and many other difficulties. This could be a warning against the continued great movings of departments in Copenhagen (H:S). The administration is criticised. PB's rationalisation of the duty-plan for all Copenhagen eye departments already from 1966 independent of the administration is mentioned.

  8. PCN-index derivation at World Data Center for Geomagnetism, Copenhagen, DTU Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolle, C.; Matzka, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Polar Cap North (PCN) index is based on a correlation between geomagnetic disturbances at the Qaanaaq geomagnetic observatory (IAGA code THL) and the merging electric field derived from solar wind parameters. The index is therefore meant to provide a fast ground based single station indicator for variations in the merging electric field without being dependent on satellite observations. The PC index will be subject to an IAGA endorsement process during IAGA Scientific Assembly 2013. Actually the WDC provides near real time PC-indices and post-processed final PC-indices based on former developed algorithms. However, the coefficients used for calculating the PCN distributed by the WDC Copenhagen are presently not reproducible. In the frame of the IAGA endorsement, DTU Space tests new coefficients mainly based on published algorithms. This presentation will report on activities at the WDC Copenhagen and on the current status at DTU Space with respect to the preparation for the IAGA endorsement process of the PCN-index.

  9. Does intake of trace elements through urban gardening in Copenhagen pose a risk to human health?

    PubMed

    Warming, Marlies; Hansen, Mette G; Holm, Peter E; Magid, Jakob; Hansen, Thomas H; Trapp, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates the potential health risk from urban gardening. The concentrations of the trace elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in five common garden crops from three garden sites in Copenhagen were measured. Concentrations (mg/kg dw) of As were 0.002-0.21, Cd 0.03-0.25, Cr < 0.09-0.38, Cu 1.8-8.7, Ni < 0.23-0.62, Pb 0.05-1.56, and Zn 10-86. Generally, elemental concentrations in the crops do not reflect soil concentrations, nor exceed legal standards for Cd and Pb in food. Hazard quotients (HQs) were calculated from soil ingestion, vegetable consumption, measured trace element concentrations and tolerable intake levels. The HQs for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn do not indicate a health risk through urban gardening in Copenhagen. Exposure to Pb contaminated sites may lead to unacceptable risk not caused by vegetable consumption but by unintentional soil ingestion. PMID:25796073

  10. Traffic-related air pollution: Exposure and health effects in Copenhagen street cleaners and cemetery workers

    SciTech Connect

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Nielsen, M.L.; Gehl, J.

    1995-05-01

    This questionaire-based study found a significantly higher prevalence of chronic bronchitis, asthma, and several other symptoms in 116 Copenhagen street cleaners who were exposed to traffic-related air pollution at levels that were slightly lower than the 1987 World Health Organization-recommended threshold values, compared with 115 Copenhagen cemetery workers exposed to lower pollution levels. Logistic regression analysis, controlling for age and smoking, was conducted, and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to be 2.5 for chronic bronchitis (95% confidence interval = 1.2-5.1), 2.3 for asthma (95% confidence interval = 1.0-5.1), and 1.8-7.9 for other symptoms (95% confidence interval = 1.0-28.2). Except for exposure to air pollution, the two groups were comparable, i.e., they had similar terms of employment and working conditions. the exposure ranges during an 8-h work day, averaged from readings taken at five monitored street positions, were: 41-257 ppb nitric oxide (1-h max: 865 ppb); 23-43 ppb nitrogen dioxide (1-h max: 208 ppb); 1.0-4.3 ppm carbon monoxide (8-h max: 7.1 ppm); 14-28 ppb sulfur dioxide (1-h max; 112 ppb); and 10-38 ppb ozone (1-h max: 72 ppb). 33 refs., 7 tabs.

  11. Does intake of trace elements through urban gardening in Copenhagen pose a risk to human health?

    PubMed

    Warming, Marlies; Hansen, Mette G; Holm, Peter E; Magid, Jakob; Hansen, Thomas H; Trapp, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates the potential health risk from urban gardening. The concentrations of the trace elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in five common garden crops from three garden sites in Copenhagen were measured. Concentrations (mg/kg dw) of As were 0.002-0.21, Cd 0.03-0.25, Cr < 0.09-0.38, Cu 1.8-8.7, Ni < 0.23-0.62, Pb 0.05-1.56, and Zn 10-86. Generally, elemental concentrations in the crops do not reflect soil concentrations, nor exceed legal standards for Cd and Pb in food. Hazard quotients (HQs) were calculated from soil ingestion, vegetable consumption, measured trace element concentrations and tolerable intake levels. The HQs for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn do not indicate a health risk through urban gardening in Copenhagen. Exposure to Pb contaminated sites may lead to unacceptable risk not caused by vegetable consumption but by unintentional soil ingestion.

  12. The Washington Conference on Theoretical Physics: Bringing the Spirit of Copenhagen to Foggy Bottom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, Paul

    2010-02-01

    When George Gamow was offered a position at George Washington University in 1934, one of the conditions he set for acceptance was the establishment of an annual physics conference at that university, co-sponsored by the Carnegie Institution. Foggy Bottom, the Washington neighborhood where GWU is located, was not particularly known for physics. Gamow, however, wished to bring the ``spirit of Copenhagen'' to that locale and attract an international group of theorists. The Washington Conference on Theoretical Physics first convened in 1935 and assembled annually until 1947, except for a three year break during the war. Ironically, just like the Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen itself, the conference was galvanized the most by Bohr's actual presence. In its fifth, and best known meeting, held in 1939, Bohr stunned the audience when he announced the successful completion of nuclear fission. After the tenth meeting in 1947, Gamow's focus had been turning from nuclear physics to cosmology, he had begun to work more closely with graduate students and local collaborators and, in light of diminished interest, the conference was no longer held. In this talk I will delineate the successes and limitations of the Washington Conference on Theoretical Physics. )

  13. Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS): context.

    PubMed

    O'Shannassy, Teresa O

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiology and outcome of malaria control initiatives are affected by a great diversity of factors including environment, economy and politics, to name but a few. Nowhere is this more obvious than in the GMS, where the rapid pace of economic development that has occurred over the past decade has brought with it a raft of changes to environment, employment, transport, communication, and demography and wealth patterns. The GMS, as a subregion, continues to gain increasing political and economic significance and has the potential to become one of the fastest growing regions in the world. While the pace of change is impressive, it has also brought with it new challenges in the fight against malaria. On the one hand, improvement in transport networks such as roads and railways, facilitates increased cross-border trade and development, on the other hand such improvements are likely to result in a massive increase in population movements across borders. As travel becomes easier the numbers of migrant workers moving between areas of high and low transmission, also expands, further increasing the risk of the spread of resistant malaria strains. In addition, the increase in large infrastructure projects such as the construction of dams, as well as agricultural plantations, also potentially lead to changes in vector behavior with unknown consequences for malaria transmission. Effectively addressing the new challenges to malaria control will require renewed commitment, coordination and better collaboration between all sectors from governments and non government organizations in the GMS. PMID:24159829

  14. Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS): context.

    PubMed

    O'Shannassy, Teresa O

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiology and outcome of malaria control initiatives are affected by a great diversity of factors including environment, economy and politics, to name but a few. Nowhere is this more obvious than in the GMS, where the rapid pace of economic development that has occurred over the past decade has brought with it a raft of changes to environment, employment, transport, communication, and demography and wealth patterns. The GMS, as a subregion, continues to gain increasing political and economic significance and has the potential to become one of the fastest growing regions in the world. While the pace of change is impressive, it has also brought with it new challenges in the fight against malaria. On the one hand, improvement in transport networks such as roads and railways, facilitates increased cross-border trade and development, on the other hand such improvements are likely to result in a massive increase in population movements across borders. As travel becomes easier the numbers of migrant workers moving between areas of high and low transmission, also expands, further increasing the risk of the spread of resistant malaria strains. In addition, the increase in large infrastructure projects such as the construction of dams, as well as agricultural plantations, also potentially lead to changes in vector behavior with unknown consequences for malaria transmission. Effectively addressing the new challenges to malaria control will require renewed commitment, coordination and better collaboration between all sectors from governments and non government organizations in the GMS.

  15. Copenhagen 2009: Could a Cap-and-Trade Market Combat Global Warming and Conserve Earth's Tropical Forests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beedle, Harold; Calhoun, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    As the world increasingly comes to terms with the reality of global warming, international negotiators are struggling to work out the terms of a new climate change framework to be finalized this December in Copenhagen, Denmark. One aspect being discussed is a plan to compensate developing countries for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by…

  16. Minority Language Rights before and after the 2004 EU Enlargement: The Copenhagen Criteria in the Baltic States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrey, Jean-Bernard

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of the recent European Union (EU) enlargement on minority language policies in the Baltic states, and in particular in Latvia and Estonia. I first look at the so-called Copenhagen political criteria conditioning EU accession and at the European Commission's monitoring system for assessing applicant countries'…

  17. The Role of Reflection in the Pedagogical Thinking and Practice of the MPA Programme at Copenhagen Business School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ry Nielsen, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Reflection plays a significant role in the pedagogical thinking and practice at the Copenhagen Business School Master of Public Administration Programme. It is thus embedded in one of the pedagogical models we have developed based on ideas from Argyris, Schön, Vygotsky, Senge, Lave and Wenger, and Schein. The model has four interrelated…

  18. Apparent Temperature and Cause-Specific Mortality in Copenhagen, Denmark: A Case-Crossover Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Janine; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Ketzel, Matthias; Ellermann, Thomas; Loft, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Temperature, a key climate change indicator, is expected to increase substantially in the Northern Hemisphere, with potentially grave implications for human health. This study is the first to investigate the association between the daily 3-hour maximum apparent temperature (Tappmax), and respiratory, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality in Copenhagen (1999–2006) using a case-crossover design. Susceptibility was investigated for age, sex, socio-economic status and place of death. For an inter-quartile range (7 °C) increase in Tappmax, an inverse association was found with cardiovascular mortality (−7% 95% CI −13%; −1%) and none with respiratory and cerebrovascular mortality. In the cold period all associations were inverse, although insignificant. PMID:22016711

  19. The Copenhagen Neuroaesthetics Conference: prospects and pitfalls for an emerging field.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Marcos; Pearce, Marcus T

    2011-06-01

    Neuroaesthetics is a young field of research concerned primarily with the neural basis of cognitive and affective processes engaged when an individual takes an aesthetic or artistic approach towards a work of art, a non-artistic object or a natural phenomenon. In September 2009, the Copenhagen Neuroaesthetics Conference brought together leading researchers in the field to present and discuss current advances. We summarize some of the principal themes of the conference, placing neuroaesthetics in a historical context and discussing its scope and relation to other disciplines. We also identify what we believe to be the key outstanding questions, the main pitfalls and challenges faced by the field, and some promising avenues for future research. PMID:21334125

  20. Release of cadmium, copper and lead from urban soils of Copenhagen.

    PubMed

    Li, Lijun; Holm, Peter E; Marcussen, Helle; Bruun Hansen, Hans Christian

    2014-04-01

    We studied the bonding and release kinetics of Cd, Cu and Pb from different soils in the older metropolitan area of Copenhagen. Total Cd, Cu and Pb concentrations were elevated 5-27 times in the urban soils compared to an agricultural reference soil, with Cd and Pb in mainly mobilisable pools and Cu in strongly bound pools. The soils were subjected to accelerated leaching studies in Ca(NO3)2 or HNO3 solutions resulting in release up to 78, 18 and 15% of total Cd, Cu and Pb soil concentrations over a period of 15 weeks. The relative initial Cd and Pb release rates increased 10 fold when pH decreased 2 and 3 units, respectively, while increases in Cu release rates were only seen at pH below 4. The total leachable Cu and Pb pools were higher in urban soils compared the agricultural reference soil but not for Cd.

  1. Extracts of airborne particulates collected at different locations in the Copenhagen area induce the expression of cytochrome P-450IA1

    SciTech Connect

    Roepstorff, V.; Ostenfeldt, N.; Autrup, H. )

    1990-08-01

    Acetone extracts of airborne particulates collected at different sites in the greater Copenhagen area were tested for their ability to induce the expression of cytochrome P-450IA1 RNA in a human breast cancer cell line, T47-D. The induction efficiency was expressed as an benz(a) anthracene equivalents, that is, the amount of benz(a)anthracene required to give the same level of induction. A significantly higher level of induction of P-450IA1 RNA was seen with samples collected on days with a smog alert. The inducibility of samples collected in rural areas was lower, but no significant difference in inducibility was found between samples collected in urban and suburban areas. Lack of correlation between the mutagenic activity in the Ames assay and the P-450IA1-inducing activity of the samples suggests that the complex mixture of compounds found in airborne particulates may have different biological activities in the two short-term test systems. Measurements of P-450IA1 inducibility provide a new, sensitive approach to assess the biological activity of material present in air pollution. The presence in airborne particulates of chemical compounds that induce cytochrome P-450IA1 an enzyme responsible for the metabolism of ubiquitous chemical carcinogens, suggests that the general environment may change an individual's response to the impact of exogenous chemicals, including the carcinogens present in cigarette smoke.

  2. Water quality improvement plan for Greater Vancouver

    SciTech Connect

    Foellmi, S.N. . Environmental Div.); Neden, D.G. ); Dawson, R.N. )

    1993-10-01

    The Greater Vancouver Regional District commissioned an 18-month planning and predesign study to define the components in a comprehensive water and predesign study to define the components in a comprehensive water quality improvement plan for its 2,500-ML/d (660-mgd) system. The study included three primary tasks: (1) predesign of disinfection and corrosion control facilities, (2) a 12-month pilot testing program using parallel pilot plants at the Seymour and Capilano water supply reservoirs, and (3) planning for future filtration plants. The results of the study identified chlorine, ammonia, sulfur dioxide, soda ash, and carbon dioxide in a two-stage treatment approach as the recommended disinfection and corrosion control scheme for the low-pH, low-alkalinity water supplies. The pilot-plant studies confirmed that direct filtration using deep-bed monomedium filters operating at a loading rate of 22.5 m/h provided excellent treatment performance and productivity over a wide range of raw-water quality. Ozonation was studied extensively and found not to be beneficial in the overall treatment performance. The phased improvement plan for the disinfection, corrosion control, and filtration facilities has an estimated capital cost of about Can$459 million.

  3. The emergence of Quantum Schools: Munich, Göttingen and Copenhagen as new centers of atomic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, M.

    2001-01-01

    The institutes of Arnold Sommerfeld in Munich, Niels Bohr in Copenhagen, and Max Born in Göttingen became the leading centers for the study of quantum theory in the first decades of the twentieth century. Although founded for a broader range of theoretical physics, the quantum became the major topic of research in Munich after the Bohr-Sommerfeld-model of the atom (1913-16). The heyday came in the 1920s, when Bohr's and Born's institutes started operation and became further attractive centers for ambitious theorists all over the world. The discovery of quantum mechanics (1925) should be regarded not only as the achievement of a few young geniuses (in particular Werner Heisenberg and Wolfgang Pauli) but also as the result of a collaborative effort emerging in the new social and intellectual environment of their teachers' schools in Munich, Göttingen and Copenhagen.

  4. [Copenhagen Dental School Department of Forensic Dentistry--25 years of activity].

    PubMed

    Keiser-Nielsen, S

    1989-12-01

    The Dept. of Forensic Odontology at the Royal Dental College of Copenhagen opened on 1 January 1964. The present article is a short survey of the case load handled over the following 25 years. Table 1 shows the distribution of single cases: the first two columns (U-D = unknown dead persons) in that a total of 444 postmortem dental descriptions were made (by oral autopsy) and that 255 of them led to dental identification; the next two columns (K-S = known missing persons) indicate that a total of 538 antemortem dental descriptions were established (mostly by extraction from private practitioners' records and radiographs), 255 of them being those that led to the already mentioned identifications. The column marked "B-M" shows the number of bite mark cases handled, while the column marked "A-E" concerns dental age evaluation of children adopted from or immigrated from areas with questionnable (if not totally missing) birth registration. The column marked "Var" lists a number of cases that did not fit into the other categories. Table 2 is a survey of the six airplane crashes and three hotel fires that occurred during the same 25 years: the first column shows the total number of victims, the second column the number of victims we were allowed to examine, and the third column the resulting number of dental identifications.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. The role of natural environments within women's everyday health and wellbeing in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Felicity

    2015-09-01

    Urbanisation has been linked with sedentary lifestyles and poor mental health outcomes amongst women. The potential for natural environments to enhance physical activity and mental wellbeing in urban areas is now well recognised. However, little is known about the ways that women use natural spaces for health and wellbeing within the context of their everyday lives. This paper draws on ideas developed in the therapeutic landscapes literature to examine how experiences in different types of green and blue space provide important health and wellbeing benefits for women in Copenhagen, Denmark. As well as facilitating physical exercise, such spaces were found to enable a range of more subtle benefits that helped to restore mental wellbeing through stress and anxiety alleviation, the facilitation of emotional perspective, clarity and reassurance, and through the maintenance of positive family dynamics. However, amongst some women who were overweight, the socio-political associations they made with natural environments deterred use of such spaces. Such findings challenge dominant planning and policy assumptions that equate open public access to natural spaces with universal benefit. PMID:25435057

  6. Holistic assessment of a secondary water supply for a new development in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Rygaard, M; Godskesen, B; Jørgensen, C; Hoffmann, B

    2014-11-01

    Increasing stress on water resources is driving urban water utilities to establish new concepts for water supply. This paper presents the consequences of proposed alternative water supply options using a unique combination of quantitative and qualitative methods from different research fields. A former industrial harbor area in Copenhagen, Denmark, is currently under development and all infrastructure will be updated to accommodate 40,000 inhabitants and 40,000 jobs in the future. To reduce stress on water resources it has been proposed to establish a secondary water supply in the area as an alternative to the conventional groundwater-based drinking water supply. Four alternative concepts for a secondary water supply have been considered: 1) slightly polluted groundwater for use in toilets and laundry, 2) desalinated brackish water for use in toilets, laundry, and dishwashers, 3) desalinated brackish water for all uses, including drinking water, and 4) local reclamation of rain and gray water for use in toilets and laundry. The concepts have been evaluated for their technical feasibility, economy, health risks, and public acceptance, while the concepts' environmental sustainability has been assessed using lifecycle assessment and freshwater use impact methods. The holistic assessment method exposes conflicting preference solutions depending on assessment criteria, and reveals multi-faceted consequences for choices in urban water management. Not one concept turns out unambiguously positive based on the evaluation criteria included here, but the systematic evaluation will leave decision-makers informed on the consequences of their choices.

  7. Time separation as a hidden variable to the Copenhagen school of quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y. S.; Noz, M. E.

    2011-03-28

    The Bohr radius is a space-like separation between the proton and electron in the hydrogen atom. According to the Copenhagen school of quantum mechanics, the proton is sitting in the absolute Lorentz frame. If this hydrogen atom is observed from a different Lorentz frame, there is a time-like separation linearly mixed with the Bohr radius. Indeed, the time-separation is one of the essential variables in high-energy hadronic physics where the hadron is a bound state of the quarks, while thoroughly hidden in the present form of quantum mechanics. It will be concluded that this variable is hidden in Feynman's rest of the universe. It is noted first that Feynman's Lorentz-invariant differential equation for the bound-state quarks has a set of solutions which describe all essential features of hadronic physics. These solutions explicitly depend on the time separation between the quarks. This set also forms the mathematical basis for two-mode squeezed states in quantum optics, where both photons are observable, but one of them can be treated a variable hidden in the rest of the universe. The physics of this two-mode state can then be translated into the time-separation variable in the quark model. As in the case of the un-observed photon, the hidden time-separation variable manifests itself as an increase in entropy and uncertainty.

  8. Holistic assessment of a secondary water supply for a new development in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Rygaard, M; Godskesen, B; Jørgensen, C; Hoffmann, B

    2014-11-01

    Increasing stress on water resources is driving urban water utilities to establish new concepts for water supply. This paper presents the consequences of proposed alternative water supply options using a unique combination of quantitative and qualitative methods from different research fields. A former industrial harbor area in Copenhagen, Denmark, is currently under development and all infrastructure will be updated to accommodate 40,000 inhabitants and 40,000 jobs in the future. To reduce stress on water resources it has been proposed to establish a secondary water supply in the area as an alternative to the conventional groundwater-based drinking water supply. Four alternative concepts for a secondary water supply have been considered: 1) slightly polluted groundwater for use in toilets and laundry, 2) desalinated brackish water for use in toilets, laundry, and dishwashers, 3) desalinated brackish water for all uses, including drinking water, and 4) local reclamation of rain and gray water for use in toilets and laundry. The concepts have been evaluated for their technical feasibility, economy, health risks, and public acceptance, while the concepts' environmental sustainability has been assessed using lifecycle assessment and freshwater use impact methods. The holistic assessment method exposes conflicting preference solutions depending on assessment criteria, and reveals multi-faceted consequences for choices in urban water management. Not one concept turns out unambiguously positive based on the evaluation criteria included here, but the systematic evaluation will leave decision-makers informed on the consequences of their choices. PMID:25150737

  9. New solar twins and the metallicity and temperature scales of the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datson, Juliet; Flynn, Chris; Portinari, Laura

    2012-10-01

    We search for 'solar twins' in the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey (GCS) using high-resolution optical spectroscopy. We initially select Sun-like stars from the GCS by absolute magnitude, (b - y) colour and metallicity close to the solar values. Our aim is to find the stars which are spectroscopically very close to the Sun using line depth ratios and the median equivalent widths and depths of selected lines with a range of excitation potentials. We present the 10 best stars fulfilling combined photometric and spectroscopic criteria, of which six are new twins. We use our full sample of Sun-like stars to examine the calibration of the metallicity and temperature scale in the GCS. Our results give rise to the conclusion that the GCS may be offset from the solar temperature and metallicity for Sun-like stars by 100 K and 0.1 dex, respectively. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Observatory under programme ID 077.D-0525 and from the ESO Science Archive Facility under request number JDATSHCCCA119545 and following.

  10. Longevity in male and female joggers: the Copenhagen City Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Schnohr, Peter; Marott, Jacob L; Lange, Peter; Jensen, Gorm B

    2013-04-01

    Since 1970, jogging has become an increasingly popular form of exercise, but concern about harmful effects has been raised following reports of deaths during jogging. The purpose of this study was to investigate if jogging, which can be very vigorous, is associated with increased all-cause mortality in men and women. Jogging habits were recorded in a random sample of 17,589 healthy men and women aged 20-98 years, invited between 1976 and 2003 to the Copenhagen City Heart Study. The expected lifetime was calculated by integrating the predicted survival curve estimated in the Cox model. In this study 1,878 persons (1,116 men and 762 women) were classified as joggers. During the 35-year maximum follow-up period, we registered 122 deaths among joggers and 10,158 deaths among nonjoggers. The age-adjusted hazard ratio of death among joggers was 0.56 (95% confidence interval: 0.46, 0.67) for men and 0.56 (95% confidence interval: 0.40, 0.80) for women. The age-adjusted increase in survival with jogging was 6.2 years in men and 5.6 years in women. This long-term study of joggers showed that jogging was associated with significantly lower all-cause mortality and a substantial increase in survival for both men and women.

  11. Report Urges Greater Coordination of European Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2007-01-01

    A new report assessing the state of doctoral education in Europe says that, even as 47 European nations enter the final phase of harmonizing their degree programs, Ph.D.-level education across Europe suffers from a lack of coordination and cooperation. "There is an urgent need for greater consultation and coordination at the regional, national,…

  12. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. PMID:24787333

  13. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions.

  14. Men Face Greater Risk of Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159651.html Men Face Greater Risk of Cardiac Arrest: Study Heart ... 30, 2016 THURSDAY, June 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Men are significantly more likely to have their heart ...

  15. Dual Porosity Filtration for treatment of stormwater runoff: first proof of concept from Copenhagen pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Marina B; Cederkvist, Karin; Bjerager, Per E R; Holm, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    Dual Porosity Filtration (DPF) is designed for sedimentation-based removal of suspended solids (SS) and adsorption-based removal of dissolved contaminants from stormwater runoff. It consists of shallow (10 mm) low-porosity layers for contaminant retention, interlaid with high-porosity layers for horizontal, gravity-driven flow. First proof of concept was obtained in a 10 m by 60 m pilot plant receiving stormwater runoff from 1.3 hectares of trafficked area in Copenhagen. The pilot plant contains two versions of DPF-designs, a cheaper one with 6 pairs of low- and high-porosity layers ('DPF-6-layers'), and a more expensive one with 18 such pairs ('DPF-18-layers'). Both versions are designed for a flow capacity of 9 m(3)/h. The DPF-designs were tested on the basis of 25 rain events. Flow proportional event mean concentrations showed the concentration of SS to be on averaged reduced from 123 mg/L in the inlet to 10.4 mg/L in the outlet from the DPF-6-layers, and 1.4 mg/L from DPF-18-layers, Zn from 98 to 29 and 12.5 μg/L, Cu from 25 to 12.2 and 9.6 μg/L, Cr from 18 to 10.9 and 10 μg/L, Pb from 9 to 1.0 and 0.2 μg/L, and P from 178 μg/L to 47.4 μg/L and 38 μg/L, respectively for the DPF-6-layers and DFF-18-layers. Based on the observed hydraulic performance and contaminant removal rates the concept of DPF appears to hold a potential for treatment of road runoff to high water quality standards. Cu and Cr fate must be further studied. Suggestions for optimized full scale DPF-designs are given.

  16. Apparent temperature and acute myocardial infarction hospital admissions in Copenhagen, Denmark: a case-crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The influence of temperature on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has not been investigated as extensively as the effects of broader outcomes of morbidity and mortality. Sixteen studies reported inconsistent results and two considered confounding by air pollution. We addressed some of the methodological limitations of the previous studies in this study. Methods This is the first study of the association between the daily 3-hour maximum apparent temperature (Tappmax) and AMI hospital admissions in Copenhagen. The study period covered 1 January 1999-31 December 2006, stratified in warm (April - September) and cold (October - March) periods. A case-crossover epidemiology study design was applied. Models were adjusted for public holidays and influenza, confounding by PM10, NO2 and CO was investigated, the lag and non-linear effects of Tappmax was examined, effect modification by age, sex and SES was explored, and the results of the case-crossover models were compared to those of the generalised additive Poisson time-series and generalised estimating equation models. Results 14 456 AMI hospital admissions (12 995 people) occurred during the study period. For an inter-quartile range (6 or 7°C) increase in the 5-day cumulative average of Tappmax, a 4% (95% CI:-2%; 10%) and 9% (95% CI: 3%; 14%) decrease in the AMI admission rate was observed in the warm and cold periods, respectively. The 19-65 year old group, men and highest SES group seemed to be more susceptible in the cold period. Conclusion An increase in Tappmax is associated with a decrease in AMI admissions during the colder months. PMID:22463704

  17. Resistance of Copenhagen rats to hepatocarcinogenesis does not involve T-cell immunity.

    PubMed

    Wood, G A; Korkola, J E; Archer, M C

    2001-02-01

    Previously, we have shown that Copenhagen (Cop) rats are highly resistant, compared with susceptible F344 rats, to the growth of glutathione S-transferase 7-7 (GST 7-7) positive preneoplastic liver lesions following treatment with a modified resistant hepatocyte (RH) protocol. Donryu rats, a strain with a level of susceptibility similar to F344, have a reduced T-cell response compared with the closely related, but highly resistant, DRH rat. Cop and DRH rats share several characteristics in their resistance to preneoplastic liver lesion growth and this study, therefore, was designed to examine whether T-cells play a role in Cop resistance. Cop rats were crossed with an athymic (nude) rat to produce F1s that were then interbred to produce F2 animals, some of which were nude with a partial Cop background. A comparison of the susceptibility of nude F2 animals and their euthymic (non-nude) littermates allowed us to determine what role, if any, T-cells play in Cop resistance. We treated 11 Cop, 11 F344, 19 nude F2s, and 18 non-nude F2s with diethylnitrosamine (DEN), followed 3 weeks later by a modified RH protocol. As expected, F344 rats were highly susceptible, having 41.9 +/- 3.3% (mean +/- SEM) of their liver section areas occupied by GST 7-7-positive lesions and Cop rats were highly resistant, having only 4.7 +/- 1.1% of their liver section areas occupied by lesions. Both nude and non-nude F2s were, like Cop rats, highly resistant (1.8 +/- 0.29 and 2.7 +/- 0.45%, respectively). These results show that T-cells are unnecessary for Cop rat resistance, or only play a minor role, and that the nude parental strain is also likely to be resistant to the growth of preneoplastic liver lesions. PMID:11181461

  18. Modifications of health behaviour in response to air pollution notifications in Copenhagen.

    PubMed

    Skov, T; Cordtz, T; Jensen, L K; Saugman, P; Schmidt, K; Theilade, P

    1991-01-01

    Ambient air quality is a major issue today in large cities all over the world. On the theoretical background of the health belief model and the health locus of control model, we studied the knowledge and beliefs about air pollution and the modifications of health behaviour brought about by information to the public about projected levels of air pollution, with special emphasis on reduction of outdoor activity and avoidance of car driving. Data were collected with a questionnaire among a sample of residents in the Copenhagen area. The respondents were almost universally knowledgeable about the prime emission source and concerned about the possible health effects of the air pollution in the area. Avoidance of outdoor activity was associated with personal experiences of symptoms ascribed to the air pollution, employment status, and with female sex, but not with knowledge or beliefs about the degree or health implications of the air pollution. The willingness to avoid car driving was positively associated with the belief that one can oneself influence one's health and with female sex. Lung diseased respondents were generally more prone to protect themselves than the healthy, both by avoiding outdoor activity and by being less willing to avoid car driving. The present study was conducted in an only moderately polluted city, and it is not clear whether the findings and conclusions can be generalized to more polluted cities. The study partly supported the underlying theories of the determinants of health behaviour, but also indicated a need for a broader theoretical framework, incorporating aspects of the respondents' life situation and personal experience which would be relevant to the specific type of health behaviour under study.

  19. The Copenhagen Accord for limiting global warming: Criteria, constraints, and available avenues

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Xu, Yangyang

    2010-01-01

    At last, all the major emitters of greenhouse gases (GHGs) have agreed under the Copenhagen Accord that global average temperature increase should be kept below 2 °C. This study develops the criteria for limiting the warming below 2 °C, identifies the constraints imposed on policy makers, and explores available mitigation avenues. One important criterion is that the radiant energy added by human activities should not exceed 2.5 (range: 1.7–4) watts per square meter (Wm−2) of the Earth's surface. The blanket of man-made GHGs has already added 3 (range: 2.6–3.5) Wm−2. Even if GHG emissions peak in 2015, the radiant energy barrier will be exceeded by 100%, requiring simultaneous pursuit of three avenues: (i) reduce the rate of thickening of the blanket by stabilizing CO2 concentration below 441 ppm during this century (a massive decarbonization of the energy sector is necessary to accomplish this Herculean task), (ii) ensure that air pollution laws that reduce the masking effect of cooling aerosols be made radiant energy-neutral by reductions in black carbon and ozone, and (iii) thin the blanket by reducing emissions of short-lived GHGs. Methane and hydrofluorocarbons emerge as the prime targets. These actions, even if we are restricted to available technologies for avenues ii and iii, can reduce the probability of exceeding the 2 °C barrier before 2050 to less than 10%, and before 2100 to less than 50%. With such actions, the four decades we have until 2050 should be exploited to develop and scale-up revolutionary technologies to restrict the warming to less than 1.5 °C. PMID:20439712

  20. The Copenhagen Accord for limiting global warming: criteria, constraints, and available avenues.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Xu, Yangyang

    2010-05-01

    At last, all the major emitters of greenhouse gases (GHGs) have agreed under the Copenhagen Accord that global average temperature increase should be kept below 2 degrees C. This study develops the criteria for limiting the warming below 2 degrees C, identifies the constraints imposed on policy makers, and explores available mitigation avenues. One important criterion is that the radiant energy added by human activities should not exceed 2.5 (range: 1.7-4) watts per square meter (Wm(-2)) of the Earth's surface. The blanket of man-made GHGs has already added 3 (range: 2.6-3.5) Wm(-2). Even if GHG emissions peak in 2015, the radiant energy barrier will be exceeded by 100%, requiring simultaneous pursuit of three avenues: (i) reduce the rate of thickening of the blanket by stabilizing CO(2) concentration below 441 ppm during this century (a massive decarbonization of the energy sector is necessary to accomplish this Herculean task), (ii) ensure that air pollution laws that reduce the masking effect of cooling aerosols be made radiant energy-neutral by reductions in black carbon and ozone, and (iii) thin the blanket by reducing emissions of short-lived GHGs. Methane and hydrofluorocarbons emerge as the prime targets. These actions, even if we are restricted to available technologies for avenues ii and iii, can reduce the probability of exceeding the 2 degrees C barrier before 2050 to less than 10%, and before 2100 to less than 50%. With such actions, the four decades we have until 2050 should be exploited to develop and scale-up revolutionary technologies to restrict the warming to less than 1.5 degrees C.

  1. Psychosocial risk factors, weight changes and risk of obesity: the Copenhagen City Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Louise Bagger; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Prescott, Eva; Schnohr, Peter; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the effects of a range of psychosocial factors on weight changes and risk of obesity. The study population consisted of the 4,753 participants in the third (1991-1994) and fourth wave (2001-2003) of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. At baseline the participants were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work stress, vital exhaustion, social network, economic hardship, and intake of sleep medication. Weight and height were measured by health professionals. Weight changes and incident obesity was used as outcome measures. The participants on average gained 2 kg of weight and 8% became obese during follow-up. The experience of major life events in childhood, work life and adult life was associated with weight gain and obesity in women, but not in men. Vital exhaustion was associated with weight gain in a dose-response manner in men (P = 0.002) and younger women (P = 0.02). Persons with high vital exhaustion gained approximately 2 kg more during follow-up compared to those with no vital exhaustion. Women with high vital exhaustion were also more likely to become obese during follow-up (OR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.14-5.03). There were no clear patterns in the associations between social network, economic hardship and weight gain or obesity. The number of psychosocial risk factors, as an indicator for clustering, was not associated with weight gain or obesity. In conclusion, major life events and vital exhaustion seem to play a role for weight gain and risk of obesity, especially in women.

  2. Hailstones across the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasuly, A. A.; Cheung, K. K. W.; McBurney, B.

    2014-11-01

    This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA) of New South Wales, Australia, which is a sprawling suburban area, with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropolis. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hailstone frequencies and magnitudes for each of recognized and vastly inhabited Local Government Areas (LGAs). The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, all severe hails (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter) were cautiously selected and then imported into the ArcGIS software for relevant analysis. Appropriate data layers were stored in a unique database to allow logical integration of the data directly into some geoprocessing functions, mainly for querying, analyzing and mapping purposes in a model-builder setting. The database includes 357 hailstones with sizes 2-11 cm and occurred in 169 hail days across the region during the past 25 years. The models have established that hailstones are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occurred predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1-5 p.m. EST. They were particularly common in spring and summer, and reached maximum frequency in November and December. There was an average of 14.3 events each year, but a significant decreasing trend in terms of hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial models also established three main distribution patterns over the study area, which include the Sydney Metropolitan, coastal and pronounced

  3. Convergence between central segment of Greater and Lesser Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokhadze, Giorgi; Floyd, Mike; Cowgill, Eric; Chen, Horng-Yue; Hu, Jyr-Ching

    2016-04-01

    Caucasus region is the relatively young part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt and represent northernmost edge of intracontinental collision of Arabia-Eurasia plates. Greater and Lesser Caucasus are major tectonic units and separated by west Rioni basin, Dzirula Massif and east Kura (Mtkvari) basin, with fold-thrust belt. During last decades, Instrumentally recorded earthquakes revealed, that Greater and Lesser Caucasus margins are active, where north dipping thrust earthquakes Racha(6,9Mw, 1991 year), Barisako(6.4Mw, 1992 year) and flank of Lesser Caucasus Gori(6.2Mw, 1920 year) and south dipping thrust Baghdati(5.3Mw, 2011 year) produced. Geodetic and Geologic observation Shows that major present-day crustal deformation are between lesser and greater Caucasus, where convergence rate increase from WNW to ESE (~2 to ~12 mm/yr). Deformation in the east part of Kura basin is accommodated to the north, foothill of the greater Caucasus, where north dipping thrust system presence, which is coherent with seismic activity. However in the west(42E - 44.5E) convergence not well constrained and slip distribution between Lesser and Greater Caucasus is ambiguous. In this study we present combined previously published and new geodetic observation for present-day surface motions and constrain convergence and position of locked fault in the central segment of Greater and Lesser Caucasus.

  4. Assessing the geologic evolution of Greater Thaumasia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Don R.; Judice, Taylor; Karunatillake, Suniti; Rogers, Deanne; Dohm, James M.; Susko, David; Carnes, Lorraine K.

    2016-09-01

    The Greater Thaumasia region consists of three chemical provinces that include Syria, Solis, and Thaumasia Planae, the Corprates Rise, part of the Thaumasia Highlands, and the transition zone northwest of the Argyre basin. Chemical signatures obtained from the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer suggest low abundances of K and Th to the west, with low H abundances and high Si abundances to the east, relative to the bulk Martian crust at midlatitudes. These observations are confirmed and quantified with a modified box and whisker analysis that simultaneously captures the degree of deviation and significance of the regionally anomalous chemistry. Motivated by regionally unique chemistry, as well as its diverse geological history, we characterize Greater Thaumasia in terms of chemistry, mineralogy, and mapped geology to determine how such complementary data record the evolution of this region. Our observations are inconsistent with a proposed salt-lubricated landslide origin, particularly given the lack of chemical or mineralogical signatures to support near-surface salt deposits that should arise over geological timescales. Our observations instead support magmatic processes, such as mantle evolution over geological time, which may impart the Si-enriched signature of the eastern portion of Greater Thaumasia as well as the K and Th depletion of the southeastern flank of Syria Planum. While the observed trend of decreasing K and Th from Noachian to Hesperian lavas is inconsistent with previous models of Martian mantle evolution, we see an increase in Ca content at the Noachian-Hesperian boundary, consistent with predictions from thermodynamic modeling.

  5. Monitoring meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and its spread in Copenhagen, Denmark, 2013, through routine whole genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Bartels, M D; Larner-Svensson, H; Meiniche, H; Kristoffersen, K; Schonning, K; Nielsen, J B; Rohde, S M; Christensen, L B; Skibsted, A W; Jarlov, J O; Johansen, H K; Andersen, L P; Petersen, I S; Crook, D W; Bowden, R; Boye, K; Worning, P; Westh, H

    2015-01-01

    Typing of meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by whole genome sequencing (WGS) is performed routinely in Copenhagen since January 2013. We describe the relatedness, based on WGS data and epidemiological data, of 341 MRSA isolates. These comprised all MRSA (n = 300) identified in Copenhagen in the first five months of 2013. Moreover, because MRSA of staphylococcal protein A (spa)-type 304 (t304), sequence type (ST) 6 had been associated with a continuous neonatal ward outbreak in Copenhagen starting in 2011, 41 t304 isolates collected in the city between 2010 and 2012 were also included. Isolates from 2013 found to be of t304, ST6 (n=14) were compared to the 41 earlier isolates. In the study, isolates of clonal complex (CC) 22 were examined in detail, as this CC has been shown to include the hospital-acquired epidemic MRSA (EMRSA-15) clone. Finally, all MRSA ST80 were also further analysed, as representatives of an important community-acquired MRSA in Europe. Overall the analysis identified 85 spa-types and 35 STs from 17 CCs. WGS confirmed the relatedness of epidemiologically linked t304 neonatal outbreak isolates. Several non-outbreak related patients had isolates closely related to the neonatal isolates suggesting unrecognised community chains of transmission and insufficient epidemiological data. Only four CC22 isolates were related to EMRSA-15. No community spread was observed among the 13 ST80 isolates. WGS successfully replaced conventional typing and added information to epidemiological surveillance. Creation of a MRSA database allows clustering of isolates based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) calling and has improved our understanding of MRSA transmission. PMID:25955776

  6. [Letters from the Nobellaureter Paul Ehrlich to the Director for the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen, Thorvald Madsen].

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Jette E; Hendricks, Oliver; Permin, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    In 2003 some letters, written from 1905-1915 by the father to the chemotherapy, the Nobellaurter Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915) and his family written to Dr. Thorvald Madsen (1870-1957), Director of the State Serum Institute from 1909 to 1940 was found. In these letters the personal and scientific relations between the two scientists is described on the background of the letters found. The article is written with the intention to celebrate the 150-birthday of Paul Ehrlich and to document the close relations between Paul Ehrlich and the founders of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen: Carl Julius Salomonsen (1847-1924) and Thorvald Madsen.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Geneva-Copenhagen Survey of Solar neighbourhood III (Holmberg+, 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmberg, J.; Nordstrom, B.; Andersen, J.

    2009-07-01

    Ages, chemical compositions, velocity vectors, and Galactic orbits for stars in the solar neighbourhood are fundamental test data for models of Galactic evolution. The Geneva-Copenhagen Survey of the Solar neighbourhood (Nordstrom et al. 2004A&A...418..989N; GCS), a magnitude-complete, kinematically unbiased sample of 16,682 nearby F and G dwarfs, is the largest available sample with complete data for stars with ages spanning that of the disk. We aim to improve the accuracy of the GCS data by implementing the recent revision of the Hipparcos parallaxes. The new parallaxes yield improved astrometric distances for 12,506 stars in the GCS. We also use the parallaxes to verify the distance calibration for uvbyHbeta photometry by Holmberg et al. (2007A&A...475..519H; GCS II, Cat. VI/117). We add new selection criteria to exclude evolved cool stars giving unreliable results and derive distances for 3,580 stars with large parallax errors or not observed by Hipparcos. We also check the GCS II scales of Teff and [Fe/H] and find no need for change. From the new distances we compute revised Mv, U, V, W, and Galactic orbital parameters for 13,520 GCS stars. We also recompute stellar ages with the new values of Mv from the Padova stellar evolution models used in GCS I-II, and compare them with ages from the Yale-Yonsei and Victoria-Regina models. Finally, we compare the observed age-velocity relation in W with three simulated disk heating scenarios to show the potential of the data. With these revisions, the basic data for the GCS stars should now be as reliable as is possible with existing techniques. Further improvement must await consolidation of the Teff scale from angular diameters and fluxes, and the Gaia trigonometric parallaxes. We discuss the conditions for improving computed stellar ages from new input data, and for distinguishing different disk heating scenarios from data sets of the size and precision of the GCS. (3 data files).

  8. The Geneva-Copenhagen survey of the solar neighbourhood. III. Improved distances, ages, and kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmberg, J.; Nordström, B.; Andersen, J.

    2009-07-01

    Context: Ages, chemical compositions, velocity vectors, and Galactic orbits for stars in the solar neighbourhood are fundamental test data for models of Galactic evolution. The Geneva-Copenhagen Survey of the Solar Neighbourhood (Nordström et al. 2004; GCS), a magnitude-complete, kinematically unbiased sample of 16 682 nearby F and G dwarfs, is the largest available sample with complete data for stars with ages spanning that of the disk. Aims: We aim to improve the accuracy of the GCS data by implementing the recent revision of the Hipparcos parallaxes. Methods: The new parallaxes yield improved astrometric distances for 12 506 stars in the GCS. We also use the parallaxes to verify the distance calibration for uvbyβ photometry by Holmberg et al. (2007, A&A, 475, 519; GCS II). We add new selection criteria to exclude evolved cool stars giving unreliable results and derive distances for 3580 stars with large parallax errors or not observed by Hipparcos. We also check the GCS II scales of T_eff and [Fe/H] and find no need for change. Results: Introducing the new distances, we recompute MV for 16 086 stars, and U, V, W, and Galactic orbital parameters for the 13 520 stars that also have radial-velocity measurements. We also recompute stellar ages from the Padova stellar evolution models used in GCS I-II, using the new values of M_V, and compare them with ages from the Yale-Yonsei and Victoria-Regina models. Finally, we compare the observed age-velocity relation in W with three simulated disk heating scenarios to show the potential of the data. Conclusions: With these revisions, the basic data for the GCS stars should now be as reliable as is possible with existing techniques. Further improvement must await consolidation of the T_eff scale from angular diameters and fluxes, and the Gaia trigonometric parallaxes. We discuss the conditions for improving computed stellar ages from new input data, and for distinguishing different disk heating scenarios from data sets of

  9. Disc and halo kinematic populations from HIPPARCOS and Geneva-Copenhagen surveys of the solar neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubarsi, R.; Alcobé, S.; Vidojević, S.; Ninković, S.

    2010-02-01

    Discontinuities in the local velocity distribution associated with stellar populations are studied using the Maximum Entropy of the Mixture Probability from HIerarchical Segregation (MEMPHIS) improved statistical method, by combining a sampling parameter, an optimisation of the mixture approach, and a maximisation of the partition entropy for the constituent populations of the stellar sample. The sampling parameter is associated with isolating integrals of the stellar motion and is used to build a hierarchical family of subsamples. We provide an accurate characterisation of the entropy graph, in which a local maximum of entropy takes place simultaneously with a local minimum of the χ^2 error. By analysing different sampling parameters, the method is applied to samples from the HIPPARCOS and Geneva-Copenhagen survey (GCS) to determine the kinematic parameters and the stellar population mixture of the thin disc, thick disc, and halo. The sampling parameter P=|(U,V,W)|, which is the absolute heliocentric velocity, allows us to build an optimal subsample containing both thin and thick disc stars, omitting most of the halo population. The sampling parameter P=|W|, which is absolute perpendicular velocity, allows us to create an optimal subsample of all disc and halo stars, although it does not allow an optimal differentiation of thin and thick discs. Other sampling parameters, such as P=|(U,W)| or P=|V|, are found to provide less information about the populations. By comparing both samples, HIPPARCOS provides more accurate estimates for the thick disc and halo, and GCS for the total disc. In particular, the radial velocity dispersion of the halo fits perfectly into the empirical Titius-Bode-like law σU = 6.6 (4/3)3n+2, previously proposed for discrete kinematical components, where the values n=0,1,2,3 represent early-type stars, thin disc, thick disc, and halo populations, respectively. The kinematic parameters are used to segregate thin disc, thick disc, and halo

  10. Waste Management in Greater Dhaka City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    This study focuses on the environmental degradation of Greater Dhaka City (GDC) resulting from pollution created by the indiscriminate disposal of industrial wastes, open dumping of solid wastes, inadequate treatment and disposal of domestic sewage, and unplanned disposal of leachate from agricultural land. Measures to protect the GDC environment…

  11. Primary torsion of the greater omentum.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Y; Oka, S; Nakamura, M; Nakatsuka, H; Yamade, N; Maeda, Y

    1991-11-01

    A case with primary torsion of the greater omentum is reported. This pathological condition is an uncommon cause of acute abdominal emergency and it is very difficult even for general surgeons to differentiate this from other acute abdomen. The etiology remains unknown and the treatment of choice is resection of the affected organ. PMID:1820017

  12. Environmental planning and management in Greater Johannesburg.

    PubMed

    Von Schirnding, Y E

    1996-03-01

    This article describes the actions among urban environmental, management, and development planners in Greater Johannesburg, South Africa. Initiatives, such as the Healthy Cities Project and Model Communities, are being integrated into an environmental management and development approach that attains the goals of Agenda 21. Greater Johannesburg has housing shortages and homelessness. Priority needs include the areas of housing, water, electricity, public transportation, and sanitation. Clean water and air are inequitably distributed. Other key environmental problems include illegal dumping, inadequate waste disposal, poor environmental hygiene in overcrowded inner city areas, lack of open spaces, flooding, and water scarcities. The newly formed metropolitan authority offers opportunities to improve coordination and integration of environmental problems. Stakeholders from government at all levels, politicians, nongovernmental organizations, and the business sector formed an intersectoral, interdepartmental environment management committee in 1995. Stakeholders will integrate Agenda 21 within broader urban development plans and processes. The executive committee and the full council approved a set of guiding principles on environmental policy and an administrative framework for management. Four workshops were held to ensure a participatory consultation process in 1995. The WHO Collaborating Center for Urban Health will be used to facilitate the work of the Greater Johannesburg Metropolitan Council. Changes are being made in the way local governments work.

  13. Greater trochanter apophysitis in the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Young, Simon W; Safran, Marc R

    2015-05-01

    Lower limb traction apophysitis is common in young athletes, occurring at sites such as the tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schlatter disease) and distal patella (Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease). Around the hip, iliac apophysitis is well recognized, but no cases of greater trochanter apophysitis have previously been reported. We describe the case of a 15-year-old male basketball player with a 2-month history of the right hip pain and significant functional limitation. X-rays revealed widening of the greater trochanter apophysis with subchondral sclerosis, consistent with a diagnosis of traction apophysitis. The patient was treated with a period of relative rest and anti-inflammatory medication. He gradually returned to full athletic activity, including basketball, without recurrence of pain or limitation. We describe the first reported case of traction apophysitis of the greater trochanter. The unique muscular anatomy of this apophysis with balanced forces explains the rarity of this condition. If encountered, rest and activity modification is the recommended treatment.

  14. Distribution of Permo-Carboniferous clastics of Greater Arabian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Laboun, A.A.

    1987-05-01

    Strikingly correlative sequences of sediments composed of sandstones, siltstones, shales, and thin argillaceous carbonate beds are present, practically everywhere, underlying the Late Permian carbonates in the Greater Arabian basin. The Greater Arabian basin as defined here occupies the broad Arabian Shelf that borders the Arabian shield. This basin is composed of several smaller basins. These clastics are exposed as thin bands and scattered small exposures in several localities around the margins of the basin. The Permo-Carboniferous clastics are represented by the Unayzah Formation of Arabia, the Doubayat Group of Syria, the Hazro Formation of southeast Turkey, the Ga'arah Formation of Iraq, the Faraghan Formation of southwest Iran, and the Haushi Group of Oman. A Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age is assigned to these clastics because they contain fossil plants and palynomorphs. These sediments represent time-transgressive fluctuating sea deposits following a phase of regional emergence, erosion, and structural disturbance which preceded the Permian transgression. The basal contact of these clastics is marked by a well-pronounced angular unconformity with various older units, ranging in age from early Carboniferous to late Precambrian. This regional unconformity is probably related to the Hercynian movements. The upper contact is conformable with the Permian carbonates. The porous sandstones of the Permo-Carboniferous sediments are important hydrocarbon exploration targets. These reservoir rocks sometimes overlie mature source rocks and are capped by shales, marls, and tight carbonates. Significant quantities of hydrocarbons are contained in these reservoirs in different parts of the Greater Arabian basin.

  15. Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanser, Steven E.; Manier, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The condition of the sagebrush ecosystem has been declining in the Western United States, and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a sagebrush-obligate species, has experienced concurrent decreases in distribution and population numbers. This has prompted substantial research and management over the past two decades to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and to address the observed decreases in distribution and population numbers. The amount of research and management has increased as the year 2015 approaches, which is when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is expected to make a final decision about whether or not to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act. In 2012, the Sage-Grouse Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lead the development of a Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy (hereafter Research Strategy). This request was motivated by a practical need to systematically connect existing research and conservation plans with persisting or emerging information needs. Managers and researchers also wanted to reduce redundancy and help focus limited funds on the highest priority research and management issues. The USGS undertook the development of this Research Strategy, which addresses information and science relating to the greater sage-grouse and its habitat across portions of 11 Western States. This Research Strategy provides an outline of important research topics to ensure that science information gaps are identified and documented in a comprehensive manner. Further, by identifying priority topics and critical information needed for planning, research, and resource management, it provides a structure to help coordinate members of an expansive research and management community in their efforts to conduct priority research.

  16. Hospital design to support greater operating efficiency.

    PubMed

    Skaggs, R L

    1984-12-01

    With the new imperative on cost containment and particular emphasis on prospective payment, hospital design must support greater productivity. It is incumbent on architects and engineers to reduce construction costs; but more importantly, to design facilities that improve personnel productivity. Several approaches to designing for efficiency are discussed including improving the development process; systems building, ease of maintenance, and conserving energy; developing the model hospital; minimizing travel throughout the hospital; centralization vs. decentralization; automating support systems; designing for growth and change; analyzing workflow; utilizing swing space; and emphasizing consumer centered care.

  17. Interspecific hybridization between greater kudu and nyala.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Desiré L; Tordiffe, Adrian; Luther, Ilse; Duran, Assumpta; van Wyk, Anna M; Brettschneider, Helene; Oosthuizen, Almero; Modiba, Catherine; Kotzé, Antoinette

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization of wildlife species, even in the absence of introgression, is of concern due to wasted reproductive effort and a reduction in productivity. In this study we detail an accidental mating between a female nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and a male greater kudu (T. strepsiceros). The hybrid was phenotypically nyala and was identified as such based on mitochondrial DNA. Further genetic analysis based on nine microsatellite markers, chromosome number and chromosome morphology however, confirmed its status as an F1 hybrid. Results obtained from a reproductive potential assessment indicated that this animal does not have the potential to breed successfully and can be considered as sterile.

  18. Greater auricular nerve masquerading as lymph node

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Shilpi; Deb, Prabal; Nijhawan, Vijay Shrawan; Kharayat, Veena; Verma, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Hansen's disease is on the verge of being eliminated from India and often missed by clinicians due to low index of suspicion. We present an unusual case in which greater auricular nerve thickening masqueraded as enlarged lymph node in the neck. The patient was referred for fine needle aspiration cytology, which revealed epithelioid cell granulomas suggestive of Hansen's disease. Further clinical examination and investigations including the skin biopsy confirmed the disease, highlighting the role of pathologist in the management of such unusual presentation of a common disease. PMID:26229249

  19. Predictors (0-10 Months) of Psychopathology at Age 1 1/2 Years--A General Population Study in the Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovgaard, A. M.; Olsen, E. M.; Christiansen, E.; Houmann, T.; Landorph, S. L.; Jorgensen, T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life. Methods: A random general population sample of 210 children from the Copenhagen Child Birth Cohort CCC 2000 was investigated by data from National Danish…

  20. Job Burnout amongst the Institutional Caregivers Working with Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Utilization of the Chinese Version of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2013-01-01

    Burnout has been considered important to understand the well-being of people who work with individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and developmental disabilities (DD). To identify personal and workplace characteristics associated with burnout, this study aimed to utilize the Chinese version of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory to provide a…

  1. The Prevalence of Mental Health Problems in Children 1 1/2 Years of Age--The Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Houmann, Tine; Christiansen, Eva; Landorph, Susanne; Jorgensen, Torben; Olsen, E. M.; Heering, K.; Kaas-Nielsen, S.; Samberg, V.; Lichtenberg, A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The Copenhagen Child Cohort, CCC 2000, was established to investigate developmental psychopathology prospectively from birth in a general population. Methods: A random sample of 211 children from the CCC 2000 was investigated when the children were 1 1/2 years of age. The prevalence and associates of mental health problems and…

  2. Consultation on the Monitoring and Evaluation of AIDS Education/Health Promotion Programmes (Copenhagen, Denmark, May 2-4, 1990). Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    Thirteen participants from 11 countries, including experts in public health, health education, social sciences, epidemiology, planning, policy-making, and program management, took part in a consultation on the monitoring and evaluation of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education and health promotion programs in Copenhagen. A…

  3. Six lessons learned for greater success.

    PubMed

    Leander, W J

    1993-01-01

    These six lessons learned for greater success with your Patient Focused communications can help keep your cultural change process in sync with your operational change process. Of course, there are other key elements of the former, including: formal Patient Focused educational programs; restructured Human Resources "systems" (e.g., job descriptions and compensation programs); and migration toward greater organizational empowerment and more self-directed work teams. Still, your Patient Focused communications campaign will spearhead the cultural change process. As such, it will have the opportunity to make the very first impact. Basically, your communications can make or break your Patient Focused Care program from Day One. It's up to you--learn the lessons learned by others and your organization may follow the words of Marx rather than those of Brand: "Workers of the world, unite (on behalf of your Patient Focused Care program)!" Karl Marx.p6 "Workers of the world, fan out (in formation against your Patient Focused Care program)!" Stewart Brand. PMID:10133393

  4. VISIONS for Greater Employment Opportunities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orangeburg-Calhoun Technical Coll., Orangeburg, SC.

    The VISIONS project, a workplace literacy program held in two manufacturing plants and a regional medical center, was conducted during an 18-month period from July 1, 1993 to December 31, 1994. During the project, staff were hired and trained, task analyses and orientation sessions were held, and tests and curricula were developed. Employees were…

  5. Greater Influence of Aerosol on Cloud Microphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, V.; Hudson, J. G.; Noble, S.

    2009-12-01

    CCN and cloud microphysics measurements are presented from four projects: RICO, PASE,ICE-L and POST. Correlations coefficients (R) between 1% supersaturation CCN concentrations and total cloud droplet concentrations were 0.80 in all four projects and for the combined data. R between CCN and larger cloud droplet concentrations progressively decreased with increasing sizes (Fig. 1A). At ~20 µm R was maximum negative and then reversed to smaller negative and even positive at larger drop sizes. R is positive for CCN with total cloud droplets because droplets are proportional to the concentrations of nuclei that they condensed upon, CCN. The negative R for CCN with larger droplets is due to competition among droplets for condensate. Competition for condensate is greater when CCN concentrations are higher and this limits droplet sizes, more so for higher concentrations. Negative R ensues because this reduces droplet concentrations above specific sizes to a greater extent for higher CCN concentrations. The greatest negative R thus occurs at the size range where droplet concentrations are the largest, the mode of the droplet size distributions. In Fig. 1 this is just beyond the average mode. At larger sizes droplet concentrations are lower (Fig. 1B) and thus there is less competition for condensate. The more numerous small sized droplets do not have enough surface area to affect the growth of the larger less numerous droplets. Thus at larger sizes with reduced competition, droplet concentrations are again proportional to the concentrations of the nuclei that they condensed upon. Often particle concentrations at various sizes are proportional. When this is the case there will be a positive R for CCN at 1% with such larger droplet concentrations such as PASE in Fig. 1A. Thus there are two directly conflicting influences on R; the usual positive R between CCN and droplets and the negative R due to competition for condensate. Thus lower R between CCN and droplet

  6. [Greater trochanteric pain syndrome of the hip].

    PubMed

    Haviv, Barak; Bronak, Shlomo; Thein, Rafael

    2014-02-01

    Lateral pain of the hip with point tenderness at the Greater Trochanter is a common musculoskeletal complaint. It is frequently diagnosed as trochanteric bursitis; however, this term is inaccurate because of evident non-inflammatory pathologies, particularly of the abductor tendons of the hip. It is important to differentiate this extra-articular source from an intra-articular or a lower back source of pain. Imaging is useful in cases of trauma, prolonged pain or uncertain diagnosis. Non-operative treatment that involves modifying activities, physiotherapy, analgesics, steroid injections and shock wave therapy is usually helpful. Nevertheless, despite the above treatments, about one third of the patients suffer from chronic pain and disability. These patients may be candidates for operative intervention. Currently, there are endoscopic surgical techniques for local decompression, bursectomy and suture of torn tendons similar to surgery used in the shoulder. PMID:24716427

  7. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 references.

  8. Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics.

  9. Health and Greater Manchester in Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    This article maps the history of health organisation across Greater Manchester (GM), primarily since the Second World War, to show how against a continuing backdrop of health inequalities, services have been driven (and constrained) by the needs and the politics of each period. Defining ‘success’ as benefits for patients the article identifies examples such as Salford’s mental health services (1950s and 1960s), public health in North Manchester (1970s and 1980s), the creation of centres for diabetes, sickle-cell and thalassaemia (1980s) and the formation of the Joint Health Unit in 2002. What this history shows is that over the period the common factors influencing the ‘success’ of health organisation across GM have been the championing of particular issues by multi-disciplinary groups working across health and social care and stability in structures and personnel. PMID:27499557

  10. PREFACE: The IARU International Scientific Congress on Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions (10-12 March, Copenhagen, Denmark)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    by the IARU universities In keeping with normal scientific practice, a procedure for producing the synthesis report that has been adopted optimises the chances of arriving at a product that will receive a broad backing from the scientific community as being a message that can be sent to the non-scientific community and that explains current understanding in climate change science The Writing Team will also be responsible for writing the book Members of the Writing Team (in alphabetical order) Professor Joe Alcamo, University of Stellenbosch Dr Terry Barker, Cambridge University Professor Daniel Kammen, University of California - Berkeley Professor Rik Leemans, Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University Professor Diana Liverman, Oxford University Professor Mohan Munasinghe, Chairman, Munasinghe Institute for Development (MIND) Dr Balgis Osman-Elasha, Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources (HCENR), Sudan Professor Katherine Richardson, University of Copenhagen Professor John Schellnhuber, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and visiting professor at the University of Oxford Professor Will Steffen, Australian National University Professor Lord Nicholas Stern, London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) Professor Ole Wæver, University of Copenhagen 2 Key Messages from the Congress Key Message 1: Climatic Trends Recent observations confirm that, given high rates of observed emissions, the worst-case IPCC scenario trajectories (or even worse) are being realized For many key parameters, the climate system is already moving beyond the patterns of natural variability within which our society and economy have developed and thrived These parameters include global mean surface temperature, sea-level rise, ocean and ice sheet dynamics, ocean acidification, and extreme climatic events There is a significant risk that many of the trends will accelerate, leading to an increasing risk of abrupt or irreversible climatic shifts Key

  11. Influence of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides on risk of cerebrovascular disease: the Copenhagen City Heart Study.

    PubMed Central

    Lindenstrøm, E.; Boysen, G.; Nyboe, J.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To estimate the influence of plasma total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides on risk of cerebrovascular disease. DESIGN--The Copenhagen City Heart Study is a prospective observational survey with two cardiovascular examinations at five year intervals. Non-fasting plasma lipids were measured in participants once at each examination, along with other variables. The Cox regression model was used to establish the effect of the factors recorded on cerebrovascular events of mostly, but not exclusively, ischaemic origin. SUBJECTS--19,698 women and men at least 20 years old, randomly selected after age stratification from an area of central Copenhagen. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Initial cases of stroke and transient ischaemic attack recorded from hospital records and death certificates from 1976 through 1988. RESULTS--660 non-haemorrhagic and 33 haemorrhagic events were recorded. Total cholesterol was positively associated with risk of non-haemorrhagic events, but only for levels > 8 mmol/l, corresponding to the upper 5% of the distribution in the study population. For lower plasma cholesterol values the relative risk remained nearly constant. Plasma triglyceride concentration was significantly, positively associated with risk of non-haemorrhagic events. The relative risk corresponding to an increase of 1 mmol/l was 1.12 (95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.16). There was a negative, log linear association between high density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of non-haemorrhagic events (0.53 (0.34 to 0.83)). There was no indication that the effects of plasma lipids were different in women and men. CONCLUSIONS--The pattern of the association between plasma cholesterol and risk of ischaemic cerebrovascular disease was not log linear, and the increased risk was confined to the upper 5% of the cholesterol distribution. Further studies should concentrate on the association between plasma cholesterol and verified haemorrhagic stroke. PMID

  12. Stature in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A comparative study based on skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Jørkov, Marie Louise S

    2015-12-01

    Individual stature depends on multifactorial causes and is often used as a proxy for investigating the biological standard of living. While the majority of European studies on 19th and 20th century populations are based on conscript heights, stature derived from skeletal remains are scarce. For the first time in Denmark this study makes a comparison between skeletal stature and contemporary Danish conscript heights and investigates stature of males and females temporally and between socially distinct individuals and populations in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A total of 357 individuals (181 males, 176 females) excavated at the Assistens cemetery in Copenhagen is analyzed. Two stature regression formulae (Trotter, 1970; Boldsen, 1990) are applied using femur measurements and evaluated compared to conscript heights. The results indicate that mean male stature using Boldsen follows a similar trend as the Danish conscript heights and that Trotter overestimate stature by ca. 6cm over Boldsen. At an inter population level statistically significant differences in male stature are observed between first and second half of the 19th century towards a slight stature decrease and larger variation while there are no significant changes observed in female stature. There are insignificant differences in stature between middle and high class individuals, but male stature differs statistically between cemeteries (p=0.000) representing middle/high class, paupers and navy employees, respectively. Female stature had no significant wealth gradient (p=0.516). This study provides new evidence of stature among males and females during the 19th century and suggests that males may have been more sensitive to changes in environmental living and nutrition than females.

  13. Stature in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A comparative study based on skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Jørkov, Marie Louise S

    2015-12-01

    Individual stature depends on multifactorial causes and is often used as a proxy for investigating the biological standard of living. While the majority of European studies on 19th and 20th century populations are based on conscript heights, stature derived from skeletal remains are scarce. For the first time in Denmark this study makes a comparison between skeletal stature and contemporary Danish conscript heights and investigates stature of males and females temporally and between socially distinct individuals and populations in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A total of 357 individuals (181 males, 176 females) excavated at the Assistens cemetery in Copenhagen is analyzed. Two stature regression formulae (Trotter, 1970; Boldsen, 1990) are applied using femur measurements and evaluated compared to conscript heights. The results indicate that mean male stature using Boldsen follows a similar trend as the Danish conscript heights and that Trotter overestimate stature by ca. 6cm over Boldsen. At an inter population level statistically significant differences in male stature are observed between first and second half of the 19th century towards a slight stature decrease and larger variation while there are no significant changes observed in female stature. There are insignificant differences in stature between middle and high class individuals, but male stature differs statistically between cemeteries (p=0.000) representing middle/high class, paupers and navy employees, respectively. Female stature had no significant wealth gradient (p=0.516). This study provides new evidence of stature among males and females during the 19th century and suggests that males may have been more sensitive to changes in environmental living and nutrition than females. PMID:26256129

  14. From Bologna to Copenhagen: Progress towards a European Credit Transfer System for VET

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterton, Jonathon

    2005-01-01

    The Lisbon summit (March 2000) set the objective for 2010 of making Europe "the most competitive and knowledge-based economy in the world capable of sustainable growth and better jobs and greater social cohesion", while the Barcelona summit (March 2002) set the further objective of making European education and training systems a world quality…

  15. Multisensor Arrays for Greater Reliability and Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immer, Christopher; Eckhoff, Anthony; Lane, John; Perotti, Jose; Randazzo, John; Blalock, Norman; Ree, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Arrays of multiple, nominally identical sensors with sensor-output-processing electronic hardware and software are being developed in order to obtain accuracy, reliability, and lifetime greater than those of single sensors. The conceptual basis of this development lies in the statistical behavior of multiple sensors and a multisensor-array (MSA) algorithm that exploits that behavior. In addition, advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and integrated circuits are exploited. A typical sensor unit according to this concept includes multiple MEMS sensors and sensor-readout circuitry fabricated together on a single chip and packaged compactly with a microprocessor that performs several functions, including execution of the MSA algorithm. In the MSA algorithm, the readings from all the sensors in an array at a given instant of time are compared and the reliability of each sensor is quantified. This comparison of readings and quantification of reliabilities involves the calculation of the ratio between every sensor reading and every other sensor reading, plus calculation of the sum of all such ratios. Then one output reading for the given instant of time is computed as a weighted average of the readings of all the sensors. In this computation, the weight for each sensor is the aforementioned value used to quantify its reliability. In an optional variant of the MSA algorithm that can be implemented easily, a running sum of the reliability value for each sensor at previous time steps as well as at the present time step is used as the weight of the sensor in calculating the weighted average at the present time step. In this variant, the weight of a sensor that continually fails gradually decreases, so that eventually, its influence over the output reading becomes minimal: In effect, the sensor system "learns" which sensors to trust and which not to trust. The MSA algorithm incorporates a criterion for deciding whether there remain enough sensor readings that

  16. Greater Green River basin well-site selection

    SciTech Connect

    Frohne, K.H.; Boswell, R.

    1993-12-31

    Recent estimates of the natural gas resources of Cretaceous low-permeability reservoirs of the Greater Green River basin indicate that as much as 5000 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of gas may be in place (Law and others 1989). Of this total, Law and others (1989) attributed approximately 80 percent to the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group and Lewis Shale. Unfortunately, present economic conditions render the drilling of many vertical wells unprofitable. Consequently, a three-well demonstration program, jointly sponsored by the US DOE/METC and the Gas Research Institute, was designed to test the profitability of this resource using state-of-the-art directional drilling and completion techniques. DOE/METC studied the geologic and engineering characteristics of ``tight`` gas reservoirs in the eastern portion of the Greater Green River basin in order to identify specific locations that displayed the greatest potential for a successful field demonstration. This area encompasses the Rocks Springs Uplift, Wamsutter Arch, and the Washakie and Red Desert (or Great Divide) basins of southwestern Wyoming. The work was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of a regional geologic reconnaissance of 14 gas-producing areas encompassing 98 separate gas fields. In Phase 2, the top four areas were analyzed in greater detail, and the area containing the most favorable conditions was selected for the identification of specific test sites. In Phase 3, target horizons were selected for each project area, and specific placement locations were selected and prioritized.

  17. Prevalence and Characteristics of the Epidemic Multiresistant Escherichia coli ST131 Clonal Group among Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing E. coli Isolates in Copenhagen, Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Dennis S.; Nilsson, Frida; Frimodt-Møller, Jakob; Leihof, Rikke Fleron; Struve, Carsten; Scheutz, Flemming; Johnston, Brian; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Johnson, James R.

    2013-01-01

    We report the characteristics of 115 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli clinical isolates, from 115 unique Danish patients, over a 1-year study interval (1 October 2008 to 30 September 2009). Forty-four (38%) of the ESBL isolates represented sequence type 131 (ST13)1, from phylogenetic group B2. The remaining 71 isolates were from phylogenetic groups D (27%), A (22%), B1 (10%), and B2 (3%). Serogroup O25 ST131 isolates (n = 42; 95% of ST131) comprised 7 different K antigens, whereas two ST131 isolates were O16:K100:H5. Compared to non-ST131 isolates, ST131 isolates were associated positively with CTX-M-15 and negatively with CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-14. They also were associated positively with 11 virulence genes, including afa and dra (Dr family adhesins), the F10 papA allele (P fimbria variant), fimH (type 1 fimbriae), fyuA (yersiniabactin receptor), iha (adhesin siderophore), iutA (aerobactin receptor), kpsM II (group 2 capsules), malX (pathogenicity island marker), ompT (outer membrane protease), sat (secreted autotransporter toxin), and usp (uropathogenicity-specific protein) and negatively with hra (heat-resistant agglutinin) and iroN (salmochelin receptor). The consensus virulence gene profile (>90% prevalence) of the ST131 isolates included fimH, fyuA, malX, and usp (100% each), ompT and the F10 papA allele (95% each), and kpsM II and iutA (93% each). ST131 isolates were also positively associated with community acquisition, extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) status, and the O25, K100, and H4 antigens. Thus, among ESBL E. coli isolates in Copenhagen, ST131 was the most prevalent clonal group, was community associated, and exhibited distinctive and comparatively extensive virulence profiles, plus a greater variety of capsular antigens than reported previously. PMID:23554186

  18. Prevalence and characteristics of the epidemic multiresistant Escherichia coli ST131 clonal group among extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli isolates in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Bente; Hansen, Dennis S; Nilsson, Frida; Frimodt-Møller, Jakob; Leihof, Rikke Fleron; Struve, Carsten; Scheutz, Flemming; Johnston, Brian; Krogfelt, Karen A; Johnson, James R

    2013-06-01

    We report the characteristics of 115 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli clinical isolates, from 115 unique Danish patients, over a 1-year study interval (1 October 2008 to 30 September 2009). Forty-four (38%) of the ESBL isolates represented sequence type 131 (ST13)1, from phylogenetic group B2. The remaining 71 isolates were from phylogenetic groups D (27%), A (22%), B1 (10%), and B2 (3%). Serogroup O25 ST131 isolates (n = 42; 95% of ST131) comprised 7 different K antigens, whereas two ST131 isolates were O16:K100:H5. Compared to non-ST131 isolates, ST131 isolates were associated positively with CTX-M-15 and negatively with CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-14. They also were associated positively with 11 virulence genes, including afa and dra (Dr family adhesins), the F10 papA allele (P fimbria variant), fimH (type 1 fimbriae), fyuA (yersiniabactin receptor), iha (adhesin siderophore), iutA (aerobactin receptor), kpsM II (group 2 capsules), malX (pathogenicity island marker), ompT (outer membrane protease), sat (secreted autotransporter toxin), and usp (uropathogenicity-specific protein) and negatively with hra (heat-resistant agglutinin) and iroN (salmochelin receptor). The consensus virulence gene profile (>90% prevalence) of the ST131 isolates included fimH, fyuA, malX, and usp (100% each), ompT and the F10 papA allele (95% each), and kpsM II and iutA (93% each). ST131 isolates were also positively associated with community acquisition, extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) status, and the O25, K100, and H4 antigens. Thus, among ESBL E. coli isolates in Copenhagen, ST131 was the most prevalent clonal group, was community associated, and exhibited distinctive and comparatively extensive virulence profiles, plus a greater variety of capsular antigens than reported previously.

  19. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

    1997-10-01

    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

  20. Malaria situation in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Sean; Delacollette, Charles; Chavez, Irwin

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiology of malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion is complex and rapidly evolving. Malaria control and elimination efforts face a daunting array of challenges including multidrug-resistant parasites. This review presents secondary data collected by the national malaria control programs in the six countries between 1998 and 2010 and examines trends over the last decade. This data has a number of limitations: it is derived exclusively from public sector health facilities; falciparum-specific and then pan-specific rapid diagnostic tests were introduced during the period under review; and, recently there has been a massive increase in case detection capability as a result of increased funding. It therefore requires cautious interpretation. A series of maps are presented showing trends in incidence, mortality and proportion of cases caused by Plasmodium falciparum over the last decade. A brief overview of institutional and implementation arrangements, historical background, demographics and key issues affecting malaria epidemiology is provided for each country. National malaria statistics for 2010 are presented and their robustness discussed in terms of the public sector's share of cases and other influencing factors such as inter-country variations in risk stratification, changes in diagnostic approach and immigration. Targets are presented for malaria control and where appropriate for elimination. Each country's artemisinin resistance status is described. The epidemiological trends presented reflect the improvement in the malaria situation, however the true malaria burden is as yet unknown. There is a need for continuing strengthening and updating of surveillance and response systems. PMID:24159830

  1. Greater Platte River Basins - Science to Sustain Ecosystems and Communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thormodsgard, June M.

    2009-01-01

    The Greater Platte River Basins (GPRB), located in the heartland of the United States, provides a collaborative opportunity for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners to understand the sustainability of natural and managed ecosystems under changing climate and resource requirements.The Greater Platte River Basins, an area of about 140,000 square miles, sustains thousands of acres of lakes and wetlands, which provide a staging and resting area for the North American Central Flyway. Part of the GPRB is within the U.S. Corn Belt, one of the most productive agricultural ecosystems on Earth. Changes in water and land use, changing patterns of snowmelt in the Rocky Mountains, drought, and increasing demands for irrigation have reduced flows in the Platte River. These changes raise questions about the sustainability of the region for both wildlife and agriculture.The USGS and partners are developing a science strategy that will help natural-resource managers address and balance the needs of this region.

  2. Seismic site survey investigations in urban environments: The case of the underground metro project in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, K.; Mendoza, J. A.; Colberg-Larsen, J.; Ploug, C.

    2009-05-01

    Near surface geophysics applications are gaining more widespread use in geotechnical and engineering projects. The development of data acquisition, processing tools and interpretation methods have optimized survey time, reduced logistics costs and increase results reliability of seismic surveys during the last decades. However, the use of wide-scale geophysical methods under urban environments continues to face great challenges due to multiple noise sources and obstacles inherent to cities. A seismic pre-investigation was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using seismic methods to obtain information about the subsurface layer locations and media properties in Copenhagen. Such information is needed for hydrological, geotechnical and groundwater modeling related to the Cityringen underground metro project. The pre-investigation objectives were to validate methods in an urban environment and optimize field survey procedures, processing and interpretation methods in urban settings in the event of further seismic investigations. The geological setting at the survey site is characterized by several interlaced layers of clay, till and sand. These layers are found unevenly distributed throughout the city and present varying thickness, overlaying several different unit types of limestone at shallow depths. Specific results objectives were to map the bedrock surface, ascertain a structural geological framework and investigate bedrock media properties relevant to the construction design. The seismic test consisted of a combined seismic reflection and refraction analyses of a profile line conducted along an approximately 1400 m section in the northern part of Copenhagen, along the projected metro city line. The data acquisition was carried out using a 192 channels array, receiver groups with 5 m spacing and a Vibroseis as a source at 10 m spacing. Complementarily, six vertical seismic profiles (VSP) were performed at boreholes located along the line. The reflection

  3. 3D stress field simulation for Greater Munich, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Moritz; Heidbach, Oliver; Reinecker, John; Przybycin, Anna Maria; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    Geotechnical applications such as tunneling, storage of waste, wellbore planning, or reservoir engineering requires detailed 3D information on the rock properties and behavior of the continuum. One of the key parameters is the contemporary crustal in-situ stress state. However, generally the availability of stress data on reservoir scale is scarce or no data exists at all. Furthermore, stress data is often limited to the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress. Hence, geomechanical-numerical modelling provides an approximation of a continuous description of the 3D in-situ stress state. We present a model workflow that shows (1) how to calibrate a regional scale model of Greater Munich with stress orientations and magnitudes mainly from borehole data and (2) how to derive from the regional model boundary conditions for a local high-resolution model of a geothermal reservoir site. This approach using two models is an alternative to the required trade-off between resolution, computational cost and a sufficient number of calibration data which is otherwise inevitable for a single model. The incorporated 3D geological models contain the topography from a digital elevation model and 6 stratigraphic units with different elasto-plastic rock properties. The local model mimics the area of a planned reservoir and its resolution is significantly higher than in the regional model and down to 10 m near the planned borehole trajectories using 21×106 tetrahedron finite elements with linear approximation functions. The uncertainties of the calibrated regional model are large since no information on the magnitude of the maximum horizontal stress is available. Even in the entire Greater Munich area only two reliable leak-off tests that deliver the magnitude of the minimum horizontal stress could be used. These uncertainties are transferred also to the local model. Hence we also show how to quantify for the workflow in general the systematic uncertainties and discuss

  4. [Scabies and syphilis--aspects of treatments of skin- and venereal diseases at Copenhagen Kommunehospital 1863 - 92].

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jeanne G; Henrik, Permin

    2007-01-01

    Scabies and syphilis was very common but social unaccepted diseases in the later part of the 19th century. In 1892, 1,210 patients with syphilis and 106 children suffering from scabies were treated at the Kommunehospital in Copenhagen. Case records from patients admitted March 19th and September 19th, form the study basis of different aspects of scabies and syphilis treatment in the period. In the mid 19th century different soap treatments were the common cure for scabies. In the 1880s the cure became napthollinement, powdering with flour followed by rapping the patient in a sheet. Throughout the whole period experiments with medicine and thereby the patients was the norm. The treatment of syphilis consisted of different forms of mercury cures combined with bathes. Admission time was long and the patient was rarely cured. Progress in the treatments of both diseases was made in the daily work with patients. Access to knowledge, economy, the effort of the physician and the relationship between the different professions and groups in the hospital influenced and formed the process.

  5. A survey of helminths in stray cats from Copenhagen with ecological aspects.

    PubMed

    Engbaek, K; Madsen, H; Larsen, S O

    1984-01-01

    At autopsy of 230 adult stray cats, 120 from backyards and 110 from gardens, the intestinal tract was scrutinized for helminths. The prevalence of Toxocara cati, Taenia taeniaeformis and Dipylidium caninum was found to be 79%, 11% and 14%, respectively. Comparisons were made with the results of previous Danish investigations. The prevalence of Toxocara cati was found to be independent of time of collection and the sex and habitat of the cats and identical in cats with or without Taenia. This indicates that paratenic hosts do not play an important epizootiological role in the transmission of T. cati. The intensity of Toxocara per cat followed a negative binomial pattern. The high prevalence of T. cati combined with most cats having a low wormload shows that the cat population generally possesses a high degree of resistance against superimposed infections. The intensity of male Toxocara increases with the size of the worm population. This we consider to be an expression of increasing susceptibility of the cats. The prevalence of T. taeniaeformis was significantly higher in garden cats, due to their greater opportunity for catching mice. D. caninum, however, was significantly more frequent in backyard cats, probably owing to better living condition for the flea larvae in backyards. For both T. taeniaeformis and D. caninum a higher frequency was found in female cats, which is thought to be associated with their care for the kittens.

  6. PREFACE: The IARU International Scientific Congress on Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions (10-12 March, Copenhagen, Denmark)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    by the IARU universities In keeping with normal scientific practice, a procedure for producing the synthesis report that has been adopted optimises the chances of arriving at a product that will receive a broad backing from the scientific community as being a message that can be sent to the non-scientific community and that explains current understanding in climate change science The Writing Team will also be responsible for writing the book Members of the Writing Team (in alphabetical order) Professor Joe Alcamo, University of Stellenbosch Dr Terry Barker, Cambridge University Professor Daniel Kammen, University of California - Berkeley Professor Rik Leemans, Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University Professor Diana Liverman, Oxford University Professor Mohan Munasinghe, Chairman, Munasinghe Institute for Development (MIND) Dr Balgis Osman-Elasha, Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources (HCENR), Sudan Professor Katherine Richardson, University of Copenhagen Professor John Schellnhuber, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and visiting professor at the University of Oxford Professor Will Steffen, Australian National University Professor Lord Nicholas Stern, London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) Professor Ole Wæver, University of Copenhagen 2 Key Messages from the Congress Key Message 1: Climatic Trends Recent observations confirm that, given high rates of observed emissions, the worst-case IPCC scenario trajectories (or even worse) are being realized For many key parameters, the climate system is already moving beyond the patterns of natural variability within which our society and economy have developed and thrived These parameters include global mean surface temperature, sea-level rise, ocean and ice sheet dynamics, ocean acidification, and extreme climatic events There is a significant risk that many of the trends will accelerate, leading to an increasing risk of abrupt or irreversible climatic shifts Key

  7. The importance of values in predicting Turkish youth's opinions about the European Union in light of the Copenhagen Political Criteria.

    PubMed

    Kuşdil, M Ersin; Simşek, Sefa

    2008-12-01

    The enlargement process of the European Union may be regarded as one of the most important social projects of human history in that it is trying to unite several nation-states under a "European identity." As a historically and culturally "distant" candidate, Turkey has been asked to meet a set of expectations referred to as the "Copenhagen Criteria," requiring a series of large-scale reforms to the infrastructure and superstructure of the country. Taking advantage of the unique opportunity to relate Turkish people's opinions on the criteria to their values, hypotheses based on Schwartz's model of values were tested. Schwartz's Personal Values Questionnaire and a questionnaire measuring opinions on the criteria and the Union were completed by 368 Turkish university students. Factor analysis of the opinion items yielded five factors: reduction of military influence in civil life, scepticism towards Europe and the European Union, improvement of human rights and liberties, improvement of minority rights, and lack of transparency in public institutions. Regression analyses showed that values and nationalism were powerful predictors of opinions whereas the effect of religiosity was limited only to the prediction of a preference for the reduction of military influence in civil life. Preference for openness to change values were successful in predicting variance in three of the five criteria: The more the participants favoured these values, the more they supported the improvement of human rights and liberties, the improvement of minority rights, and regretted the lack of transparency. Self-transcendence values were also positively related to support for the same three criteria together with a preference for reduction of military influence. As for nationalism, the results showed that this variable was related negatively to reduction of the military influence, improvement of human rights and liberties, improvement of minority rights; and positively to scepticism. PMID

  8. The importance of values in predicting Turkish youth's opinions about the European Union in light of the Copenhagen Political Criteria.

    PubMed

    Kuşdil, M Ersin; Simşek, Sefa

    2008-12-01

    The enlargement process of the European Union may be regarded as one of the most important social projects of human history in that it is trying to unite several nation-states under a "European identity." As a historically and culturally "distant" candidate, Turkey has been asked to meet a set of expectations referred to as the "Copenhagen Criteria," requiring a series of large-scale reforms to the infrastructure and superstructure of the country. Taking advantage of the unique opportunity to relate Turkish people's opinions on the criteria to their values, hypotheses based on Schwartz's model of values were tested. Schwartz's Personal Values Questionnaire and a questionnaire measuring opinions on the criteria and the Union were completed by 368 Turkish university students. Factor analysis of the opinion items yielded five factors: reduction of military influence in civil life, scepticism towards Europe and the European Union, improvement of human rights and liberties, improvement of minority rights, and lack of transparency in public institutions. Regression analyses showed that values and nationalism were powerful predictors of opinions whereas the effect of religiosity was limited only to the prediction of a preference for the reduction of military influence in civil life. Preference for openness to change values were successful in predicting variance in three of the five criteria: The more the participants favoured these values, the more they supported the improvement of human rights and liberties, the improvement of minority rights, and regretted the lack of transparency. Self-transcendence values were also positively related to support for the same three criteria together with a preference for reduction of military influence. As for nationalism, the results showed that this variable was related negatively to reduction of the military influence, improvement of human rights and liberties, improvement of minority rights; and positively to scepticism.

  9. Association of ischemic heart disease to global and regional longitudinal strain in asymptomatic aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Carstensen, Helle Gervig; Larsen, Linnea Hornbech; Hassager, Christian; Kofoed, Klaus Fuglsang; Jensen, Jan Skov; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2015-03-01

    Longitudinal deformation has been shown to deteriorate with progressive aortic stenosis as well as ischemic heart disease. Despite that both conditions share risk factors and are often coexisting, studies have not assessed the influence on longitudinal deformation for both conditions simultaneously. Thus the purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between subclinical ischemic heart disease and global and regional longitudinal strain in asymptomatic patients with significant aortic stenosis. Prevalent patients with a diagnosis of aortic stenosis at six hospitals in the Greater Copenhagen area were screened for inclusion. A total of 104 asymptomatic patients with moderate-severe aortic stenosis (aortic valve area ≤1.5 cm(2)) fulfilled study criteria and underwent advanced echocardiographic analysis and coronary angiography by multi-detector computed tomography. Angiography revealed coronary stenosis >50% in 31% (n = 32). All regional longitudinal strain measures (apical, mid and basal longitudinal strain) were significant predictors of significant coronary stenosis (>70% stenosis), but only apical and mid longitudinal strain were significant predictors in multivariable analyses independent of aortic valve area, stroke volume index, pro-BNP, valvulo-arterial impedance, body mass index and heart rate. In linear regression models with both aortic valve area and significant coronary stenosis, apical (p < 0.001) and mid (p < 0.01) longitudinal strain were associated to significant coronary stenosis but not aortic valve area. Conversely, basal longitudinal strain was significantly associated to aortic valve area (p = 0.001), but not to significant coronary stenosis. Subclinical coronary artery disease is frequent in moderate and severe aortic stenosis, and should be suspected when regional longitudinal dysfunction is predominant in the apical and mid ventricular segments.

  10. Debris Flows Within The Greater Caucasus Northern Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panova, S.

    Debris flows are recorded everywhere within the Greater Caucasus northern slope. In last decades studies of debris flows appeared to be very important due to an intensive anthropogenic activity in the mountainous areas. Debris flow spatial distribution, as well as their genesis and means of protection are critical, too. The studied terri- tory has significant absolute altitudes, especially in the central and eastern parts. Also large amount of atmospheric precipitation with maximum in a warm period is typical for the region. Modern glaciation with soil-covered moraine deposits of modern and Holocene age is developed in the region. Geological and geomorphological conditions lead to debris flows formation within the entire territory. However, the amount of atmospheric precipitation drastically decreases from west to east and in the eastern part (Dagestan) debris flow is less active than in the central even under the presence of enormous amounts of loose detrital material of different genesis. In the western part debris flows are less developed due to insignificant altitudes and considerable forest coverage and soil-cover. Powerful modern glaciation with vast development of purely moraine and fluvial-glacial deposits results in intensive debris flow activity in the central part of the northern slope (the Terek river basin). In the upper reaches of all the Terek tributaries moraine deposits reach up to several dozen meters. They are widespread at altitudes higher than 2000 m (above the forest boundary) and almost everywhere uncovered by soils. They are a key source of sediments under debris flow formation. Within the Greater Caucasus northern slope there are 1700 debris flow basins with the total area about 7000 km2. Their average area is 4.0 km2 with minimum 0.20 km2 and maximum 173.8 km2. Moreover, there are many riverbeds in the area where form mountain mud floods more than 3000 km long. Debris flows occur between January and October with clear altitudinal zoning

  11. Malaria Modeling and Surveillance for the Greater Mekong Subregion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Soika, Valerii; Nigro, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    At 4,200 km, the Mekong River is the tenth longest river in the world. It directly and indirectly influences the lives of hundreds of millions of inhabitants in its basin. The riparian countries - Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and a small part of China - form the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). This geographical region has the misfortune of being the world's epicenter of falciparum malaria, which is the most severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Depending on the country, approximately 50 to 90% of all malaria cases are due to this species. In the Malaria Modeling and Surveillance Project, we have been developing techniques to enhance public health's decision capability for malaria risk assessments and controls. The main objectives are: 1) Identifying the potential breeding sites for major vector species; 2) Implementing a malaria transmission model to identify the key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission; and 3) Implementing a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity. The potential benefits are: 1) Increased warning time for public health organizations to respond to malaria outbreaks; 2) Optimized utilization of pesticide and chemoprophylaxis; 3) Reduced likelihood of pesticide and drug resistance; and 4) Reduced damage to environment. Environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. These parameters are extracted from NASA Earth science data sets. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records.

  12. Integrating Alpine Adventure and Citizen Science in the Greater Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mix, H.

    2014-12-01

    As earth scientists, we are drawn together by our fascination with the natural world. On alpine climbing expeditions in the Greater Ranges of Asia during 2012-14, I had the opportunity to contribute to the scientific understanding and stewardship of the places I visit for personal fulfillment. Using the "matchmaking" services of Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation, I was connected with researchers to conduct field studies in some of the world's highest and most remote mountains. Here, I present work from two projects: 1) Assessing the role of biological weathering in shaping high altitude landscapes in the Pamir Mountains of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, and 2) Understanding the effects of anthropogenic biomass burning on glacial thinning in the Everest Region, Nepal. Both collaborative efforts succeeded in collecting valuable data from challenging environments using a small research budget. As a scientist with expertise in terrestrial paleoclimate and stable isotope geochemistry, these projects served to expand my research horizons and areas of professional interest. Citizen science can not only add a sense of value to otherwise selfish endeavors such as high altitude climbing, but also serve to connect scientists with the communities who appreciate their efforts most.

  13. Evaluating lek occupancy of greater sage-grouse in relation to landscape cultivation in the Dakotas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joe T.; Flake, Lester D.; Higgins, Kenneth F.; Kobriger, Gerald D.; Homer, Collin G.

    2005-01-01

    Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have been declining in many states and provinces of North America, and North and South Dakota hold no exception to these declines. We studied effects of cultivated land on Greater Sage-Grouse lek abandonment in North and South Dakota. Landscape-level data were assessed using satellite imagery within a geographic information system. Comparisons were made of 1972-1976 and 1999-2000 percent cultivated and noncultivated land. These comparisons were made between land uses surrounding active leks versus inactive leks, active leks versus random locations, and abandoned regions versus active regions. The 1999-2000 imagery illustrated that percent cultivated land was greater near abandoned leks (4-km buffers) than near active leks in North Dakota or random sites, but this did not hold true in South Dakota. Comparison of an extensive region of abandoned leks with a region of active leks in North Dakota illustrated a similar increase as well as dispersion of cultivation within the abandoned region. However, 1972-1976 imagery revealed that this relationship between percentage of cultivated land and lek activity in North Dakota has been static over the last 30 years. Thus, if the decline of Greater Sage-Grouse is the result of cultivated land infringements, it occurred prior to 1972 in North Dakota.

  14. Emissions of NOx, particle mass and particle numbers from aircraft main engines, APU's and handling equipment at Copenhagen Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Ellermann, Thomas; Massling, Andreas; Nøjgaard, Jacob Klenø; Ketzel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed emission inventory for NOx, particle mass (PM) and particle numbers (PN) for aircraft main engines, APU's and handling equipment at Copenhagen Airport (CPH) based on time specific activity data and representative emission factors for the airport. The inventory has a high spatial resolution of 5 m × 5 m in order to be suited for further air quality dispersion calculations. Results are shown for the entire airport and for a section of the airport apron area ("inner apron") in focus. The methodology presented in this paper can be used to quantify the emissions from aircraft main engines, APU and handling equipment in other airports. For the entire airport, aircraft main engines is the largest source of fuel consumption (93%), NOx, (87%), PM (61%) and PN (95%). The calculated fuel consumption [NOx, PM, PN] shares for APU's and handling equipment are 5% [4%, 8%, 5%] and 2% [9%, 31%, 0%], respectively. At the inner apron area for handling equipment the share of fuel consumption [NOx, PM, PN] are 24% [63%, 75%, 2%], whereas APU and main engines shares are 43% [25%, 19%, 54%], and 33% [11%, 6%, 43%], respectively. The inner apron NOx and PM emission levels are high for handling equipment due to high emission factors for the diesel fuelled handling equipment and small for aircraft main engines due to small idle-power emission factors. Handling equipment is however a small PN source due to the low number based emission factors. Jet fuel sulphur-PM sensitivity calculations made in this study with the ICAO FOA3.0 method suggest that more than half of the PM emissions from aircraft main engines at CPH originate from the sulphur content of the fuel used at the airport. Aircraft main engine PN emissions are very sensitive to the underlying assumptions. Replacing this study's literature based average emission factors with "high" and "low" emission factors from the literature, the aircraft main engine PN emissions were estimated to change with a

  15. Bilateral luxatio erecta with greater tuberosity fracture: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Vikas; Pradhan, Pavan

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral shoulder dislocation with greater tuberosity fracture and luxatio erecta, both are rare by themselves, with only few reports of each. We report an unusual case of posttraumatic bilateral symmetrical shoulder dislocation involving luxatio erecta with greater tuberosity fracture in a young male. To our knowledge, this is the first case of symmetrical bilateral shoulder dislocation with greater tuberosity fracture involving luxatio erecta dislocation from Indian subcontinent. PMID:26403880

  16. Deviance and resistance: Malaria elimination in the greater Mekong subregion.

    PubMed

    Lyttleton, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Malaria elimination rather than control is increasingly globally endorsed, requiring new approaches wherein success is not measured by timely treatment of presenting cases but eradicating all presence of infection. This shift has gained urgency as resistance to artemisinin-combination therapies spreads in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) posing a threat to global health security. In the GMS, endemic malaria persists in forested border areas and elimination will require calibrated approaches to remove remaining pockets of residual infection. A new public health strategy called 'positive deviance' is being used to improve health promotion and community outreach in some of these zones. However, outbreaks sparked by alternative understandings of appropriate behaviour expose the unpredictable nature of 'border malaria' and difficulties eradication faces. Using a recent spike in infections allegedly linked to luxury timber trade in Thai borderlands, this article suggests that opportunities for market engagement can cause people to see 'deviance' as a means to material advancement in ways that increase disease vulnerability. A malaria outbreak in Ubon Ratchathani was investigated during two-week field-visit in November 2014 as part of longer project researching border malaria in Thai provinces. Qualitative data were collected in four villages in Ubon's three most-affected districts. Discussions with villagers focused primarily on changing livelihoods, experience with malaria, and rosewood cutting. Informants included ten men and two women who had recently overnighted in the nearby forest. Data from health officials and villagers are used to frame Ubon's rise in malaria transmission within moral and behavioural responses to expanding commodity supply-chains. The article argues that elimination strategies in the GMS must contend with volatile outbreaks among border populations wherein 'infectiousness' and 'resistance' are not simply pathogen characteristics but also

  17. Dietary breadth of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gunther, Kerry A.; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Frey, Kevin L.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Cain, Steven L; van Manen, Frank T.; Fortin, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) are opportunistic omnivores that eat a great diversity of plant and animal species. Changes in climate may affect regional vegetation, hydrology, insects, and fire regimes, likely influencing the abundance, range, and elevational distribution of the plants and animals consumed by GYE grizzly bears. Determining the dietary breadth of grizzly bears is important to document future changes in food resources and how those changes may affect the nutritional ecology of grizzlies. However, no synthesis exists of all foods consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We conducted a review of available literature and compiled a list of species consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We documented >266 species within 200 genera from 4 kingdoms, including 175 plant, 37 invertebrate, 34 mammal, 7 fungi, 7 bird, 4 fish, 1 amphibian, and 1 algae species as well as 1 soil type consumed by grizzly bears. The average energy values of the ungulates (6.8 kcal/g), trout (Oncorhynchus spp., 6.1 kcal/g), and small mammals (4.5 kcal/g) eaten by grizzlies were higher than those of the plants (3.0 kcal/g) and invertebrates (2.7 kcal/g) they consumed. The most frequently detected diet items were graminoids, ants (Formicidae), whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis), clover (Trifolium spp.), and dandelion (Taraxacum spp.). The most consistently used foods on a temporal basis were graminoids, ants, whitebark pine seeds, clover, elk (Cervus elaphus), thistle (Cirsium spp.), and horsetail (Equisetum spp.). Historically, garbage was a significant diet item for grizzlies until refuse dumps were closed. Use of forbs increased after garbage was no longer readily available. The list of foods we compiled will help managers of grizzly bears and their habitat document future changes in grizzly bear food habits and how bears respond to changing food resources.

  18. Deviance and resistance: Malaria elimination in the greater Mekong subregion.

    PubMed

    Lyttleton, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Malaria elimination rather than control is increasingly globally endorsed, requiring new approaches wherein success is not measured by timely treatment of presenting cases but eradicating all presence of infection. This shift has gained urgency as resistance to artemisinin-combination therapies spreads in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) posing a threat to global health security. In the GMS, endemic malaria persists in forested border areas and elimination will require calibrated approaches to remove remaining pockets of residual infection. A new public health strategy called 'positive deviance' is being used to improve health promotion and community outreach in some of these zones. However, outbreaks sparked by alternative understandings of appropriate behaviour expose the unpredictable nature of 'border malaria' and difficulties eradication faces. Using a recent spike in infections allegedly linked to luxury timber trade in Thai borderlands, this article suggests that opportunities for market engagement can cause people to see 'deviance' as a means to material advancement in ways that increase disease vulnerability. A malaria outbreak in Ubon Ratchathani was investigated during two-week field-visit in November 2014 as part of longer project researching border malaria in Thai provinces. Qualitative data were collected in four villages in Ubon's three most-affected districts. Discussions with villagers focused primarily on changing livelihoods, experience with malaria, and rosewood cutting. Informants included ten men and two women who had recently overnighted in the nearby forest. Data from health officials and villagers are used to frame Ubon's rise in malaria transmission within moral and behavioural responses to expanding commodity supply-chains. The article argues that elimination strategies in the GMS must contend with volatile outbreaks among border populations wherein 'infectiousness' and 'resistance' are not simply pathogen characteristics but also

  19. Hail events across the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasuly, A. A.; Cheung, K. K. W.; McBurney, B.

    2015-05-01

    This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA) of New South Wales (NSW). The study area is a sprawling suburban area with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropoles. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hail event frequencies and magnitudes (sizes) for each of recognized and vastly inhabited local government areas (LGAs). The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was then applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, severe hail (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter) was cautiously selected for relevant analysis. The database includes 357 hail events with sizes 2-11 cm which occurred in 169 hail days (a day in which a hail event at least more than 2 cm reported) across the region during the past 25 years. The hail distribution patterns are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occur predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1-5 p.m. Australian eastern standard time (EST). They are particularly common in spring and summer, reaching maximum frequency in November and December. There is an average of 14.3 events per year, but a significant decreasing trend in hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial analyses also established three main distribution patterns over the study area which include the Sydney metropolitan, the coastal and the most pronounced topographic effects. Based on the understanding of the favorable factors for thunderstorm development in the GMSTWA, the potential impacts from climate variability

  20. Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Heterogeneity and Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Xu, Jianwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by ‘border malaria’ and ‘forest malaria’ with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. ‘Border malaria’ is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and P. vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is

  1. Defining and Dividing the Greater Caribbean: Insights from the Biogeography of Shorefishes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Caribbean biogeographic region is the high-diversity heart of the Tropical West Atlantic, one of four global centers of tropical marine biodiversity. The traditional view of the Greater Caribbean is that it is limited to the Caribbean, West Indies, southwest Gulf of Mexico and tip of Florida, and that, due to its faunal homogeneity, lacks major provincial subdivisions. In this scenario the northern 2/3 of the Gulf of Mexico and southeastern USA represent a separate temperate, “Carolinian” biogeographic region. We completed a comprehensive re-assessment of the biogeography of the Greater Caribbean by comparing the distributions of 1,559 shorefish species within 45 sections of shelf waters of the Greater Caribbean and adjacent areas. This analysis shows that that the Greater Caribbean occupies a much larger area than usually thought, extending south to at least Guyana, and north to encompass the entire Carolinian area. Rather than being homogenous, the Greater Caribbean is divided into three major provinces, each with a distinctive, primarily tropical fauna: (1) a central, tropical province comprising the West Indies, Bermuda and Central America; (2) a southern, upwelling-affected province spanning the entire continental shelf of northern South America; and (iii) a northern, subtropical province that includes all of the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and southeastern USA. This three-province pattern holds for both reef- and soft bottom fishes, indicating a general response by demersal fishes to major variation in provincial shelf environments. Such environmental differences include latitudinal variation in sea temperature, availability of major habitats (coral reefs, soft bottom shorelines, and mangroves), and nutrient additions from upwelling areas and large rivers. The three-province arrangement of the Greater Caribbean broadly resembles and has a similar environmental basis to the provincial arrangement of its sister biogeographic region, the Tropical

  2. Defining and dividing the greater Caribbean: insights from the biogeography of shorefishes.

    PubMed

    Robertson, D Ross; Cramer, Katie L

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Caribbean biogeographic region is the high-diversity heart of the Tropical West Atlantic, one of four global centers of tropical marine biodiversity. The traditional view of the Greater Caribbean is that it is limited to the Caribbean, West Indies, southwest Gulf of Mexico and tip of Florida, and that, due to its faunal homogeneity, lacks major provincial subdivisions. In this scenario the northern 2/3 of the Gulf of Mexico and southeastern USA represent a separate temperate, "Carolinian" biogeographic region. We completed a comprehensive re-assessment of the biogeography of the Greater Caribbean by comparing the distributions of 1,559 shorefish species within 45 sections of shelf waters of the Greater Caribbean and adjacent areas. This analysis shows that that the Greater Caribbean occupies a much larger area than usually thought, extending south to at least Guyana, and north to encompass the entire Carolinian area. Rather than being homogenous, the Greater Caribbean is divided into three major provinces, each with a distinctive, primarily tropical fauna: (1) a central, tropical province comprising the West Indies, Bermuda and Central America; (2) a southern, upwelling-affected province spanning the entire continental shelf of northern South America; and (iii) a northern, subtropical province that includes all of the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and southeastern USA. This three-province pattern holds for both reef- and soft bottom fishes, indicating a general response by demersal fishes to major variation in provincial shelf environments. Such environmental differences include latitudinal variation in sea temperature, availability of major habitats (coral reefs, soft bottom shorelines, and mangroves), and nutrient additions from upwelling areas and large rivers. The three-province arrangement of the Greater Caribbean broadly resembles and has a similar environmental basis to the provincial arrangement of its sister biogeographic region, the Tropical Eastern

  3. Integrating Ethics into International Business Teaching: Challenges and Methodologies in the Greater China Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitla, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the process of integrating ethics into the teaching of international business within the Greater China region. An example of how ethics is integrated into a required undergraduate international business course at a Hong Kong based university is presented. The contextual challenges of developing a course for use in the Greater…

  4. Language Education, Economic Development and Participation in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruthiaux, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The Mekong has long attracted interest although it remains economically insignificant. A group of riparian states known as the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS)--Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam and Yunnan Province (China)--now manage aspects of regional development including trade, water management and education. Standard GMS discourse…

  5. Greater history of weight-related stigmatizing experience is associated with greater weight loss in obesity treatment.

    PubMed

    Latner, Janet D; Wilson, G Terence; Jackson, Mary L; Stunkard, Albert J

    2009-03-01

    Experiences of obesity stigmatization and fear of fat, body image and self-esteem, were examined in relation to weight loss and weight maintenance. Participants in obesity treatment (N = 185) with more stigmatizing experiences had poorer body image and greater fear of fat. Higher initial BMI, more stigmatizing experiences, lower body dissatisfaction and greater fear of fat predicted greater weight loss. Higher initial BMI and more stigmatizing experiences predicted greater weight maintenance after six months in treatment. These findings suggest that despite the negative psychological correlates of stigmatization, experience and fear of obesity's negative consequences may also be associated with improved treatment outcome. PMID:19237486

  6. Late Paleozoic deformation of interior North America: The greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Hongzhuan |; Royden, L.; Burchfiel, C.; Schuepbach, M.

    1996-09-01

    Late Paleozoic deformation within interior North America has produced a series of north-northwest- to northwest-trending elongate basins that cover much of Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah. Each basin thickens asymmetrically toward an adjacent region of coeval basement uplift from which it is separated by synsedimentary faults with great vertical relief. The remarkable coincidence in timing, geometry, and apparent structural style throughout the region of late Paleozoic deformation strongly suggests that these paired regions of basin subsidence and basement uplift form a unified system of regional deformation, the greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains. Over this region, basin subsidence and basement uplift were approximately synchronous, beginning in the Chesterian-Morrowan, continuing through the Pennsylvanian, and ending in the Wolfcampian (although minor post-Wolfcampian deformation occurs locally). The basement uplifts show evidence for folding and faulting in the Pennsylvanian and Early Permian. Reverse faults and thrust faults have been drilled over many of the uplifts, but only in the Anadarko region has thrusting of the basement uplifts over the adjacent basin been clearly documented. Extensive basement-involved thrusting also occurs along the margins of the Delaware and Midland basins, and suggests that the entire greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains region probably formed as the result of northeast-southwest-directed-intraplate shortening. Deformation within the greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains was coeval with late Paleozoic subduction along much of the North American plate margin, and has traditionally been related to emplacement of thrust sheets within the Ouachita-Marathon orogenic belt. The nature, timing, and orientation of events along the Ouachita-Marathon belt make it difficult to drive the deformation of the greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains by emplacement of the Ouachita-Marathon belt along the southern margin of North America.

  7. Predominance and Circulation of Enteric Viruses in the Region of Greater Cairo, Egypt▿

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Aziza H.; Ali, Mohamed A.; El-Nady, Hala G.; de Rougemont, Alexis; Pothier, Pierre; Belliot, Gaël

    2009-01-01

    The circulation of enteric viruses among the population of Cairo, Egypt, between March 2006 and February 2007 was studied. At least one virus was detected in 50% of fecal samples, 57.4% of which were positive for rotavirus, 26% for norovirus, 10.4% for adenovirus, and 1.7% for astrovirus. Over 10% of infections were mixed infections. Rotavirus typing showed that G1P[8] and G2P[4] were predominant but that the unusual G12P[4] and G12P[6] reassortants were also present. Among the noroviruses, half belonged to the predominant GGII.4 cluster. The phylogenetic analysis of the capsid gene suggested that GGII.4 strains from Cairo were similar to those circulating elsewhere. It also showed the emergence of new GGII.4 variants that were not associated with any previously known GGII.4 isolate. Further studies are required to assess the disease burden of enteric viruses in Egypt and the impact of atypical strains. PMID:19193841

  8. Massification of Higher Education, Graduate Employment and Social Mobility in the Greater China Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2016-01-01

    Globalisation and the evolution of the knowledge-based economy have caused dramatic worldwide changes in the character and functions of education, particularly higher education. In the search for global competitiveness, many emerging economies have begun to expand their higher education systems, which has significantly affected the relationship…

  9. Teaching Writing in Grades 4-6 in Urban Schools in the Greater China Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiang, Tien Ping; Graham, Steve

    2016-01-01

    A random sample of 1102 grade 4-6 Chinese language arts teachers in Beijing, Macao, and Taipei City were surveyed about their instructional writing practices. Seventy-eight percent (n = 857) of the teachers completed the survey. Teachers were generally positive about the usefulness of their college teacher preparation program. They slightly agreed…

  10. Chemical characterization of ancient pottery from the greater Accra region of Ghana using neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandoh, J. B.; Bredwa-Mensah, Y.; Dampare, S. B.; Akaho, E. H. K.; Nyarko, B. J. B.

    2009-06-01

    Archaeology in Ghana has a long and respectable tradition. Despite this encouraging situation, significant gaps still exist in our understanding of the history of some early societies in Ghana. Accumulated evidence revealed that the Ga (Ayawaso), Dangme-Shai and the Wullf had trade and other cultural contacts with their Akan and Guan neighbours as well as the various European factors that traded and established footholds in the Accra coast. In an attempt to reconstruct the early history of the Ga, Dangme-Shai and Wullf, the archaeological material remains recovered from these communities during excavation have been studied. In all, 15 trace elements were determined in 40 pottery shards using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations were processed using multivariate statistical methods, such as cluster, factor and discriminant analyses. The results revealed patterns of trade between these communities and also classified the 40 samples into two major groups based on variations in elemental compositions. The groupings suggested a clear separation between the shards from Shai and Ayawaso. The shards from Wullf scattered amongst the two groups, consistent with the archaeological findings that the Wullf community never produced their own pots.

  11. [Prevalence of ragweed hayfever in the south and east of the greater Lyon region in 1993].

    PubMed

    Déchamp, C; Le Gal, M; Deviller, P

    1995-11-01

    In December 1993, AFEDA conducted an epidemiological survey in order to establish the prevalence of ragweed-induced pollinosis and to evaluate how well the public was informed about this danger. A survey by telephone was made, taking a random sample of the population drawn by lot from telephone directories in the Rhône district. This involved about 300,000 homes. Those in which at least one person was under 50 were questioned. The questionnaire included a section aimed at everyone, and another section aimed at homes where at least one person suffered from pollinosis in August and/or September, in Lyon. 1,800 homes were selected at random, 905 persons responded: 22.4% were off target, 77.6% matched up to the chosen target. Of these, 32.9% were aware of Ragweed and 31.9% knew of the dangers. The 702 homes targeted made a total of 2,060 persons, 59.6% of which live in town and 40.4% in suburban areas; 51.6% are women and 48.4% men. 53 people, i.e. 2.57%, presented at least one of the following symptoms in 1993: rhinitis 86.8%, conjunctivitis 69.8%, itching of the pharynx and/or ears 47.2%, tracheitis and/or asthma 41.5%. 77.4% received medication. In 1993, the prevalence of ragweed-induced symptoms is a certainty for 1.8% of the population, if we evaluate only those patients presenting these symptoms every year. This prevalence therefore does not take account of new cases nor of newcomers to the district. Moreover, we have probably under-estimated this prevalence, owing to the torrential rain that fell in Lyon in late August 1993. This made a break in the pollen curve, a phenomenon that has never yet been observed in 13 years of recording pollen calendars.

  12. Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties Over Greater Noida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; Singh, R. P.; Kumar, R.

    2015-12-01

    Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties over Greater NoidaManish Sharma1, Ramesh P. Singh2 and Rajesh Kumar3 1Research and Technology Development Centre, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. 2School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, Orange 92866, USA 3School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. Delhi capital of India is highly polluted during winter and summer seasons. Due to dominant westerly winds the air mass influence its neighboring city Greater Noida which is located 60 km south east of Delhi. Detailed analysis of multi satellite data and ground observations have been carried out during 2001-2015. The ground observation and satellite data show dynamic aerosol optical parameters over Greater Noida. During winter and summer seasons, dominant westerly wind outflow pollutants of Delhi that mix with the local anthropogenic emissions of Greater Noida influencing aerosol properties at different pressure levels. The characteristics of trace gases and aerosol parameters over Delhi and Greater Noida will be presented. The air quality is severely affected from the outflow of pollutants from Delhi which is threat to people living in the area. Due to dominant winds the air mass further transported towards eastern parts of Indo-Gangetic plains affecting weather conditions of the major cities.

  13. Spontaneous neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs (Setifer setosus).

    PubMed

    Khoii, Mina K; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Burns, Roy B; Carmichael, K Paige; Gyimesi, Zoltan S

    2008-09-01

    Little information is available about diseases and pathology of species within the family Tenrecidae, including the greater hedgehog tenrec (Setifer setosus), a Madagascan insectivore. This report summarizes necropsy and histopathologic findings of neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs. Although only four animals are included in this report, neoplasia seems to be a common and significant source of morbidity and mortality in greater hedgehog tenrecs. Types of neoplasia identified include a thyroid follicular-solid carcinoma, two urinary bladder transitional cell carcinomas, uterine endometrial polyps, and multicentric B-cell lymphoma. Due to small sample size, no etiology could be determined, but genetics, viral infection, pesticide treatment, nutrition, or other environmental factors might contribute to the development of neoplasia in this species. This is the first report of neoplasia in greater hedgehog tenrecs.

  14. Surgical Treatment of Displaced Greater Tuberosity Fractures of the Humerus.

    PubMed

    Rouleau, Dominique M; Mutch, Jennifer; Laflamme, Georges-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Greater tuberosity fractures of the humerus can be successfully treated nonsurgically in most patients. However, as little as 3 to 5 mm of superior greater tuberosity displacement may adversely affect rotator cuff biomechanics and lead to subacromial impingement in patients who are active. In these cases, surgical treatment is recommended. Multiple surgical techniques include open and arthroscopic options tailored to fracture morphology, and strategies for repair include the use of suture anchors, transosseous sutures, tension bands, and plates/screws. Three classification systems are commonly used to describe greater tuberosity fractures: the AO, Neer, and morphologic classifications. Several hypotheses have been discussed for the mechanism of greater tuberosity fractures and the deforming forces of the rotator cuff, and the use of advanced imaging is being explored.

  15. More Years Playing Football, Greater Risk of Brain Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_161841.html More Years Playing Football, Greater Risk of Brain Disease: Study Researchers track ... say they can show that brain inflammation from football head trauma may lead to the development of ...

  16. Post-irradiation angiosarcoma of the greater omentum.

    PubMed

    Westenberg, A H; Wiggers, T; Henzen-Logmans, S C; Verweij, J; Meerwaldt, J A; van Geel, A N

    1989-04-01

    A case of angiosarcoma of the greater omentum is reported. This angiosarcoma developed 8 years after irradiation for cervical carcinoma and presented with an intra-abdominal hemorrhage. We describe her clinical course, treatment and follow-up. Although several other locations of irradiation-induced sarcomas have been published, this is the first report in literature of a postirradiation angiosarcoma in the greater omentum.

  17. GREAT-ER: a new tool for management and risk assessment of chemicals in river basins. Contribution to GREAT-ER #10.

    PubMed

    Schowanek, D; Fox, K; Holt, M; Schroeder, F R; Koch, V; Cassani, G; Matthies, M; Boeije, G; Vanrolleghem, P; Young, A; Morris, G; Gandolfi, C; Feijtel, T C

    2001-01-01

    The GREAT-ER (Geo-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers) project team has developed and validated an accurate aquatic chemical exposure prediction tool for use within environmental risk assessment schemes. The software system GREAT-ER 1.0 calculates the distribution of predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of consumer chemicals in surface waters, for individual river stretches as well as for entire catchments. The system uses an ARC/INFO-ArcView (ESRI) based Geographical Information System (GIS) for data storage and visualization, combined with simple mathematical models for prediction of chemical fate. At present, the system contains information for four catchments in Yorkshire, one catchment in Italy, and two in Germany, while other river basins are being added. Great-ER 1.0 has been validated by comparing simulations with the results of an extensive monitoring campaign for two 'down-the-drain' chemicals, i.e. the detergent ingredients boron and Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate (LAS). GREAT-ER 1.0 is currently being expanded with models for the terrestrial (diffuse input), air and estaurine compartments. PMID:11380178

  18. ICAO safety management systems (SMS) development in environmental contexts: A field study of greater China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leib, Steven M.

    This was a mixed-methods exploratory study to investigate association between environmental context and the implementation status of Safety Management Systems (SMS) at airports in Greater China. Using a framework of Institutional Theory, this study looked at three regions of Greater China and explored internal and external environments of SMS at airports within each region. It used ICAO standards to evaluate the implementation status of SMS at those airports based on the perceptions of 126 participants. This research also employed snowballing technique to spread a survey tool to participants in Greater China through several key gatekeepers, and then applied the Delphi method for interviews with key gatekeepers themselves. Analysis of the data suggested several associations between various sub-concepts of the external environment and different components of SMS in the three regions. In addition, the data suggested a relationship between the internal environment as a whole and the overall status of SMS implementation in each region. Lastly, the study makes several recommendations for future research regarding global standards implemented in local environments, the evaluation of SMS implementation status, and the theoretical implications of this study.

  19. Extended radical mastectomy versus simple mastectomy followed by radiotherapy in primary breast cancer. A fifty-year follow-up to the Copenhagen Breast Cancer randomised study.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Helge; Kaae, Sigvard; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Mouridsen, Henning T

    2008-01-01

    From November 1951 to December 1957, 666 consecutive patients with untreated primary breast cancer admitted to the Radium Center in Copenhagen were randomised before their operability was evaluated into two groups, simple mastectomy with postoperative radiotherapy or extended radical mastectomy. Following physical examination 241 of the patients were excluded, primarily due to tumours deemed inoperable due to clinical criteria (n =107) and due to poor general condition (n =69). Twenty-five years results of disease-free free survival and fifty years results of survival are presented, showing no difference between the two groups. Patients with clinical stage I did significantly better than patients with stage II-III tumours. Patients with grade I tumours had a better survival than patients with grade II-III. The breast cancer associated mortality was lower in premenopausal patients compared to postmenopausal patients. An excess mortality due to breast cancer was evident up to 20-25 years following the primary diagnosis.

  20. Why are hispanics at greater risk for PTSD?

    PubMed

    Pole, Nnamdi; Best, Suzanne R; Metzler, Thomas; Marmar, Charles R

    2005-05-01

    Several studies have found that Hispanic Americans have higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than non-Hispanic Caucasian and Black Americans. The authors identified predictors of PTSD symptom severity that distinguished Hispanic police officers (n=189) from their non-Hispanic Caucasian (n=317) and Black (n=162) counterparts and modeled them to explain the elevated Hispanic risk for PTSD. The authors found that greater peritraumatic dissociation, greater wishful thinking and self-blame coping, lower social support, and greater perceived racism were important variables in explaining the elevated PTSD symptoms among Hispanics. Results are discussed in the context of Hispanic culture and may be important for prevention of mental illness in the fastest growing ethnic group in the United States.

  1. WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A BOEING 737-200 HAS BEEN TOWED IN FOR AN OVERNIGHT (BALANCE) CHECK. THE TAIL DOCK STANDS ARE IN POSITION AT THE REAR OF THE AIRCRAFT TO FACILITATE INSPECTION. MAINTENANCE CREWS PERFORM NIGHTLY SERVICE ON UP TO 6 AIRCRAFT. THE NORMAL SEQUENCE OF 12 ROUTINE CHECKS COVERS SEVEN BASIC AREAS: INTERIOR, EXTERIOR, WINGS, LANDING GEAR, TAIL, AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), AND ENGINES. THE WORK FORCE CONSISTS OF 5 INSPECTORS, 3 LEAD MECHANICS, AND 24 MECHANICS; NIGHTLY SCHEDULES ARE COORDINATED BY A PLANNER. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  2. Thermal evolution of the Greater Himalaya, Garhwal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, K. V.; Silverberg, David Scott

    1988-06-01

    The hanging wall of the Main Central Thrust (MCT) in Garhwal, India (roughly 79°N-80°E; 30°N-31°N), exhibits an inverted metamorphic gradient: sillimanite ± potassium feldspar assemblages near the top of the hanging wall, or Greater Himalayan sequence, are underlain by kyanite grade rocks near the fault. Textural relationships in pelitic samples from the Alaknanda and Dhauli river valleys indicate that the "inversion" is the product of two distinct metamorphic events: an early Harrovian event (M1), which affected the entire Greater, Himalayan sequence and a later Buchan event (M2), the effects of which are most obvious in the upper part of the sequence. Rim thermobarometry, garnet inclusion thermobarometry, and thermodynamic modeling of garnet zoning reveal that the basal portions of the metamorphic sequence experienced peak M1 conditions of >900 K and >960 MPa (roughly 36 km depth) before following an "erosion controlled" uplift path (e.g., England and Richardson, 1977). M2 metamorphic temperatures in the upper part of the sequence also exceeded 900 K, but maximum pressures (317-523 MPa) indicate paleodepths of only 12-19 km. Calculated pressure-temperature paths indicate that M2 was characterized by temperature increases of >80 K and roughly 5 km of tectonic burial We attribute M1 to tectonic burial of the Greater Himalayan sequence during the early stages of India-Eurasia collision. We believe that the uplift and cooling path of the sequence was interrupted in late Oligocene(?) - Miocene time by a second burial and heating event (M2) related to thrust imbrications in southern Tibet. This burial was coincident with the generation of leucogranites, which are abundant near the top of the Greater Himalayan sequence but are virtually absent near the MCT. Field relations do not constrain whether the leucogranites were derived from some presently unexposed portion of the Greater Himalayan sequence and were injected at their present structural level, or were melted

  3. Sympathetic preganglionic efferent and afferent neurons mediated by the greater splanchnic nerve in rabbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torigoe, Yasuhiro; Cernucan, Roxana D.; Nishimoto, Jo Ann S.; Blanks, Robert H. I.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the study of the vestibular-autonomic pathways involved in motion sickness, the location and the morphology of preganglionic sympathetic neurons (PSNs) projecting via the greater splanchnic nerve were examined. Retrograde labeling of neurons was obtained by application of horseradish peroxidase to the cut end of the greater splanchnic nerve. Labeled PSNs were found, ipsilaterally, within the T1 to T11 spinal cord segments, with the highest density of neurons in T6. Most PSNs were located within the intermediolateral column, but a significant portion also occurred within the lateral funiculus, the intercalated region, and the central autonomic area; the proportion of labeling between the four regions depended on the spinal cord segment.

  4. Aerobic fitness is associated with greater white matter integrity in children

    PubMed Central

    Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Erickson, Kirk I.; Holtrop, Joseph L.; Voss, Michelle W.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Hillman, Charles H.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic fitness has been found to play a positive role in brain and cognitive health of children. Yet, many of the neural biomarkers related to aerobic fitness remain unknown. Here, using diffusion tensor imaging, we demonstrated that higher aerobic fitness was related to greater estimates of white matter microstructure in children. Higher fit 9- and 10-year-old children showed greater fractional anisotropy (FA) in sections of the corpus callosum, corona radiata, and superior longitudinal fasciculus, compared to lower fit children. The FA effects were primarily characterized by aerobic fitness differences in radial diffusivity, thereby raising the possibility that estimates of myelination may vary as a function of individual differences in fitness during childhood. White matter structure may be another potential neural mechanism of aerobic fitness that assists in efficient communication between gray matter regions as well as the integration of regions into networks. PMID:25191243

  5. Job-Sharing at the Greater Victoria Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Don

    1978-01-01

    Describes the problems associated with the management of part-time library employees and some solutions afforded by a job sharing arrangement in use at the Greater Victoria Public Library. This is a voluntary work arrangement, changing formerly full-time positions into multiple part-time positions. (JVP)

  6. College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

  7. A Partnership for Development: Public Libraries in Greater Vancouver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowron, Albert

    Deliberations of the Five Year Plan Committee in 1970 uncovered a need for a separate study on the organization of public libraries in the greater Vancouver area. The results of such a study, conducted in 1971, are contained in this report. Part I dwells on the details of the rapid growth of the Vancouver area in the hope that those responsible…

  8. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  9. Metagenome Sequencing of the Greater Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) Rumen Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Dube, Anita N; Moyo, Freeman; Dhlamini, Zephaniah

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant herbivores utilize a symbiotic relationship with microorganisms in their rumen to exploit fibrous foods for nutrition. We report the metagenome sequences of the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) rumen digesta, revealing a diverse community of microbes and some novel hydrolytic enzymes.

  10. Metagenome Sequencing of the Greater Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) Rumen Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dube, Anita N.; Moyo, Freeman

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant herbivores utilize a symbiotic relationship with microorganisms in their rumen to exploit fibrous foods for nutrition. We report the metagenome sequences of the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) rumen digesta, revealing a diverse community of microbes and some novel hydrolytic enzymes. PMID:26272573

  11. Greater Milwaukee Metropolitan Area Career Education Project. Phase 3 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milwaukee Area Technical Coll., WI.

    The third report of the greater Milwaukee area career education project documents the phase 3 activities and accomplishments of the project, from October 1974 to July 1975. The following objectives were accomplished. Contact persons have been established in each district to promote career education. Three one-week workshops, two adult career…

  12. Metagenome Sequencing of the Greater Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) Rumen Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Dube, Anita N; Moyo, Freeman; Dhlamini, Zephaniah

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant herbivores utilize a symbiotic relationship with microorganisms in their rumen to exploit fibrous foods for nutrition. We report the metagenome sequences of the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) rumen digesta, revealing a diverse community of microbes and some novel hydrolytic enzymes. PMID:26272573

  13. Contaminants in greater snow geese and their eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Heyland, J.D.; Reed, A.; Laporte, P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on organochlorine pesticide, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and mercury residues in eggs and tissues of greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) and provides data on egg length and width, egg and shell weight, shell thickness, and the index of thickness.

  14. On the Occurrence of Standardized Regression Coefficients Greater than One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deegan, John, Jr.

    1978-01-01

    It is demonstrated here that standardized regression coefficients greater than one can legitimately occur. Furthermore, the relationship between the occurrence of such coefficients and the extent of multicollinearity present among the set of predictor variables in an equation is examined. Comments on the interpretation of these coefficients are…

  15. Report on the Greater Kansas City Hispanic Needs Assessment, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Francisco H.; And Others

    The Greater Kansas City Community Foundation conducted a formal, comprehensive needs assessment designed to address what the Hispanic community sees as its important needs. Data were gathered by surveying 100 residents of Hispanic neighborhoods, 53 Hispanic and non-Hispanic community leaders city-wide, and 28 heads of agencies located in the…

  16. External Scan 2000: Environmental Scan of the Greater Sacramento Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachler, Judith

    This document provides a summary of the social, economic, and political changes at state and national levels that affect the Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD) in California. LRCCD consists of American River College (ARC), Cosumnes River College (CRC), and Sacramento City College (SCC). Demographic trends show that Greater Sacramento is…

  17. Laparoscopic Greater Curve Plication as an Outpatient Weight Loss Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Ilvia

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic greater curve plication is emerging as a weight loss procedure that avoids many of the complications of other surgeries that require gastrointestinal division, amputation, or use of a foreign body. Cost savings and affordability have also been promoted, as plication does not require the use of stapling devices, adjustable gastric bands, or prolonged hospitalization. The ability to predictably perform plication as an outpatient surgery may further define its role as a therapeutic option for treating morbid obesity. We present the 30-day outcomes and supplementary 12-month data in a series of 141 laparoscopic greater curve plication surgeries performed as outpatient procedures. Methods: Laparoscopic greater curve plication was performed as outpatient surgery in 141 consecutive patients. Outcomes including perioperative complications, incidental 12-month follow-up for weight loss, and change in diabetic and hypertensive medication are reported. Results: Of the 141 plications performed, 138 patients were discharged from the recovery room and 6 were readmitted. There was no conversion to open surgery and no mortality. Conclusions: The ability to reliably perform greater curve plication as an outpatient surgery may further define its role as an additional weight loss surgery technique. PMID:26508824

  18. Lodging Management Career Questionnaire of Greater Philadelphia Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Robert C., Jr.; Wetzel, Susan J.

    A survey was undertaken by Delaware County Community College's (Pennsylvania) Hotel/Restaurant Management program: (1) to provide students with local up-to-date information regarding the lodging industry in the Greater Philadelphia area; and (2) to provide information regarding necessary skills as perceived by the managers for the purpose of…

  19. Mercury source sector asssessment for the Greater Milwaukee Area

    SciTech Connect

    Obenauf, P.; Skavroneck, S.

    1997-09-01

    The Mercury Reduction Project for the Greater Milwaukee Area is a joint effort of the Pollution Prevention Partnership, Milwaukee Metropolitan Seweage District (MMSD) and Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Estimates of the amounts of mercury present, used and/or annually released to air, land and water within the MMSD service area are provided for 25 source sectors. This 420 square mile area (including Milwaukee County and parts of Waukesha, Racine, Ozaukee and Washington Counties) is home to just over 1 million people. The tables and figures summarize the relative amounts of mercury: annually released from purposeful uses; annually released due to trace impurities; and present or in use from the various source sectors in the Greater Milwaukee Area.

  20. Composite materials with viscoelastic stiffness greater than diamond.

    PubMed

    Jaglinski, T; Kochmann, D; Stone, D; Lakes, R S

    2007-02-01

    We show that composite materials can exhibit a viscoelastic modulus (Young's modulus) that is far greater than that of either constituent. The modulus, but not the strength, of the composite was observed to be substantially greater than that of diamond. These composites contain bariumtitanate inclusions, which undergo a volume-change phase transformation if they are not constrained. In the composite, the inclusions are partially constrained by the surrounding metal matrix. The constraint stabilizes the negative bulk modulus (inverse compressibility) of the inclusions. This negative modulus arises from stored elastic energy in the inclusions, in contrast to periodic composite metamaterials that exhibit negative refraction by inertial resonant effects. Conventional composites with positive-stiffness constituents have aggregate properties bounded by a weighted average of constituent properties; their modulus cannot exceed that of the stiffest constituent. PMID:17272714

  1. Trafficking in persons and development: towards greater policy coherence.

    PubMed

    Danailova-Trainor, Gergana; Laczko, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Poverty is often regarded as the "root cause" of trafficking, but the linkages between poverty, a lack of development and trafficking are complex. For example, there is some evidence to suggest that victims of cross-border trafficking are more likely to originate from middle-income rather than lower-income countries. Trafficking and development have tended to be treated as very separate policy areas and the assessment of the development impact of counter-trafficking programmes is still at an early stage. This paper outlines a possible framework for a more evidence-based approach to understanding the linkages between trafficking, trafficking policy and human development. The paper argues that the human development gains from greater mobility could be significantly enhanced if there was greater coherence between policies to combat trafficking and policies to promote development. PMID:20645470

  2. Subspecies of the greater scaup and their names

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    The name Fuligula mariloides Vigors, presently used by many authors for a subspecies of the Greater Scaup, Aythya marila, was originally proposed for the Lesser Scaup, A. afinis, and may not be used in combination with the name marila. The name mariloides has been applied to a population of Greater Scaup in Kamchatka and the Commander Islands, supposedly distinguished by small size and dark dorsal color, or for that population and the one in North America, otherwise known as A. m. nearctica. Evidence for a subspecifically distinct population in eastern Asia is lacking, and A. marila is best considered to consist of only the Eurasian A. m. marila and the American A. m. nearctica. There is some interchange of the two subspecies in migration.

  3. Taxonomy of Greater White-fronted Geese (Aves: Anatidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Five subspecies of the Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769), have been named, all on the basis of wintering birds, and up to six subspecies have been recognized. There has been confusion over the application of some names, particularly in North America, because of lack of knowledge of the breeding ranges and type localities, and incorrect taxonomic decisions. There is one clinally varying subspecies in Eurasia, one that breeds in Greenland, and three in North America, one newly named herein.

  4. Changing Water Environment in the Greater Jakarta Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawitan, H.; Delinom, R.; Lubis, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    Recent rapid economic development in the greater Jakarta areas has caused not only increased water resources demands but also affects the water environment due to population increase and land use changes, that further causes land degradation, and changes in hydrologic regimes and environmental qualities. In the present study, the water environmental capacities as indicated by the changing landscapes in the greater Jakarta basins were investigated to understand the role of land use management and its impact on water resources, ecosystem and environmental services. The Ciliwung river basin where rapid population increases and progresses of the land use/cover changes occurring was selected as a representative basin, and 41 water samplings were taken at different time of Jan. 08, Apr. 08, Jul. 08, and Oct. 08 during 2009 to understand the effect of rainfall variation on water quality, and clarify the characteristics of hydrological cycle. Landuse changes of the upper basins as can be seen for the upper basin indicated the expansion of settlements during 1990 to 2004 from 4.1% to 17.6% or in acreage increased almost five times, not only converting forested area, but mostly taking place from paddy fields that contributed about 50% of the additional land for new settlements. Urbanization expanding around the greater Jakarta basins, is closely related to the increased fluctuations of river discharges in recent years, with recurrence floods quickly after heavy rainfall events. Furthermore, the study results indicated that water quality of Ciliwung river, especially the loading concentrations of nitric acid closely reflects the population densities of the watershed. These results suggest that the land use/cover changes of the greater Jakarta basins affect largely the change of water environment of the areas and resulting a deteriorated factor for water resources, ecosystems and environmental services in both of quantity and quality

  5. An observation of Clostridium perfringens in Greater Sage-Grouse.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Christian A; Bildfell, Robert J

    2007-07-01

    Mortality due to infectious diseases is seldom reported in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). A case of necrotic enteritis associated with Clostridium perfringens type A is described in a free-ranging adult male sage-grouse in eastern Oregon. Clostridial enteritis is known to cause outbreaks of mortality in various domestic and wild birds, and should be considered as a potential cause of mortality in sage-grouse populations.

  6. Gaining a greater share of the healthcare dollar.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, R N

    1986-01-01

    Are physicians being left out as hospitals rush to form outpatient surgery centers, diagnostic imaging centers, home health agencies, and other new financial ventures? Joint ventures and revenue diversification offer an often unexplored means for medical group practice to profit from the many financial opportunities created by the changing reimbursement system. Out-lined here are the considerations involved in the formation of an alternative health delivery system to help medical group practices gain a greater share of the healthcare dollar.

  7. Integrating parasitology and marine ecology: Seven challenges towards greater synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Robert; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Randhawa, Haseeb S.

    2016-07-01

    Despite their very different historical origins as scientific disciplines, parasitology and marine ecology have already combined successfully to make important contributions to our understanding of the functioning of natural ecosystems. For example, robust assessments of the contribution of parasites to ecosystem biomass and energetics, and of their impact on community-wide biodiversity and food web structure, have all been made for the first time in marine systems. Nevertheless, for the marriage between parasitology and marine ecology to remain fruitful, several challenges must first be overcome. We discuss seven such challenges on the road to a greater synergy between these disciplines: (1) Raising awareness of parasitism as an ecological force by increasing the proportion of articles about parasites and diseases in marine ecology journals; (2) Making greater use of theory and conceptual frameworks from marine ecology to guide parasitological research; (3) Speeding up or at least maintaining the current rate at which marine parasites are found and described; (4) Elucidating a greater proportion of life cycles in all major groups of marine parasites; (5) Increasing the number of host-parasite model systems on which our knowledge is based; (6) Extending parasitological research offshore and into ocean depths; and (7) Developing, as needed, new epidemiological theory and transmission models for the marine environment. None of these challenges is insurmountable, and addressing just a few of them should guarantee that parasitology and marine ecology will continue to join forces and make further substantial contributions.

  8. Dietary phosphorus is associated with greater left ventricular mass.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kalani T; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; de Oliveira, Marcia C; Kostina, Alina; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Ix, Joachim H; Nguyen, Ha; Eng, John; Lima, Joao A C; Siscovick, David S; Weiss, Noel S; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2013-04-01

    Dietary phosphorus consumption has risen steadily in the United States. Oral phosphorus loading alters key regulatory hormones and impairs vascular endothelial function, which may lead to an increase in left ventricular mass (LVM). We investigated the association of dietary phosphorus with LVM in 4494 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a community-based study of individuals who were free of known cardiovascular disease. The intake of dietary phosphorus was estimated using a 120-item food frequency questionnaire and the LVM was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Regression models were used to determine associations of estimated dietary phosphorus with LVM and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Mean estimated dietary phosphorus intake was 1167 mg/day in men and 1017 mg/day in women. After adjustment for demographics, dietary sodium, total calories, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, and established LVH risk factors, each quintile increase in the estimated dietary phosphate intake was associated with an estimated 1.1 g greater LVM. The highest gender-specific dietary phosphorus quintile was associated with an estimated 6.1 g greater LVM compared with the lowest quintile. Higher dietary phosphorus intake was associated with greater odds of LVH among women, but not men. These associations require confirmation in other studies.

  9. Ecological specialization and morphological diversification in Greater Antillean boas.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, R Graham; Collar, David C; Pasachnik, Stesha A; Niemiller, Matthew L; Puente-Rolón, Alberto R; Revell, Liam J

    2016-08-01

    Colonization of islands can dramatically influence the evolutionary trajectories of organisms, with both deterministic and stochastic processes driving adaptation and diversification. Some island colonists evolve extremely large or small body sizes, presumably in response to unique ecological circumstances present on islands. One example of this phenomenon, the Greater Antillean boas, includes both small (<90 cm) and large (4 m) species occurring on the Greater Antilles and Bahamas, with some islands supporting pairs or trios of body-size divergent species. These boas have been shown to comprise a monophyletic radiation arising from a Miocene dispersal event to the Greater Antilles, though it is not known whether co-occurrence of small and large species is a result of dispersal or in situ evolution. Here, we provide the first comprehensive species phylogeny for this clade combined with morphometric and ecological data to show that small body size evolved repeatedly on separate islands in association with specialization in substrate use. Our results further suggest that microhabitat specialization is linked to increased rates of head shape diversification among specialists. Our findings show that ecological specialization following island colonization promotes morphological diversity through deterministic body size evolution and cranial morphological diversification that is contingent on island- and species-specific factors. PMID:27345593

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in road dust over Greater Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hassanien, Mahmoud A; Abdel-Latif, Nasser M

    2008-02-28

    Road dust samples were collected during 2005 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined. Sites under investigation were selected to represent the different parts of Greater Cairo, Egypt. Estimation and spatial distribution pattern of PAHs in road dust were the main objectives of this study. The road dust samples were collected from 17 sites over greater Cairo. The concentration of PAHs was determined by using HPLC technique. Twelve common environmental PAHs were found to be distributed. The present data illustrated that the total average of PAHs over the investigated sites was ranged from 0.045 to 2.6 mg/kg. On individual scale, the highest concentrations were 1.031 and 1.028 mg/kg for pyrene and phenanthrene, meanwhile the lowest was benzo(a)pyrene with value 0.0001 mg/kg. The obtained results showed that the carcinogenic content of PAHs (naphthalene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene) ranged from 0.8 to 46.6% of total PAHs. It has been concluded from the present work that PAHs concentrations are greater and closer to traffic routes and industrial activities.

  11. Morphometry of the Greater Palatal Canal in Adult Skulls.

    PubMed

    Soto, Reinaldo A; Cáceres, Felipe; Vera, Cristóbal

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in dry skulls the length and angle between the greater palatine foramen and the foramen rotundum in both the frontal and sagittal planes. In 50 human skulls from the department of morphology, the distance and angulation required to reach the foramen rotundum through the greater palatine canal were measured in the frontal and sagittal planes. A stylet was introduced up to the foramen rotundum in each greater palatine canal and fixed. The skulls were then photographed from a front and lateral view (both right and left). Finally, the stylets were photographed on graph paper. These images were analyzed with Photoshop software. In the frontal plane, mean angulations of 5.32 degrees on the right side and 6.15 degrees on the left side were obtained. In the sagittal plane, mean angulations of 61.66 degrees on the right side and 61.81 degrees on the left side were obtained. Finally, the mean length required to reach the foramen rotundum was 31.95  mm on the right side and 32.49  mm on the left side. Some of these results differ from those stated in the foreign literature (10 degrees front, 70 degrees sagittal). These differences should be considered for both clinical practice and teaching in Chile.

  12. Ecological specialization and morphological diversification in Greater Antillean boas.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, R Graham; Collar, David C; Pasachnik, Stesha A; Niemiller, Matthew L; Puente-Rolón, Alberto R; Revell, Liam J

    2016-08-01

    Colonization of islands can dramatically influence the evolutionary trajectories of organisms, with both deterministic and stochastic processes driving adaptation and diversification. Some island colonists evolve extremely large or small body sizes, presumably in response to unique ecological circumstances present on islands. One example of this phenomenon, the Greater Antillean boas, includes both small (<90 cm) and large (4 m) species occurring on the Greater Antilles and Bahamas, with some islands supporting pairs or trios of body-size divergent species. These boas have been shown to comprise a monophyletic radiation arising from a Miocene dispersal event to the Greater Antilles, though it is not known whether co-occurrence of small and large species is a result of dispersal or in situ evolution. Here, we provide the first comprehensive species phylogeny for this clade combined with morphometric and ecological data to show that small body size evolved repeatedly on separate islands in association with specialization in substrate use. Our results further suggest that microhabitat specialization is linked to increased rates of head shape diversification among specialists. Our findings show that ecological specialization following island colonization promotes morphological diversity through deterministic body size evolution and cranial morphological diversification that is contingent on island- and species-specific factors.

  13. Greater deciduous shrub abundance extends tundra peak season and increases modeled net CO2 uptake.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Shannan K; Griffin, Kevin L; Steltzer, Heidi; Gough, Laura; Boelman, Natalie T

    2015-06-01

    Satellite studies of the terrestrial Arctic report increased summer greening and longer overall growing and peak seasons since the 1980s, which increases productivity and the period of carbon uptake. These trends are attributed to increasing air temperatures and reduced snow cover duration in spring and fall. Concurrently, deciduous shrubs are becoming increasingly abundant in tundra landscapes, which may also impact canopy phenology and productivity. Our aim was to determine the influence of greater deciduous shrub abundance on tundra canopy phenology and subsequent impacts on net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) during the growing and peak seasons in the arctic foothills region of Alaska. We compared deciduous shrub-dominated and evergreen/graminoid-dominated community-level canopy phenology throughout the growing season using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). We used a tundra plant-community-specific leaf area index (LAI) model to estimate LAI throughout the green season and a tundra-specific NEE model to estimate the impact of greater deciduous shrub abundance and associated shifts in both leaf area and canopy phenology on tundra carbon flux. We found that deciduous shrub canopies reached the onset of peak greenness 13 days earlier and the onset of senescence 3 days earlier compared to evergreen/graminoid canopies, resulting in a 10-day extension of the peak season. The combined effect of the longer peak season and greater leaf area of deciduous shrub canopies almost tripled the modeled net carbon uptake of deciduous shrub communities compared to evergreen/graminoid communities, while the longer peak season alone resulted in 84% greater carbon uptake in deciduous shrub communities. These results suggest that greater deciduous shrub abundance increases carbon uptake not only due to greater leaf area, but also due to an extension of the period of peak greenness, which extends the period of maximum carbon uptake.

  14. The Greater Zurich Area is Well-positioned in the Life Sciences in Switzerland and Europe.

    PubMed

    Jenni, Mario

    2014-12-01

    The Greater Zurich Area has become a hub for the life sciences industry in recent years, with above-average numbers of medtech companies and brisk spin-off activities from the Zurich universities. The spin-offs have established themselves near their scientific origins, in incubators and parks where they have access to functional and affordable laboratory infrastructures. Numerous cluster initiatives and networks foster exchanges between start-ups, established companies and academia. An international regional comparison conducted within the framework of the EU HealthTIES project gave the region of Zurich a good score in the life sciences area. The detailed comparison shows that Zurich is strong in the academic field and the existing companies are well-positioned. However, weaknesses are evident in the field of clinical research and in the interface between academia and industry. The infrastructure offerings in the Greater Zurich Area for life sciences companies and for exchanges between academia and industry will be further expanded in the coming years. Whether the high growth rate of the industry in the Greater Zurich Area can be maintained or even increased depends on the economy and other factors, but also on the political environment.

  15. Project Summary (2012-2015) – Carbon Dynamics of the Greater Everglades Watershed and Implications of Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkle, Ross; Benscoter, Brian; Comas, Xavier; Sumner, David; DeAngelis, Donald

    2015-04-07

    Carbon Dynamics of the Greater Everglades Watershed and Implications of Climate Change The objectives of this project are to: 1) quantify above- and below-ground carbon stocks of terrestrial ecosystems along a seasonal hydrologic gradient in the headwaters region of the Greater Everglades watershed; 2) develop budgets of ecosystem gaseous carbon exchange (carbon dioxide and methane) across the seasonal hydrologic gradient; 3) assess the impact of climate drivers on ecosystem carbon exchange in the Greater Everglades headwater region; and 4) integrate research findings with climate-driven terrestrial ecosystem carbon models to examine the potential influence of projected future climate change on regional carbon cycling. Note: this project receives a one-year extension past the original performance period - David Sumner (USGS) is not included in this extension.

  16. Sexual predators, energy development, and conservation in greater Yellowstone.

    PubMed

    Berger, Joel; Beckmann, Jon P

    2010-06-01

    In the United States, as elsewhere, a growing debate pits national energy policy and homeland security against biological conservation. In rural communities the extraction of fossil fuels is often encouraged because of the employment opportunities it offers, although the concomitant itinerant workforce is often associated with increased wildlife poaching. We explored possible positive and negative factors associated with energy extraction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), an area known for its national parks, intact biological diversity, and some of the New World's longest terrestrial migrations. Specifically, we asked whether counties with different economies-recreation (ski), agrarian (ranching or farming), and energy extractive (petroleum)-differed in healthcare (gauged by the abundance of hospital beds) and in the frequency of sexual predators. The absolute and relative frequency of registered sex offenders grew approximately two to three times faster in areas reliant on energy extraction. Healthcare among counties did not differ. The strong conflation of community dishevel, as reflected by in-migrant sexual predators, and ecological decay in Greater Yellowstone is consistent with patterns seen in similar systems from Ecuador to northern Canada, where social and environmental disarray exist around energy boomtowns. In our case, that groups (albeit with different aims) mobilized campaigns to help maintain the quality of rural livelihoods by protecting open space is a positive sign that conservation can matter, especially in the face of rampant and poorly executed energy extraction projects. Our findings further suggest that the public and industry need stronger regulatory action to instill greater vigilance when and where social factors and land conversion impact biological systems.

  17. Land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica using MODIS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, Chandra; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2005-01-01

    A new land cover database of Greater Mesoamerica has been prepared using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS, 500 m resolution) satellite data. Daily surface reflectance MODIS data and a suite of ancillary data were used in preparing the database by employing a decision tree classification approach. The new land cover data are an improvement over traditional advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based land cover data in terms of both spatial and thematic details. The dominant land cover type in Greater Mesoamerica is forest (39%), followed by shrubland (30%) and cropland (22%). Country analysis shows forest as the dominant land cover type in Belize (62%), Cost Rica (52%), Guatemala (53%), Honduras (56%), Nicaragua (53%), and Panama (48%), cropland as the dominant land cover type in El Salvador (60.5%), and shrubland as the dominant land cover type in Mexico (37%). A three-step approach was used to assess the quality of the classified land cover data: (i) qualitative assessment provided good insight in identifying and correcting gross errors; (ii) correlation analysis of MODIS- and Landsat-derived land cover data revealed strong positive association for forest (r2 = 0.88), shrubland (r2 = 0.75), and cropland (r2 = 0.97) but weak positive association for grassland (r2 = 0.26); and (iii) an error matrix generated using unseen training data provided an overall accuracy of 77.3% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.73608. Overall, MODIS 500 m data and the methodology used were found to be quite useful for broad-scale land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica.

  18. Ultradeep (greater than 300 kilometers), ultramafic upper mantle xenoliths.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, S E; Sautter, V

    1990-05-25

    Geophysical discontinuities in Earth's upper mantle and experimental data predict the structural transformation of pyroxene to garnet and the solid-state dissolution of pyroxene into garnet with increasing depth. These predictions are indirectly verified by omphacitic pyroxene exsolution in pyropic garnet-bearing xenoliths from a diamondiferous kimberlite. Conditions for silicon in octahedral sites in the original garnets are met at pressures greater than 130 kilobars, placing the origin of these xenoliths at depths of 300 to 400 kilometers. These ultradeep xenoliths support the theory that the 400-km seismic discontinuity is marked by a transition from peridotite to eclogite. PMID:17745405

  19. Range-wide patterns of greater sage-grouse persistence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldridge, C.L.; Nielsen, S.E.; Beyer, H.L.; Boyce, M.S.; Connelly, J.W.; Knick, S.T.; Schroeder, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a shrub-steppe obligate species of western North America, currently occupies only half its historical range. Here we examine how broad-scale, long-term trends in landscape condition have affected range contraction. Location: Sagebrush biome of the western USA. Methods: Logistic regression was used to assess persistence and extirpation of greater sage-grouse range based on landscape conditions measured by human population (density and population change), vegetation (percentage of sagebrush habitat), roads (density of and distance to roads), agriculture (cropland, farmland and cattle density), climate (number of severe and extreme droughts) and range periphery. Model predictions were used to identify areas where future extirpations can be expected, while also explaining possible causes of past extirpations. Results: Greater sage-grouse persistence and extirpation were significantly related to sagebrush habitat, cultivated cropland, human population density in 1950, prevalence of severe droughts and historical range periphery. Extirpation of sage-grouse was most likely in areas having at least four persons per square kilometre in 1950, 25% cultivated cropland in 2002 or the presence of three or more severe droughts per decade. In contrast, persistence of sage-grouse was expected when at least 30 km from historical range edge and in habitats containing at least 25% sagebrush cover within 30 km. Extirpation was most often explained (35%) by the combined effects of peripherality (within 30 km of range edge) and lack of sagebrush cover (less than 25% within 30 km). Based on patterns of prior extirpation and model predictions, we predict that 29% of remaining range may be at risk. Main Conclusions: Spatial patterns in greater sage-grouse range contraction can be explained by widely available landscape variables that describe patterns of remaining sagebrush habitat and loss due to cultivation, climatic trends, human

  20. Ultradeep (greater than 300 kilometers), ultramafic upper mantle xenoliths.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, S E; Sautter, V

    1990-05-25

    Geophysical discontinuities in Earth's upper mantle and experimental data predict the structural transformation of pyroxene to garnet and the solid-state dissolution of pyroxene into garnet with increasing depth. These predictions are indirectly verified by omphacitic pyroxene exsolution in pyropic garnet-bearing xenoliths from a diamondiferous kimberlite. Conditions for silicon in octahedral sites in the original garnets are met at pressures greater than 130 kilobars, placing the origin of these xenoliths at depths of 300 to 400 kilometers. These ultradeep xenoliths support the theory that the 400-km seismic discontinuity is marked by a transition from peridotite to eclogite.

  1. Spatial and temporal patterns of exhumation in the Greater Caucasus from low-temperature thermochronometry (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdeev, B.; Niemi, N. A.

    2009-12-01

    Results of a low-temperature thermochronometric study are presented that provide new constraints on the spatial and temporal patters of exhumation in the central and eastern Greater Caucasus. This study employed a range of thermochronomtric systems with thermal sensitivity below ~250°C, including ZFT, 40Ar/39Ar, AFT, and apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He. Granitic samples from the central Greater Caucasus in Russia were collected primarily along two N-S transects between Mt. Elbrus and Mt. Kazbek, at ~43.25°E and 43.75°E. ZFT and 40Ar/39Ar results from these samples are Late Paleozoic in age, consistent with regional igneous cooling ages perhaps related to the Variscan orogeny. AFT and (U-Th)/He results indicate slow (<4°C/Myr) cooling from at least 30 until ~5Ma, at which time the rate of cooling sharply increased to ~ 25°C/Myr. These data constrain total exhumation of the central Greater Caucasus to ~10 km, with at least half of this total having been exhumed since the end of the Miocene. The initiation of the first phase of slow exhumation in the central Greater Caucasus is poorly constrained by our rapidly exhumed sample suite, but one slowly cooled sample from the northern edge of the range suggests exhumation may have begun in the Oligocene. No evidence is preserved in the thermochronometric data for an Eocene exhumational event related to the proposed onset of continental-continental collision at this time, but pre-Oligocene exhumation can be constrained by our data to be less than 1-2 km, assuming simple, monotonic cooling. Low-temperature thermochronometry of volcaniclastic rocks from the eastern Caucasus in Azerbaijan (~48.25°E) yield a markedly different story. Cretaceous AFT ages are consistent with stratigraphic estimates of the eruptive age of the volcaniclastic sequence, while (U-Th)/He ages are reset, limiting burial and re-exhumation since the Mesozoic to ~3 km. Rapid exhumation of these rocks began ~3 Ma, and well-preserved post-Mesozoic thermal

  2. Molecular identification of novel intermediate host species of Angiostrongylus vasorum in Greater London.

    PubMed

    Patel, Zainab; Gill, A Christina; Fox, Mark T; Hermosilla, Carlos; Backeljau, Thierry; Breugelmans, Karin; Keevash, Esther; McEwan, Claudia; Aghazadeh, Mahdis; Elson-Riggins, Jocelyn G

    2014-12-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum is a parasitic nematode that can cause serious and potentially fatal disease in dogs and other canids. The aim of this study was to determine the intermediate slug species infected in nature by sampling sites in Greater London and Hertfordshire located within a known hyperendemic region. Overall, A. vasorum larvae were recovered from 6/381 slugs (1.6%) by tissue digestion, and their identity was confirmed by PCR. Infected slugs originated from three different sites in the Greater London area: one in Waltham Forest and two in Bromley. Slugs parasitised by A. vasorum were identified by a combination of external morphological characteristics and molecular techniques and belonged to three different families: the Arionidae, the Milacidae and the Limacidae. This includes two new host records for the parasite: Arion distinctus and Tandonia sowerbyi. This is the first record of A. vasorum in the family Milacidae, indicating that the parasite has a broader intermediate host range than previously recognised.

  3. Greater effort boosts the affective taste properties of food

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Alexander W.; Gallagher, Michela

    2011-01-01

    Actions can create preferences, increasing the value ascribed to commodities acquired at greater cost. This behavioural finding has been observed in a variety of species; however, the causal factors underlying the phenomenon are relatively unknown. We sought to develop a behavioural platform to examine the relationship between effort and reinforcer value in mice trained under demanding or lenient schedules of reinforcement to obtain food. In the initial experiment, expenditure of effort enhanced the value of the associated food via relatively lasting changes in its hedonic attributes, promoting an acquired preference for these reinforcers when tested outside of the training environment. Moreover, otherwise neutral cues associated with those reinforcers during training similarly acquired greater reinforcing value, as assessed under conditioned reinforcement. In a separate experiment, expenditure of effort was also capable of enhancing the value of less-preferred low-caloric reinforcers. Analysis of licking microstructure revealed the basis for this increased valuation was, in part, due to increased palatability of the associated reinforcer. This change in the hedonic taste properties of the food can not only serve as a basis for preference, but also guide decision-making and foraging behaviour by coordinating a potentially adaptive repertoire of incentive motivation, goal-directed action and consumption. PMID:21047860

  4. BBilateral Neglected Anterior Shoulder Dislocation with Greater Tuberosity Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Upasani, Tejas; Bhatnagar, Abhinav; Mehta, Sonu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Shoulder dislocations are a very common entity in routine orthopaedic practice. Chronic unreduced anterior dislocations of the shoulder are not very common. Neurological and vascular complications may occur as a result of an acute anterior dislocation of the shoulder or after a while in chronic unreduced shoulder dislocation. Open reduction is indicated for most chronic shoulder dislocations. We report a case of neglected bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation with bilateral displaced greater tuberosity fracture. To the best of our knowledge, only a handful cases have been reported in literature with bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation with bilateral fractures. Delayed diagnosis/reporting is a scenario which makes the list even slimmer and management all the more challenging. Case Report: We report a case of a 35-year-old male who had bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation and bilateral greater tuberosity fracture post seizure and failed to report it for a period of 30 days. One side was managed conservatively with closed reduction and immobilization and the other side with open reduction. No neurovascular complications pre or post reduction of shoulder were seen. Conclusion: Shoulder dislocations should always be suspected post seizures and if found should be treated promptly. Treatment becomes difficult for any shoulder dislocation that goes untreated for considerable period of time PMID:27703939

  5. Expression of tandem gene duplicates is often greater than twofold

    PubMed Central

    Loehlin, David W.; Carroll, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    Tandem gene duplication is an important mutational process in evolutionary adaptation and human disease. Hypothetically, two tandem gene copies should produce twice the output of a single gene, but this expectation has not been rigorously investigated. Here, we show that tandem duplication often results in more than double the gene activity. A naturally occurring tandem duplication of the Alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene exhibits 2.6-fold greater expression than the single-copy gene in transgenic Drosophila. This tandem duplication also exhibits greater activity than two copies of the gene in trans, demonstrating that it is the tandem arrangement and not copy number that is the cause of overactivity. We also show that tandem duplication of an unrelated synthetic reporter gene is overactive (2.3- to 5.1-fold) at all sites in the genome that we tested, suggesting that overactivity could be a general property of tandem gene duplicates. Overactivity occurs at the level of RNA transcription, and therefore tandem duplicate overactivity appears to be a previously unidentified form of position effect. The increment of surplus gene expression observed is comparable to many regulatory mutations fixed in nature and, if typical of other genomes, would shape the fate of tandem duplicates in evolution. PMID:27162370

  6. Liver metal concentrations in Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus).

    PubMed

    Dailey, Rebecca N; Raisbeck, Merl F; Siemion, Roger S; Cornish, Todd E

    2008-04-01

    Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are a species of concern due to shrinking populations associated with habitat fragmentation and loss. Baseline health parameters for this species are limited or lacking, especially with regard to tissue metal concentrations. To obtain a range of tissue metal concentrations, livers were collected from 71 Greater Sage-grouse from Wyoming and Montana. Mean +/- SE metal concentrations (mg/kg wet weight) in liver were determined for vanadium (V) (0.12 +/- 0.01), chromium (Cr) (0.50 +/- 0.02), manganese (Mn) (2.68 +/- 0.11), iron (Fe) (1,019 +/- 103), nickel (Ni) (0.40 +/- 0.04), cobalt (Co) (0.08 +/- 0.02), copper (Cu) (6.43 +/- 0.40), mercury (Hg) (0.30 +/- 0.09), selenium (Se) (1.45 +/- 0.64), zinc (Zn) (59.2 +/- 4.70), molybdenum (Mo) (0.93 +/- 0.07), cadmium (Cd) (1.44 +/- 0.14), barium (Ba) (0.20 +/- 0.03), and lead (Pb) (0.17 +/- 0.03). In addition to providing baseline data, metal concentrations were compared between sex, age (juvenile/adult), and West Nile virus (WNv) groups (positive/negative). Adult birds had higher concentrations of Ni and Cd compared to juveniles. In addition, Zn and Cu concentrations were significantly elevated in WNv-positive birds.

  7. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Ramón A; Pacala, Stephen W; Winebrake, James J; Chameides, William L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2012-04-24

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH(4) leakage were capped at a level 45-70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH(4) losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

  8. Occult fractures of the greater tuberosity of the humerus

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, S.; Postacchini, F.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the highest reported number of patients with occult fracture of the greater tuberosity of the humerus and we analysed why fracture was not diagnosed, shoulder function and prevalence of eventually associated rotator cuff tear (RCT). Twenty-four patients with a missed fracture of the greater tuberosity underwent MR study for a suspect RCT. We evaluated shoulder function and self-assessed comfort with the Constant score (CS) and Simple Shoulder Test (SST). Nine patients showed evidence of cuff tendinosis, 11 of partial (p) RCT (2: subscapularis; 6: supraspinatus and 3: supraspinatus and infraspinatus). All patients with pRCT were older than 40. Initially, the mean CS and SST were 54% and 5/12; at follow-up, values increased to 36% and 5 points. MR should be performed in patients apparently negative for fracture but with painful shoulders and decreased ROM. Of our patients, 45.8% had pRCT; nevertheless function recovery was verified in 16 weeks. PMID:18256834

  9. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Ramón A; Pacala, Stephen W; Winebrake, James J; Chameides, William L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2012-04-24

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH(4) leakage were capped at a level 45-70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH(4) losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas.

  10. Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs.

  11. Greater cortical thinning in normal older adults predicts later cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Jennifer; Goh, Joshua O.; Kraut, Michael A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Resnick, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown regional differences in cortical thickness between healthy older adults and patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We now demonstrate that participants who subsequently develop cognitive impairment leading to a diagnosis of MCI or AD (n=25) experience greater cortical thinning in specific neuroanatomical regions compared to control participants who remained cognitively normal (n=96). Based on 8 years of annual MRI scans beginning an average of 11 years prior to onset of cognitive impairment, participants who developed cognitive impairment subsequent to the scanning period had greater longitudinal cortical thinning in the temporal poles and left medial temporal lobe compared to controls. No significant regional cortical thickness differences were found at baseline between the two study groups indicating that we are capturing a critical time when brain changes occur before behavioral manifestations of impairment are detectable. Our findings suggest that early events of the pathway that leads to cognitive impairment may involve the temporal lobe, and that this increased atrophy could be considered an early biomarker of neurodegeneration predictive of cognitive impairment years later. PMID:25311277

  12. Locked into Copenhagen pledges - Implications of short-term emission targets for the cost and feasibility of long-term climate goals

    SciTech Connect

    Riahi, Keywan; Kriegler, Elmar; Johnson, Nils; Bertram, Christoph; den Elzen, Michel; Eom, Jiyong; Schaeffer, Michiel; Edmonds, James A.; Isaac, Morna; Krey, Volker; Longden, Thomas; Luderer, Gunnar; Mejean, Aurelie; McCollum, David; Mima, Silvana; Turton, Hal; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Wada, Kenichi; Bosetti, Valentina; Capros, Pantelis; Criqui, Patrick; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kainuma, M.; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the AMPERE intermodeling comparison with focus on the implications of near-term policies for the costs and attainability of long-term climate objectives. Ten modeling teams participated in the project to explore the consequences of global emissions following the proposed policy stringency of the national pledges from the Copenhagen Accord and Cancún Agreements to 2030. Specific features compared to earlier assessments are the explicit consideration of near-term 2030 emissions targets as well as the systematic sensitivity analysis for the availability and potential of mitigation technologies. Our estimates show that a 2030 mitigation effort comparable to the pledges would result in a further "lock-in" of the energy system into fossil fuels and thus impede the required energy transformation to reach low greenhouse-gas stabilization levels (450ppm CO2e). Major implications include significant increases in mitigation costs, increased risk that low stabilization targets become unattainable, and reduced chances of staying below the proposed temperature change target of 2C. With respect to technologies, we find that following the pledge pathways to 2030 would narrow policy choices, and increases the risks that some currently optional technologies, such as nuclear or carbon capture and storage (CCS), will become "a must" by 2030.

  13. Outcome Measures of Functionality, Social Interaction, and Pain in Patients with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: A Validation Study for the Iranian Version of the Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale

    PubMed Central

    Nayeb Aghaei, Hossein; Shahzadi, Sohrab; Azhari, Shirzad; Mohammadi, Hassan Reza; Alizadeh, Pooyan; Montazeri, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional. Purpose To translate and validate the Iranian version of the Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale (CNFDS). Overview of Literature Instruments measuring patient-reported outcomes should satisfy certain psychometric properties. Methods Ninety-three cases of cervical spondylotic myelopathy were entered into the study and completed the CNFDS pre and postoperatively at the 6 month follow-up. The modified Japanese Orthopedic Association Score was also completed. The internal consistency, test-retest, convergent validity, construct validity (item scale correlation), and responsiveness to change were assessed. Results Mean age of the patients was 54.3 years (standard deviation, 8.9). The Cronbach α coefficient was satisfactory (α=0.84). Test-retest reliability as assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient analysis was 0.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.92-0.98). The modified Japanese Orthopedic Association score correlated strongly with the CNFDS score, lending support to its good convergent validity (r=-0.80; p<0.001). Additionally, the correlation of each item with its hypothesized domain on the CNFDS was acceptable, suggesting that the items had a substantial relationship with their own domains. These results also indicate that the instrument was responsive to change (p<0.0001). Conclusions The findings suggest that the Iranian version of the CNFDS is a valid measure to assess functionality, social interaction, and pain among patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. PMID:26713123

  14. Surgical Outcomes and Correlation of the Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale and Modified Japanese Orthopedic Association Assessment Scales in Patients with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Azhari, Shirzad; Shazadi, Sohrab; Khayat Kashany, Hamid; Nayeb Aghaei, Hossein; Mohammadi, Hassan Reza

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional. Purpose Clinical outcome study comparing the Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale (CNFDS) and modified Japanese orthopedic association (mJOA) assessment scales in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Overview of Literature Comparison of instruments that measure patient-reported outcomes is needed. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted. Ninety five patients with CSM were entered into the study and completed the CNFDS and the mJOA preoperatively and postoperatively. Correlation between the CNFDS and the mJOA was evaluated preoperatively and at the end of follow-up. Responsiveness to change of CNFDS and mJOA was also assessed. Clinical outcomes were also measured with the recovery rate of mJOA score at end of follow-up. Results The mean age of patients was 58.2 (standard deviation, SD=8.7) years. Mean follow-up was 2.1 years (range, 1 to 4 years). The mJOA correlated strongly with the CNFDS score preoperatively and postoperatively (r=–0.81 and –0.82, respectively; p<0.001). The CNFDS and the mJOA were able to detect changes after the surgery (p<0.001). The mean mJOA recovery rate was 51.8% (SD=13.1%). Conclusions Surgery for the treatment of patients with CSM is an efficacious procedure. CNFDS and mJOA scores have a strong correlation in measuring disability among CSM patients. PMID:27340528

  15. Greater Insula White Matter Fiber Connectivity in Women Recovered from Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Shott, Megan E; Pryor, Tamara L; Yang, Tony T; Frank, Guido K W

    2016-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric disorder associated with reduced drive to eat. Altered taste-reward circuit white matter fiber organization in anorexia nervosa after recovery could indicate a biological marker that alters the normal motivation to eat. Women recovered from restricting-type anorexia (Recovered AN, n = 24, age = 30.3 ± 8.1 years) and healthy controls (n = 24, age = 27.4 ± 6.3 years) underwent diffusion weighted imaging of the brain. Probabilistic tractography analyses calculated brain white matter connectivity (streamlines) as an estimate of fiber connections in taste-reward-related white matter tracts, and microstructural integrity (fractional anisotropy, FA) was assessed using tract-based spatial statistics. Recovered AN showed significantly (range P<0.05-0.001, Bonferroni corrected) greater white matter connectivity between bilateral insula regions and ventral striatum, left insula and middle orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and right insula projecting to gyrus rectus and medial OFC. Duration of illness predicted connectivity of tracts projecting from the insula to ventral striatum and OFC. Microstructural integrity was lower in Recovered AN in most insula white matter tracts, as was whole-brain FA in parts of the anterior corona radiata, external capsule, and cerebellum (P<0.05, family-wise error-corrected). This study indicates higher structural white matter connectivity, an estimate of fibers connections, in anorexia after recovery in tracts that connect taste-reward processing regions. Greater connectivity together with less-fiber integrity could indicate altered neural activity between those regions, which could interfere with normal food-reward circuit function. Correlations between connectivity and illness duration suggest that connectivity could be a marker for illness severity. Whether greater connectivity can predict prognosis of the disorder requires further study.

  16. Greater hippocampal volume is associated with PTSD treatment response.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Mikael; Shvil, Erel; Papini, Santiago; Chhetry, Binod T; Helpman, Liat; Markowitz, John C; Mann, J John; Neria, Yuval

    2016-06-30

    Previous research associates smaller hippocampal volume with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is unclear, however, whether treatment affects hippocampal volume or vice versa. Seventy-six subjects, 40 PTSD patients and 36 matched trauma-exposed healthy resilient controls, underwent clinical assessments and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline, and 10 weeks later, during which PTSD patients completed ten weeks of Prolonged Exposure (PE) treatment. The resilient controls and treatment responders (n=23) had greater baseline hippocampal volume than treatment non-responders (n=17) (p=0.012 and p=0.050, respectively), perhaps due to more robust fear-extinction capacity in both the initial phase after exposure to trauma and during treatment. PMID:27179314

  17. Risks of Brucella abortus spillover in the Greater Yellowstone area.

    PubMed

    Schumaker, B

    2013-04-01

    Recurrent spillover of Brucella abortus from wildlife reservoirs to domestic cattle in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) has prevented the United States from completely eradicating bovine brucellosis. Risks to cattle are a function of the size and location of wildlife and livestock populations, the degree and nature of spatio-temporal interactions between the various hosts, the level of disease in wildlife, and the susceptibility of livestock herds. While the brucellosis prevalence in wild, free-ranging GYA bison (Bison bison) is high, current management actions have successfully limited contact between bison and cattle. Under current management practices, the risks to cattle in the GYA are predominantly from wild elk (Cervus elaphus). Intra- and inter-species transmission events, while uncommon, are nevertheless crucial for the maintenance of brucellosis in the GYA. Future management actions should focus on decreasing elk herd densities and group sizes and on understanding the behavioural and environmental drivers that result in co-mingling that makes transmission possible.

  18. Plasmas with index of refraction greater than one

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, J; Scofield, J H

    2004-06-23

    Over the last decade, X-ray lasers in the wavelength range14 - 47 nm have been used to do interferometry of plasmas. Just as for optical interferometry of plasmas, the experimental analysis assumed that the index of refraction is due only to the free electrons. This makes the index of refraction less then one. Recent experiments in Al plasmas have observed fringe lines bend the wrong way as though the electron density is negative. We show how the bound electrons can dominate the index of refraction in many plasmas and make the index greater than one or enhance the index such that one would greatly overestimate the density of the plasma using interferometry.

  19. Evil genius? How dishonesty can lead to greater creativity.

    PubMed

    Gino, Francesca; Wiltermuth, Scott S

    2014-04-01

    We propose that dishonest and creative behavior have something in common: They both involve breaking rules. Because of this shared feature, creativity may lead to dishonesty (as shown in prior work), and dishonesty may lead to creativity (the hypothesis we tested in this research). In five experiments, participants had the opportunity to behave dishonestly by overreporting their performance on various tasks. They then completed one or more tasks designed to measure creativity. Those who cheated were subsequently more creative than noncheaters, even when we accounted for individual differences in their creative ability (Experiment 1). Using random assignment, we confirmed that acting dishonestly leads to greater creativity in subsequent tasks (Experiments 2 and 3). The link between dishonesty and creativity is explained by a heightened feeling of being unconstrained by rules, as indicated by both mediation (Experiment 4) and moderation (Experiment 5). PMID:24549296

  20. The Greater Plains Collaborative: a PCORnet Clinical Research Data Network.

    PubMed

    Waitman, Lemuel R; Aaronson, Lauren S; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Connolly, Daniel W; Campbell, James R

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Plains Collaborative (GPC) is composed of 10 leading medical centers repurposing the research programs and informatics infrastructures developed through Clinical and Translational Science Award initiatives. Partners are the University of Kansas Medical Center, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Iowa Healthcare, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Medical College of Wisconsin and Marshfield Clinic, the University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The GPC network brings together a diverse population of 10 million people across 1300 miles covering seven states with a combined area of 679 159 square miles. Using input from community members, breast cancer was selected as a focus for cohort building activities. In addition to a high-prevalence disorder, we also selected a rare disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  1. Evil genius? How dishonesty can lead to greater creativity.

    PubMed

    Gino, Francesca; Wiltermuth, Scott S

    2014-04-01

    We propose that dishonest and creative behavior have something in common: They both involve breaking rules. Because of this shared feature, creativity may lead to dishonesty (as shown in prior work), and dishonesty may lead to creativity (the hypothesis we tested in this research). In five experiments, participants had the opportunity to behave dishonestly by overreporting their performance on various tasks. They then completed one or more tasks designed to measure creativity. Those who cheated were subsequently more creative than noncheaters, even when we accounted for individual differences in their creative ability (Experiment 1). Using random assignment, we confirmed that acting dishonestly leads to greater creativity in subsequent tasks (Experiments 2 and 3). The link between dishonesty and creativity is explained by a heightened feeling of being unconstrained by rules, as indicated by both mediation (Experiment 4) and moderation (Experiment 5).

  2. Unsaturated zone transport modeling of the Greater Confinement Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.

    1994-12-31

    Unsaturated zone transport modeling is being conducted as part of the performance assessment of the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility which is located on the Nevada Test Site. This performance assessment is based on an iterative process of modeling and data collection to assess the likelihood the site will meet the US Environmental Protection Agency`s containment, individual protection and groundwater protection requirements for the disposal of transuranic wastes, high-level wastes and spent fuel. The current iteration of the performance assessment evaluates the potential impact of future events on the transport system. The future events included in this analysis are subsidence, bioturbation, erosion, climate change, irrigated farming and drilling. This paper presents the unsaturated transport model, how it fits into the performance assessment and how the future events are incorporated in the model.

  3. Fixation systems of greater trochanteric osteotomies: biomechanical and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jarit, Gregg J; Sathappan, Sathappan S; Panchal, Anand; Strauss, Eric; Di Cesare, Paul E

    2007-10-01

    The development of cerclage systems for fixation of greater trochanteric osteotomies has progressed from monofilament wires to multifilament cables to cable grip and cable plate systems. Cerclage wires and cables have various clinical indications, including fixation for fractures and for trochanteric osteotomy in hip arthroplasty. To achieve stable fixation and eventual union of the trochanteric osteotomy, the implant must counteract the destabilizing forces associated with pull of the peritrochanteric musculature. The material properties of cables and cable grip systems are superior to those of monofilament wires; however, potential complications with the use of cables include debris generation and third-body polyethylene wear. Nevertheless, the cable grip system provides the strongest fixation and results in lower rates of nonunion and trochanteric migration. Cable plate constructs show promise but require further clinical studies to validate their efficacy and safety.

  4. Free greater omental flap for treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, W.J.; Panje, W.R.

    1987-04-01

    Osteoradionecrosis can involve the mandible following radical irradiation for treatment of oral cavity cancer. The radionecrosis of the mandible is often associated with severe intractable pain, local or extensive deformity, including pathologic fracture, orocutaneous fistula formation, and frequent loss of function. Treatment has ranged from analgesia and antibiotics to hyperbaric oxygen treatments to local or extensive sequestrectomies with partial or total mandibulectomy and restoration of tissue losses with unirradiated tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful use of a free greater omental flap for immediate treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis and concomitant reconstruction. We found the omentum to be an excellent vascular bed that rapidly resolved the osteoradionecrosis and pain, promoted healing, and restored mandibular function with minimal discomfort to the patient.

  5. Low glucose relates to greater aggression in married couples

    PubMed Central

    Bushman, Brad J.; DeWall, C. Nathan; Pond, Richard S.; Hanus, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence affects millions of people globally. One possible contributing factor is poor self-control. Self-control requires energy, part of which is provided by glucose. For 21 days, glucose levels were measured in 107 married couples. To measure aggressive impulses, each evening participants stuck between 0 and 51 pins into a voodoo doll that represented their spouse, depending how angry they were with their spouse. To measure aggression, participants competed against their spouse on a 25-trial task in which the winner blasted the loser with loud noise through headphones. As expected, the lower the level of glucose in the blood, the greater number of pins participants stuck into the voodoo doll, and the higher intensity and longer duration of noise participants set for their spouse. PMID:24733932

  6. Ovarian follicle dynamics of female Greater Scaup during egg production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorman, K.B.; Flint, P.L.; Esler, Daniel; Williams, T.D.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of female waterfowl nutrient reserve use during egg production require a precise understanding of ovarian follicle dynamics to correctly interpret breeding status, and, therefore, derive proper inference. Concerns over numerical declines of North American scaup have increased the need to better understand the role of female condition in reproductive performance. We quantified ovarian follicle dynamics of female Greater Scaup (Aythya marila) breeding on the Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, using a method that accounts for within day variation in follicle size. We considered several models for describing changes in follicle growth with the best supported model estimating the duration of rapid follicle growth (RFG) to be 5.20 ± 0.52 days (±95% confidence intervals) for each developing follicle. Average diameter and dry mass of preovulatory follicles were estimated to be 9.36 mm and 0.26 g, respectively, at the onset of RFG, and these follicle characteristics were 41.47 mm and 15.57 g, respectively, at ovulation. The average diameter of postovulatory follicles immediately following ovulation was estimated to be 17.35 mm, regressing quickly over several days. In addition, we derived predictive equations using diameter and dry mass to estimate the number of days before, and after, ovulation for pre- and postovulatory follicles, as well as an equation to estimate dry mass of damaged follicles. Our results allow precise definition of RFG and nest initiation dates, clutch size, and the daily energetic and nutritional demands of egg production at the individual level. This study provides the necessary foundation for additional work on Greater Scaup reproductive energetics and physiology, and offers an approach for quantifying ovarian follicle dynamics in other species.

  7. Effects of neck bands on survival of greater snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menu, S.; Hestbeck, J.B.; Gauthier, G.; Reed, A.

    2000-01-01

    Neck bands are a widely used marker in goose research. However, few studies have investigated a possible negative effect of this marker on survival. We tested the effect of neck bands on the survival of adult female greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) by marking birds with either a neck band and a metal leg band or a leg band only on Bylot Island (Nunavut, formerly included in the Northwest Territories, Canada) from 1990 to 1996. Annual survival was estimated using leg-band recoveries in fall and winter and using neck-band sightings in spring and fall. Recapture rates were estimated using summer recaptures. Using recovery data, the selected model yielded a survival similar for the neck-banded and leg-banded only birds (S = 0.845 ?? 0.070 vs. S = 0.811 ?? 0.107). The hypothesis of equality of survival between the 2 groups was easily accepted under most constraints imposed on survival or recovery rates. However, failure to account for a different direct recovery rate for neck-banded birds would lead us to incorrectly conclude a possible negative effect of neck bands on survival. Using sighting data, mean annual survival of neck-banded birds was independently estimated at 0.833 ?? 0.057, a value very similar to that estimated with band-recovery analysis. Raw recapture rates during summer were significantly lower for neck-banded birds compared to those marked with leg bands only (4.6% vs. 12.1%), but in this analysis, survival, site fidelity, reproductive status, and recapture rates were confounded. We conclude that neck bands did not affect survival of greater snow geese, but could possibly affect other demographic traits such as breeding propensity and emigration.

  8. Afghanistan structure, greater India concept and Eastern Tethys evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulin, Jean

    1981-02-01

    The large and complex area between Central Asia and the Arabia—India block includes, from north to south, the Tien Shan and Hindu Kush—Kun Lun Hercynian belts, the Turkman—Farah Rud and Tanghla Shan Neokimmerian belt, the Zagros—Makran—Baluch—Himalayan Alpine belt and relics of corresponding oceanic spaces. The Angarian or Gondwanian affinities of the different blocks separated by these successive peri-Indian belts are discussed. An interpretation is proposed for the paleogeographic and structural evolution of this area, from Early Paleozoic to Present. This interpretation is based on geologic and paleomagnetic data and on global tectonic considerations. The Hindu Kush—Kun Lun pre-Hercynian ocean probably separated Laurasia from Gondwanaland. It was an Early Paleozoic Tethys (Tethys 1). The Tien Shan ocean may have been a marginal basin for the Hindu Kush—Kun Lun ocean. The Turkman-Farah Rud—Tanghla Shan pre-Neokimmerian ocean resulted from the break-up of the Gondwanaland margin. Its opening seems to have been related to the pre-Hercynian ocean closure resulting in the formation of a new Tethys (Tethys 2). Its subsequent closure may also have been related to the opening of the Zagros—Baluch—Indus—Tsang Po pre-Alpine ocean (Tethys 3). According to this interpretation, Eurasia appears to have increased from Early Paleozoic to Cenozoic by successive accretion of cratonic blocks which came from the south through the Tethys. This evolution can be compared to the similar Mediterranean evolution. This interpretation is in agreement with the Greater India concept. However, the northern border of Greater India differs according to the stage of the Gondwanaland evolution which is considered. Actually, Greatest India extended north to the Caledonian belt and consequently has recorded the whole history of the Eastern Tethys.

  9. Laws of distribution of the snow cover on the greater Caucasus (Soviet Union)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurtovaya, Y. Y.; Sulakvelidze, G. K.; Yashina, A. V.

    1985-01-01

    The laws of the distribution of the snow cover on the mountains of the greater Caucasus are discussed. It is shown that an extremely unequal distribution of the snow cover is caused by the complex orography of this territory, the diversity of climatic conditions and by the difference in altitude. Regions of constant, variable and unstable snow cover are distinguished because of the clearly marked division into altitude layers, each of which is characterized by climatic differences in the nature of the snow accumulation.

  10. Bedrock Geologic Map of the Greater Lefkosia Area, Cyprus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Richard W.; Newell, Wayne; Panayides, Ioannis; Stone, Byron; Tsiolakis, Efthymios; Necdet, Mehmet; Batihanli, Hilmi; Ozhur, Ayse; Lord, Alan; Berksoy, Okan; Zomeni, Zomenia; Schindler, J. Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The island of Cyprus has a long historical record of earthquakes that have damaged pre-Roman to modern human settlements. Because the recurrent damaging earthquakes can have a significant economic and social impact on Cyprus, this project was initiated to develop a seismic-hazard assessment for a roughly 400 square kilometer area centered on Cyprus' capital and largest city, whose European name is Nicosia and whose local name is Lefkosia. In addition, geologic and seismotectonic evaluations for the project extended beyond the perimeter of the geologic map. Additional structural, stratigraphic, and paleontological data were collected island-wide as well as data from literature research throughout the eastern Mediterranean region, in order to accurately place the geology and seismic hazards of the Lefkosia area in a regional tectonic framework.

  11. Geochronology and magma sources of Elbrus volcano (Greater Caucasus, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    Elbrus volcano (5642m), the largest Quaternary volcano in the European part of the Russia, is situated within the central part of Greater Caucasus mountain system at the watershed of Black and Caspian seas. Complex isotope-geochronological studies showed that the Elbrus volcano experienced long (approximately 200-250 thousands years) discrete evolution, with protracted periods of igneous quiescence (approximately 50 ka) between large-scale eruptions. The volcanic activity of Elbrus is subdivided into three phases: Middle-Neopleistocene (225-170 ka), Late Neopleistocene (110-70 ka), and Late Neopleistocene-Holocene (less than 35 ka). No eruptions presumably occurred during 'quiescence' periods, while the volcano was dormant or revealed only insignificant explosive eruptions and postmagmatic activity. Volcanic rocks of the Elbrus volcano are represented by biotite-hypersthene-plagioclase calc-alcaline dacites (65.2-70.4% SiO2, and 6.4-7.9% K2O+Na2O at 2.7-3.9% K2O). Petrogeochemical and isotope-geochemical signatures of Elbrus dacitic lavas (87Sr/86Sr - 0.70535-0.70636, Eps(Nd) from +0.8 to -2.3, 206Pb/204Pb - 18.631-18.671, 207Pb/204Pb - 15.649-15.660, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.811-38.847) point to their mantle-crustal origin. It was found that hybrid parental magmas of the volcano were formed due to mixing and/or contamination of deep-seated mantle melts by Paleozoic upper crustal material of the Greater Caucasus. The temporal evolution of isotope characteristics for lavas of Elbrus volcano is well described by a Sr-Nd mixing hyperbole between mantle source of 'Common'-type and estimated average composition of the Paleozoic upper crust of the Greater Caucasus. It was shown that, with time, the proportions of mantle material in the parental magmas of Elbrus gently increased: from ~60% at the Middle-Neopleistocene phase of activity to ~80% at the Late Neopleistocene-Holocene phase, which indicates an increase of the activity of deep-seated source at decreasing input of

  12. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.; Blong, R.; Sparks, S.; Shah, H.; Kennedy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105 000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M???8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10 000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300 000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M???7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M??? 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M??? 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates

  13. Greater functionality of bismuth and lead based perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchomel, Matthew R.

    Novel Bi and Pb-based perovskite oxide chemistries have been investigated through bulk solid-state synthesis methods with a goal of increasing the dielectric, ferroelectric, and magnetic functionality of these materials. Although the Pb+2 and Bi+3 canons are chemically similar, Pb-based perovskites have historically received greater commercial and scientific attention. However, recent experimental and theoretical progress in studies of Bi containing systems has prompted a renewed interest in their potential. As such, particular focus was given to the Bi+3 containing systems in the current work. An investigation of the Bi-based perovskite compounds, emphasizing multiferroic BiFeO3 and related solid solutions, has explored the limitations of bulk synthesis methods for these systems. Numerous cation and anion substitution routes are experimentally studied and a comprehensive review of previous work examining B' site cation substitution in Bi-based perovskites is performed. This has resulted in an improved understanding of phase competition within these systems. These findings were used to engineer new chemistries, particularly those of mixed cation site occupancy, with improved perovskite stability. New low tolerance factor Bi-based perovskites with mixed B ' site cation chemistries have been used to induce morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) formation in solid solutions with PbTiO3. Moreover, a new qualitative relationship correlating the tolerance factor of Bi and Pb-based end members in PbTiO3 solid solutions to the compositional position of the system's MPB has been developed and experimentally validated. This relationship has been used to explore novel end members with very low tolerance factors including (Pb1/2Th1/2)ScO 3, for PbTiO3-based MPB solid solutions. A new category of Bi-based chemistries which enhance tetragonality and Curie temperature (Tc) in solid solutions with PbTiO3 has been identified. This effect is particularly dramatic for the (x)PbTiO 3

  14. Experience-dependent natal philopatry of breeding greater flamingos.

    PubMed

    Balkiz, Ozge; Béchet, Arnaud; Rouan, Lauriane; Choquet, Rémi; Germain, Christophe; Amat, Juan A; Rendón-Martos, Manuel; Baccetti, Nicola; Nissardi, Sergio; Ozesmi, Uygar; Pradel, Roger

    2010-09-01

    1. Contrary to the generally high level of natal philopatry (i.e. likelihood that individuals breed at their natal colony) found in first-breeding colonial birds, little is known of natal philopatry later in life. Most hypotheses advanced to explain natal philopatry are valid at all ages. However, for young and inexperienced birds, the benefits of natal philopatry may be counterbalanced by the costs of intraspecific competition at the natal colony making dispersal temporarily advantageous. In turn, experience may increase competitive ability and make natal philopatry advantageous again. 2. We evaluated this hypothesis on the large-scale dispersal of greater flamingos Phoenicopterus roseus breeding among three colonies comprising >85% of the Western Mediterranean metapopulation. The Camargue (France) and Fuente de Piedra (Spain) are large and saturated colonies while Molentargius (Sardinia) is a recent and growing colony. 3. We used a 20-year capture-mark-resighting dataset of 4900 flamingos ringed as chicks in Camargue and Fuente de Piedra and breeding at the three colonies. We assessed the effects of natal colony and breeding experience (first-time observed breeders versus confirmed experienced breeders) on dispersal using multistate capture-recapture models. Dispersal to an unobservable state accounted for temporary emigration. 4. Fidelity was higher at the natal colony (>84%) than elsewhere. Fidelity increased with experience in the two large colonies (Camargue and Fuente de Piedra) suggesting a large-scale experience-related despotic distribution. Breeding dispersal was significant (up to 61% and 52% for first-time breeders and experienced breeders, respectively) so that colony dynamics is affected by exchanges with other colonies. Except for Fuente-born breeders leaving Molentargius, dispersal to the natal colony was higher than to any other colonies. 5. Survival was not higher at the natal colony. Inexperienced birds likely had lower breeding success at the

  15. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Stein, Ross S; Toda, Shinji; Parsons, Tom; Grunewald, Elliot

    2006-08-15

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105,000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M approximately 8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300,000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M approximately 7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M approximately 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M > or = 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9 g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations

  16. Spatial Pattern of Groundwater Arsenic Occurrence and Association with Bedrock Geology in Greater Augusta, Maine, USA

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Culbertson, Charles W.; Marvinney, Robert G.; Loiselle, Marc C.; Locke, Daniel B.; Cheek, Heidi; Thibodeau, Hilary; Zheng, Yan

    2009-01-01

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (100-101 km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed. 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic >10 μg/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 μg/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (~40%). This probability differs significantly (p<0.001) from those in the Silurian-Ordovician sandstone (24%), the Devonian granite (15%) and the Ordovician-Cambrian volcanic rocks (9%). The spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic distribution resembles the bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium and high arsenic occurrences in 4 cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (~1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 μg/L arsenic in groundwater. PMID:19475939

  17. Exposure simulation for pharmaceuticals in European surface waters with GREAT-ER.

    PubMed

    Schowanek, Diederik; Webb, Simon

    2002-05-10

    The Geo-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers (GREAT-ER) model was developed as an aquatic chemical exposure prediction tool for use within environmental risk assessment (ERA) schemes and river basin management. The GREAT-ER software calculates the distribution of predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of consumer chemicals in surface waters, for individual river stretches, as well as representative average PECs for entire catchments. The system uses an ARC/INFO-ArcView (ESRI) based Geographical Information System (GIS) for data storage and visualization, combined with simple mathematical models for prediction of chemical fate. Use of GREAT-ER 1.03 to derive PECs is illustrated for Ethinyl Oestradiol, Paracetamol, Aspirin, Dextropropoxyphene, Clofibrate and Oxytetracycline in three river basins, i.e. Aire (UK), Lambro (Italy) and Rur (Germany). In contrast with household consumer chemicals the transformation of pharmaceuticals in the human body needs to be incorporated in the emission estimation. The "PECinitial" of these pharmaceuticals in surface waters ranges from >1 microg/l (Oxytetracycline and Paracetamol) down to <1 ng/l (Ethinyl Oestradiol). Risk characterization employing PECs or measured environmental concentrations (MECs) and predicted-no-effect-concentrations (PNECs) from available ecotoxicity data is also reported. PMID:11988357

  18. Spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic occurrence and association with bedrock geology in greater augusta, maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, Q.; Jung, H.B.; Culbertson, C.W.; Marvinney, R.G.; Loiselle, M.C.; Locke, D.B.; Cheek, H.; Thibodeau, H.; Zheng, Yen

    2009-01-01

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (100-101 km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed, and 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic concentrations >10 ??g/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 ??g/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (???40%). This probability differs significantly (p < 0.001) from those in the Silurian - Ordovician sandstone (24%), the Devonian granite (15%), and the Ordovician - Cambrian volcanic rocks (9%). The spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic distribution resembles the bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium, and high arsenic occurrences in four cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (???1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 ??g/L arsenic in groundwater. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  19. Spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic occurrence and association with bedrock geology in greater Augusta, Maine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Culbertson, Charles W; Marvinney, Robert G; Loiselle, Marc C; Locke, Daniel B; Cheek, Heidi; Thibodeau, Hilary; Zheng, Yan

    2009-04-15

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (10(0)-10(1) km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed, and 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic concentrations >10 microg/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 microg/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (approximately 40%). This probability differs significantly (p < 0.001) from those in the Silurian-Ordovician sandstone (24%),the Devonian granite (15%), and the Ordovician-Cambrian volcanic rocks (9%). The spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic distribution resembles the bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium, and high arsenic occurrences in four cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (approximately 1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 microg/L arsenic in groundwater.

  20. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1991-12-31

    In 1985, Public Law 99-240 (Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985) made the Department of Energy (DOE) responsible for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW). DOE strategies for storage and disposal of GTCC LLW required characterization of volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate characteristics, project volumes, and determine radionuclide activities to the years 2035 and 2055. Twenty-year life extensions for 70% of the operating nuclear reactors were assumed to calculate the GTCC LLW available in 2055. The following categories of GTCC LLW were addressed: Nuclear Utilities Waste; Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW; DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW; and Other Generator Waste. It was determined that the largest volume of these wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear utilities. The Other Generator Waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035. Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW is less than 0.2% of the total projected volume. The base case total projected volume of GTCC LLW for all categories was 3,250 cubic meters. This was substantially less than previous estimates.

  1. Giant solitary fibrous tumor arising from greater omentum.

    PubMed

    Zong, Liang; Chen, Ping; Wang, Guang-Yao; Zhu, Qun-Shan

    2012-11-28

    Extrathoracic solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) have been described at almost every anatomic location of human body, but reports of SFT in the abdominal cavity are rare. We herein present a rare case of SFT originating from greater omentum. Computed tomography revealed a 15.8 cm × 21.0 cm solid mass located at superior aspect of stomach. Open laparotomy confirmed its mesenchymal origin. Microscopically, its tissue was composed of non-organized and spindle-shaped cells exhibiting atypical nuclei, which were divided up by branching vessel and collagen bundles. Immunohistochemical staining showed that this tumor was negative for CD117, CD99, CD68, cytokeratin, calretinin, desmin, epithelial membrane antigen, F8 and S-100, but positive for CD34, bcl-2, α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin. The patient presented no evidence of recurrence during follow-up. SFT arising from abdominal cavity can be diagnosed by histological findings and immunohistochemical markers, especially for CD34 and bcl-2 positive cases.

  2. Evaluation and management of greater trochanter pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Edward P; Middleton, Emily F; Brunette, Meredith

    2015-08-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is an enigmatic but common cause of lateral hip symptoms in middle-aged active women. The most common manifestation of this syndrome is a degenerative tendinopathy of the hip abductors similar to the intrinsic changes seen with rotator cuff pathology in the shoulder. There are no definitive tests to isolate the underlying pathology and palpation is a non-specific means by which to differentiate the source of the pain generator. The physical examination must comprehensively evaluate for a cluster of potential impairments and contributing factors that will need to be addressed to effectively manage the likely functional limitations and activity challenges the syndrome presents to the patient. Compressive forces through increased tension in the iliotibial band should be avoided. Intervention strategies should include education regarding postural avoidance, activity modifications, improvement of lumbopelvic control, and a patient approach to resolving hip joint restrictions and restoring the tensile capabilities of the deep rotators and abductors of the hip. A number of reliable and validated hip-specific self-report outcome tools are available to baseline a patient's status and monitor their progress. Further investigations to identify the epidemiological risk factors, establish effective treatment strategies, and predict prognosis are warranted. PMID:25497431

  3. Status on disposal of greater-than-Class C

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a plan for the management and disposal of commercially generated greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 made DOE responsible for disposal of GTCC waste. The act requires that GTCC waste be disposed in a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed facility. The NRC has amended 10 CFR 61 to express a preference for geologic disposal of GTCC waste. Based on reassessment studies, legislative guidance, and stakeholder involvement, a revised plan has been formulated to provide for total management of GTCC waste. The plan has four major thrusts: (1) plan for GTCC waste storage at the generator site until disposal is available, (2) establish storage for GTCC sealed sources posing health and safety risk to the public, (3) facilitate storage for other GTCC waste posing health and safety risk to the public, and (4) plan for co-disposal of GTCC waste in a geologic disposal site with similar waste types. The revised plan focuses on applying available resources to near- and long-term needs.

  4. The Shifting Climate Portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, Adam J; Tercek, Michael T; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Ray, Andrew M; Thoma, David P; Hossack, Blake R; Pederson, Gregory T; Rodman, Ann W; Olliff, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km) is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world's most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948-2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA's physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change.

  5. Are the obese at greater risk for depression?

    PubMed

    Roberts, R E; Kaplan, G A; Shema, S J; Strawbridge, W J

    2000-07-15

    Two waves of data from a community-based study (Alameda County Study, 1994-1995) were used to investigate the association between obesity and depression. Depression was measured with 12 items covering Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for major depressive episode. Following US Public Health Service criteria, obese subjects were defined as those with body mass index scores at the 85th percentile or higher. Covariates were age, sex, education, marital status, social isolation and social support, chronic medical conditions, functional impairment, life events, and financial strain. Results were mixed. In cross-sectional analyses, greater odds for depression in 1994 were observed for the obese, with and without adjustment for covariates. When obesity and depression were examined prospectively, controlling for other variables, obesity in 1994 predicted depression in 1995 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 2.87). When the data were analyzed with obesity defined as a body mass index of > or = 30, cross-sectional results were the same. However, the prospective multivariate analyses were not significant (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 0.85, 2.43). Although these data do not resolve the role of obesity as a risk factor for depression, overall the results suggest an association between obesity and depression. The authors found no support for the "jolly fat" hypothesis (obesity reduces risk of depression). However, there has been sufficient disparity of results thus far to justify continued research.

  6. Distribution of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, C.C.; Haroldson, M.A.; Gunther, K.; Moody, D.

    2006-01-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) proposed delisting the Yellowstone grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) in November 2005. Part of that process required knowledge of the most current distribution of the species. Here, we update an earlier estimate of occupied range (1990–2000) with data through 2004. We used kernel estimators to develop distribution maps of occupied habitats based on initial sightings of unduplicated females (n = 481) with cubs of the year, locations of radiomarked bears (n = 170), and spatially unique locations of conflicts, confrontations, and mortalities (n = 1,075). Although each data set was constrained by potential sampling bias, together they provided insight into areas in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) currently occupied by grizzly bears. The current distribution of 37,258 km2 (1990–2004) extends beyond the distribution map generated with data from 1990–2000 (34,416 km2 ). Range expansion is particularly evident in parts of the Caribou–Targhee National Forest in Idaho and north of Spanish Peaks on the Gallatin National Forest in Montana.

  7. Neural markers of a greater female responsiveness to social stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Alice M; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Background There is fMRI evidence that women are neurally predisposed to process infant laughter and crying. Other findings show that women might be more empathic and sensitive than men to emotional facial expressions. However, no gender difference in the brain responses to persons and unanimated scenes has hitherto been demonstrated. Results Twenty-four men and women viewed 220 images portraying persons or landscapes and ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. In women, but not in men, the N2 component (210–270) was much larger to persons than to scenes. swLORETA showed significant bilateral activation of FG (BA19/37) in both genders when viewing persons as opposed to scenes. Only women showed a source of activity in the STG and in the right MOG (extra-striate body area, EBA), and only men in the left parahippocampal area (PPA). Conclusion A significant gender difference was found in activation of the left and right STG (BA22) and the cingulate cortex for the subtractive condition women minus men, thus indicating that women might have a greater preference or interest for social stimuli (faces and persons). PMID:18590546

  8. Galactic Diffuse Gamma Ray Emission Is Greater than 10 Gev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    AGILE and Gamma-ray Large Area Telescope (GLAST) are the next high-energy gamma-ray telescopes to be flown in space. These instruments will have angular resolution about 5 times better than Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) above 10 GeV and much larger field of view. The on-axis effective area of AGILE will be about half that of EGRET, whereas GLAST will have about 6 times greater effective area than EGRET. The capabilities of ground based very high-energy telescopes are also improving, e.g. Whipple, and new telescopes, e.g. Solar Tower Atmospheric Cerenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE), Cerenkov Low Energy Sampling and Timing Experiment (CELESTE), and Mars Advanced Greenhouse Integrated Complex (MAGIC) are expected to have low-energy thresholds and sensitivities that will overlap the GLAST sensitivity above approximately 10 GeV. In anticipation of the results from these new telescopes, our current understanding of the galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, including the matter and cosmic ray distributions is reviewed. The outstanding questions are discussed and the potential of future observations with these new instruments to resolve these questions is examined.

  9. The Shifting Climate Portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, Adam J; Tercek, Michael T; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Ray, Andrew M; Thoma, David P; Hossack, Blake R; Pederson, Gregory T; Rodman, Ann W; Olliff, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km) is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world's most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948-2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA's physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change. PMID:26674185

  10. Evaluation and management of greater trochanter pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Edward P; Middleton, Emily F; Brunette, Meredith

    2015-08-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is an enigmatic but common cause of lateral hip symptoms in middle-aged active women. The most common manifestation of this syndrome is a degenerative tendinopathy of the hip abductors similar to the intrinsic changes seen with rotator cuff pathology in the shoulder. There are no definitive tests to isolate the underlying pathology and palpation is a non-specific means by which to differentiate the source of the pain generator. The physical examination must comprehensively evaluate for a cluster of potential impairments and contributing factors that will need to be addressed to effectively manage the likely functional limitations and activity challenges the syndrome presents to the patient. Compressive forces through increased tension in the iliotibial band should be avoided. Intervention strategies should include education regarding postural avoidance, activity modifications, improvement of lumbopelvic control, and a patient approach to resolving hip joint restrictions and restoring the tensile capabilities of the deep rotators and abductors of the hip. A number of reliable and validated hip-specific self-report outcome tools are available to baseline a patient's status and monitor their progress. Further investigations to identify the epidemiological risk factors, establish effective treatment strategies, and predict prognosis are warranted.

  11. The shifting climate portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam; Tercek, Mike T; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Ray, Andrew; Thoma, David P.; Hossack, Blake R.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Rodman, Ann; Olliff, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km) is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world’s most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948–2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA’s physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change.

  12. Greater emotional empathy and prosocial behavior in late life.

    PubMed

    Sze, Jocelyn A; Gyurak, Anett; Goodkind, Madeleine S; Levenson, Robert W

    2012-10-01

    Emotional empathy and prosocial behavior were assessed in older, middle-aged, and young adults. Participants watched two films depicting individuals in need, one uplifting and the other distressing. Physiological responses were monitored during the films, and participants rated their levels of emotional empathy following each film. As a measure of prosocial behavior, participants were given an additional payment they could contribute to charities supporting the individuals in the films. Age-related linear increases were found for both emotional empathy (self-reported empathic concern and cardiac and electrodermal responding) and prosocial behavior (size of contribution) across both films and in self-reported personal distress to the distressing film. Empathic concern and cardiac reactivity to both films, along with personal distress to the distressing film only, were associated with greater prosocial behavior. Empathic concern partially mediated the age-related differences in prosocial behavior. Results are discussed in terms of our understanding both of adult development and of the nature of these vital aspects of human emotion.

  13. The Shifting Climate Portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Tercek, Michael T.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Ray, Andrew M.; Thoma, David P.; Hossack, Blake R.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Rodman, Ann W.; Olliff, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km) is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world’s most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948–2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA’s physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change. PMID:26674185

  14. Greater Emotional Empathy and Prosocial Behavior in Late Life

    PubMed Central

    Sze, Jocelyn A.; Gyurak, Anett; Goodkind, Madeleine S.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Emotional empathy and prosocial behavior were assessed in older, middle-aged, and young adults. Participants watched two films depicting individuals in need, one uplifting and the other distressing. Physiological responses were monitored during the films and participants rated their levels of emotional empathy following each film. As a measure of prosocial behavior, participants were given an additional payment they could contribute to charities supporting the individuals in the films. Age-related linear increases were found for both emotional empathy (self-reported empathic concern and cardiac and electrodermal responding) and prosocial behavior (size of contribution) across both films and in self-reported personal distress to the distressing film. Empathic concern and cardiac reactivity to both films, along with personal distress to the distressing film only, were associated with greater prosocial behavior. Empathic concern partially mediated the age-related differences in prosocial behavior. Results are discussed in terms of our understanding both of adult development and of the nature of these vital aspects of human emotion. PMID:21859198

  15. Seeking Signatures of Martian Magmatic Evolution within the Greater Thaumasia Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judice, T.; Karunatillake, S.; Rogers, D.; Dohm, J. M.; Susko, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    We characterize a plateau and proximal eastern regions, consisting of Thaumasia, Solis, and Syria Planae, in terms of chemistry, mineralogy, and mapped geology. We determine how such independent and complementary data bear upon the evolution of this region for mantle evolution models[1]. Three chemical provinces make up the Greater Thaumasia (GT) and are less obscured by unconsolidated layers of globally-derived < 40 μm-size sediments [Fig. 5][2]. This enables complementary insight from Visible/Near/Thermal-Infrared data[3]. Depleted H and enriched Si relative to their respective global averages[4] define region 70 to the East, with the southeastern parts of GT exposing many non-volcanic rocks dating to middle-late Noachian[5]. On the West, region 90 marks K and Th depletion. Region 75 is an overlap of regions 70 and 90. GT exposes Hesperian-aged units of mostly volcanic origin in the NW, with region 90 localized in Syria Planum and 75 in Solis Planum. Comparing elemental mass fractions derived from Mars Odyssey GRS of GT sub-regions to the rest of Mars (ROM), confirms Ca depletion in region 70. H2O depletion relative to ROM gets enhanced eastward to 70. Intriguingly, the intra-regional variation in Ca, as observed by the comparison with ROM, highlights its enrichment in 90 and 75. This may present an elemental signature supporting the detection of High-Ca Pyroxene (HCP) rocks by Rogers et al. [2014]. In detail, this convergence between regions 75 and 90, with the TES compositional class 8[3], indicate a possibility of HCP-rich volcanism. The enrichment of Si accompanied by H and Th depletion, across the Noachian-Hesperian transition in GT, diverges from mantle evolution models[1]. References [1] Balta, J. B. & McSween, H. Y., Geology 41,1115-1118 (2013) [2] Putzig, N. et al., Icarus 173,325-341 (2005) [3] Rogers, A. D. et al., LPSC 45,2-3 (2014) [4] Karunatillake, S. et al., J. Geophys. Res. 114,E12001 (2009) [5] Tanaka, K. L. et al., Geologic map of Mars: USGS

  16. Diversity at the Holarctic nexus: species of Arostrilepis (Eucestoda: Hymenolepididae) in arvicoline rodents (Cricetidae: Arvicolinae) from greater Beringia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously unrecognized species of hymenolepidid cestodes attributable to Arostrilepis Mas-Coma & Tenora, 1997 in arvicoline rodents from the greater Beringian region and western North America are described. Discovery and characterization of these tapeworms contributes to the recognition of a compl...

  17. Solar Influence on Medieval Megadroughts in the Greater Near East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushnir, Y.; Stein, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent surveys of medieval era chronicles provide calendar accurate information of years of unusual, extreme weather and climate events in areas surrounding the eastern Mediterranean, between the mid-A.D. 10th century and end of the 11th century. Put together, these documents show that the region was simultaneously afflicted by unprecedented sever and persistent droughts in Egypt's Nile Valley and by unusually cold and dry winters associated with crop failure and loss of pasture areas in present-day Iraq and Iran, and in historical Khurasan. We show that this documentary information is consistent with the annually dated Nile summer flood record as measured at the Cairo Nilometer site and within acceptable dating accuracies with much more coarsely resolved regional paleoclimate proxies. We furthermore note that the timing of these events coincided with the Oort Grand Solar Minimum that reached its peak between A.D. 1040 and 1080. Given the scientific evidence for the impact of solar minima on sea surface temperatures in the equatorial Pacific and how the latter affect the intensity of the African summer monsoon, we argue that the Oort Solar Minimum forced the frequent failure of the Nile summer floods resulting in dearth and famine in Egypt. Furthermore, the simultaneous cold and dry winters in the northern Near East are also consistent with the hypothesized solar minimum influence on the North Atlantic Oscillation and on the intensity of the Siberian High. This interpretation underscores the sensitivity of the climate system to variations in solar irradiance, particularly on multi-decadal time scales, to their role in regional processes, and their impact on human history and may help understand other rapid Mediterranean cooling events that occured during the Holocene.

  18. Continued warming could transform Greater Yellowstone fire regimes by mid-21st century.

    PubMed

    Westerling, Anthony L; Turner, Monica G; Smithwick, Erica A H; Romme, William H; Ryan, Michael G

    2011-08-01

    Climate change is likely to alter wildfire regimes, but the magnitude and timing of potential climate-driven changes in regional fire regimes are not well understood. We considered how the occurrence, size, and spatial location of large fires might respond to climate projections in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem (GYE) (Wyoming), a large wildland ecosystem dominated by conifer forests and characterized by infrequent, high-severity fire. We developed a suite of statistical models that related monthly climate data (1972-1999) to the occurrence and size of fires >200 ha in the northern Rocky Mountains; these models were cross-validated and then used with downscaled (~12 km × 12 km) climate projections from three global climate models to predict fire occurrence and area burned in the GYE through 2099. All models predicted substantial increases in fire by midcentury, with fire rotation (the time to burn an area equal to the landscape area) reduced to <30 y from the historical 100-300 y for most of the GYE. Years without large fires were common historically but are expected to become rare as annual area burned and the frequency of regionally synchronous fires increase. Our findings suggest a shift to novel fire-climate-vegetation relationships in Greater Yellowstone by midcentury because fire frequency and extent would be inconsistent with persistence of the current suite of conifer species. The predicted new fire regime would transform the flora, fauna, and ecosystem processes in this landscape and may indicate similar changes for other subalpine forests.

  19. Biodiversity consequences of alternative future land use scenarios in Greater Yellowstone.

    PubMed

    Gude, Patricia H; Hansen, Andrew J; Jones, Danielle A

    2007-06-01

    Land use is rapidly expanding in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, primarily from growth in the number of rural homes. There is a need to project possible future land use and assess impacts on nature reserves as a guide to future management. We assessed the potential biodiversity impacts of alternative future land use scenarios in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. An existing regression-based simulation model was used to project three alternative scenarios of future rural home development. The spatial patterns of forecasted development were then compared to several biodiversity response variables that included cover types, species habitats, and biodiversity indices. We identified the four biodiversity responses most at risk of exurban development, designed growth management policies to protect these areas, and tested their effectiveness in two alternative future scenarios. We found that the measured biodiversity responses, including riparian habitat, elk winter range, migration corridors, and eight other land cover, habitat, and biodiversity indices, are likely to undergo substantial conversion (between 5% and 40%) to exurban development by 2020. Future habitat conversion to exurban development outside the region's nature reserves is likely to impact wildlife populations within the reserves. Existing growth management policies will provide minimal protection to biodiversity in this region. We identified specific growth management policies, including incentives to cluster future growth near towns, that can protect "at risk" habitat types without limiting overall growth in housing.

  20. Continued warming could transform Greater Yellowstone fire regimes by mid-21st century.

    PubMed

    Westerling, Anthony L; Turner, Monica G; Smithwick, Erica A H; Romme, William H; Ryan, Michael G

    2011-08-01

    Climate change is likely to alter wildfire regimes, but the magnitude and timing of potential climate-driven changes in regional fire regimes are not well understood. We considered how the occurrence, size, and spatial location of large fires might respond to climate projections in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem (GYE) (Wyoming), a large wildland ecosystem dominated by conifer forests and characterized by infrequent, high-severity fire. We developed a suite of statistical models that related monthly climate data (1972-1999) to the occurrence and size of fires >200 ha in the northern Rocky Mountains; these models were cross-validated and then used with downscaled (~12 km × 12 km) climate projections from three global climate models to predict fire occurrence and area burned in the GYE through 2099. All models predicted substantial increases in fire by midcentury, with fire rotation (the time to burn an area equal to the landscape area) reduced to <30 y from the historical 100-300 y for most of the GYE. Years without large fires were common historically but are expected to become rare as annual area burned and the frequency of regionally synchronous fires increase. Our findings suggest a shift to novel fire-climate-vegetation relationships in Greater Yellowstone by midcentury because fire frequency and extent would be inconsistent with persistence of the current suite of conifer species. The predicted new fire regime would transform the flora, fauna, and ecosystem processes in this landscape and may indicate similar changes for other subalpine forests. PMID:21788495

  1. Observations of Reflected Ions and Plasma Turbulence for Satellite Potentials Greater than the Ion Ram Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. H., Jr.; Stone, N. H.; Sorensen, J.; Winningham, J. D.; Gurgiolo, C.

    1998-01-01

    During the TSS-1R mission, the behavior of the ions flowing from the forward hemisphere of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) satellite was examined as the potential of the satellite was changed from below to above 5 V. The ram energy of the ambient atomic oxygen ions is approximately 5 eV. For satellite potentials less than 5 V, no ions were observed on the ram side of the satellite. When the satellite potential was raised greater than 5 V, ions were observed to be flowing from the forward region of the satellite. In the region sampled, the ion flux was a few percent of the ambient with energies of approximately 5 eV. The temperature of the out-flowing ions was observed to be enhanced, relative to the ambient ionosphere. The net current to the probe package became much more noisy for satellite potentials greater than 5 V as compared with satellite potentials less than 5 V, indicating a more disturbed plasma environment.

  2. Socio Economic Status and Traumatic Brain Injury amongst Pediatric Populations: A Spatial Analysis in Greater Vancouver

    PubMed Central

    Amram, Ofer; Schuurman, Nadine; Pike, Ian; Yanchar, Natalie L; Friger, Michael; McBeth, Paul B.; Griesdale, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Within Canada, injuries are the leading cause of death amongst children fourteen years of age and younger, and also one of the leading causes of morbidity. Low Socio Economic Status (SES) seems to be a strong indicator of a higher prevalence of injuries. This study aims to identify hotspots for pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and examines the relationship between SES and pediatric TBI rates in greater Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods: Pediatric TBI data from the BC Trauma Registry (BCTR) was used to identify all pediatric TBI patients admitted to BC hospitals between the years 2000 and 2013. Spatial analysis was used to identify hotspots for pediatric TBI. Multivariate analysis was used to distinguish census variables that were correlated with rates of injury. Results: Six hundred and fifty three severe pediatric TBI injuries occurred within the BC Lower Mainland between 2000 and 2013. High rates of injury were concentrated in the East, while low rate clusters were most common in the West of the region (more affluent neighborhoods). A low level of education was the main predictor of a high rate of injury (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.03–1.23, p-Value 0.009). Conclusion: While there was a clear relationship between different SES indicators and pediatric TBI rates in greater Vancouver, income-based SES indicators did not serve as good predictors within this region. PMID:26670241

  3. Structure contour map of the greater Green River basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lickus, M.R.; Law, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Greater Green River basin of Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah contains five basins and associated major uplifts (fig. 1). Published structure maps of the region have commonly used the top of the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone as a structural datum (Petroleum Ownership Map Company (POMCO), 1984; Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists, 1972). However, because relatively few wells in this area penetrate the Dakota, the Dakota structural datum has to be constructed by projecting down from shallower wells. Extrapolating in this manner may produce errors in the map. The primary purpose of this report is to present a more reliable structure contour map of the Greater Green River basin based on datums that are penetrated by many wells. The final map shows the large- to small-scale structures present in the Greater Green River basin. The availability of subsurface control and the map scale determined whether or not a structural feature was included on the map. In general, large structures such as the Moxa arch, Pinedale anticline, and other large folds were placed on the map based solely on the structure contours. In comparison, smaller folds and some faults were placed on the map based on structure contours and other reports (Bader 1987; Bradley 1961; Love and Christiansen, 1985; McDonald, 1975; Roehler, 1979; Wyoming Geological Association Oil and Gas Symposium Committee, 1979). State geologic maps and other reports were used to position basin margin faults (Bryant, 1985; Gries, 1983a, b; Hansen 1986; Hintze, 1980; Love and Christiansen, 1985; Tweto, 1979, 1983). In addition, an interpreted east-west-trending regional seismic line by Garing and Tainter (1985), which shows the basin configuration in cross-section, was helpful in locating buried faults, such as the high-angle reverse or thrust fault along the west flank of the Rock Springs uplift.

  4. Understanding greater cardiomyocyte functions on aligned compared to random carbon nanofibers in PLGA

    PubMed Central

    Asiri, Abdullah M; Marwani, Hadi M; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated greater cardiomyocyte density on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) aligned (compared to randomly oriented) in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composites. Although such studies demonstrated a closer mimicking of anisotropic electrical and mechanical properties for such aligned (compared to randomly oriented) CNFs in PLGA composites, the objective of the present in vitro study was to elucidate a deeper mechanistic understanding of how cardiomyocyte densities recognize such materials to respond more favorably. Results showed lower wettability (greater hydrophobicity) of CNFs embedded in PLGA compared to pure PLGA, thus providing evidence of selectively lower wettability in aligned CNF regions. Furthermore, the results correlated these changes in hydrophobicity with increased adsorption of fibronectin, laminin, and vitronectin (all proteins known to increase cardiomyocyte adhesion and functions) on CNFs in PLGA compared to pure PLGA, thus providing evidence of selective initial protein adsorption cues on such CNF regions to promote cardiomyocyte adhesion and growth. Lastly, results of the present in vitro study further confirmed increased cardiomyocyte functions by demonstrating greater expression of important cardiomyocyte biomarkers (such as Troponin-T, Connexin-43, and α-sarcomeric actin) when CNFs were aligned compared to randomly oriented in PLGA. In summary, this study provided evidence that cardiomyocyte functions are improved on CNFs aligned in PLGA compared to randomly oriented in PLGA since CNFs are more hydrophobic than PLGA and attract the adsorption of key proteins (fibronectin, laminin, and vironectin) that are known to promote cardiomyocyte adhesion and expression of important cardiomyocyte functions. Thus, future studies should use this knowledge to further design improved CNF:PLGA composites for numerous cardiovascular applications. PMID:25565806

  5. Becoming pure: identifying generational classes of admixed individuals within lesser and greater scaup populations.

    PubMed

    Lavretsky, Philip; Peters, Jeffrey L; Winker, Kevin; Bahn, Volker; Kulikova, Irina; Zhuravlev, Yuri N; Wilson, Robert E; Barger, Chris; Gurney, Kirsty; McCracken, Kevin G

    2016-02-01

    Estimating the frequency of hybridization is important to understand its evolutionary consequences and its effects on conservation efforts. In this study, we examined the extent of hybridization in two sister species of ducks that hybridize. We used mitochondrial control region sequences and 3589 double-digest restriction-associated DNA sequences (ddRADseq) to identify admixture between wild lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and greater scaup (A. marila). Among 111 individuals, we found one introgressed mitochondrial DNA haplotype in lesser scaup and four in greater scaup. Likewise, based on the site-frequency spectrum from autosomal DNA, gene flow was asymmetrical, with higher rates from lesser into greater scaup. However, using ddRADseq nuclear DNA, all individuals were assigned to their respective species with >0.95 posterior assignment probability. To examine the power for detecting admixture, we simulated a breeding experiment in which empirical data were used to create F1 hybrids and nine generations (F2-F10) of backcrossing. F1 hybrids and F2, F3 and most F4 backcrosses were clearly distinguishable from pure individuals, but evidence of admixed histories was effectively lost after the fourth generation. Thus, we conclude that low interspecific assignment probabilities (0.011-0.043) for two lesser and nineteen greater scaup were consistent with admixed histories beyond the F3 generation. These results indicate that the propensity of these species to hybridize in the wild is low and largely asymmetric. When applied to species-specific cases, our approach offers powerful utility for examining concerns of hybridization in conservation efforts, especially for determining the generational time until admixed histories are effectively lost through backcrossing. PMID:26833858

  6. Becoming pure: identifying generational classes of admixed individuals within lesser and greater scaup populations.

    PubMed

    Lavretsky, Philip; Peters, Jeffrey L; Winker, Kevin; Bahn, Volker; Kulikova, Irina; Zhuravlev, Yuri N; Wilson, Robert E; Barger, Chris; Gurney, Kirsty; McCracken, Kevin G

    2016-02-01

    Estimating the frequency of hybridization is important to understand its evolutionary consequences and its effects on conservation efforts. In this study, we examined the extent of hybridization in two sister species of ducks that hybridize. We used mitochondrial control region sequences and 3589 double-digest restriction-associated DNA sequences (ddRADseq) to identify admixture between wild lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and greater scaup (A. marila). Among 111 individuals, we found one introgressed mitochondrial DNA haplotype in lesser scaup and four in greater scaup. Likewise, based on the site-frequency spectrum from autosomal DNA, gene flow was asymmetrical, with higher rates from lesser into greater scaup. However, using ddRADseq nuclear DNA, all individuals were assigned to their respective species with >0.95 posterior assignment probability. To examine the power for detecting admixture, we simulated a breeding experiment in which empirical data were used to create F1 hybrids and nine generations (F2-F10) of backcrossing. F1 hybrids and F2, F3 and most F4 backcrosses were clearly distinguishable from pure individuals, but evidence of admixed histories was effectively lost after the fourth generation. Thus, we conclude that low interspecific assignment probabilities (0.011-0.043) for two lesser and nineteen greater scaup were consistent with admixed histories beyond the F3 generation. These results indicate that the propensity of these species to hybridize in the wild is low and largely asymmetric. When applied to species-specific cases, our approach offers powerful utility for examining concerns of hybridization in conservation efforts, especially for determining the generational time until admixed histories are effectively lost through backcrossing.

  7. Gastrointestinal parasites in greater rheas (Rhea americana) and lesser rheas (Rhea pennata) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Díaz, Rafael A; Martella, Mónica Beatriz; Navarro, Joaquín Luis; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco

    2013-05-01

    Few data exist on the parasites of ratites, especially from regions within their natural range. It is only recently that extensive studies on the parasites of ostriches (Struthio camelus) have been published, mainly from European countries where commercial farming has expanded. Two species of ratites are native in South America: the lesser rhea also known as Darwin's rhea (Rhea pennata) and the greater rhea (Rhea americana). Both species are considered near threatened by the IUCN and are included in the CITES' Appendices I and II, respectively. Parasitological studies have conservation implications, as they allow us to assess the risk of transmission of pathogens from farmed ratites to wild populations. In this study 92 faecal samples from greater rheas and 55 faecal samples from lesser rheas from different localities in Argentine were analyzed to determine their gastrointestinal parasites. In greater rheas the protozoa (Balantidium coli-like and Entamoeba spp.) and helminths (Fasciola hepatica and Deletrocephalus spp.). The protozoa had not previously been cited as parasites of greater rheas in South America. Cysts and/or trophozoites of B. coli-like were found in 16.3% of the samples, while the prevalence of the remaining parasites was below 10%. Lesser rheas harbored the protozoa B. coli-like, Entamoeba spp. and Chilomastix spp. as well as F. hepatica and nematode eggs and larvae. B. coli-like cysts were found in 20.0% of the samples, while the prevalence of the other parasites remained below 5%. Some of them had not been cited as infecting lesser rheas yet. PMID:23305970

  8. Physician Payments from Industry Are Associated with Greater Medicare Part D Prescribing Costs

    PubMed Central

    Perlis, Roy H.; Perlis, Clifford S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The U.S. Physician Payments Sunshine Act mandates the reporting of payments or items of value received by physicians from drug, medical device, and biological agent manufacturers. The impact of these payments on physician prescribing has not been examined at large scale. Methods We linked public Medicare Part D prescribing data and Sunshine Act data for 2013. Physician payments were examined descriptively within specialties, and then for association with prescribing costs and patterns using regression models. Models were adjusted for potential physician-level confounding features, including sex, geographic region, and practice size. Results Among 725,169 individuals with Medicare prescribing data, 341,644 had documented payments in the OPP data (47.1%). Among all physicians receiving funds, mean payment was $1750 (SD $28336); median was $138 (IQR $48-$394). Across the 12 specialties examined, a dose-response relationship was observed in which greater payments were associated with greater prescribing costs per patient. In adjusted regression models, being in the top quintile of payment receipt was associated with incremental prescribing cost per patient ranging from $27 (general surgery) to $2931 (neurology). Similar associations were observed with proportion of branded prescriptions written. Conclusions While distribution and amount of payments differed widely across medical specialties, for each of the 12 specialties examined the receipt of payments was associated with greater prescribing costs per patient, and greater proportion of branded medication prescribing. We cannot infer a causal relationship, but interventions aimed at those physicians receiving the most payments may present an opportunity to address prescribing costs in the US. PMID:27183221

  9. Why is violence more common where inequality is greater?

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Richard

    2004-12-01

    The most well-established environmental determinant of levels of violence is the scale of income differences between rich and poor. More unequal societies tend to be more violent. If this is a relation between institutional violence and personal violence, how does it work and why is most of the violence a matter of the poor attacking the poor rather than the rich? This paper begins by showing that the tendency for rates of violent crime and homicide to be higher where there is more inequality is part of a more general tendency for the quality of social relations to be poorer in more hierarchical societies. Research on the social determinants of health is used to explore these relationships. It is a powerful source of insights because health is also harmed by greater inequality. Because epidemiological research has gone some way towards identifying the nature of our sensitivity to the social environment and to social status differentials in particular, it provides important insights into why violence is related to inequality. The picture that emerges substantiates and explains the common intuition that inequality is socially corrosive. With an evolutionary slant, and informed by work on ranking systems in non-human primates, this paper focuses on the sharp distinction between competitive social strategies appropriate to dominance hierarchies and the more affiliative social strategies associated with more egalitarian social structures. The implications for policy seem to echo the importance to the quality of life of the three inter-related dimensions of the social environment expressed in the demand for "liberty, equality, fraternity."

  10. Interspecific nest parasitism by chukar on greater sage-grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fearon, Michelle L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Nest parasitism occurs when a female bird lays eggs in the nest of another and the host incubates the eggs and may provide some form of parental care for the offspring (Lyon and Eadie 1991). Precocial birds (e.g., Galliformes and Anseriformes) are typically facultative nest parasites of both their own and other species (Lyon and Eadie 1991). This behavior increases a female’s reproductive success when she parasitizes other nests while simultaneously raising her own offspring. Both interspecific and conspecific nest parasitism have been well documented in several families of the order Galliformes, particularly the Phasianidae (Lyon and Eadie 1991, Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001, Krakauer and Kimball 2009). The Chukar (Alectoris chukar) has been widely introduced as a game bird to western North America from Eurasia and is now well established within the Great Basin from northeastern California east to Utah and north to Idaho and Oregon (Christensen 1996). Over much of this range the Chukar occurs with other phasianids, including the native Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), within sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999, Connelly et al. 2000). Chukar typically exploit a broader range of habitats than do sage-grouse, but both species use the same species of sagebrush and other shrubs for nesting cover (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999). Chukar are known to parasitize nests of other individuals of their own species (Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001), but we are unaware of reported evidence that Chukar may parasitize nests of sage-grouse. Here we describe a case of a Chukar parasitizing a sage-grouse nest in the sagebrush steppe of western Nevada.

  11. Greater involvement of people living with HIV in health care

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Greater Involvement of People Living with HIV/AIDS represents a mobilising and an organising principle for the involvement of people living with HIV in program and policy responses. People with HIV have been at the forefront of designing and implementing effective HIV treatment, care and prevention activities. However, governments and health systems have yet to act to fully harness the potential and resources of people living with HIV in addressing the epidemic. The lives and experiences of people living with HIV highlight the need for a shift in the existing paradigm of disease management. The high prevalence of HIV amongst health care providers in many countries, exacerbated by stigma towards those with HIV in the health care professions, is seriously undermining the capacity of health systems and signals the need to change the current nature of health care delivery. Moreover, the negative experiences of many people with HIV in relation to their health care as well as in their daily social interactions, coupled with the ever-limited current investment in treatment, care and support, demonstrate that the current system is drastically failing the majority of people with HIV. Current health management systems urgently need to be more effectively maximised, to increase the quality of standards of health care systems and services in resource poor countries. An integrated approach to health care based on a human rights framework, grounded in community realities and delivered in partnership and solidarity with people living with HIV, offers the most viable approach to overcoming the crisis of HIV in the health care system. PMID:19284672

  12. Greater sage-grouse winter habitat selection and energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, K.E.; Naugle, D.E.; Walker, B.L.; Graham, J.M.

    2008-01-15

    Recent energy development has resulted in rapid and large-scale changes to western shrub-steppe ecosystems without a complete understanding of its potential impacts on wildlife populations. We modeled winter habitat use by female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana, USA, to 1) identify landscape features that influenced sage-grouse habitat selection, 2) assess the scale at which selection occurred, 3) spatially depict winter habitat quality in a Geographic Information System, and 4) assess the effect of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) development on winter habitat selection. We developed a model of winter habitat selection based on 435 aerial relocations of 200 radiomarked female sage-grouse obtained during the winters of 2005 and 2006. Percent sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) cover on the landscape was an important predictor of use by sage-grouse in winter. Sage-grouse were 1.3 times more likely to occupy sagebrush habitats that lacked CBNG wells within a 4-km{sup 2} area, compared to those that had the maximum density of 12.3 wells per 4 km{sup 2} allowed on federal lands. We validated the model with 74 locations from 74 radiomarked individuals obtained during the winters of 2004 and 2007. This winter habitat model based on vegetation, topography, and CBNG avoidance was highly predictive (validation R{sup 2} = 0.984). Our spatially explicit model can be used to identify areas that provide the best remaining habitat for wintering sage-grouse in the PRB to mitigate impacts of energy development.

  13. Lancet dynamics in greater horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum.

    PubMed

    He, Weikai; Pedersen, Scott C; Gupta, Anupam K; Simmons, James A; Müller, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Echolocating greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) emit their biosonar pulses nasally, through nostrils surrounded by fleshy appendages ('noseleaves') that diffract the outgoing ultrasonic waves. Movements of one noseleaf part, the lancet, were measured in live bats using two synchronized high speed video cameras with 3D stereo reconstruction, and synchronized with pulse emissions recorded by an ultrasonic microphone. During individual broadcasts, the lancet briefly flicks forward (flexion) and is then restored to its original position. This forward motion lasts tens of milliseconds and increases the curvature of the affected noseleaf surfaces. Approximately 90% of the maximum displacements occurred within the duration of individual pulses, with 70% occurring towards the end. Similar lancet motions were not observed between individual pulses in a sequence of broadcasts. Velocities of the lancet motion were too small to induce Doppler shifts of a biologically-meaningful magnitude, but the maximum displacements were significant in comparison with the overall size of the lancet and the ultrasonic wavelengths. Three finite element models were made from micro-CT scans of the noseleaf post mortem to investigate the acoustic effects of lancet displacement. The broadcast beam shapes were found to be altered substantially by the observed small lancet movements. These findings demonstrate that-in addition to the previously described motions of the anterior leaf and the pinna-horseshoe bat biosonar has a third degree of freedom for fast changes that can happen on the time scale of the emitted pulses or the returning echoes and could provide a dynamic mechanism for the encoding of sensory information. PMID:25853738

  14. Home range dynamics, habitat selection, and survival of Greater Roadrunners

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, S.W.; Ransom, D.; Butcher, J.A.; Schulz, G.G.; Surber, B.W.; Pinchak, W.E.; Santamaria, C.A.; Hurtado, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Greater Roadrunners (Geococcyx californianus) are common, poorly studied birds of arid and semi-arid ecosystems in the southwestern United States. Conservation of this avian predator requires a detailed understanding of their movements and spatial requirements that is currently lacking. From 2006 to 2009, we quantified home-range and core area sizes and overlap, habitat selection, and survival of roadrunners (N= 14 males and 20 females) in north-central Texas using radio-telemetry and fixed kernel estimators. Median home-range and core-area sizes were 90.4 ha and 19.2 ha for males and 80.1 ha and 16.7 ha for females, respectively. The size of home range and core areas did not differ significantly by either sex or season. Our home range estimates were twice as large (x??= 108.9 ha) as earlier published estimates based on visual observations (x??= 28-50 ha). Mean percent overlap was 38.4% for home ranges and 13.7% for core areas. Male roadrunners preferred mesquite woodland and mesquite savanna cover types, and avoided the grass-forb cover type. Female roadrunners preferred mesquite savanna and riparian woodland cover types, and avoided grass-forb habitat. Kaplan-Meier annual survival probabilities for females (0.452 ?? 0.118[SE]) were twice that estimated for males (0.210 ?? 0.108), but this difference was not significant. Mortality rates of male roadrunners were higher than those of females during the spring when males call from elevated perches, court females, and chase competing males. Current land use practices that target woody-shrub removal to enhance livestock forage production could be detrimental to roadrunner populations by reducing availability of mesquite woodland and mesquite savanna habitat required for nesting and roosting and increasing the amount of grass-forb habitat that roadrunners avoid. ??2011 The Authors. Journal of Field Ornithology ??2011 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  15. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  16. Wise Detections of Known QSOS at Redshifts Greater Than Six

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blain, Andrew W.; Assef, Roberto; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Bridge, Carrie; Benford, Dominic; Jarrett, Tom; Cutri, Roc; Petty, Sara; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.

    2013-01-01

    We present WISE All-Sky mid-infrared (IR) survey detections of 55 % (17/31) of the known QSOs at z greater than 6 from a range of surveys: the SDSS, the CFHT-LS, FIRST, Spitzer and UK1DSS. The WISE catalog thus provides a substantial increase in tiie quantity of IR data available for these sources: 17 are detected in the WISE Wl (3.4 micrometer) band, 16 in W2 (4.6 micrometers), 3 in W3 (12 micrometers) and 0 in W4 (22micrometers). This is particularly important with Spitzer in its warm-mission phase and no faint follow-up capability at wavelengths longwards of 5 micrometers until the launch of JWST. WISE thus provides a useful tool for understanding QSOs found in forthcoming large-area optical/IR sky surveys, using PanSTARRS, SkyMapper, VISTA, DES and LSST. The rest-UV properties of the WISE-detected and the WISE-non-detected samples differ: the detections have brighter i/z-band magnitudes and redder rest-UV colors. This suggests thai a more aggressive hunt for very-high-redshift QSOs, by combining WISE Wl and W2 data with red observed optical colors could be effective at least, for a subset of dusty candidate QSOs. Stacking the WISE images of the WISE-non-detected QSOs indicates that they are on average significantly fainter than the WISE-detccted examples, and are thus not narrowly missing detection in the WISE catalog. The WISE-catalog detection of three of our sample in the W3 band indicates that their mid-ID flux can be detected individually, although there is no stacked W3 detection of sources detected in Wl but not. W3. Stacking analyses of WISE data for large AGN samples will be a useful tool, and high-redshifl. QSOs of all types will be easy targets for JWST.

  17. High-resolution shear-wave seismics across the Carlsberg Fault zone south of Copenhagen - Implications for linking Mesozoic and late Pleistocene structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammann, Janina; Hübscher, Christian; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Nielsen, Lars

    2016-07-01

    The Carlsberg Fault zone (CFZ) is a NNW-SSE striking structure close to the transition zone between the Danish Basin and the Baltic Shield. We examine the fault evolution by combining very-high-resolution onshore shear-wave seismic data, one conventional onshore seismic profile and marine reflection seismic profiles. The faulting geometry indicates a strong influence of Triassic subsidence and rifting in the Central European Basin System. Growth strata within the CFZ surrounding Höllviken Graben reveal syntectonic sedimentation in the Lower Triassic, indicating the opening to be a result of Triassic rifting. In the Upper Cretaceous growth faulting documents continued rifting. These findings contrast the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene inversion tectonics in neighboring structures, such as the Tornquist Zone. The high-resolution shear-wave seismic method was used to image faulting in Quaternary and Danian layers in the CFZ. The portable compact vibrator source ElViS III S8 was used to acquire a 1150 m long seismic section on the island Amager, south of Copenhagen. The shallow subsurface in the investigation area is dominated by Quaternary glacial till deposits in the upper 5-11 m and Danian limestone below. In the shear-wave profile, we imaged the uppermost 30 m of the western part of CFZ. The complex fault zone comprises normal block faults and one reverse block fault. The observed faults cut through the Danian as well as the Quaternary overburden. Hence, there are strong indicators for ongoing faulting, like mapped faulting in Quaternary sediments and ongoing subsidence of the eastern block of the CFZ as interpreted by other authors. The lack of earthquakes localized in the fault zone implies that either the frequency of occurring earthquakes is too small to be recorded in the observation time-span, or that the movement of the shallow sub-surface layers may be due to other sources than purely tectonic processes.

  18. Morbidity and Mortality in 7,684 Women According to Personal Hair Dye Use: The Copenhagen City Heart Study followed for 37 Years

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Permanent hair dye contains aromatic amines which are carcinogenic, and can cause allergic skin reactions. In the long term personal use of hair dye might therefore influence both morbidity and mortality. Objectives We tested the hypothesis that personal use of hair dye in women is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the general population. Methods We included 7,684 women from the Copenhagen City Heart Study with information on the use of personal hair dye. We assessed the risk of cancer, skin diseases, other morbidities, and mortality during a median follow-up of 27 years (range 0–37). Results The multivariable adjusted hazard ratio for malignant melanoma in women with versus without personal use of hair dye was 2.07 (95% confidence interval 1.25–3.42). There was no increased risk of other cancer types. For other skin diseases and other major causes of morbidity we found no differences between the two groups, except for a minor excess of digestive diseases and increased risk of Parkinson’s disease among women using hair dye. Finally, we found no difference in all-cause mortality comparing women using personal hair dye or not. After correction for multiple comparisons, none of the results remained significant. However, in sensitivity analysis the excess risk of malignant melanoma remained increased with a hazard ratio of 2.58 (95%CI 1.33–5.03) among users of personal hair dye. Conclusions Personal use of hair dye does not have major influences on morbidity and mortality. Our finding of a 2-fold risk of malignant melanoma in women using hair dye is hypothesis generating. PMID:26986063

  19. Quaternary geology and ecology of the Greater Yellowstone area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, Kenneth L.; Despain, D.G.; Whitlock, Cathy; Cannon, Kenneth P.; Meyer, Grant A.; Morgan, Lisa; Licciardi, Joseph M.

    2003-01-01

    This field guide focuses on the glacial geology, ecology, paleoecology, caldera unrest, and archeology in Yellowstone and Grand Teton national parks and vicinity (Fig. 1). Some previous field guides of Yellowstone are Locke et al. (1995) for the Yellowstone valley, Fournier et al. (1994) for hydrothermal and volcanic geology of Yellowstone, and Pierce and Good (1992) for the Quaternary of Jackson Hole. Non–technical overviews of Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks are Good and Pierce (1996) and Smith and Siegel (2000). Geologic maps are: Grand Teton (Love et al., 1992), and Yellowstone (bedrock and surficial geology (USGS, 1972a; 1972b). Christiansen (2001) extensively describes Yellowstone’s volcanic geology, and Pierce (1979) describes the glacial geology of the northern Yellowstone region. We suggest that you obtain detailed maps.

  20. Sonatrach prepares for greater exports of natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Taleb, M. )

    1993-12-06

    Algeria is increasing its capacity to export natural gas in order to reinforce its strong position in the growing international market. The country's reserves are estimated at more than 3.6 trillion cu m. Algerian energy and development policy is based on a rational exploitation of this resource. A liquefield natural gas (LNG) pioneer, Algeria has one of the world's most important LNG production capacities. With a location encouraging export to nearby countries, Algeria has an important place in the world natural gas market and an exclusive role within its trading region. The effort will especially focus on southern Europe. The paper discusses Algeria's growing role in international markets, as well as local markets.

  1. The Centennial Trends Greater Horn of Africa precipitation dataset.

    PubMed

    Funk, Chris; Nicholson, Sharon E; Landsfeld, Martin; Klotter, Douglas; Peterson, Pete; Harrison, Laura

    2015-01-01

    East Africa is a drought prone, food and water insecure region with a highly variable climate. This complexity makes rainfall estimation challenging, and this challenge is compounded by low rain gauge densities and inhomogeneous monitoring networks. The dearth of observations is particularly problematic over the past decade, since the number of records in globally accessible archives has fallen precipitously. This lack of data coincides with an increasing scientific and humanitarian need to place recent seasonal and multi-annual East African precipitation extremes in a deep historic context. To serve this need, scientists from the UC Santa Barbara Climate Hazards Group and Florida State University have pooled their station archives and expertise to produce a high quality gridded 'Centennial Trends' precipitation dataset. Additional observations have been acquired from the national meteorological agencies and augmented with data provided by other universities. Extensive quality control of the data was carried out and seasonal anomalies interpolated using kriging. This paper documents the CenTrends methodology and data.

  2. The Centennial Trends Greater Horn of Africa precipitation dataset

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Chris; Nicholson, Sharon E.; Landsfeld, Martin; Klotter, Douglas; Peterson, Pete; Harrison, Laura

    2015-01-01

    East Africa is a drought prone, food and water insecure region with a highly variable climate. This complexity makes rainfall estimation challenging, and this challenge is compounded by low rain gauge densities and inhomogeneous monitoring networks. The dearth of observations is particularly problematic over the past decade, since the number of records in globally accessible archives has fallen precipitously. This lack of data coincides with an increasing scientific and humanitarian need to place recent seasonal and multi-annual East African precipitation extremes in a deep historic context. To serve this need, scientists from the UC Santa Barbara Climate Hazards Group and Florida State University have pooled their station archives and expertise to produce a high quality gridded ‘Centennial Trends’ precipitation dataset. Additional observations have been acquired from the national meteorological agencies and augmented with data provided by other universities. Extensive quality control of the data was carried out and seasonal anomalies interpolated using kriging. This paper documents the CenTrends methodology and data. PMID:26451250

  3. The Centennial Trends Greater Horn of Africa precipitation dataset.

    PubMed

    Funk, Chris; Nicholson, Sharon E; Landsfeld, Martin; Klotter, Douglas; Peterson, Pete; Harrison, Laura

    2015-01-01

    East Africa is a drought prone, food and water insecure region with a highly variable climate. This complexity makes rainfall estimation challenging, and this challenge is compounded by low rain gauge densities and inhomogeneous monitoring networks. The dearth of observations is particularly problematic over the past decade, since the number of records in globally accessible archives has fallen precipitously. This lack of data coincides with an increasing scientific and humanitarian need to place recent seasonal and multi-annual East African precipitation extremes in a deep historic context. To serve this need, scientists from the UC Santa Barbara Climate Hazards Group and Florida State University have pooled their station archives and expertise to produce a high quality gridded 'Centennial Trends' precipitation dataset. Additional observations have been acquired from the national meteorological agencies and augmented with data provided by other universities. Extensive quality control of the data was carried out and seasonal anomalies interpolated using kriging. This paper documents the CenTrends methodology and data. PMID:26451250

  4. Ancestral Puebloan mtDNA in Context of the Greater Southwest

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Kathy R.; Smith, David Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) was extracted from the human remains of seventy-three individuals from the Tommy and Mine Canyon sites (dated to PI-II and PIII, respectively), located on the B-Square Ranch in the Middle San Juan region of New Mexico. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups of forty-eight (65.7%) of these samples were identified, and their frequency distributions were compared with those of other prehistoric and modern populations from the Greater Southwest and Mexico. The haplogroup frequency distributions for the two sites were statistically significantly different from each other, with the Mine Canyon site exhibiting an unusually high frequency of haplogroup A for a Southwestern population, indicating the possible influence of migration or other evolutionary forces. However, both sites exhibited a relatively high frequency of haplogroup B, typical of Southwestern populations, suggesting continuity in the Southwest, as has been hypothesized by others (S. Carlyle 2003; Carlyle, et al. 2000; Kemp 2006; Malhi, et al. 2003; Smith, et al. 2000). The first hypervariable region of twenty-three individuals (31.5%) was also sequenced to confirm haplogroup assignments and compared with other sequences from the region. This comparison further strengthens the argument for population continuity in the Southwest without a detectable influence from Mesoamerica. PMID:20514346

  5. The case for greater Australian support for population issues.

    PubMed

    Schacht, C

    1992-07-01

    recognized as a major donor in the Asia-Pacific region.

  6. Yearling greater sage-grouse response to energy development in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holloran, M.J.; Kaiser, R.C.; Hubert, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.)-dominated habitats in the western United States have experienced extensive, rapid changes due to development of natural-gas fields, resulting in localized declines of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations. It is unclear whether population declines in natural-gas fields are caused by avoidance or demographic impacts, or the age classes that are most affected. Land and wildlife management agencies need information on how energy developments affect sage-grouse populations to ensure informed land-use decisions are made, effective mitigation measures are identified, and appropriate monitoring programs are implemented (Sawyer et al. 2006). We used information from radio-equipped greater sage-grouse and lek counts to investigate natural-gas development influences on 1) the distribution of, and 2) the probability of recruiting yearling males and females into breeding populations in the Upper Green River Basin of southwestern Wyoming, USA. Yearling males avoided leks near the infrastructure of natural-gas fields when establishing breeding territories; yearling females avoided nesting within 950 m of the infrastructure of natural-gas fields. Additionally, both yearling males and yearling females reared in areas where infrastructure was present had lower annual survival, and yearling males established breeding territories less often, compared to yearlings reared in areas with no infrastructure. Our results supply mechanisms for population-level declines of sage-grouse documented in natural-gas fields, and suggest to land managers that current stipulations on development may not provide management solutions. Managing landscapes so that suitably sized and located regions remain undeveloped may be an effective strategy to sustain greater sage-grouse populations affected by energy developments. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  7. Greater sexual reproduction contributes to differences in demography of invasive plants and their noninvasive relatives.

    PubMed

    Burns, Jean H; Pardini, Eleanor A; Schutzenhofer, Michele R; Chung, Y Anny; Seidler, Katie J; Knight, Tiffany M

    2013-05-01

    An understanding of the demographic processes contributing to invasions would improve our mechanistic understanding of the invasion process and improve the efficiency of prevention and control efforts. However, field comparisons of the demography of invasive and noninvasive species have not previously been conducted. We compared the in situ demography of 17 introduced plant species in St. Louis, Missouri, USA, to contrast the demographic patterns of invasive species with their less invasive relatives across a broad sample of angiosperms. Using herbarium records to estimate spread rates, we found higher maximum spread rates in the landscape for species classified a priori as invasive than for noninvasive introduced species, suggesting that expert classifications are an accurate reflection of invasion rate. Across 17 species, projected population growth was not significantly greater in invasive than in noninvasive introduced species. Among five taxonomic pairs of close relatives, however, four of the invasive species had higher projected population growth rates compared with their noninvasive relative. A Life Table Response Experiment suggested that the greater projected population growth rate of some invasive species relative to their noninvasive relatives was primarily a result of sexual reproduction. The greater sexual reproduction of invasive species is consistent with invaders having a life history strategy more reliant on fecundity than survival and is consistent with a large role of propagule pressure in invasion. Sexual reproduction is a key demographic correlate of invasiveness, suggesting that local processes influencing sexual reproduction, such as enemy escape, might be of general importance. However, the weak correlation of projected population growth with spread rates in the landscape suggests that regional processes, such as dispersal, may be equally important in determining invasion rate.

  8. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, in Northeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Park, Yung Chul

    2016-01-01

    The greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, is an important model organism for studies on chiropteran phylogeographic patterns. Previous studies revealed the population history of R. ferrumequinum from Europe and most Asian regions, yet there continue to be arguments about their evolutionary process in Northeast Asia. In this study, we obtained mitochondrial DNA cyt b and D-loop data of R. ferrumequinum from Northeast China, South Korea and Japan to clarify their phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary process. Our results indicate a highly supported monophyletic group of Northeast Asian greater horseshoe bats, in which Japanese populations formed a single clade and clustered into the mixed branches of Northeast Chinese and South Korean populations. We infer that R. ferrumequinum in Northeast Asia originated in Northeast China and South Korea during a cold glacial period, while some ancestors likely arrived in Japan by flying or land bridge and subsequently adapted to the local environment. Consequently, during the warm Eemian interglaciation, the Korea Strait, between Japan and South Korea, became a geographical barrier to Japanese and inland populations, while the Changbai Mountains, between China and North Korea, did not play a significant role as a barrier between Northeast China and South Korea populations. PMID:27761309

  9. Histomorphology of the mandibular condylar cartilage in greater galagos (Otolemur spp.).

    PubMed

    Burrows, Anne M; Smith, Timothy D

    2007-01-01

    The functional morphology of the primate craniomandibular complex and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) components is frequently discussed in terms of gross skeletal structure. At the histomorphologic level, however, the TMJ has only been studied in Old World anthropoids. The present study is designed to describe the microanatomy of the condylar cartilage of the TMJ in two closely related species of greater galago: the exudativorous Otolemur crassicaudatus and the frugivorous O. garnettii. TMJs with intact joint capsules were harvested from adult, cadaveric specimens of these species (four O. crassicaudatus and five O. garnettii). The samples were decalcified, processed for paraffin sectioning, and sectioned at 10-18 microm in the coronal plane. The samples were then stained with hematoxylin/eosin, Gomori trichrome, and Alcian blue, and examined with a photomicroscope. Generally, condylar cartilage in O. crassicaudatus was thickest both laterally and centrally, while O. garnettii had the relatively thickest cartilage laterally. Both species displayed a superficial articular zone, a middle proliferative zone, and a deeply located hypertrophic zone in the condylar cartilage. O. crassicaudatus typically had the greatest cell density in each of these zones. In addition, O. crassicaudatus had focal concentrations of Alcian blue laterally and centrally, while O. garnettii had the greatest reactivity in the central portion only. These results suggest that O. crassicaudatus may be specialized to resist greater compressive force at the TMJ condylar cartilage in specific regions of the mandibular condyle.

  10. Improving multimodel medium range forecasts over the Greater Horn of Africa using the FSU superensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipkogei, O.; Bhardwaj, A.; Kumar, V.; Ogallo, L. A.; Opijah, F. J.; Mutemi, J. N.; Krishnamurti, T. N.

    2016-08-01

    This study makes use of the WMO's multimodel data set called THORPEX integrated grand global ensemble (TIGGE) towards the construction of multimodel superensemble forecasts covering a period of 10 days. The goal of this study is to explore the forecast skill for precipitation forecasts over the Greater Horn of Africa (this is a consortium of 11 countries). The multimodels include forecast data set from a suite of models that include: The European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the Center for Weather Forecast and Climatic Studies (CPTEC) and the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO). After performing a training phase for the superensemble weights covering the previous 450 days of October, November and December months of 2008-2012, forecasts of precipitation were prepared for the multimodel superensemble. These covered day 1 to day 10 of forecasts over the region. Various skill metrics were prepared to validate the forecast rainfall against the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) observed rainfall data. This study shows that the construction of the multimodel superensemble was a worthwhile effort since it provided the best overall skills for the RMS errors, the spatial correlations and the equitable threat scores and their bias errors for precipitation forecasts from day 1 to day 10 over all of the countries covered by the Greater Horn of Africa. The best among the member model was the UKMO model. This study strongly suggests the usefulness of a product such as the multimodel superensemble for improved precipitation forecasts over East Africa.

  11. The boreal winter Madden-Julian Oscillation's influence on summertime precipitation in the greater Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Scott; Gamble, Douglas W.

    2016-07-01

    Precipitation totals in the greater Caribbean are known to be affected by interannual variability. In particular, dry conditions in the spring-summer have been physically linked to the positive phase of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in the literature. In this study, it was found through regression analysis that an active Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in winter geographically focused over the Maritime Continent contributes to a positive NAO in March via the generation of Rossby waves in the Northern Hemisphere. Specifically, a negative Pacific-North American pattern develops in the winter and transitions to an Atlantic pattern in spring. The positive NAO is a transient feature of this evolving wave train, but a center of significant positive 200 hPa geopotential heights is entrenched over the southeast U.S. throughout the February to May time period and is manifested as high pressure at the surface. The southern flank of this system increases the speeds of the trade winds and leads to a cooling of the Caribbean sea surface temperatures and, thus, convection suppression and reduced precipitation. Thus, this study advances our understanding of the climate of the greater Caribbean by using climate teleconnections to relate the MJO to rainfall in the region.

  12. The possible subduction of continental material to depths greater than 200 km.

    PubMed

    Ye, K; Cong, B; Ye, D

    2000-10-12

    Determining the depth to which continental lithosphere can be subducted into the mantle at convergent plate boundaries is of importance for understanding the long-term growth of supercontinents as well as the dynamic processes that shape such margins. Recent discoveries of coesite and diamond in regional ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks has demonstrated that continental material can be subducted to depths of at least 120 km (ref. 1), and subduction to depths of 150-300 km has been inferred from garnet peridotites in orogenic UHP belts based on several indirect observations. But continental subduction to such depths is difficult to trace directly in natural UHP metamorphic crustal rocks by conventional mineralogical and petrological methods because of extensive late-stage recrystallization and the lack of a suitable pressure indicator. It has been predicted from experimental work, however, that solid-state dissolution of pyroxene should occur in garnet at depths greater than 150 km (refs 6-8). Here we report the observation of high concentrations of clinopyroxene, rutile and apatite exsolutions in garnet within eclogites from Yangkou in the Sulu UHP metamorphic belt, China. We interpret these data as resulting from the high-pressure formation of pyroxene solid solutions in subducted continental material. Appropriate conditions for the Na2O concentrations and octahedral silicon observed in these samples are met at depths greater than 200 km. PMID:11048717

  13. Monitoring changes in Greater Yellowstone Lake water quality following the 1988 wildfires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathrop, Richard G., Jr.; Vande Castle, John D.; Brass, James A.

    1994-01-01

    The fires that burned the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) during the summer of 1988 were the largest ever recorded for the region. Wildfire can have profound indirect effects on associated aquatic ecosystems by increased nutrient loading, sediment, erosion, and runoff. Satellite remote sensing and water quality sampling were used to compare pre- versus post-fire conditions in the GYA's large oliotrophic (high transparency, low productivity) lakes. Inputs of suspended sediment to Jackson Lake appear to have increased. Yellowstone Lake has not shown any discernable shift in water quality. The insights gained separately from the Landsat Thematic and NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) remote sensing systems, along with conventional in-situ sampling, can be combined into a useful water quality monitoring tool.

  14. Aerobic fitness is associated with greater hippocampal cerebral blood flow in children.

    PubMed

    Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Erickson, Kirk I; Chappell, Michael A; Johnson, Curtis L; Kienzler, Caitlin; Knecht, Anya; Drollette, Eric S; Raine, Lauren B; Scudder, Mark R; Kao, Shih-Chun; Hillman, Charles H; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-08-01

    The present study is the first to investigate whether cerebral blood flow in the hippocampus relates to aerobic fitness in children. In particular, we used arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI to provide a quantitative measure of blood flow in the hippocampus in 73 7- to 9-year-old preadolescent children. Indeed, aerobic fitness was found to relate to greater perfusion in the hippocampus, independent of age, sex, and hippocampal volume. Such results suggest improved microcirculation and cerebral vasculature in preadolescent children with higher levels of aerobic fitness. Further, aerobic fitness may influence how the brain regulates its metabolic demands via blood flow in a region of the brain important for learning and memory. To add specificity to the relationship of fitness to the hippocampus, we demonstrate no significant association between aerobic fitness and cerebral blood flow in the brainstem. Our results reinforce the importance of aerobic fitness during a critical period of child development. PMID:27419884

  15. Lewis phenotypes, leisure time physical activity, and risk of ischaemic heart disease: an 11 year follow up in the Copenhagen male study

    PubMed Central

    Hein, H; Suadicani, P; Gyntelberg, F

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To test the hypothesis that the predictive value for risk of fatal ischaemic heart disease associated with Lewis phenotypes depends on the level of leisure time physical activity.
DESIGN—Prospective study controlling for alcohol, tobacco, serum cotinine, blood pressure, body mass index, serum lipids, work related physical activity, and social class.
SETTING—The Copenhagen male study, Denmark.
SUBJECTS—2826 white men aged 53-75 years without overt cardiovascular disease; 266 (9.4%) had the Le(a−b−) phenotype.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE—Incidence of death from ischaemic heart disease during 11 years.
RESULTS—107 men died of ischaemic heart disease. Among men with a low level of leisure time physical activity (⩽ 4 hours/week moderate or ⩽ 2 hours/week more vigorous activity), being Le(a−b−) was associated with an increased risk of having a fatal ischaemic heart disease event compared with men with other Lewis phenotypes (relative risk (RR) 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4 to 5.2; p < 0.01). Among men with a high level of leisure time physical activity, the RR associated with being Le(a−b−) was 1.3 (95% CI 0.5 to 3.1; NS). Compared with all other alternatives tested, being Le(a−b−) and having a low level of leisure time physical activity was associated with an RR of 3.2 (95% CI 1.7 to 5.8; p < 0.001). As a point estimate and adjusted for confounding variables, among men with low leisure time physical activity the attributable risk associated with Le(a−b−) was 12%—that is, assuming that all sedentary men had phenotypes other than Le(a−b−), 12% of all fatal ischaemic heart disease events would not have occurred. The corresponding point estimate among those more active was 2%.
CONCLUSIONS—The excess risk of fatal ischaemic heart disease in middle aged and elderly men with the Le(a−b−) phenotype is strongly modified by leisure time physical activity. Public health and clinical implications

  16. Cognitively Engaging Activity Is Associated with Greater Cortical and Subcortical Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Seider, Talia R.; Fieo, Robert A.; O’Shea, Andrew; Porges, Eric C.; Woods, Adam J.; Cohen, Ronald A.

    2016-01-01

    As the population ages and dementia becomes a growing healthcare concern, it is increasingly important to identify targets for intervention to delay or attenuate cognitive decline. Research has shown that the most successful interventions aim at altering lifestyle factors. Thus, this study examined how involvement in physical, cognitive, and social activity is related to brain structure in older adults. Sixty-five adults (mean age = 71.4 years, standard deviation = 8.9) received the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS), a questionnaire that polls everyday activities in which older adults may be involved, and also underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Stepwise regression with backward selection was used to predict weekly time spent in either social, cognitive, light physical, or heavy physical activity from the volume of one of the cortical or subcortical regions of interest (corrected by intracranial volume) as well as age, education, and gender as control variables. Regressions revealed that more time spent in cognitive activity was associated with greater volumes of all brain regions studied: total cortex (β = 0.289, p = 0.014), frontal (β = 0.276, p = 0.019), parietal (β = 0.305, p = 0.009), temporal (β = 0.275, p = 0.020), and occipital (β = 0.256, p = 0.030) lobes, and thalamus (β = 0.310, p = 0.010), caudate (β = 0.233, p = 0.049), hippocampus (β = 0.286, p = 0.017), and amygdala (β = 0.336, p = 0.004). These effects remained even after accounting for the positive association between cognitive activity and education. No other activity variable was associated with brain volumes. Results indicate that time spent in cognitively engaging activity is associated with greater cortical and subcortical brain volume. Findings suggest that interventions aimed at increasing levels of cognitive activity may delay cognitive consequences of aging and decrease the risk of developing dementia. PMID:27199740

  17. Seismic hazard assessment based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes: the Greater Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekrasova, A.; Kossobokov, V. G.

    2015-12-01

    Losses from natural disasters continue to increase mainly due to poor understanding by majority of scientific community, decision makers and public, the three components of Risk, i.e., Hazard, Exposure, and Vulnerability. Contemporary Science is responsible for not coping with challenging changes of Exposures and their Vulnerability inflicted by growing population, its concentration, etc., which result in a steady increase of Losses from Natural Hazards. Scientists owe to Society for lack of knowledge, education, and communication. In fact, Contemporary Science can do a better job in disclosing Natural Hazards, assessing Risks, and delivering such knowledge in advance catastrophic events. We continue applying the general concept of seismic risk analysis in a number of seismic regions worldwide by constructing regional seismic hazard maps based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), i.e. log N(M,L) = A - B•(M-6) + C•log L, where N(M,L) is the expected annual number of earthquakes of a certain magnitude M within an seismically prone area of linear dimension L. The parameters A, B, and C of USLE are used to estimate, first, the expected maximum magnitude in a time interval at a seismically prone cell of a uniform grid that cover the region of interest, and then the corresponding expected ground shaking parameters including macro-seismic intensity. After a rigorous testing against the available seismic evidences in the past (e.g., the historically reported macro-seismic intensity), such a seismic hazard map is used to generate maps of specific earthquake risks (e.g., those based on the density of exposed population). The methodology of seismic hazard and risks assessment based on USLE is illustrated by application to the seismic region of Greater Caucasus.

  18. Does greater low frequency EEG activity in normal immaturity and in children with epilepsy arise in the same neuronal network?

    PubMed

    Michels, L; Bucher, K; Brem, S; Halder, P; Lüchinger, R; Liechti, M; Martin, E; Jeanmonod, D; Kröll, J; Brandeis, D

    2011-03-01

    Greater low frequency power (<8 Hz) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) at rest is normal in the immature developing brain of children when compared to adults. Children with epilepsy also have greater low frequency interictal resting EEG activity. Whether these power elevations reflect brain immaturity due to a developmental lag or the underlying epileptic pathophysiology is unclear. The present study addresses this question by analyzing spectral EEG topographies and sources for normally developing children and children with epilepsy. We first compared the resting EEG of healthy children to that of healthy adults to isolate effects related to normal brain immaturity. Next, we compared the EEG from 10 children with generalized cryptogenic epilepsy to the EEG of 24 healthy children to isolate effects related to epilepsy. Spectral analysis revealed that global low (delta: 1-3 Hz, theta: 4-7 Hz), medium (alpha: 8-12 Hz) and high (beta: 13-25 Hz) frequency EEG activity was greater in children without epilepsy compared to adults, and even further elevated for children with epilepsy. Topographical and tomographic EEG analyses showed that normal immaturity corresponded to greater delta and theta activity at fronto-central scalp and brain regions, respectively. In contrast, the epilepsy-related activity elevations were predominantly in the alpha band at parieto-occipital electrodes and brain regions, respectively. We conclude that lower frequency activity can be a sign of normal brain immaturity or brain pathology depending on the specific topography and frequency of the oscillating neuronal network. PMID:20820898

  19. Fire patterns in the range of the greater sage-grouse, 1984-2013 — Implications for conservation and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Matthew L.; Matchett, John R.; Shinneman, Douglas J.; Coates, Peter S.

    2015-09-10

    The results indicate that fire threats are higher in the four western than in the three eastern management zones. Among the four western management zones, the Snake River Plain and the Columbia Basin ranked somewhat higher than the Southern Great Basin and Northern Great Basin in terms of fire effects on sage-grouse habitat. These results support the previous high ranking of fire as a threat to the greater sage-grouse in the western region. In contrast, considering the low rankings for fire threats in the eastern region, it may be useful to reconsider the relative importance of wildfire as a threat to greater sage-grouse in those three management zones.

  20. Stem cell research in the Greater Middle East: the importance of establishing policy and ethics interoperability to foster international collaborations.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Jesse M; Matthews, Kirstin R W

    2010-06-01

    While fossil fuel reserves have strengthened the economies of numerous countries in the Greater Middle East (GME) for decades, multiple nations within this region are now increasingly investing in internal science and engineering programs as a mechanism to develop more extensive knowledge-based economies. One of these newly pursued disciplines is stem cell research. Nations such as Saudi Arabia and Qatar have founded nascent programs while Iran, Turkey, and Israel are more established in the field. The extent to which these investments have been productive, as measured by publication quantity and impact, remains unknown. Here we assess the state of stem cell research in the GME, report on the policy and ethical considerations facing the region, and determine the impact of international research collaborations in this area. In the majority of the region, there is no legal framework regulating stem cell research. Instead, scientists often rely on religious decrees outlining acceptable practices. These guidelines do not provide the necessary structure to foster international collaborations with nations that have enacted formal laws recognized worldwide. Our results illustrate that international collaborations in the GME produce publications of greater impact despite the fact that political tensions and issues unrelated to science have the potential to dramatically hinder cross-border relationships in the region. Overall, we conclude that the national governments of countries within the GME have the unique opportunity to establish stem cell research policies which confer interoperability between nations to foster crucial international collaborations throughout the region. PMID:20198516

  1. Stem cell research in the Greater Middle East: the importance of establishing policy and ethics interoperability to foster international collaborations.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Jesse M; Matthews, Kirstin R W

    2010-06-01

    While fossil fuel reserves have strengthened the economies of numerous countries in the Greater Middle East (GME) for decades, multiple nations within this region are now increasingly investing in internal science and engineering programs as a mechanism to develop more extensive knowledge-based economies. One of these newly pursued disciplines is stem cell research. Nations such as Saudi Arabia and Qatar have founded nascent programs while Iran, Turkey, and Israel are more established in the field. The extent to which these investments have been productive, as measured by publication quantity and impact, remains unknown. Here we assess the state of stem cell research in the GME, report on the policy and ethical considerations facing the region, and determine the impact of international research collaborations in this area. In the majority of the region, there is no legal framework regulating stem cell research. Instead, scientists often rely on religious decrees outlining acceptable practices. These guidelines do not provide the necessary structure to foster international collaborations with nations that have enacted formal laws recognized worldwide. Our results illustrate that international collaborations in the GME produce publications of greater impact despite the fact that political tensions and issues unrelated to science have the potential to dramatically hinder cross-border relationships in the region. Overall, we conclude that the national governments of countries within the GME have the unique opportunity to establish stem cell research policies which confer interoperability between nations to foster crucial international collaborations throughout the region.

  2. Greater aerial moisture transport distances with warming amplify interbasin salinity contrasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Hansi K. A.; Donohoe, Aaron; Bitz, Cecilia M.; Nusbaumer, Jesse; Noone, David C.

    2016-08-01

    The distance atmospheric moisture travels is fundamental to Earth's hydrologic cycle, governing how much evaporation is exported versus precipitated locally. The present-day tropical Atlantic is one region that exports much locally evaporated moisture away, leading to more saline surface waters in the Atlantic compared to the Indo-Pacific at similar latitudes. Here we use a state-of-the-art global climate model equipped with numerical water tracers to show that over half of the atmospheric freshwater exported from the Atlantic originates as evaporation in the northern Atlantic subtropics, primarily between 10°N and 20°N, and is transported across Central America via prevailing easterlies into the equatorial Pacific. We find enhanced moisture export from the Atlantic to Pacific with warming is due to greater distances between moisture source and sink regions, which increases moisture export from the Atlantic at the expense of local precipitation. Distance traveled increases due to longer moisture residence times, not simply Clausius-Clapeyron scaling.

  3. Modelling reef zonation in the Greater St Lucia Wetland Park, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleyer, Michael H.; Celliers, Louis

    2005-05-01

    East Africa has a rich coral fauna that extends to Maputaland in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. At this latitude, considered high and marginal for coral distribution and development, they form a veneer on limited, late Pleistocene reefs rather than forming the accretive, aragonite structures known as coral reefs. It is thus more appropriate to refer to them in this region as coral communities, the environment being rendered marginal for their development by reduced temperatures, light and aragonite saturation state. Subsequent to their discovery, the reefs were afforded protection within two Marine Protected Areas (the St Lucia and Maputaland Marine Reserves). They are found primarily within three reef complexes, with only the central complex being readily accessible to the public for ecotourism at present. With the creation of the Greater St Lucia Wetland Park, a World Heritage Site, and the expectation of an accompanying increase in ecotourism, the status quo seems set to change. The reefs are thus the current focus of a modelling initiative to provide decision support in their management. This paper examines the unique nature of the South African communities, their vulnerability and importance in the regional and global context, and, using representative data from the model, how an anticipated increase in their use could affect their sustainability. The case for scientifically based zonation for their use is presented.

  4. Assessing the Predictors of the Content and Pedagogical Knowledge of Fitness Instructors in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarpong, E. O.; Apaak, D.

    2016-01-01

    Fitness centers require professional instructors to ensure members obtain the safest and most effective exercise classes. Certification and licensure enable fitness instructors to demonstrate a strong desire to be knowledgeable and committed to expand their capabilities and offer more diverse services to their clientele. This study therefore…

  5. History and origin of the HIV-1 subtype C epidemic in South Africa and the greater southern African region

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Eduan; Engelbrecht, Susan; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2015-01-01

    HIV has spread at an alarming rate in South Africa, making it the country with the highest number of HIV infections. Several studies have investigated the histories of HIV-1 subtype C epidemics but none have done so in the context of social and political transformation in southern Africa. There is a need to understand how these processes affects epidemics, as socio-political transformation is a common and on-going process in Africa. Here, we genotyped strains from the start of the epidemic and applied phylodynamic techniques to determine the history of the southern Africa and South African epidemic from longitudinal sampled data. The southern African epidemic’s estimated dates of origin was placed around 1960 (95% HPD 1956–64), while dynamic reconstruction revealed strong growth during the 1970s and 80s. The South African epidemic has a similar origin, caused by multiple introductions from neighbouring countries, and grew exponentially during the 1980s and 90s, coinciding with socio-political changes in South Africa. These findings provide an indication as to when the epidemic started and how it has grown, while the inclusion of sequence data from the start of the epidemic provided better estimates. The epidemic have stabilized in recent years with the expansion of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:26574165

  6. History and origin of the HIV-1 subtype C epidemic in South Africa and the greater southern African region.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Eduan; Engelbrecht, Susan; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2015-11-17

    HIV has spread at an alarming rate in South Africa, making it the country with the highest number of HIV infections. Several studies have investigated the histories of HIV-1 subtype C epidemics but none have done so in the context of social and political transformation in southern Africa. There is a need to understand how these processes affects epidemics, as socio-political transformation is a common and on-going process in Africa. Here, we genotyped strains from the start of the epidemic and applied phylodynamic techniques to determine the history of the southern Africa and South African epidemic from longitudinal sampled data. The southern African epidemic's estimated dates of origin was placed around 1960 (95% HPD 1956-64), while dynamic reconstruction revealed strong growth during the 1970s and 80s. The South African epidemic has a similar origin, caused by multiple introductions from neighbouring countries, and grew exponentially during the 1980s and 90s, coinciding with socio-political changes in South Africa. These findings provide an indication as to when the epidemic started and how it has grown, while the inclusion of sequence data from the start of the epidemic provided better estimates. The epidemic have stabilized in recent years with the expansion of antiretroviral therapy.

  7. University Rankings as a Zoning Technology: A Taiwanese Perspective on an Imaginary Greater China Higher Education Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, William Yat Wai

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that global university rankings can be understood as a mechanism upholding Taiwan's interests in light of cross-national analysis of university ranking and recent discussion on regionalisation of higher education in Asia. To draw an analytical framework, it begins by delineating a conceptualisation of university ranking, in…

  8. EnergyWorks Final Report: A Better Buildings Neighborhood Program in the Five-County Greater Philadelphia Region

    SciTech Connect

    Gajewski, Katherine

    2014-03-05

    This report covers the grant performance period of July 1, 2010-September 30, 2013 and discusses of the program design, outcomes and best practices as they relate to the following six areas: 1. Institutional Design and Business Model; 2. Program Design and Customer Experience; 3. Driving Demand; 4. Workforce Development; 5. Financing and Incentives; 6. Data and Evaluation.

  9. Greater Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Patrick J.

    2006-01-01

    Julius Bennett was once a disinterested student destined to become a dropout. Then he enrolled in Amistad Academy, an academically focused charter middle school intent on narrowing the achievement gap between urban and suburban kids located in New Haven, Connecticut. Now Julius is making plans for college. In this article the author details the…

  10. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 4: The point source catalog declination range 0 deg greater than delta greater than -30 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched 26 January 1983. During its 300-day mission, it surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 4, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range 0 deg greater than delta greater than -30 deg.

  11. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 5: The point source catalog declination range -30 deg greater than delta greater than -50 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, IRAS surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 5, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range -30 deg greater than delta greater than -50 deg.

  12. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 6: The point source catalog declination range -50 deg greater than delta greater than -90 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, it surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 6, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range -50 deg greater than delta greater than -90 deg.

  13. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 3: The point source catalog declination range 30 deg greater than delta greater than 0 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, IRAS surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 3, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range 30 deg greater than delta greater than 0 deg.

  14. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 2: The point source catalog declination range 90 deg greater than delta greater than 30 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, IRAS surveyed 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 2, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range 90 deg greater than delta greater than 30 deg.

  15. Modeled connectivity of Acropora millepora populations from reefs of the Spratly Islands and the greater South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, Jeffrey G.; Castruccio, Frederic S.; Curchitser, Enrique N.; Kleypas, Joan A.; Powell, Thomas M.

    2016-03-01

    The Spratly Island archipelago is a remote network of coral reefs and islands in the South China Sea that is a likely source of coral larvae to the greater region, but about which little is known. Using a particle-tracking model driven by oceanographic data from the Coral Triangle region, we simulated both spring and fall spawning events of Acropora millepora, a common coral species, over a 46-yr period (1960-2005). Simulated population biology of A. millepora included the acquisition and loss of competency, settlement over appropriate benthic habitat, and mortality based on experimental data. The simulations aimed to provide insights into the connectivity of reefs within the Spratly Islands, the settlement of larvae on reefs of the greater South China Sea, and the potential dispersal range of reef organisms from the Spratly Islands. Results suggest that (1) the Spratly Islands may be a significant source of A. millepora larvae for the Palawan reefs (Philippines) and some of the most isolated reefs of the South China Sea; and (2) the relatively isolated western Spratly Islands have limited source reefs supplying them with larvae and fewer of their larvae successfully settling on other reefs. Examination of particle dispersal without biology (settlement and mortality) suggests that larval connectivity is possible throughout the South China Sea and into the Coral Triangle region. Strong differences in the spring versus fall larval connectivity and dispersal highlight the need for a greater understanding of spawning dynamics of the region. This study confirms that the Spratly Islands are likely an important source of larvae for the South China Sea and Coral Triangle region.

  16. Evaluation of the genetic distinctiveness of Greater Sage-grouse in the Bi-State Planning Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further characterize a distinct population of Greater Sage-grouse: the population located along the border between Nevada and California (Bi-State Planning Area) and centered around the Mono Basin. This population was previously determined to be genetically distinct from other Greater Sage-grouse populations across their range. Previous genetic work focused on characterizing genetic variation across the species' range and thereby used a coarse sampling approach for species characterization. The goal of this study was to investigate this population further by obtaining samples from breeding locations within the population and analyzing those samples with the same mitochondrial and microsatellite loci used in previous studies. Blood samples were collected in six locations within the Bi-State Planning Area. Genetic data from subpopulations were then compared with each other and also with two populations outside of the Bi-State Planning Area. Particular attention was paid to subpopulation boundaries and internal dynamics by drawing comparisons among particular regions within the Bi-State Planning Area and regions proximal to it. All newly sampled subpopulations contained mitochondrial haplotypes and allele frequencies that were consistent with the genetically unique Bi-State (Mono Basin) Greater Sage-grouse described previously. This reinforces the fact that this group of Greater Sage-grouse is genetically unique and warrants special attention. Maintaining the genetic integrity of this population could protect the evolutionary potential of this population of Greater Sage-grouse. Additionally, the White Mountains subpopulation was found to be significantly distinct from all other Bi-State subpopulations.

  17. Damage to left frontal regulatory circuits produces greater positive emotional reactivity in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Virginia E; Yokoyama, Jennifer S; Eckart, Janet A; Zakrzewski, Jessica; Rosen, Howard J; Miller, Bruce L; Seeley, William W; Levenson, Robert W

    2015-03-01

    Positive emotions foster social relationships and motivate thought and action. Dysregulation of positive emotion may give rise to debilitating clinical symptomatology such as mania, risk-taking, and disinhibition. Neuroanatomically, there is extensive evidence that the left hemisphere of the brain, and the left frontal lobe in particular, plays an important role in positive emotion generation. Although prior studies have found that left frontal injury decreases positive emotion, it is not clear whether selective damage to left frontal emotion regulatory systems can actually increase positive emotion. We measured happiness reactivity in 96 patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a neurodegenerative disease that targets emotion-relevant neural systems and causes alterations in positive emotion (i.e., euphoria and jocularity), and in 34 healthy controls. Participants watched a film clip designed to elicit happiness and a comparison film clip designed to elicit sadness while their facial behavior, physiological reactivity, and self-reported emotional experience were monitored. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses revealed that atrophy in predominantly left hemisphere fronto-striatal emotion regulation systems including left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior insula, and striatum was associated with greater happiness facial behavior during the film (pFWE < .05). Atrophy in left anterior insula and bilateral frontopolar cortex was also associated with higher cardiovascular reactivity (i.e., heart rate and blood pressure) but not self-reported positive emotional experience during the happy film (p < .005, uncorrected). No regions emerged as being associated with greater sadness reactivity, which suggests that left-lateralized fronto-striatal atrophy is selectively associated with happiness dysregulation. Whereas previous models have proposed that left frontal injury decreases positive emotional responding, we argue that

  18. Characterizing the fabric of the urban environment: A case study of Greater Houston, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Leanna Shea; Akbari, Hashem; Taha, Haider

    2003-01-15

    In this report, the materials and various surface types that comprise a city are referred to as the ''urban fabric.'' Urban fabric data are needed in order to estimate the impact of light-colored surfaces (roofs and pavements) and urban vegetation (trees, grass, shrubs) on the meteorology and air quality of a city, and to design effective urban environmental implementation programs. We discuss the results of a semi-automatic Monte-Carlo statistical approach used to develop data on surface-type distribution and city-fabric makeup (percentage of various surface-types) using aerial color orthophotography. The digital aerial photographs for Houston covered a total of about 52 km2 (20 mi2). At 0.30-m resolution, there were approximately 5.8 x 108 pixels of data. Four major land-use types were examined: (1) commercial, (2) industrial, (3) educational, and (4) residential. On average, for the regions studied, vegetation covers about 39 percent of the area, roofs cover about 21 percent, and paved surfaces cover about 29 percent. For the most part, trees shade streets, parking lots, grass, and sidewalks. At ground level, i.e., view from below the vegetation canopies, paved surfaces cover about 32 percent of the study area. GLOBEIS model data from University of Texas and land-use/land-cover (LULC) information from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) were used to extrapolate these results from neighborhood scales to Greater Houston. It was found that in an area of roughly 3,430 km2, defining most of Greater Houston, over 56 percent is residential. The total roof area is about 740 km2, and the total paved surface area (roads, parking areas, sidewalks) covers about 1000 km2. Vegetation covers about 1,320 km2.

  19. Pliocene-Quaternary Post-collisional Magmatism in the Greater Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bewick, Samuel; Harris, Nigel; Parkinson, Ian; Hammond, Sam; Adamia, Shota

    2014-05-01

    Whole-rock elemental and isotopic analyses are presented for Pliocene-Quaternary volcanism from northern Georgia. Intense magmatic activity erupted through the thickened crust (50-60km) of the Greater Caucasus mountain belt, tens of millions of years following continental collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. Compositions range from basaltic-andesite to dacite (56-67 wt% SiO2). Enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light rare earth elements (LREEs) relative to the high field strength elements (HFSEs) is seen in all samples. Rare earth element patterns have small enrichments in the middle to heavy REE ((Dy/Yb)N ratios (1.22-1.65)). Strontium (87Sr/86Sr of 0.7041-0.7049) and Pb isotope ratios suggest a source that has been enriched relative to DMM with Pb isotopes plotting on an array sub-parallel to, but enriched compared to the northern hemisphere reference line (Δ7/6 = 10.7-11.3). LILE enrichment may be indicative of a source enriched by subduction related fluids. Compositions are also similar to local crustal samples. On Pb isotope plots, samples lie on a trend extending towards radiogenic crustal values. Trace elements and isotopes are used to decipher the importance of these two signatures. Heavy REE data provide evidence melting was relatively shallow ( 10wt%) indicate fractionation occurred deep in the crust. Further investigation will allow the sources for Greater Caucasus magmatism to be better constrained and the petrologic evolution of the magmas to be compared with those from the wider Arabia-Eurasia collision zone and hence integrated into a post-collisional tectonic model for the region.

  20. Damage to Left Frontal Regulatory Circuits Produces Greater Positive Emotional Reactivity in Frontotemporal Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Virginia E.; Yokoyama, Jennifer S.; Eckart, Janet A.; Zakrzewski, Jessica; Rosen, Howard J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Seeley, William W.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Positive emotions foster social relationships and motivate thought and action. Dysregulation of positive emotion may give rise to debilitating clinical symptomatology such as mania, risk-taking, and disinhibition. Neuroanatomically, there is extensive evidence that the left hemisphere of the brain, and the left frontal lobe in particular, plays an important role in positive emotion generation. Although prior studies have found that left frontal injury decreases positive emotion, it is not clear whether selective damage to left frontal emotion regulatory systems can actually increase positive emotion. We measured happiness reactivity in 96 patients with frontotemporal dementia, a neurodegenerative disease that targets emotion-relevant neural systems and causes alterations in positive emotion (i.e., euphoria and jocularity), and in 34 healthy controls. Participants watched a film clip designed to elicit happiness and a comparison film clip designed to elicit sadness while their facial behavior, physiological reactivity, and self-reported emotional experience were monitored. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed that atrophy in predominantly left hemisphere fronto-striatal emotion regulation systems including left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior insula, and striatum (pFWE < .05) was associated with greater happiness facial behavior during the film. Atrophy in left anterior insula and bilateral frontopolar cortex was also associated with higher cardiovascular reactivity (i.e., heart rate and blood pressure) but not self-reported positive emotional experience during the happy film (p< .005, uncorrected). No regions emerged as being associated with greater sadness reactivity, which suggests that left-lateralized fronto-striatal atrophy is selectively associated with happiness dysregulation. Whereas previous models have proposed that left frontal injury decreases positive emotional responding, we argue that selective

  1. Gross, histological and ultrastructural features of the bulbourethral gland in the greater cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus).

    PubMed

    Adebayo, A O; Akinloye, A K; Olukole, S G; Oyeyemi, M O; Taiwo, V O; Ihunwo, A O; Oke, B O

    2015-02-01

    The present study examines the structure and ultrastructure of the bulbourethral glands in 10 sexually matured male greater cane rats raised in captivity. Following anaesthesia, the rats were perfusion-fixed transcardially and the bulbourethral glands dissected out. Upon morphologic and morphometric analysis, the Cowper's glands were observed to have an average volume of 0.24±0.08 ml, a diameter of 6.3±0.6 mm and weighs 0.199±0.06 g. The paired, gourd-shaped tubuloalveolar glands were surrounded by dense connective tissues and separated into lobules by capsular septae. Each lobule consists of endpiece/secretory units and excretory ducts lined by simple glandular epithelium and pseudo-stratified epithelium, respectively. The round end pieces consisted of 8-10 pyramidal to columnar epithelial cells with flattened, basally located nuclei and granule-filled cytoplasm that bounded a narrow glandular lumen. The striking ultrastructural features of these secretory cells were the presence of some granules with uniform electron density and those with regions of lesser density as well as the absence of secretory vacuoles. Another unique characteristic of these secretory granules is the presence of electron dense strands radiating from their surfaces. The apical surfaces of the cells were also studded with abundant microvilli. From the findings, the structure of bulbourethral glands in the greater cane rat shows more resemblances to that of humans than to its rodent phylogeny. These findings serve as additional knowledge in the structural interpretation of the bulbourethral gland and its secretory products. PMID:24660943

  2. Seafloor spreading and microcontinent formation during Mesozoic breakup between Australia and Greater India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, S.; Whittaker, J.; Müller, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Perth Abyssal Plain (PAP) formed at the nexus of rifting and breakup between three major continents within Gondwana - India, Australia and Antarctica. Oceanic crust within the PAP records the history of Mesozoic seafloor spreading as India moved away from Australia. However, despite the clear importance of the seafloor spreading history of the PAP in constraining the relative motions of these continents during the early stages of breakup, little attention has been paid to the PAP, and particularly its western flank largely due to a lack of new data in collected in this region. We present new observations to constrain the evolution of the PAP, collected during voyage ss2011/v06 of the Southern Surveyor in late 2011. The new data comprise magnetic anomaly profile data, swath bathymetry, and dredge samples collected from 7 sites. The most significant dredge results were obtained from the Batavia Knoll (BK) and Gulden Draak Knoll (GDK), two prominent bathymetric features located >1000 km west of the Australian continental margin. Previous tectonic reconstructions typically treat these bathymetric features as igneous plateaus emplaced on older oceanic crust. However, dredges carried out on the western flanks of each of these knolls recovered continental basement rocks, revealing that both knolls are continental fragments. Estimates of the depths to magnetic sources for shiptrack profiles across the knolls provide evidence for variations in sediment thickness within the knolls. We use forward modeling of shiptrack magnetic profiles combined with gravity anomalies derived from satellite altimetry to make first-order estimates of the extent and spatial variation in thickness of the continental crust. New magnetic anomaly profiles provide evidence for previously unidentified M-series anomalies in the western part of the Perth Abyssal Plain, east of the BK and GDK. These observations both support a reconstruction model in which the microcontinents rifted away from

  3. Phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitor, MP-10 (PF-2545920), produces greater induction of c-Fos in dopamine D2 neurons than in D1 neurons in the neostriatum.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jonathan M; Ogden, Ann Marie L; Loomis, Sally; Gilmour, Gary; Baucum, Anthony J; Belecky-Adams, Teri L; Merchant, Kalpana M

    2015-12-01

    Studies described here tested the hypothesis that phosphodiesterase 10A inhibition by a selective antagonist, MP-10, activates the dopamine D2 receptor expressing medium spiny neurons to a greater extent than the D1 receptor expressing neurons. We used regional pattern of c-Fos induction in the neostriatal subregions of rodents and direct assessment of D1-positive and -negative neurons in the DRd1a-tdTomato mice for the purpose. MP-10 (1, 3, 10 or 30 mg/kg, PO) dose-dependently increased c-Fos immunopositive nuclei in all regions of neostriatum. However, the effect was statistically greater in the dorsolateral striatum, a region known to be activated preferentially by the D2 antagonism, than the D1-activated dorsomedial striatum. The D2 antagonist, haloperidol (0.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg, PO) produced an identical, regional pattern of c-Fos induction favoring the dorsolateral striatum of the rat. In contrast, the D1 agonist, SKF82958 (0.5, 1, or 2 mg/kg, PO), induced greater expression of c-Fos in the dorsomedial striatum. The C57Bl/6 mouse also showed regionally preferential c-Fos activation by haloperidol (2 mg/kg, IP) and SKF82858 (3 mg/kg, IP). In the Drd1a-tdTomato mice, MP-10 (3 or 10 mg/kg, IP) increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in both types of neurons, the induction was greater in the D1-negative neurons. Taken together, both the regional pattern of c-Fos induction in the striatal sub-regions and the greater induction of c-Fos in the D1-negative neurons indicate that PDE10A inhibition produces a small but significantly greater activation of the D2-containing striatopallidal pathway.

  4. 78 FR 717 - ENE (Environment Northeast); Greater Boston Real Estate Board; National Consumer Law Center...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ENE (Environment Northeast); Greater Boston Real Estate Board; National..., ENE (Environment Northeast), Greater Boston Real Estate Board, National Consumer Law Center,...

  5. Reef sponges of the genus Agelas (Porifera: Demospongiae) from the Greater Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Parra-Velandia, Fernando J; Zea, Sven; Van Soest, Rob W M

    2014-05-07

    The genus Agelas comprises a group of tropical and subtropical reef sponges that contains large, long-lived, often brightly colored and conspicuous species, distributed throughout the tropica l western Atlantic, temperate northern Atlantic (Mediterranean Sea), and western and central Indo-Pacific Realms. Among tropical sponge genera, Agelas is one with similar species richness in the Greater Caribbean in comparison to the Indo Pacific. The presence of verticillated acanthostyle spicules and a fibroreticulate skeleton of spongin fibres cored and/or echinated by spicules characterize this group. Taxonomic identification relies on a combination of characters, where external morphology and color play a key role, owing to the paucity of microscopical characters. Thus, there is still a great deal of taxonomic confusion, even for the more common species. We carried out a detailed revision of Agelas species throughout the Greater Caribbean area using classic taxonomic tools. Samples and observations covered Colombia, Belize, Jamaica, the Bahamas, Barbados, Curaçao and Venezuela, and included type material from major museum collections. According to our results, the genus Agelas in the Caribbean has at least thirteen valid species, viz. Agelas sceptrum (Lamarck, 1815); A. dispar Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864;  A. dilatata Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864; A. clathrodes (Schmidt, 1870);  A. cervicornis (Schmidt, 1870); A. conifera (Schmidt, 1870); A. schmidti Wilson, 1902;   A. tubulata Lehnert & van Soest, 1996; A. wiedenmayeri Alcolado, 1984;  A. citrina Gotera & Alcolado, 1987; A. sventres Lehnert & van Soest, 1996; A. repens Lehnert & van Soest, 1998; and A. cerebrum Assmann et al., 2001. We found that variation of microscopic characteristics like skeleton arrangement, number of verticills and their spines, and spicule length and width, can be used as taxonomic tools, but only in a thorough comparison with other species in the same sub-regional context. Thus, a

  6. Characterization of aerosol composition and sources in the greater Atlanta area by aerosol mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, N. L.; Xu, L.; Suresh, S.; Weber, R. J. J.; Baumann, K.; Edgerton, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    regional nature of aerosols in the Atlanta area. Taken together, results from these extensive field studies provide invaluable insights into the sources and processing of aerosols in the greater Atlanta area. The effects of anthropogenic emissions on biogenic SOA formation at multiple sites in the region and in different seasons will be discussed.

  7. Fibrosis and inflammation are greater in muscles of beta-sarcoglycan-null mouse than mdx mouse.

    PubMed

    Gibertini, Sara; Zanotti, Simona; Savadori, Paolo; Curcio, Maurizio; Saredi, Simona; Salerno, Franco; Andreetta, Francesca; Bernasconi, Pia; Mantegazza, Renato; Mora, Marina

    2014-05-01

    The Sgcb-null mouse, with knocked-down β-sarcoglycan, develops severe muscular dystrophy as in type 2E human limb girdle muscular dystrophy. The mdx mouse, lacking dystrophin, is the most used model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Unlike DMD, the mdx mouse has mild clinical features and shows little fibrosis in limb muscles. To characterize ECM protein deposition and the progression of muscle fibrosis, we evaluated protein and transcript levels of collagens I, III and VI, decorin, and TGF-β1, in quadriceps and diaphragm, at 2, 4, 8, 12, 26, and 52 weeks in Sgcb-null mice, and protein levels at 12, 26, and 52 weeks in mdx mice. In Sgcb-null mice, severe morphological disruption was present from 4 weeks in both quadriceps and diaphragm, and included conspicuous deposition of extracellular matrix components. Histopathological features of Sgcb-null mouse muscles were similar to those of age-matched mdx muscles at all ages examined, but, in the Sgcb-null mouse, the extent of connective tissue deposition was generally greater than mdx. Furthermore, in the Sgcb-null mouse, the amount of all three collagen isoforms increased steadily, while, in the mdx, they remained stable. We also found that, at 12 weeks, macrophages were significantly more numerous in mildly inflamed areas of Sgcb-null quadriceps compared to mdx quadriceps (but not in highly inflamed regions), while, in the diaphragm, macrophages did not differ significantly between the two models, in either region. Osteopontin mRNA was also significantly greater at 12 weeks in laser-dissected highly inflamed areas of the Sgcb-null quadriceps compared to the mdx quadriceps. TGF-β1 was present in areas of degeneration-regeneration, but levels were highly variable and in general did not differ significantly between the two models and controls. The roles of the various subtypes of macrophages in muscle repair and fibrosis in the two models require further study. The Sgcb-null mouse, which develops early fibrosis

  8. Editorial Commentary: Save the Subchondral Bone in Rotator Cuff Repair Greater Tuberosity Preparation.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-04-01

    Results from a recent investigation into the practice of greater tuberosity decortication before rotator cuff repair showed that decortication significantly reduced the ultimate failure load. Although the potential of greater tuberosity treatment for solving the rotator cuff healing quandary still exists, the biomechanics are clear, one should not decorticate the greater tuberosity to cancellous bone. PMID:27039677

  9. Modelling urban δ13C variations in the Greater Toronto Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugliese, S.; Vogel, F. R.; Murphy, J. G.; Worthy, D. E. J.; Zhang, J.; Zheng, Q.; Moran, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Even in urbanized regions, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are derived from a variety of biogenic and anthropogenic sources and are influenced by atmospheric transport across borders. As policies are introduced to reduce the emission of CO2, there is a need for independent verification of emissions reporting. In this work, we aim to use carbon isotope (13CO2 and 12CO2) simulations in combination with atmospheric measurements to distinguish between CO2 sources in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. This is being done by developing an urban δ13C framework based on existing CO2 emission data and forward modelling using a chemistry transport model, CHIMERE. The framework is designed to use region specific δ13C signatures of the dominant CO2 sources together with a CO2 inventory at a fine spatial and temporal resolution; the product is compared against highly accurate 13CO2 and 12CO2 ambient data. The strength of this framework is its potential to estimate both locally produced and regionally transported CO­2. Locally, anthropogenic CO­2 in urban areas is often derived from natural gas combustion (for heating) and gasoline/diesel combustion (for transportation); the isotopic signatures of these processes are significantly different (approximately d13CVPDB = -40 ‰ and -26 ‰ respectively) and can be used to infer their relative contributions. Furthermore, the contribution of transported CO2 can also be estimated as nearby regions often rely on other sources of heating (e.g. coal combustion), which has a very different signature (approximately d13CVPDB = -23 ‰). We present an analysis of the GTA in contrast to Paris, France where atmospheric observations are also available and 13CO2 has been studied. Utilizing our δ13C framework and differences in sectoral isotopic signatures, we quantify the relative contribution of CO2 sources on the overall measured concentration and assess the ability of this framework as a tool for tracing the evolution of sector

  10. The impact of SST biases on projections of anthropogenic climate change: A greater role for atmosphere-only models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jie; Soden, Brian J.

    2016-07-01

    There is large uncertainty in the model simulation of regional climate change from anthropogenic forcing. Recent studies have tried to link such uncertainty to intermodel differences in the pattern of sea surface temperature (SST) change. On the other hand, coupled climate models also contain systematic biases in their climatology, largely due to drift in SSTs. To the extent that the projected changes depend on the mean state, biases in the present-day climatology also contribute to the intermodel spread in climate change projections. By comparing atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations using the climatological SSTs from different coupled models, we show that biases in the climatological SST generally have a larger impact on regional projections over land than do intermodel differences in the pattern of SST change. These results advocate for a greater application of AGCM simulations with observed SSTs or flux-adjusted coupled models to improve regional projections of anthropogenic climate change.

  11. Greater self-enhancement in Western than Eastern Ukraine, but failure to replicate the Muhammad Ali effect.

    PubMed

    Kemmelmeier, Markus; Malanchuk, Oksana

    2016-02-01

    Based on the cross-cultural research linking individualism-collectivism and self-enhancement, this research examines regional pattern of self-enhancement in Ukraine. Broadly speaking, the western part of Ukraine is mainly Ukrainian speaking and historically oriented towards Europe, whereas Eastern Ukraine is mainly Russian speaking and historically oriented towards the Russian cultural sphere. We found self-enhancement on a "better than average" task to be higher in a Western Ukrainian sample compared to an Eastern Ukrainian sample, with differences in independent self-construals supporting assumed regional variation in individualism. However, the Muhammad Ali effect, the finding that self-enhancement is greater in the domain of morality than intelligence, was not replicated. The discussion focuses on the specific sources of this regional difference in self-enhancement, and reasons for why the Muhammad Ali effect was not found. PMID:25684090

  12. Greater self-enhancement in Western than Eastern Ukraine, but failure to replicate the Muhammad Ali effect.

    PubMed

    Kemmelmeier, Markus; Malanchuk, Oksana

    2016-02-01

    Based on the cross-cultural research linking individualism-collectivism and self-enhancement, this research examines regional pattern of self-enhancement in Ukraine. Broadly speaking, the western part of Ukraine is mainly Ukrainian speaking and historically oriented towards Europe, whereas Eastern Ukraine is mainly Russian speaking and historically oriented towards the Russian cultural sphere. We found self-enhancement on a "better than average" task to be higher in a Western Ukrainian sample compared to an Eastern Ukrainian sample, with differences in independent self-construals supporting assumed regional variation in individualism. However, the Muhammad Ali effect, the finding that self-enhancement is greater in the domain of morality than intelligence, was not replicated. The discussion focuses on the specific sources of this regional difference in self-enhancement, and reasons for why the Muhammad Ali effect was not found.

  13. An alternative clinical approach to achieve greater anterior than posterior maxillary expansion in cleft lip and palate patients.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Dauro Douglas; Bartolomeo, Flávia Uchôa Costa; Cardinal, Lucas; Figueiredo, Daniel Santos Fonseca; Palomo, Juan Martin; Andrade, Ildeu

    2014-11-01

    Cleft lip and palate patients commonly present maxillary constriction, particularly in the anterior region. The aim of this case report was to describe an alternative clinical approach that used a smaller Hyrax screw unconventionally positioned to achieve greater anterior than posterior expansion in patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate. The idea presented here is to take advantage of a reduced dimension screw to position it anteriorly. When only anterior expansion was needed (patient 1), the appliance was soldered to the first premolar bands and associated to a transpalatal arch cemented to the first molars. However, when overall expansion was required (patient 2), the screw was positioned anteriorly, but soldered to the first molar bands. Intercanine, premolar, and first molar widths were measured on dental casts with a digital caliper. Pre-expansion and postexpansion radiographs and tomographies were also evaluated. A significant anterior expansion and no intermolar width increase were registered in the first patient. Although patient 2 also presented a greater anterior than posterior expansion, a noteworthy expansion occurred at the molar region. The alternative approach to expand the maxilla in cleft patients reported here caused greater anterior than posterior expansion when the Mini-Hyrax was associated to a transpalatal arch, and its reduced dimension also minimized discomfort and facilitated hygiene.

  14. Wildfire and forest disease interaction lead to greater loss of soil nutrients and carbon.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Richard C; Meentemeyer, Ross K; Rizzo, David M

    2016-09-01

    Fire and forest disease have significant ecological impacts, but the interactions of these two disturbances are rarely studied. We measured soil C, N, Ca, P, and pH in forests of the Big Sur region of California impacted by the exotic pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, cause of sudden oak death, and the 2008 Basin wildfire complex. In Big Sur, overstory tree mortality following P. ramorum invasion has been extensive in redwood and mixed evergreen forests, where the pathogen kills true oaks and tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus). Sampling was conducted across a full-factorial combination of disease/no disease and burned/unburned conditions in both forest types. Forest floor organic matter and associated nutrients were greater in unburned redwood compared to unburned mixed evergreen forests. Post-fire element pools were similar between forest types, but lower in burned-invaded compared to burned-uninvaded plots. We found evidence disease-generated fuels led to increased loss of forest floor C, N, Ca, and P. The same effects were associated with lower %C and higher PO4-P in the mineral soil. Fire-disease interactions were linear functions of pre-fire host mortality which was similar between the forest types. Our analysis suggests that these effects increased forest floor C loss by as much as 24.4 and 21.3 % in redwood and mixed evergreen forests, respectively, with similar maximum losses for the other forest floor elements. Accumulation of sudden oak death generated fuels has potential to increase fire-related loss of soil nutrients at the region-scale of this disease and similar patterns are likely in other forests, where fire and disease overlap.

  15. Status and conservation of parrots and parakeets in the Greater Antilles, Bahama Islands, and Cayman Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    In the 1490s a minimum of 28 species of psittacines occurred in the West Indies. Today, only 43% (12) of the species survive. All macaws and most parakeet species have been lost. Although the surviving parrot fauna of the Greater Antilles, Cayman Islands, and Bahama Islands has fared somewhat better than that of the Lesser Antilles, every species has undergone extensive reductions of populations and all but two have undergone extensive reductions in range, mostly as a result of habitat loss, but also from persecution as agricultural pests, conflicts with exotic species, harvesting for pets, and natural disasters. The Cayman Brac Parrot Amazona leucocephala hesterna with its tiny population (less than 150 individuals in the wild) and range, and the Puerto Rican Parrot A. vittata, with about 22-23 birds in the wild and 56 individuals in captivity, must be considered on the verge of extinction and in need of (in the latter's case, continuing) aggressive programmes of research and management. Other populations declining in numbers and range include the Yellow-billed Amazona collaria, and Black-billed A. agilis Parrots of Jamaica, Hispaniolan Parakeet Aratinga chloroptera, Hispaniolan Parrot Amazona ventralis, Cuban Parrot A. leucocephala leucocephala and, most seriously, Cuban Parakeet Aratinga euops. The population of the Grand Cayman Parrot (Amazona leucocephala caymanensis), although numbering only about 1,000 birds, appears stable and the current conservation programme gives hope for the survival of the race. An active conservation and public education programme has begun for the Bahama Parrot A. l. bahamensis, which still occurs in good numbers on Great Inagua Island, but is threatened on Abaco Island. Recommendations for conservation of parrots and parakeets in the region include (1) instituting long-term programmes of research to determine distribution, status, and ecology of each species; (2) developing conservation programmes through education and management

  16. Batroxobin binds fibrin with higher affinity and promotes clot expansion to a greater extent than thrombin.

    PubMed

    Vu, Trang T; Stafford, Alan R; Leslie, Beverly A; Kim, Paul Y; Fredenburgh, James C; Weitz, Jeffrey I

    2013-06-01

    Batroxobin is a thrombin-like serine protease from the venom of Bothrops atrox moojeni that clots fibrinogen. In contrast to thrombin, which releases fibrinopeptide A and B from the NH2-terminal domains of the Aα- and Bβ-chains of fibrinogen, respectively, batroxobin only releases fibrinopeptide A. Because the mechanism responsible for these differences is unknown, we compared the interactions of batroxobin and thrombin with the predominant γA/γA isoform of fibrin(ogen) and the γA/γ' variant with an extended γ-chain. Thrombin binds to the γ'-chain and forms a higher affinity interaction with γA/γ'-fibrin(ogen) than γA/γA-fibrin(ogen). In contrast, batroxobin binds both fibrin(ogen) isoforms with similar high affinity (Kd values of about 0.5 μM) even though it does not interact with the γ'-chain. The batroxobin-binding sites on fibrin(ogen) only partially overlap with those of thrombin because thrombin attenuates, but does not abrogate, the interaction of γA/γA-fibrinogen with batroxobin. Furthermore, although both thrombin and batroxobin bind to the central E-region of fibrinogen with a Kd value of 2-5 μM, the α(17-51) and Bβ(1-42) regions bind thrombin but not batroxobin. Once bound to fibrin, the capacity of batroxobin to promote fibrin accretion is 18-fold greater than that of thrombin, a finding that may explain the microvascular thrombosis that complicates envenomation by B. atrox moojeni. Therefore, batroxobin binds fibrin(ogen) in a manner distinct from thrombin, which may contribute to its higher affinity interaction, selective fibrinopeptide A release, and prothrombotic properties. PMID:23612970

  17. P wave crustal velocity structure in the greater Mount Rainier area from local earthquake tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, S.C.; Lees, J.M.; Malone, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    We present results from a local earthquake tomographic imaging experiment in the greater Mount Rainier area. We inverted P wave arrival times from local earthquakes recorded at permanent and temporary Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network seismographs between 1980 and 1996. We used a method similar to that described by Lees and Crosson [1989], modified to incorporate the parameter separation method for decoupling the hypocenter and velocity problems. In the upper 7 km of the resulting model there is good correlation between velocity anomalies and surface geology. Many focal mechanisms within the St. Helens seismic zone have nodal planes parallel to the epicentral trend as well as to a north-south trending low-velocity trough, leading us to speculate that the trough represents a zone of structural weakness in which a moderate (M 6.5-7.0) earthquake could occur. In contrast, the western Rainier seismic zone does not correlate in any simple way with anomaly patterns or focal mechanism fault planes, leading us to infer that it is less likely to experience a moderate earthquake. A ???10 km-wide low-velocity anomaly occurs 5 to 18 km beneath the summit of Mount Rainier, which we interpret to be a signal of a region composed of hot, fractured rock with possible small amounts of melt or fluid. No systematic velocity pattern is observed in association with the southern Washington Cascades conductor. A midcrustal anomaly parallels the Olympic-Wallowa lineament as well as several other geophysical trends, indicating that it may play an important role in regional tectonics. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Greater sage-grouse winter habitat use on the eastern edge of their range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Christopher C.; Rumble, Mark A.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Kaczor, Nicholas W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Herman-Brunson, Katie M.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Jensen, Kent C.

    2013-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) at the western edge of the Dakotas occur in the transition zone between sagebrush and grassland communities. These mixed sagebrush (Artemisia sp.) and grasslands differ from those habitats that comprise the central portions of the sage-grouse range; yet, no information is available on winter habitat selection within this region of their distribution. We evaluated factors influencing greater sage-grouse winter habitat use in North Dakota during 2005–2006 and 2006–2007 and in South Dakota during 2006–2007 and 2007–2008. We captured and radio-marked 97 breeding-age females and 54 breeding-age males from 2005 to 2007 and quantified habitat selection for 98 of these birds that were alive during winter. We collected habitat measurements at 340 (177 ND, 163 SD) sage-grouse use sites and 680 random (340 each at 250 m and 500 m from locations) dependent sites. Use sites differed from random sites with greater percent sagebrush cover (14.75% use vs. 7.29% random; P 2 use vs. 0.94 plants/m2 random; P ≤ 0.001), but lesser percent grass cover (11.76% use vs. 16.01% random; P ≤ 0.001) and litter cover (4.34% use vs. 5.55% random; P = 0.001) and lower sagebrush height (20.02 cm use vs. 21.35 cm random; P = 0.13) and grass height (21.47 cm use vs. 23.21 cm random; P = 0.15). We used conditional logistic regression to estimate winter habitat selection by sage-grouse on continuous scales. The model sagebrush cover + sagebrush height + sagebrush cover × sagebrush height (wi = 0.60) was the most supported of the 13 models we considered, indicating that percent sagebrush cover strongly influenced selection. Logistic odds ratios indicated that the probability of selection by sage-grouse increased by 1.867 for every 1% increase in sagebrush cover (95% CI = 1.627–2.141) and by 1.041 for every 1 cm increase in sagebrush height (95% CI = 1.002–1.082). The

  19. Isotope and chemical age of the Greater Caucasus basement metamorphic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konilov, A. N.; Somin, M. L.; Mukhanova, A. A.

    2009-04-01

    complexes independently of baric type seem to be formed roughly synchronously during Variscan epoch. References: Gamkrelidze I.P., Shengelia D.M. ( 2005).The Precambrian-Paleozoic Regional Metamorphism, Granitoid Magmatism, and Geodynamics of the Caucasus. M: Nauchnyi Mir [in Russian]. Pyle J.M., Frank S. Spear F.S. et al. (2001). Monazite-Xenotime-Garnet Equilibrium in Metapelites and a New Monazite-Garnet Thermometer. Journal of Petrology, , 42, 2083-2107. Slagstad T. (2006).Chemical (U-Th-Pb) dating of monazite: Analytical protocol for a LEO 1450VP scanning electron microscope and examples from Rogaland and Finnmark, Norway. Norges geologiske undersøkelse Bulletin, 446, 11-18. Somin M.L. (2007a). Pre-Alpine basement of the Greater Caucasus: main features. In: Alpine history of the Greater Caucasus (Yu.G. Leonovб Ed.). GEOS. Moscow. P.15-38. Somin M.L., Lepekhina E.N., Konilov A.N. ( 2007b). Age of the High-Temperature Gneiss Core of the Central Caucasus. Doklady Earth Sciences, 415, 690-694. Somin M.L., Levchenkov O.A., Kotov A.B. et al. (2007c). The Paleozoic Age of High-Pressure Metamorphic Rocks in the Dakhov Salient, North-Western Caucasus: Results of U-Pb Geochronological Investigations. Doklady Earth Sciences, 416, 1018-1021. Suzuki K., Adachi M. (1991). Precambrian provenance and Silurian metamorphism of the Tsunosava paragneiss in South Kitakami terrane, northeast Japan, revealed by the chemical Th-U-total Pb isochron ages of monazite, zircon and xenotime. Journal of Geochemistry, 25, 357-376.

  20. Characterization of Greater Middle Eastern genetic variation for enhanced disease gene discovery.

    PubMed

    Scott, Eric M; Halees, Anason; Itan, Yuval; Spencer, Emily G; He, Yupeng; Azab, Mostafa Abdellateef; Gabriel, Stacey B; Belkadi, Aziz; Boisson, Bertrand; Abel, Laurent; Clark, Andrew G; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Gleeson, Joseph G

    2016-09-01

    The Greater Middle East (GME) has been a central hub of human migration and population admixture. The tradition of consanguinity, variably practiced in the Persian Gulf region, North Africa, and Central Asia, has resulted in an elevated burden of recessive disease. Here we generated a whole-exome GME variome from 1,111 unrelated subjects. We detected substantial diversity and admixture in continental and subregional populations, corresponding to several ancient founder populations with little evidence of bottlenecks. Measured consanguinity rates were an order of magnitude above those in other sampled populations, and the GME population exhibited an increased burden of runs of homozygosity (ROHs) but showed no evidence for reduced burden of deleterious variation due to classically theorized 'genetic purging'. Applying this database to unsolved recessive conditions in the GME population reduced the number of potential disease-causing variants by four- to sevenfold. These results show variegated genetic architecture in GME populations and support future human genetic discoveries in Mendelian and population genetics. PMID:27428751

  1. Air quality and climate impacts of alternative bus technologies in Greater London.

    PubMed

    Chong, Uven; Yim, Steve H L; Barrett, Steven R H; Boies, Adam M

    2014-04-15

    The environmental impact of diesel-fueled buses can potentially be reduced by the adoption of alternative propulsion technologies such as lean-burn compressed natural gas (LB-CNG) or hybrid electric buses (HEB), and emissions control strategies such as a continuously regenerating trap (CRT), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), or selective catalytic reduction with trap (SCRT). This study assessed the environmental costs and benefits of these bus technologies in Greater London relative to the existing fleet and characterized emissions changes due to alternative technologies. We found a >30% increase in CO2 equivalent (CO2e) emissions for CNG buses, a <5% change for exhaust treatment scenarios, and a 13% (90% confidence interval 3.8-20.9%) reduction for HEB relative to baseline CO2e emissions. A multiscale regional chemistry-transport model quantified the impact of alternative bus technologies on air quality, which was then related to premature mortality risk. We found the largest decrease in population exposure (about 83%) to particulate matter (PM2.5) occurred with LB-CNG buses. Monetized environmental and investment costs relative to the baseline gave estimated net present cost of LB-CNG or HEB conversion to be $187 million ($73 million to $301 million) or $36 million ($-25 million to $102 million), respectively, while EGR or SCRT estimated net present costs were $19 million ($7 million to $32 million) or $15 million ($8 million to $23 million), respectively.

  2. Eocene climates, depositional environments, and geography, greater Green River basin, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Roehler, H.W.

    1993-12-31

    The climates, depositional environments, and geography of Eocene rocks in the greater Green River basin are investigated to determine the origin, mode of deposition, and areal distribution of the Wasatch, Green River, Bridger, and Washakie Formations. The data indicate that Eocene climates ranged from cool temperature to tropical and were affected by both terrestrial and astronomical factors. The terrestrial factors were mainly latitude, altitude, regional geography, tectonism, and volcanism. The astronomical factors are interpreted from reptitious rock sequences in the Wilkins Peak Member of the Green River Formation that record seasonal changes, 21,000 year precession of the equinox cycles, 100,000 year eccentricity cycles, and an undetermined cycle of 727,000 years. Eight depositional environments are identified, discussed, and illustrated by diagrams, columnar sections, and photographs. They are: (1) fluvial, (2) paludal, (3) freshwater lacustrine, (4) saltwater lacustrine, (5) pond and playa lake, (6) evaporite (salt pan), (7) mudflat, and (8) volcanic and fluviovolcanic. The areal distribution of the eight depositional environments in the Wasatch, Green River, Bridger, and Washakie Formations is illustrated by photographs and 13 paleogeographic maps. 76 refs., 90 figs.

  3. The hydrological model of the Mahanagdong sector, Greater Tongonan Geothermal Field, Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Herras, E.B.; Licup, A.C. Jr.; Vicedo, R.O.

    1996-12-31

    The Mahanagdong sector of the Greater Tongonan Geothermal Field is committed to supply 180 MWe of steam by mid-1997. An updated hydrological model was constructed based on available geoscientific and reservoir engineering data from a total of 34 wells drilled in the area. The Mahanagdong; resource is derived from a fracture-controlled and volcano hosted geothermal system characterized by neutral to slightly alkali-chloride fluids with reservoir temperatures exceeding 295{degrees}C. A major upflow region was identified in the vicinity of MG-3D, MG-14D and MG-5D. Isochemical contours indicate outflowing fluids with temperatures of 270-275{degrees}C to the south and west. Its southwesterly flow is restricted by the intersection of the impermeable Mahanagdong Claystone near MG-10D, which delimits the southern part of the resource. Low temperature (<200{degrees}C), shallow inflows are evident at the west near MG-4D and MG-17D wells which act as a cold recharge in this sector.

  4. Greater diversity of hepatitis C virus genotypes found in Hong Kong than in mainland China.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y Y; Lok, A S; Chan, D T; Widell, A

    1995-01-01

    A hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotyping PCR assay based on type-specific primers was expanded to include genotype 6a as well as genotypes 1a, 1b, 2a, and 3a. The nucleotide sequences of a 194-bp fragment in the center of the HCV core gene showed that the homologies between genotype 6a and genotypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, and 5 were 81.2, 82.1, 73.8, 77.3, 81.4, and 78.9%, respectively. A high degree of homology (99.6%) was seen in the amplified core region among eight clinically unrelated genotype 6a isolates. Although the Hong Kong Chinese patients had predominantly genotype 1b (70%), it was noteworthy that genotype 6a was the second most common genotype (14%). Four other HCV genotypes--1a, 1b, 2a, and 2b--were also present. In contrast, HCV infection by mainland China was confined to genotypes 1b and 2a. Thus, we found a greater diversity of HCV genotypes in Hong Kong than in mainland China. PMID:8576348

  5. Mapping of tectonic corridors through hidden parts of the Greater Dharwar Terrane, Southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raval, U.; Veeraswamy, K.

    2011-11-01

    The Dharwar craton (India) has been divided into western and eastern domains by a tectonic boundary between the Closepet granite and Chitradurga schist belt. It has been noted that only the central portion of the Dharwar craton is exposed; its northern projection is buried beneath the Deccan traps and its southern margin merges with a high grade metamorphic transition of late Archean age. Resolution of structure and extent of the Greater Dharwar Terrane (GDT) beneath its northern and southern end, the Deccan traps, metamorphic transition zone, and Cuddapah basin thus remains unsolved. Results of deep geophysical probings have been examined along with associated geological and tectonic data. The analysis leads to: (a) delineation of palaeo-accretionary corridors extending under the Deccan trap cover, along which, two damaging stable continental region earthquakes (Koyna and Latur) occurred ( Veeraswamy and Raval, 2005), (b) it is seen that the Latur earthquake seem to lies within an unsuspected tectonic corridor which bifurcates the eastern Dharwar craton (EDC) into eastern Dharwar craton-1 and eastern Dharwar craton-2 passing through the Cuddapah basin, (c) possibility of the Palghat-Cauvery shear zone connecting to the 2.5 Ga metamorphic Karimnagar granulite belt through the interface between Napier (NC) and Rayner (RC) complexes of East Antarctica, and (d) the indication that the Bavali-Moyar, Bhavani-Mettur and Palghat-Cauvery shear zones form the southern margins of the western Dharwar craton, eastern Dharwar craton-1 and eastern Dharwar craton-2 respectively.

  6. Airborne Bacterial Diversity from the Low Atmosphere of Greater Mexico City.

    PubMed

    García-Mena, Jaime; Murugesan, Selvasankar; Pérez-Muñoz, Ashael Alfredo; García-Espitia, Matilde; Maya, Otoniel; Jacinto-Montiel, Monserrat; Monsalvo-Ponce, Giselle; Piña-Escobedo, Alberto; Domínguez-Malfavón, Lilianha; Gómez-Ramírez, Marlenne; Cervantes-González, Elsa; Núñez-Cardona, María Teresa

    2016-07-01

    Greater Mexico City is one of the largest urban centers in the world, with an estimated population by 2010 of more than 20 million inhabitants. In urban areas like this, biological material is present at all atmospheric levels including live bacteria. We sampled the low atmosphere in several surveys at different points by the gravity method on LB and blood agar media during winter, spring, summer, and autumn seasons in the years 2008, 2010, 2011, and 2012. The colonial phenotype on blood agar showed α, β, and γ hemolytic activities among the live collected bacteria. Genomic DNA was extracted and convenient V3 hypervariable region libraries of 16S rDNA gene were high-throughput sequenced. From the data analysis, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the more abundant phyla in all surveys, while the genera from the family Enterobacteriaceae, in addition to Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., Erwinia spp., Gluconacetobacter spp., Proteus spp., Exiguobacterium spp., and Staphylococcus spp. were also abundant. From this study, we conclude that it is possible to detect live airborne nonspore-forming bacteria in the low atmosphere of GMC, associated to the microbial cloud of its inhabitants.

  7. Local Extinction in the Bird Assemblage in the Greater Beijing Area from 1877 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Chouteau, Philippe; Jiang, Zhigang; Bravery, Benjamin D.; Cai, Jing; Li, Zhongqiu; Pedrono, Miguel; Pays, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Recent growth in industrialization and the modernization of agricultural activities, combined with human population growth, has greatly modified China’s natural environment, particularly in the vicinity of large cities. We compared avifauna checklists made between 1877 and 1938 with current checklists to determine the extent of local bird extinctions during the last century in the greater Beijing area. Our study shows that of the 411 bird species recorded from 1877–1938, 45 (10.9%) were no longer recorded from 2004–2006. Birds recorded as ‘rare’ in 1938 were more likely to have disappeared in subsequent years. Migrant status also influenced the probability of local bird extinction with winter migrants being the most affected class. Moreover, larger birds were more likely to have disappeared than smaller ones, potentially explained by differential ecological requirements and anthropogenic exploitation. Although our habitat descriptions and diet classification were not predictors of local bird extinction, the ecological processes driving local bird extinction are discussed in the light of historical changes that have impacted this region since the end of the 1930 s. Our results are of importance to the broader conservation of bird wildlife. PMID:22768146

  8. Science in the Public Sphere: Greater Sage-grouse Conservation Planning from a Transdisciplinary Perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torregrosa, Alicia; Casazza, Michael L.; Caldwell, Margaret R.; Mathiasmeier, Teresa A.; Morgan, Peter M.; Overton, Cory T.

    2010-01-01

    Integration of scientific data and adaptive management techniques is critical to the success of species conservation, however, there are uncertainties about effective methods of knowledge exchange between scientists and decisionmakers. The conservation planning and implementation process for Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; ) in the Mono Basin, Calif. region, was used as a case study to observe the exchange of scientific information among stakeholders with differing perspectives; resource manager, scientist, public official, rancher, and others. The collaborative development of a risk-simulation model was explored as a tool to transfer knowledge between stakeholders and inform conservation planning and management decisions. Observations compiled using a transdisciplinary approach were used to compare the exchange of information during the collaborative model development and more traditional interactions such as scientist-led presentations at stakeholder meetings. Lack of congruence around knowledge needs and prioritization led to insufficient commitment to completely implement the risk-simulation model. Ethnographic analysis of the case study suggests that further application of epistemic community theory, which posits a strong boundary condition on knowledge transfer, could help support application of risk simulation models in conservation-planning efforts within similarly complex social and bureaucratic landscapes.

  9. Local extinction in the bird assemblage in the greater Beijing area from 1877 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Chouteau, Philippe; Jiang, Zhigang; Bravery, Benjamin D; Cai, Jing; Li, Zhongqiu; Pedrono, Miguel; Pays, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Recent growth in industrialization and the modernization of agricultural activities, combined with human population growth, has greatly modified China's natural environment, particularly in the vicinity of large cities. We compared avifauna checklists made between 1877 and 1938 with current checklists to determine the extent of local bird extinctions during the last century in the greater Beijing area. Our study shows that of the 411 bird species recorded from 1877-1938, 45 (10.9%) were no longer recorded from 2004-2006. Birds recorded as 'rare' in 1938 were more likely to have disappeared in subsequent years. Migrant status also influenced the probability of local bird extinction with winter migrants being the most affected class. Moreover, larger birds were more likely to have disappeared than smaller ones, potentially explained by differential ecological requirements and anthropogenic exploitation. Although our habitat descriptions and diet classification were not predictors of local bird extinction, the ecological processes driving local bird extinction are discussed in the light of historical changes that have impacted this region since the end of the 1930 s. Our results are of importance to the broader conservation of bird wildlife. PMID:22768146

  10. Phenotypic flexibility in the energetic strategy of the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Flávio G; Tapisso, Joaquim T; Monarca, Rita I; Cerveira, Ana M; Mathias, Maria L

    2016-02-01

    The balance between energetic acquisition and expenditure depends on the amount of energy allocated to biological functions such as thermoregulation, growth, reproduction and behavior. Ambient temperature has a profound effect on this balance, with species inhabiting colder climates often needing to invest more energy in thermoregulation to maintain body temperature. This leads to local behavioral and physiological adaptations that increase energetic efficiency. In this study, we investigated the role of activity, behavior and thermogenic capacity in the ability of the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, to cope with seasonal changes. Individuals were captured in the Sintra-Cascais Natural Park, a Mediterranean region, and separated into three experimental groups: a control group, acclimated to a 12L:12D photoperiod and temperature of 18-20°C; a winter group, acclimatized to natural winter fluctuations of light and temperature; and a summer group, acclimatized to natural summer fluctuations of light and temperature. No differences were found in resting metabolic rate and nonshivering thermogenesis between the three groups. However, winter shrews significantly reduced their activity, particularly at night, compared to the control and summer groups. Differences in torpor use were also found between groups, with winter shrews entering torpor more frequently and during shorter periods of time than summer and control shrews. Our results indicate C. russula from Sintra relies on the flexibility of energy saving mechanisms, namely daily activity level and torpor use, to cope with seasonal changes in a Mediterranean climate, rather than mechanisms involving body heat production. PMID:26857972

  11. Airborne Bacterial Diversity from the Low Atmosphere of Greater Mexico City.

    PubMed

    García-Mena, Jaime; Murugesan, Selvasankar; Pérez-Muñoz, Ashael Alfredo; García-Espitia, Matilde; Maya, Otoniel; Jacinto-Montiel, Monserrat; Monsalvo-Ponce, Giselle; Piña-Escobedo, Alberto; Domínguez-Malfavón, Lilianha; Gómez-Ramírez, Marlenne; Cervantes-González, Elsa; Núñez-Cardona, María Teresa

    2016-07-01

    Greater Mexico City is one of the largest urban centers in the world, with an estimated population by 2010 of more than 20 million inhabitants. In urban areas like this, biological material is present at all atmospheric levels including live bacteria. We sampled the low atmosphere in several surveys at different points by the gravity method on LB and blood agar media during winter, spring, summer, and autumn seasons in the years 2008, 2010, 2011, and 2012. The colonial phenotype on blood agar showed α, β, and γ hemolytic activities among the live collected bacteria. Genomic DNA was extracted and convenient V3 hypervariable region libraries of 16S rDNA gene were high-throughput sequenced. From the data analysis, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the more abundant phyla in all surveys, while the genera from the family Enterobacteriaceae, in addition to Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., Erwinia spp., Gluconacetobacter spp., Proteus spp., Exiguobacterium spp., and Staphylococcus spp. were also abundant. From this study, we conclude that it is possible to detect live airborne nonspore-forming bacteria in the low atmosphere of GMC, associated to the microbial cloud of its inhabitants. PMID:26944561

  12. Sex-biased gene flow among elk in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    , Brian K. Hand; , Shanyuan Chen; , N. Anderson; , A. Beja-Pereira; Cross, Paul C.; , M. Ebinger; , H. Edwards; , R.A. Garrott; , M.D. Kardos; Kauffman, Matthew J.; , E.L. Landguth; , A. Middleton; , B. Scurlock; , P.J. White; , P. Zager; , M.K. Schwartz; , G. Luikart

    2014-01-01

    We quantified patterns of population genetic structure to help understand gene flow among elk populations across the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We sequenced 596 base pairs of the mitochondrial control region of 380 elk from eight populations. Analysis revealed high mitochondrial DNA variation within populations, averaging 13.0 haplotypes with high mean gene diversity (0.85). The genetic differentiation among populations for mitochondrial DNA was relatively high (FST = 0.161; P = 0.001) compared to genetic differentiation for nuclear microsatellite data (FST = 0.002; P = 0.332), which suggested relatively low female gene flow among populations. The estimated ratio of male to female gene flow (mm/mf = 46) was among the highest we have seen reported for large mammals. Genetic distance (for mitochondrial DNA pairwise FST) was not significantly correlated with geographic (Euclidean) distance between populations (Mantel’s r = 0.274, P = 0.168). Large mitochondrial DNA genetic distances (e.g., FST > 0.2) between some of the geographically closest populations (<65 km) suggested behavioral factors and/or landscape features might shape female gene flow patterns. Given the strong sex-biased gene flow, future research and conservation efforts should consider the sexes separately when modeling corridors of gene flow or predicting spread of maternally transmitted diseases. The growing availability of genetic data to compare male vs. female gene flow provides many exciting opportunities to explore the magnitude, causes, and implications of sex-biased gene flow likely to occur in many species

  13. Greater hippocampal neuronal recruitment in food-storing than in non-food-storing birds.

    PubMed

    Hoshooley, Jennifer S; Sherry, David F

    2007-03-01

    Previous research has shown heightened recruitment of new neurons to the chickadee hippocampus in the fall. The present study was conducted to determine whether heightened fall recruitment is associated with the seasonal onset of food-storing by comparing neurogenesis in chickadees and a non-food-storing species, the house sparrow. Chickadees and house sparrows were captured in the wild in fall and spring and received multiple injections of the cell birth marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Birds were held in captivity and the level of hippocampal neuron recruitment was assessed after 6 weeks. Chickadees showed significantly more hippocampal neuronal recruitment than house sparrows. We found no seasonal differences in hippocampal neuronal recruitment in either species. In chickadees and in house sparrows, one-third of new cells labeled for BrdU also expressed the mature neuronal protein, NeuN. In a region adjacent to the hippocampus, the hyperpallium apicale, we observed no significant differences in neuronal recruitment between species or between seasons. Hippocampal volume and total neuron number both were greater in spring than in fall in chickadees, but no seasonal differences were observed in house sparrows. Enhanced neuronal recruitment in the hippocampus of food-storing chickadees suggests a degree of neurogenic specialization that may be associated with the spatial memory requirements of food-storing behavior.

  14. Phylogenetic correlates of extinction risk in mammals: species in older lineages are not at greater risk.

    PubMed

    Verde Arregoitia, Luis Darcy; Blomberg, Simon P; Fisher, Diana O

    2013-08-22

    Phylogenetic information is becoming a recognized basis for evaluating conservation priorities, but associations between extinction risk and properties of a phylogeny such as diversification rates and phylogenetic lineage ages remain unclear. Limited taxon-specific analyses suggest that species in older lineages are at greater risk. We calculate quantitative properties of the mammalian phylogeny and model extinction risk as an ordinal index based on International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List categories. We test for associations between lineage age, clade size, evolutionary distinctiveness and extinction risk for 3308 species of terrestrial mammals. We show no significant global or regional associations, and three significant relationships within taxonomic groups. Extinction risk increases for evolutionarily distinctive primates and decreases with lineage age when lemurs are excluded. Lagomorph species (rabbits, hares and pikas) that have more close relatives are less threatened. We examine the relationship between net diversification rates and extinction risk for 173 genera and find no pattern. We conclude that despite being under-represented in the frequency distribution of lineage ages, species in older, slower evolving and distinct lineages are not more threatened or extinction-prone. Their extinction, however, would represent a disproportionate loss of unique evolutionary history.

  15. Characterization of Greater Middle Eastern genetic variation for enhanced disease gene discovery.

    PubMed

    Scott, Eric M; Halees, Anason; Itan, Yuval; Spencer, Emily G; He, Yupeng; Azab, Mostafa Abdellateef; Gabriel, Stacey B; Belkadi, Aziz; Boisson, Bertrand; Abel, Laurent; Clark, Andrew G; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Gleeson, Joseph G

    2016-09-01

    The Greater Middle East (GME) has been a central hub of human migration and population admixture. The tradition of consanguinity, variably practiced in the Persian Gulf region, North Africa, and Central Asia, has resulted in an elevated burden of recessive disease. Here we generated a whole-exome GME variome from 1,111 unrelated subjects. We detected substantial diversity and admixture in continental and subregional populations, corresponding to several ancient founder populations with little evidence of bottlenecks. Measured consanguinity rates were an order of magnitude above those in other sampled populations, and the GME population exhibited an increased burden of runs of homozygosity (ROHs) but showed no evidence for reduced burden of deleterious variation due to classically theorized 'genetic purging'. Applying this database to unsolved recessive conditions in the GME population reduced the number of potential disease-causing variants by four- to sevenfold. These results show variegated genetic architecture in GME populations and support future human genetic discoveries in Mendelian and population genetics.

  16. Off-line consolidation of motor sequence learning results in greater integration within a cortico-striatal functional network.

    PubMed

    Debas, Karen; Carrier, Julie; Barakat, Marc; Marrelec, Guillaume; Bellec, Pierre; Hadj Tahar, Abdallah; Karni, Avi; Ungerleider, Leslie G; Benali, Habib; Doyon, Julien

    2014-10-01

    The consolidation of motor sequence learning is known to depend on sleep. Work in our laboratory and others have shown that the striatum is associated with this off-line consolidation process. In this study, we aimed to quantify the sleep-dependent dynamic changes occurring at the network level using a measure of functional integration. We directly compared changes in connectivity before and after sleep or the simple passage of daytime. As predicted, the results revealed greater integration within the cortico-striatal network after sleep, but not an equivalent daytime period. Importantly, a similar pattern of results was also observed using a data-driven approach; the increase in integration being specific to a cortico-striatal network, but not to other known functional networks. These findings reveal, for the first time, a new signature of motor sequence consolidation: a greater between-regions interaction within the cortico-striatal system.

  17. Multi-scale climate change modeling study over the Greater Horn of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Jared Heath

    There has been limited regional climate modeling (RCM) studies of climate change over the Greater Horn of Africa because of challenges in evaluating model performance with a limited observational network. The ultimate goal of this study was to provide a RCM climate change projection for the GHA. RCM climate change projections are particularly important for the GHA because the surface boundary forcing varies on horizontal scales not resolved by the IPCC General Circulation Models (GCMs) used for current regional climate change assessment. This study adopted several steps to provide optimal RCM projections and understand the uncertainty and added value of the RCM projections. These steps include the following: (1) model customization; (2) multi-year continuous RCM simulation with Reanalysis ICBCs and a single GCM; (3) GCM mean error; (4) A2 GCM projections; (5) A2 RCM projections; (6) modified ICBC approach. The RCM was customized with particular interest in precipitation processes. The customization found that the convective scheme of MIT-Emanuel in conjunction with reducing the relative humidity for threshold for cloud formation provided the most realistic simulation in terms of spatial distribution, convective partition, rainfall totals and temperature bias when compared with observations. The above RCM customization run for multiple years illustrated the RCM has more value for temperature than precipitation. The RCM was able to capture the inter-annual temperature variability, but the positive precipitation bias limited the models ability for inter-annual precipitation variability. However, the RCM was able to capture lower frequency modes of variability for precipitation. Comparison of multi-year RCM simulations using the GCM and Reanalysis lateral boundary forcing implied that the lateral boundary forcing is more important to the RCM solution than errors internal to the RCM. Comparison of the GCMs mean errors illustrated that the mean average performance

  18. Physical Activity Is Linked to Greater Moment-To-Moment Variability in Spontaneous Brain Activity in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Voss, Michelle W; Cooke, Gillian E; Gothe, Neha P; Fanning, Jason; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2015-01-01

    Higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) in old age are associated with greater brain structural and functional integrity, and higher cognitive functioning. However, it is not known how different aspects of lifestyle such as sedentariness, light PA (LI-PA), or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MV-PA) relate to neural activity in aging. In addition, it is not known whether the effects of PA on brain function differ or overlap with those of CRF. Here, we objectively measured CRF as oxygen consumption during a maximal exercise test and measured PA with an accelerometer worn for 7 days in 100 healthy but low active older adults (aged 60-80 years). We modeled the relationships between CRF, PA, and brain functional integrity using multivariate partial least squares analysis. As an index of functional brain integrity we used spontaneous moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal (SDBOLD), known to be associated with better cognitive functioning in aging. We found that older adults who engaged more in LI-PA and MV-PA had greater SDBOLD in brain regions that play a role in integrating segregated functional domains in the brain and benefit from greater CRF or PA, such as precuneus, hippocampus, medial and lateral prefrontal, and temporal cortices. Our results suggest that engaging in higher intensity PA may have protective effects on neural processing in aging. Finally, we demonstrated that older adults with greater overall WM microstructure were those showing more LI-PA and MV-PA and greater SDBOLD. We conclude that SDBOLD is a promising correlate of functional brain health in aging. Future analyses will evaluate whether SDBOLD is modifiable with interventions aimed to increase PA and CRF in older adults.

  19. Physical Activity Is Linked to Greater Moment-To-Moment Variability in Spontaneous Brain Activity in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Voss, Michelle W.; Cooke, Gillian E.; Gothe, Neha P.; Fanning, Jason; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) in old age are associated with greater brain structural and functional integrity, and higher cognitive functioning. However, it is not known how different aspects of lifestyle such as sedentariness, light PA (LI-PA), or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MV-PA) relate to neural activity in aging. In addition, it is not known whether the effects of PA on brain function differ or overlap with those of CRF. Here, we objectively measured CRF as oxygen consumption during a maximal exercise test and measured PA with an accelerometer worn for 7 days in 100 healthy but low active older adults (aged 60–80 years). We modeled the relationships between CRF, PA, and brain functional integrity using multivariate partial least squares analysis. As an index of functional brain integrity we used spontaneous moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal (SDBOLD), known to be associated with better cognitive functioning in aging. We found that older adults who engaged more in LI-PA and MV-PA had greater SDBOLD in brain regions that play a role in integrating segregated functional domains in the brain and benefit from greater CRF or PA, such as precuneus, hippocampus, medial and lateral prefrontal, and temporal cortices. Our results suggest that engaging in higher intensity PA may have protective effects on neural processing in aging. Finally, we demonstrated that older adults with greater overall WM microstructure were those showing more LI-PA and MV-PA and greater SDBOLD. We conclude that SDBOLD is a promising correlate of functional brain health in aging. Future analyses will evaluate whether SDBOLD is modifiable with interventions aimed to increase PA and CRF in older adults. PMID:26244873

  20. Gold deposits and occurrences of the Greater Caucasus, Georgia Republic: Their genesis and prospecting criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kekelia, S.A.; Kekelia, M.A.; Kuloshvili, S.I.; Sadradze, N.G.; Gagnidze, N.E.; Yaroshevich, V.Z.; Asatiani, G.G.; Doebrich, J.L.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Marsh, E.E.

    2008-01-01

    The south-central part of the Greater Caucasus region, Georgia Republic, represents an extremely prospective region for significant orogenic gold deposits. Gold-bearing quartz veins are concentrated in two extensive WNW-trending belts, the Mestia-Racha and Svaneti districts, within the northern margin of the Southern Slope Zone of the Great Caucasus orogen. This metalliferous region is dominated by Early to Middle Jurassic slates, which are part of a terrane that likely accreted to the continental margin from late Paleozoic to Jurassic. The slates were subsequently intruded by both Middle to Late Jurassic and Neogene granitoids. Quartz veins in the more carbonaceous slate units are most consistently enriched in As, Au, Hg, Sb, and W, and show mineralization styles most consistent with typical orogenic gold deposits. Quartz veins in the Mestia-Racha district were mined in Soviet times for As, Sb, and W, but many of these are now being recognized as gold resource targets. The veins occur in the footwall of a thrust fault between the Southern Slope zone and an earlier accreted terrane, the Main Zone, to the north. Many veins in the district continue along strike for > 1??km and some cut Neogene intrusions, constraining ore formation to the most recent 4 to 5??million years. Gold deposition thus correlates with final collision of the Arabian plate to the south and uplift of the ore-hosting Greater Caucasus. The Zopkhito deposit, previously mined for antimony, contains an estimated 55??t Au at a cutoff grade of 0.5??g/t. The veins are localized in an area where smaller-order structures show a major change in strike from N-S to more E-W trends. A pyrite-arsenopyrite ore stage includes gold concentrated in both sulfide phases; it is overprinted by a later stibnite-dominant stage. Fluid-inclusion studies of ore samples from the Zopkhito deposit indicate minimum trapping temperatures of 300 to 350????C and 200 to 300????C for the two stages, respectively, and minimum

  1. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization. Appendix F: Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste light water reactor projections

    SciTech Connect

    Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; Levin, A.; O`Kelley, M.

    1991-08-01

    This study characterizes potential greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste streams, estimates the amounts of waste generated, and estimates their radionuclide content and distribution. Several types of low-level radioactive wastes produced by light water reactors were identified in an earlier study as being potential greater-than-Class C low-level waste, including specific activated metal components and certain process wastes in the form of cartridge filters and decontamination resins. Light water reactor operating parameters and current management practices at operating plants were reviewed and used to estimate the amounts of potential greater-than-Class C low-level waste generated per fuel cycle. The amounts of routinely generated activated metal components and process waste were estimated as a function of fuel cycle. Component-specific radionuclide content and distribution was calculated for activated metals components. Empirical data from actual low-level radioactive waste streams were used to estimate radionuclide content and distribution for process wastes. The greater-than-Class C low-level waste volumes that could be generated through plant closure were also estimated, along with volumes and activities for potential greater-than-Class C activated metals generated at decommissioning.

  2. Fire, Vegetation, Climate Interactions in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: Tipping Points and Landscape Vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithwick, E. A.; Westerling, A. L.; Turner, M. G.; Romme, W. H.; Ryan, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    The subalpine forests of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem are vulnerable to extreme fires under climate change but the consequences of repeated large fire events on vegetation dynamics and carbon (C) storage are unknown. Shifts in post-fire succession may represent fundamental changes in the potential of western forests to sequester atmospheric C. In this study, we ask whether the projected changes in climate and fire for the region are sufficient to significantly inhibit post-fire forest recovery. We hypothesize that vegetation communities contribute differentially to future landscape C flux because of different sensitivities to future climate and fire combinations, with largest changes expected for conditions that switch forest to grassland. Here, we used an ecosystem model (CENTURY v. 4.5) to forecast C storage among dominant vegetation communities in Greater Yellowstone associated with different fire severities, regeneration rates, and climates: lodgepole pine, warm-dry and cool-moist conifers, aspen, and grassland/shrubland. The model was parameterized for each vegetation type using empirical data on post-fire C loss, recovery rates, and C storage potential. Vegetation types were run forward under future climate scenarios: downscaled (1/8 degree grid) A2 and B1 emissions pathways for four global climate models (NCAR PCM1, GFDL CM2.3, CNRM-CM3, CCSM3) for three locations in Yellowstone National Park (Old Faithful, Lake Yellowstone, and Lamar) that represent current climate and vegetation conditions in the park. Results indicated that under historical climate and contemporary fire return intervals (172 yrs), cumulative C emissions from fire were greatest when fire severity was low, largely due to higher fuel buildup. Reductions in C storage under future climate were greatest when fire return intervals were less than ca. 80 yrs - the time needed to replace C stocks consumed by fire, and when climate conditions were more suitable for grassland versus forest, but

  3. Quantum efficiencies greater than unity: A computer study of a photogating effect in amorphous silicon p-i-n devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, J. Y.; Fonash, S. J.

    1992-07-01

    We report a new effect, which we call photogating, that can be present in amorphous Si-based p-i-n structures under certain illumination conditions. This phenomenon feeds photogenerated carriers created by a bias light beam of one wavelength into the current response to a second probe light beam of a different wavelength. We demonstrate that this phenomena can lead to measured quantum efficiencies greater than unity. Our computer simulations show that this new effect owes its origins to trapped charge and to the condition that there is a low field region in the front of the structure in the presence of certain bias light.

  4. The intertidal soft sediments and their macrofauna in the Greater Swansea Bay area (Worm's Head to Nash Point), South Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shackley, Susan E.

    1981-05-01

    The zonation and abundance of the infauna of 11 soft shores in the Greater Swansea Bay area are described in relation to sediment grain size composition and exposure to wave action. Faunal associations are more characteristic of a boreal sand community but with reduced species diversity. Exposure to wave action accounts, at least in part, for this reduced fauna but the combined effects of industrial and urban development in the Swansea Bay area cannot be ignored. This study provides a baseline for future work in a region subject to pollution, completing the infaunal species lists for the northern coastline of the Bristol Channel.

  5. Methodology for Air Quality Forecast Downscaling from Regional- to Street-Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Mahura, Alexander; Amstrup, Bjarne; Hansen Saas, Bent; Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Lorenzen, Thomas; Weismann, Jakob

    2010-05-01

    The most serious air pollution events occur in cities where there is a combination of high population density and air pollution, e.g. from vehicles. The pollutants can lead to serious human health problems, including asthma, irritation of the lungs, bronchitis, pneumonia, decreased resistance to respiratory infections, and premature death. In particular air pollution is associated with increase in cardiovascular disease and lung cancer. In 2000 WHO estimated that between 2.5 % and 11 % of total annual deaths are caused by exposure to air pollution. However, European-scale air quality models are not suited for local forecasts, as their grid-cell is typically of the order of 5 to 10km and they generally lack detailed representation of urban effects. Two suites are used in the framework of the EC FP7 project MACC (Monitoring of Atmosphere Composition and Climate) to demonstrate how downscaling from the European MACC ensemble to local-scale air quality forecast will be carried out: one will illustrate capabilities for the city of Copenhagen (Denmark); the second will focus on the city of Bucharest (Romania). This work is devoted to the first suite, where methodological aspects of downscaling from regional (European/ Denmark) to urban scale (Copenhagen), and from the urban down to street scale. The first results of downscaling according to the proposed methodology are presented. The potential for downscaling of European air quality forecasts by operating urban and street-level forecast models is evaluated. This will bring a strong support for continuous improvement of the regional forecast modelling systems for air quality in Europe, and underline clear perspectives for the future regional air quality core and downstream services for end-users. At the end of the MACC project, requirements on "how-to-do" downscaling of European air-quality forecasts to the city and street levels with different approaches will be formulated.

  6. Greater Trochanter Reconstruction in Unstabl Intertrochanteric Fractures Treated With Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty: A Technical Note.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, G V; Guravareddy, A V; Reddy, Anil Kumar K R; Chiranjeevi, T

    2012-01-01

    Cemented Bipolar arthroplasty is an established method for treatment of comminuted Intertrochanteric fractures. Reconstruction of greater trochanter is an essential technical step to avoid complications like abductor lurch gait. We here describe a technique of reconstruction and fixation of greater trochanter using cancellous screws with wide washers made of reconstruction plate and tension band wiring. This gives a stable fixation of greater trochanter and avoids cut out, slippage of implants. PMID:27298870

  7. Extrauterine choriocarcinoma of the greater omentum after tubal pregnancy: case report.

    PubMed

    Wan, X; Li, J; Xie, X

    2006-01-01

    Extrauterine choriocarcinoma is a rare form of gestational trophoblastic tumor. Extrauterine choriocarcinoma of the greater omentum is extremely rare in the literature. A 24-year-old female with irregular vaginal bleeding, mimicking as ectopic pregnancy, underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy and local excision of the greater omentum mass. The serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin level decreased rapidly after operation; however, it rose up again before long. Pathology showed choriocarcinoma in the greater omentum. No evidence showed lesions on uterus. No other metastasis was found. Multiple courses of combined chemotherapy were effective for this case. Surgical excision and combined chemotherapy were effective for extrauterine choriocarcinoma of the greater omentum.

  8. Natural fractures and lineaments of the east-central Greater Green river basin. Topical report, May 1992-August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Jaworowski, C.; Christiansen, G.E.; Grout, M.A.; Heasler, H.P.; Iverson, W.P.

    1995-08-01

    This topical report addresses the relationship of natural fractures and lineaments to hydrocarbon production of the east-central Greater Green River Basin. The tight gas sands of the Cretaceous Mesaverde Formation are the primary focus of this work. IER and USGS researchers have (1) demonstrated that east-northeast and northeast-trending regional fractures and lineaments are important to hydrocarbon production; (2) recognized the east-northeast regional joint set near two horizontal wells (Champlin 254 Amoco B 2-H and Champlin 320 C-1A-H) in the Washankie and Great Divide basins, respectively; (3) related Cretaceous Almond Formation thickness and facies to northeast-trending faults; (4) developed a program to automatically derive lineaments from small linear features; (5) associated oil and gas production data with east-northeast and northeast-trending lineaments and linear features; and (6) digitally compared lineaments with potentiometric maps of the Mesaverde and Frontier formations.

  9. Effects of management practices on grassland birds: Greater Sage-Grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowland, Mary M.

    2004-01-01

    Information on the habitat requirements and effects of habitat management on Greater Sage-Grouse was summarized from information in more than 5,500 published and unpublished papers. A range map is provided to indicate the current range of Greater Sage-Grouse (adapted from Schroeder et al. 2004). Although birds may be observed outside the breeding range indicated, the maps are intended to show areas where managers might concentrate their attention. It may be ineffectual to manage habitat at a site for a species that rarely occurs in an area. The species account begins with a brief capsule statement, which provides the fundamental components or keys to management for the species. A section on breeding range outlines the current breeding distribution of the species in North America. The suitable habitat section describes the breeding habitat and occasionally microhabitat characteristics of the species. Details on habitat and microhabitat requirements often provide clues to how a species will respond to a particular management practice. A table near the end of the account complements the section on suitable habitat, and lists the specific habitat characteristics for the species by individual studies. A special section on prey habitat is included for those predatory species that have more specific prey requirements. The area requirements section provides details on territory and home range sizes, minimum area requirements, and the effects of patch size, edges, and other landscape and habitat features on abundance and productivity. It may be futile to manage a small block of suitable habitat for a species that has minimum area requirements that are larger than the area being managed. The Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) is an obligate brood parasite of many grassland birds. The section on cowbird brood parasitism summarizes rates of cowbird parasitism, host responses to parasitism, and factors that influence parasitism, such as nest concealment and host density. The

  10. Identifying common patterns in diverse systems: effects of exurban development on birds of the Adirondack Park and the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA.

    PubMed

    Glennon, Michale J; Kretser, Heidi E; Hilty, Jodi A

    2015-02-01

    We examined the impacts of exurban development on bird communities in Essex County, New York and Madison County, Montana by comparing differences in abundance of songbirds between subdivisions and control sites in both regions. We hypothesized that impacts to bird communities would be greater in the relatively homogeneous, closed canopy Adirondack forest of northern New York State than they would be in the more naturally heterogeneous grasslands interspersed with trees and shrubs of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We examined birds in five functional groups expected to be responsive to exurban development, and determined relative abundance within subdivisions and control sites across these two distinct regions. We found little support for our hypothesis. For birds in the area-sensitive, low nesting, and Neotropical migrant functional groups, relative abundance was lower in subdivisions in the Adirondacks and in Madison County, while relative abundance of edge specialists was greater in subdivisions in both regions. The direction and magnitude of change in the avian communities between subdivisions and controls was similar in both regions for all guilds except microhabitat specialists. These similarities across diverse ecosystems suggest that the ecological context of the encompassing region may be less important than other elements in shaping avian communities in exurban systems. This finding suggests that humans and their specific behaviors and activities in exurban areas may be underappreciated but potentially important drivers of change in these regions.

  11. Identifying common patterns in diverse systems: effects of exurban development on birds of the Adirondack Park and the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA.

    PubMed

    Glennon, Michale J; Kretser, Heidi E; Hilty, Jodi A

    2015-02-01

    We examined the impacts of exurban development on bird communities in Essex County, New York and Madison County, Montana by comparing differences in abundance of songbirds between subdivisions and control sites in both regions. We hypothesized that impacts to bird communities would be greater in the relatively homogeneous, closed canopy Adirondack forest of northern New York State than they would be in the more naturally heterogeneous grasslands interspersed with trees and shrubs of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We examined birds in five functional groups expected to be responsive to exurban development, and determined relative abundance within subdivisions and control sites across these two distinct regions. We found little support for our hypothesis. For birds in the area-sensitive, low nesting, and Neotropical migrant functional groups, relative abundance was lower in subdivisions in the Adirondacks and in Madison County, while relative abundance of edge specialists was greater in subdivisions in both regions. The direction and magnitude of change in the avian communities between subdivisions and controls was similar in both regions for all guilds except microhabitat specialists. These similarities across diverse ecosystems suggest that the ecological context of the encompassing region may be less important than other elements in shaping avian communities in exurban systems. This finding suggests that humans and their specific behaviors and activities in exurban areas may be underappreciated but potentially important drivers of change in these regions. PMID:25421994

  12. Identifying Common Patterns in Diverse Systems: Effects of Exurban Development on Birds of the Adirondack Park and the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glennon, Michale J.; Kretser, Heidi E.; Hilty, Jodi A.

    2015-02-01

    We examined the impacts of exurban development on bird communities in Essex County, New York and Madison County, Montana by comparing differences in abundance of songbirds between subdivisions and control sites in both regions. We hypothesized that impacts to bird communities would be greater in the relatively homogeneous, closed canopy Adirondack forest of northern New York State than they would be in the more naturally heterogeneous grasslands interspersed with trees and shrubs of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We examined birds in five functional groups expected to be responsive to exurban development, and determined relative abundance within subdivisions and control sites across these two distinct regions. We found little support for our hypothesis. For birds in the area-sensitive, low nesting, and Neotropical migrant functional groups, relative abundance was lower in subdivisions in the Adirondacks and in Madison County, while relative abundance of edge specialists was greater in subdivisions in both regions. The direction and magnitude of change in the avian communities between subdivisions and controls was similar in both regions for all guilds except microhabitat specialists. These similarities across diverse ecosystems suggest that the ecological context of the encompassing region may be less important than other elements in shaping avian communities in exurban systems. This finding suggests that humans and their specific behaviors and activities in exurban areas may be underappreciated but potentially important drivers of change in these regions.

  13. Geographic variation in migration chronology and winter distribution of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.; Nieman, Daniel J.; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Hines, James E.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated spatial and temporal differences in migratory behavior among different breeding groups of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) using band-recovery data and observations of neck collared geese during migration and winter. Birds from different breeding areas were initially delineated by geographic distance into 6 banding reference areas (BRAs): 1) interior Alaska, 2) North Slope of Alaska, 3) western Northwest Territories (NWT), 4) western Nunavut, 5) central Nunavut, and 6) eastern Nunavut. The banding groups also differed by breeding habitat, with geese from interior Alaska nesting in the boreal forest (taiga), and all other groups breeding in tundra habitats. Geese from interior Alaska migrated earlier during autumn, and were more likely to winter farther south (in Mexico) than geese from other breeding areas. Geese banded in central and eastern Nunavut (Queen Maud Gulf and Inglis River) wintered farther east (in Louisiana) than geese from other breeding areas. Small-scale (within-state) geographic segregation of wintering flocks was evidenced by the recent (post-1990) nearly exclusive use of a new wintering area in north central Texas by geese from interior Alaska. Segregation among BRAs was also apparent in Mexico, where taiga geese were found predominantly in the central Highlands (states of Zacatecas and Durango), whereas tundra geese mostly used states along the Gulf Coast (primarily Tamaulipas). Interior Alaska birds initiated spring migration earlier than geese from other areas, and were more likely than others to stop in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska, a region where cholera outbreaks periodically kill thousands of geese. Geese from interior Alaska were the first to arrive at spring staging areas in prairie Canada where BRAs exhibited spatial delineation (a longitudinal cline) in relation to breeding areas. Our results show significant geographic and temporal variation among taiga and tundra breeding cohorts during

  14. Combined Effects of Energy Development and Disease on Greater Sage-Grouse

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Rebecca L.; Tack, Jason D.; Naugle, David E.; Mills, L. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Species of conservation concern are increasingly threatened by multiple, anthropogenic stressors which are outside their evolutionary experience. Greater sage-grouse are highly susceptible to the impacts of two such stressors: oil and gas (energy) development and West Nile virus (WNv). However, the combined effects of these stressors and their potential interactions have not been quantified. We used lek (breeding ground) counts across a landscape encompassing extensive local and regional variation in the intensity of energy development to quantify the effects of energy development on lek counts, in years with widespread WNv outbreaks and in years without widespread outbreaks. We then predicted the effects of well density and WNv outbreak years on sage-grouse in northeast Wyoming. Absent an outbreak year, drilling an undeveloped landscape to a high permitting level (3.1 wells/km2) resulted in a 61% reduction in the total number of males counted in northeast Wyoming (total count). This was similar in magnitude to the 55% total count reduction that resulted from an outbreak year alone. However, energy-associated reductions in the total count resulted from a decrease in the mean count at active leks, whereas outbreak-associated reductions resulted from a near doubling of the lek inactivity rate (proportion of leks with a last count = 0). Lek inactivity quadrupled when 3.1 wells/km2 was combined with an outbreak year, compared to no energy development and no outbreak. Conservation measures should maintain sagebrush landscapes large and intact enough so that leks are not chronically reduced in size due to energy development, and therefore vulnerable to becoming inactive due to additional stressors. PMID:23940732

  15. Methods to estimate distribution and range extent of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haroldson, Mark A.; Schwartz, Charles C.; , Daniel D. Bjornlie; , Daniel J. Thompson; , Kerry A. Gunther; , Steven L. Cain; , Daniel B. Tyers; Frey, Kevin L.; Aber, Bryan C.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population has expanded into areas unoccupied since the early 20th century. Up-to-date information on the area and extent of this distribution is crucial for federal, state, and tribal wildlife and land managers to make informed decisions regarding grizzly bear management. The most recent estimate of grizzly bear distribution (2004) utilized fixed-kernel density estimators to describe distribution. This method was complex and computationally time consuming and excluded observations of unmarked bears. Our objective was to develop a technique to estimate grizzly bear distribution that would allow for the use of all verified grizzly bear location data, as well as provide the simplicity to be updated more frequently. We placed all verified grizzly bear locations from all sources from 1990 to 2004 and 1990 to 2010 onto a 3-km × 3-km grid and used zonal analysis and ordinary kriging to develop a predicted surface of grizzly bear distribution. We compared the area and extent of the 2004 kriging surface with the previous 2004 effort and evaluated changes in grizzly bear distribution from 2004 to 2010. The 2004 kriging surface was 2.4% smaller than the previous fixed-kernel estimate, but more closely represented the data. Grizzly bear distribution increased 38.3% from 2004 to 2010, with most expansion in the northern and southern regions of the range. This technique can be used to provide a current estimate of grizzly bear distribution for management and conservation applications.

  16. Assessing Malaria Risks in Greater Mekong Subregion based on Environmental Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard; Soika, Valerii; Adimi, Farida; Nigro, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    At 4,200 km, the Mekong River is the tenth longest river in the world. It directly and indirectly influences the lives of hundreds of millions of inhabitants in its basin. The riparian countries - Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and a small part of China - form the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). This geographical region has the misfortune of being the world's epicenter of falciparum malaria, which is the most severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Depending on the country, approximately 50 to 90% of all malaria cases are due to this species. In the Malaria Modeling and Surveillance Project, we have been developing techniques to enhance public health s decision capability for malaria risk assessments and controls. The main objectives are: 1) identifying the potential breeding sites for major vector species; 2) implementing a malaria transmission model to identify the key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission; and 3) implementing a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity. The potential benefits are: 1) increased warning time for public health organizations to respond to malaria outbreaks; 2) optimized utilization of pesticide and chemoprophylaxis; 3) reduced likelihood of pesticide and drug resistance; and 4) reduced damage to environment. Environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. The NASA Earth science data sets that have been used for malaria surveillance and risk assessment include AVHRR Pathfinder, TRMM, MODIS, NSIPP, and SIESIP. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records. Socioeconomic factors that may influence malaria transmissions will also be incorporated into the predictive models.

  17. Changes in nutrient dynamics of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese during spring migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Krapu, Gary L.; Cox, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Waterfowl and other migratory birds commonly store nutrients at traditional staging areas during spring for later use during migration and reproduction. We investigated nutrient-storage dynamics in the midcontinent population of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons; hereafter white-fronted geese) at spring staging sites in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska during February-April and in southern Saskatchewan during April-May, 1998 and 1999. In Nebraska, lipid content of white-fronted geese did not increase, and protein content changed little over time for most age and sex categories. In Saskatchewan, lipids increased 11.4 g/day (SE = 1.7) and protein content increased 1.6 g/day (SE = 0.6) in the sample of adult geese collected over a 3-week period. A study conducted during 1979-1980 in the Rainwater Basin reported that white-fronted geese gained 8.8-17.7 g of lipids per day during spring, differing greatly from our results 2 decades later. In addition, lipid levels were less in the 1990s compared to spring 1980 for adult geese nearing departure from staging sites in Saskatchewan. This shift in where geese acquired nutrient stores from Nebraska to more northern staging sites coincided with a decrease in availability of waste corn in Nebraska, their primary food source while staging at that stopover site, and an increase in cultivation of high-energy pulse crops in Saskatchewan. White-fronted geese exhibited flexibility in nutrient dynamics during spring migration, likely in response to landscape-level variation in food availability caused by changes in agricultural trends and practices. Maintaining a wide distribution of wetlands in the Great Plains may allow springstaging waterfowl to disperse across the region and facilitate access to high-energy foods over a larger cropland base.

  18. Combined effects of energy development and disease on greater sage-grouse.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rebecca L; Tack, Jason D; Naugle, David E; Mills, L Scott

    2013-01-01

    Species of conservation concern are increasingly threatened by multiple, anthropogenic stressors which are outside their evolutionary experience. Greater sage-grouse are highly susceptible to the impacts of two such stressors: oil and gas (energy) development and West Nile virus (WNv). However, the combined effects of these stressors and their potential interactions have not been quantified. We used lek (breeding ground) counts across a landscape encompassing extensive local and regional variation in the intensity of energy development to quantify the effects of energy development on lek counts, in years with widespread WNv outbreaks and in years without widespread outbreaks. We then predicted the effects of well density and WNv outbreak years on sage-grouse in northeast Wyoming. Absent an outbreak year, drilling an undeveloped landscape to a high permitting level (3.1 wells/km²) resulted in a 61% reduction in the total number of males counted in northeast Wyoming (total count). This was similar in magnitude to the 55% total count reduction that resulted from an outbreak year alone. However, energy-associated reductions in the total count resulted from a decrease in the mean count at active leks, whereas outbreak-associated reductions resulted from a near doubling of the lek inactivity rate (proportion of leks with a last count = 0). Lek inactivity quadrupled when 3.1 wells/km² was combined with an outbreak year, compared to no energy development and no outbreak. Conservation measures should maintain sagebrush landscapes large and intact enough so that leks are not chronically reduced in size due to energy development, and therefore vulnerable to becoming inactive due to additional stressors. PMID:23940732

  19. Patterns and variability of projected bioclimatic habitat for Pinus albicaulis in the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tony; Hansen, Andrew J; Piekielek, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Projected climate change at a regional level is expected to shift vegetation habitat distributions over the next century. For the sub-alpine species whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), warming temperatures may indirectly result in loss of suitable bioclimatic habitat, reducing its distribution within its historic range. This research focuses on understanding the patterns of spatiotemporal variability for future projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) through a bioclimatic envelope approach. Since intermodel variability from General Circulation Models (GCMs) lead to differing predictions regarding the magnitude and direction of modeled suitable habitat area, nine bias-corrected statistically down-scaled GCMs were utilized to understand the uncertainty associated with modeled projections. P.albicaulis was modeled using a Random Forests algorithm for the 1980-2010 climate period and showed strong presence/absence separations by summer maximum temperatures and springtime snowpack. Patterns of projected habitat change by the end of the century suggested a constant decrease in suitable climate area from the 2010 baseline for both Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 8.5 and 4.5 climate forcing scenarios. Percent suitable climate area estimates ranged from 2-29% and 0.04-10% by 2099 for RCP 8.5 and 4.5 respectively. Habitat projections between GCMs displayed a decrease of variability over the 2010-2099 time period related to consistent warming above the 1910-2010 temperature normal after 2070 for all GCMs. A decreasing pattern of projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat area change was consistent across GCMs, despite strong differences in magnitude. Future ecological research in species distribution modeling should consider a full suite of GCM projections in the analysis to reduce extreme range contractions/expansions predictions. The results suggest that restoration strageties such as planting of seedlings and controlling

  20. Combined effects of energy development and disease on greater sage-grouse.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rebecca L; Tack, Jason D; Naugle, David E; Mills, L Scott

    2013-01-01

    Species of conservation concern are increasingly threatened by multiple, anthropogenic stressors which are outside their evolutionary experience. Greater sage-grouse are highly susceptible to the impacts of two such stressors: oil and gas (energy) development and West Nile virus (WNv). However, the combined effects of these stressors and their potential interactions have not been quantified. We used lek (breeding ground) counts across a landscape encompassing extensive local and regional variation in the intensity of energy development to quantify the effects of energy development on lek counts, in years with widespread WNv outbreaks and in years without widespread outbreaks. We then predicted the effects of well density and WNv outbreak years on sage-grouse in northeast Wyoming. Absent an outbreak year, drilling an undeveloped landscape to a high permitting level (3.1 wells/km²) resulted in a 61% reduction in the total number of males counted in northeast Wyoming (total count). This was similar in magnitude to the 55% total count reduction that resulted from an outbreak year alone. However, energy-associated reductions in the total count resulted from a decrease in the mean count at active leks, whereas outbreak-associated reductions resulted from a near doubling of the lek inactivity rate (proportion of leks with a last count = 0). Lek inactivity quadrupled when 3.1 wells/km² was combined with an outbreak year, compared to no energy development and no outbreak. Conservation measures should maintain sagebrush landscapes large and intact enough so that leks are not chronically reduced in size due to energy development, and therefore vulnerable to becoming inactive due to additional stressors.

  1. Patterns and Variability of Projected Bioclimatic Habitat for Pinus albicaulis in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tony; Hansen, Andrew J.; Piekielek, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Projected climate change at a regional level is expected to shift vegetation habitat distributions over the next century. For the sub-alpine species whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), warming temperatures may indirectly result in loss of suitable bioclimatic habitat, reducing its distribution within its historic range. This research focuses on understanding the patterns of spatiotemporal variability for future projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) through a bioclimatic envelope approach. Since intermodel variability from General Circulation Models (GCMs) lead to differing predictions regarding the magnitude and direction of modeled suitable habitat area, nine bias-corrected statistically down-scaled GCMs were utilized to understand the uncertainty associated with modeled projections. P.albicaulis was modeled using a Random Forests algorithm for the 1980–2010 climate period and showed strong presence/absence separations by summer maximum temperatures and springtime snowpack. Patterns of projected habitat change by the end of the century suggested a constant decrease in suitable climate area from the 2010 baseline for both Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 8.5 and 4.5 climate forcing scenarios. Percent suitable climate area estimates ranged from 2–29% and 0.04–10% by 2099 for RCP 8.5 and 4.5 respectively. Habitat projections between GCMs displayed a decrease of variability over the 2010–2099 time period related to consistent warming above the 1910–2010 temperature normal after 2070 for all GCMs. A decreasing pattern of projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat area change was consistent across GCMs, despite strong differences in magnitude. Future ecological research in species distribution modeling should consider a full suite of GCM projections in the analysis to reduce extreme range contractions/expansions predictions. The results suggest that restoration strageties such as planting of seedlings and

  2. Patterns and variability of projected bioclimatic habitat for Pinus albicaulis in the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tony; Hansen, Andrew J; Piekielek, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Projected climate change at a regional level is expected to shift vegetation habitat distributions over the next century. For the sub-alpine species whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), warming temperatures may indirectly result in loss of suitable bioclimatic habitat, reducing its distribution within its historic range. This research focuses on understanding the patterns of spatiotemporal variability for future projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) through a bioclimatic envelope approach. Since intermodel variability from General Circulation Models (GCMs) lead to differing predictions regarding the magnitude and direction of modeled suitable habitat area, nine bias-corrected statistically down-scaled GCMs were utilized to understand the uncertainty associated with modeled projections. P.albicaulis was modeled using a Random Forests algorithm for the 1980-2010 climate period and showed strong presence/absence separations by summer maximum temperatures and springtime snowpack. Patterns of projected habitat change by the end of the century suggested a constant decrease in suitable climate area from the 2010 baseline for both Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 8.5 and 4.5 climate forcing scenarios. Percent suitable climate area estimates ranged from 2-29% and 0.04-10% by 2099 for RCP 8.5 and 4.5 respectively. Habitat projections between GCMs displayed a decrease of variability over the 2010-2099 time period related to consistent warming above the 1910-2010 temperature normal after 2070 for all GCMs. A decreasing pattern of projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat area change was consistent across GCMs, despite strong differences in magnitude. Future ecological research in species distribution modeling should consider a full suite of GCM projections in the analysis to reduce extreme range contractions/expansions predictions. The results suggest that restoration strageties such as planting of seedlings and controlling

  3. Integrating Science into Management of Ecosystems in the Greater Blue Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapple, Rosalie S.; Ramp, Daniel; Bradstock, Ross A.; Kingsford, Richard T.; Merson, John A.; Auld, Tony D.; Fleming, Peter J. S.; Mulley, Robert C.

    2011-10-01

    Effective management of large protected conservation areas is challenged by political, institutional and environmental complexity and inconsistency. Knowledge generation and its uptake into management are crucial to address these challenges. We reflect on practice at the interface between science and management of the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area (GBMWHA), which covers approximately 1 million hectares west of Sydney, Australia. Multiple government agencies and other stakeholders are involved in its management, and decision-making is confounded by numerous plans of management and competing values and goals, reflecting the different objectives and responsibilities of stakeholders. To highlight the complexities of the decision-making process for this large area, we draw on the outcomes of a recent collaborative research project and focus on fire regimes and wild-dog control as examples of how existing knowledge is integrated into management. The collaborative research project achieved the objectives of collating and synthesizing biological data for the region; however, transfer of the project's outcomes to management has proved problematic. Reasons attributed to this include lack of clearly defined management objectives to guide research directions and uptake, and scientific information not being made more understandable and accessible. A key role of a local bridging organisation (e.g., the Blue Mountains World Heritage Institute) in linking science and management is ensuring that research results with management significance can be effectively transmitted to agencies and that outcomes are explained for nonspecialists as well as more widely distributed. We conclude that improved links between science, policy, and management within an adaptive learning-by-doing framework for the GBMWHA would assist the usefulness and uptake of future research.

  4. Regional odontodysplasia.

    PubMed

    Mehta, D N; Bailoor, D; Patel, B

    2011-01-01

    Regional odontodysplasia is an unusual developmental anomaly in which ectodermal and mesodermal tooth components are affected. We present a rare case of a developmental anomaly called regional odontodysplasia or 'ghost teeth' in a 12-year-old Indian girl. The anomaly affected right maxillary permanent teeth. The mandibular teeth were unaffected. The clinical, radiographic and histological features are reviewed. The management of affected patients is discussed.

  5. 45 CFR 46.404 - Research not involving greater than minimal risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research not involving greater than minimal risk. 46.404 Section 46.404 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Children Involved as Subjects in Research § 46.404 Research not involving greater than...

  6. Transmission of Brucellosis from Elk to Cattle and Bison, Greater Yellowstone Area, USA, 2002–2012

    PubMed Central

    Nol, Pauline; Quance, Christine; Gertonson, Arnold; Belfrage, John; Harris, Lauren; Straka, Kelly; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee

    2013-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis has been nearly eliminated from livestock in the United States. Bison and elk in the Greater Yellowstone Area remain reservoirs for the disease. During 1990–2002, no known cases occurred in Greater Yellowstone Area livestock. Since then, 17 transmission events from wildlife to livestock have been investigated. PMID:24274092

  7. 21 CFR 50.51 - Clinical investigations not involving greater than minimal risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Clinical investigations not involving greater than minimal risk. 50.51 Section 50.51 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Investigations § 50.51 Clinical investigations not involving greater than minimal risk. Any...

  8. Personalisation: A Theoretical Possibility to Reinvigorate Children's Interest in Storybook Reading and Facilitate Greater Book Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucirkova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2010s, there has been a proliferation of new platforms for children's stories (e.g. storybook apps or iBooks), but not necessarily greater diversity of story content or children's greater interest in reading. This article argues for a new approach to address the apparent paradox of a wider availability of children's literature…

  9. Solitary fibrous tumor of the greater omentum mimicking an ovarian tumor in a young woman.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Tarrega, Elisabet; Hidalgo Mora, Juan Jose; Paya Amate, Vicente; Vega Oomen, Olivia

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of greater omentum in a young woman. SFT arising from the greater omentum can mimic a gynecologic neoplasm. SFTs are generally benign but some of them are malignant and have uncertain prognosis. An adequate follow-up is essential in these patients.

  10. Solitary fibrous tumor of the greater omentum mimicking an ovarian tumor in a young woman.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Tarrega, Elisabet; Hidalgo Mora, Juan Jose; Paya Amate, Vicente; Vega Oomen, Olivia

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of greater omentum in a young woman. SFT arising from the greater omentum can mimic a gynecologic neoplasm. SFTs are generally benign but some of them are malignant and have uncertain prognosis. An adequate follow-up is essential in these patients. PMID:27354994

  11. Observations of territorial breeding common ravens caching eggs of greater sage-grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, Kristy B.; Coates, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations using continuous video monitoring of greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus nests have unambiguously identified common ravens Corvus corax as an important egg predator within the western United States. The quantity of greater sage-grouse eggs an individual common raven consumes during the nesting period and the extent to which common ravens actively hunt greater sage-grouse nests are largely unknown. However, some evidence suggests that territorial breeding common ravens, rather than nonbreeding transients, are most likely responsible for nest depredations. We describe greater sage-grouse egg depredation observations obtained opportunistically from three common raven nests located in Idaho and Nevada where depredated greater sage-grouse eggs were found at or in the immediate vicinity of the nest site, including the caching of eggs in nearby rock crevices. We opportunistically monitored these nests by counting and removing depredated eggs and shell fragments from the nest sites during each visit to determine the extent to which the common raven pairs preyed on greater sage-grouse eggs. To our knowledge, our observations represent the first evidence that breeding, territorial pairs of common ravens cache greater sage-grouse eggs and are capable of depredating multiple greater sage-grouse nests.

  12. A greater involvement of posterior brain areas in interhemispheric transfer in autism: fMRI, DWI and behavioral evidences

    PubMed Central

    Barbeau, Elise B.; Lewis, John D.; Doyon, Julien; Benali, Habib; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Mottron, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    A small corpus callosum (CC) is one of the most replicated neurobiological findings in autism spectrum (AS). However, its effect on interhemispheric (IH) communication is unknown. We combined structural (CC area and DWI), functional (task-related fMRI activation and connectivity analyses) as well as behavioral (Poffenberger and Purdue tasks) measures to investigate IH integration in adult AS individuals of typical intelligence. Despite similar behavioral IH transfer time and performances in bimanual tasks, the CC sub-regions connecting frontal and parietal cortical areas were smaller in AS than in non-AS individuals, while those connecting visual regions were similar. The activation of visual areas was lower in AS than in non-AS individuals during the presentation of visual stimuli. Behavioral IH performances were related to the properties of CC subregions connecting motor areas in non-AS individuals, but to the properties of posterior CC regions in AS individuals. Furthermore, there was greater functional connectivity between visual areas in the AS than in the non-AS group. Levels of connectivity were also stronger in visual than in motor regions in the autistic subjects, while the opposite was true for the non-autistic group. Thus, visual IH transfer plays an important role in visuo-motor tasks in AS individuals. These findings extend the well established enhanced role of perception in autistic cognition to visuo-motor IH information transfer. PMID:26106551

  13. Range-wide conservation assessment of Greater Sage-Grouse and sagebrush habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    Declining numbers of Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) over the past three decades across most of their range accompanied by increasing habitat degradation and loss represent major conservation and management challenges. We are conducting a range-wide Conservation Assessment of Greater Sage-grouse and sagebrush habitats. This assessment is an interagency effort sponsored by the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies to determine the status of Greater Sage-grouse and their habitats, and identify potential threats to their long-term survival. Agencies, private organizations, and landowners have an urgent need for this assessment because of conflicting views concerning causes of declines and the appropriate management actions.

  14. Characterization of aerosol episodes in the greater Mediterranean Sea area from satellite observations (2000-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkikas, A.; Hatzianastassiou, N.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Torres, O.

    2016-03-01

    An algorithm able to identify and characterize episodes of different aerosol types above sea surfaces of the greater Mediterranean basin (GMB), including the Black Sea and the Atlantic Ocean off the coasts of Iberia and northwest Africa, is presented in this study. Based on this algorithm, five types of intense (strong and extreme) aerosol episodes in the GMB are identified and characterized using daily aerosol optical properties from satellite measurements, namely MODIS-Terra, Earth Probe (EP)-TOMS and OMI-Aura. These aerosol episodes are: (i) biomass-burning/urban-industrial (BU), (ii) desert dust (DD), (iii) dust/sea-salt (DSS), (iv) mixed (MX) and (v) undetermined (UN). The identification and characterization is made with our algorithm using a variety of aerosol properties, namely aerosol optical depth (AOD), Ångström exponent (α), fine fraction (FF), effective radius (reff) and Aerosol Index (AI). During the study period (2000-2007), the most frequent aerosol episodes are DD, observed primarily in the western and central Mediterranean Sea, and off the northern African coasts, 7 times/year for strong episodes and 4 times/year for extreme ones, on average. The DD episodes yield 40% of all types of strong aerosol episodes in the study region, while they account for 71.5% of all extreme episodes. The frequency of occurrence of strong episodes exhibits specific geographical patterns, for example the BU are mostly observed along the coasts of southern Europe and off the Atlantic coasts of Portugal, the MX episodes off the Spanish Mediterranean coast and over the Adriatic and northern Aegean Sea, while the DSS ones over the western and central Mediterranean Sea. On the other hand, the extreme episodes for all but DD aerosol display more patchy spatial patterns. The strong episodes exhibit AOD at 550 nm as high as 1.6 in the southernmost parts of central and eastern Mediterranean Sea, which rise up to 5 for the extreme, mainly DD and DSS, episodes. Although more

  15. Geo-information for sustainable urban development of Greater Dhaka City, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Andreas; Asaduzzaman, Atm; Bahls, Rebecca; Ludwig, Rüdiger; Ashraful Kamal, Mohammad; Nahar Faruqa, Nurun

    2015-04-01

    Greater Dhaka City (including Dhaka and five adjacent municipal areas) is one of the fastest developing urban regions in the world. Densely build-up areas in the developed metropolitan area of Dhaka City are subject to extensive restructuring as common six-storied buildings are replaced by higher and heavier constructions. Additional stories are built on existing houses, frequently exceeding the allowable bearing pressure on the subsoil as supported by the foundations. In turn, newly developing areas are projected in marshy areas modified by extensive, largely unengineered landfills. In many areas, these terrains bear unfavorable building ground conditions, and reliable geospatial information is a major prerequisite for risk-sensitive urban planning. Within a collaborative technical cooperation project between Bangladesh and Germany, BGR supports GSB in the provision of geo-information for the Capital Development authority (RAJUK). For general urban planning, RAJUK successively develops a detailed area plan (DAP) at scale 1 : 50000 for the whole Greater Dhaka City area. Geospatial information have not been considered in the present DAP. Within the project, GSB prepared a detailed geomorphologic map matching the DAP both in areal extent and scale. The geomorphological setting can be used as an important spatial proxy for the characterization of the subsurface since highly segmented, elevated terraces consisting of consolidated sandy Pliocene deposits overlain by stiff Plio-Pleistocene sediments are sharply bordered by low lying-areas. The floodplain and marsh areas are consisting of thick, mechanically weak Holocene fluvial sandy-silty sediments that are sometimes alternated by organic layers. A first expert-based engineering geological reclassification of the geomorphological map resulting in five building ground suitability classes is highly supported by the spatial analysis of extensive archive borehole information consisting of depth-continuous standard

  16. AIDS and the Newborn. Report on a WHO Consultation (Copenhagen, Denmark, April 9-10, 1987). Health for All 2000 Target 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    Reflecting worldwide concern over the spread of the AIDS epidemic, the Sexuality and Family Planning Unit of the World Health Organization's Regional Office for Europe brought advisors from seven European countries and the United States together to engage in a discussion of AIDS and the newborn, and that consultation forms the basis of this…

  17. Siblings of Schizophrenia Patients At Greater Risk for Same Diagnosis: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161091.html Siblings of Schizophrenia Patients at Greater Risk for Same Diagnosis: Study ... People who have a brother or sister with schizophrenia are 10 times more likely to develop the ...

  18. Seismic source zoning and maximum credible earthquake prognosis of the Greater Kashmir Territory, NW Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, Hamid; Nath, Sankar Kumar

    2016-09-01

    We present the seismic source zoning of the tectonically active Greater Kashmir territory of the Northwestern Himalaya and seismicity analysis (Gutenberg-Richter parameters) and maximum credible earthquake (m max) estimation of each zone. The earthquake catalogue used in the analysis is an extensive one compiled from various sources which spans from 1907 to 2012. Five seismogenic zones were delineated, viz. Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis, Karakorum Seismic Zone, Kohistan Seismic Zone, Nanga Parbat Syntaxis, and SE-Kashmir Seismic Zone. Then, the seismicity analysis and maximum credible earthquake estimation were carried out for each zone. The low b value (<1.0) indicates a higher stress regime in all the zones except Nanga Parbat Syntaxis Seismic Zone and SE-Kashmir Seismic Zone. The m max was estimated following three different methodologies, the fault parameter approach, convergence rates using geodetic measurements, and the probabilistic approach using the earthquake catalogue and is estimated to be M w 7.7, M w 8.5, and M w 8.1, respectively. The maximum credible earthquake (m max) estimated for each zone shows that Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis Seismic Zone has the highest m max of M w 8.1 (±0.36), which is espoused by the historical 1555 Kashmir earthquake of M w 7.6 as well as the recent 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake of M w 7.6. The variation in the estimated m max by the above discussed methodologies is obvious, as the definition and interpretation of the m max change with the method. Interestingly, historical archives (˜900 years) do not speak of a great earthquake in this region, which is attributed to the complex and unique tectonic and geologic setup of the Kashmir Himalaya. The convergence is this part of the Himalaya is distributed not only along the main boundary faults but also along the various active out-of-sequence faults as compared to the Central Himalaya, where it is mainly adjusted along the main boundary fault.

  19. Land use and land cover change in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: 1975-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parmenter, A.W.; Hansen, A.; Kennedy, R.E.; Cohen, W.; Langner, U.; Lawrence, R.; Maxwell, B.; Gallant, A.; Aspinall, R.

    2003-01-01

    Shifts in the demographic and economic character of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) are driving patterns of land cover and land use change in the region. Such changes may have important consequences for ecosystem functioning. The objective of this paper is to quantify the trajectories and rates of change in land cover and use across the GYE for the period 1975-1995 using satellite imagery. Spectral and geographic variables were used as inputs to classification tree regression analysis (CART) to find "rules" which defined land use and land cover classes on the landscape. The resulting CART functions were used to map land cover and land use across seven Landsat TM scenes for 1995. We then used a thresholding technique to identify locations that differed in spectral properties between the 1995 and 1985 time periods. These "changed" locations were classified using CART functions derived from spectral and geographic data from 1985. This was similarly done for the year 1975 based on Landsat MSS data. Differences between the 1975, 1985, and 1995 maps were considered change in land cover and use. We calibrated and tested the accuracy of our models using data acquired through manual interpretation of aerial photos. Elevation and vegetative indices derived from the remotely sensed satellite imagery explained the most variance in the land use and land cover classes (-i.e., defined the "rules" most often). Overall accuracies from our study were good, ranging from 94% at the coarsest level of detail to 74% at the finest. The largest changes over the study period were the increases in burned, urban, and mixed conifer-herbaceous classes and decreases in woody deciduous, mixed woody deciduous-herbaceous, and conifer habitats. These changes have important implications for ecological function and biodiversity. The expansion of mixed conifer classes may increase fuel loads and enhance risk to the growing number of rural homes. The reduction of woody deciduous cover types is

  20. Persistence of canine distemper virus in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem's carnivore community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almberg, E.S.; Cross, P.C.; Smith, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is an acute, highly immunizing pathogen that should require high densities and large populations of hosts for long-term persistence, yet CDV persists among terrestrial carnivores with small, patchily distributed groups. We used CDV in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem's (GYE) wolves (Canis lupus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) as a case study for exploring how metapopulation structure, host demographics, and multi-host transmission affect the critical community size and spatial scale required for CDV persistence. We illustrate how host spatial connectivity and demographic turnover interact to affect both local epidemic dynamics, such as the length and variation in inter-epidemic periods, and pathogen persistence using stochastic, spatially explicit susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered simulation models. Given the apparent absence of other known persistence mechanisms (e.g., a carrier or environmental state, densely populated host, chronic infection, or a vector), we suggest that CDV requires either large spatial scales or multi-host transmission for persistence. Current GYE wolf populations are probably too small to support endemic CDV. Coyotes are a plausible reservoir host, but CDV would still require 50 000-100 000 individuals for moderate persistence (>50% over 10 years), which would equate to an area of 1-3 times the size of the GYE (60000-200000 km2). Coyotes, and carnivores in general, are not uniformly distributed; therefore, this is probably a gross underestimate of the spatial scale of CDV persistence. However, the presence of a second competent host species can greatly increase the probability of long-term CDV persistence at much smaller spatial scales. Although no management of CDV is currently recommended for the GYE, wolf managers in the region should expect periodic but unpredictable CDV-related population declines as often as every 2-5 years. Awareness and monitoring of such outbreaks will allow corresponding