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Sample records for greece synoptic conditions

  1. Analysis of synoptic conditions for tornadic days over western Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Matsangouras, I. T.

    2014-09-01

    Tornadoes have been reported in Greece during the last few decades and recent studies have given evidence that western Greece is an area vulnerable to tornadoes, waterspouts and funnel clouds In this study, the composite means and anomalies of synoptic conditions for tornadic events (tornadoes, waterspouts and funnel clouds) over western Greece are analyzed and discussed. The daily composite means of synoptic conditions were based on the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) reanalysis data sets, for the period 12 August 1953 to 31 December 2012. The daily composite anomalies were calculated with respect to 30 years of climatological study (1981-2010) of the synoptic conditions. The analysis was carried out in terms of seasonal and monthly variability of composite means and anomalies of synoptic conditions for specific isobaric levels of 500, 700, 850, 925 hPa and the sea level pressure (SLP). In addition, an analysis and discussion about the dynamic lifted index from NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data sets is presented. The daily composite mean analysis of 500 hPa revealed a trough line across the northern Adriatic Sea and central Italy, associated with a SW upper-air stream over western Greece. The maximum composite anomalies were depicted at the isobaric level of 500 hPa during autumn, spring and summer, against winter when the anomaly appeared at 925 hPa isobaric level. In addition, 48% of tornado events during the autumn season occurred in pre-frontal weather conditions (cold fronts) and 27% developed after the passage of the cold front. Furthermore, the main difference in synoptic patterns between tornado and waterspout days along western Greece during the autumn season is the maximum daily composite anomaly over the Gulf of Taranto.

  2. Analysis of synoptic conditions for tornadic days over Western Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Matsangouras, I. T.

    2014-03-01

    Tornadoes have been reported in Greece during the last decades and recent studies have given evidence that west Greece is a vulnerable area for tornadoes, waterspouts and funnel clouds to occur. In this study, the composite means and anomalies of synoptic conditions for tornadic events (tornadoes, waterspouts and funnel clouds) over west Greece are analyzed and discussed. The daily composite means of synoptic conditions were based on National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis datasets, for the period 12 August 1953 to 31 December 2012. The daily composite anomalies were calculated with respect to 30 years climatology (1981-2010) of the synoptic conditions. The analysis was carried out in terms of seasonal and monthly variability of composite means and anomalies of synoptic conditions for specific isobaric levels of 500, 700, 850, 925 hPa and the sea level pressure (SLP). In addition, an analysis and discussion about the dynamic Lifted Index from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis datasets is presented.

  3. Comparative analysis of near-present and future synoptic conditions and their contribution to precipitation in central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karacostas, Theodore S.; Bampzelis, Dimitrios; Karipidou, Symela; Pytharoulis, Ioannis; Tegoulias, Ioannis; Kartsios, Stergios; Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Pakalidou, Nikoletta

    2015-04-01

    The objective on this study is to identify and categorize the daily synoptic circulation patterns encountered between the two periods, in near-present (2001-2010) and future (2041-2050), over the greater area of central and northern Greece, under the "DAPHNE" project (www.daphne-meteo.gr). The followed up statistical analyses and comparisons are focus on the demonstration of the differences in the frequency of occurrences of the synoptic situations between the two time periods, aiming at mitigating drought in central Greece by means of Weather Modification. Actually, within the context of the project, the daily synoptic circulation patterns encountered during the near-present ten-year period are identified and classified according to Karacostas et al. (1992) synoptic classification, into ten distinct synoptic conditions, based on the isobaric level of 500hPa. A similar procedure is adopted for the future period 2041-2050, by developing the mid-tropospheric synoptic circulation patterns through the RegCM3 regional climate model, under the IPCC scenario A1B. Results indicate that certain differences exist between near-present and future frequency distribution of occurrences of the synoptic situations over the study area. The northwest (NW) and southwest (SW) synoptic circulation patterns remain the most frequent synoptic conditions observed for both examined periods. The low pressure system activity over the area exhibit significant decrease during the future period, as it is depicted from the inter-comparison of the frequencies of the closed low (L-2) and cut-off low (L-3) systems. On the other hand, the unorganized synoptic conditions, which are mostly identified as high-low patterns (H-L), appear to increase considerably. The frequencies of zonal flow (ZON) and those of synoptic conditions associated with the presence of high-pressure system over the area, that is (H-1) and (H-2), remain almost unchanged between the two periods. The impact of the aforementioned

  4. On the main characteristics of synoptic weather conditions associated with thunderstorm activity during the months of July and August in the city of Thessaloniki (Northern Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pissimanis, D. K.; Notaridou, V. A.; Spyrou, C. K.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of synoptic scale atmospheric circulation at least two days before the occurrence of thunderstorm or shower activity with high precipitation amounts is examined for the months of July and August for the area surrounding the city of Thessaloniki in Northern Greece. In a period of sixteen years (1985 2000), seventeen cases with precipitation amounts greater than 10 mm were found in these two months. The most important factor for the occurrence of the above activities was the approach of cold air, usually of mP origin, into Northern Greece. The advection of cold air was examined at the 700 hPa level. This cold air was advected toward the southern Balkans either from Northwestern Europe, or more directly from higher latitudes. In a few cases cold air that had initially been advected into the Central Mediterranean region finally moved eastward affecting Northern Greece. From these seventeen cases, the first four with the highest precipitation amounts (all exceeding 20 mm) were analysed in detail with the help of weather maps and radiosonde data available for the station at Micra. For these four cases, apart from the detailed analysis of the cold air advection, an attempt was made to investigate whether in the lowest part of the troposphere, the area of Northern Greece and the interior of the Balkan Peninsula to the north, was dominated by warm and humid air in the twenty four hour period that preceded each thunderstorm outbreak. For this purpose the evolution of the spatial distribution of the equivalent potential temperature (Θe) at the 850 hPa level was determined for the two or three preceding days. Finally, the presence of mesoscale disturbances, that could be considered responsible for triggering the ascending motions that are necessary for the initiation of the thunderstorm development, was investigated for each case.

  5. Study of the tornado event in Greece on March 25, 2009: Synoptic analysis and numerical modeling using modified topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsangouras, I. T.; Nastos, P. T.; Pytharoulis, I.

    2016-03-01

    Recent research revealed that western Greece and NW Peloponnese are regions that favor prefrontal tornadic incidence. On March 25, 2009 a tornado developed approximately at 10:30 UTC near Varda village (NW Peloponnese). Tornado intensity was T4-T5 (TORRO scale) and consequently caused an economic impact of 350,000 € over the local society. The goals of this study are: (i) to analyze synoptic and remote sensing features regarding the tornado event over NW Peloponnese and (ii) to investigate the role of topography in tornadogenesis triggered under strong synoptic scale forcing over that area. Synoptic analysis was based on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data sets. The analysis of daily anomaly of synoptic conditions with respect to 30 years' climatology (1981-2010), was based on the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) reanalysis data sets. In addition, numerous remote sensing data sets were derived by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS) weather station network in order to better interpret the examined tornado event. Finally, numerical modeling was performed using the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), initialized by ECMWF gridded analyses, with telescoping nested grids that allow the representation of atmospheric circulations ranging from the synoptic scale down to the meso-scale. The two numerical experiments were performed on the basis of: (a) the presence and (b) the absence of topography (landscape), so as to determine whether the occurrence of a tornado - identified by diagnostic instability indices - could be indicated by modifying topography. The energy helicity index (EHI), the bulk Richardson number (BRN) shear, the storm-relative environmental helicity (SRH), and the maximum convective available potential energy (MCAPE, for parcels with maximum θe) were considered as principal diagnostic instability variables and

  6. On the relation between seasonal synoptic circulation types and spatial air quality characteristics in Athens, Greece.

    PubMed

    Kassomenos, Pavlos A; Sindosi, Ourania A; Lolis, Christos J; Chaloulakou, Arhontoula

    2003-03-01

    The impact of weather on air pollution was examined and evaluated for the city of Athens, Greece. We used an objectively defined synoptic classification scheme consisting of six summer and eight winter circulation types. This scheme was established using a combination of both factor and cluster analysis during 1954-1999. Surface and isobaric levels of 850 hPa data were used. Factor analysis combined with cluster analysis was used to derive circulation types based on surface meteorological data for the period 1954-1999 in Athens and on surface pressure grid data. The city was divided into three sectors according to the financial and social activities of the residents. To examine the spatial characteristics of pollutant concentrations over Athens for each synoptic type, the synoptic circulation types were then correlated with both gaseous and particulate pollutant concentrations measured in each sector between 1983 and 1999. Finally, extreme and severe episodic events were studied in terms of their meteorological and synoptic characteristics.

  7. Groundwater quality of porous aquifers in Greece: a synoptic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalaki, P.; Voudouris, K.

    2008-04-01

    Greece is dependent on groundwater resources for its water supply. The main aquifers are within carbonate rocks (karstic aquifers) and coarse grained Neogene and Quaternary deposits (porous aquifers). The use of groundwater resources has become particularly intensive in coastal areas during the last decades with the intense urbanization, tourist development and irrigated land expansion. Sources of groundwater pollution are the seawater intrusion due to over-exploitation of coastal aquifers, the fertilizers from agricultural activities and the disposal of untreated wastewater in torrents or in old pumping wells. In the last decades the total abstractions from coastal aquifers exceed the natural recharge; so the aquifer systems are not used safely. Over-exploitation causes a negative water balance, triggering seawater intrusion. Seawater intrusion phenomena are recorded in coastal aquifer systems. Nitrate pollution is the second major source of groundwater degradation in many areas in Greece. The high levels of nitrate are probably the result of over-fertilization and the lack of sewage systems in some urban areas.

  8. Synoptic conditions and hazards in coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surkova, Galina; Arkhipkin, Victor; Kislov, Alexsandr

    2013-04-01

    This work is an approach to the methodology of prediction of hazards in the coastal zone. For the past 60 years, according to the observations and reanalysis, meteorological conditions are rough in connection with the storm waves and strong winds resulting in catastrophic damage in the coastal zone of the Black and Caspian Seas. Forecast of similar events is taken from CMIP3 modeled for the future climate 2046-2065 by general global atmosphere and ocean circulation model MPI-ECHAM5. The research was conducted for the three types of calendar data samples: 1) storm wave and surge from observations (1948-2012), 2) storm simulations with wave height of 4 m and more (1948-2010), and 3) prognostic climate scenarios for 2046-2065. In the first sample especially rare events were chosen, accompanied by a large damage in the coastal zone. Second sample of cases was derived from modeling of SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore). The third sample was derived from projections of cases from group 1 in the MPI-ECHAM5 climate forecasts for 2046-2065. For each sample the data of large-scale fields of surface pressure, height 500 hPa isobaric surfaces, 700gPa (Reanalysis NCEP / NCAR) was analyzed. On the basis of statistical techniques (decomposition of fields in the natural orthogonal functions (EOF) and cluster analysis) the synoptic situations associated with these events were classified. Centroids of pressure fields for dominated cases show that there are two basic types of synoptic situations in case of storm waves for the Black Sea. In the first case main role play the Mediterranean cyclones located in the east of the Mediterranean Sea, they are spread over the Black Sea, and often form a local center of low pressure. Their movement is blocked by the high pressure over the European Russia and Eastern Europe. If the center of the cyclone is over Asia and the southern part of the Black Sea, the weather is dominated by the north-eastern, eastern, south-easterly winds. In some cases

  9. Synoptic-mesoscale analysis and numerical modeling of a tornado event on 12 February 2010 in northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsangouras, I. T.; Nastos, P. T.; Pytharoulis, I.

    2011-07-01

    Tornadoes are furious convective weather phenomena, with the maximum frequency over Greece during the cold period (autumn, winter).This study analyzes the tornado event that occurred on 12 February 2010 near Vrastama village, at Chalkidiki's prefecture, a non urban area 45 km southeast of Thessaloniki in northern Greece. The tornado developed approximately between 17:10 and 17:35 UTC and was characterized as F2 (Fujita Scale). The tornado event caused several damages to an industrial building and at several olive-tree farms. A synoptic survey is presented along with satellite images, radar products and vertical profile of the atmosphere. Additionally, the nonhydrostatic WRF-ARW atmospheric numerical model (version 3.2.0) was utilized in analysis and forecast mode using very high horizontal resolution (1.333 km × 1.333 km) in order to represent the ambient atmospheric conditions. A comparison of statistical errors between WRF-ARW forecasts and ECMWF analysis is presented, accompanied with LGTS 12:00 UTC soundings (Thessaloniki Airport) and forecast soundings in order to verify the WRF-ARW model. Additionally, a comparison between WRF-ARW and ECMWF thermodynamic indices is also presented. The WRF-ARW high spatial resolution model appeared to simulate with significant accuracy a severe convective event with a lead period of 18 h.

  10. Synoptic-mesoscale analysis and numerical modeling of a tornado event on 12 February 2010 in northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsangouras, J. T.; Nastos, P. T.; Pytharoulis, I.

    2010-09-01

    Tornadoes are furious convective weather phenomena, having increased frequency, particularly in the cool season, attributed to the higher moisture content of the atmosphere due to global warming. Tornadoes' source regions are more likely shallow waters, which are easily warmed, such as Gulf of Mexico or Mediterranean Sea. This study analyzes the tornado event, that occurred on 12 February 2010 in Vrastera, Chalkidiki, a non urban area 45 km southeastern of Thessaloniki in northern Greece. The tornado was developed approximately between 17:15 and 18:45 UTC and characterized as F2 (Fujita Scale). The tornado caused several damages to an industrial building and an olive-tree farm. A synoptic analysis based on the ECMWF charts is presented along with an extended dataset of satellite images, radar products and vertical profile of the atmosphere. Additionaly, the nonhydrostatic WRF-ARW atmospheric numerical model (version 3.2) was utilized in analysis and forecast mode using very high horizontal resolution (1 km x 1 km) in order to represent the ambient atmospheric conditions and examine the prediction of the event. Sensitivity experiments look into the model performance in the choice of microphysical and boundary layer parameterization schemes.

  11. Evaluation of operational numerical weather predictions in relation to the prevailing synoptic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pytharoulis, Ioannis; Tegoulias, Ioannis; Karacostas, Theodore; Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Kartsios, Stergios; Bampzelis, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    The Thessaly plain, which is located in central Greece, has a vital role in the financial life of the country, because of its significant agricultural production. The aim of DAPHNE project (http://www.daphne-meteo.gr) is to tackle the problem of drought in this area by means of Weather Modification in convective clouds. This problem is reinforced by the increase of population and the water demand for irrigation, especially during the warm period of the year. The nonhydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), is utilized for research and operational purposes of DAPHNE project. The WRF output fields are employed by the partners in order to provide high-resolution meteorological guidance and plan the project's operations. The model domains cover: i) Europe, the Mediterranean sea and northern Africa, ii) Greece and iii) the wider region of Thessaly (at selected periods), at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km, respectively, using 2-way telescoping nesting. The aim of this research work is to investigate the model performance in relation to the prevailing upper-air synoptic circulation. The statistical evaluation of the high-resolution operational forecasts of near-surface and upper air fields is performed at a selected period of the operational phase of the project using surface observations, gridded fields and weather radar data. The verification is based on gridded, point and object oriented techniques. The 10 upper-air circulation types, which describe the prevailing conditions over Greece, are employed in the synoptic classification. This methodology allows the identification of model errors that occur and/or are maximized at specific synoptic conditions and may otherwise be obscured in aggregate statistics. Preliminary analysis indicates that the largest errors are associated with cyclonic conditions. Acknowledgments This research work of Daphne project (11SYN_8_1088) is co-funded by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund

  12. Synoptic drivers of 400 years of summer temperature and precipitation variability on Mt. Olympus, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klesse, Stefan; Ziehmer, Malin; Rousakis, Georgios; Trouet, Valerie; Frank, David

    2015-08-01

    The Mediterranean region has been identified as a global warming hotspot, where future climate impacts are expected to have significant consequences on societal and ecosystem well-being. To put ongoing trends of summer climate into the context of past natural variability, we reconstructed climate from maximum latewood density (MXD) measurements of Pinus heldreichii (1521-2010) and latewood width (LWW) of Pinus nigra (1617-2010) on Mt. Olympus, Greece. Previous research in the northeastern Mediterranean has primarily focused on inter-annual variability, omitting any low-frequency trends. The present study utilizes methods capable of retaining climatically driven long-term behavior of tree growth. The LWW chronology corresponds closely to early summer moisture variability (May-July, r = 0.65, p < 0.001, 1950-2010), whereas the MXD-chronology relates mainly to late summer warmth (July-September, r = 0.64, p < 0.001; 1899-2010). The chronologies show opposing patterns of decadal variability over the twentieth century (r = -0.68, p < 0.001) and confirm the importance of the summer North Atlantic Oscillation (sNAO) for summer climate in the northeastern Mediterranean, with positive sNAO phases inducing cold anomalies and enhanced cloudiness and precipitation. The combined reconstructions document the late twentieth—early twenty-first century warming and drying trend, but indicate generally drier early summer and cooler late summer conditions in the period ~1700-1900 CE. Our findings suggest a potential decoupling between twentieth century atmospheric circulation patterns and pre-industrial climate variability. Furthermore, the range of natural climate variability stretches beyond summer moisture availability observed in recent decades and thus lends credibility to the significant drying trends projected for this region in current Earth System Model simulations.

  13. Synoptic drivers of 400 years of summer temperature and precipitation variability on Mt. Olympus, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klesse, Stefan; Ziehmer, Malin; Rousakis, Georgios; Trouet, Valerie; Frank, David

    2014-09-01

    The Mediterranean region has been identified as a global warming hotspot, where future climate impacts are expected to have significant consequences on societal and ecosystem well-being. To put ongoing trends of summer climate into the context of past natural variability, we reconstructed climate from maximum latewood density (MXD) measurements of Pinus heldreichii (1521-2010) and latewood width (LWW) of Pinus nigra (1617-2010) on Mt. Olympus, Greece. Previous research in the northeastern Mediterranean has primarily focused on inter-annual variability, omitting any low-frequency trends. The present study utilizes methods capable of retaining climatically driven long-term behavior of tree growth. The LWW chronology corresponds closely to early summer moisture variability (May-July, r = 0.65, p < 0.001, 1950-2010), whereas the MXD-chronology relates mainly to late summer warmth (July-September, r = 0.64, p < 0.001; 1899-2010). The chronologies show opposing patterns of decadal variability over the twentieth century (r = -0.68, p < 0.001) and confirm the importance of the summer North Atlantic Oscillation (sNAO) for summer climate in the northeastern Mediterranean, with positive sNAO phases inducing cold anomalies and enhanced cloudiness and precipitation. The combined reconstructions document the late twentieth—early twenty-first century warming and drying trend, but indicate generally drier early summer and cooler late summer conditions in the period ~1700-1900 CE. Our findings suggest a potential decoupling between twentieth century atmospheric circulation patterns and pre-industrial climate variability. Furthermore, the range of natural climate variability stretches beyond summer moisture availability observed in recent decades and thus lends credibility to the significant drying trends projected for this region in current Earth System Model simulations.

  14. Epidemiology of aids defining conditions in Greece.

    PubMed

    Masgala, A; Nikolopoulos, G; Tsantes, A; Paraskeva, D

    2004-12-01

    To examine the secular trends of all AIDS opportunistic infections to occur first (OIs) in Greece, by year, by gender and by mode of transmission. The study included all AIDS defining conditions reported among Greek residents diagnosed with AIDS from 1981 to June 2003 and notified to the Hellenic Centre of Infectious Diseases Control. The analysis of trends in AIDS defining conditions in Greece has been performed only for the period 1993--2003. From 1981 to the first six months of 2003, 2,394 AIDS cases, 2,361 adults and 33 children, have been reported. HIV wasting syndrome was the most frequent OI to occur first followed by PCP pneumonia and Kaposi sarcoma. The frequency at which OIs occurred first varied by sex. Kaposi sarcoma was more frequent in males while tuberculosis and oesophageal candidiasis were more frequent in females. The frequency at which OIs occurred first varied also by exposure mode. Kaposi sarcoma was more frequent among men who have sex with men but that was not the case for the remaining transmission categories. From 1993 to the first six months of 2003 a downward trend was noticed only for chronic simplex disease. Since the introduction of HAART, an increasing trend was noticed for CMV disease, recurrent pneumonia, oesophageal candidiasis, Burkitt and immunoblastic lymphoma. Further epidemiological studies are needed to assess the OIs trends in coming years in order to plan prevention strategies and future medical care needs.

  15. Synoptic-scale fire weather conditions in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayasaka, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi L.; Bieniek, Peter A.

    2016-09-01

    Recent concurrent widespread fires in Alaska are evaluated to assess their associated synoptic-scale weather conditions. Several periods of high fire activity from 2003 to 2015 were identified using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) hotspot data by considering the number of daily hotspots and their continuity. Fire weather conditions during the top six periods of high fire activity in the fire years of 2004, 2005, 2009, and 2015 were analyzed using upper level (500 hPa) and near surface level (1000 hPa) atmospheric reanalysis data. The top four fire-periods occurred under similar unique high-pressure fire weather conditions related to Rossby wave breaking (RWB). Following the ignition of wildfires, fire weather conditions related to RWB events typically result in two hotspot peaks occurring before and after high-pressure systems move from south to north across Alaska. A ridge in the Gulf of Alaska resulted in southwesterly wind during the first hotspot peak. After the high-pressure system moved north under RWB conditions, the Beaufort Sea High developed and resulted in relatively strong easterly wind in Interior Alaska and a second (largest) hotspot peak during each fire period. Low-pressure-related fire weather conditions occurring under cyclogenesis in the Arctic also resulted in high fire activity under southwesterly wind with a single large hot-spot peak.

  16. Convective rain cells: spatio-temporal characteristics, synoptic patterns and a high resolution synoptically conditioned weather generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peleg, Nadav; Morin, Efrat

    2014-05-01

    Information on rain cell features was extracted from high-resolution weather radar data for a total of 191,586 radar volume scans from 12 hydrological years. The convective rain cell features (i.e., cell area, rainfall intensity and cell orientation) were obtained using cell segmentation technique and cell tracking algorithm was used to analyze the changes of those features over time. Three synoptic types were defined for the study area (northen Israel), two extratropical winter lows: deep Cyprus low and a shallow low, and a tropical intrusion: Active Red Sea Trough. Empirical distributions were computed to describe the spatiotemporal characteristics of convective rain cells for these synoptic systems. Those empirical distributions were used for the development of the HiReS-WG (high-resolution synoptically conditioned weather generator). This weather generator is a stochastic model that generates high resolution rainfall fields (5 min and 0.25 km2). The WG is composed of four modules: the synoptic generator, the motion vector generator, the convective rain cell generator and the low-intensity rainfall generator. The weather generator was evaluated for annual rain depth, season timing, wet-/dry-period duration, rain-intensity distributions and spatial correlations using 300 years of simulated rainfall data. It was found that the weather generator well-represented the above properties compared to radar and rain-gauge observations from the studied region. The HiReS-WG is a good tool to study catchments' hydrological responses to variations in rainfall, especially small- to medium-size catchments, and it can also be linked to climate models to force the prevailing synoptic conditions.

  17. The role of atmospheric synoptic conditions in the Beaufort and Chukchi seasonal ice zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Schweiger, A. J. B.

    2015-12-01

    How atmosphere and sea ice interact depends on the prevailing weather. Synoptic activities transport energy and moisture into the Arctic and modify the structure of the atmosphere, cloud conditions, and the surface energy budget over sea ice. The structure of the atmosphere, such as temperature inversions and specific humidity inversions are critical for the life cycle of Arctic clouds. Cloud radiative heating is an important component of the Arctic surface energy budget. The differences in the structure of the atmosphere, clouds, and the radiation balance at the surface under different synoptic conditions will determine which processes will govern the interaction between the atmosphere and clouds. In this study, dominant synoptic types over the Beaufort and Chukchi seasonal ice zone (BCSIZ) are identified using the ERA-Interim reanalysis data sets and a k-mean clustering synoptic classification algorithm. The synoptic classification algorithm categorizes individual weather events in the atmospheric reanalysis into four synoptic types with distinct signatures in baroclinicity and temperature advection. The typical structure of the atmosphere in ERA-Interim is determined for each synoptic type. In particular the structure of the summer atmosphere across the ice edge along 150°W and 140°W longitude will be the analyzed and evaluated with observations obtained from the Seasonal Ice Zone Reconnaissance Survey (SIZRS). Cloud conditions and cloud radiative forcings at the surface under different synoptic conditions are determined using satellite observations, from MODIS, CloudSat, and Calipso, and modeled clouds in reanalysis. The influence of synoptic conditions on the structure of atmosphere and cloud through heat and moisture transport is explored and the consequent effects on the surface energy budget in BCSIZ are assessed.

  18. Synoptic conditions producing cirrus during the FIRE cirrus IFO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David OC.; Wylie, Donald P.

    1990-01-01

    Although direct observations of cirrus clouds by the FIRE research aircraft were usually confined to the area of Intensive Field Observation (IFO) surface network, these cirrus were generally part of a more extensive zone of upper level cloudiness. It is these large scale patterns of cirriform cloud and their relationship to the corresponding synoptic environment which are the prime focus. Three conceptual models are presented and each of the individual cases are classified into one of these categories. Although the cases manifest significant differences in intensity and small scale structure, it is believed that they are best viewed in this unified context. The descriptions given are mostly qualitative, however, quantitative descriptions of the synoptic control and its relationship to cloud structure for all the IFO cases are summarized. The synoptic situations in which extensive cirriform clouds were observed are classified into three basic types: warm front cases, cold front cases, and closed low aloft cases. A simplified summary of each type of situation is presented.

  19. Greece.

    PubMed

    1985-04-01

    A brief description of the population characteristics, geographical features, history, current political situation, economy, energy supply, foreign relations of Greece is presented. Greece's population of 9.95 million is 98% Greek, and the official language is Greek. 97% of the population is Greek Orthodox, and 2% is Muslim. Schooling is compulsory for 9 years, and the literacy rate is 89% for women and 96% for men. The infant mortality rate is 13.8, and life expectancy is 72 years for males and 75 years for female. Greece is situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula and consists of the mainland, the Peleponnesos, and numerous islands including Crete. Most of the land mass is mountainous, large areas are dry, and only 28% of the land is arable. From the earliest time until recently, emigration from Greece to other countries was a common pattern. Since the 1960s, internal migration to urban areas was the dominant migration trend. Currently, 30% of the population lives in Athens. Despite the growing industrialization and urbanization of the population, the Greeks retain many traditional family and social values. Greece was part of the cradle of civilization, and its history is characterized by the rise of the Minoan culture on Crete, the rise and fall of the Myceneans on the Peleponnesos, the development of the city states of Athens and Sparta, the destruction of Athens during the Peloponnesian War, domination by the Macedonians, the creation of the Hellenistic cilivization, conquest by the Roman Empire, the establishment of the Byzantine Empire, and in 1459 conquest by the Ottoman Empire. In the 1820's Greece fought for and finally won its independence, In World War I Greece fought on the side of the Allies. In World War II, the Greeks successfully resisted an invasion from Italy. In 1941, the country was taken over by the Germans, but the Greek resistance movement continued to fight the Germans until liberation. Between 1944-49, there were 2 unsuccessful

  20. Greece

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... panels covering a region to the west of the top panels. Data from each of the four dates have been processed identically, and relative ... MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center in Hampton, VA. Image ... Maria Kanakidou and Nikos Mihalopoulos, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece. Other formats ...

  1. Greece

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... across 800 kilometers from north to south and between Greece and western Turkey, are uniquely situated at the intersection of Europe, ... as well as part of mainland Turkey. Many sites important to ancient and modern history can be found here. The largest modern city in the ...

  2. The relationship of marine stratus to synoptic conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wylie, Donald P.; Hinton, Barry; Grimm, Peter; Kloesel, Kevin A.

    1990-01-01

    The marine stratus which persistently covered most of the eastern Pacific Ocean, had large clear areas during the FIRE Intensive Field Operations (IFO) in 1987. Clear zones formed inside the large oceanic cloud mass on almost every day during the IFO. The location and size of the clear zones varied from day to day implying that they were related to dynamic weather conditions and not to oceanic conditions. Forecasting of cloud cover for aircraft operations during the IFO was directed towards predicting when and where the clear and broken zones would form inside the large marine stratus cloud mass. The clear zones often formed to the northwest of the operations area and moved towards it. However, on some days the clear zones appeared to form during the day in the operations area as part of the diurnal cloud burn off. The movement of the clear zones from day to day were hard to follow because of the large diurnal changes in cloud cover. Clear and broken cloud zones formed during the day only to distort in shape and fill during the following night. The field forecasters exhibited some skill in predicting when the clear and broken cloud patterns would form in the operations area. They based their predictions on the analysis and simulations of the models run by NOAA's Numeric Meteorological Center. How the atmospheric conditions analyzed by one NOAA/NMC model related to the cloud cover is discussed.

  3. The exceptionally wet year of 2014 over Greece: a statistical and synoptical-atmospheric analysis over the region of Thessaloniki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolika, Konstantia; Maheras, Panagiotis; Anagnostopoulou, Christina

    2017-04-01

    The highest rainfall totals (912.2 mm) and the largest number of raindays (133 days), since 1958, were recorded in Thessaloniki during the year of 2014. Extreme precipitation heights were also observed on a seasonal, monthly and daily basis. The examined year presented the highest daily rainfall intensity, the maximum daily precipitation and the largest number of heavy precipitation days (greater than 10 mm), and it also exceeded the previous amounts of precipitation of very wet (95th percentile) and extremely wet (99th percentile) days. According to the automatic circulation type classification scheme that was used, it was found that during this exceptionally wet year, the frequency of occurrence of cyclonic types at the near surface geopotential level increases, while the same types decreased at a higher atmospheric level (500 hPa). The prevailing type was type C which is located at the centre of the study area (Greece), but several other cyclonic types changed during this year not only their frequency but also their percentage of rainfall as well as their daily precipitation intensity. It should be highlighted that these findings differentiated on the seasonal-scale analysis. Moreover, out of the three teleconnection patterns that were examined (Scandinavian Pattern, Eastern Mediterranean Teleconnection Pattern and North Sea-Caspian Pattern), the Scandinavian one (SCAND) was detected during the most of the months of 2014 meaning that it was highly associated with intense precipitation over Greece.

  4. Are operative delivery procedures in Greece socially conditioned?

    PubMed

    Skalkidis, Y; Petridou, E; Papathoma, E; Revinthi, K; Tong, D; Trichopoulos, D

    1996-04-01

    Caesarean section rates have increased in Greece by almost 50% during the last 13 years. We conducted a study in Athens, Greece, to assess the importance of a series of medical and socioeconomic factors in the use of Caesarean section or operative vaginal procedures, rather than a non-operative process, for the delivery of singleton, liveborn babies of primiparous mothers. We used a case control approach to compare 444 babies delivered through a Caesarean section and 130 delivered through operative vaginal delivery with 1235 normally delivered babies in a public and a private hospital. Data were analysed through multiple logistic regression. Caesarean section was more commonly performed in older, shorter or overweight mothers and for high and low birth-weight babies, as well as in response to several obstetric complications and following in-vitro fertilization. A similar pattern was noted with respect to operative vaginal delivery, except that this procedure was not unusually frequent among overweight women and was not encountered in this study among children born after in-vitro fertilization. Caesarean section was performed twice as often in the public teaching hospital as in a private maternity hospital, and operative vaginal delivery was several times more common in the former than in the latter, after controlling for biomedical risk factors. The unequal distribution of operative delivery procedures between the public and the private hospital raises questions about the justification of their performance in a substantial fraction of deliveries, and indicates that social factors condition their use.

  5. Synoptic meteorological conditions associated with high spring and summer ozone levels at a rural site in the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalabokas, Pavlos; Repapis, Christos; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Zerefos, Christos

    2017-04-01

    For the identification of the nature of spring and summertime ozone episodes, rural ozone measurements from the Eastern Mediterranean station of Finokalia-Crete, Greece during the first 4-year period of its record (1998-2001) have been analyzed with emphasis on periods of high ozone concentrations, according to the daily variation of the afternoon (12:00 - 18:00) ozone values. For the 7% highest spring and summertime ozone episodes composite NOAA/ESRL reanalysis maps of various meteorological parameters and/or their anomalies (geopotential height, specific humidity, vertical wind velocity omega, vector wind speed and temperature) have been examined together with their corresponding HYSPLIT back trajectories. This work is a continuation of a previous first approach regarding summer highest and lowest surface ozone episodes in Finokalia and other Central and Eastern Mediterranean stations (Kalabokas et al., 2008), which is now extended to more meteorological parameters and higher pressure levels. The results show that the examined synoptic meteorological condition during springtime ozone episodes over the Eastern Mediterranean station of Finokalia are quite similar with those conditions during high ozone springtime episodes observed at rural stations over the Western Mediterranean (Kalabokas et al., 2016). On the other hand the summer time synoptic conditions corresponding to highest surface ozone episodes at Finokalia are comparable with the conditions encountered during highest ozone episodes in the lower troposphere following analysis of MOZAIC vertical profiles over the Aegean Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean (Kalabokas et al., 2015 and references therein). During the highest ozone episodes, for both examined seasons, the transport of tropospheric ozone-rich air masses through atmospheric subsidence influences significantly the boundary layer and surface ozone concentrations. In particular, the geographic areas with observed tropospheric subsidence seem to be

  6. The dependence of Arctic cloud on the synoptic conditions in the Beaufort and Chukchi seasonal ice zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Schweiger, A. J. B.

    2016-12-01

    How atmosphere and sea ice interact depends on the prevailing weather. Synoptic activities transport energy and moisture into the Arctic and modify the structure of the atmosphere, cloud conditions, and the surface energy budget over sea ice. The structure of the atmosphere, such as temperature inversions and specific humidity inversions are critical for the life cycle of Arctic clouds. Cloud radiative heating is an important component of the Arctic surface energy budget. The differences in the structure of the atmosphere, clouds, and the radiation balance at the surface under different synoptic conditions will determine which processes will govern the interaction between the atmosphere and clouds. In this study, dominant synoptic states over the Beaufort and Chukchi seasonal ice zone (BCSIZ) are identified using the ERA-Interim reanalysis data sets and a k-mean clustering synoptic classification algorithm. The synoptic classification algorithm categorizes individual weather events in the atmospheric reanalysis into four synoptic states with distinct signatures in baroclinicity and temperature advection. Using the CloudSat/Calipso joint cloud mask, the cloud conditions of the four synoptic states in the BCSIZ are examined. The cloud fraction of the four states are significantly different at different levels, which are associated with differences in the lower tropospheric static stability and the abundance of moisture, especially in the middle and lower atmosphere. These differences are also captured by the ERA-Interim although the ERA-Interim greatly overestimates the low-level cloud fraction and underestimates cloud fraction higher up, which is partly due to the limitation of the joint CloudSat/Calipso cloud mask below 1 km. In addition, the seasonal cycle and horizontal distribution of cloud fraction and cloud radiative heating at surface are examined for the four synoptic states using the joint CloudSat/Calipso retrievals. Two versions of joint Cloud

  7. Synoptic Scale Meteorological Conditions of Dust Events over the Southwestern Border Region of the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armenta, R. B.; DuBois, D. W.; Bleiweiss, M. P.; Novlan, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Dust storms affect the environment, health and economics of a region. For these reasons it is important to understand the main causes and sources of windblown dust in the southwestern border region of the US. To help us understand the causes of the dust storms in our region, we are attempting to determine the synoptic scale meteorological conditions present at the time of approximately 60 dust storm events (from about 600 dust events over a 15 year period). From that, we will develop a "synoptic scale climatology" for dust events in the border region. To develop this climatology, we are using the NARR 500mb geopotential height patterns at 18GMT (approximate time of initial dust emission) to investigate whether our "observational" experience agrees with our hypothesis that a 500mb geopotential height low pressure pattern exists in the vicinity of the NM/CO border (latitudinal extent) and, depending on the timing of the event and other influences, somewhere from UT to TX (longitudinal extent). In our analysis we are comparing individual 500mb geopotential height patterns to a mean 500mb geopotential height pattern. Our preliminary results indicate that our observations are valid. Our goal is to develop a tool for forecasting these types of events.

  8. Instability indices and unstable atmospheric conditions over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamperakis, Nikolaos; Matsangouras, Ioannis; Nastos, Panagiotis; Pytharoulis, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    Significant research has been carried out investigating the use of diagnostic variable sets or instability indices, as forecasting tools or parameters to identify favorable atmospheric conditions of severe convective weather. Indeed, the value of such variables is strongly associated with their capacity to summarize in a single number some characteristics of the severe storm environment, thus, operational forecasters use them to address the overall threat of severe weather associated with convective storms. In this paper a spatial and temporal analysis of specific instability indices over Greece during 2008-2014 period is presented. The energy helicity index (EHI), the bulk Richardson number (BRN) shear, the storm-relative environmental helicity (SRH), and the convective available potential energy (CAPE) were considered as principal diagnostic instability variables and employed in spatial and temporal analysis. The EHI, BRN, SRH and CAPE indices were calculated from ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. The lighting activity, recorded by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS) Precision Lighting Network (PLN), is employed to highlight favorable atmospheric conditions of severe convective weather.

  9. Analysis of southeast Australian zooplankton observations of 1938-42 using synoptic oceanographic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Mark E.; Everett, Jason D.; Suthers, Iain M.

    2011-03-01

    The research vessel Warreen obtained 1742 planktonic samples along the continental shelf and slope of southeast Australia from 1938-42, representing the earliest spatially and temporally resolved zooplankton data from Australian marine waters. In this paper, Warreen observations along the southeast Australian seaboard from 28°S to 38°S are interpreted based on synoptic meteorological and oceanographic conditions and ocean climatologies. Meteorological conditions are based on the NOAA-CIRES 20th Century Reanalysis Project; oceanographic conditions use Warreen hydrological observations, and the ocean climatology is the CSIRO Atlas of Regional Seas. The Warreen observations were undertaken in waters on average 0.45 °C cooler than the climatological average, and included the longest duration El Niño of the 20th century. In northern New South Wales (NSW), week time-scale events dominate zooplankton response. In August 1940 an unusual winter upwelling event occurred in northern NSW driven by a stronger than average East Australian Current (EAC) and anomalous northerly winds that resulted in high salp and larvacean abundance. In January 1941 a strong upwelling event between 28° and 33°S resulted in a filament of upwelled water being advected south and alongshore, which was low in zooplankton biovolume. In southern NSW a seasonal cycle in physical and planktonic characteristics is observed. In January 1941 the poleward extension of the EAC was strong, advecting more tropical tunicate species southward. Zooplankton abundance and distribution on the continental shelf and slope are more dependent on weekly to monthly timescales on local oceanographic and meteorological conditions than continental-scale interannual trends. The interpretation of historical zooplankton observations of the waters off southeast Australia for the purpose of quantifying anthropogenic impacts will be improved with the use of regional hindcasts of synoptic ocean and atmospheric weather that can

  10. Forecast skill of synoptic conditions associated with Santa Ana winds in Southern California

    Treesearch

    Charles Jones; Francis Fujioka; Leila M.V. Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Santa Ana winds (SAW) are synoptically driven mesoscale winds observed in Southern California usually during late fall and winter. Because of the complex topography of the region, SAW episodes can sometimes be extremely intense and pose significant environmental hazards, especially during wildfire incidents. A simple set of criteria was used to identify synoptic-scale...

  11. Saharan dust intrusions in Spain: Health impacts and associated synoptic conditions.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Julio; Linares, Cristina; Carmona, Rocío; Russo, Ana; Ortiz, Cristina; Salvador, Pedro; Trigo, Ricardo Machado

    2017-07-01

    A lot of papers have been published about the impact on mortality of Sahara dust intrusions in individual cities. However, there is a lack of studies that analyse the impact on a country and scarcer if in addition the analysis takes into account the meteorological conditions that favour these intrusions. The main aim is to examine the effect of Saharan dust intrusions on daily mortality in different Spanish regions and to characterize the large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with such dust intrusions. For determination of days with Saharan dust intrusions, we used information supplied by the Ministry of Agriculture, Food & Environment, it divides Spain into 9 main areas. In each of these regions, a representative province was selected. A time series analysis has been performed to analyse the relationship between daily mortality and PM10 levels in the period from 01.01.04 to 31.12.09, using Poisson regression and stratifying the analysis by the presence or absence of Saharan dust advections. The proportion of days on which there are Saharan dust intrusions rises to 30% of days. The synoptic pattern is characterised by an anticyclonic ridge extending from northern Africa to the Iberian Peninsula. Particulate matter (PM) on days with intrusions are associated with daily mortality, something that does not occur on days without intrusions, indicating that Saharan dust may be a risk factor for daily mortality. In other cases, what Saharan dust intrusions do is to change the PM-related mortality behaviour pattern, going from PM2.5. A study such as the one conducted here, in which meteorological analysis of synoptic situations which favour Saharan dust intrusions, is combined with the effect on health at a city level, would seem to be crucial when it comes to analysing the differentiated mortality pattern in situations of Saharan dust intrusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Statistical approach for assessing the influence of synoptic and meteorological conditions on ozone concentrations over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Noelia; Butler, Tim; Sillmann, Jana

    2015-04-01

    Air pollution has become a serious problem in many industrialized and densely-populated urban areas due to its negative effects on human health, damages agricultural crops and ecosystems. The concentration of air pollutants is the result of several factors, including emission sources, lifetime and spatial distribution of the pollutants, atmospheric properties and interactions, wind speed and direction, and topographic features. Episodes of air pollution are often associated with stationary or slowly migrating anticyclonic (high-pressure) systems that reduce advection, diffusion, and deposition of atmospheric pollutants. Certain weather conditions facilitate the concentration of pollutants, such as the incidence of light winds that contributes to the increasing of stagnation episodes affecting air quality. Therefore, the atmospheric circulation plays an important role in air quality conditions that are affected by both, synoptic and local scale processes. This study assesses the influence of the large-scale circulation along with meteorological conditions on tropospheric ozone in Europe. The frequency of weather types (WTs) is examined under a novel approach, which is based on an automated version of the Lamb Weather Types catalog (Jenkinson and Collison, 1977). Here, we present an implementation of such classification point-by-point over the European domain. Moreover, the analysis uses a new grid-averaged climatology (1°x1°) of daily surface ozone concentrations from observations of individual sites that matches the resolution of global models (Schnell,et al., 2014). Daily frequency of WTs and meteorological conditions are combined in a multiple regression approach for investigating the influence on ozone concentrations. Different subsets of predictors are examined within multiple linear regression models (MLRs) for each grid cell in order to identify the best regression model. Several statistical metrics are applied for estimating the robustness of the

  13. Identifying the most hazardous synoptic meteorological conditions for Winter UK PM10 exceedences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Chris; Dacre, Helen; Collins, Bill; Masato, Giacomo

    2016-04-01

    Summary We investigate the relationship between synoptic scale meteorological variability and local scale pollution concentrations within the UK. Synoptic conditions representative of atmospheric blocking highlighted significant increases in UK PM10 concentration ([PM10]), with the probability of exceeding harmful [PM10] limits also increased. Once relationships had been diagnosed, The Met Office Unified Model (UM) was used to replicate these relationships, using idealised source regions of PM10. This helped to determine the PM10 source regions most influential throughout UK PM10 exceedance events and to test whether the model was capable of capturing the relationships between UK PM10 and atmospheric blocking. Finally, a time slice simulation for 2050-2060 helped to answer the question whether PM10 exceedance events are more likely to occur within a changing climate. Introduction Atmospheric blocking events are well understood to lead to conditions, conducive to pollution events within the UK. Literature shows that synoptic conditions with the ability to deflect the Northwest Atlantic storm track from the UK, often lead to the highest UK pollution concentrations. Rossby wave breaking (RWB) has been identified as a mechanism, which results in atmospheric blocking and its relationship with UK [PM10] is explored using metrics designed in Masato, et al., 2013. Climate simulations facilitated by the Met Office UM, enable these relationships between RWB and PM10 to be found within the model. Subsequently the frequency of events that lead to hazardous PM10 concentrations ([PM10]) in a future climate, can be determined, within a climate simulation. An understanding of the impact, meteorology has on UK [PM10] within a changing climate, will help inform policy makers, regarding the importance of limiting PM10 emissions, ensuring safe air quality in the future. Methodology and Results Three Blocking metrics were used to subset RWB into four categories. These RWB categories

  14. Numerical simulation of tornadoes' meteorological conditions over Greece: A case study of tornadic activity over NW Peloponnese on March 25, 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsangouras, Ioannis T.; Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Pytharoulis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    Recent research revealed that NW Peloponnese, Greece is an area that favours pre-frontal tornadic incidence. This study presents the results of the synoptic analysis of the meteorological conditions during a tornado event over NW Peloponnese on March 25, 2009. Further, the role of topography in tornado genesis is examined. The tornado was formed approximately at 10:30 UTC, south-west of Vardas village, crossed the Nea Manolada and faded away at Lappas village, causing several damage. The length of its track was approximately 9-10 km and this tornado was characterized as F2 (Fujita scale) or T4-T5 in TORRO intensity scale. Synoptic analysis was based on ECMWF datasets, as well as on daily composite mean and anomaly of the geopotential heights at the middle and lower troposphere from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. In addition, numerous datasets derived from weather observations and remote sensing were used in order to interpret better the examined extreme event. Finally, a numerical simulation was performed using the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), initialized with ECMWF gridded analyses, with telescoping nested grids that allow the representation of atmospheric circulations ranging from the synoptic scale down to the meso-scale. In the numerical simulations the topography of the inner grid was modified by: a) 0% (actual topography) and b) -100% (without topography).

  15. Synoptic-scale atmospheric conditions associated with flash flooding in watersheds of the Catskill Mountains, New York, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teale, N. G.; Quiring, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding flash flooding is important in unfiltered watersheds, such as portions of the New York City water supply system (NYCWSS), as water quality is degraded by turbidity associated with flooding. To further understand flash flooding in watersheds of the NYCWSS, synoptic-scale atmospheric conditions most frequently associated with flash flooding between 1987 and 2013 were examined. Flash floods were identified during this time period using USGS 15-minute discharge data at the Esopus Creek near Allaben, NY and Neversink River at Claryville, NY gauges. Overall, 25 flash floods were detected, occurring over 17 separate flash flood days. These flash flood days were compared to the days on which flash flood warnings encompassing the study area was issued by the National Weather Service. The success rate for which the flash flood warnings for Ulster County coincided with flash flood in the study watershed was 0.09, demonstrating the highly localized nature of flash flooding in the Catskill Mountain region. The synoptic-scale atmospheric patterns influencing the study area were characterized by a principal component analysis and k-means clustering of NCEP/NCAR 500 mb geopotential height reanalysis data. This procedure was executed in Spatial Synoptic Typer Tools 4.0. While 17 unique synoptic patterns were identified, only 3 types were strongly associated with flash flooding events. A strong southwesterly flow suggesting advection of moisture from the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico is shown in composites of these 3 types. This multiscalar study thereby links flash flooding in the NYCWSS with synoptic-scale atmospheric circulation.Understanding flash flooding is important in unfiltered watersheds, such as portions of the New York City water supply system (NYCWSS), as water quality is degraded by turbidity associated with flooding. To further understand flash flooding in watersheds of the NYCWSS, synoptic-scale atmospheric conditions most frequently associated with

  16. Atmospheric synoptic conditions of snow precipitation in East Antarctica using ice core and reanalysis data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarchilli, Claudio; Ciardini, Virginia; Bonazza, Mattia; Frezzotti, Massimo; Stenni, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of the International Partnerships in Ice Core Sciences (IPCS) initiatives the GV7 site (70°41' S - 158°51' E) in East Antarctica was chosen as the new drilling site for the Italian contribution to the understanding of the climatic variability in the last 2000 years (IPICS 2k Array). Water stable isotopes and snow accumulation (SMB) values from a shallow firn core, obtained at GV7 during the 2001-2002 International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition (ITASE) traverse, are analyzed and compared with different meteorological model output in order to characterize the atmospheric synoptic conditions driving precipitation events at the site. On annual basis, ECMWF +24h forecasted snowfalls (SF) seem to well reproduce GV7 SMB values trend for the period from 1980 to 2005. Calculated air mass back-trajectories show that Eastern Indian - Western Pacific oceans represent the main moisture path toward the site during autumn - winter season. Analysis of the ECMWF 500 hPa Geopotential height field (GP500) anomalies shows that atmospheric blocking events developing between 130° E and 150° W at high latitudes drive the GV7 SMB by blocking zonal flow and conveying warm and moist deep air masses from ocean into the continental interior. On inter-annual basis, The SF variability over GV7 region follows the temporal oscillation of the third CEOF mode (CEOF3 10% of the total explained variance) of a combined complex empirical orthogonal function (CEOF) performed over GP500 and SF field. The CEOF3 highlights an oscillating feature, with wavenumber 2, in GP500 field over the Western Pacific-Eastern Indian Oceans and propagating westward. The pattern is deeply correlated with the Indian Dipole Oscillation and ENSO and their associated quasi-stationary Rossby waves propagating from the lower toward the higher latitudes.

  17. Rawinsonde sounding data and synoptic conditions for the CCOPE-VAS experiment, July 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    During the cooperative convective precipitation experiment, eight times were selected as VISSR atmospheric sounder (VAS) observation periods. A synoptic analysis of the surface and the 850, 700, 500, 300, and 200 maps for those eight periods. The satellite and radar data for those periods are included with the analyses. There were five rawinsonde stations in eastern Montana which made extra soundings for the VAS periods.

  18. Synoptical situations and meteorological conditions associated to floods in the mouth of rivers in the European part of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveeva, Tatiana; Gushchina, Daria

    2013-04-01

    The synoptical situations associated to the various type of floods in the mouth of rivers in European part of Russia are described. The storm surges, water flows and ice-jams are considered for Baltic, Barents sea, White sea, Azov sea, Black sea and Caspian sea regions. It is shown that the specific types of flood may be associated to various synoptical situations. Therefore it is unlikely to introduce the classification of synoptical regimes resulting in specific type of floods. However for each zone under consideration and for each specific flood type it is possible to determine the potential predictors of inundation: i.e. meteorological parameters which are characteristics of all cases of specific flood. There are: • for storm surges - long term wind forcing resulting in seiches in the sea, strong wind speed (the threshold varies in dependence on region), the wind direction orthogonal to the flow of river and strong baric gradient; • for water flows - the abundant precipitation, usually associate with the intensive frontal zone, the sudden change of air temperature resulting in snow melting in spring time; • for ice-jams - the strong temperature gradient extended in north-south direction resulting in negative temperature in the river mouth and positive temperature in the other basin. The probability of occurrence of predictors mentioned above was estimated for modern climate and global warming conditions using the outputs of ECHAM5/MPI-OM model. It is shown that the occurrence of intensive frontal zone and rainfall in the South of Russia will increase (decrease) in summer (winter) under warmer climate conditions which may contribute to the increase of water flows in this region. Maximum of floods occurs during the warm period, we can conclude that global warming increases the risk of floods in Black Sea coast.

  19. Association of joint occurrence of warm and dry conditions over Greece with anticyclonic activity during summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzaki, Maria; Nastos, Panagiotis; Polychroni, Iliana; Flocas, Helena A.; Kouroutzoglou, John; Dalezios, Nicolas R.

    2016-04-01

    Anticyclones are often associated with extreme phenomena, like prolonged droughts or heatwaves and, thus, they can significantly impact fauna and flora, water resources and public health. In this study, the association of the summer anticyclonic activity with the joint occurrence of extreme warm and dry conditions over Greece is explored. The warm and dry extreme conditions are defined by utilizing the Warm/Dry (WD) index for representative meteorological stations from sub-regions of Greece with different climatic features. The WD index is the number of days over a period (here summer) having at the same time mean air temperature > 75th percentile of daily mean temperature and precipitation < 25th percentile of daily precipitation amounts. The anticyclonic activity is determined by the density of the anticyclonic systems over the greater Mediterranean region, which, during summer, is maximized over the Balkans and the northern African coast. The anticyclonic system density has resulted from the comprehensive climatology of Mediterranean anticyclones that was assembled with the aid of the finding and tracking scheme of the University of Melbourne (MS scheme), using the ERA-Interim mean sea-level pressure fields for 1979-2012. The examination of inter-annual and spatial variations of the WD index in association with shifts of the anticyclonic maxima shows that the different sub-regions of Greece are not affected evenly, stressing the role of the complex topography of the region and the variations in the subtropical jet position.

  20. Synoptic conditions favouring the occurrence of dust transport from Africa toward Sardinia Island.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canu, Annalisa; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Pintus, Gabriella; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2016-04-01

    Dust events that reach Italy have usually origin in the Sahara and Sahel regions (north-western part of Africa), which represent the dust sources nearest to Italy. In those regions the dust-lifting activity occurs in a remarkable way. Every dust event is different from the others; in fact dust transport and dust concentration in the air can vary remarkably depending on the synoptic situation. In Sardinia, dust events are more frequent in the May-November period, but they can also take place in the December-April period. The main aim of this work was to describe dust outbreaks in Sardinia and to identify the main meteorological scenarios that originate the transport of dust towards the central and western Mediterranean Basin. The evaluation of the geographical dispersion of Saharan dust was performed by using MODIS satellite data and Meteosat imagery combined with SKIRON forecasting model. The origin and the trajectory of the dust carried by winds towards Italy were inferred by the NOAA HYSPLIT model (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model). In addition, PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter of less than 10 μm) and meteorological data registered by the ARPAS (Regional Environmental Protection Agency of Sardinia) monitoring stations were used to highlight the arrival of African air masses in Sardinia. The study was carried out during the 2014. A total of five events occurred during the year (two in spring and three in autumn) were analyzed. The origin of air masses loaded with dust from North Africa was confirmed by satellite imagery and 3-days air mass backward trajectories calculated by the NOAA HYSPLIT model. The analysis of the PM10 daily pattern registered at northern and southern Sardinia sites showed a rising of values during the dust event. The arrival of air masses from Africa caused the daily mean air temperature to rise whereas relative humidity values decreased. Finally, the results showed that all the event analyzed were

  1. Assessment of bioclimatic conditions in Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleta, A.; Nastos, P. T.; Matzarakis, A.

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to assess and analyze the human bioclimatic conditions of Crete Island, using the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET), which is one of the most popular human thermal indices derived from the human energy balance. Bioclimatic studies provide a framework linking biophysical climate sensitivity to social/economic factors that mitigate or amplify the consequences of environmental changes. PET is defined as the physiological equivalent temperature at any given place (outdoors or indoors). It is equivalent to the air temperature at which, in a typical indoor setting, the heat balance of the human body (work metabolism 80 W of light activity, added to basic metabolism; heat resistance of clothing 0.9 clo) is maintained with core and skin temperatures equal to those of the under assessment conditions. It has been realized that, to estimate the thermal effect of the environment to the human body, the total of effects of all of the thermal components, not only as individual parameters, should be taken into account. The climatic data (air temperature, relative humidity, cloudiness, wind speed) for Crete Island, were obtained by archives of fifteen meteorological stations of the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). These data of period 1955-2010 were used for the calculation of PET in order to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. Crete Island, as it is located in the Southeastern Mediterranean basin, is of great touristic interest due to its splendid landscapes, archaeological sites and coastal areas combined with its excellent climatic conditions. However, Crete Island is frequently affected by Saharan outbreaks which are associated with miscellaneous phenomena, such as Föhn winds - hot and dry winds - causing extreme bioclimatic conditions (strong heat stress). The exploitation of the results of this analysis, such as bioclimatic diagrams, temporal and spatial distributions of PET as well as trends and

  2. Meteorological conditions for the triggering of landslides in Asturias (NW Spain). A preliminary analysis of synoptic patterns.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, Pablo; Iglesias, Miguel; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María; Mora García, Manuel Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Asturias is one of the most landslide prone areas in the NW of Spain, where those phenomena cause every year large economic loses and sometimes personal injuries or fatalities. Most of landslides take place during intense rainfall events, which point out precipitation as the main triggering factor. Regional climate is characterized by average annual precipitation and temperature of 960 mm and 13.3°C respectively. Rainfall distribution throughout the year allows the definition of a humid period between October and May, characterized by the succession of frontal systems, and a considerable dry period between June and September, when heavy short storm episodes are usual. BAPA landslide database (http://geol.uniovi.es/BAPA) gathers more than 500 landslide records located with high temporal reliability for eight hydrological years between October 2008 and September 2016. Eight periods with a high concentration of landslides and significant precipitation records have been selected for the study within this time span. Meteorological conditions which took place during each period have been characterized by using data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the EEUU (NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis 1) through the free software Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS). Seven parameters have been used to characterize each synoptic situation: (i) 500 hPa temperature, (ii) 500 hPa geopotential height, (iii) 850 hPa temperature, (iv) 850 hPa geopotential height, (v) 925hPa wind, (vi) specific humidity, and (vii) sea level pressure. The final goal is to establish a conceptual model of the most frequent synoptic meteorological patterns which generate rainfall-triggered landslide events in Asturias during the humid and dry periods.

  3. Impacts of mountains on black carbon aerosol under different synoptic meteorology conditions in the Guanzhong region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shuyu; Tie, Xuexi; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    The Xi'an City and the surrounding area (the Guan-Zhong-GZ region) in western China have been suffering severe air pollutions during wintertime in recent years. In-situ black carbon (BC) measurement combined with a regional dynamical and chemical model (WRF-Chem model) is used to investigate the formation of a haze episode occurred from Jan. 3rd to Jan. 13th 2013. The results show that the measured BC concentrations exhibit a large day-to-day variability. The impacts of synoptic weather systems, local meteorological parameters and mountain effect on the BC variability are studied. Because the GZ region is surrounded by two major mountains, the Loess Plateau in the north and the Qinling Mountains in the south, especially the peak of the Qinling Mountains higher than 3000 m, we particularly analyze the effects of the Qinling Mountains on the BC pollution. The analysis shows that the BC pollution in Xi'an City and the GZ region is strongly affected by the synoptic weather systems, local meteorological winds and the Qinling Mountains. Under a typical northeast wind condition, winds are blocked by the Qinling Mountains, and BC particles are trapped at the foothill of the mountains, resulting in high BC concentrations in the city of Xi'an. Under a typical east wind condition, BC particles are transported along a river valley and the foothill of the Qinling Mountains. In this case, the mountain-river valley plays a role to accelerate the east wind, resulting in a reduction of the BC pollution. Under a typical calm wind condition, the BC particles are less diffused from their source region, and there is a mountain breeze from the Qinling Mountains to the city of Xi'an, and BC particles accumulate in the city, especially in the north side of the city. This study illustrates that while locating between complicated terrain conditions, such as the GZ region, the mountains play very important roles for the formation of hazes in the region.

  4. Numerical Studies of Urban Planetary Boundary-Layer Structure under Realistic Synoptic Conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, Nelson L.; Ludwig, Francis L.; Donall, Evelyn G.; Warner, Thomas T.; Bhumralkar, Chandrakant M.

    1989-08-01

    The Pennsylvania State University (PSU)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) mesoscale model was modified and used to simulate the evolution of meteorological conditions in the vicinity of St. Louis, Missouri, from near sunrise to noon on 25 July 1975. Observations obtained during the METROMEX (Metropolitan Meteorological Experiment) and RAPS (Regional Air Pollution Study) field programs were available for comparison with modeled conditions. The PSU/NCAR model used a nested grid with two-way interaction between the coarse mesh (7.5 km) and the fine mesh (2.5 km), where the fine domain covered the city and its immediate suburban and rural surroundings. Realistic three-dimensionally variable initial and lateral boundary conditions were obtained from the observations so that the numerical experiments could be used for quantitative evaluation of certain urban effects. After simulation of the actual conditions (control experiment), the importance of a number of processes on the urban planetary boundary layer (PBL) structure were investigated. The PBL effects were isolated by using realistic surface parameters as well as those based on the preurban conditions and an expanded urban environment. Sensitivities to surface evaporative fluxes, radiative processes, and different surface roughness associated with urbanization were examined. The control simulations of the temperature, boundary layer depth, specific humidity and wind fields exhibited essentially the same behavior as observed in the urban PBL throughout the morning forecast period. Unlike many other documented cases that displayed strong urban-induced low-level convergence, the confluence on this morning was relatively weak, with the center of the heat island displaced (in both the simulation and the observations) downwind (south) of the city. A relative minimum in windspeed was associated with the center of the displaced heat island. The sensitivity experiments clearly demonstrated and maintenance of

  5. CMAQ predictions of tropospheric ozone in the U.S. southwest: influence of lateral boundary and synoptic conditions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chune; Fernando, H J S; Hyde, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Phoenix, Arizona, has been an ozone nonattainment area for the past several years and it remains so. Mitigation strategies call for improved modeling methodologies as well as understanding of ozone formation and destruction mechanisms during seasons of high ozone events. To this end, the efficacy of lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) based on satellite measurements (adjusted-LBCs) was investigated, vis-à-vis the default-LBCs, for improving the predictions of Models-3/CMAQ photochemical air quality modeling system. The model evaluations were conducted using hourly ground-level ozone and NO(2) concentrations as well as tropospheric NO(2) columns and ozone concentrations in the middle to upper troposphere, with the 'design' periods being June and July of 2006. Both included high ozone episodes, but the June (pre-monsoon) period was characterized by local thermal circulation whereas the July (monsoon) period by synoptic influence. Overall, improved simulations were noted for adjusted-LBC runs for ozone concentrations both at the ground-level and in the middle to upper troposphere, based on EPA-recommended model performance metrics. The probability of detection (POD) of ozone exceedances (>75ppb, 8-h averages) for the entire domain increased from 20.8% for the default-LBC run to 33.7% for the adjusted-LBC run. A process analysis of modeling results revealed that ozone within PBL during bulk of the pre-monsoon season is contributed by local photochemistry and vertical advection, while the contributions of horizontal and vertical advections are comparable in the monsoon season. The process analysis with adjusted-LBC runs confirms the contributions of vertical advection to episodic high ozone days, and hence elucidates the importance of improving predictability of upper levels with improved LBCs.

  6. The role of synoptic and intraseasonal anomalies on the life cycle of rainfall extremes over South America: non-summer conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Fernando E.; Grimm, Alice M.

    2017-07-01

    Previous study showed that the interaction of synoptic disturbances with intraseasonal anomalies is important for heavy rainfall in the South Atlantic Convergence Zone and the La Plata basin during the austral summer. Here, we conduct similar analysis to study the evolution of rainfall extremes during austral spring (SON), fall (MAM) and winter (JJA). A relatively homogeneous region over southeastern South America, whose limits change little from season to season, is heavily affected by extreme precipitation events, as indicated by the value of the 95th percentile of daily rainfall, higher during the spring season (16.94 mm day-1) and lower in winter (13.79 mm day-1). From 1979 to 2013, extreme rainfall events are more frequent in spring (131 events) and less frequent in fall (112 events). Similar to summertime extreme events, synoptic-scale waves continue to be the main drivers of extreme precipitation over the region. The interaction between these waves and intraseasonal anomalies during the development of rainfall extremes over southeastern South America is observed especially during neutral ENSO and La Niña conditions. Warm ENSO phases tend to favor more frequent extremes in all three seasons and extreme events during El Niños are associated with synoptic waves, with no significant interaction with intraseasonal anomalies.

  7. Land degradation and economic conditions of agricultural households in a marginal region of northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorent, Hugues; Evangelou, Christakis; Stellmes, Marion; Hill, Joachim; Papanastasis, Vasilios; Tsiourlis, Georgios; Roeder, Achim; Lambin, Eric F.

    2008-12-01

    Land degradation is caused by and has impacts on both the social and natural components of coupled human-environment systems. However, few studies integrate both aspects simultaneously. The main objective of this study is to test a method to evaluate land degradation based on the integration of aggregate metrics of biophysical and socio-economic "degradation". We applied a framework that integrates the biophysical and socio-economic dimensions of land degradation to test the hypothesis that macro-economic policies, and in particular agricultural subsidies, are an important driving force of land degradation in marginal regions of the Mediterranean Europe. We analysed the influence of subsidies on the profitability of each crop and livestock type found in a sample of farms in a region of northern Greece. Spatial and socio-economic data on agricultural households were collected to link remote sensing data and land degradation maps to socio-economic conditions of these households, as measured by the standard gross margin. The results demonstrate that subsidies provide a crucial socio-economic support to maintain the profitability of agricultural activities but may also promote land-use practices with damaging ecological impacts. Different levels of biophysical and socio-economic "degradation" were associated with different land use practices. The integration of the socio-economic and biophysical dimensions of land degradation reveals associations that would not be detectable if indicators along one dimension alone would be used.

  8. The impact of the uncertainty in the initial soil moisture condition of irrigated areas on the spatiotemporal characteristics of convective activity in Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Ioannis, Tegoulias; Ioannis, Pytharoulis; Stergios, Kartsios; Dimitrios, Bampzelis; Theodore, Karacostas

    2015-04-01

    The region of Thessaly is the second largest plain in Greece and has a vital role in the financial life of the country, because of its significant agricultural production. The intensive and extensive cultivation of irrigated crops, in combination with the population increase and the alteration of precipitation patterns due to climate change, often leading the region to experience severe drought conditions, especially during the warm period of the year. The aim of the DAPHNE project is to tackle the problem of drought in this area by means of Weather Modification.In the framework of the project DAPHNE, the numerical weather prediction model WRF-ARW 3.5.1 is used to provide operational forecasts and hindcasts for the region of Thessaly. The goal of this study is to investigate the impact of the uncertainty in the initial soil moisture condition of irrigated areas, on the spatiotemporal characteristics of convective activity in the region of interest. To this end, six cases under the six most frequent synoptic conditions, which are associated with convective activity in the region of interest, are utilized, considering six different soil moisture initialization scenarios. In the first scenario (Control Run), the model is initialized with the surface soil moisture of the ECMWF analysis data, that usually does not take into account the modification of soil moisture due to agricultural activity in the area of interest. In the other five scenarios (Experiment 1,2,3,4,5) the soil moisture in the upper soil layers of the study area are modified from -50% to 50% of field capacity (-50%FC, -25%FC, FC, 25%FC, 50%FC),for the irrigated cropland.Three model domains, covering Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and northern Africa (d01), the wider area of Greece (d02) and central Greece - Thessaly region (d03) are used at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km respectively. ECMWF operational analyses at 6-hourly intervals (0.25ox0.25o lat.-long.) are imported as initial and

  9. Present and Future Human Thermal Bioclimatic Conditions and Impacts on Respiratory Admissions in Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleta, Anastasia; Nastos, Panagiotis

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to assess and quantify the association between present and future human thermal bioclimatic conditions and daily counts of respiratory problems in Heraklion city, Crete Island, Greece. The bioclimatic conditions were analyzed in terms of the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), which are two of the most popular human thermal indices based on the human energy balance. The PET and UTCI analysis was performed by the application of the bioclimate model, "RayMan", which is well-suited to calculate radiation fluxes and human biometeorological indices. Future changes in meteorological parameters such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and cloudiness (used as input variables in the estimation of PET and UTCI) were derived by the simulations of the regional atmospheric climate model KNMI under SRES A1B, for the near (2021-2050) and far (2071-2100) future with respect to the reference period 1961-1990. Generalized linear models (GLM) with Poisson distribution were applied to the time series of daily numbers of outpatients (total, males and females) with respiratory problems against present and future bioclimatic changes, after controlling for possible confounders and adjustment for season and trends. The interpretation of the results of this analysis suggests a significant association between cold weather and increased respiratory admissions. For the near future, the projected increase of 1.6oC in PET may result in reducing the incidence of respiratory problemsby almost 3% against 7.5% in the far future, when PET is projected to increase by 4oC.

  10. On the multiday haze in the Asian continental outflow: the important role of synoptic conditions combined with regional and local sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jihoon; Kim, Jin Young; Youn, Daeok; Lee, Ji Yi; Kim, Hwajin; Lim, Yong Bin; Kim, Yumi; Cher Jin, Hyoun

    2017-08-01

    The air quality of the megacities in populated and industrialized regions like East Asia is affected by both local and regional emission sources. The combined effect of regional transport and local emissions on multiday haze was investigated through a synthetic analysis of PM2. 5 sampled at both an urban site in Seoul, South Korea and an upwind background site on Deokjeok Island over the Yellow Sea during a severe multiday haze episode in late February 2014. Inorganic components and carbonaceous species of daily PM2. 5 samples were measured, and gaseous pollutants, local meteorological factors, and synoptic meteorological conditions were also determined. A dominance of fine-mode particles (PM2. 5 / PM10 ˜ 0.8), a large secondary inorganic fraction (76 %), high OC / EC (> 7), and highly oxidized aerosols (oxygen-to-carbon ratio of ˜ 0.6 and organic-mass-to-carbon ratio of ˜ 1.9) under relatively warm, humid, and stagnant conditions characterize the multiday haze episode in Seoul; however, the early and late stages of the episode show different chemical compositions of PM2. 5. High concentrations of sulfate in both Seoul and the upwind background in the early stage suggest a significant regional influence on the onset of the multiday haze. At the same time, high concentrations of nitrate and organic compounds in Seoul, which are local and highly correlated with meteorological factors, suggest the contribution of local emissions and secondary formation under stagnant meteorological conditions to the haze. A slow eastward-moving high-pressure system from southern China to the East China Sea induces the regional transport of aerosols and potential gaseous precursors for secondary aerosols from the North China Plain in the early stage but provides stagnant conditions conducive to the accumulation and the local formation of aerosols in the late stage. A blocking ridge over Alaska that developed during the episode hinders the zonal propagation of synoptic-scale systems

  11. Tornadoes and waterspouts in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioutas, Michalis V.

    Tornadoes and waterspouts occur in various parts of Greece and may often reach the media as remarkable events, depending of their intensity and the level of damage. This paper is based on a research started from the beginning of 2000 for identifying and recording tornadoes and waterspouts in Greece and evaluating their intensity and other fundamental characteristics. Search of historical events for obtaining more comprehensive tornado climatology is in progress. In an almost 3-year period, January 2000-September 2002, tornadoes and waterspouts have been reported from various parts of Greece, including western Greece, the Ionian islands and western Peloponnese mainly during autumn and winter. Northern Greece is affected by tornadic activity mostly during summer and early autumn. The geographical distribution showed a preference for tornado occurrence mainly in coastal areas. Based on this almost 3-year data sample, a mean number of six tornadoes per year has resulted, corresponding to a density of 0.45 10 -4 km -2 year -1. Maximum intensity of tornadoes recorded was rated as T6 of the Tornado and Storm Research Organization (TORRO) scale (F3 of the Fujita scale). A basic synoptic typing scheme is presented, including four synoptic circulation patterns associated to tornado occurrence.

  12. Analysis of land surface and synoptic conditions during dust storm events in the Middle East via a new high resolution inventory of mineral dust derived from SEVIRI.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennen, Mark

    2017-04-01

    This paper provides the most up-to-date dust climatology for the Middle East, presenting a new high resolution inventory of over 27,000 dust emission events observed over the Middle East in 2006 - 2013. The inventory was derived from the dust RGB product of the Spinning Enhanced Visual and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) on-board Meteosat's second generation satellite (MSG). Mineral dust emissions were derived from visual inspection of the SEVIRI scenes which have 4-5 km2 spatial and 15-minute temporal resolution. The location of every emission event was recorded in a database, along with time and trajectory of dust movement. This is an improvement on previous studies, which derive dust source areas from the daily observations of Aerosol Optical Depth whose maxima do not necessarily coincide with sources of emissions and produces more accurate information on the location of the key dust sources in the region. Results showed that dust sources are constrained to relatively small areas, with 21% of dust emission generated from just 0.9% of total surface area of the Middle East, mainly from eight source regions including the Tigris-Euphrates flood plains of Iraq and Syria, Western and Northern Saudi Arabia and the Sistan Basin in Eastern Iran. The Tigris-Euphrates flood plain was the most active dust region, producing 41% of all dust events with a peak activity in 2009. The southern areas of the Arabian Peninsula recorded very few dust emission observations, in contrast to many previous studies which do not use such high temporal resolution data. The activation and frequency of dust emissions are characterised by strong seasonality developing in response to specific synoptic conditions. To characterise synoptic conditions conducive to the development of dust storms, dust days' emission thresholds, based on number of dust emission events per day / per region and specific to each of the eight main dust emitting regions, were determined. ERA Interim reanalysis data were used to

  13. What are the most fire-dangerous atmospheric circulations in the Eastern-Mediterranean? Analysis of the synoptic wildfire climatology.

    PubMed

    Paschalidou, A K; Kassomenos, P A

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire management is closely linked to robust forecasts of changes in wildfire risk related to meteorological conditions. This link can be bridged either through fire weather indices or through statistical techniques that directly relate atmospheric patterns to wildfire activity. In the present work the COST-733 classification schemes are applied in order to link wildfires in Greece with synoptic circulation patterns. The analysis reveals that the majority of wildfire events can be explained by a small number of specific synoptic circulations, hence reflecting the synoptic climatology of wildfires. All 8 classification schemes used, prove that the most fire-dangerous conditions in Greece are characterized by a combination of high atmospheric pressure systems located N to NW of Greece, coupled with lower pressures located over the very Eastern part of the Mediterranean, an atmospheric pressure pattern closely linked to the local Etesian winds over the Aegean Sea. During these events, the atmospheric pressure has been reported to be anomalously high, while anomalously low 500hPa geopotential heights and negative total water column anomalies were also observed. Among the various classification schemes used, the 2 Principal Component Analysis-based classifications, namely the PCT and the PXE, as well as the Leader Algorithm classification LND proved to be the best options, in terms of being capable to isolate the vast amount of fire events in a small number of classes with increased frequency of occurrence. It is estimated that these 3 schemes, in combination with medium-range to seasonal climate forecasts, could be used by wildfire risk managers to provide increased wildfire prediction accuracy.

  14. Effects of synoptic-scale circulation pattern and local land surface condition on fog at Kushiro, northern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, S.; Sato, T.; Nakamura, K.

    2012-12-01

    Marine stratiform clouds are frequently observed over western North Pacific offshore of the northeast Japan during summer when warm southerly wind prevails over underlying cold ocean current. Such clouds often migrate over Kushiro located in the coastal area of eastern Hokkaido Island, north Japan and are recognized as sea fog. On the other hand, Kushiro is a middle-sized city with population of over 180,000 and a large wetland expands at the north of Kushiro city. The difference of land surface condition between the city and the wetland might cause heterogeneity of the sea fog distribution over land, via dissipation and regeneration process of fog. In this study, long-term visibility data for Kushiro are investigated to clarify the relationship between interannual variation of fog frequency (FF) and large-scale circulation patterns. Furthermore, frequency of fog/low-level cloud (LC) is identified using satellite images and sensitivity experiments changing land surface condition are conducted using meteorological regional model to understand an impact of land use on the local fog distribution and its physical processes. Monthly mean FF trends observed at Kushiro during 1931 to 2010 shows significant decline (-3.3 day per decade). Since late 1970s, the decline at Kushiro has been particularly remarkable in July and August in association with an increased number of years with very low FF. Analysis of radiosonde data has revealed the development of shallow moist layer under a strong inversion layer during fog occurrence because of abundant moisture supply from southerly wind. However, cold and dry northerly wind prevents the formation of inversion layer during fog-free days. Composite analysis of reanalysis data suggests that the low-level southerly wind toward northeast Japan is weaker in the low FF month of July than climatology owing to a southward shift of the North Pacific High (NPH) and stronger Okhotsk High. In August, eastward displacement or shrinking of the

  15. Linking atmospheric synoptic transport, cloud phase, surface energy fluxes, and sea-ice growth: observations of midwinter SHEBA conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, P. Ola G.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Perovich, Don; Solomon, Amy

    2016-10-01

    Observations from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) project are used to describe a sequence of events linking midwinter long-range advection of atmospheric heat and moisture into the Arctic Basin, formation of supercooled liquid water clouds, enhancement of net surface energy fluxes through increased downwelling longwave radiation, and reduction in near-surface conductive heat flux loss due to a warming of the surface, thereby leading to a reduction in sea-ice bottom growth. The analyses provide details of two events during Jan. 1-12, 1998, one entering the Arctic through Fram Strait and the other from northeast Siberia; winter statistics extend the results. Both deep, precipitating frontal clouds and post-frontal stratocumulus clouds impact the surface radiation and energy budget. Cloud liquid water, occurring preferentially in stratocumulus clouds extending into the base of the inversion, provides the strongest impact on surface radiation and hence modulates the surface forcing, as found previously. The observations suggest a minimum water vapor threshold, likely case dependent, for producing liquid water clouds. Through responses to the radiative forcing and surface warming, this cloud liquid water also modulates the turbulent and conductive heat fluxes, and produces a thermal wave penetrating into the sea ice. About 20-33 % of the observed variations of bottom ice growth can be directly linked to variations in surface conductive heat flux, with retarded ice growth occurring several days after these moisture plumes reduce the surface conductive heat flux. This sequence of events modulate pack-ice wintertime environmental conditions and total ice growth, and has implications for the annual sea-ice evolution, especially for the current conditions of extensive thinner ice.

  16. Linking atmospheric synoptic transport, cloud phase, surface energy fluxes, and sea-ice growth: observations of midwinter SHEBA conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, P. Ola G.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Perovich, Don; Solomon, Amy

    2017-08-01

    Observations from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) project are used to describe a sequence of events linking midwinter long-range advection of atmospheric heat and moisture into the Arctic Basin, formation of supercooled liquid water clouds, enhancement of net surface energy fluxes through increased downwelling longwave radiation, and reduction in near-surface conductive heat flux loss due to a warming of the surface, thereby leading to a reduction in sea-ice bottom growth. The analyses provide details of two events during Jan. 1-12, 1998, one entering the Arctic through Fram Strait and the other from northeast Siberia; winter statistics extend the results. Both deep, precipitating frontal clouds and post-frontal stratocumulus clouds impact the surface radiation and energy budget. Cloud liquid water, occurring preferentially in stratocumulus clouds extending into the base of the inversion, provides the strongest impact on surface radiation and hence modulates the surface forcing, as found previously. The observations suggest a minimum water vapor threshold, likely case dependent, for producing liquid water clouds. Through responses to the radiative forcing and surface warming, this cloud liquid water also modulates the turbulent and conductive heat fluxes, and produces a thermal wave penetrating into the sea ice. About 20-33 % of the observed variations of bottom ice growth can be directly linked to variations in surface conductive heat flux, with retarded ice growth occurring several days after these moisture plumes reduce the surface conductive heat flux. This sequence of events modulate pack-ice wintertime environmental conditions and total ice growth, and has implications for the annual sea-ice evolution, especially for the current conditions of extensive thinner ice.

  17. PM(10) episodes in Greece: Local sources versus long-range transport-observations and model simulations.

    PubMed

    Matthaios, Vasileios N; Triantafyllou, Athanasios G; Koutrakis, Petros

    2017-01-01

    Periods of abnormally high concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, defined as air pollution episodes, can cause adverse health effects. Southern European countries experience high particulate matter (PM) levels originating from local and distant sources. In this study, we investigated the occurrence and nature of extreme PM10 (PM with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm) pollution episodes in Greece. We examined PM10 concentration data from 18 monitoring stations located at five sites across the country: (1) an industrial area in northwestern Greece (Western Macedonia Lignite Area, WMLA), which includes sources such as lignite mining operations and lignite power plants that generate a high percentage of the energy in Greece; (2) the greater Athens area, the most populated area of the country; and (3) Thessaloniki, (4) Patra, and (5) Volos, three large cities in Greece. We defined extreme PM10 pollution episodes (EEs) as days during which PM10 concentrations at all five sites exceeded the European Union (EU) 24-hr PM10 standards. For each EE, we identified the corresponding prevailing synoptic and local meteorological conditions, including wind surface data, for the period from January 2009 through December 2011. We also analyzed data from remote sensing and model simulations. We recorded 14 EEs that occurred over 49 days and could be grouped into two categories: (1) Local Source Impact (LSI; 26 days, 53%) and (2) African Dust Impact (ADI; 23 days, 47%). Our analysis suggested that the contribution of local sources to ADI EEs was relatively small. LSI EEs were observed only in the cold season, whereas ADI EEs occurred throughout the year, with a higher frequency during the cold season. The EEs with the highest intensity were recorded during African dust intrusions. ADI episodes were found to contribute more than local sources in Greece, with ADI and LSI fraction contribution ranging from 1.1 to 3.10. The EE contribution during ADI fluctuated from 41 to 83 μg/m(3

  18. Synoptic climatology of the long-distance dispersal of white pine blister rust II. Combination of surface and upper-level conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, K. L.; Geils, B. W.; Kalkstein, L. S.; Thistle, H. W.

    2008-09-01

    An invasive forest pathogen, Cronartium ribicola, white pine blister rust (WPBR), is believed to have arrived in the Sacramento Mountains of south-central New Mexico about 1970. Epidemiological and genetic evidence supports the hypothesis that introduction was the result of long-distance dispersal (LDD) by atmospheric transport from California. This study applies a method to identify the atmospheric conditions favorable for rust transport and infection. An upper level synoptic classification (ULSC) identifies patterns of upper-level flow favorable for the transport of rust spores from a source to a target. Transport data are coupled with data for surface conditions favorable for infection at a designated target. A resulting calendar lists likelihood classes for establishment by four-times-daily observations during a dispersal season from April through July in the years 1965 to 1974. The single most-favorable period for transport and infection at the New Mexico site was identified as 1 15 June 1969. Five additional sites in the western United States with susceptible white pine populations and known infestation status were then evaluated to verify the model. Only the infested sites exhibit an establishment likelihood of “high” or “very high.” This suggests that the methodology correctly identifies locations with elevated establishment likelihood. Finally, likelihoods at nine additional points in the southwestern United States are determined and used to map regional patterns of transport, infection and establishment. The ULSC combined with appropriate surface meteorological data could be used to further investigate transport and infection, identify other areas at risk, assess the potential for gene flow of WPBR and evaluate long-distance dispersal of other pathogens.

  19. Metamorphic conditions and structural evolution of the Kesebir-Kardamos dome: Rhodope metamorphic complex (Greece-Bulgaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulas, Evangelos; Schenker, Filippo Luca; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios

    2017-03-01

    The synmetamorphic nappe system of the Rhodope Metamorphic Complex has been deformed into dome-and-basin structures attributed to syn- to post-convergent exhumation. We document the deformation style and present new thermobarometric and geochronological constraints for the Kesebir-Kardamos dome in southern Bulgaria and northern Greece. The dome consists of a migmatitic core overlain by high-grade thrust sheets. Kinematic indicators indicate a continuum from ductile to brittle conditions during exhumation. Thermodynamic modeling applied to the high-grade, intermediate thrust sheets yielded peak conditions of 1.2 GPa and ca 730 °C. New U-Pb SHRIMP-II dating of zircons from rocks of the same unit revealed Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous (145 Ma) as the time of metamorphic crystallization; some zircon rims yielded Eocene ages (53 and 44 Ma) interpreted as having been thermally reset owing to coeval granitoid magmatism. The high-grade rocks were covered by Lutetian-Priabonian marine sediments after exhumation. Slumps suggest that sedimentation took place in a tectonically active environment. Our new structural, petrological and geochronological results suggest that the major shear zone in the core of the Kesebir-Kardamos dome is equivalent to the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Nestos Shear Zone. Post-Jurassic metamorphic ages recorded in the Rhodope most likely represent crustal rather than deep subduction geodynamic processes.

  20. An experimental study of soil temperature regimes associated with solar disinfestation techniques under greenhouse conditions in Greece.

    PubMed

    Garofalakis, I; Tsiros, I; Frangoudakis, A; Chronopoulos, K; Flouri, F

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with an experimental study of various techniques that have been applied for soil disinfestation purposes under greenhouse conditions. Various meteorological parameters and soil temperatures were measured for four different experimental soil segments (three associated with different disinfestation techniques and one as a reference) at depths varying between 0-1 m and with a time interval of 5 min in a greenhouse located in the Agricultural University of Athens Campus, Greece. Results showed that plastic polyethylene films such as covers, metallic conductors or a combination of both were able to enhance heat transfer and temperature increase in greenhouse soil. For typical disinfestation conditions, the depth-averaged temperature values for plastic covers, metallic conductors, and the combination of both were found to be higher than those for the reference of about 5 degrees C, 12 degrees C and 15 micro C, respectively. Moreover, the remained population percentages 50 days after the initiation of the experiment were found to be 19.3%, 25.3%, 37.3% Kcat 94% of the initial population, for the combination of metallic conductors and plastic covers, metallic conductors, plastic cover, and for the reference, respectively.

  1. A combined linear optimisation methodology for water resources allocation in Alfeios River Basin (Greece) under uncertain and vague system conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekri, Eleni; Yannopoulos, Panayotis; Disse, Markus

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, a combined linear programming methodology, based on Li et al. (2010) and Bekri et al. (2012), is employed for optimizing water allocation under uncertain system conditions in the Alfeios River Basin, in Greece. The Alfeios River is a water resources system of great natural, ecological, social and economic importance for Western Greece, since it has the longest and highest flow rate watercourse in the Peloponnisos region. Moreover, the river basin was exposed in the last decades to a plethora of environmental stresses (e.g. hydrogeological alterations, intensively irrigated agriculture, surface and groundwater overexploitation and infrastructure developments), resulting in the degradation of its quantitative and qualitative characteristics. As in most Mediterranean countries, water resource management in Alfeios River Basin has been focused up to now on an essentially supply-driven approach. It is still characterized by a lack of effective operational strategies. Authority responsibility relationships are fragmented, and law enforcement and policy implementation are weak. The present regulated water allocation puzzle entails a mixture of hydropower generation, irrigation, drinking water supply and recreational activities. Under these conditions its water resources management is characterised by high uncertainty and by vague and imprecise data. The considered methodology has been developed in order to deal with uncertainties expressed as either probability distributions, or/and fuzzy boundary intervals, derived by associated α-cut levels. In this framework a set of deterministic submodels is studied through linear programming. The ad hoc water resources management and alternative management patterns in an Alfeios subbasin are analyzed and evaluated under various scenarios, using the above mentioned methodology, aiming to promote a sustainable and equitable water management. Li, Y.P., Huang, G.H. and S.L., Nie, (2010), Planning water resources

  2. Influence of synoptic meteorological conditions on urban air quality -A study over Hyderabad, India using satellite data and ground based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani Sharma, Anu; Kharol, Shailesh Kumar; Kvs, Badarinath

    out using Kipp Zonen pyranometer model CMP 11. The collocated measurements provide bet-ter understanding of the changes in aerosol properties and their influence on ground reaching solar radiation associated with changes in synoptic meteorological conditions over the study site. Considerable variations in aerosol properties and ground-reaching solar irradiance due to changes in wind velocity and direction associated with the low pressure system formed over southeast BoB were observed. Terra/Aqua-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer AOD550 variations showed trends matching with ground observations. The nighttime AOD values showed a 60% decrease on December 5, 2008, corresponding to the low pressure system located nearer to the measurement site in Hyderabad. The global solar irradiance showed an 6% increase on December 4, 2008, during low pressure over BoB due to reduction in columnar aerosol loading compared to a normal period. Nighttime Light Detection and Ranging observa-tions suggested considerable reduction in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) loading under the influence of low pressure system. Results of the study have implications for monitoring urban air quality as synoptic weather systems are capable of modifying the atmospheric PM loading. In the climate change scenario increased occurrence of low pressure systems over the region was anticipated, and this will have impact on the differential loading of atmospheric pollutants over the region. Keywords: Aerosol optical depth, LIDAR, solar irradiance, PM2.5, UVery, Low pressure system

  3. Data for NASA's AVE 3 experiment: 25-mb sounding data and synoptic charts. [investigation of atmospheric parameters detected from satellite data under conditions of heavy snow cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Turner, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The atmospheric variability experiment (AVE 3) is described and tabulated rawinsonde data at 25-mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 41 stations is presented. The experiment was conducted between February 6 and February 7, 1975. Brief discussions are given on methods of data processing, changes in the reduction scheme since the AVE 2 pilot experiment, and data accuracy. An example of contact data is presented as well as synoptic charts prepared from the data.

  4. Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Television Viewing Conditions of Preschoolers in Northern Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natsiopoulou, Triantafillia; Melissa-Halikiopoulou, Chrisoula

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of television (TV) on preschoolers, their TV viewing patterns and the conditions under which they watch TV, taking into consideration their different socioeconomic and regional backgrounds. The survey instrument was a questionnaire with 23 closed-ended questions, given to parents whose children…

  5. Synoptic Flow Interactions in Complex Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocut, C. M.; Silver, Z.; Wang, Y.; Creegan, E.; Felton, M.; Hoch, S.; Fernando, H. J.; Di Sabatino, S.; Leo, L.; Dimitrova, R.; Zsedrovits, T.; Pardyjak, E.; Huynh, G.

    2014-12-01

    In the spring of 2013, the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations Program (MATERHORN) conducted its second extensive field experiment at the Granite Mountain Atmospheric Science Testbed (GMAST), US Army Dugway Proving Grounds (DPG), Utah. Of particular interest to MATERHORN-X-2 were synoptic dominated conditions in which synoptic flows interacted with thermal circulations and the topography leading to modulations of the thermal circulations and external-flow generated lee and progressive waves and if the Froude number was low; eddies, large vortices, wakes and waves developed in the lee of Granite Mountain. To capture these phenomena, a suite of advanced instrumentation was used, which could characterize the upstream unmodified synoptic approach flow and identify the synoptic flow / mountain interactions. In addition to meteorological towers, Doppler LiDARs, placed at two locations to the east and in the lee of Granite Mountain were particularly useful, showing the horizontal spatial pattern and temporal evolution of the synoptic generated phenomena. WRF simulations were used to provide analysis guidance. This research was funded by Office of Naval Research Grant # N00014-11-1-0709 and the Air Force Weather Agency.

  6. Human thermal bioclimatic conditions associated with acute cardiovascular syndromes in Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleta, Anastasia G.; Nastos, Panagiotis T.

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the association between bioclimatic conditions and daily counts of admissions for non-fatal acute cardiovascular (acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmia, decompensation of heart failure) syndromes (ACS) registered by the two main hospitals in Heraklion, Crete Island, during a five-year period 2008-2012. The bioclimatic conditions analyzed are based on human thermal bioclimatic indices such as the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Mean daily meteorological parameters, such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and cloudiness, were acquired from the meteorological station of Heraklion (Hellenic National Meteorological Service). These parameters were used as input variables in modeling the aforementioned thermal indices, in order to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. The PET and UTCI analysis was performed by the use of the radiation and bioclimate model, "RayMan", which is well-suited to calculate radiation fluxes and human biometeorological indices. Generalized linear models (GLM) were applied to time series of daily numbers of outpatients with ACS against bioclimatic variations, after controlling for possible confounders and adjustment for season and trends. The interpretation of the results of this analysis suggests a significant association between cold weather and increased coronary heart disease incidence, especially in the elderly and males. Additionally, heat stress plays an important role in the configuration of daily ACS outpatients, even in temperate climate, as that in Crete Island. In this point it is worth mentioning that Crete Island is frequently affected by Saharan outbreaks, which are associated in many cases with miscellaneous phenomena, such as Föhn winds - hot and dry winds - causing extreme bioclimatic conditions (strong heat stress). Taking into consideration the projected increased ambient temperature in the future, ACS

  7. General Framework for Employment. Tableau de Bord. (Synoptic Table). Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs.

    This synoptic table provides an overview and comparison of employment trends and policy measures for each member state of the European Community. Information on the following countries is presented in eight chapters: Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, and United Kingdom. Chapter 0…

  8. Subduction-related rodingites from East Othris, Greece: Mineral reactions and physicochemical conditions of formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsovitis, Petros; Magganas, Andreas; Pomonis, Panagiotis; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2013-07-01

    The partly to pervasively metasomatized doleritic and gabbroic dykes or small to medium sized bodies found in East Othris, within Mid to Late Jurassic serpentinized peridotites of ophiolitic units and ophiolitic mélange formations are classified as rodingites and can be divided into two types. Type 1 rodingites are mainly characterized by the frequent occurrence of prehnite, while Type 2 rodingites include mostly garnets and vesuvianite. Isocon analysis showed that rodingitization essentially occurred with mass and volume preservation. Desilification, depletion of alkalies, as well as Ca enrichment was more intense for the Type 2 rodingites. Al, Fe and Mg remained rather immobile, while Ti, Y, Zr and REE were variably depleted. Rodingitization took place in an intraoceanic subduction system. It occurred in three successive stages during the exhumation of the mafic-ultramafic mantle wedge rocks in a fore-arc setting within a serpentinitic subduction channel, which developed close to the slab. The incorporation of the mafic rocks to the subduction channel probably resulted after entraining a directed mantle flow towards the slab. The first stage of rodingitization formed mainly grossular, hydrogrossular, Ti- and Cr-bearing hydrogarnets and calcite under relatively acidic and mildly oxidizing physicochemical conditions, with increased CO2/H2O ratio. During the second and more extensive rodingitization stage, alkaline and reducing conditions prevailed and CO2/H2O ratio was decreased. The modeling of the mineral reactions of this stage, using the software winTWQ v. 2.34 in the CFMASH system, reveals that in Type 1 rocks prehnite replaced most of the initial garnet, while Type 2 rocks continued to be rodingitized, mostly forming grossular and/or hydrogrossular and chlorite. Hydrogrossular, instead of grossular, was crystallized from hydrous fluids under high silica activity. Type 2 rodingites underwent further rodingitization during the third stage, due to infiltration

  9. Engineering-geological conditions of the formations in the Western Thessaly basin, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostolidis, Emmanuel; Koukis, George

    2013-09-01

    An engineering-geological map of the Western Thessaly basin has been compiled, providing a valuable guide to both urban planning and industrial development of the wider area. This map contributes significantly to the optimization of land use and improved planning of technical work. Additionally, the engineering-geological conditions of the formations encountered in the Western Thessaly basin are examined. The formations are grouped into thirteen (13) engineering-geological entities, with regard to their geotechnical behaviour. This entire study was based on both in situ investigations and geotechnical information extracted from 1,039 boreholes. Furthermore, a landslide inventory map of the Western Thessaly basin has been compiled. In addition, the surface subsidence ruptures, due to ground-water overexploitation, have been examined in the eastern part of the study area.

  10. Geochemical models of melting and magma storage conditions for basalt lava from Santorini Volcano, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baziotis, Ioannis; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Pantazidis, Avgoustinos; Klemme, Stephan; Berndt, Jasper; Asimow, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Santorini volcano sits ˜150 km above the Wadati-Benioff zone of the Aegean arc, where the African plate subducts northward beneath the Eurasian continent (Papazachos et al. 2000). Santorini volcano has a long history: activity started ca. 650 ka (mainly rhyolites and rhyodacites), with active pulses following ca. 550 ka (basalt to rhyodacite) and ca. 360 ka (large explosive eruptions of andesite to rhyodacite and minor basalt), culminating in the caldera-forming Bronze-age Minoan event (Druitt et al. 1999). As in many arc volcanoes, scenarios of fractional crystallization with or without mixing between felsic and mafic magmas have been proposed to explain the compositions, textures, and eruptive styles of Santorini products (e.g., Huijsmans & Barton 1989; Montazavi & Sparks 2004; Andújar et al. 2015). Here we focus on a basalt lava from the southern part of Santorini volcano (Balos cove, 36˚ 21.7'N, 25˚ 23.8'E), one of the few basaltic localities in the Aegean arc. The goals are to infer constraints on the magma chamber conditions which lead to mafic eruption at Santorini Volcano and to evaluate the slab and mantle wedge conditions via geochemical and petrological mass balance modelling. We collected and characterised 20 samples for texture (SEM), mineral chemistry (FE-EPMA) and whole-rock chemistry (XRF). The basalts contain phenocrystic olivine (Ol) and clinopyroxene (Cpx) (<600 μm diameter) in a fine groundmass (<100 μm diameter) of Ol, Cpx, plagioclase (Pl) and magnetite (Mt) with minor glass and rare xenocrystic quartz. Santorini basalts exhibit a pilotaxitic to trachytic texture defined by randomly to flow-oriented tabular Pl, respectively. The predominant minerals are calcic Pl (core An78-85 and rim An60-76; 45-50 vol.%), Cpx (En36-48Wo41-44Fs11-21; 10-15 vol.%) and Ol (Fo74-88; 10-12 vol.%). Idiomorphic to subidiomorphic Mt (<10μm diameter) with variable TiO2 contents (1.9-16.5 wt%) is a minor constituent (˜1-2 vol.%) in the less mafic samples

  11. Modeling and in situ measurements of biometeorological conditions in microenvironments within the Athens University Campus, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Polychroni, Iliana D.

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this research is to assess and analyze the biometeorological perception in complex microenvironments in the Athens University Campus (AUC) using urban micromodels, such as RayMan. The human thermal sensation in such a place was considered of great significance due to the great gathering of student body and staff of the University. The quantification of the biometeorological conditions was succeeded by the estimation of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET), which is a biometeorological index based on the human energy balance. We carried out, on one hand, field measurements of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and global solar irradiance for different sites (building atrium, open area, and green atrium) of the examined microurban environment in order to calculate PET during January-July 2013. Additionally, on the other hand, PET modeling was performed using different sky-view factors and was compared to a reference site (meteorological station of Laboratory of Climatology and Atmospheric Environment, University of Athens). The global radiation was transferred to the examined sites with the RayMan model, which considers the sky-view factors for the adaptation of the radiation fluxes to simple and complex environments. The results of this study reveal the crucial importance of the existence of trees and green cover in a complex environment, as a factor that could be the solution to the efforts of stake holders in order to mitigate strong heat stress and improve people's living quality in urban areas.

  12. Modification of solar radiation components under different atmospheric conditions in the Greater Athens Area, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaskaoutis, D. G.; Kambezidis, H. D.; Jacovides, C. P.; Steven, M. D.

    2006-06-01

    The influence of the atmospheric turbidity on the spectral distribution of solar irradiance components is investigated using ground-based spectroradiometric measurements taken in Athens area during May 1995. It is found that both the diffuse-to-global and diffuse-to-direct-beam irradiance ratios exhibits a strong wavelength dependence and exponential curves associated with 99% of the variance can fit each parameter. These exponential curves are further modified as function of the solar zenith angle and atmospheric turbidity conditions. It is found that the slope of the curves strongly depends on the processes attenuating irradiance and aerosol optical characteristics in the short wavelengths. New relations are proposed, which allow the spectral distribution of diffuse irradiance to be estimated as a function of the measured broadband global and diffuse solar irradiances. The diffuse-to-direct-beam ratio, which is an indicator of the atmospheric transmittance, exhibits a strong wavelength and aerosol-loading dependence. The observed differences between turbid urban and clean rural atmospheres constitute a manifestation of contrasting air properties and influence solar irradiance spectra.

  13. Modeling and in situ measurements of biometeorological conditions in microenvironments within the Athens University Campus, Greece.

    PubMed

    Nastos, Panagiotis T; Polychroni, Iliana D

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this research is to assess and analyze the biometeorological perception in complex microenvironments in the Athens University Campus (AUC) using urban micromodels, such as RayMan. The human thermal sensation in such a place was considered of great significance due to the great gathering of student body and staff of the University. The quantification of the biometeorological conditions was succeeded by the estimation of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET), which is a biometeorological index based on the human energy balance. We carried out, on one hand, field measurements of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and global solar irradiance for different sites (building atrium, open area, and green atrium) of the examined microurban environment in order to calculate PET during January-July 2013. Additionally, on the other hand, PET modeling was performed using different sky-view factors and was compared to a reference site (meteorological station of Laboratory of Climatology and Atmospheric Environment, University of Athens). The global radiation was transferred to the examined sites with the RayMan model, which considers the sky-view factors for the adaptation of the radiation fluxes to simple and complex environments. The results of this study reveal the crucial importance of the existence of trees and green cover in a complex environment, as a factor that could be the solution to the efforts of stake holders in order to mitigate strong heat stress and improve people's living quality in urban areas.

  14. Quantifying the probability of meteotsunami occurrence from synoptic atmospheric patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šepić, Jadranka; Vilibić, Ivica; Monserrat, Sebastian

    2016-10-01

    A synoptic atmospheric index is constructed for the region of the Balearic Islands, Spain. The index links the occurrence of meteotsunamis, i.e., atmospherically induced high-frequency sea level oscillations (2 min < T < 120 min), to contemporaneous meteorological synoptic conditions above the region. The correlation between the synoptic index and wave heights is found to be significant and high (up to 0.75). The vertical wind profile is recognized as the most important variable governing the sea level response to atmospheric conditions. The probability of the occurrence of a meteotsunami can be then evaluated from synoptic atmospheric variables. The results show that there exists an index threshold, below which the probability for an intense meteotsunami occurrence is extremely low. However, meteotsunami-favorable synoptic conditions (the index exceeding the threshold value) are crucial but insufficient; some mesoscale features, not reflected in the synoptic pattern, are found to play an important role in meteotsunami generation. The constructed index is potentially applicable to other world locations where a set of tsunamigenic synoptic conditions may be defined in a similar way as at the Balearic Islands. The index can be used to estimate the rate of meteotsunami occurrence under the conditions of past, present, and future climates. It can also be effectively used in meteotsunami warning systems, especially to switch between a "silent mode" (index below the threshold value) to an "event mode."

  15. Impact of irrigations on simulated convective activity over Central Greece: A high resolution study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsopoulos, S.; Tegoulias, I.; Pytharoulis, I.; Kartsios, S.; Bampzelis, D.; Karacostas, T.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the impact of irrigations in the characteristics of convective activity simulated by the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model with the Advanced Research dynamic solver (WRF-ARW, version 3.5.1), under different upper air synoptic conditions in central Greece. To this end, 42 cases equally distributed under the six most frequent upper air synoptic conditions, which are associated with convective activity in the region of interest, were utilized considering two different soil moisture scenarios. In the first scenario, the model was initialized with the surface soil moisture of the ECMWF analysis data that usually does not take into account the modification of soil moisture due to agricultural activity in the area of interest. In the second scenario, the soil moisture in the upper soil layers of the study area was modified to the field capacity for the irrigated cropland. Three model domains, covering Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and northern Africa (d01), the wider area of Greece (d02) and central Greece - Thessaly region (d03) are used at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km respectively. The model numerical results indicate a strong dependence of convective spatiotemporal characteristics from the soil moisture difference between the two scenarios. Acknowledgements: This research is co-financed by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund) and Greek national funds, through the action "COOPERATION 2011: Partnerships of Production and Research Institutions in Focused Research and Technology Sectors" (contract number 11SYN_8_1088 - DAPHNE) in the framework of the operational programme "Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship" and Regions in Transition (OPC II, NSRF 2007-2013).

  16. Empirical and modeled synoptic cloud climatology of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, R. G.; Newell, J. P.; Schweiger, A.; Crane, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    A set of cloud cover data were developed for the Arctic during the climatically important spring/early summer transition months. Parallel with the determination of mean monthly cloud conditions, data for different synoptic pressure patterns were also composited as a means of evaluating the role of synoptic variability on Arctic cloud regimes. In order to carry out this analysis, a synoptic classification scheme was developed for the Arctic using an objective typing procedure. A second major objective was to analyze model output of pressure fields and cloud parameters from a control run of the Goddard Institue for Space Studies climate model for the same area and to intercompare the synoptic climatatology of the model with that based on the observational data.

  17. Harmonic analysis of the precipitation in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Zerefos, C. S.

    2009-04-01

    Greece is a country with a big variety of climates due to its geographical position, to the many mountain ranges and also to the multifarious and long coastline. The mountainous volumes are of such orientation that influences the distribution of the precipitation, having as a result, Western Greece to present great differentiations from Central and Eastern Greece. The application of harmonic analysis to the annual variability of precipitation is the goal of this study, so that the components, which compose the annual variability, be elicited. For this purpose, the mean monthly precipitation data from 30 meteorological stations of National Meteorological Service were used for the time period 1950-2000. The initial target is to reduce the number of variables and to detect structure in the relationships between variables. The most commonly used technique for this purpose is the application of Factor Analysis to a table having as columns the meteorological stations-variables and rows the monthly mean precipitation, so that 2 main factors were calculated, which explain the 98% of total variability of precipitation in Greece. Factor 1, representing the so-called uniform field and interpreting the most of the total variance, refers in fact to the Mediterranean depressions, affecting mainly the West of Greece and also the East Aegean and the Asia Minor coasts. In the process, the Fourier Analysis was applied to the factor scores extracted from the Factor Analysis, so that 2 harmonic components are resulted, which explain above the 98% of the total variability of each main factor, and are due to different synoptic and thermodynamic processes associated with Greece's precipitation construction. Finally, the calculation of the time of occurrence of the maximum precipitation, for each harmonic component of each one of the two main factors, gives the spatial distribution of appearance of the maximum precipitation in the Hellenic region.

  18. Typical synoptic situations and their impacts on the wintertime air pollution in the Guanzhong basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bei, Naifang; Li, Guohui; Huang, Ru-Jin; Cao, Junji; Meng, Ning; Feng, Tian; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Qiang; Molina, Luisa T.

    2016-06-01

    Rapid industrialization and urbanization have caused severe air pollution in the Guanzhong basin, northwestern China, with heavy haze events occurring frequently in recent winters. Using the NCEP reanalysis data, the large-scale synoptic situations influencing the Guanzhong basin during wintertime of 2013 are categorized into six types to evaluate the contribution of synoptic situations to the air pollution, including "north-low", "southwest-trough", "southeast-high", "transition", "southeast-trough", and "inland-high". The FLEXPART model has been utilized to demonstrate the corresponding pollutant transport patterns for the typical synoptic situations in the basin. Except for "southwest-trough" and "southeast-high" (defined as favorable synoptic situations), the other four synoptic conditions (defined as unfavorable synoptic situations) generally facilitate the accumulation of air pollutants, causing heavy air pollution in the basin. In association with the measurement of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm) in the basin, the unfavorable synoptic situations correspond to high PM2.5 mass concentrations or poor air quality and vice versa. The same analysis has also been applied to winters of 2008-2012, which shows that the basin was mainly influenced by the unfavorable synoptic situations during wintertime leading to poor air quality. The WRF-CHEM model has further been applied to simulate the selected 6 days representing the typical synoptic situations during the wintertime of 2013, and the results generally show a good agreement between the modeled distributions and variations of PM2.5 and the corresponding synoptic situations, demonstrating reasonable classification for the synoptic situations in the basin. Detailed meteorological conditions, such as temperature inversion, low-level horizontal wind speed, and planetary boundary layer, all contribute to heavy air pollution events in the basin under unfavorable synoptic conditions

  19. Evaluation of thermal bioclimate based on observational data and numerical simulations: an application to Greece.

    PubMed

    Giannaros, Theodore M; Melas, Dimitrios; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    The evaluation of thermal bioclimate can be conducted employing either observational or modeling techniques. The advantage of the numerical modeling approach lies in that it can be applied in areas where there is lack of observational data, providing a detailed insight on the prevailing thermal bioclimatic conditions. However, this approach should be exploited carefully since model simulations can be frequently biased. The aim of this paper is to examine the suitability of a mesoscale atmospheric model in terms of evaluating thermal bioclimate. For this, the numerical weather prediction Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the radiation RayMan model are employed for simulating thermal bioclimatic conditions in Greece during a 1-year time period. The physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) is selected as an index for evaluating thermal bioclimate, while synoptic weather station data are exploited for verifying model performance. The results of the present study shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of the numerical modeling approach. Overall, it is shown that model simulations can provide a useful alternative tool for studying thermal bioclimate. Specifically for Greece, the WRF/RayMan modeling system was found to perform adequately well in reproducing the spatial and temporal variations of PET.

  20. Evaluation of thermal bioclimate based on observational data and numerical simulations: an application to Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannaros, Theodore M.; Melas, Dimitrios; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    The evaluation of thermal bioclimate can be conducted employing either observational or modeling techniques. The advantage of the numerical modeling approach lies in that it can be applied in areas where there is lack of observational data, providing a detailed insight on the prevailing thermal bioclimatic conditions. However, this approach should be exploited carefully since model simulations can be frequently biased. The aim of this paper is to examine the suitability of a mesoscale atmospheric model in terms of evaluating thermal bioclimate. For this, the numerical weather prediction Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the radiation RayMan model are employed for simulating thermal bioclimatic conditions in Greece during a 1-year time period. The physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) is selected as an index for evaluating thermal bioclimate, while synoptic weather station data are exploited for verifying model performance. The results of the present study shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of the numerical modeling approach. Overall, it is shown that model simulations can provide a useful alternative tool for studying thermal bioclimate. Specifically for Greece, the WRF/RayMan modeling system was found to perform adequately well in reproducing the spatial and temporal variations of PET.

  1. Theoretical framework to estimate spatially averaged rainfalls conditional on river discharges and point rainfall measurements from a single location: an application to Western Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langousis, A.; Kaleris, V.

    2012-11-01

    We focus on the special case of catchments covered by a single raingauge, and develop a theoretical framework to obtain estimates of spatial rainfall averages conditional on rainfall measurements from a single location, and the flow conditions at the catchment outlet. In doing so we use: (a) statistical tools to identify and correct inconsistencies between daily rainfall occurrence and amount and the flow conditions at the outlet of the basin, (b) concepts from multifractal theory to relate the fraction of wet intervals in point rainfall measurements and that in spatial rainfall averages, while accounting for the shape and size of the catchment, the size, lifetime and advection velocity of rainfall generating features and the location of the raingauge inside the basin, and (c) semi-theoretical arguments to assure consistency between rainfall and runoff volumes at an inter-annual level, implicitly accounting for spatial heterogeneities of rainfall caused by orographic influences. In an application study, using point rainfall records from Glafkos river basin in Western Greece, we find the suggested approach to demonstrate significant skill in resolving rainfall-runoff incompatibilities at a daily level, while reproducing the statistics of spatial rainfall averages at both monthly and annual time scales, independently of the location of the raingauge and the magnitude of the observed deviations between point rainfall measurements and spatial rainfall averages. The developed scheme should serve as an important tool for the effective calibration of rainfall-runoff models in basins covered by a single raingauge and, also, improve hydrologic impact assessment at a river basin level under changing climatic conditions.

  2. Theoretical framework to estimate spatial rainfall averages conditional on river discharges and point rainfall measurements from a single location: an application to western Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langousis, A.; Kaleris, V.

    2013-03-01

    We focus on the special case of catchments covered by a single rain gauge and develop a theoretical framework to obtain estimates of spatial rainfall averages conditional on rainfall measurements from a single location, and the flow conditions at the catchment outlet. In doing so we use (a) statistical tools to identify and correct inconsistencies between daily rainfall occurrence and amount and the flow conditions at the outlet of the basin; (b) concepts from multifractal theory to relate the fraction of wet intervals in point rainfall measurements and that in spatial rainfall averages, while accounting for the shape and size of the catchment, the size, lifetime and advection velocity of rainfall-generating features and the location of the rain gauge inside the basin; and (c) semi-theoretical arguments to assure consistency between rainfall and runoff volumes at an inter-annual level, implicitly accounting for spatial heterogeneities of rainfall caused by orographic influences. In an application study, using point rainfall records from the Glafkos river basin in western Greece, we find the suggested approach to demonstrate significant skill in resolving rainfall-runoff incompatibilities at a daily level, while reproducing the statistics of spatial rainfall averages at both monthly and annual time scales, independent of the location of the rain gauge and the magnitude of the observed deviations between point rainfall measurements and spatial rainfall averages. The developed scheme should serve as an important tool for the effective calibration of rainfall-runoff models in basins covered by a single rain gauge and, also, improve hydrologic impact assessment at a river basin level under changing climatic conditions.

  3. Synoptic Flow Interactions with an Isolated Mountain in Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocut, C. M.; Creegan, E.; Wang, Y.; Hoch, S.; Silver, Z.; Leo, L. S.; Di Sabatino, S.; Fernando, H. J.; Pardyjak, E.

    2015-12-01

    In the spring of 2013, the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations Program (MATERHORN) conducted its second extensive field experiment at the Granite Mountain Atmospheric Science Testbed (GMAST), US Army Dugway Proving Grounds (DPG), Utah. Of particular interest to MATERHORN-X-2 were synoptic dominated conditions in which synoptic flows interacted with the topography leading to external-flow generated lee and progressive waves and if the Froude number was low; development of eddies, large vortices, wakes and waves in the lee of Granite Mountain. To capture these phenomena, a suite of advanced instrumentation was used, which could characterize the upstream unmodified synoptic approach flow and identify the synoptic flow / mountain interactions. In addition to meteorological towers, three Doppler LiDARs, placed at two locations to the east and in the lee of Granite Mountain were particularly useful, showing the horizontal spatial pattern and temporal evolution of the synoptic generated phenomena. WRF simulations were used to provide analysis guidance. This research was funded by Office of Naval Research Grant # N00014-11-1-0709 and the Air Force Weather Agency.

  4. Synoptic Classification and Establishment of Analogues with Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelides, S. C.; Liassidou, F.; Schizas, C. N.

    2007-06-01

    Weather charts depicting the spatial distribution of various meteorological parameters constitute an indispensable pictorial tool for meteorologists, in diagnosing and forecasting synoptic conditions and the associated weather. The purpose of the present research is to investigate whether training artificial neural networks can be employed in the objective identification of synoptic patterns on weather charts. In order to achieve this, the daily analyses at 0000UTC for 1996 were employed. The respective data consist of the grid-point values of the geopotential height of the 500 hPa isobaric level in the atmosphere. A uniform grid-point spacing of 2.5° × 2.5° is used and the geographical area covered by the investigation lies between 25°N and 65°N and between 20°W and 50°E, covering Europe, the Middle East and the Northern African Coast. An unsupervised learning self-organizing feature map algorithm, namely the Kohonen's algorithm, was employed. The input consists of the grid-point data described above and the output is the synoptic class which each day belongs to. The results referred to in this study employ the generation of 15 and 20 synoptic classes (more classes have been investigated but the results are not reported here). The results indicate that the present technique produced a satisfactory classification of the synoptic patterns over the geographical region mentioned above. Also, it is revealed that the classification performed in this study exhibits a strong seasonal relationship.

  5. Effect of addition of organic materials and irrigation conditions on soil quality in olive groves in the region of Messinia, Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavvadias, Victor; Papadopoulou, Maria; Vavoulidou, Evangelia; Theocharopoulos, Sideris; Repas, Spiros; Koubouris, Georgos; Psaras, Georgios

    2017-04-01

    Intensive cultivation practices are associated to soil degradation mainly due to low soil organic matter content. The application of organic materials to land is a common practice in sustainable agriculture in the last years. However, its implementation in olive groves under different irrigation regimes has not been systematically tested under the prevailing Mediterranean conditions. The aim of this work was to study the effect of alternative carbon input techniques (i.e. wood shredded, pruning residues, returning of olive mill wastes the field with compost) and irrigation conditions (irrigated and rainfed olive orchards) on spatial distribution of soil chemical (pH, EC, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, inorganic nitrogen, humic and fulvic acids, available P, and exchangeable K) and microbial properties (soil basal microbial respiration and microbial biomass carbon) in two soil depths (0-10 cm and 10-40 cm). The study took place in the region of Messinia, South western Peloponnese, Greece during three year soil campaigns. Forty soil plots of olive groves were selected (20 rainfed and 20 irrigated) and carbon input practices were applied on the half of the irrigated and rainfed soil parcels (10 rainfed and 10 irrigated), while the remaining ones were used as controls. The results showed significant changes of chemical and biological properties of soil in olive orchards due to carbon treatments. However, these changes were depended on irrigation conditions. Microbial parameters appeared to be reliable indicators of changes in soil management. Proper management of alternative soil carbon inputs in olive orchards can positively affect soil fertility.

  6. Effects of different boundary conditions and palaeotopographies on the onshore response of tsunamis in a numerical model - A case study from western Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röbke, B. R.; Schüttrumpf, H.; Vött, A.

    2016-08-01

    Hydrodynamic numerical models are essential in modern tsunami hazard assessment. They allow the economical simulation of possible tsunami scenarios for areas at risk and provide reliable and detailed insights into local onshore dynamics. This is especially true when simulations are calibrated with field traces of past tsunami inundation events. Following this approach, the current study focuses on palaeotsunami events indicated by sedimentary and geomorphological field traces in the northern Gulf of Kyparissia (NW Greece). Based on three different digital elevation models (DEM) - reflecting the recent and two palaeotopographies - various tsunami wave constellations according to the solitary and N-wave theory are numerically simulated. The main objective is to investigate the effects of both, different palaeotopographies and boundary conditions on the tsunami onshore response in the numerical model. Tsunami landfall related to N-waves is found to be considerably stronger compared to solitary waves. This phenomenon, known as the N-wave effect, is demonstrated for the first time in a specific study area. Inundation dynamics are even stronger affected by the different palaeotopographies, which is due to substantial vertical crust movements in the northern Gulf of Kyparissia considered in the palaeo-DEMs. By applying different waveforms and palaeotopographies, the model achieves close agreement with field observations, altogether revealing a significant tsunami hazard for the Gulf of Kyparissia, which is in contrast to conventional numerical studies of the area. The marked differences between the presented scenarios emphasise the need to consider a wide variety of possible hydrodynamic boundary conditions and probable topographical conditions in order to find scenarios in plausible accordance with palaeotsunami field traces. Once a plausible scenario is found it can be applied to the recent topography in view of a reliable modern hazard assessment.

  7. Climatology of columnar aerosol properties and the influence of synoptic conditions: First-time results from the northeastern region of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogoi, Mukunda M.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Babu, S. Suresh; Bhuyan, Pradip K.

    2009-04-01

    Six years of spectral aerosol optical depths (AODs), from the northeastern part of India (Dibrugarh), are used to evolve a climatology for this region. The results indicate that the seasonal mean AODs at 500 nm go as high as 0.45 ± 0.05 during premonsoon season (March to May), decrease gradually through the monsoon (June to September) to reach the lowest value of 0.19 ± 0.06 during the retreating-monsoon season (October and November), and increase to 0.31 ± 0.04 in winter (December to February). The AOD spectra are generally flatter than those seen typically over continental sites of India (and elsewhere in the neighboring regions) with Ångström exponent α remaining below 1.0 during February through August, indicating a relatively low abundance of fine and accumulation mode aerosols. The columnar size distributions (CSD) retrieved from spectral AODs are, in general, bimodal with primary mode at ˜ 0.1 μm and secondary mode at ˜ 1.0 μm. High mass loading (˜309.5 ± 65.9 mg m-2) and effective radius (˜0.40 ± 0.09 μm) occur during premonsoon and are attributed to significant abundance of coarse (natural) aerosols. Cluster analysis of air mass back trajectories indicate significant transport of mineral dust from the arid regions of west Asia and northwest India across the Indo-Gangetic plains and marine aerosols advected from the Bay of Bengal contributing largely to the coarse mode aerosols during this season. On the other hand, the peculiar topography combined with the local conditions and the widespread rainfall lead to a more pristine environment during retreating-monsoon season with quite low AODs and columnar loading.

  8. Synoptic weather types associated with critical fire weather

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Schroeder; Monte Glovinsky; Virgil F. Hendricks; Frank C. Hood; Melvin K. Hull; Henry L. Jacobson; Robert Kirkpatrick; Daniel W. Krueger; Lester P. Mallory; Albert G. Oeztel; Robert H. Reese; Leo A. Sergius; Charles E. Syverson

    1964-01-01

    Recognizing that weather is an important factor in the spread of both urban and wildland fires, a study was made of the synoptic weather patterns and types which produce strong winds, low relative humidities, high temperatures, and lack of rainfall--the conditions conducive to rapid fire spread. Such historic fires as the San Francisco fire of 1906, the Berkeley fire...

  9. An investigation of relationships between meso- and synoptic-scale phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoggins, J. R.; Wood, J. E.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Read, W. L.

    1972-01-01

    Methods based on the vorticity equation, the adiabatic method, the curvature of the vertical wind profile, and the structure of synoptic waves are used to determine areas of positive vertical motion in the mid-troposphere for a period in each season. Parameters indicative of low-level moisture and conditional instability are areas in which mesoscale systems may be present. The best association between mesoscale and synoptic-scale phenomena was found for a period during December when synoptic-scale systems were well developed. A good association between meso- and synoptic-scale events also was found for a period during March, while the poorest association was found for a June period. Daytime surface heating apparently is an important factor in the formation of mesoscale systems during the summer. It is concluded that the formation of mesoscale phenomena may be determined essentially from synoptic-scale conditions during winter, late fall, and early spring.

  10. Adult Education in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkos, Alexios

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this article is to analyse the current situation of adult education in Greece. The article focuses on the following points: (a) the degree of participation in programmes of continuing professional training and general adult education courses, (b) the quality and the outcomes of the adult education provision in Greece, and (c)…

  11. Mineralogy, composition and PGM of chromitites from Pefki, Pindos ophiolite complex (NW Greece): evidence for progressively elevated fAs conditions in the upper mantle sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapsiotis, Argirios; Grammatikopoulos, Tassos A.; Tsikouras, Basilios; Hatzipanagiotou, Konstantin; Zaccarini, Federica; Garuti, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    The Pindos ophiolite complex, located in the northwestern part of continental Greece, hosts various chromite deposits of both metallurgical (high-Cr) and refractory (high-Al) type. The Pefki chromitites are banded and sub-concordant to the surrounding serpentinized dunites. The Cr# [Cr/(Cr + Al)] of magnesiochromite varies between 0.75 and 0.79. The total PGE grade ranges from 105.9 up to 300.0 ppb. IPGE are higher than PPGE, typical of mantle hosted ophiolitic chromitites. The PGM assemblage in chromitites comprises anduoite, ruarsite, laurite, irarsite, sperrylite, hollingworthite, Os-Ru-Ir alloys including osmium and rutheniridosmine, Ru-bearing oxides, braggite, paolovite, platarsite, cooperite, vysotskite, and palladodymite. Iridarsenite and omeiite were also observed as exsolutions in other PGM. Rare electrum and native Ag are recovered in concentrates. This PGM assemblage is of great petrogenetic importance because it is significantly different from that commonly observed in podiform mantle-hosted and banded crustal-hosted ophiolitic chromitites. PGE chalcogenides of As and S are primary, and possibly crystallized directly from a progressively enriched in As boninitic melt before or during magnesiochromite precipitation. The presence of Ru-bearing oxides implies simultaneous desulfurization and dearsenication processes. Chemically zoned laurite and composite paolovite-electrum intergrowths are indicative of the relatively high mobility of certain PGE at low temperatures under locally oxidizing conditions. The PGM assemblage and chemistry, in conjunction with geological and petrologic data of the studied chromitites, indicate that it is characteristic of chromitites found within or close to the petrologic Moho. Furthermore, the strikingly different PGM assemblages between the high-Cr chromitites within the Pindos massif is suggestive of non-homogeneous group of ores.

  12. Contrasting environments associated with storm prediction center tornado outbreak forecasts using synoptic-scale composite analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Alyssa Victoria

    Tornado outbreaks have significant human impact, so it is imperative forecasts of these phenomena are accurate. As a synoptic setup lays the foundation for a forecast, synoptic-scale aspects of Storm Prediction Center (SPC) outbreak forecasts of varying accuracy were assessed. The percentages of the number of tornado outbreaks within SPC 10% tornado probability polygons were calculated. False alarm events were separately considered. The outbreaks were separated into quartiles using a point-in-polygon algorithm. Statistical composite fields were created to represent the synoptic conditions of these groups and facilitate comparison. Overall, temperature advection had the greatest differences between the groups. Additionally, there were significant differences in the jet streak strengths and amounts of vertical wind shear. The events forecasted with low accuracy consisted of the weakest synoptic-scale setups. These results suggest it is possible that events with weak synoptic setups should be regarded as areas of concern by tornado outbreak forecasters.

  13. Dust transport and synoptic conditions over the Sahara-Arabia deserts during the MIS6/5 and 2/1 transitions from grain-size, chemical and isotopic properties of Red Sea cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palchan, D.; Stein, M.; Almogi-Labin, A.; Erel, Y.; Goldstein, S. L.

    2013-11-01

    The Red Sea, situated between the Sahara and Arabia deserts, is a natural trap for fine-grained particles transported by winds and floods from weathered materials in these deserts, derived from the Proterozoic crustal granitic and basaltic terrains and Phanerozoic carbonates. The accumulated fine particles provide valuable information on the climate conditions in the source regions, and modes of atmospheric circulation over the Red Sea region. Here, we report on the grain-size, mineralogy, chemical composition, and Nd and Sr isotope ratios of fine-grained insoluble residues (IR) from acid leaching, that were recovered from two deep-sea cores KL23 and KL11 drilled in the northern and central Red Sea, respectively. We focus on the MIS6/5 and MIS2/1 transitions. KL23 samples are closer to the “Sahara granitoids” field and display significant variations during the MIS6/5 transition, between εNd of -7 to -2 and 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7096 to 0.7114. Smaller variations occurred during the MIS2/1 transition, between εNd of -5 to -6 and 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7104 to 0.7118. The KL11 values are closer to the “Blue Nile” field, which comprises mixtures of granitoid and basalt derived particles. During the MIS6/5 transition their εNd varies from -4 to -1 and in 87Sr/86Sr from 0.7059 to 0.7091. During periods equivalent to sapropels S5 and S1, both cores appear to converge to similar isotope ratios of εNd∼-2 and 87Sr/86Sr ∼ 0.7095, indicating derivation from the granitoid terrains of the Arabian-Nubian Shield occurring adjacent to the Red Sea and possibly distributed by runoff. In terms of synoptic conditions, the data indicate that during glacials, dust was blown to the northern Red Sea from the northern Sahara desert in association with the Mediterranean winter cyclones, and to the central Red Sea from the Ethiopian plateau by southern winds that are associated with monsoonal circulation. During interglacials, especially sapropel intervals, monsoonal rains caused erosion

  14. Fjord water circulation patterns and dysoxic/anoxic conditions in a Mediterranean semi-enclosed embayment in the Amvrakikos Gulf, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferentinos, George; Papatheodorou, George; Geraga, Maria; Iatrou, Margarita; Fakiris, Elias; Christodoulou, Dimitris; Dimitriou, Evagelos; Koutsikopoulos, Constantin

    2010-08-01

    Oceanographic research in the Amvrakikos Gulf in Western Greece, a semi-enclosed embayment isolated from the Ionian Sea by a narrow, shallow sill, has shown that it is characterised by a fjord-like oceanographic regime. The Gulf is characterised by a well-stratified two layer structure in the water column made up of a surface layer and a bottom layer that are separated by a strong pycnocline. At the entrance over the sill, there is a brackish water outflow in the surface water and a saline water inflow in the near-bed region. This morphology and water circulation pattern makes the Amvrakikos Gulf the only Mediterranean Sea fjord. The investigations have also shown that the surface layer is well oxygenated, whereas in the pycnocline, the dissolved oxygen (DO) declines sharply and finally attains a value of zero, thus dividing the water column into oxic, dysoxic and anoxic environments. At the dysoxic/anoxic interface, at a depth of approximately 35 m, a sharp redox cline develops with Eh values between 0 and 120 mV occurring above and values between 0 and -250 mV occurring below, where oxic and anoxic biochemical processes prevail, respectively. On the seafloor underneath the anoxic waters, a black silt layer and a white mat cover resembling Beggiatoa-like cells are formed. The dysoxic/anoxic conditions appeared during the last 20 to 30 years and have been caused by the excessive use of fertilisers, the increase in animal stocks, intensive fish farming and domestic effluents. The inflicted dysoxia/anoxia has resulted in habitat loss on the seafloor over an area that makes up just over 50% of the total Gulf area and approximately 28% of the total water volume. Furthermore, anoxia is also considered to have been responsible for the sudden fish mortality which occurred in aquaculture rafts in the Gulf in February 2008. Therefore, anoxic conditions can be considered to be a potential hazard to the ecosystem and to the present thriving fishing and mariculture industry in

  15. Santorini, Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This ASTER image of Santorini was acquired on November 21, 2000 and covers an area of 18 by 18 km. The eruption of Santorini in 1650 B.C. was one of the largest in the last 10,000 years. About 30 cubic kilometers of magma was erupted, forming a plinian column 36 km high. The removal of such a large volume of magma caused the volcano to collapse, producing a caldera. Ash fell over a large area of the eastern Mediterranean. The eruption probably caused the end of the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete. The largest island is Thera, and the smaller is Therasia. The Kameni Islands (dark in the image center) formed after the caldera., with the most recent eruptions occurring in 1950.

    The image is centered at 36.4 degrees north latitude, 25.4 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes

  16. Synoptic atmospheric circulation patterns controlling avalanche activity in central Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, Holt; Prokop, Alexander; Eckerstorfer, Markus; Hendrikx, Jordy

    2017-04-01

    Central Svalbard's avalanche activity is primarily controlled by the local and synoptic scale meteorological conditions characterizing the region's winter storms. Previous work has described Svalbard's direct-action snow climate as High-Arctic maritime based on the unique meteorological conditions and resulting snowpack stratigraphy observed in the region. To gain a better understanding of the broad-scale spatial controls on regional avalanche activity in Svalbard, this work investigates synoptic atmospheric circulation patterns associated with observed avalanche cycles during the 2007/2008 to 2015/2016 winter seasons. We use avalanche observations systematically recorded as part of the Cryoslope Svalbard project from 2007-2010 in combination with additional observations from notable avalanche events from 2010-2016 to develop a regional avalanche cycle history. We then compare the timing of these avalanche cycles to an existing daily calendar of synoptic types and NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis datasets to characterize the synoptic atmospheric circulation patterns influencing this avalanche activity. Our results indicate regional avalanche cycles are driven by cyclonic activity in the seas surrounding Svalbard under synoptic circulation patterns associated with warm air advection and moisture transport from lower latitudes to Svalbard. The character and spatial distribution of observed avalanche activity can be differentiated by atmospheric circulation type: mid-winter slushflow and wet slab avalanche cycles, for example, are typically associated with meridional southerly flow over the North Atlantic bringing warm air and heavy precipitation to Svalbard. Such analyses can provide a foundation upon which to improve the understanding of central Svalbard's snow climate to facilitate regional avalanche forecasting efforts.

  17. Synoptic Weather Patterns Leading to Snowfall in the Northeastern United States and the Resulting Spatial Distribution of Snowfall Amounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmosky, C. C.

    2006-05-01

    Frozen precipitation results in hazardous conditions in the densely populated northeastern United States, yet little attention has been given to the important relationship between synoptic weather patterns and snowfall amounts. Recent increases in total seasonal snowfall amounts in some parts of the region have been attributed to increases in the frequency and/or intensity of certain weather patterns. Direct accounts of synoptic weather patterns are rarely recorded in conjunction with standard meteorological observations, and, as such, they must be diagnosed after the fact. Given the difficulty in isolating consistent synoptic weather patterns from standard meteorological datasets, to date there has been no quantitative study on the amount of snow that falls from each of the distinct synoptic systems that affect the region (nor' easters, lake-effect storms, overrunning events, etc.). This study isolates distinct synoptic types using four-times daily synoptic weather data, principal components analysis and clustering analysis for several cities in the region stretching from Maine to southwestern Virginia. The results of this synoptic typing are specific to the city for which the analysis was performed, and are not necessarily directly comparable to neighboring cities. The algorithm used to delineate synoptic types does, however, take into consideration the temporal progression of synoptic weather patterns over each city and isolates days that are transitional from one synoptic pattern to another. The calendar of daily synoptic types generated in this study is joined to a relatively high resolution, gridded snowfall dataset to isolate areas where a given synoptic pattern is responsible for a given percentage of snowfall. The final product is a series of monthly and seasonal maps of snowfall distributions resulting from each of the individual synoptic patterns.

  18. Corinth Canal, Greece

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-15

    The Isthmus of Corinth has played a very important role in the history of Greece. It is the only land bridge between the country north Attica and south Peloponnese. This image was acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft.

  19. Using synoptic weather types to predict visitor attendance at Atlanta and Indianapolis zoological parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, David R.

    2016-02-01

    Defining an ideal "tourism climate" has been an often-visited research topic where explanations have evolved from global- to location-specific indices tailored to tourists' recreational behavior. Unfortunately, as indices become increasingly specific, they are less translatable across geographies because they may only apply to specific activities, locales, climates, or populations. A key need in the future development of weather and climate indices for tourism has been a translatable, meteorologically based index capturing the generalized ambient atmospheric conditions yet considering local climatology. To address this need, this paper tests the applicability of the spatial synoptic classification (SSC) as a tool to predict visitor attendance response in the tourism, recreation, and leisure (TRL) sector across different climate regimes. Daily attendance data is paired with the prevailing synoptic weather condition at Atlanta and Indianapolis zoological parks from September 2001 to June 2011, to review potential impacts ambient atmospheric conditions may have on visitor attendances. Results indicate that "dry moderate" conditions are most associated with high levels of attendance and "moist polar" synoptic conditions are most associated with low levels of attendance at both zoological parks. Comparing visitor response at these zoo locations, visitors in Indianapolis showed lower levels of tolerance to synoptic conditions which were not "ideal." Visitors in Indianapolis also displayed more aversion to "polar" synoptic regimes while visitors in Atlanta displayed more tolerance to "moist tropical" synoptic regimes. Using a comprehensive atmospheric measure such as the SSC may be a key to broadening application when assessing tourism climates across diverse geographies.

  20. Using synoptic weather types to predict visitor attendance at Atlanta and Indianapolis zoological parks.

    PubMed

    Perkins, David R

    2016-02-23

    Defining an ideal "tourism climate" has been an often-visited research topic where explanations have evolved from global- to location-specific indices tailored to tourists' recreational behavior. Unfortunately, as indices become increasingly specific, they are less translatable across geographies because they may only apply to specific activities, locales, climates, or populations. A key need in the future development of weather and climate indices for tourism has been a translatable, meteorologically based index capturing the generalized ambient atmospheric conditions yet considering local climatology. To address this need, this paper tests the applicability of the spatial synoptic classification (SSC) as a tool to predict visitor attendance response in the tourism, recreation, and leisure (TRL) sector across different climate regimes. Daily attendance data is paired with the prevailing synoptic weather condition at Atlanta and Indianapolis zoological parks from September 2001 to June 2011, to review potential impacts ambient atmospheric conditions may have on visitor attendances. Results indicate that "dry moderate" conditions are most associated with high levels of attendance and "moist polar" synoptic conditions are most associated with low levels of attendance at both zoological parks. Comparing visitor response at these zoo locations, visitors in Indianapolis showed lower levels of tolerance to synoptic conditions which were not "ideal." Visitors in Indianapolis also displayed more aversion to "polar" synoptic regimes while visitors in Atlanta displayed more tolerance to "moist tropical" synoptic regimes. Using a comprehensive atmospheric measure such as the SSC may be a key to broadening application when assessing tourism climates across diverse geographies.

  1. Fire in Southern Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The last major fire in southern Greece was brought under control this weekend, but not until over 469,000 acres of mostly forest and farmland were destroyed. An estimated 4000 people lost their homes, and over 60 deaths were reported. These were the worst fires ever to occur in Greece. In this Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image acquired September 4 over the western coast of the Peloponnesus Peninsula, burned areas appear in dark red, and unburned vegetation is green. The area includes the ancient site of Olympia, the site of the Olympic Games in classical times. The fires came within 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) of the archaeological site, but spared it.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 56.4 by

  2. Fire in Southern Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The last major fire in southern Greece was brought under control this weekend, but not until over 469,000 acres of mostly forest and farmland were destroyed. An estimated 4000 people lost their homes, and over 60 deaths were reported. These were the worst fires ever to occur in Greece. In this Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image acquired September 4 over the western coast of the Peloponnesus Peninsula, burned areas appear in dark red, and unburned vegetation is green. The area includes the ancient site of Olympia, the site of the Olympic Games in classical times. The fires came within 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) of the archaeological site, but spared it.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 56.4 by

  3. Optimisation of solar synoptic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klvaña, Miroslav; Sobotka, Michal; Švanda, Michal

    2012-09-01

    The development of instrumental and computer technologies is connected with steadily increasing needs for archiving of large data volumes. The current trend to meet this requirement includes the data compression and growth of storage capacities. This approach, however, has technical and practical limits. A further reduction of the archived data volume can be achieved by means of an optimisation of the archiving that consists in data selection without losing the useful information. We describe a method of optimised archiving of solar images, based on the selection of images that contain a new information. The new information content is evaluated by means of the analysis of changes detected in the images. We present characteristics of different kinds of image changes and divide them into fictitious changes with a disturbing effect and real changes that provide a new information. In block diagrams describing the selection and archiving, we demonstrate the influence of clouds, the recording of images during an active event on the Sun, including a period before the event onset, and the archiving of long-term history of solar activity. The described optimisation technique is not suitable for helioseismology, because it does not conserve the uniform time step in the archived sequence and removes the information about solar oscillations. In case of long-term synoptic observations, the optimised archiving can save a large amount of storage capacities. The actual capacity saving will depend on the setting of the change-detection sensitivity and on the capability to exclude the fictitious changes.

  4. [Effects of synoptic type on surface ozone pollution in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Tang, Gui-qian; Li, Xin; Wang, Xiao-ke; Xin, Jin-yuan; Hu, Bo; Wang, Li-li; Ren, Yu-fen; Wang, Yue-Si

    2010-03-01

    Ozone (O), influenced by meteorological factors, is a primary gaseous photochemical pollutant during summer to fall in Beijing' s urban ambient. Continuous monitoring during July to September in 2008 was carried out at four sites in Beijing. Analyzed with synoptic type, the results show that the ratios of pre-low cylonic (mainly Mongolia cyclone) and pre-high anticylonic to total weather conditions are about 42% and 20%, illustrating the high-and low-ozone episodes, respectively. At the pre-low cylonic conditions, high temperature, low humidity, mountain and valley winds caused by local circulation induce average hourly maximum ozone concentration (volume fraction) up to 102.2 x 10(-9), negative correlated with atmospheric pressure with a slope of -3.4 x 10(-9) Pa(-1). The time of mountain wind changed to valley wind dominates the diurnal time of maximum ozone, generally around 14:00. At the pre-high anticylonic conditions, low temperature, high humidity and systematic north wind induce average hourly maximum ozone concentration (volume fraction) only 49.3 x 10(-9), the diurnal time of maximum ozone is deferred by continuous north wind till about 16:00. The consistency of photochemical pollution in Beijing region shows that good correlation exists between synoptic type and ozone concentration. Therefore, getting an eye on the structure and evolution of synoptic type is of great significances for forecasting the photochemical pollution.

  5. Springtime cloud properties in the Taiwan Strait: synoptic controls and local processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueh, Mien-Tze; Lin, Pay-Liam

    2014-05-01

    This paper examines the springtime cloud properties in the Taiwan Strait (TS), with emphases on their dependence on synoptic controls and local processes, using a suite of in situ and remote sensing observations. Cloud properties in the TS are inferred from a combination of MODIS and in situ observations and further classified into two synoptic conditions: continental cold air surge and frontal system. The study reveals a predominance of synoptic-scale controls in regulating the cloud properties in the TS. The sensitivity of clouds to the local thermodynamic mechanisms as well as the underlying surface conditions is fundamentally dependent on synoptic-scale flow patterns. The springtime clouds over the TS are commonly a mixture of stratocumulus and alto clouds. More precisely, there is a preponderance of stratocumulus over the strait. A preferential occupancy of stratiform alto clouds is recognized during cold air surge, whereas vertical development of cloud layers (mostly the stratocumulus) is commonly observed with frontal passage. The most distinct difference between the local clouds formation associated with the two synoptic conditions is the suppression of very low cloud and fog along with cold air surge. Stratus clouds and fog are present within the northward prefrontal airflow from warmer to colder water sites, along with an increase in stability relating to lower altitudes of boundary layer clouds. Although the rainfall occurrences are about the same for both synoptic conditions, the frontal rain amounts are larger on average.

  6. Pathology in Greece.

    PubMed

    Sakellariou, S; Patsouris, E

    2015-11-01

    Pathology is the field of medicine that studies diseases. Ancient Greece hosted some of the earliest societies that laid the structural foundations of pathology. Initially, knowledge was based on observations but later on the key elements of pathology were established based on the dissection of animals and the autopsy of human cadavers. Christianized Greece under Ottoman rule (1453-1821) was not conducive to the development of pathology. After liberation, however, a series of events took place that paved the way for the establishment and further development of the specialty. The appointment in 1849 of two Professors of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens for didactical purposes proved to be the most important step in fostering the field of pathology in modern Greece. Presently in Greece there are seven university departments and 74 pathology laboratories in public hospitals, employing 415 specialized pathologists and 90 residents. The First Department of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens University is the oldest (1849) and largest in Greece, encompassing most pathology subspecialties.

  7. Statistical evaluation of the simulated convective activity over Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartsios, Stergios; Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Karacostas, Theodore S.; Tegoulias, Ioannis; Pytharoulis, Ioannis; Bampzelis, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the project DAPHNE (www.daphne-meteo.gr), the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model with the Advanced Research dynamic solver (WRF-ARW, version 3.5.1) is used to produce very high spatiotemporal resolution simulations of the convective activity over Thessaly plain and hence, enhancing our knowledge on the impact of high resolution elevation and land use data in the moist convection. The expecting results act as a precursor for the potential applicability of a planned precipitation enhancement program. The three model domains, covering Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and northern Africa (d01), the wider area of Greece (d02) and Thessaly region-central Greece (d03), are used at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km respectively. ECMWF operational analyses at 6-hourly intervals (0.25ox0.25o lat.-long.) are imported as initial and boundary conditions of the coarse domain, while in the vertical, 39 sigma levels (up to 50 hPa) are used, with increased resolution in the boundary layer. Microphysical processes are represented by WSM6 scheme, sub-grid scale convection by Kain-Fritsch scheme, longwave and shortwave radiation by RRTMG scheme, surface layer by Monin-Obukhov (MM5), boundary layer by Yonsei University and soil physics by NOAH Unified model. Six representative days with different upper-air synoptic circulation types are selected, while high resolution (3'') elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM - version 4) are inserted in the innermost domain (d03), along with the Corine Land Cover 2000 raster data (3''x3''). The aforementioned data sets are used in different configurations, in order to evaluate the impact of each one on the simulated convective activity in the vicinity of Thessaly region, using a grid of available meteorological stations in the area. For each selected day, four (4) sensitivity simulations are performed, setting a total number of 24 runs. Finally, the best configuration provides

  8. Nucleation in Synoptically Forced Cirrostratus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, R.-F.; Starr, D. OC.; Reichardt, J.; DeMott, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    Formation and evolution of cirrostratus in response to weak, uniform and constant synoptic forcing is simulated using a one-dimensional numerical model with explicit microphysics, in which the particle size distribution in each grid box is fully resolved. A series of tests of the model response to nucleation modes (homogeneous-freezing-only/heterogeneous nucleation) and heterogeneous nucleation parameters are performed. In the case studied here, nucleation is first activated in the prescribed moist layer. A continuous cloud-top nucleation zone with a depth depending on the vertical humidity gradient and one of the nucleation parameters is developed afterward. For the heterogeneous nucleation cases, intermittent nucleation zones in the mid-upper portion of the cloud form where the relative humidity is on the rise, because existent ice crystals do not uptake excess water vapor efficiently, and ice nuclei (IN) are available. Vertical resolution as fine as 1 m is required for realistic simulation of the homogeneous-freezing-only scenario, while the model resolution requirement is more relaxed in the cases where heterogeneous nucleation dominates. Bulk microphysical and optical properties are evaluated and compared. Ice particle number flux divergence, which is due to the vertical gradient of the gravity-induced particle sedimentation, is constantly and rapidly changing the local ice number concentration, even in the nucleation zone. When the depth of the nucleation zone is shallow, particle number concentration decreases rapidly as ice particles grow and sediment away from the nucleation zone. When the depth of the nucleation zone is large, a region of high ice number concentration can be sustained. The depth of nucleation zone is an important parameter to be considered in parametric treatments of ice cloud generation.

  9. Synoptic events force biological productivity in Patagonian fjord ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daneri, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The annual cycle of primary productivity of the Patagonian fjords has, to date, been described as a two phase system consisting of a short non productive winter phase (during June and July) and a productive phase extending from late winter (August) to autumn (May). Low levels of primary production, phytoplankton biomass and high concentrations of surface nutrients have been described as characterizing winter conditions while pulsed productivity events typifies the productivity pattern during the extended productive season. Pulsed productivity events characterize coastal waters where inorganic nutrients in surface layers are replenished following periods of intensive utilization by autotrophs. Freshwater input in Patagonian fjords in southern Chile (41-55°S) results in one of the largest estuarine regions worldwide. Here strong haline water column stratification prevents nutrient mixing to the surface layers thus potentially shutting off algal production. Our working hypothesis considered that in order to reconcile the observed pulsed productivity pattern, periodic breaking (associated to surface nutrient replenishment) and re-establishment of estuarine conditions (associated to water column stratification) would be required. Up to now however our understanding of the physical processes that control water column conditions in the Patagonian fjord area has been extremely limited. Here we present evidence linking the passage of synoptic low pressure fronts to pulsed productivity events in the Patagonian fjord area. These front controls and influence local processes of interaction between the fjord and the atmosphere generating a rapid water column response. In the specific case of the Puyuhuapi fjord we have been able to show that such synoptic fronts induce surface flow reversal and water column mixing. Phytoplankton blooming occurs after the passage of the synoptic front once calmer conditions prevail and estuarine conditions are re established. The occurrence of

  10. Synoptic Scale Structure of Summertime Wet and Dry Spells in Northeastern Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skindlov, Jonathan Anders

    An integrated automated synoptic index, incorporating both surface and upper air weather observations at Topeka, KS, was constructed for summers (June, July, and August) from 1957 through 1984. Principal component analysis generated 62 orthogonal components from the 62 meteorological variables. Average linkage (hierarchical) clustering of the first seven components produced 12 synoptic type seeds which were used by a k -means (non-hierarchical) clustering procedure to reclassify all 2576 days into the 12 distinct synoptic types. These types were matched with six-hourly Topeka precipitation totals for evaluation of temporal variance and, for 1978-84, with manually digitized radar (MDR) data from a 120 by 120 km area for analysis of spatial variation. Differences in diurnal preferences (nocturnal versus daytime storms), amount of rainfall per storm, and duration and frequency of storms were noted. Links between the synoptic types (i.e., their mean meteorological conditions) and rainfall and radar echo variations, wet and dry spells, and the eventual temperature and rainfall character each summer were ascertained. Long- and short-term precipitation trends provided a context for interpreting the synoptic climatology. Topeka monthly precipitation records from 1878 through 1987 revealed inter-annual variation of wet and dry periods. Summer precipitation--monthly, daily, and six-hourly--from 1957 through 1984 revealed short-term, intra-seasonal variations. Both wet and dry as well as hot and cool weather were uniquely captured by the 12 synoptic types. Temporal differences in Topeka rainfall--both intra-seasonally and inter-seasonally--were explained well by differences in the frequency of occurrence of the 12 synoptic types. Spatial differences in the MDR data were reasonably accounted for by synoptic type characteristics; temporal differences were less clear. A few of the dry synoptic types were associated with rare but intense rainfall and radar echoes. The temperature

  11. Modelling TOVS radiances of synoptic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, Thomas Eddy

    1992-01-01

    Two operational analysis models, produced by ECMWF and NMC, are compared against observed satellite radiances by converting the analyzed variables into synthetic radiances using a radiative transfer model (RTM). Observed TOVS satellite radiances are used as a ground truth, since they are the only source of continuous, synoptic-scale resolution observations available over the data-sparse tropical Pacific Ocean. It is assumed that if the analysis models correctly simulate atmospheric conditions, the observed and modelled radiance fields will have similar patterns and magnitudes. In each of seven TOVS channels examined, the mean temperature difference between the models was small, but the differences between the models and the observations were large. The mean temperature difference within each channel was larger than the standard deviation in most cases. The moisture channels of the RTM were sensitive to changes in moisture content, but none of the channels were significantly affected by changes in temperature. Single-day modelled radiance analyses contain synoptic information similar to the satellite observations. ECMWF is often too noisy, producing features not verified by the satellite; NMC is often too smooth. NMC more closely resembles the TOVS contours. Modelled water vapor channel analyses resemble observed monthly and composited observations well, but do not accurately reproduce the highly-variable single-day fields. ECMWF generally has more accurate gradients. Neither model simulates the tropics well. The water vapor channels, especially channel eleven (weighted at 700 mb), most closely resembled the tropical plume composite described by McGuirk and Ulsh. The only plume evidence found in the thermal or microwave channels, in either the observations or the models, was a composite trough situated in the correct location, extending from the mid-latitudes into the subtropics. This feature was not readily discernable until the definition and mature stages

  12. Atmospheric circulation types and daily mortality in Athens, Greece.

    PubMed

    Kassomenos, P; Gryparis, A; Samoli, E; Katsouyanni, K; Lykoudis, S; Flocas, H A

    2001-06-01

    We investigated the short-term effects of synoptic and mesoscale atmospheric circulation types on mortality in Athens, Greece. The synoptic patterns in the lower troposphere were classified in 8 a priori defined categories. The mesoscale weather types were classified into 11 categories, using meteorologic parameters from the Athens area surface monitoring network; the daily number of deaths was available for 1987-1991. We applied generalized additive models (GAM), extending Poisson regression, using a LOESS smoother to control for the confounding effects of seasonal patterns. We adjusted for long-term trends, day of the week, ambient particle concentrations, and additional temperature effects. Both classifications, synoptic and mesoscale, explain the daily variation of mortality to a statistically significant degree. The highest daily mortality was observed on days characterized by southeasterly flow [increase 10%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.1-13.9% compared to the high-low pressure system), followed by zonal flow (5.8%; 95% CI, 1.8-10%). The high-low pressure system and the northwesterly flow are associated with the lowest mortality. The seasonal patterns are consistent with the annual pattern. For mesoscale categories, in the cold period the highest mortality is observed during days characterized by the easterly flow category (increase 9.4%; 95% CI, 1.0-18.5% compared to flow without the main component). In the warm period, the highest mortality occurs during the strong southerly flow category (8.5% increase; 95% CI, 2.0-15.4% compared again to flow without the main component). Adjusting for ambient particle levels leaves the estimated associations unchanged for the synoptic categories and slightly increases the effects of mesoscale categories. In conclusion, synoptic and mesoscale weather classification is a useful tool for studying the weather-health associations in a warm Mediterranean climate situation.

  13. GREECE Mission Launching Into Aurora

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Va. The Poker Flat Research Range is operated by the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. “The conditions were optimal,” said Marilia Samara, principal investigator for the mission at Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. “We can’t wait to dig into the data.” For more information on the GREECE mission visit: www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/nasa-funded-sounding-rocket- .NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  14. Greece Plus 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, James E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    For the past 10 years all students have been enrolled in the industrial arts program for 13 weeks each year in the Greece Central School District, New York. The orientation phase in grades 7-8 concentrates on the construction, graphic communication, transportation, and manufacturing clusters. Grades 9 through 12 continue three levels of career and…

  15. Alternative Use in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Situating the University of Thessaly in Volos and Larissa, Greece, represents the idea that the university has a role to play in the community, and, therefore, its facilities are integrated within the city. Describes an old factory warehouse converted to create "a building within a building," while preserving style of the former factory…

  16. Counseling in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malikiosi-Loizos, Maria; Ivey, Allen E.

    2012-01-01

    There is rapid growth in Greece's professional and research activity in counseling, despite the lack of a clear professional identity for the field. It is hoped this will be overcome through the newly started graduate programs. Opportunities, objectives, and strategies for counseling's advancement should be directed toward close and essential…

  17. Greece. [CME Country Reports].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    There is no immigration problems in Greece today. On the contrary, the country's economic development makes it necessary for Greek workers who have emigrated temporarily to return and be integrated into the production system. The educational policy for emigrant workers' children involves: (1) ensuring that children who have settled abroad know…

  18. [Midwifes in ancient Greece].

    PubMed

    Arata, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the evidence about obstetrics and in particular midwifes in ancient Greece. The substantives which mean "obstetrician" in Greek are quite numerous, but the most attested and common is [see text]. This work examines all the tasks which were connected with this profession (e.g. in the legal field).

  19. Synoptic analysis of frost days in Zanjan Province of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alijani, B.; Tagiloo, M.

    2010-09-01

    As a general rule it is accepted that every change in the environment is controlled by the changes in the pressure patterns or varying synoptic systems. We are witnessing intensive floods, damaging cold waves, or highly polluted air every year, all of which are related to some extent to the pressure patterns such as intensive cyclones or subsiding anticyclones. The frost days are one of these environmental conditions that are caused by these pressure patterns especially in the case of synoptic frosts. The Zanjan province of Iran with mountainous nature and higher elevations is one of the frost prone regions in the country. Most of the years this region suffers from intensive and damaging frosts such as the one occurred in December 2006 and January 2007. In order to advise planners and users, and lower the damages of such frosts, this study tried to analyze the synoptic origin of the December 2006 frost. To achieve the objective of the study the frost days of the province during months December 2006 and January 2007 were selected. During these months all of the four stations of the Province ( Zanjan, Khorramdarreh, Khodabandeh, and Mahneshan) had experienced sub-zero temperatures. The daily zero GMT surface and 500 hPa. maps of the region were extracted from the National Center of Environmental Protection (NCEP) site for the selected days. The pressure patterns of both levels were analyzed and assigned into different groups. The results showed that the main synoptic patterns responsible for the frosts of the region are the Caspian trough, Siberian high pressure, moving western anticyclones, upper level blockings, and cut off lows. When the Caspian Sea trough deepens it brings the westerly anticyclones to the area. Under its eastward displacement, the Siberian High develops and sends its ridges towards the study region. Some times the upper level blocking of the Siberian area brings the cold air masses to the study region. In general, the development and displacement

  20. Corinth Canal, Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Isthmus of Corinth has played a very important role in the history of Greece. It is the only land bridge between the country's north (Attica) and south (Peloponnese). It is a 6 km wide tongue of land separating the Gulf of Corinth from the Saronic Sea. Populations, armies and commodities have got to move through it. In the 6th century BCE, the Greeks built the Diolkos, a 10 meter-wide stone roadway to pull ships across the Isthmus on wooden cylinders and wheeled vehicles. In 1882, a canal was started and completed 11 years later. It is 6343 meters long, 25 meters wide, and 8 meters deep.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 25.3 by 37.7 kilometers (15.7 by 23.4 miles) Location: 37.9 degrees North latitude, 23 degrees East longitude

  1. Synoptic climatology of the long-distance dispersal of white pine blister rust I. Development of an upper level synoptic classification

    Treesearch

    K. L. Frank; L. S. Kalkstein; B. W. Geils; H. W. Thistle

    2008-01-01

    This study developed a methodology to temporally classify large scale, upper level atmospheric conditions over North America, utilizing a newly-developed upper level synoptic classification (ULSC). Four meteorological variables: geopotential height, specific humidity, and u- and v-wind components, at the 500 hPa level over North America were obtained from the NCEP/NCAR...

  2. The zeolite deposits of Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamatakis, M.G.; Hall, A.; Hein, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Zeolites are present in altered pyroclastic rocks at many localities in Greece, and large deposits of potential economic interest are present in three areas: (1) the Evros region of the province of Thrace in the north-eastern part of the Greek mainland; (2) the islands of Kimolos and Poliegos in the western Aegean; and (3) the island of Samos in the eastern Aegean Sea. The deposits in Thrace are of Eocene-Oligocene age and are rich in heulandite and/or clinoptilolite. Those of Kimolos and Poliegos are mainly Quaternary and are rich in mordenite. Those of Samos are Miocene, and are rich in clinoptilolite and/or analcime. The deposits in Thrace are believed to have formed in an open hydrological system by the action of meteoric water, and those of the western Aegean islands in a similar way but under conditions of high heat flow, whereas the deposits in Samos were formed in a saline-alkaline lake.

  3. Physicochemical conditions of deposition and origin of carbonate-hosted base metal sulfide mineralization, Thermes ore-field, Rhodope Massif, northeastern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogeropoulos, S. I.; Kilias, S. P.; Arvanitidis, N. D.

    1996-07-01

    Vein and stratabound base metal sulfide mineralization of the Thermes ore-field, Rhodope Massif, NE Greece, is hosted in marbles. The Thermes area is a structurally complex, E W-trending zone consisting of felsic gneisses alternating with amphibolites, amphibole-biotite, and biotite gneisses, and marbles. These rocks have undergone amphibolite facies metamorphism (5 7 kbar, 580 ° 620 °C), in Upper Cretaceous to Eocene times, and were subsequently retrograded to greenschist facies metamorphism of Miocene age. Granitoids of Oligocene age, and volcanic rocks of Eocene-Oligocene age, crosscut the metamorphic rocks. Two major base metal sulfide ore varieties occur in the Thermes ore-field. The first comprises brecciated vein Pb-Zn mineralization, related to NNW- and NNE-trending faults. The second comprises stratabound (manto) polymetallic, and Pb-Zn replacement ores with associated veins. On the basis of ore geochemistry, as well as field and textural evidence, these two ore varieties form part of a vein associated skarn-replacement base metal sulfide ore system. Based on fluid inclusion data in quartz, together with the iron content of sphalerites and existing lead and sulfur isotope data, it is suggested that after the cessation of the regional amphibolite facies metamorphism circulating evolved meteoric waters, probably with magmatic fluid contributions, deposited sulfide ores at temperatures of 200 ° 400 °C, and pressures of less than 300 bar. Ore was deposited as a result of increase in pH of the mineralizing fluids due to fluid-rock interaction, and adiabatic cooling and/or simple cooling accompanying fluid boiling. Thermochemical considerations indicate a pH increase from about 4 to 7 and a decrease in f S2 and f O2.

  4. Heavy Thunderstorm Synoptic Climatology and Forcing Mechanisms in Saudi Arabia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghulam, Ayman S.

    2010-05-01

    Meteorologists are required to provide accurate and comprehensive weather information for planning and operational aviation, agricultural, water projects and also for the public. In general, weather phenomena such as thunderstorms over the area between the tropics and the middle latitudes are not fully understood, particularly in the Middle East area, for many reasons such as: 1) the complexity of the nature of the climate due to the wide-ranging diversity in the topography and landscape in the area; 2) the lack of meteorological data in the area; and 3) the lack of studies on local weather situations. In arid regions such as Saudi Arabia, the spatial and temporal variation of thunderstorms and associated rainfall are essential in determining their effects on social and economic conditions. Thunderstorms form rapidly, due to the fact that the significant heating of the air from the surface and the ensuing rainfall usually occurs within a short period of time. Thus, understanding thunderstorms and rainfall distribution in time and space would be useful for hydrologists, meteorologists and for environmental studies. Research all over the world has shown, however, that consideration of local factors like Low Level Jets (LLJ), moisture flux, sea breezes, and the Red Sea Convergence Zone (RSCZ) would be valuable in thunderstorm prediction. The combined effects of enhanced low-level moisture convergence and layer destabilization due to upslope flow over mountainous terrain has been shown to be responsible for thunderstorm development in otherwise non-favourable conditions. However, there might be other synoptic features associated with heavy thunderstorms or cause them, but these features have not been investigated in any research in Saudi Arabia. Thus, relating the local weather and synoptic situations with those over the middle latitudes will provide a valuable background for the forecasters to issue the medium-range forecasts which are important for many projects

  5. The anomalous low and high temperatures of 2012 over Greece: an explanation from a meteorological and climatological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolika, K.; Maheras, P.; Pytharoulis, I.; Anagnostopoulou, C.

    2013-09-01

    The year of 2012 is characterized, for Greece, as the hottest one in the available record dating back to 1958, presenting also the widest annual temperature range. During the summer and autumn months, numerous regions in the domain of study experienced record-breaking maximum and minimum temperatures. Conversely, the winter period was particularly cold and January was one of the coldest months in the last 55 yr. The analysis of the cold period indicates that the synoptic conditions resemble the positive phase of the Eastern Mediterranean Pattern (EMP). The predominance of these cool conditions seems to be primarily related to an intense NNW or NNE atmospheric circulation, as a consequence of the positive EMP phase. Moreover, the reduction of the floating sea ice emerged as a key driver to the formation of a low pressure pattern and the reinforcement of the trough south of Scandinavia, which in turn strengthened the Siberia High east of the trough. This reinforcement resulted in a blocking pattern and in the favorable conditions for the EMP formation The atmospheric circulation during the prolonged high-temperature period resembles, respectively, the negative phase of North Sea-Caspian Pattern teleconnection. The observed positive pole, in conjunction with the strong southwestern circulation, results in temperature increases and in the development of a smooth pressure field that contributes to the weakening of the Etesian winds and therefore to calm conditions over the continental areas.

  6. The anomalous low and high temperatures of 2012 over Greece - an explanation from a meteorological and climatological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolika, K.; Maheras, P.; Pytharoulis, I.; Anagnostopoulou, C.

    2014-03-01

    2012 was the hottest year in Greece on the basis of the available record dating back to 1958, displaying at the same time the widest annual temperature range. During the summer and autumn months, numerous regions in the domain of study experienced record-breaking maximum and minimum temperatures. Conversely, the winter period was particularly cold and January one of the coldest months over the last 55 yr. The analysis of the cold period indicates that the synoptic conditions resemble the positive phase of the Eastern Mediterranean Pattern (EMP). The predominance of these cool conditions seems to be related primarily to an intense NNW or NNE atmospheric circulation, as a consequence of the positive EMP phase. Moreover, the reduction in the floating sea ice emerges as a key driver of the formation of a low-pressure pattern and the reinforcement of the trough south of Scandinavia, which in turn strengthened the Siberia High east of the trough. This reinforcement resulted in a blocking pattern and in favorable conditions for the EMP formation. The atmospheric circulation during the prolonged high-temperature period resembles, respectively, the negative phase of North Sea-Caspian Pattern teleconnection. The observed positive pole, in conjunction with the strong southwestern circulation, results in temperature increases and in the development of a smooth pressure field that contributes to the weakening of the Etesian winds and therefore to calm conditions over the continental areas.

  7. Synoptic typing of high ozone events in Arizona (2011-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Jessica

    This thesis examines the synoptic characteristics associated with ozone exceedance events in Arizona during the time period of 2011 to 2013. Finding explanations and sources to the ground level ozone in this state is crucial to maintaining the state's adherence to federal air quality regulations. This analysis utilizes ambient ozone concentration data, surface meteorological conditions, upper air analyses, and HYSPLIT modeling to analyze the synoptic characteristics of ozone events. Based on these data and analyses, five categories were determined to be associated with these events. The five categories all exhibit distinct upper air patterns and surface conditions conducive to the formation of ozone, as well as distinct potential transport pathways of ozone from different nearby regions. These findings indicate that ozone events in Arizona can be linked to synoptic-scale patterns and potential regional transport of ozone. These results can be useful in the forecasting of high ozone pollution and influential on the legislative reduction of ozone pollution.

  8. Lightning characteristics in Eastern Mediterranean thunderstorms during different synoptic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Ami, Y.; Altaratz, O.; Yair, Y.; Koren, I.

    2015-06-01

    Thunderstorms activity takes place in the Eastern Mediterranean mainly along the boreal fall and winter seasons during synoptic systems of Red Sea Trough (RST), Red Sea Trough that closed a low over the sea (RST-CL), and Cyprus Low (during fall - FCL and Winter - WCL). In this work we used the Israeli Lightning Location System ground strokes dataset (between October 2004 and December 2010) for studying the lightning strokes properties and their link to the thermodynamic conditions in each synoptic system. It is shown that the lightning activity dominates over sea during WCL and FCL systems (with maximum values of 37 strokes per 25 km2 day-1 in WCL, and 54 in FCL) and have a dominant component over land during the RST and RST-CL days. The stronger instability (high CAPE values of 621 ± 466 J kg-1) during RST-CL days together with the higher altitude of the clouds' mixed-phase region (3630 ± 316 m) result in higher ground strokes density during this system (compared to all other) but lower fraction of positive ground strokes (3 ± 0.5%). In general the fraction of positive strokes was found to be positively correlated with the wind shear values in the layer between 0 and -25 °C. It increases from the 1.2 ± 1% in early fall to 17 ± 7% in late winter, (during FCL and WCL days) and can be linked to the decrease in the sea surface (and lower troposphere) temperature during those months, due to an impact on the charge centers vertical location. The diurnal cycle in the lightning activity was examined for each synoptic system. During WCL conditions no preferred times were found along the day (as it relates to the timing of frontal systems). During the fall systems (FCL and RST-CL) there is a peak in lightning activity during the morning hours, probably related to the enhanced convection driven by the convergence between the eastern land breeze and the western synoptic winds. The distributions of peak currents in FCL and WCL systems also change from fall to winter and

  9. Recent trend analysis of mean air temperature in Greece based on homogenized data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamara, A.; Argiriou, A. Α.; Anadranistakis, M.

    2016-11-01

    Numerous studies analyze the temperature variations in the Mediterranean area due to the anticipated impact of climate change in this part of the world. A number of studies examined the temperature climate in Greece, but few are based on a large number of synoptic stations covering all regions and climatic zones and even fewer are based on homogenized data set series, despite the fact that climatological studies must use high-quality homogeneous data series. The present work reviews previous studies dealing with climatic changes in Greece and addresses changes of mean air temperature, based on a large set of homogenized data from 52 synoptic stations. A statistically significant negative trend during 1960-1976 and a positive one during 1977-2004 were revealed. During 1960-1976, the lowest negative annual temperature trend is observed in Crete. During 1977-2004, the northern region of Greece was characterized by prominent annual warming, whereas the north and central Aegean Sea and the semi-mountainous area were characterized by the lowest warming. All stations are characterized by high seasonal trends in summer; the most extreme trends are observed in the northern and eastern regions and in the Attica area. Positive temperature trends occur from May to October, while negative trends dominate from November to February. The most pronounced warming is recorded in June and July, and the most strongly decreasing trend occurs in November. Annual temperature trends in northern Greece follow the hemispheric pattern, and the overall summer warming in Greece is greater than the hemisphere's.

  10. The measurement of the synoptic scale wind over the ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Mesoscale and microscale features of the turbulent winds over the ocean are related to the synoptic scale winds in terms of published spectral forms for the microscale, a mesoscale valley and published values of U*, VAR u', VAR v' and z/L, as defined in the text and as obtained for moderate to gale force winds. The frequencies involved correspond to periods longer than 1 hour and extend to the microscale, which starts at a period near 2 minutes, or so, and continues to the Kolmogorov inertial range. Nondimensional spectra that span both the mesoscale and the microscale are derived as a function of u, f(= n z/u) and z/L, where z is 10 meters, L is the Monin Obukov stability length and u is evaluated at 10 meters. For the same u, different values of z/L produce a range of values of u which in turn result in variations of the eddy structure of the mesoscale and microscale spectra. Both conventional anemometer averages and remotely sensed winds contain a random component of the mesoscale wind in their values. These components are differnces and not errors when winds are compared, and quantitative values for these differences are given. Ways to improve the measurement of the synoptic scale wind by transient ships, data buoys and scatterometers on future spacecraft are described. These ways are loner averaging times for ships and data buoys, depending on the synoptic conditions, and pooling spacecraft to form super observations. Design considerations for future remote sensing systems are given.

  11. Magnus Hirschfeld in Greece.

    PubMed

    Vyras, P

    1997-01-01

    In 1932 Magnus Hirschfeld, the eminent German sexologist, visited Greece. It was after a long journey that took him round the world, lecturing about the new science he had created. In the Greek capital his unconventional theories concerning an intermediate "third sex" and his ideas about sexual reform became the object of an attack in the local press. Close examination of the debate which followed reveals some interesting points regarding Hirschfeld's approach to publicity and his attempts to foster an emancipation movement for homosexual issues.

  12. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope mount final design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Shawn; Gressler, William; Thomas, Sandrine J.; Gessner, Chuck; Warner, Mike; Barr, Jeff; Lotz, Paul J.; Schumacher, German; Wiecha, Oliver; Angeli, George; Andrew, John; Claver, Chuck; Schoening, Bill; Sebag, Jacques; Krabbendam, Victor; Neill, Doug; Hileman, Ed; Muller, Gary; Araujo, Constanza; Orden Martinez, Alfredo; Perezagua Aguado, Manuel; García-Marchena, Luis; Ruiz de Argandoña, Ismael; Romero, Francisco M.; Rodríguez, Ricardo; Carlos González, José; Venturini, Marco

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the status and details of the large synoptic survey telescope1,2,3 mount assembly (TMA). On June 9th, 2014 the contract for the design and build of the large synoptic survey telescope mount assembly (TMA) was awarded to GHESA Ingeniería y Tecnología, S.A. and Asturfeito, S.A. The design successfully passed the preliminary design review on October 2, 2015 and the final design review January 29, 2016. This paper describes the detailed design by subsystem, analytical model results, preparations being taken to complete the fabrication, and the transportation and installation plans to install the mount on Cerro Pachón in Chile. This large project is the culmination of work by many people and the authors would like to thank everyone that has contributed to the success of this project.

  13. Large-scale synoptic types and their impact on European precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoy, Andreas; Schucknecht, Anne; Sepp, Mait; Matschullat, Jörg

    2014-04-01

    Atmospheric circulation strongly modulates precipitation patterns throughout Europe. A selection of synoptic types was chosen to investigate the impact of circulation on the spatial distribution of precipitation within Europe and neighbouring regions (for 1951-2010). Applied were (1) the original and one automated version of the Grosswetterlagen classification, (2) the Vangengeim-Girs classification and (3) a dataset of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Daily values of the E-OBS gridded precipitation dataset were allocated to synoptic types, visualising precipitation anomalies (in percent) during winter (October-March) and summer (April-September) half years. Anomalies from average precipitation conditions (only) contain days connected to each of the investigated synoptic types. Distinct anomaly patterns become visible and are explained by the location of pressure systems. Patterns are spatially similar between both half years for Grosswetterlagen and Vangengeim-Girs classifications, while the NAO shows pronounced seasonal changes. Precipitation anomaly maps were applied to help explain observed changes in European precipitation amounts from 1981 to 2010, as compared to 1951-1980. Changes of precipitation amounts were related to frequency changes of synoptic types, predominantly during the winter half year. Here, increasing (decreasing) frequencies of synoptic types connected to westerly (easterly) inflow supported higher precipitation amounts in northern Europe and lower amounts in southern Europe.

  14. Meteorological and Synoptic Aspects of the Novorossiysk Bora Forming and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolikhina, N.; Semenov, E.; Sokolikhina, E.

    2012-04-01

    The genetic and synoptic classification of the Novorossiysk Bora was done using the daily observations on the Novorossiysk meteorological station, the radio sounding data in Tuapse and Rostov-on-Don, and other available synoptic information. Then the basic scenarios of the beginning and evolution of this dangerous weather event for the Black Sea coast were worked out. According to the genetic classification the Bora was divided into four types: frontal, air-mass, monsoon and gravity. For each type the quantitative criteria were elaborated, which can be used in future in the prediction of this destructive event nearby Novorossiysk. The analysis of the circulation conditions also allowed to work out the synoptic classification. According to this classification all the variety of the synoptic processes was combined into four classes: Azores, North-Atlantic, Siberian and Arctic. For each class the typical schemes of the synoptic processes and forecasting maps of the geopotential difference on the H1000 between the European Part of Russia and Novorossiysk were obtained before 48 hours to the beginning of the Bora. It was shown, that the most complicated situations for the prediction concerned with the entrance of the active anticyclones of the Arctic class to the European part of Russia, and the most successful forecasts concerned with the stationary anticyclones of the Siberian class.

  15. Interaction between synoptic gyres and intrathermocline lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovskiy, M. A.; Filyushkin, B. N.

    2015-09-01

    In the northeastern Atlantic Ocean, intrathermocline lenses (ITL) occur at depths of 600-1600 m. These ITLs are localized vortex patches (anticyclonic and cyclonic), generally of an elliptical shape with horizontal axes from 40 to 100 km, vertical axes from 0.4 to 1 km, and volumes of 1000-3500 km3. According to observations, the coexistence of several lenses is a rather common phenomenon in certain ocean areas. Thus, the problem of their interaction, and, in particular, the influence of lenses on larger vortices, is especially important. The aim of the present work is to study, using a three-layer quasi-geostrophic model, the interaction between intrathermocline lenses and synoptic gyres existing in few layers. Simulations show that synoptic gyres change significantly their shape under the effect of ITLs. The authors propose a tentative mechanism of ITLs' deceleration because of the interaction with synoptic gyres, located at different layers. It is obvious that turbulent exchanges at mid ocean depths intensify when vortices collapse.

  16. The Palomar-Quest Synoptic Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahabal, A.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Graham, M.; Williams, R.; Granett, B.; Bogosavljevic, M.; Baltay, C.; Rabinowitz, D.; Bauer, A.; Andrews, P.; Morgan, N.; Snyder, J.; Ellman, N.; Brunner, R.; Rengstorf, A. W.; Musser, J.; Gebhard, M.; Mufson, S.

    2003-12-01

    Exploration of the time domain is rapidly becoming one of the most exciting areas of astronomy. The Palomar-Quest synoptic sky survey has recently started producing a steady stream of data. In driftscan mode the survey covers Declination strips 4.6 deg wide, between -25 and +30 deg, at least twice in each of the two filter sets, one Johnson-Cousin's UBRI and one SDSS r'i'z'z', at a rate of about 500 square degrees per night. The scans are separated by time baselines of days to months, and we anticipate that they will extend to multi-year time scales over the next 3 to 5 years or beyond. The unprecedented amount of data makes this the largest synoptic survey of its kind both in terms of area covered and depth. We would search for both variable and transient objects, including supernovae, variable AGN, GRB orphan afterglows, cataclysmic variables, interesting stellar flares, novae, other types of variable stars, and possibly even entirely new types of objects or phenomena. We are in the process of designing a real-time data reduction pipeline which would enable a rapid discovery and spectroscopic follow-up of transients and other intersting objects. This survey can be seen as a precursor for the even larger synoptic sky surveys with LSST and PanSTARRS.

  17. Greece and Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer is in full swing in this stunning true-color image of the southeastern European countries and Turkey captured by MODIS on June 29, 2002. Clockwise from left, the mountains of Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and Turkey are swathed in brilliant greens and shades of golden brown; meanwhile (counterclockwise from left) the Ionian, Mediterranean, Aegean, and Black Seas are beautifully blue and green.Running diagonally across the image from the bottom middle to the top right is a gray streak that is caused by the angle of reflection of the sun on the water (called sun glint). The darker areas within this gray swath denote calmer water, and make visible currents that would not otherwise be noticeable.Surprisingly few fires were burning hot enough to be detectable by MODIS when this image was acquired during the height of the summer dry season. A single fire is visible burning in mainland Greece, six are visible in northwestern Turkey, and one burns on the western coast (marked with red outlines). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  18. An objective definition of air mass types affecting Athens, Greece; the corresponding atmospheric pressure patterns and air pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Sindosi, O A; Katsoulis, B D; Bartzokas, A

    2003-08-01

    This work aims at defining characteristic air mass types that dominate in the region of Athens, Greece during the cold (November-March) and the warm (May-September) period of the year and also at evaluating the corresponding concentration levels of the main air pollutants. For each air mass type, the mean atmospheric pressure distribution (composite maps) over Europe and the Mediterranean is estimated in order to reveal the association of atmospheric circulation with air pollution levels in Athens. The data basis for this work consists of daily values of thirteen meteorological and six pollutant parameters covering the period 1993-97. The definition of the characteristic air mass types is attempted objectively by using the methods of Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis. The results show that during the cold period of the year there are six prevailing air mass types (at least 3% of the total number of days) and six infrequent ones. The examination of the corresponding air pollution concentration levels shows that the primary air pollutants appear with increased concentrations when light or southerly winds prevail. This is usually the case when a high pressure system is located over the central Mediterranean or a low pressure system lays over south Italy, respectively. Low levels of the primary pollutants are recorded under northeasterly winds, mainly caused by a high pressure system over Ukraine. During the warm period of the year, the southwestern Asia thermal low and the subtropical anticyclone of the Atlantic Ocean affect Greece. Though these synoptic systems cause almost stagnant conditions, four main air mass types are dominant and ten others, associated with extreme weather, are infrequent. Despite the large amounts of total solar radiation characterizing this period, ozone concentrations remain at low levels in central Athens because of its destruction by nitric oxide.

  19. Synoptic Climatology of Bell-Shaped Thunderstorms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    collapsed. It was hypothesized that the storm updraft may have been inhibited by strong rotation as in a vortex valve ( Lemon , 1976). 4 These cases, and others...would also be of interest. Even then, the synoptic scale is only a beginning in understand- ing the nature of bell-shaped thunderstorms. Ar. L.R. Lemon ...Oklahoma on 5 December 1975. Mon. Wea. Rev., 197, 451-457. Davies-Jones, R.P., and D.W. Burgess and L.R. Lemon , 19T6: An atypical tornado-producini

  20. Pleural calcification in northwest Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Bazas, T.; Oakes, D.; Gilson, J.C.; Bazas, B.; McDonald, J.C.

    1985-12-01

    Mass miniature radiography in 1969 detected a high prevalence of pleural calcification in three villages in northwest Greece. In 1980 a survey of a 15% sample of the population over the age of 10 was carried out with a 80% response rate. Full-size radiographs, ventilatory capacity measurements, and a detailed questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, type of work, and residence were used. Independent classification of the 408 films by two readers using the ILO/UC scheme showed very few small opacities but a very high prevalence of pleural calcification first evident in young adults and rising to 70% in the elderly. The overall prevalence was 34.7% in men and 21.5% in women. A comparison with the 1969 survey showed a progression rate of 5% per annum. In neither sex was there a significant relation of pleural calcification to smoking, ventilatory capacity, nor type of work, though those classified as field croppers had a slightly higher prevalence. There was no obvious evidence of increased lung cancer or mesothelioma in the village. The agent responsible for this apparently benign condition was not identified.

  1. Estimated synoptic distributions of SABER data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingenfelser, G.; Remsberg, E.; Harvey, V.; Grose, W.

    2003-04-01

    The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument aboard the TIMED (Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics) satellite has been obtaining measurements since January 2002. The Version 1.01 Level 2A LTE temperature data have been compared with temperature data obtained by other satellites, lidars, and falling spheres. The agreement between the SABER temperature profiles and those for other data sets indicate that the Version 1.01 SABER LTE temperature versus pressure distributions are suitable to use in dynamical studies of the middle atmosphere through the calculation of winds and potential vorticity. A first step in the calculation of dynamical parameters is to use a sequential estimation technique to obtain synoptic temperature distributions from the asynoptic SABER satellite data. The algorithm that was used in the LIMS data mapping has been updated and applied to the SABER temperature data to generate Fourier coefficients which are output at noon UT for each day as a function of latitude. From these spectral coefficients, synoptic temperature fields are estimated. The estimated data will be compared with assimilated fields in an attempt to further assess the quality of the SABER data.

  2. SOLIS: an innovative suite of synoptic instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Christoph U.; Harvey, John W.; Giampapa, Mark S.

    2003-02-01

    SOLIS (Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun) is a suite of three innovative instruments under construction that will greatly improve ground-based synoptic solar observations. The Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM) is a compact, high-throughput vector-polarimeter with an active secondary mirror, an actively controlled grating spectrograph, and two high-speed cameras with silicon-on-CMOS-multiplexer hybrid focal plane arrays. It will measure the magnetic field strength and direction over the full solar disk within 15 minutes. The Full-Disk Patrol (FDP) takes full-disk solar intensity and Doppler images in various spectral lines and in the continuum at a high cadence through liquid-crystal tuned birefringent filters. The Integrated Sunlight Spectrometer (ISS) uses a fiber-fed spectrograph to measure minute changes of the Sun-as-a-star in many spectral lines. A high degree of automation and remote control provides fast user access to data and flexible interaction with the data-collection process. SOLIS is currently in the final assembly phase and will become operational early in 2003.

  3. The variable sky of deep synoptic surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgway, Stephen T.; Matheson, Thomas; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Olsen, Knut A.; Howell, Steve B.

    2014-11-20

    The discovery of variable and transient sources is an essential product of synoptic surveys. The alert stream will require filtering for personalized criteria—a process managed by a functionality commonly described as a Broker. In order to understand quantitatively the magnitude of the alert generation and Broker tasks, we have undertaken an analysis of the most numerous types of variable targets in the sky—Galactic stars, quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and asteroids. It is found that the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be capable of discovering ∼10{sup 5} high latitude (|b| > 20°) variable stars per night at the beginning of the survey. (The corresponding number for |b| < 20° is orders of magnitude larger, but subject to caveats concerning extinction and crowding.) However, the number of new discoveries may well drop below 100 per night within less than one year. The same analysis applied to GAIA clarifies the complementarity of the GAIA and LSST surveys. Discovery of AGNs and QSOs are each predicted to begin at ∼3000 per night and decrease by 50 times over four years. Supernovae are expected at ∼1100 per night, and after several survey years will dominate the new variable discovery rate. LSST asteroid discoveries will start at >10{sup 5} per night, and if orbital determination has a 50% success rate per epoch, they will drop below 1000 per night within two years.

  4. Health-Related Quality of Life of the Roma in Greece: The Role of Socio-Economic Characteristics and Housing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Pappa, Evelina; Chatzikonstantinidou, Simela; Chalkiopoulos, George; Papadopoulos, Angelos; Niakas, Dimitris

    2015-06-12

    The aim was to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of the Roma and further to detect the significant determinants that are associated with their HRQL. The cross-sectional study involved 1068 Roma adults living in settlements (mean age 36). HRQL was measured by the Greek version of SF-36 Health Survey and further socio-demographic characteristics (sex, age, marital status, education, permanent occupation etc.) and housing conditions (stable housing, access to basic amenities such as drinkable water, drainage, electricity which compose material deprivation) were involved. Non parametric tests and multiple linear regression models were applied to identify the factors that have significant association with HRQL. After controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, health status and housing conditions, sex, age, education, chronic diseases, stable housing and material deprivation were found to be significant determinants of the Roma's HRQL. Men reported significantly better health than women as well as those who attended school compared to the illiterate. Chronic diseases were remarkably associated with poor HRQL from 10 units in MH (Mental Health) to 34 units in RP (Role Physical). Material deprivation was related to lower GH (General Health), and VT (Vitality) scores and higher RP (Role Physical) and RE (Role Emotional) scores. Chronic conditions and illiteracy are two key areas that contribute significantly to worse HRQL. Policies should be part of a comprehensive and holistic strategy for the Roma through intervention to education, housing and public health.

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life of the Roma in Greece: The Role of Socio-Economic Characteristics and Housing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pappa, Evelina; Chatzikonstantinidou, Simela; Chalkiopoulos, George; Papadopoulos, Angelos; Niakas, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of the Roma and further to detect the significant determinants that are associated with their HRQL. The cross-sectional study involved 1068 Roma adults living in settlements (mean age 36). HRQL was measured by the Greek version of SF-36 Health Survey and further socio-demographic characteristics (sex, age, marital status, education, permanent occupation etc.) and housing conditions (stable housing, access to basic amenities such as drinkable water, drainage, electricity which compose material deprivation) were involved. Non parametric tests and multiple linear regression models were applied to identify the factors that have significant association with HRQL. After controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, health status and housing conditions, sex, age, education, chronic diseases, stable housing and material deprivation were found to be significant determinants of the Roma’s HRQL. Men reported significantly better health than women as well as those who attended school compared to the illiterate. Chronic diseases were remarkably associated with poor HRQL from 10 units in MH (Mental Health) to 34 units in RP (Role Physical). Material deprivation was related to lower GH (General Health), and VT (Vitality) scores and higher RP (Role Physical) and RE (Role Emotional) scores. Chronic conditions and illiteracy are two key areas that contribute significantly to worse HRQL. Policies should be part of a comprehensive and holistic strategy for the Roma through intervention to education, housing and public health. PMID:26075724

  6. Multiscale models for synoptic-mesoscale interactions in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grooms, Ian; Shafer Smith, K.; Majda, Andrew J.

    2012-11-01

    Multiscale analysis is used to derive two sets of coupled models, each based on the same distinguished limit, to represent the interaction of the midlatitude oceanic synoptic scale-where coherent features such as jets and rings form-and the mesoscale, defined by the internal deformation scale. The synoptic scale and mesoscale overlap at low and mid latitudes, and are hence synonymous in much of the oceanographic literature; at higher latitudes the synoptic scale can be an order of magnitude larger than the deformation scale, which motivates our asymptotic approach and our nonstandard terminology. In the first model the synoptic dynamics are described by ‘Large Amplitude Geostrophic’ (LAG) equations while the eddy dynamics are quasigeostrophic. This model has order one isopycnal variation on the synoptic scale; the synoptic dynamics respond to an eddy momentum flux while the eddy dynamics respond to the baroclinically unstable synoptic density gradient. The second model assumes small isopycnal variation on the synoptic scale, but allows for a planetary scale background density gradient that may be fixed or evolved on a slower time scale. Here the large-scale equations are just the barotropic quasigeostrophic equations, and the mesoscale is modeled by the baroclinic quasigeostrophic equations. The synoptic dynamics now respond to both eddy momentum and buoyancy fluxes, but the small-scale eddy dynamics are simply advected by the synoptic-scale flow-there is no baroclinic production term in the eddy equations. The energy budget is closed by deriving an equation for the slow evolution of the eddy energy, which ensures that energy gained or lost by the synoptic-scale flow is reflected in a corresponding loss or gain by the eddies. This latter model, aided by the eddy energy equation-a key result of this paper-provides a conceptual basis through which to understand the classic baroclinic turbulence cycle.

  7. Impact of the synoptic circulation on the near surface layer thermal profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lensky, Itamar; Dayan, Uri; Guez, Oded

    2014-05-01

    We examine the near surface lapse rate, defined as the difference between the skin surface and 2 m air temperatures, retrieved from satellite (MODIS) and 94 meteorological stations over the Eastern Mediterranean (EM). This profile is important for estimation of sensible heat flux, an essential ingredient in the near surface energy balance equation and the water cycle. The lapse rate is enhanced by stronger solar insolation and attenuated by turbulence generated by stronger winds. These parameters vary according to atmospheric conditions e.g. horizontal pressure gradient and cloud cover, which are represented here by different synoptic categories. Strong longitudinal climatic and vegetation gradient over the EM as reflected by MODIS NDVI also lead to a gradual shift in the lapse rate. Climatological values of the lapse rate show a distinct seasonal signature, whereas fluctuations are attributed to changes in atmospheric flow patterns. Therefore, we assess the role of seasonality, synoptic scale circulation and vegetation cover on the near surface thermal profile. The effects of circulation on this profile are demonstrated for three synoptic categories covering all seasons. In the first synoptic category, continental conditions lead to larger daytime positive lapse rate over arid regions, and nighttime inversion. These thermal profiles are attenuated over regions with denser vegetation. At summer, a unique circulation system prevails leading to thermal profile signature similar to the seasonal. The windy and cloudy conditions associated with the third synoptic category increase the spatial variability of the thermal profile and delay the built-up of nighttime inversion. Based on knowledge of the atmospheric flow pattern, we will demonstrate retrieval of the near surface layer thermal profile at satellite resolution (MODIS NDVI, 250 m).

  8. NATO, Greece and the 2004 Summer Olympics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    42 Tayfur, 55. 43 Kondonassis, Alexander J., “Greece and the European Common Market ,” Greece: Today...Athens News Agency, 14 September 2004 and “Greek, Albanian Foreign Ministers Said to ‘Continue’ Political Rapprochement,” Athens Elevtheros Tipos ...FBIS, 05 August 2004. Kondonassis, Alexander J., “Greece and the European Common Market ,” Greece: Today and Tomorrow, Essays on Issues and Problems

  9. Latrodectus Envenomation in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Garyfallia Nikolaos; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Kalkouni, Rania; Iliopoulou, Sofia; Rigakos, Giorgos; Baka, Agoritsa

    2014-01-01

    During the summer period 2011–2012, seven widow spider bites in Greece were reported to the Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Widow spiders (in the genus Latrodectus) are found all over the world, including Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and the US. Alpha-latrotoxin (main mammalian toxin) causes the toxic effects observed in humans. Victims should receive timely medical care to avoid suffering. Latrodectus bites are very rarely fatal. All the patients reported having an insect bite 30 minutes to 2 hours before they arrived at the Emergency Department of the local hospital. Severe muscle cramps, weakness, tremor, abdominal pain, and increased levels of creatinine phosphokinase were present in all patients. The Emergency Operation Center of the Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention was informed immediately in all cases. Antivenin was administered to four patients upon the request of their physicians. All patients recovered fully. It is essential that health care workers recognize early the symptoms and signs of Latrodectus bites to provide the necessary care. The management of mild to moderate Latrodectus envenomations is primarily supportive. Hospitalization and possibly antivenin should be reserved for patients exhibiting serious systemic symptoms or inadequate pain control. The most important thing for all of these patients is early pain relief. PMID:25662533

  10. Some Explorations of the Synoptic and Dynamic Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vande Kopple, William J.

    M. A. K. Halliday's continuum of linguistic styles or modes of representing experience employs two classifications of writing styles: (1) synoptic, and (2) dynamic. The synoptic style represents the world as a world of things, of products, of structures. This style is usually associated with carefully planned, formal writing. The chief…

  11. A Communities of Practice Approach to the Synoptic Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrigal, Ramon Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Although the study of the Synoptic Problem has been the focus of scholarly attention for over two hundred years, the social learning theory known as Communities of Practice is a relatively recent phenomenon. This article describes a communities of practice approach to the study of the Synoptic Problem in an upper-division undergraduate course at a…

  12. Synoptic weather patterns and modification of the association between air pollution and human mortality.

    PubMed

    Rainham, Daniel G C; Smoyer-Tomic, Karen E; Sheridan, Scott C; Burnett, Richard T

    2005-10-01

    To assess whether meteorological conditions modify the relationship between short-term exposure to ambient air pollution and mortality, an examination of air pollution and human mortality associations (ecologic) using hybrid spatial synoptic classification procedures was conducted. Concentrations of air pollutants and human mortality from all non-accidental and cardiorespiratory causes were examined according to typical winter and summer synoptic climatologies in Toronto, Canada, between 1981 and 1999. Air masses were derived using a hybrid spatial synoptic classification procedure associating each day over the 19-year period with one of six different typical weather types, or a transition between two weather types. Generalized linear models (GLMs) were used to assess the risk of mortality from air pollution within specific air mass type subsets. Mortality follows a distinct seasonal pattern with a maximum in winter and a minimum in summer. Average air pollution concentrations were similar in both seasons with the exception of elevated sulfur dioxide levels in winter and elevated ozone levels in summer. Subtle changes in meteorological composition can alter the strength of pollutant associations with health outcomes, especially in the summer season. Although there does not appear to be any systematic patterning of modification, variation in pollutant concentrations seems dependent on the type of synoptic category present.

  13. High altitude bird migration at temperate latitudes: a synoptic perspective on wind assistance.

    PubMed

    Dokter, Adriaan M; Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Kemp, Michael U; Tijm, Sander; Holleman, Iwan

    2013-01-01

    At temperate latitudes the synoptic patterns of bird migration are strongly structured by the presence of cyclones and anticyclones, both in the horizontal and altitudinal dimensions. In certain synoptic conditions, birds may efficiently cross regions with opposing surface wind by choosing a higher flight altitude with more favourable wind. We observed migratory passerines at mid-latitudes that selected high altitude wind optima on particular nights, leading to the formation of structured migration layers at varying altitude up to 3 km. Using long-term vertical profiling of bird migration by C-band Doppler radar in the Netherlands, we find that such migration layers occur nearly exclusively during spring migration in the presence of a high-pressure system. A conceptual analytic framework providing insight into the synoptic patterns of wind assistance for migrants that includes the altitudinal dimension has so far been lacking. We present a simple model for a baroclinic atmosphere that relates vertical profiles of wind assistance to the pressure and temperature patterns occurring at temperate latitudes. We show how the magnitude and direction of the large scale horizontal temperature gradient affects the relative gain in wind assistance that migrants obtain through ascending. Temperature gradients typical for northerly high-pressure systems in spring are shown to cause high altitude wind optima in the easterly sectors of anticyclones, thereby explaining the frequent observations of high altitude migration in these synoptic conditions. Given the recurring synoptic arrangements of pressure systems across temperate continents, the opportunities for exploiting high altitude wind will differ between flyways, for example between easterly and westerly oceanic coasts.

  14. High Altitude Bird Migration at Temperate Latitudes: A Synoptic Perspective on Wind Assistance

    PubMed Central

    Dokter, Adriaan M.; Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Kemp, Michael U.; Tijm, Sander; Holleman, Iwan

    2013-01-01

    At temperate latitudes the synoptic patterns of bird migration are strongly structured by the presence of cyclones and anticyclones, both in the horizontal and altitudinal dimensions. In certain synoptic conditions, birds may efficiently cross regions with opposing surface wind by choosing a higher flight altitude with more favourable wind. We observed migratory passerines at mid-latitudes that selected high altitude wind optima on particular nights, leading to the formation of structured migration layers at varying altitude up to 3 km. Using long-term vertical profiling of bird migration by C-band Doppler radar in the Netherlands, we find that such migration layers occur nearly exclusively during spring migration in the presence of a high-pressure system. A conceptual analytic framework providing insight into the synoptic patterns of wind assistance for migrants that includes the altitudinal dimension has so far been lacking. We present a simple model for a baroclinic atmosphere that relates vertical profiles of wind assistance to the pressure and temperature patterns occurring at temperate latitudes. We show how the magnitude and direction of the large scale horizontal temperature gradient affects the relative gain in wind assistance that migrants obtain through ascending. Temperature gradients typical for northerly high-pressure systems in spring are shown to cause high altitude wind optima in the easterly sectors of anticyclones, thereby explaining the frequent observations of high altitude migration in these synoptic conditions. Given the recurring synoptic arrangements of pressure systems across temperate continents, the opportunities for exploiting high altitude wind will differ between flyways, for example between easterly and westerly oceanic coasts. PMID:23300969

  15. An Automated Solar Synoptic Analysis Software System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, S.; Lee, S.; Oh, S.; Kim, J.; Lee, J.; Kim, Y.; Lee, J.; Moon, Y.; Lee, D.

    2012-12-01

    We have developed an automated software system of identifying solar active regions, filament channels, and coronal holes, those are three major solar sources causing the space weather. Space weather forecasters of NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center produce the solar synoptic drawings as a daily basis to predict solar activities, i.e., solar flares, filament eruptions, high speed solar wind streams, and co-rotating interaction regions as well as their possible effects to the Earth. As an attempt to emulate this process with a fully automated and consistent way, we developed a software system named ASSA(Automated Solar Synoptic Analysis). When identifying solar active regions, ASSA uses high-resolution SDO HMI intensitygram and magnetogram as inputs and providing McIntosh classification and Mt. Wilson magnetic classification of each active region by applying appropriate image processing techniques such as thresholding, morphology extraction, and region growing. At the same time, it also extracts morphological and physical properties of active regions in a quantitative way for the short-term prediction of flares and CMEs. When identifying filament channels and coronal holes, images of global H-alpha network and SDO AIA 193 are used for morphological identification and also SDO HMI magnetograms for quantitative verification. The output results of ASSA are routinely checked and validated against NOAA's daily SRS(Solar Region Summary) and UCOHO(URSIgram code for coronal hole information). A couple of preliminary scientific results are to be presented using available output results. ASSA will be deployed at the Korean Space Weather Center and serve its customers in an operational status by the end of 2012.

  16. Characteristics of farm injuries in Greece.

    PubMed

    Alexe, D M; Petridou, E; Dessypris, N; Skenderis, N; Trichopoulos, D

    2003-08-01

    To assess the characteristics of occupational and leisure farm injuries in Greece. During a five-year period (1996-2000), 4,326 unintentional farm injuries have been recorded by the Emergency Department Injury Surveillance System in Greece. Data concerning demographic variables, accident conditions, and injury characteristics were collected by in person interviews. The data were analyzed by simple cross-tabulation and hierarchical cluster analysis. Injuries from falls on the same level are mainly lower-limb fractures and occur during the winter among older women. Falls from higher level concern migrant workers, who also tend to suffer severe multiple injuries, including concussions, particularly during autumn. Injuries resulting from cutting and piercing instruments, as well as from machinery, are generally open wounds in the upper-limbs, suffered by young migrant workers. Head injuries resulting from striking against an object are more generally spread across socio-demographic variables. Overexertion is the dominant mechanism for dislocations and sprains in the lower limbs. Snake and insect bites are common among younger migrant workers during summer, and they affect the upper limbs during manual work close to the ground. Non-traffic injuries from vehicles are frequently severe, involving head concussion of generally young individuals. In Greece, farm injuries are frequently serious and require hospitalization. These injuries show distinct patterns among older women (lower-limb fractures), young individuals (non-traffic vehicle-related injuries) and migrant workers (injuries from cutting and piercing instruments, falls from high level, and bites). Prevention strategies should give priority to these population groups. These prevention strategies should include guidance for poorly educated workers, including migrants, enforcement of safety regulations concerning farming machinery, and discouragement of risky farming activities among elderly individuals, particularly

  17. Cloud Properties under Different Synoptic Circulations: Comparison of Radiosonde and Ground-Based Active Remote Sensing Measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Jinqiang; Li, Jun; Xia, Xiangao; ...

    2016-11-28

    In this study, long-term (10 years) radiosonde-based cloud data are compared with the ground-based active remote sensing product under six prevailing large-scale synoptic patterns, i.e., cyclonic center (CC), weak pressure pattern (WP), the southeast bottom of cyclonic center (CB), cold front (CF), anticyclone edge (AE) and anticyclone center (AC) over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The synoptic patterns are generated by applying the self-organizing map weather classification method to the daily National Centers for Environmental Protection mean sea level pressure records from the North American Regional Reanalysis. It reveals that the large-scale synoptic circulations can strongly influence the regionalmore » cloud formation, and thereby have impact on the consistency of cloud retrievals from the radiosonde and ground-based cloud product. The total cloud cover at the SGP site is characterized by the least in AC and the most in CF. The minimum and maximum differences between the two cloud methods are 10.3% for CC and 13.3% for WP. Compared to the synoptic patterns characterized by scattered cloudy and clear skies (AE and AC), the agreement of collocated cloud boundaries between the two cloud approaches tends to be better under the synoptic patterns dominated by overcast and cloudy skies (CC, WP and CB). The rainy and windy weather conditions in CF synoptic pattern influence the consistency of the two cloud retrieval methods associated with the limited capabilities inherent to the instruments. As a result, the cloud thickness distribution from the two cloud datasets compares favorably with each other in all synoptic patterns, with relative discrepancy of ≤0.3 km.« less

  18. Cloud Properties under Different Synoptic Circulations: Comparison of Radiosonde and Ground-Based Active Remote Sensing Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jinqiang; Li, Jun; Xia, Xiangao; Chen, Hongbin; Ling, Chao

    2016-11-28

    In this study, long-term (10 years) radiosonde-based cloud data are compared with the ground-based active remote sensing product under six prevailing large-scale synoptic patterns, i.e., cyclonic center (CC), weak pressure pattern (WP), the southeast bottom of cyclonic center (CB), cold front (CF), anticyclone edge (AE) and anticyclone center (AC) over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The synoptic patterns are generated by applying the self-organizing map weather classification method to the daily National Centers for Environmental Protection mean sea level pressure records from the North American Regional Reanalysis. It reveals that the large-scale synoptic circulations can strongly influence the regional cloud formation, and thereby have impact on the consistency of cloud retrievals from the radiosonde and ground-based cloud product. The total cloud cover at the SGP site is characterized by the least in AC and the most in CF. The minimum and maximum differences between the two cloud methods are 10.3% for CC and 13.3% for WP. Compared to the synoptic patterns characterized by scattered cloudy and clear skies (AE and AC), the agreement of collocated cloud boundaries between the two cloud approaches tends to be better under the synoptic patterns dominated by overcast and cloudy skies (CC, WP and CB). The rainy and windy weather conditions in CF synoptic pattern influence the consistency of the two cloud retrieval methods associated with the limited capabilities inherent to the instruments. As a result, the cloud thickness distribution from the two cloud datasets compares favorably with each other in all synoptic patterns, with relative discrepancy of ≤0.3 km.

  19. The Synoptic View as a Model for Poster Presentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, D. D.; Arrowsmith, J. R.

    2004-12-01

    Originally referencing the first three chapters of the New Testament, the term "synoptic" has come to mean "a general view of the whole, or of the principal parts of a thing." Large format posters provide an opportunity to present research in synoptic form, rather than as an arrangement of PowerPoint slides and text. In synoptic views, data, analyses, and linkages are presented en masse with the graphical design used as a guide to the linkages. Conclusions about the meanings of the information are largely left to the viewers as they study the information and seek relationships-a natural activity for scientists. Numerous formats produce synoptic views of geoscientific information. Each imposes order on the information through spatial, temporal, or causal connections and provide context for multiple variables. Maps are the most common synoptic presentations. Additional map-sheet information, such as stratigraphic columns and cross sections, gain meaning from and contribute meaning to the areal view. Two and three-dimensional models, including flow charts and organizational diagrams offer a means of portraying complex interactions. Time lines and spatial line (e.g., latitude, depth, distance) diagrams, especially those with additional axes to plot related variables, show temporal or spatial trends, progress, or fluctuation. Some organizational schemes are specific to the sciences. The periodic table is a synoptic portrayal of the elements that designates their chemical behavior by their positions. As an illustration of phenomena, the well designed synoptic poster provides a multi-scale perspective that slices across time, space, or other parameters to expose the significant behaviors of the given system. Bruce Railsback's (2003) reorganization of the periodic table to emphasize the charged species most common in geologic processes is an outstanding example of synoptic design. Edward Tufte's works on graphical style and visual explanations are also excellent guides to

  20. High-frequency sea level oscillations in the Mediterranean and their connection to synoptic patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šepić, Jadranka; Vilibić, Ivica; Lafon, Amaury; Macheboeuf, Loïc; Ivanović, Zvonko

    2015-09-01

    This paper contains a basin-wide assessment of high-frequency sea level oscillations in the Mediterranean Sea for the period from 2010 to 2014. Sea level series with temporal resolutions of 1 min were taken from 29 tide gauges that had been operational for at least 4 years with high-quality time series. The contribution of high-frequency sea level variance (2 min-6 h) to the total and residual sea level variance was estimated to vary between 0.4% and 9.5% and between 0.6% and 12.1%, respectively, but to become dominant at some stations during extreme high-frequency events. A total of 36 high-frequency sea level events were extracted from the series, with some occurring locally in one of the four selected regions of Spain, Sardinia, Sicily and the Greece-Ionian Sea (6 events), some occurring over two or three regions (19 events), and some occurring in all of the selected regions within a period of 1-3 days (11 events). The basin-wide events normally propagate from the western to the eastern parts of the basin, with an average velocity of approximately 30 km/h. Synoptic patterns associated with high-frequency events were analysed, and a high resemblance to patterns associated with meteotsunamis was observed: (i) a cyclone with a centre W-NW from the affected area, (ii) a strong thermal front in the lower troposphere, and (iii) a forefront of an unstable strong mid-tropospheric jet placed over the affected area. The strong coherence between high-frequency sea level events and synoptic patterns introduces the possibility of a timely forecast of these events.

  1. School Building Organisation in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the past and current organizational structure of Greece's School Building Organisation, a body established to work with government agencies in the design and construction of new buildings and the provisioning of educational equipment. Future planning to incorporate culture and creativity, sports, and laboratory learning in modern school…

  2. Education and Modernization in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazamias, Andreas M.

    This history of Greek education traces the path of modernization from the emergence of Greece as an independent state in the early 1800's up to the present date. Educational philosophy and content are seen as pawns in the social and political struggles of those years. Detailed coverage of the historical events describes the structure of education…

  3. The Educational System of Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massialas, Byron G.

    Education in Greece is examined in this document. The first section describes the basic system. Reform legislation of 1976 and 1977 modernized Greek education. The new laws required that school instruction at all levels be given in demotic or spoken Greek rather than formal or purist Greek; that compulsory school attendance be extended from six to…

  4. [Toxoplasmosis in dogs in Greece].

    PubMed

    Chambouris, R; Stünzner, D; Sebek, Z; Sixl, W; Köck, M

    1989-01-01

    In Greece, not only raw meat feeding but also the possible faecal transmission of disease from the vast amount of strayed domestic cats play an important role in the incidence of toxoplasmosis among dogs. This must be concluded from the high contamination rate of 21.2% to 30.8% in all four presented investigations.

  5. Classification of summertime synoptic patterns in Beijing and their associations with boundary layer structure affecting aerosol pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Yucong; Guo, Jianping; Liu, Shuhua; Liu, Huan; Li, Zhanqing; Zhang, Wanchun; Zhai, Panmao

    2017-02-01

    Meteorological conditions within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) are closely governed by large-scale synoptic patterns and play important roles in air quality by directly and indirectly affecting the emission, transport, formation, and deposition of air pollutants. Partly due to the lack of long-term fine-resolution observations of the PBL, the relationships between synoptic patterns, PBL structure, and aerosol pollution in Beijing have not been well understood. This study applied the obliquely rotated principal component analysis in T-mode to classify the summertime synoptic conditions over Beijing using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis from 2011 to 2014, and investigated their relationships with PBL structure and aerosol pollution by combining numerical simulations, measurements of surface meteorological variables, fine-resolution soundings, the concentration of particles with diameters less than or equal to 2.5 µm, total cloud cover (CLD), and reanalysis data. Among the seven identified synoptic patterns, three types accounted for 67 % of the total number of cases studied and were associated with heavy aerosol pollution events. These particular synoptic patterns were characterized by high-pressure systems located to the east or southeast of Beijing at the 925 hPa level, which blocked the air flow seaward, and southerly PBL winds that brought in polluted air from the southern industrial zone. The horizontal transport of pollutants induced by the synoptic forcings may be the most important factor affecting the air quality of Beijing in summer. In the vertical dimension, these three synoptic patterns featured a relatively low boundary layer height (BLH) in the afternoon, accompanied by high CLD and southerly cold advection from the seas within the PBL. The high CLD reduced the solar radiation reaching the surface, and suppressed the thermal turbulence, leading to lower BLH. Besides, the numerical sensitive experiments show that cold

  6. Active optics in Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ming; Krabbendam, Victor; Claver, Charles F.; Chandrasekharan, Srinivasan; Xin, Bo

    2012-09-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) has a 3.5º field of view and F/1.2 focus that makes the performance quite sensitive to the perturbations of misalignments and mirror surface deformations. In order to maintain the image quality, LSST has an active optics system (AOS) to measure and correct those perturbations in a closed loop. The perturbed wavefront errors are measured by the wavefront sensors (WFS) located at the four corners of the focal plane. The perturbations are solved by the non-linear least square algorithm by minimizing the rms variation of the measured and baseline designed wavefront errors. Then the correction is realized by applying the inverse of the perturbations to the optical system. In this paper, we will describe the correction processing in the LSST AOS. We also will discuss the application of the algorithm, the properties of the sensitivity matrix and the stabilities of the correction. A simulation model, using ZEMAX as a ray tracing engine and MATLAB as an analysis platform, is set up to simulate the testing and correction loop of the LSST AOS. Several simulation examples and results are presented.

  7. Description of wind field dynamic patterns in a valley and their relation to mesoscale and synoptic-scale meterological situations

    SciTech Connect

    Guardans, R.; Palomino, I.

    1995-01-01

    A large set of hourly meterological data from seven towers deployed in Montesina Valley (Cordoba, Spain) is studied in relation to the prevailing synoptic situation. The complete collection of daily synoptic maps for 1985-90 has been classified in seven basic weather patterns. First-order transition probabilities and weather pattern persistences have been calculated for each of the patterns. The behavior of the local valley wind field is described as a function of the synoptic patterns. The work reported here, based on observations of the characteristic time and space patterns of flow in the valley under different synoptic conditions, has made it possible to obtain a set of empirical rules and regression functions to produce forecasts of the local wind field as a function of the synoptic situation and the hour of the day to be used in the emergency plans. The result of this work is currently being implemented in an atmospheric dispersion module of an expert system that will be used as a tool to predict the evolution of accidental and routine hazardous emissions to the atmosphere in complex terrain such as valleys and coastal areas.

  8. An assessment of waterspout occurrence in the Eastern Adriatic basin in 2010: Synoptic and mesoscale environment and forecasting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renko, Tanja; Kozarić, Tomislav; Tudor, Martina

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we performed a comprehensive analysis of 19 waterspout events that occurred in the Eastern Adriatic basin in 2010. Data were collected from the synoptic and climatological weather stations and from eyewitness reports from newspapers and the internet. The geographical and temporal distributions of the waterspouts, as well as the absolute frequencies of four synoptic types relevant to waterspout development (south-west flow (SW), long-wave trough (LW), closed low (CLOSED) and short-wave trough (SWT), are presented. The synoptic and mesoscale weather conditions were analyzed using the ERA-Interim reanalysis data, satellite images, data from synoptic and automatic weather stations and atmospheric soundings. To test waterspouts for thunderstorm relations the LINET network sensor data were used to infer lightning activity. Because thermodynamic instability indices are usually insufficient for forecasting waterspout activity, the performance of the Szilagyi Waterspout Nomogram (SWN) and the Szilagyi Waterspout Index (SWI) were tested using the ALADIN model. The results of the analyses of the 2010 cases show that the SWN successfully forecasted 15 out of 19 events (hit rate of 78.9%). This is a significant hit rate but is not as high as in the work of Keul et al. (2009), in which 96% of the Adriatic cases satisfied the nomogram. In addition, four selected waterspout cases, which represent the four basic synoptic types, were analyzed in detail to provide an overview of favorable atmospheric environments for waterspouts throughout the year.

  9. Impact of diurnal variability on UARS synoptic products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassi, Fabrizio; Salby, Murry

    1998-12-01

    We examine the impact of diurnal variability on the synoptic behavior of ozone observed by the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Synoptic products generated via Kalman filtering are compared against those recovered via Fast Fourier Synoptic Mapping (FFSM). In FFSM products, tracer anomalies defining distinct air masses that originate from different latitudes are approximately conserved. In Kalman products, the same anomalies and the accompanying air masses are diluted with their surroundings. The origin of these differences is traced to the different space-time spectrum inherent to the two synoptic products. In the spectrum of Kalman products, high zonal wavenumbers are exaggerated at low frequency relative to their counterparts in FFSM. This pathological behavior appears to result through aliasing from diurnal variability that is undersampled in the UARS observations. We discuss the relevance of these findings to subsequent analyses and to estimating momentum sources in the middle atmosphere.

  10. Synoptic and meteorological drivers of extreme ozone concentrations over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, N.; Sillmann, J.; Schnell, J. L.; Rust, H. W.; Butler, T.

    2016-02-01

    The present work assesses the relationship between local and synoptic meteorological conditions and surface ozone concentration over Europe in spring and summer months, during the period 1998-2012 using a new interpolated data set of observed surface ozone concentrations over the European domain. Along with local meteorological conditions, the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation on surface ozone is addressed through a set of airflow indices computed with a novel implementation of a grid-by-grid weather type classification across Europe. Drivers of surface ozone over the full distribution of maximum daily 8 h average values are investigated, along with drivers of the extreme high percentiles and exceedances or air quality guideline thresholds. Three different regression techniques are applied: multiple linear regression to assess the drivers of maximum daily ozone, logistic regression to assess the probability of threshold exceedances and quantile regression to estimate the meteorological influence on extreme values, as represented by the 95th percentile. The relative importance of the input parameters (predictors) is assessed by a backward stepwise regression procedure that allows the identification of the most important predictors in each model. Spatial patterns of model performance exhibit distinct variations between regions. The inclusion of the ozone persistence is particularly relevant over southern Europe. In general, the best model performance is found over central Europe, where the maximum temperature plays an important role as a driver of maximum daily ozone as well as its extreme values, especially during warmer months.

  11. Synoptic and meteorological drivers of extreme ozone concentrations over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Noelia Felipe; Sillmann, Jana; Schnell, Jordan L.; Rust, Henning W.; Butler, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The present work assesses the relationship between local and synoptic meteorological conditions and surface ozone concentration over Europe in spring and summer months, during the period 1998-2012 using a new interpolated data set of observed surface ozone concentrations over the European domain. Along with local meteorological conditions, the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation on surface ozone is addressed through a set of airflow indices computed with a novel implementation of a grid-by-grid weather type classification across Europe. Drivers of surface ozone over the full distribution of maximum daily 8-hour average values are investigated, along with drivers of the extreme high percentiles and exceedances or air quality guideline thresholds. Three different regression techniques are applied: multiple linear regression to assess the drivers of maximum daily ozone, logistic regression to assess the probability of threshold exceedances and quantile regression to estimate the meteorological influence on extreme values, as represented by the 95th percentile. The relative importance of the input parameters (predictors) is assessed by a backward stepwise regression procedure that allows the identification of the most important predictors in each model. Spatial patterns of model performance exhibit distinct variations between regions. The inclusion of the ozone persistence is particularly relevant over Southern Europe. In general, the best model performance is found over Central Europe, where the maximum temperature plays an important role as a driver of maximum daily ozone as well as its extreme values, especially during warmer months.

  12. Synoptic and climatological aspects of extra-tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckebusch, G. C.

    2010-09-01

    Mid-latitude cyclones are highly complex dynamical features embedded in the general atmospheric circulation of the extra-tropics. Although the basic mechanisms leading to the formation of cyclones are commonly understood, the specific conditions and physical reasons triggering extreme, partly explosive development, are still under investigation. This includes also the identification of processes which might modulate the frequency and intensity of cyclone systems on time scales from days to centennials. This overview presentation will thus focus on three main topics: Firstly, the dynamic-synoptic structures of cyclones, the possibility to objectively identify cyclones and wind storms, and actual statistical properties of cyclone occurrence under recent climate conditions are addressed. In a second part, aspects of the interannual variability and its causing mechanisms are related to the seasonal predictability of extreme cyclones producing severe storm events. Extending the time frame will mean to deduce information on decadal or even centennial time periods. Thus, actual work to decadal as well as climatological variability and changes will be presented. In the last part of the talk focus will be laid on potential socio-economical impacts of changed cyclone occurrence. By means of global and regional climate modeling, future damages in terms of insured losses will be investigated and measures of uncertainty estimated from a multi-model ensemble analysis will be presented.

  13. Synoptic typing: interdisciplinary application methods with three practical hydroclimatological examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegert, C. M.; Leathers, D. J.; Levia, D. F.

    2016-01-01

    Synoptic classification is a methodology that represents diverse atmospheric variables and allows researchers to relate large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns to regional- and small-scale terrestrial processes. Synoptic classification has often been applied to questions concerning the surface environment. However, full applicability has been under-utilized to date, especially in disciplines such as hydroclimatology, which are intimately linked to atmospheric inputs. This paper aims to (1) outline the development of a daily synoptic calendar for the Mid-Atlantic (USA), (2) define seasonal synoptic patterns occurring in the region, and (3) provide hydroclimatological examples whereby the cascading response of precipitation characteristics, soil moisture, and streamflow are explained by synoptic classification. Together, achievement of these objectives serves as a guide for development and use of a synoptic calendar for hydroclimatological studies. In total 22 unique synoptic types were identified, derived from a combination of 12 types occurring in the winter (DJF), 13 in spring (MAM), 9 in summer (JJA), and 11 in autumn (SON). This includes six low pressure systems, four high pressure systems, one cold front, three north/northwest flow regimes, three south/southwest flow regimes, and five weakly defined regimes. Pairwise comparisons indicated that 84.3 % had significantly different rainfall magnitudes, 86.4 % had different rainfall durations, and 84.7 % had different rainfall intensities. The largest precipitation-producing classifications were not restricted to low pressure systems, but rather to patterns with access to moisture sources from the Atlantic Ocean and easterly (on-shore) winds, which transport moisture inland. These same classifications resulted in comparable rates of soil moisture recharge and streamflow discharge, illustrating the applicability of synoptic classification for a range of hydroclimatological research objectives.

  14. Synoptic typing: interdisciplinary application methods with three practical hydroclimatological examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegert, C. M.; Leathers, D. J.; Levia, D. F.

    2017-05-01

    Synoptic classification is a methodology that represents diverse atmospheric variables and allows researchers to relate large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns to regional- and small-scale terrestrial processes. Synoptic classification has often been applied to questions concerning the surface environment. However, full applicability has been under-utilized to date, especially in disciplines such as hydroclimatology, which are intimately linked to atmospheric inputs. This paper aims to (1) outline the development of a daily synoptic calendar for the Mid-Atlantic (USA), (2) define seasonal synoptic patterns occurring in the region, and (3) provide hydroclimatological examples whereby the cascading response of precipitation characteristics, soil moisture, and streamflow are explained by synoptic classification. Together, achievement of these objectives serves as a guide for development and use of a synoptic calendar for hydroclimatological studies. In total 22 unique synoptic types were identified, derived from a combination of 12 types occurring in the winter (DJF), 13 in spring (MAM), 9 in summer (JJA), and 11 in autumn (SON). This includes six low pressure systems, four high pressure systems, one cold front, three north/northwest flow regimes, three south/southwest flow regimes, and five weakly defined regimes. Pairwise comparisons indicated that 84.3 % had significantly different rainfall magnitudes, 86.4 % had different rainfall durations, and 84.7 % had different rainfall intensities. The largest precipitation-producing classifications were not restricted to low pressure systems, but rather to patterns with access to moisture sources from the Atlantic Ocean and easterly (on-shore) winds, which transport moisture inland. These same classifications resulted in comparable rates of soil moisture recharge and streamflow discharge, illustrating the applicability of synoptic classification for a range of hydroclimatological research objectives.

  15. Diurnal variation of wind-chill at Thessaloniki, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balafoutis, Ch. J.

    1989-12-01

    The diurnal variations of wind-chill at Thessaloniki, Greece, are considered using hourly data from January 1960 to December 1977. This is the first attempt in Greece to describe bioclimatic conditions using wind-chill data. The hourly values of wind-chill were calculated by Siple-Passel's formula which still appears to be most widely used. The values of wind-chill are discussed in terms of Terjung's scale. Thessaloniki does not experience “frost-bite” conditions during the coldest months but does experience “warm” conditions during the summer period. A comparison of hourly and daily mean values show that the means do not indicate the real range of wind-chill during the day.

  16. High temperature extremes in the Czech Republic 1961-2010 and their synoptic variants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeriánová, A.; Crhová, L.; Holtanová, E.; Kašpar, M.; Müller, M.; Pecho, J.

    2017-01-01

    Our research focuses on the analysis of extreme high maximum air temperature events (EXHTEs) in the Czech Republic in the period 1961-2010, their climatological characteristics, and on the identification of synoptic-scale circulation conditions conductive to them. EXHTEs are detected using the Weather Extremity Index (WEI) combining return periods of daily maximum air temperature, duration of events, and the extent of the affected area. We selected 37 EXHTEs as non-overlapping periods with the highest WEI. Some long EXHTEs were divided into several shorter synoptically homogeneous episodes. Using the two-level divisive clustering of 700 hPa air temperature and wind field anomalies, we obtained four main variants of synoptic-scale circulation conditions. The most frequent variant associated with extreme episodes is characterized by a westerly flow connected with a high pressure ridge extending northeastward from North Africa over Central Europe or with an anticyclone centered over the Central Mediterranean. The most extreme episodes occurred during the variant characterized by an easterly flow between a high pressure area to the northeast and a low pressure area to the southeast.

  17. Sunsat-2004 satellite and synoptic VLF payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Gw; Hughes, A.; Mostert, S.; Steyn, Wh

    Sunsat 2004 is a second satellite from the University of Stellenbosch, with intended suns-synchronous launch in late 2005. The first satellite, Sunsat, was launched in February 1999, and was Africa's first satellite The three-axis stabilised bus will normally point its main solar panel at the sun, but will rotate for imaging. The attitude determination and control system will use coarse sun sensors, magnetometers, rate gyros, and a star mapper, and use reaction wheels and torquer rods for actuation. The payloads include a multispectral pushbroom imager with less than 5m GSD, TV cameras, an Amateur Radio communications payload, and science experiments. The main South African science experiment is a VLF receiver. In the magnetosphere VLF waves play an important role in energy exchange processes with energetic particles. The wave-particle interactions can lead to particle precipitation into the atmosphere or introduce additional energy into particle populations in the magnetosphere. The former is important due to its effect on terrestrial communications while the latter is of interest, as it affects the environment in which satellites operate. A full understanding, of the magnetosphere and phenomena such as the aurora, airglow and particle precipitation, depends on comprehensive wave and particle models together with models of the background plasma density The energetic particle populations and background plasma densities have been extensively modelled using data from a large number of satellite, rocket and ground-based experiments but no comprehensive model of the wave environment exist. The proposed synoptic VLF experiment will start to address this need by locating and tracking the morphology of regions in the magnetosphere where waves are generated. The experiment would consist of a nine channel VLF receiver with a loop antenna. The data would be recorded on board and transmitted to ground stations at appropriate times. A number of additional science payloads are

  18. Synoptic-scale circulation patterns during summer derived from tree rings in mid-latitude Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seim, Andrea; Schultz, Johannes A.; Leland, Caroline; Davi, Nicole; Byambasuren, Oyunsanaa; Liang, Eryuan; Wang, Xiaochun; Beck, Christoph; Linderholm, Hans W.; Pederson, Neil

    2017-09-01

    Understanding past and recent climate and atmospheric circulation variability is vital for regions that are affected by climate extremes. In mid-latitude Asia, however, the synoptic climatology is complex and not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate dominant synoptic-scale circulation patterns during the summer season using a multi-species tree-ring width (TRW) network comprising 78 sites from mid-latitude Asia. For each TRW chronology, we calculated an atmospheric circulation tree-ring index (ACTI), based on 1000 hPa geopotential height data, to directly link tree growth to 13 summertime weather types and their associated local climate conditions for the period 1871-1993. Using the ACTI, three groups of similarly responding tree-ring sites can be associated with distinct large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns: 1. growth of drought sensitive trees is positively affected by a cyclone over northern Russia; 2. temperature sensitive trees show positive associations to a cyclone over northwestern Russia and an anticyclone over Mongolia; 3. trees at two high elevation sites show positive relations to a zonal cyclone extending from mid-latitude Eurasia to the West Pacific. The identified synoptic-scale circulation patterns showed spatiotemporal variability in their intensity and position, causing temporally varying climate conditions in mid-latitude Asia. Our results highlight that for regions with less pronounced atmospheric action centers during summer such as the occurrence of large-scale cyclones and anticyclones, synoptic-scale circulation patterns can be extracted and linked to the Northern Hemisphere circulation system. Thus, we provide a new and solid envelope for climate studies covering the past to the future.

  19. Synoptic-scale circulation patterns during summer derived from tree rings in mid-latitude Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seim, Andrea; Schultz, Johannes A.; Leland, Caroline; Davi, Nicole; Byambasuren, Oyunsanaa; Liang, Eryuan; Wang, Xiaochun; Beck, Christoph; Linderholm, Hans W.; Pederson, Neil

    2016-11-01

    Understanding past and recent climate and atmospheric circulation variability is vital for regions that are affected by climate extremes. In mid-latitude Asia, however, the synoptic climatology is complex and not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate dominant synoptic-scale circulation patterns during the summer season using a multi-species tree-ring width (TRW) network comprising 78 sites from mid-latitude Asia. For each TRW chronology, we calculated an atmospheric circulation tree-ring index (ACTI), based on 1000 hPa geopotential height data, to directly link tree growth to 13 summertime weather types and their associated local climate conditions for the period 1871-1993. Using the ACTI, three groups of similarly responding tree-ring sites can be associated with distinct large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns: 1. growth of drought sensitive trees is positively affected by a cyclone over northern Russia; 2. temperature sensitive trees show positive associations to a cyclone over northwestern Russia and an anticyclone over Mongolia; 3. trees at two high elevation sites show positive relations to a zonal cyclone extending from mid-latitude Eurasia to the West Pacific. The identified synoptic-scale circulation patterns showed spatiotemporal variability in their intensity and position, causing temporally varying climate conditions in mid-latitude Asia. Our results highlight that for regions with less pronounced atmospheric action centers during summer such as the occurrence of large-scale cyclones and anticyclones, synoptic-scale circulation patterns can be extracted and linked to the Northern Hemisphere circulation system. Thus, we provide a new and solid envelope for climate studies covering the past to the future.

  20. History of leucotomies in Greece.

    PubMed

    Ploumpidis, D; Tsiamis, C; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E

    2015-03-01

    In order to present the social, scientific and institutional context which permitted the use of leucotomies in Greece, we have reviewed the Archives of the Medical Associations, the medical literature of the years 1946-56, a reader's dissertation and the memoirs of two psychiatrists. More than 250 leucotomies were done in the two public psychiatric hospitals in Athens from 1947 to 1954, as well as 40 leucotomies in the public psychiatric hospital in Thessaloniki. Although aware of the side effects, psychiatrists justified the use of the procedure. The performance of leucotomies in Greece declined because of reports of the dangers of the operation and its unpredictable outcome for the patients, but mainly because of the encouraging results with psychotropic drugs in the early 1950s. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. A Regional Model Study of Synoptic Features Over West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew; Lonergan, Patrick; Saloum, Mahaman; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Synoptic weather features over West Africa were studied in simulations by the regional simulation model (RM) at the NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies. These pioneering simulations represent the beginning of an effort to adapt regional models for weather and climate prediction over West Africa. The RM uses a cartesian grid with 50 km horizontal resolution and fifteen vertical levels. An ensemble of four simulations was forced with lateral boundary conditions from ECMWF global analyses for the period 8-22 August 1988. The simulated mid-tropospheric circulation includes the skillful development and movement of several African wave disturbances. Wavelet analysis of mid-tropospheric winds detected a dominant periodicity of about 4 days and a secondary periodicity of 5-8 days. Spatial distributions of RM precipitation and precipitation time series were validated against daily rain gauge measurements and ISCCP satellite infrared cloud imagery. The time-space distribution of simulated precipitation was made more realistic by combining the ECMWR initial conditions with a 24-hr spin-up of the moisture field and also by damping high frequency gravity waves by dynamic initialization. Model precipitation "forecasts" over the Central Sahel were correlated with observations for about three days, but reinitializing with observed data on day 5 resulted in a dramatic improvement in the precipitation validation over the remaining 9 days. Results imply that information via the lateral boundary conditions is not always sufficient to minimize departures between simulated and actual precipitation patterns for more than several days. In addition, there was some evidence that the new initialization may increase the simulations' sensitivity to the quality of lateral boundary conditions.

  2. New Approaches to Object Classification in Synoptic Sky Surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Donalek, C.; Mahabal, A.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Marney, S.; Drake, A.; Glikman, E.; Graham, M. J.; Williams, R.

    2008-12-05

    Digital synoptic sky surveys pose several new object classification challenges. In surveys where real-time detection and classification of transient events is a science driver, there is a need for an effective elimination of instrument-related artifacts which can masquerade as transient sources in the detection pipeline, e.g., unremoved large cosmic rays, saturation trails, reflections, crosstalk artifacts, etc. We have implemented such an Artifact Filter, using a supervised neural network, for the real-time processing pipeline in the Palomar-Quest (PQ) survey. After the training phase, for each object it takes as input a set of measured morphological parameters and returns the probability of it being a real object. Despite the relatively low number of training cases for many kinds of artifacts, the overall artifact classification rate is around 90%, with no genuine transients misclassified during our real-time scans. Another question is how to assign an optimal star-galaxy classification in a multi-pass survey, where seeing and other conditions change between different epochs, potentially producing inconsistent classifications for the same object. We have implemented a star/galaxy multipass classifier that makes use of external and a priori knowledge to find the optimal classification from the individually derived ones. Both these techniques can be applied to other, similar surveys and data sets.

  3. Simulated life cycles of persistent anticyclonic anomalies over the North Pacific: Role of synoptic-scale eddies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, R. W.; Schubert, S. D.

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the role of synoptic-scale eddies during the development of persistent anticyclonic height anomalies over the central North Pacific in a general circulation model under perpetual January conditions. The General Circulation Model (GCM) replicates the basic characteristics of the evolution of the anomaly patterns found in observations. The life cycle is characterized by the rapid establishment of the major anomaly center and considerably longer maintenance and decay phases, which include the development of downstream anomaly centers. The simulation also shows a realistic evolution of synoptic-scale activity beginning with enhanced activity off the east coast of Asia prior to onset, followed by a northward shift of the Pacific storm track, which lasts throughout the maintenance phase. The initial enhancement of synoptic-scale eddy activity is associated with a large-scale cyclonic anomaly that developes over Siberia several days prior to the onset of the main anticyclonic anomaly over the central North Pacific. The observations, however, show considerable interdecadel variability in the details of the composite onset behavior; it is unclear whether this variability is real or whether it reflects differences in the data assimilation systems. The role of the time mean flow and synoptic-scale eddies in the development of the persistent Pacific anomalies is studied within the context of a kinetic energy budget in which the flow is decomposed into the time-mean, low-frequency (timescales longer than 10 days), and synoptic (timescales less than 6 days) components. The budget, which is carried out for the simulation at 500 mb, shows that the initial growth of the persistent anticyclonic anomalies is associated with barotropic conversions of energy, with approximately equal contributions coming from the mean flow and the synoptic-scale eddies. After onset the barotropic conversion from the mean flow dominates, whereas the decay phase is associated with

  4. Simulated life cycles of persistent anticyclonic anomalies over the North Pacific: Role of synoptic-scale eddies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, R. W.; Schubert, S. D.

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the role of synoptic-scale eddies during the development of persistent anticyclonic height anomalies over the central North Pacific in a general circulation model under perpetual January conditions. The General Circulation Model (GCM) replicates the basic characteristics of the evolution of the anomaly patterns found in observations. The life cycle is characterized by the rapid establishment of the major anomaly center and considerably longer maintenance and decay phases, which include the development of downstream anomaly centers. The simulation also shows a realistic evolution of synoptic-scale activity beginning with enhanced activity off the east coast of Asia prior to onset, followed by a northward shift of the Pacific storm track, which lasts throughout the maintenance phase. The initial enhancement of synoptic-scale eddy activity is associated with a large-scale cyclonic anomaly that developes over Siberia several days prior to the onset of the main anticyclonic anomaly over the central North Pacific. The observations, however, show considerable interdecadel variability in the details of the composite onset behavior; it is unclear whether this variability is real or whether it reflects differences in the data assimilation systems. The role of the time mean flow and synoptic-scale eddies in the development of the persistent Pacific anomalies is studied within the context of a kinetic energy budget in which the flow is decomposed into the time-mean, low-frequency (timescales longer than 10 days), and synoptic (timescales less than 6 days) components. The budget, which is carried out for the simulation at 500 mb, shows that the initial growth of the persistent anticyclonic anomalies is associated with barotropic conversions of energy, with approximately equal contributions coming from the mean flow and the synoptic-scale eddies. After onset the barotropic conversion from the mean flow dominates, whereas the decay phase is associated with

  5. North Pacific Cloud Feedbacks Inferred from Synoptic-Scale Dynamic and Thermodynamic Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Joel R.; Iacobellis, Sam F.

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzed daily satellite cloud observations and reanalysis dynamical parameters to determine how mid-tropospheric vertical velocity and advection over the sea surface temperature gradient control midlatitude North Pacific cloud properties. Optically thick clouds with high tops are generated by synoptic ascent, but two different cloud regimes occur under synoptic descent. When vertical motion is downward during summer, extensive stratocumulus cloudiness is associated with near surface northerly wind, while frequent cloudless pixels occur with southerly wind. Examinations of ship-reported cloud types indicates that midlatitude stratocumulus breaks up as the the boundary level decouples when it is advected equatorward over warmer water. Cumulus is prevalent under conditions of synoptic descent and cold advection during winter. Poleward advection of subtropical air over colder water causes stratification of the near-surface layer that inhibits upward mixing of moisture and suppresses cloudiness until a fog eventually forms. Averaging of cloud and radiation data into intervals of 500-hPa vertical velocity and advection over the SST gradient enables the cloud response to changes in temperature and the stratification of the lower troposphere to be investigated independent of the dynamics.

  6. WRF Modeling of Synoptic Flow Cases of MATERHORN Spring Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Z.; Hocut, C. M.; Dimitrova, R.; Zsedrovits, T.; Fernando, H. J.; Wang, Y.; Creegan, E.; Felton, M.; Di Sabatino, S.; Leo, L.

    2014-12-01

    A myriad of flow phenomena (mountain waves, wakes, rotors, down-slope windstorms, gap winds and barrier jets) occur when synoptic flows encounter mountainous terrain. These synoptic flows are driven by large-scale pressure gradients that are superimposed on along-valley pressure gradients produced locally by intra-valley thermal gradients. When synoptic flows encounter thermally driven valley/slope flows, the slope flows are modified or even completely erased when certain conditions are satisfied. High-resolution (500 m resolution) runs of the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/wrf/users) were completed for the period of 2013 MATERHORN Spring experiment. The model performance was investigated using data taken using Doppler LiDARs and towers located in the vicinity of Granite Mountain. The model captures modification of the flow in the lee of the mountain. The quantitative comparison of the simulations to the observed data is in progress and will be completed soon. This research was funded by Office of Naval Research Grant # N00014-11-1-0709.

  7. North Pacific Cloud Feedbacks Inferred from Synoptic-Scale Dynamic and Thermodynamic Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Joel R.; Iacobellis, Sam F.

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzed daily satellite cloud observations and reanalysis dynamical parameters to determine how mid-tropospheric vertical velocity and advection over the sea surface temperature gradient control midlatitude North Pacific cloud properties. Optically thick clouds with high tops are generated by synoptic ascent, but two different cloud regimes occur under synoptic descent. When vertical motion is downward during summer, extensive stratocumulus cloudiness is associated with near surface northerly wind, while frequent cloudless pixels occur with southerly wind. Examinations of ship-reported cloud types indicates that midlatitude stratocumulus breaks up as the the boundary level decouples when it is advected equatorward over warmer water. Cumulus is prevalent under conditions of synoptic descent and cold advection during winter. Poleward advection of subtropical air over colder water causes stratification of the near-surface layer that inhibits upward mixing of moisture and suppresses cloudiness until a fog eventually forms. Averaging of cloud and radiation data into intervals of 500-hPa vertical velocity and advection over the SST gradient enables the cloud response to changes in temperature and the stratification of the lower troposphere to be investigated independent of the dynamics.

  8. Spatio-temporal dynamics and synoptic characteristics of wet and drought extremes in Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utkuzova, Dilyara; Khan, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    Synoptical-statistical analysis has been conducted using SPI index calculated for 478 stations with records from 1966 through 2013. Different parameters of SPI frequency distribution and long-term tendencies were calculated as well as spatial characteristics indicating drought and wetness propagation. Results of analysis demonstrate that during last years there is a tendency of increasing of the intensity of draught and wetness extremes over Russia. There are fewer droughts in the northern regions. The drought propagation for the European territory of Russia is decreasing in June and August, and increasing in July. The situation is opposite for the wetness tendencies. For the Asian territory of Russia, the drought propagation is significantly increasing in July along with decreasing wetness trend. Synoptic conditions favorable for the formation of wet and drought extremes were identified by comparing synoptic charts with the spatial patterns of SPI. For synoptic analysis, episodes of extremely wet (6 episodes for the APR and 7 episodes for the EPR) and drought (6 episodes for the APR and 6 for the EPR) events were classified using A. Katz' typology of weather regimes. For European part of Russia, extreme DROUGHT events are linked to the weather type named "MIXED", for Asian part of Russia - the type "CENTRAL". For European part of Russia, extreme WET events associated with "CENTRAL" type. There is a displacement of the planetary frontal zone into southward direction approximately for 5-25 degrees relatively to normal climatological position during WET extreme events linked to «EASTERN» classification type. Intercomparison of SPI calculated on the base of NOAA NCEP CPC CAMS for the same period and with the resolution 0,5 degree, month precipitation data, Era-Interim Daily fields archive for the period 1979-2014 with the resolution 0,5 degree reanalysis and observational precipitation data was done. The results of comparative analysis has been discussed.

  9. A Synoptic Air Mass Approach to Defining Southwest U.S. Summer Duration and Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrill, C.; Wachtel, C. J.; Godek, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    As the past decade was the warmest in the 110-year active record, and future Southwest warming is expected to be most intense in the summer season, it is important to have an updated atmospheric definition of what constitutes a Southwest summer. This is particularly true given the intensity of current drought conditions and that summers may be changing. Using weather-type data from the Spatial Synoptic Classification, this research aims to synoptically define the summer season in the Southwest since 1950. The Southwest is spatially described here by sub-region and 28 air mass stations within are chosen for air mass analysis. Daily air mass frequencies are examined to determine the dominant and less prevalent types annually and seasonally, from May to September. Then, frequencies in the middle of summer are compared to those in the seasonal fringe months to explore the possibility of a synoptic shift in the timing of the region's summer season. Finally, to further scrutinize how regional air mass frequencies have changed with time, the data are subdivided and evaluated for the 'Early record' (years prior to 1975) and 'Modern record' (post 1975). Frequency departures are tested for practical and statistical significance to characterize the strength of summer season variability. Results indicate that Dry Moderate air masses are the most common annually and in summer. Moist and transitional air masses tend to less frequent throughout the Southwest; however, frequencies vary greatly by sub-region. Wet and dry conditions are observed in accordance with the monsoon in some sub-regions, but not throughout the region. Significant changes in sub-regional air mass tendencies are identified that show the Early record experienced cooler air mass conditions (fewer tropical types and more moderate and cool types) than the Modern record. From a long-term synoptic air mass perspective, typical Southwest summers likely last from May to August. However, in the Modern record May

  10. The History of Adult Education in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    Adult education in Greece dates back to the time of Homer. Poetry and Panhellenic festivals were the earliest forms of adult education in Greece. By classical times, however, an entire learning society of human and material resources had been developed. Greek society experienced periods of high levels of culture and learning only to be conquered…

  11. Education Policy in Greece: A Preliminary Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    The future of Greece's well-being will depend on improving educational performance to raise employment and social outcomes. The challenges are significant, as public education expenditure in Greece has declined in recent years and learning outcomes are weak. To help the Greek government address these challenges, this report proposes a set of…

  12. Nowcasting extreme weather events over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsafados, Petros; Nomikou, Vera; Mavromatidis, Elias; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Lagouvardos, Konstantinos; Kotroni, Vassiliki

    2014-05-01

    Accurate and consistent very short-term prediction (nowcasting) of high-impact weather events can lead to significant improvement in warnings and advisories providing a direct impact on the risk management. To this end, an advanced mesoscale meteorological data assimilation tool, the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS), has been implemented in order to serve as an early warning system. LAPS incorporates surface and upper air observations (METAR, SYNOP, satellite, soundings, radar, aircraft etc) into large-scale gridded data (as background fields) and produces high spatial and temporal resolution analysis fields and early forecasts. This study presents the performance of the LAPS system in describing two unusual events of hazardous weather conditions over Greece. The first case study is characterized by the passage of a cyclonic system accompanied with cold fronts over Southern Greece. Heavy downpour, lightning and flooding were the main characteristics of the storm that affected Athens metropolitan area on February 22nd 2013. In the second case study the passage of a cold front over SE Aegean Sea led in a destructive and deadly flash flooding that affected the Northern areas of Rhodes Island on November 22nd 2013. This second flash flood event was triggered by the extreme precipitation (almost 100 mm in 4 hours) and killed 4 people making it the deadliest ever for the area. For both case studies, the conventional numerical weather prediction models operating at various research institutes and universities provided a rather insufficient spatiotemporal estimation of the extreme precipitation. For these cases, the LAPS-based nowcasting procedure has been applied with and without the ingestion of high resolution remote sensed precipitation estimates. The LAPS outputs have been evaluated against independent observations obtained from a dense network of surface meteorological stations. Results indicate that LAPS outputs were better than those obtained from the

  13. Synoptic volumetric variations and flushing of the Tampa Bay estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, M.; Meyers, S. D.; Luther, M. E.

    2014-03-01

    Two types of analyses are used to investigate the synoptic wind-driven flushing of Tampa Bay in response to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle from 1950 to 2007. Hourly sea level elevations from the St. Petersburg tide gauge, and wind speed and direction from three different sites around Tampa Bay are used for the study. The zonal (u) and meridional (v) wind components are rotated clockwise by 40° to obtain axial and co-axial components according to the layout of the bay. First, we use the subtidal observed water level as a proxy for mean tidal height to estimate the rate of volumetric bay outflow. Second, we use wavelet analysis to bandpass sea level and wind data in the time-frequency domain to isolate the synoptic sea level and surface wind variance. For both analyses the long-term monthly climatology is removed and we focus on the volumetric and wavelet variance anomalies. The overall correlation between the Oceanic Niño Index and volumetric analysis is small due to the seasonal dependence of the ENSO response. The mean monthly climatology between the synoptic wavelet variance of elevation and axial winds are in close agreement. During the winter, El Niño (La Niña) increases (decreases) the synoptic variability, but decreases (increases) it during the summer. The difference in winter El Niño/La Niña wavelet variances is about 20 % of the climatological value, meaning that ENSO can swing the synoptic flushing of the bay by 0.22 bay volumes per month. These changes in circulation associated with synoptic variability have the potential to impact mixing and transport within the bay.

  14. Synoptic and Mesoscale Aspects of Ice Storms in the Northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, C.; Bosart, L. F.; Keyser, D.; Quinlan, J.; Lipton, K.

    2012-12-01

    Ice storms are among the most hazardous, disruptive, and costly meteorological phenomena in the United States. The accretion of freezing rain during ice storms endangers human lives, undermines public infrastructure, and adversely impacts local and regional economies. Previous studies have demonstrated that the northeastern U.S. is especially susceptible to damaging ice storms. Furthermore, ice storms present a major operational forecast challenge due to the combined influence of synoptic, mesoscale, and microphysical processes on precipitation type. In consideration of these societal impacts and forecast issues, we have constructed a 17-cool-season climatology (Oct 1993-April 2010) of ice storms in the northeastern U.S., and performed composite and case study analyses to: 1) determine antecedent environments conducive to ice storms, and 2) identify dynamical mechanisms responsible for freezing rain. Using the National Climatic Data Center's Storm Events Database, we established a history of ice storms affecting 14 National Weather Service (NWS) county warning areas (CWAs) within the domain of the Northeast Regional Climate Center. First, we evaluated the temporal and spatial variability of ice storms during the 1993-2010 period. Next, we generated synoptic composites from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and examined how large-scale circulation patterns and associated quasi-geostrophic (QG) forcing, thermal boundaries, and moisture transport establish environments favorable for freezing rain in each NWS CWA. For the purpose of this presentation, we have only included the composite analysis of events impacting the Albany, NY, CWA. Although freezing rain typically occurs under preferred synoptic conditions, mesoscale processes determine the persistence of freezing rain events by modifying synoptic-scale circulations and associated QG forcing on regional and local scales. Therefore, a multiscale analysis is necessary to diagnose important synoptic-mesoscale circulation

  15. Spatial and temporal variability of the Aridity Index in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Politi, Nadia; Kapsomenakis, John

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the spatial and temporal variability of the Aridity Index (AI) in Greece, per decade, during the 50-year period (1951-2000). Besides, the projected changes in ensemble mean AI between the period 1961-1990 (reference period) and the periods 2021-2050 (near future) and 2071-2100 (far future) along with the inter-model standard deviations were presented, based on the simulation results, derived from a number of Regional Climatic Models (RCMs), within the ENSEMBLE European Project. The projection of the future climate was done under SRES A1B. The climatic data used, concern monthly precipitation totals and air temperature from 28 meteorological stations (22 stations from the Hellenic National Meteorological Service and 6 stations from neighboring countries, taken from the Monthly Climatic Data for the World). The estimation of the AI was carried out based on the potential evapotranspiration (PET) defined by Thornthwaite (1948). The data processing was done by the application of the statistical package R-project and the Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The results of the analysis showed that, within the examined period (1951-2000), a progressive shift from the "humid" class, which characterized the wider area of Greece, towards the "sub-humid" and "semi-arid" classes appeared in the eastern Crete Island, the Cyclades complex, the Evia and Attica, that is mainly the eastern Greece. The most significant change appears during the period 1991-2000. The future projections at the end of twentieth century, using ensemble mean simulations from 8 RCMs, show that drier conditions are expected to establish in regions of Greece (Attica, eastern continental Greece, Cyclades, Dodecanese, eastern Crete Island and northern Aegean). The inter-model standard deviation over these regions ranges from 0.02 to 0.05 against high values (0.09-0.15) illustrated in western mountainous continental Greece, during 2021-2050. Higher values of inter

  16. Scheduling Algorithm for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichharam, Jaimal; Stubbs, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a wide-field telescope currently under construction and scheduled to be deployed in Chile by 2022 and operate for a ten-year survey. As a ground-based telescope with the largest etendue ever constructed, and the ability to take images approximately once every eighteen seconds, the LSST will be able to capture the entirety of the observable sky every few nights in six different band passes. With these remarkable features, LSST is primed to provide the scientific community with invaluable data in numerous areas of astronomy, including the observation of near-Earth asteroids, the detection of transient optical events such as supernovae, and the study of dark matter and energy through weak gravitational lensing.In order to maximize the utility that LSST will provide toward achieving these scientific objectives, it proves necessary to develop a flexible scheduling algorithm for the telescope which both optimizes its observational efficiency and allows for adjustment based on the evolving needs of the astronomical community.This work defines a merit function that incorporates the urgency of observing a particular field in the sky as a function of time elapsed since last observed, dynamic viewing conditions (in particular transparency and sky brightness), and a measure of scientific interest in the field. The problem of maximizing this merit function, summed across the entire observable sky, is then reduced to a classic variant of the dynamic traveling salesman problem. We introduce a new approximation technique that appears particularly well suited for this situation. We analyze its effectiveness in resolving this problem, obtaining some promising initial results.

  17. Metallic mineral resources of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsirambides, Ananias; Filippidis, Anestis

    2012-12-01

    Today Greece produces and exports raw bauxite and alumina, concentrates of galena and sphalerite and ferronickel. The indicated reserves of bauxite, located in the Mt Helikon-Mt Parnassus-Mt Giona-Mt Iti zone, are estimated at approximately 100 mt and those of aluminum 2.5 mt. The probable and indicated reserves of lead and zinc from Chalkidiki are approximately 3.125 mt. The total production of concentrates of galena and sphalerite is approximately 220,000 tpa. The proven reserves of nickel are approximately 1.392 mt and the production of ferronickel is approximately 18,500 tpa. Production of copper, silver and gold is pending in 2015. The probable and indicated reserves of copper from Skouries Chalkidiki are approximately 1.943 mt. In the Prefecture Units of Chalkidiki and Evros the probable and indicated reserves of gold are approximately 19.37 million ounces and those of silver 131.6 million ounces. Chromium, manganese and molybdenum present good prospects of exploitation. Calculated at current prices, the total gross value of the probable and indicated reserves of the metallic minerals of Greece is €79.4 billion.

  18. Health technology assessment in Greece.

    PubMed

    Liaropoulos, L; Kaitelidou, D

    2000-01-01

    In 1983 a health reform aimed to assure universal coverage and equity in the distribution of services in Greece. The reform implied state responsibility for the financing and delivery of services and a reduction of the private sector. The model was a Bismarckian scheme for social insurance. However, healthcare delivery remains fragmented and uncoordinated and the private sector is getting stronger. The dominant payment system is fee-for-service for the private sector and administered prices and salaries for public hospitals and social insurance funds. The many insurers have their own eligibility requirements, validation procedures, etc. Coverage of services by social security funds, probably among the most comprehensive in Europe, is determined more on historical and political grounds than on efficiency or cost-effectiveness. The system is plagued by problems, including geographical inequalities, overcentralization, bureaucratic management, poor incentives in the public sector, open-ended financing, inefficient use of hospital beds, and lack of cost-effectiveness. There are no specific legal provisions for the control of health technology. Technologies are introduced without standards or formal consideration of needs. There are no current efforts to control health technology in Greece. However, health technology assessment (HTA) has gained increasing visibility. In 1997 a law provided for a new government agency responsible for quality control, economic evaluation of health services, and HTA. The hope is that the new law may introduce evaluation and assessment elements into health policy formulation and assure that cost effectiveness, quality, and appropriate use of health technology will receive more attention.

  19. Identifying relationships between baseflow geochemistry and land use with synoptic sampling and R-Mode factor analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wayland, Karen G.; Long, David T.; Hyndman, David W.; Pijanowski, Bryan C.; Woodhams, Sarah M.; Haak, Sheridan K.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between land use and stream chemistry is often explored through synoptic sampling rivers at baseflow condition. However, base flow chemistry is likely to vary temporally and spatially with land use. The purpose of our study is to examine the usefulness of the synoptic sampling approach for identifying the relationship between complex land use configurations and stream water quality. This study compares biogeochemical data from three synoptic sampling events representing the temporal variability of baseflow chemistry and land use using R-mode factor analysis. Separate R-mode factor analyses of the data from individual sampling events yielded only two consistent factors. Agricultural activity was associated with elevated levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, alkalinity, and frequently K+, SO42-, and NO3-. Urban areas were associated with higher concentrations of Na+, K+, and Cl-. Other retained factors were not  consistent among sampling events, and some factors were difficult to interpret in the context of biogeochemical sources and processes. When all data were combined, further associations were revealed such as an inverse relationship between the proportion of wetlands and stream nitrate concentrations. We also found that barren lands were associated with elevated sulfate levels. This research suggests that an individual sampling event is unlikely to characterize adequately the complex processes controlling interactions between land uses and stream chemistry. Combining data collected over two years during three synoptic sampling events appears to enhance our ability to understand processes linking stream chemistry and land use.  

  20. A SYNOPTIC APPROACH FOR ASSESSING CUMULATIVE IMPACTS TO WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's Wetlands Research Program has developed the synoptic approach as a proposed method for assessing cumulative impacts to wetlands by providing both a general and a comprehensive view of the environment. It can also be applied more broadly to...

  1. A synoptic approach to sun-weather investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The advantages of a regular program of daily observations of the magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere are described. Such synoptic observations may be one of the best routes to understanding the physical mechanisms involved in sun-weather influences. Some specific examples of such observations are given.

  2. Synoptic-scale nonlinear stationary magnetized Rossby waves in the ionospheric E-layer

    SciTech Connect

    Kaladze, T. D.; Horton, W.

    2006-12-15

    Magnetized Rossby waves are produced by a dynamo electric field and represent the ionospheric generalization of tropospheric Rossby waves in a rotating atmosphere with a spatially inhomogeneous geomagnetic field. They are described by the modified Charney-Obukhov equation with a Poisson-bracket convective nonlinearity. This type of equation has solutions in the form of synoptic-scale nonlinear solitary dipole vortex structures of 1000-3000 km in diameter. With the use of equivalence conditions, various stationary nonlinear solutions are obtained and investigated analytically. The basic characteristics of stationary vortex structures for magnetized Rossby waves are investigate000.

  3. Synoptic observations of Jupiter's radio emissions - Average statistical properties observed by Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. K.; Carr, T. D.; Thieman, J. R.; Schauble, J. J.; Riddle, A. C.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of Jupiter's low-frequency radio emissions collected over one-month intervals before and after each Voyager encounter are analyzed to provide a synoptic view of the average statistical properties of the emissions. Compilations of occurrence probability, average power flux density, and average sense of circular polarization are given as a function of central meridian longitude, phase of Io, and frequency. The results are then compared with ground-based observations. The necessary geometric conditions and preferred polarization sense for Io-related decametric emission observed by Voyager from above both the dayside and nightside hemispheres are found to be basically the same as those observed in earth-based studies.

  4. Synoptic weather patterns associated with NO{sub x} pollution episodes in Hong Kong urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Yuen, C.Y.; Wang, T.

    1998-12-31

    This study aims to find out the relationship between synoptic weather patterns and the air quality in HK urban areas. The air pollutants in HK are mainly vehicular emissions. Therefore, in this study, NO{sub x} (NO + NO{sub 2}) was used as an indicator of the urban air quality. Three years record of NO{sub x} concentration was examined and high NO{sub x} episodes were selected. 70% of high NO{sub x} pollution episodes were found to be related to calm or light wind conditions. Under low wind speed and stable conditions, both horizontal and vertical dispersion of local air pollutants are prohibited, hence air pollutants accumulate to harmful levels. The synoptic weather patterns on the episode days associated with calm conditions were investigated. The authors; found that the existence of: (1) a tropical cyclone over the NW Pacific Ocean, and HK is under the influence of its periphery subsiding air; (2) a weak continental high-pressure system with central highest pressure less than 1030hPa; and (3) a low-pressure trough being close to HK, were likely to give rise to calm conditions and hence NO{sub X} episodes in urban areas.

  5. Greece: Health system review.

    PubMed

    Economou, Charalambos

    2010-01-01

    financing and equity in access to health care services. Efficiency is in question due to the lack of incentives to improve performance in the public sector. Mechanisms for needs assessment and priority-setting are underdeveloped and, as a consequence, the regional distribution of health resources is unequal. Centralization of the system is coupled with a lack of planning and coordination, and limited managerial and administrative capacity. In addition, the oversupply of physicians, the absence of a referral system, and irrational pricing and reimbursement policies are factors encouraging under-the-table payments and the black economy. These shortcomings result in low satisfaction with the health care system expressed by citizens. The landmark in the development of the Greek health care system was the creation of the national health system (ESY) in 1983. This report describes the development of the ESY at the structural level and generally, the process of implementing reforms. The strategic targets of health reform initiatives have been to structure a unified health care sector along the lines of the original ESY proposal and to cope with current inefficiencies. However, the three reforms attempted in the 1990s were never fully implemented, while the ambitious reform project of the period 2000–2004, which provided for the regionalization of the system, new management structures, prospective reimbursement, new employment conditions for hospital doctors, modernization of public health services and reorganization of primary health care, was abolished after the elections of 2004 and a change in government. While the new strategy, launched in 2005 with the stated aims of securing the financial viability of the health care system in the short term and its sustainability in the long term, addressed specific weaknesses, it has been rather controversial: the introduction of a centralized administrative public procurement system, the development of public–private partnerships

  6. Atmospheric heat transfer to the Arctic under main synoptic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurova, Alla; Gnatiuk, Natalia; Bobylev, Leonid; Zhu, Yali

    2016-04-01

    Arctic - mid-latitude teleconnections are operating in both ways and behind them are potentially some causes of the enhanced Arctic warming (e.g., through heat transfer from lower to higher latitudes) and the feedbacks from the Arctic climate to the mid-latitude weather patterns. In order to explain the variability of the surface air temperature in the Arctic, we aim to analyse the typical synoptic situations that, we hypothesize, are characterized by a specific patterns of heat exchange between the Arctic and mid-latitudes. According to classification of synoptic processes in the Arctic developed at the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) in St. Petersburg major typical groups of synoptic situations in the Arctic are few (six). They correspond to position and intensity of low- and high-pressure centres. Therefore, the whole data sample for the winter period for the entire period of instrumental observations (archive exists back to 1939) can be split into six groups that sub-sample each of six groups/types of synoptic situations. Then heat transfer to the Arctic can be estimated as the divergence of the horizontal (advective) heat flux (the product of wind speed and temperature gradient) within each vertical atmospheric layer, which is calculated based on the ERA Interim Reanalysis data for the winter season (1979-now). Mapping heat divergence fields will reveal the main mid-latitude sources of heat transported to the Arctic, average for the whole data sample and for each of the six main groups of synoptic situations. This work was supported by RFBR grants 16-55-53031

  7. Evaluating Renewable Groundwater Stress with GRACE data in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmi, V.; Gemitzi, A.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater is a resilient water source and its importance as a fundamental resource is even greater in times of drought where groundwater stress conditions are greatest for areas like Mediterranean and adverse climate change effects are expected. The present study evaluates Renewable Groundwater Stress (RGS) as the ratio of groundwater use to groundwater availability, quantifying use as the trend in GRACE-derived subsurface anomalies (ΔGWtrend) and renewable groundwater availability as mean annual recharge. Estimates for mean annual recharge were used from groundwater studies conducted for the various regions in Greece, mainly in the form of numerical models. Our results highlighted two RGS regimes in Greece out of the four characteristic stress regimes, i.e. Overstressed, Variable Stress, Human-Dominated Stress and Unstressed, defined as a function of the sign of use and the sign of groundwater availability (positive or negative). Variable Stress areas are found in central Greece (Thessaly region), where intense agricultural activities take place, with negative ΔGWtrend values combined with positive mean annual recharge rates. RGS values range from -0.05 - 0, indicating however a low impact area. Within this region, adverse effects of groundwater overexploitation are already evident, based on the negative GRACE anomalies, recharge however still remains positive, amending the adverse over pumping impacts. The rest of Greek aquifers fall within the unstressed category, with RGS values from 0.02 - 0.05, indicating that the rate of use is less than the natural recharge rate. The highest Unstressed RGS values are observed in Crete Island and in Northeastern Greece. However, the case of Crete is highly uncertain, as precipitation and recharge in this area demonstrate exceptionally high variability and the coarse resolution of GRACE results does not allow for reliable estimates.

  8. Controls on Synoptic Scale Variability in Atmospheric Water Vapor Stable Isotopologues from Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, J. V.; Galewsky, J.; Noone, D. C.; Worden, J.; Johnson, L. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Havaiki campaign, 9 October to 6 November, 2008, included continuous (6 seconds) in-situ measurement of water vapor stable isotopic ratios at the NOAA Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO), Hawaii. δD correlates with water vapor mixing ratios, and is characterized by both diurnal fluctuations and synoptic scale variability. Daily fluctuations are related to day-time lifting and night-time compression of the trade inversion. We focus on the synoptic variability of night-time δD values, which is more representative of the free troposphere. To do so, we determined last saturation conditions for air at MLO using both Lagrangian back-trajectory and Eulerian GCM-based techniques. Last saturation of air at MLO occurs primarily in the extra-tropical middle-upper troposphere, along mid-latitude baroclinic zones, and secondarily near Hawaii within mesoscale convective systems. Synoptic-scale periods of lower (elevated) δD values at MLO correspond to extra-tropical (near-Hawaii) last saturation. To assess the influence of mixing on water vapor δD at MLO, we reconstructed Havaiki humidity and δD values from both our Lagrangian and Eulerian last saturation model results. The Eulerian based reconstructions, which account for mixing, better represent the observed Havaiki δD values. The Lagrangian approach does not account for mixing and overestimates the observed variability. These results suggest that mixing plays a critical role in setting the water vapor δD of sub-saturated air in the subtropical free tropopshere. To weigh the influences that large-scale circulation or the pre-saturation water vapor δD values have on the observed synoptic variability of δD at MLO, we conducted δD reconstruction experiments. First, we held constant the pre-saturation water vapor δD, varied the last saturation distributions, and were able to reproduce the observed synoptic variability. In the second experiment, we held last saturation distributions constant, varied the pre-saturation

  9. Atmospheric boundary layer adjustment to the synoptic cycle at the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence, South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo, OtáVio C.; Pezzi, Luciano P.; Souza, Ronald B.; Anabor, Vagner; Degrazia, GerváSio A.

    2010-11-01

    This study analyzes and discusses atmospheric boundary layer vertical profiles of potential temperature, specific humidity, and wind speed at each of the sides of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Such confluence is characterized by the meeting of water masses with very different characteristics: the southern waters of the Malvinas current can be several degrees colder and appreciably less salty than the northern Brazil current waters. At the same time, a synoptic cycle can be identified at the region, marked by the successive passages of frontal systems and extratropical cyclones. The different phases of the synoptic cycle lead to different thermal advections at the confluence, causing respective different patterns of atmospheric boundary layer adjustment to the surface heterogeneity induced by the confluence. In the present study, this adjustment along the synoptic cycle is analyzed using data from five experiments performed across the confluence from 2003 to 2008. In each of the campaigns a number of soundings were launched from a ship at both sides of the confluence. A climatological analysis with respect to the closest frontal passage is presented, and it suggests that the observations collected at each of the years analyzed are referent to a different day of the synoptic cycle. The average profiles at each side of the confluence are in agreement with previous modeling studies of warm and cold thermal advection patterns over an oceanic front. Furthermore, our study shows that peculiar transitional characteristics are also observed between the conditions of well-established warm and cold advection. At many phases of the synoptic cycle a strongly stratified boundary layer occurs at one or both sides of the confluence. Some of the observed characteristics, such as a large moisture accumulation near the surface, suggest that existing sensible and latent heat fluxes parameterizations fail under very strong stratifications, and the

  10. Deinstitutionalization in Greece: Ethical problems.

    PubMed

    Ploumpidis, D; Garanis-Papadatos, T; Economou, M

    2008-10-01

    The following paper is based on a Concerted Action which focused on the "Ethical aspects of deistinstutionalisation in mental health care" in 2001. It investigates the development and the ethical dilemmas posed by deinstitutionalization in Greece. This movement has recently undergone a very active phase but the transition from the traditional model of psychiatric care to the community based system unavoidably creates many ethical problems related to the professionals' attitude towards individual liberties, dignity and other fundamental rights of mentally ill persons. These problems exist not only in the level of the therapist-patient relationship but in the level of policy making as well as its implementation. Moreover, the paper deals with specific ethical problems such as stigmatisation and isolation in the community context, as well as the role of the family.

  11. Epidemiologic study of the modes of spread of viral hepatitis in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papaevangelou, G; Trichopoulos, D; Grammaticopoulos, D; Vissoulis, C

    1976-01-01

    We studied the possible correlation of VH morbidity or HBsAg carrier rate with the prevalence of malaria and enteric among the 50 geographical regions of Greece. Malaria was considered as an index of mosquito density and enteric as an index of the local hygienic conditions. Morbidity data on the studied reportable diseases for the period 1954-73 and the HBsAg carrier rate (4-7%) among 17,991 recruits of the Greek Air Force, coming from all the geographical regions of Greece, were used. The statistical analysis of our data showed that VH morbidity (which is mainly hepatitis A) is significantly correlated with enteric morbidity, while HBsAg carrier rate with malaria. Our data support the significance of the role of mosquitoes in the spread of HB at least under the prevailing conditions in Greece.

  12. Lightning characteristics over the eastern coast of the Mediterranean during different synoptic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Ami, Y.; Altaratz, O.; Yair, Y.; Koren, I.

    2015-11-01

    Thunderstorm activity takes place in the eastern Mediterranean mainly through the boreal fall and winter seasons during synoptic systems of Red Sea Trough (RST), Red Sea Trough that closed a low over the sea (RST-CL), and Cyprus Low (during fall - FCL and winter - WCL). In this work we used the Israeli Lightning Location System ground strokes data set, between October 2004 and December 2010, for studying the properties of lightning strokes and their link to the thermodynamic conditions in each synoptic system. It is shown that lightning activity dominates over sea during WCL and FCL systems (with maximum values of 1.5 in WCL, and 2.2 km-2 day-1 in FCL) and have a dominant component over land during the RST and RST-CL days. The stronger instability (high Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) values of 762 ± 457 J kg-1) during RST-CL days together with the higher altitude of the clouds' mixed-phase region (3.6 ± 0.3 km), result in a slightly higher density of ground strokes during this system but a lower fraction of positive ground strokes (3 ± 0.5 %). In general the fraction of positive strokes was found to be inversely correlated with the sea surface temperature: it increases from 1.2 % in early fall to 17.7 % in late winter, during FCL and WCL days. This change could be linked to the variation in the charge center's vertical location during those months. The diurnal cycle in the lightning activity was examined for each synoptic system. During WCL conditions, no preferred times were found through the day, as it relates to the random passage timing of the frontal systems over the study region. During the fall systems (FCL and RST-CL) there is a peak in lightning activity during the morning hours, probably related to the enhanced convection driven by the convergence between the eastern land breeze and the western synoptic winds. The distributions of peak currents in FCL and WCL systems also change from fall to winter and include more strong negative and

  13. Carbon dioxide fluxes associated with synoptic weather events over a southern inland water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Zhang, Q.; Gao, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Evidence indicates that inland waters play an important role in regional and global carbon budget through releasing a substantial carbon into the atmosphere. To better quantify how environmental variables affect CO2 exchange between inland waters and the atmosphere and its temporal variations, we have conducted direct, long-term measurements of CO2 fluxes across the water-atmosphere interface over a large southern open water of Ross Barnett Reservoir in central Mississippi. Our data indicate that large CO2 flux pulses occurred occasionally throughout the course of a year with the duration of a few days for each pulse. Here we analyzed and demonstrated that these CO2 flux pulses were associated with the passages of synoptic weather events. Our preliminary results indicated that these synoptic weather events (e.g., extratropical clones and cold air bursts) led to the enhanced mechanical mixing due to increasing wind speeds and the instability of the atmospheric surface layer due to the decreasing air temperature. As a consequence, in-water processes were also substantially altered accordingly. Due to the dramatic decrease in air temperature caused by the events, the temperature in the water surface layer was largely reduced, generating in-water convection conditions and thus leading to the increased depths of the mixing layer in the water, as reflected by the water temperature profiles. The enhanced mechanical mixing in the atmospheric surface layer may have further contributed to the deepened mixing layer in the water. Our suggestions suggest that high CO2 effluxes during the pulse events were largely attributed to changes in the water-side physical processes that are directly linked to rapid changes in atmospheric processes associated with synoptic weather events. Given its substantial contribution of CO2 flux pulses to carbon emission, such physical processes should be taken into account when carbon emissions from inland waters are quantified.

  14. Radar observations of mesoscale circulations induced by a small lake under varying synoptic-scale flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asefi-Najafabady, Salvi; Knupp, Kevin; Mecikalski, John R.; Welch, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines Doppler radar observations of springtime lake breeze (LB) circulations produced by a small reservoir (mean width of ˜2 km), Wheeler Lake, on the Tennessee River in northern Alabama. The analysis allows for the formation of a general understanding of the flow structures as a composite of many LB circulation events. It is found that LB circulation, once formed, is robust and persistent over a range of background or synoptic-scale wind flows despite the small size of Wheeler Lake and the relatively small differences between land and lake temperature (often a few degrees Celsius) that drive the LB circulation. The formation, location, strength, and inland penetration of the Wheeler Lake breeze are highly sensitive to the background wind speed and direction with respect to the lakeshore, resulting in complex spatial and temporal variations in the LB characteristics. The LB front is most prominent as a radar fine line when the ambient flow is offshore (opposing the LB background wind) and perpendicular to the orientation (120°-300°) of the lake. For wind speeds <4-5 m s-1, a radar-detectable thin line delineating the LB front appears primarily on the upwind side of the lake, either to the north or south, while synoptic-scale winds stronger than ˜5 m s-1 tend to destroy the breeze front entirely. If the background wind is parallel to lake orientation and the wind is ≤4 m s-1, the LB circulations often develop on both sides of the lake. The radar fine line often appears patchy and broad for low-wind conditions near 2 m s-1. Overall, the findings of this study show that small lakes can generate persistent local circulations that follow similar patterns of behavior and respond to the synoptic flow as large lakes or sea breezes.

  15. Variants of synoptic-scale weather patterns inducing heavy steady rains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspar, M.; Müller, M.

    2009-04-01

    Previous studies confirmed the close relationship between synoptic-scale meteorological conditions and the occurrence of heavy widespread and steady rains in the Czech Republic. We showed that some dynamic and thermodynamic variables had regularly reached abnormal values in specific regions before and during extreme precipitation events. On the other hand, these anomalies partly varied among individual events. The presented study utilizes the results and is aimed at the objective classification of causal synoptic-scale weather patterns. We compiled the set of extreme precipitation events that had affected the Czech Republic during warm half-years from 1958 to 2002. In order to classify the events, we employed re-analyses ERA-40. We focused on the horizontal components of moisture flux, anomalies of which are the typical features of the most significant events and are responsible for an increased water vapour supply into the rainfall area. For compiled events, we quantified the extremeness of the anomalies by distribution function in individual grid points. We applied a divisive and fuzzy clustering method in order to cluster the events in terms of the extremeness of the horizontal components of moisture flux within the rainfall area from a day before to two days after the precipitation onset. We identified and defined four variants of causal synoptic-scale weather patterns. The first two variants are associated with the passage of an extra-tropical cyclone across Central Europe. The differences between the variants consist in the cyclone track. The third variant is characterised by cold frontal waves repeatedly affecting heavy rain sites. The forth variant is similar to the third variant but is rounded off by the passage of a frontal wave cyclone. The classification method will be briefly presented and all four variants will be described using average thermo-baric fields. Further applications of the classification method will be also mentioned.

  16. A heuristic expert system for forest fire guidance in Greece.

    PubMed

    Iliadis, Lazaros S; Papastavrou, Anastasios K; Lefakis, Panagiotis D

    2002-07-01

    Forests and forestlands are common inheritance for all Greeks and a piece of the national wealth that must be handed over to the next generations in the best possible condition. After 1974, Greece faces a severe forest fire problem and forest fire forecasting is the process that will enable the Greek ministry of Agriculture to reduce the destruction. This paper describes the basic design principles of an Expert System that performs forest fire forecasting (for the following fire season) and classification of the prefectures of Greece into forest fire risk zones. The Expert system handles uncertainty and uses heuristics in order to produce scenarios based on the presence or absence of various qualitative factors. The initial research focused on the construction of a mathematical model which attempted to describe the annual number of forest fires and burnt area in Greece based on historical data. However this has proven to be impossible using regression analysis and time series. A closer analysis of the fire data revealed that two qualitative factors dramatically affect the number of forest fires and the hectares of burnt areas annually. The first is political stability and national elections and the other is drought cycles. Heuristics were constructed that use political stability and drought cycles, to provide forest fire guidance. Fuzzy logic was applied to produce a fuzzy expected interval for each prefecture of Greece. A fuzzy expected interval is a narrow interval of values that best describes the situation in the country or a part of the country for a certain time period. A successful classification of the prefectures of Greece in forest fire risk zones was done by the system, by comparing the fuzzy expected intervals to each other. The system was tested for the years 1994 and 1995. The testing has clearly shown that the system can predict accurately, the number of forest fires for each prefecture for the following year. The average accuracy was as high as 85

  17. Aspects of cold intrusions over Greece during autumn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mita, Constantina; Marinaki, Aggeliki; Zeini, Konstantina; Konstantara, Metaxia

    2010-05-01

    This study is focused on the description of atmospheric disturbances that caused intense cold intrusions over Greece during autumn for a period of 25 years (1982-2006). The study was based on data analysis from the meteorological station network of the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS) and the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Initially, the days with temperature at the isobaric surface of 850 hPa less or equal to the mean temperature for the 10-day period the day under investigation belongs to are isolated, composing a new confined data set which was further used. An event of intense cold intrusion is identified based on a subjective set of criteria, considering the temperature decrease at the level of 850 hPa and its duration. In particular, the criteria that were used to identify a cold intrusion were: temperature variation between two successive days at the isobaric level of 850 hPa being equal or greater than 50 C at least once during the event and duration of the event of at least two successive days with continuous temperature decrease. Additionally, the synoptic analysis of the atmospheric disturbances involved using weather charts from ECMWF, revealed that all cases were related to low pressure systems at the level of 500 hPa, accompanied by cold air masses. Moreover, a methodology proposed to classify the cold intrusions based on general circulation characteristics of the atmosphere, resulted in seven major categories. More than half of the events belong in two categories, originated northwest of the greater Greek area (Greece and parts of neighbouring countries), between 400 and 600 N. Further analysis indicated that the frequency of events increases from September to November and the majority of the events lasted two to three days. Additionally, the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used for the investigation of the statistical significance of the trends appearing in the results. The tests revealed that over

  18. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope: From Science Drivers to Reference Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    and vanished giant planets is preserved in the orbital elements and size distributions of those objects. In the main asteroid belt between Mars and...REPORT DATE MAR 2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Large Synoptic Survey Telescope: From...have provided the detailed information needed to construct physical models of planets , stars, galaxies, quasars, and larger structures. Until

  19. The M33 Synoptic Stellar Survey. II. Mira Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wenlong; He, Shiyuan; Macri, Lucas M.; Long, James; Huang, Jianhua Z.

    2017-04-01

    We present the discovery of 1847 Mira candidates in the Local Group galaxy M33 using a novel semi-parametric periodogram technique coupled with a random forest classifier. The algorithms were applied to ∼2.4 × 105 I-band light curves previously obtained by the M33 Synoptic Stellar Survey. We derive preliminary period–luminosity relations at optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared wavelengths and compare them to the corresponding relations in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  20. Synoptic- and Mesoscale Weather Situations Associated with Tornadoes in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprenger, M.; Graf, M.; Moore, R.

    2009-04-01

    Tornadoes are mainly associated with the United States, but they occur all over the world. In this study, focus is given to the synoptic- and mesoscale environment which leads to tornadoes in Europe. Three aspects are discussed: (a) Which weather situation is found during severe tornado events?; (b) Are the US tornado indices applicable in Europe?; and (c) What specific synoptic- and mesoscale forcing mechanisms are discernible in the European setting, and how do they compare to the US mechanisms. Tornado data for Europe are taken from the European Severe Weather Database (ESWD), which includes the date, time, location and intensity on the Fujita scale of the event. Consideration is given only to 23 major events (here defined to be of scale F2) between 2005 and 2006 and in a band north of the Alps and extending from eastern France to Poland, with focus on Germany. The synoptic- and mesoscale weather situation is analysed with the the ECMWF operational analysis and the German Weather Service surface weather charts (for frontal locations).The appropriateness of ECMWF is validated by comparison of near-tornado radio-soundings with ECMWF pseudo-soundings. In a first part, each of the 23 tornadoes is characterised with respect to upper-level (jet streaks, PV anomalies) and low-level (fronts) forcings. Moreover, the synoptic-scale situation is analysed. Then, consideration is given to typical tornado indices used in the US: convective available potential energy (CAPE), storm-relative helicity (SRH) and the energy helicity index (EHI). It will be shown that the indices are only partly applicable in a European settings. Finally, some very distinctive dynamical signals related to potential vorticity and vorticity are shown and their interpretation discussed.

  1. The Statistical Relationship between the Synoptic-Scale Pressure Field and the Development and Morning Transition of Surface Inversions at Two Rural Sites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiess, Raymond B.; Riordan, Allen J.

    1987-08-01

    The association between the synoptic-scale sea level pressure field and the behavior of the morning inversion at two 60-m tower sites in North and South Carolina is investigated. Daily gridded pressure data for 1976 through 1982 for the eastern third of the United States are objectively classified according to their similarity with one of four basic eigenvector patterns developed for the dataset.The occurrence and site-to-site correlation of predawn inversion strength at the two tower locations, as well as the transition time between sunrise and inversion breakdown are then compared and contrasted for the different synoptic types. Results show a statistically significant relationship between inversion strength and synoptic type. As expected, strong inversions are most common when anticyclones are centered over the region. However, strong inversions are also found when anticyclones are centered southwest of the sites. The synoptic association is very similar for both tower sites expect for conditions when local care of a lake near one site lead to obvious modifications there. Transition times are only occasionally related to the synoptic type and relate best when the pressure gradient is weakest (long transition) or strongest (short transition).

  2. Satellite observations of surface temperature patterns induced by synoptic circulation over the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lensky, Itamar; Dayan, Uri

    2013-04-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) controls most physical and biological processes on Earth. Knowledge of the LST at high spatial resolution enables representation of different climate regimes. The main factors controlling LST are the seasonal and diurnal cycles, land cover, cloud cover, and atmospheric processes at several scales. Lensky and Dayan analyzed atmospheric processes at the topoclimatic scale, and the mesoscale (Lensky and Dayan 2011, 2012). Here we will demonstrate an analysis of the spatial distribution of LST anomaly as affected by typical synoptic circulation patterns over the Eastern Mediterranean (EM). LST anomaly is defined as the difference between daily and climatological LST. Using LST anomaly reduces the effects of land cover and the seasonal and diurnal cycles, enabling a better detection of surface temperature patterns induced by synoptic circulation. In this study we used all available 2000-2012 NASA daily MODIS LST data over the EM, together with NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data of SLP, surface winds and Omega (at 700hPa). We will present two frequent synoptic circulation patterns as classified by Levy and Dayan (2008) to demonstrate the LST patterns induced by synoptic circulation over the EM. The first is the "Red Sea Trough" (RST) with eastern axis, which is an extension of a low surface pressure from a tropical depression toward the Red Sea, penetrating up north as far as Turkey. It migrates from south to north and mostly frequent during the autumn. The axis of the RST separates distinctively between regions of positive (warm) anomalies over Turkey and regions of negative anomalies (cold) over Egypt induced by the wind flow from both sides of the axis. The second synoptic circulation pattern is "shallow Cyprus low to the north", which is a disturbance of the polar front extending southward. This synoptic system some times migrates over the Mediterranean eastward toward the EM during the winter season. The strong northwesterly flow featuring the

  3. Anisotropy Studies in Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviris, G.; Papadimitriou, P.; Makropoulos, K.

    2007-12-01

    The Gulf of Corinth, located in Central Greece, is a tectonic graben characterized by high seismicity level. GPS measurements indicate extension of the Gulf in an approximately N-S direction, with a rate of 10 to 15 mm/year. The southern part of the Gulf is dominated by the presence of large active normal faults in an almost E-W direction, dipping north, resulting to the subsidence of the central part of the graben. Analysis of data recorded by the Cornet network, which is the permanent network of the University of Athens, revealed the existence of an anisotropic upper crust at the eastern part of the Gulf of Corinth. Anisotropy was also observed at the western part of Corinth Gulf, using data recorded by a temporary seismological network installed in the area. Furthermore, shear wave splitting analysis was performed in the region of Attica (to the NE of the Gulf) that hosts Athens, the capital of Greece, using aftershocks of the 1999 Athens earthquake (Mw=6.0) that caused 143 fatalities. The methods used for the determination of the splitting parameters are the polarization vector as a function of time (polarigram) and the hodogram. For each selected event the direction of polarization of the fast shear wave, the delay between the two split shear waves and the polarization of the source were measured. Concerning both parts of the Gulf of Corinth, the obtained mean values of anisotropy vary between N90° and N142°. In the region of Attica the mean values of the anisotropy direction of all stations vary between N95° and N100°, almost parallel to the azimuth of the Parnitha fault. The time delay between the split shear waves vary between 0.020s and 0.130s. The obtained anisotropy measurements are in agreement with the extensive dilatancy anisotropy (EDA) model, since the direction of anisotropy is independent from the event-station azimuth and perpendicular to the direction of extension. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The present study was co-funded by the European Social Fund

  4. Keys for the identification of the mosquitoes of Greece.

    PubMed

    Darsie, R F; Samanidou-Voyadjoglou, A

    1997-09-01

    Keys to the adult females and 4th instar larvae of the mosquitoes of Greece are presented. In all, 53 species in 7 genera are included. Also, Aedes albopictus is added because of the potential for its introduction into Greece.

  5. New country records for mosquito species in Greece.

    PubMed

    Samanidou-Voyadjoglou, A; Darsie, R F

    1993-12-01

    A study of the literature and mosquito collections in Greece has yielded 3 species that have not been recorded from Greece. They are Aedes annulipes, Aedes berlandi, and Culex pusillus. Notes on their recognition and geographic distribution are also given.

  6. GREECE Sounding Rocket Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samara, M.; Michell, R.; Grubbs, G. A., II; Bonnell, J. W.; Ogasawara, K.; Hampton, D. L.; Jahn, J. M.; Donovan, E.; Gustavsson, B.; Lanchester, B. S.; McHarg, M. G.; Spanswick, E.; Trondsen, T. S.; Valek, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    On 03 March 2014 at 11:09:50 UT the Ground-to-Rocket Electrodynamics-Electrons Correlative Experiment (GREECE) sounding rocket successfully launched from Poker Flat, Alaska . It reached an apogee of approximately 335 km over the native village of Venetie during a dynamic post-midnight auroral event. A wide range of precipitating electrons were measured with the Acute Precipitating Electron Spectrometer (APES) and Medium-energy Electron SPectrometer (MESP), cumulatively covering 300 ev to 200 keV in varying time resolutions. DC to low frequency electric and magnetic fields were measured at the same time and a langmuir probe was also employed. In addition to the on board instrumentation a suite of ground based imagers was deployed under apogee. We used several electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices (EMCCDs) with different filters and field of views imaging along magnetic zenith. This yielded multi-emission line information about the auroral brightness at the magnetic footprint of the rocket critical for our main goal of exploring the correlation of the sheer flows often observed in high resolution imagery during aurora and the in situ signatures of precipitating particles and waves. The instruments used will be discussed in further detail along with preliminary results of an event rich in particle and wave signatures.

  7. Porifera of Greece: an updated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of Porifera of Greece was created in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) that has resumed efforts to compile a complete checklist of species recorded from Greece. An updated checklist of Porifera was created on the basis of a list of the Aegean Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha published one decade ago. All records of species known to occur in Greek waters were taxonomically validated and cross-checked for possible inaccuracies and omissions. Then, all recent publications were reviewed and the species recorded from 2006 to date were added to the list. New information The updated checklist of Porifera of Greece comprises 215 species, classified to 111 genera, 65 families, 24 orders, and 4 classes. In total, 34 new additions were made to the previous species list (8 Calcarea, 17 Demospongiae, 1 Hexactinellida, and 6 Homoscleromorpha) with Calcarea being listed for the first time from the area. The demosponge orders Poecilosclerida, Dictyoceratida, Tetractinellida, Haplosclerida, and Suberitida have the highest number of species covering 62% of the known Greek sponge species richness. It is worth mentioning that 8 species have been first described from Greek waters, 7 of which are considered endemic to this area. Our bibliographic overview also revealed knowledge gaps with regard to specific habitats typically rich in sponge diversity, and marine sectors of Greece. PMID:27932903

  8. Cystic echinococcosis in Greece. Past and present.

    PubMed

    Sotiraki, S; Chaligiannis, I

    2010-09-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease with a wide geographical distribution, Greece included, and is considered to be a serious problem for the public health and the livestock economy. Although the disease was widespread in Greece since ancient times, cystic echinococcosis was identified as a serious problem around 1970, and since then national surveillance programmes are running, based on meat inspection and stray dogs management. Ever since, there are official records of the parasite's prevalence in humans and livestock which show a continuous decline. More precisely, human hydatidosis, according to the official records, declines from an annual incidence of 14.8 per 100,000 inhabitants during 1967-1971 to 0.3 in 2008. Late surveys reveal that in Greece the prevalence of echinococcosis was 23-39.2% for sheep, 7.6-14.7% for goats, 0% in cattle and 0.6% in pigs, while further molecular analyses in Southern Greece showed the existence of the genotypes G1 and G3 in sheep and G7 in goats in that area. All data presented demonstrate that the parasite is still present in Greece. Surveillance is nowadays being performed under EU regulations but it is highly important to improve and adopt corrective and preventive measures to avoid animal and human infection.

  9. A synoptic climatological approach to forecast concentrations of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lam, K C; Cheng, S

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an automated synoptic climatological procedure to forecast high air pollution concentrations in the most polluted synoptic categories. The procedure is able to identify air masses historically associated with high air pollution concentrations. The arrival of air mass can be predicted 24 or 48 h in advance with the use of the weather forecast data. The development and statistical basis of the procedure are discussed, and an analysis of the procedure's ability to forecast weather conditions associated with high air pollution concentrations is presented. In addition, the dataset of 24 weather variables from 1993 to 1995 is used to validate the procedure. The procedure predicts that 70.3 and 83.3% of total high and severe SO2 concentration days fall into the identified most polluted categories, and the corresponding figures for NOx are 47.8 and 73.7%. The agreement between observed and predicted values is generally good. The prediction models can explain about 58 and 45% of total variance for NOx and SO2 with RMSEs of 42.5 and 16.5 microg m(-3), respectively. They are smaller than 1 SD of the observations.

  10. Aspects of extratropical synoptic-scale processes in opposing ENSO phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwierz, C.; Wernli, H.; Hess, D.

    2003-04-01

    Energy and momentum provided by anomalous tropical heating/cooling affect the circulation on the global scale. Pacific Sea surface temperature anomalies strongly force local conditions in the equatorial Pacific, but are also known to change the climate in the extratropics, particularly over the American continent. The impact on more remote areas such as the Atlantic-European region is less clear. There the observed effects in both analyses and model studies show dependence on the resolution of the model/data, as well as on the time scales under consideration (Merkel and Latif, 2002; Compo et al., 2001). Most of the previous studies focus on larger-scale processes and seasonal time scales (or longer). Here we concentrate on the impact of opposing ENSO phases on extratropical synoptic-scale dynamics. The investigation is undertaken for the Niño/Niña events of 1972/3 and 1973/4 respectively, for 5 winter months (NDJFM) using ECMWF ERA40 data with 1o× 1o horizontal resolution and 60 vertical levels. The examination of the resulting differences in terms of standard dynamical fields (temperature, sea level pressure, precipitation, geopotential) is complemented with additional diagnostic fields (e.g. potential vorticity (PV), anti-/cyclone tracks and frequencies, PV streamers/cut-offs, blocking) in an attempt to gain more insight into aspects of extratropical synoptic-scale dynamical processes associated with ENSO SST anomalies.

  11. Simulation of synoptic and sub-synoptic phenomena over East Africa and Arabian Peninsula for current and future climate using a high resolution AGCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, Jerry; Kunhu Bangalath, Hamza; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2015-04-01

    Climate regimes of East Africa and Arabia are complex and are poorly understood. East Africa has large-scale tropical controls like major convergence zones and air streams. The region is in the proximity of two monsoons, north-east and south-west, and the humid and thermally unstable Congo air stream. The domain comprises regions with one, two, and three rainfall maxima, and the rainfall pattern over this region has high spatial variability. To explore the synoptic and sub-synoptic phenomena that drive the climate of the region we conducted climate simulations using a high resolution Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM), GFDL's High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM). Historic simulations (1975-2004) and future projections (2007-2050), with both RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 pathways, were performed according to CORDEX standard. The sea surface temperature (SST) was prescribed from the 2°x2.5° latitude-longitude resolution GFDL Earth System Model runs of IPCC AR5, as bottom boundary condition over the ocean. Our simulations were conducted at a horizontal grid spacing of 25 km, which is an ample resolution for regional climate simulation. In comparison with the regional models, global HiRAM has the advantage of accounting for two-way interaction between regional and global scale processes. Our initial results show that HiRAM simulations for historic period well reproduce the regional climate in East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula with their complex interplay of regional and global processes. Our future projections indicate warming and increased precipitation over the Ethiopian highlands and the Greater Horn of Africa. We found significant regional differences between RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 projections, e.g., west coast of the Arabian Peninsula, show anomalies of opposite signs in these two simulations.

  12. Extreme temperature contrast of the year 2012 in Greece: An exceptionally cold winter and a record breaking summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolika, Konstantia; Anagnostopoulou, Christina; Maheras, Panagiotis; Velikou, Kondylia

    2013-04-01

    During the past decade several regions all over Europe have experienced severe heat waves with serious social and environmental impacts. The year of 2003 was characterized by record breaking high temperatures for central Europe, while the year of 2007 was a remarkably warm year of the majority of the Eastern Mediterranean. During this year, three major heat waves were detected in Greece during summer and abnormally high temperatures were also observed through the cold season of 2007. It was found that the winter minimum temperatures were statistically more extreme than the summer maxima. Moreover, exceptionally high maximum and minimum temperatures occurred in November of 2010 affection the entire Greek region while September of the following year was also characterized by large departures of maximum temperatures from the long term mean values and the highest minimum temperature average in comparison to the reference period 1958-2000. The past year (2012) could also be characterized as a year of extremes. This time a temperature contrast was detected in the domain of study with a prolonged cold - season spell during winter and new record - breaking extreme maximum and minimum summer temperatures. More specifically it was found that the summer of 2012 was the warmest one since 1958. The whole season was characterized by long - lasting warm conditions with large departures from the long term (up to 4oC for Tmax) and this warming phenomenon was more intense during July and August. In contrast the winter season (December 2011 - February 2012) was found to be in the ten coldest winters of the last 55 years. The departures from the mean are lower than summer (1oC to 1.5oC negative anomalies) but most of the days were found to have lower Tmax, Tmin and Tmean values than the average daily temperatures of the period 1958-2000. Finally, it is worth mentioning that the year of 2012 was characterized by the highest annual temperature range reaching up to 26oC in several

  13. Deconstructing southern African (multi) decadal summer rainfall variability through synoptic convection regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Benjamin; Dieppois, Bastien; Crétat, Julien

    2017-04-01

    Austral summer rainfall in Southern Africa is highly variable in time and space. Seasonal rainfall amounts archived in long-term observational databases have recently been shown to exhibit significant periodicities at the interannual timescale (with a 2-8 year peak materializing mostly the regional effects of El Niño Southern Oscillation, ENSO), the quasi-decadal (8-13 years) and inter-decadal (15-28 years) timescales, interpretable as the signature of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation over the region. Here, we attempt to deconstruct these rainfall signals into a limited number of coherent synoptic convective regimes, obtained by applying a k-means clustering on daily Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) derived from the 20th Century Reanalysis (20CR), on the period 1901-2010 and on the 56 ensemble members individually. Results show a time-increasing agreement between the ensemble members for capturing transient variability of large-scale atmospheric convection during the austral summer rainy season. Over the recent years, the results match well those obtained using satellite OLR measurements. The respective contribution of each regime to the three dominant timescales of rainfall variability has been assessed using multiple wavelet coherence analyses. The strong interannual teleconnections between the regional convective regimes and ENSO in the recent decades remain very robust throughout the 20th century. Synoptic convective regimes leading to wetter conditions in southern Africa are not systematically related to La Nina conditions. However, combinations of El Nino conditions at the interannual timescale with negative phases of the IPO and/or the PDO are likely to be associated with wetter conditions in southern Africa. At the quasi-decadal and inter-decadal timescales, analyses suggest a superposition of short-term anomalies associated with the various regimes and large-scale changes in convective activity. These interactions

  14. Marine Bryozoa of Greece: an annotated checklist

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Until today, a complete checklist of Bryozoa of the Greek seas had never been published and species records were scattered in several taxonomic and ecological studies. The aim of this paper is to produce a first checklist of marine bryozoan species of Greece, in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS) initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI), by reviewing the existing literature and following the recent trends in the taxonomy of this group.  New information The marine bryozoan fauna of Greece comprises 237 species, classified in 127 genera, 66 families, 3 orders, and 2 classes. The vast majority belongs to the class Gymnolaemata (177 Cheilostomatida and 21 Ctenostomatida), while the remaining 39 species are Stenolaemata (all Cyclostomatida). Among these species, 12 are considered endemic to the eastern Mediterranean, while another 12 species are non-indigenous. PMID:27956854

  15. Marine Bryozoa of Greece: an annotated checklist.

    PubMed

    Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Rosso, Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    Until today, a complete checklist of Bryozoa of the Greek seas had never been published and species records were scattered in several taxonomic and ecological studies. The aim of this paper is to produce a first checklist of marine bryozoan species of Greece, in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS) initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI), by reviewing the existing literature and following the recent trends in the taxonomy of this group. . The marine bryozoan fauna of Greece comprises 237 species, classified in 127 genera, 66 families, 3 orders, and 2 classes. The vast majority belongs to the class Gymnolaemata (177 Cheilostomatida and 21 Ctenostomatida), while the remaining 39 species are Stenolaemata (all Cyclostomatida). Among these species, 12 are considered endemic to the eastern Mediterranean, while another 12 species are non-indigenous.

  16. Brachiopoda of Greece: an annotated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Until today, only scattered species records of Brachiopoda from Greece have been included in publications on the Mediterranean brachiopod fauna. These records were mostly based on material collected during marine expeditions in the eastern Mediterranean decades ago, while few recent additional records appear in ecological studies. The aim of this paper was to give the first checklist of brachiopod species of Greece, in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS) initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI), by reviewing the existing literature. New information Twelve brachiopod species have been found in Greek waters so far. The nomenclature, distribution, fossil records, ecology, and literature sources are discussed for each species. PMID:27932904

  17. Synoptic impacts of NOAA 6/Tiros N data on numerical circulation forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyan, L. M.; Alperson, Z.; Ben-Amram, T.

    1986-01-01

    Profiles of retrieved satellite observed temperatures provided to the Israel Meteorological Service (IMS) by the National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service were used to enhance the specification of atmospheric conditions during three winter periods. Introduction of the satellite data was via three alternative schemes, and the enhanced specifications were used to initialize 48-hour numerical forecasts with the IMS five-layer primitive equation model; control forecasts were run in parallel from initial conditions without the satellite data. The study selects one forecast from each period for which discernible impacts on forecast synoptic fields can be attributed to the different initializations. The first two case studies examine the results of only one assimilation scheme and the third relates to all three schemes. Verification of the prognostics show the positive impact of including satellite temperatures in the initialization, but there were also examples of negative impact.

  18. Pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement reforms in Greece.

    PubMed

    Yfantopoulos, John

    2008-02-01

    Pharmaceutical price regulation in Greece is centralized. The National Drug Organization (EOF) is the main regulatory authority functioning under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity. In 2004, total pharmaceutical expenditure in Greece reached the level of 2.9 billion euro, of which 77.9% were public expenditure and the remaining 22.1% private. According to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) data the total per-capita expenditure on pharmaceutical care in Greece is among the lowest in Europe, representing 58% of the EU-12 average. In 1998, Greece introduced a reimbursement list, and the lowest reference pricing system among the 15 European Union member states with the purpose of controlling the growth of pharmaceutical expenditure. The measures proved to be ineffective since pharmaceutical expenditure, after a short-term reduction, continued to increase at similar rates to those before the introduction of price control mechanisms. The average annual increase of pharmaceutical expenditure in Greece over the period 1998-2003 was 7.9%, which is among the highest in the OECD countries (average 6.1%). New pharmaceutical legislation, no. 3457, was enacted on May 8th 2006, aiming at greater access to medicines, improvements to citizens' quality of life, effective and efficient utilization of health resources, transparency in public management, protecting public health, and maintaining long-term financial viability of the insurance system. The innovative aspect of the new legislation is the abolition of the positive list and the establishment of a rebate system granting the National Insurance Funds a rebate rate paid by the pharmaceutical companies. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First to assess the effectiveness of the positive list introduced in 1988 in Greece, using simple econometric models. Second to present the recent pharmaceutical reforms aimed at the introduction of a rebate system and establishing

  19. Nutrient dynamics in shallow lakes of Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Petaloti, Christina; Voutsa, Dimitra; Samara, Constantini; Sofoniou, Mihalis; Stratis, Ioannis; Kouimtzis, Themistocles

    2004-01-01

    GOAL, SCOPE, BACKGROUND: Shallow lakes display a number of features that set them apart from the more frequently studied deeper systems. The majority of lakes in Northern Greece are small to moderate in size with a relatively low depth and are considered as sites of high value of the wetland habitat. However, the water quality of these lakes has only been evaluated segmentally and occasionally. The objectives of this study were to thoroughly investigate nitrogen and phosphorus speciation in lakes of a high ecological significance located in N. Greece, in order to evaluate their eutrophication status and possible nutrient limitation factors, and to investigate the main factors/sources that affect the water quality of these systems. An extensive survey was carried out during the period from 1998-1999. Water samples were collected on a monthly basis from lakes Koronia, Volvi, Doirani, Mikri Prespa and Megali Prespa located in N. Greece. Water quality parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and conductivity), organic indices (COD, BOD5), and N- and P-species (NO3(-), NO2(-), NH4(+), and PO4(3-), Kieldahl nitrogen and acid-hydrolysable phosphorus) were determined according to standard methods for surface water. Statistical treatment of the data was employed. The physicochemical parameters determined in the lakes studied revealed a high temporal variation. The trophic state of the lakes ranged from meso- to hypertrophic. The nutrient limiting factor varied among lakes suggesting either P-limitation conditions or mixed conditions changing from P- to N-limitation throughout the year. Urban/industrial activities and agricultural runoff are the major factors affecting all lakes, although with a varying contribution. This lake-specific research offers valuable information about water quality and nutrient dynamics in lakes of significant ecological value located in N. Greece that can be useful for an effective pollution control/management of these systems. Due to the

  20. Simulating the Impacts of Snow Cover Boundaries on Synoptic Circulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromley, G. T.; Desai, A. R.; Clare, R.; Martin, J. E.; Notaro, M.; Vavrus, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    The presence or absence of snow cover on the surface is a highly variable, seasonal component of weather and climate in the middle and high latitudes. In the Northern Hemisphere, the nature of mid-latitude cyclone trajectories leads to consistent snow cover north of a seasonal cyclone track and the absence of snow to the south, creating strong temperature, moisture, and albedo gradients that have been shown to induce mesoscale circulations around the boundary. However, it is not known whether these boundaries also generate larger-scale modifications to the free-atmosphere and on mid-latitude cyclones themselves. Better understanding the interactions of the snow boundaries can reduce uncertainty in forecast models as well as in climate predictions involving synoptic storm track changes. Previously, we showed a statistical relationship between location anomalies of mid-latitude disturbances and snow boundaries (Rydzik and Desai, 2014), but the physical mechanism remains less well understood. Here, we tested two competing mechanisms in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with case studies of cyclones that track along snow boundaries. We hypothesized that low-level potential vorticity generated over the snow can modify synoptic circulations, strengthening and weakening passing systems as the potential vorticity is advected into the system. We also tested whether the snow boundary can alter the trajectories of synoptic circulations by creating and reinforcing a low level baroclinic region. In WRF, we strategically modified existing snow cover across the domain at optimal locations for interaction, mainly within 100km of the absolute vorticity minima, in addition to a control case and a no-snow case. Here, we present our findings from the model output of the potential mechanisms driving changes in intensity and trajectory of modelled cyclones.

  1. The Synoptic All-Sky Infrared (SASIR) Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, Jason X.; Bloom, J.; Lee, W.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Gonzalez, J.; Chavez, M.; Bolte, M.; Franco, J.; Guichard, J.; Strittmatter, P.

    2010-01-01

    We describe an effort to build and conduct a multicolor, synoptic infrared (IR) imaging survey of the Northern sky with a new, dedicated 6.5-meter telescope at San Pedro Martir (SPM) Observatory. This initiative is a partnership between astronomy institutions in Mexico, the University of California, and the University of Arizona. The 5-year, dedicated survey, planned to begin in 2017, will reach more than 100 times deeper than 2MASS. The Synoptic All-Sky Infrared (SASIR) Survey will reveal the missing sample of faint red dwarf stars in the local solar neighborhood, and the unprecedented sensitivity over such a wide field will result in the discovery of thousands of z 7 quasars (and reaching to z>10), allowing detailed study (in concert with JWST and Giant Segmented Mirror Telescopes) of the timing and the origin(s) of reionization. As a time-domain survey, SASIR will reveal the dynamic infrared universe, opening new phase space for discovery. Synoptic observations of over 106 supernovae and variable stars will provide better distance measures than optical studies alone. Compared to optical-only measurements, IR colors vastly improve photometric redshifts to z 4, enhancing dark energy and dark matter surveys based on weak lensing and baryon oscillations. The wide field and ToO capabilities will enable a connection of the gravitational wave and neutrino universe - with events otherwise poorly localized on the sky - to transient electromagnetic phenomena. In this poster, we summarize the key scientific goals and current project status of the SASIR survey.

  2. Nonhomogeneous hidden Markov models for downscaling synoptic atmospheric patterns to precipitation amounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellone, Enrica

    2000-12-01

    Nonhomogeneous hidden Markov models (NHMMs) provide a relatively simple framework for simulating precipitation at multiple rain gauge stations conditional on synoptic atmospheric patterns. A model for precipitation amounts at a network of gauges is developed, building on existing NHMMs for precipitation occurrences. The model assumes the existence of unobserved (or hidden) weather patterns-the weather states-which follow a Markov chain. The weather states depend on observable synoptic information and therefore serve as a link between the synoptic scale atmospheric patterns and the local scale precipitation. The temporal dependence in precipitation is captured through the Markov evolution of the underlying hidden process. The spatial dependence can also be partially or completely accounted for by the existence of a common weather state. Two scenarios are described, one where all the spatial dependence is fully attributed to the common weather state and a more complicated structure where additional spatial dependence between precipitation occurrences is introduced. Conditional spatial independence, given occurrences and the weather state, is assumed for the positive precipitation amounts. A continuous distribution (gamma) and a discrete one (negative binomial) are proposed as conditional models for the positive precipitation at each gauge, given the occurrences and the weather state. The choice of the number of hidden states is non-trivial, since standard likelihood-based methods rely upon assumptions that do not hold for the order selection problem. Simulation results are presented to show the performance of the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and other model selection techniques in various situations. An interesting issue is the difference in state definitions and classifications between the NHMM for amounts and the NHMM for occurrences only. Simulation results give some insight into the respective performances of the two formulations. Two case studies are

  3. Expanded newborn screening in Greece: 30 months of experience.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Yannis L; Soumelas, Georgios-Stefanos; Dotsikas, Yannis; Georgiou, Vassiliki; Molou, Elina; Thodi, Georgia; Boutsini, Maria; Biti, Sofia; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos

    2010-12-01

    In Greece, the National Newborn Screening Program was initiated in 1974 and is performed by the Institute of Child Health (ICH). However, there is a complete absence of conditions that have high rates of mortality and a relatively high prevalence listed in the Catalogue of Disorders screened by the ICH. Our laboratory has expanded the existing NBS program to include newborn screening for inborn errors of metabolism, screening for cystic fibrosis (the most common congenital disorder in the Greek population), congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and for biotinidase deficiency. From July 2007 to December 2009, 45,000 dried blood spots (DBS) were collected from infants born in Athens, Greece, and were analyzed. We present a report of our 30-month experience in the newborn screening area. The samples were tested for amino acidopathies, fatty acid oxidation disorders (FAOD), and organic acid metabolic disorders by applying flow injection analysis-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-ESI-MS/MS); for cystic fibrosis by immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) measurement (time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay); for congenital adrenal hyperplasia by fluoroimmunoassay to measure the 17 hydroxy-progesterone level; and for biotinidase deficiency using a colorimetric method and a semiquantitative fluoroimmunoassay to determine biotinidase activity. Sample analysis resulted in establishing cutoff values for the respective disease markers for the first time in the Greek population. Four infants were identified with cystic fibrosis, two with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, two with phenylketonuria (PKU), one with medium-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD), and one with biotinidase deficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first article reporting the status of expanded newborn screening in Greece.

  4. Mineralogical and chemical characterization of suspended atmospheric particles over the east Mediterranean based on synoptic-scale circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalderon-Asael, Boriana; Erel, Yigal; Sandler, Amir; Dayan, Uri

    Suspended atmospheric particles were collected in Israel in order to identify their nature and relationships with the major synoptic-scale circulation patterns. The particles were analyzed for their major and trace element concentrations and mineralogical composition. Samples were collected during three synoptic systems associated with desert dust storms: Red Sea trough, Sharav cyclone and cold depression, and during deep and shallow modes of Persian Gulf trough, which prevails in the summer months and is not associated with dust storms. All samples mostly contain particles smaller than 2 μm. The suspended desert dust is composed primarily of illite-smectite and calcite. Some indicative secondary minerals were found for each of the dust transporting synoptic systems (e.g., palygorskite for Red Sea trough). The bulk chemistry data support the mineralogical observations and reveal additional chemical signatures of each dust transporting system. For instance, Red Sea trough samples have significantly higher Ca/Al and Ca/Mg in the carbonate and Mg/Al in Al-silicate fraction than cold depression samples. Nevertheless, Sharav cyclone samples have intermediate values in spite of the fact that the source of the dust during these conditions is similar to cold depression (i.e., North Africa). Even though differences in the chemical and the mineralogical composition of desert dust do exist, this study reveals their overall chemical and mineralogical similarities. In contrast to the synoptic systems that carry desert dust, the inorganic fraction of the Persian Gulf trough samples contains significant amount (up to 50%) of non-mineral material that has a pronounced chemical signature in terms of major element concentrations (e.g., Al, Ca, Mg, Na, S) implying their anthropogenic nature, probably from countries around the Black Sea. This striking finding is indicative for atmospheric pollution in the Eastern Mediterranean region during the summer.

  5. Sungrabber - Software for Measurements on Solar Synoptic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hržina, D.; Roša, D.; Hanslmeier, A.; Ruždjak, V.; Brajša, R.

    Measurement of positions of the tracers on synoptic solar images and conversion to heliographic coordinates is a time-consuming procedure with different sources of errors. To make measurements faster and easier, the application "Sungrabber" was developed. The data of the measured heliographic coordinates are stored in text files which are linked to the related solar images, which allows also a fast and simple comparison of the measurements from different sources. Extension of the software is possible and therefore Sungrabber can be used for different purposes (e.g. determining the solar rotation rate, proper motions of the tracers on the Sun, etc.).

  6. Magnetic Prospecting On Ancient Towns In Turkey and Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smekalova, T.; Smekalov, S.

    Magnetic prospecting on ancient towns in Turkey and Greece. Tatyana Smekalova, Sergey Smekalov. Saint-Petersburg In 2001 archaeophysical group of Saint-Petersburg State University participated in archaeological investigation of ancient town Pisidian Antioch in Turkey (near mod- ern town Yalvach) and ancient town Kalydon in Greece (not far from modern town Mesolongy). Both sites have a big size (more than kilometer in perimeter) and com- plicated hilly relief (especially Kalydon). The mine idea of the magnetic survey on the sites was to try the method of magnetic prospecting in conditions of the sites, to estimate the possibilities and limitations of the method and to reveal ancient structures on several different parts of the site. Magnetic survey on the Pisidian Antioch carried out in four areas of the site showed that much could be recovered by this non-invasive technique. Most significantly, sur- vey of the area previously thought to contain a palestra shows instead the plan of a Christian basilica. Other areas included houses, streets, important elements in the water system and industrial establishments. The work was supported by Columbia University, USA On the Ancient Kalydon, the whole area of the site was investigated by method of Sfree searchT that is walking with magnetometers and measuring without a grid. Five ´ different areas have been chosen for detail investigation with regular grid. The most interesting result is in one of the the areas, where it seems to be an SindustrialT quar- & cedil;ter of the site. There are several workshops, revealed on this place. The work was supported by Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Denmark. During the work on both sites we used GPS equipment to put the survey areas on the maps. Simultaneously with magnetic survey archaeological teams made a usual topographical survey of the sites (team of Calgary University in Turkey, Canada and team of Greece topographers, working together with Danish archaeologist in Greece). Thanks to that

  7. Radiatively driven interactions between stratocumulus and synoptic waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John H. E.

    1993-01-01

    Quasi-geostrophic disturbances on a midlatitude beta-plane channel forced by radiative heating perturbations due to synoptic-scale variations of low-level stratiform cloud are considered. The longitudinal phase of the cloud is linked to that of the low-level streamfunction. Cloudiness is wavelike with cooling above cloudy areas that decreases exponentially with height. No perturbation cooling occurs above cloud-free areas. Two background flows are considered: one is constant and the other has a jet centered near the tropopause. Forced linear steady waves are found. Though infinitesimal amplitude disturbances are considered, the problem is nonlinear because of the coupling between cloud and winds. The resulting structures are sensitive to the phase shift between cloud and streamfunction with strongest coupling for cloud to the west of surface troughs. The waves have vertical scales on the order of the troposphere depth. The stationary structures capture the summertime pattern of stratocumulus off California and its linkage to the mid-Pacific ridge. When zonal-mean cloud cooling is allowed, the mean westerlies are strengthened in the northern half of the channel near the lower boundary. Synoptic-scale amplitudes respond to the mean cloud cooling by increasing (decreasing) just above the cloud in the northern (southern) part of the channel.

  8. Synoptic Drivers of Bering Strait Wave States, Fall 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Bering Strait region of western Alaska, as the single point of entry to the Arctic from the Pacific, represents an important focal point of activity that ranges from heavy transport operations, such bulk ore carriers as to Teck Alaska Red Dog mine, to Arctic tourism activities, and subsistence fishing and hunting carried out by local residents. Much of that activity is set to increase in the coming years as sea ice continues to recede, allowing greater access to transport and resources in the Arctic Ocean and its marginal seas. The presence of annual sea ice cover has greatly limited the deployment of marine monitoring systems, especially wave measurement buoys. This is problematic because it limits the direct linkage of wave states to their specific synoptic drivers. To begin to address this shortcoming a buoy was deployed just south of the Bering Strait in late July with anticipated pickup in mid October, 2011. Wave events recorded by buoy, which was sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency and NOAA, will be examined in terms of the specific synoptic systems responsible. The broader context of how typical these storm systems are will also be overviewed.

  9. Spreading of Thelazia callipaeda in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, E; Komnenou, A; Thomas, A; Ioannidou, E; Colella, V; Otranto, D

    2017-02-26

    Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae), the so-called oriental eyeworm, has been increasingly reported as an agent of infection in animals and humans from many European countries. Clinical signs range from subclinical to moderate or severe ocular disorders (e.g., epiphora, photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, ulcers). The disease has been also diagnosed in animals from countries of the Balkan area (e.g., Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia), but only a single case of canine thelaziosis, presumably autochthonous, was reported in Northern Greece. In this study, we provide robust information of the occurrence of thelaziosis in Greece by reporting autochthonous cases of thelaziosis in dogs (n = 46), cats (n = 3) and in one rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) living in Northern and Central regions of Greece. The occurrence of a single haplotype of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene confirms that the same zoonotic haplotype of the parasite circulating in Europe is also spreading in Greece. The increased awareness of this parasitosis is crucial to limit the risk of further infections in both humans and animals in European countries.

  10. Higher Education in Greece Compared to Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miliotis, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts higher education in Canada and Greece. An overview of the systems in place is followed by an analysis centred on the triad of funding, access and quality. Similarities and differences are highlighted, and the current challenges and issues faced by both nations will be examined, especially in terms of world…

  11. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Greece.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Sidira, Persefoni; Larichev, Victor; Gavrilova, Ludmila; Kuzmina, Ksenia; Mousavi-Jazi, Mehrdad; Mirazimi, Ali; Ströher, Ute; Nichol, Stuart

    2014-02-01

    Seroprevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is high in some regions of Greece, but only 1 case of disease has been reported. We used 4 methods to test 118 serum samples that were positive for CCHFV IgG by commercial ELISA and confirmed the positive results. A nonpathogenic or low-pathogenicity strain may be circulating.

  12. Reviews of National Policies for Education - Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This volume contains the Educational Policy Review of Greece undertaken in 1995-96 at the request of the Greek authorities. The book contains two parts with 13 chapters. Part 1 provides the full text of the Background Report, prepared by the Greek authorities for the purpose of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)…

  13. Cyanobacteria of Greece: an annotated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Ourailidis, Iordanis; Panou, Manthos; Pappas, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of Greek Cyanobacteria was created in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) that has resumed efforts to compile a complete checklist of species reported from Greece. This list was created from exhaustive search of the scientific literature of the last 60 years. All records of taxa known to occur in Greece were taxonomically updated. New information The checklist of Greek Cyanobacteria comprises 543 species, classified in 130 genera, 41 families, and 8 orders. The orders Synechococcales and Oscillatoriales have the highest number of species (158 and 153 species, respectively), whereas these two orders along with Nostocales and Chroococcales cover 93% of the known Greek cyanobacteria species. It is worth mentioning that 18 species have been initially described from Greek habitats. The marine epilithic Ammatoidea aegea described from Saronikos Gulf is considered endemic to this area. Our bibliographic review shows that Greece hosts a high diversity of cyanobacteria, suggesting that the Mediterranean area is also a hot spot for microbes. PMID:27956851

  14. Prostate cancer screening in Greece: current facts.

    PubMed

    Stamatiou, Konstantinos; Lardas, Michael; Kostakos, Evagelos; Koutsonasios, Vasilios; Lepidas, Dimitrios

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current article is to summarize the existing literature focusing on the current status of prostate cancer screening behavior in Greece. We identified studies published from 2000 onwards by searching the MEDLINE database of the National Library of Medicine. Initial search terms were prostate-specific antigen screening, prostate cancer screening, and Greece. Bibliographic information of the selected publications was checked for relevant publications not included in the MEDLINE search. Currently in Greece, there is no official recommendation for prostate cancer screening, and thus, its practice depends on the social and educational status of the patient and where the patient lives in Greece. We conclude that patients should be thoroughly informed of the limitations of prostate cancer screening by prostate-specific antigen test, and in consultation with urological specialists, make their personal decision of whether to receive it. Therefore, a project to support shared decision-making and informed choice for men considering testing for prostate cancer should be undertaken.

  15. The Preparation of School Psychologists in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the preparation of school psychologists in Greece. It discusses the social and cultural contexts that have influenced the evolution of the discipline of psychology, the beginning of training programs in school psychology, and the current status of school psychological services. The structure of the Graduate Program of School…

  16. Women of Ancient Greece: Participating in Sport?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Brett D.

    Based on evidence obtained from Greek literature and artifacts, this paper examines the extent to which women in ancient Greece participated in physical activity, sports, and games. Homer's "Odyssey" describes women playing ball and driving chariots; vases dating back to 700-675 B.C. portray women driving light chariots in a procession;…

  17. The Demand for Higher Education in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiti, Anna; Prokopiadou, Georgia

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the reasons for enrolment demand in higher education in Greece through data collected from 400 students enrolled in the final year of post-secondary education in the Athens area. Results showed that Greek students choose to follow higher studies for a number of reasons but mainly because higher education offers high-level…

  18. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Sidira, Persefoni; Larichev, Victor; Gavrilova, Ludmila; Kuzmina, Ksenia; Mousavi-Jazi, Mehrdad; Mirazimi, Ali; Ströher, Ute; Nichol, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Seroprevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is high in some regions of Greece, but only 1 case of disease has been reported. We used 4 methods to test 118 serum samples that were positive for CCHFV IgG by commercial ELISA and confirmed the positive results. A nonpathogenic or low-pathogenicity strain may be circulating. PMID:24447877

  19. Epidemiology of hepatitis C in Greece.

    PubMed

    Triantos, Christos; Konstantakis, Christos; Tselekouni, Paraskeui; Kalafateli, Maria; Aggeletopoulou, Ioanna; Manolakopoulos, Spilios

    2016-09-28

    Hepatitis C is a global health issue and constitutes a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. In this article, a comprehensive literature search was conducted for the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Greece, since data on the HCV prevalence, viremia and genotypes are important for developing strategies to manage or eliminate HCV infection. In addition, the pattern of HCV infection was analyzed according to the geographic region and the risk factors. These differences reflect not only distinct epidemiological characteristics among populations, but also differences on the strategy of data acquisition and quantification. Although there are not enough data, the estimation of the current prevalence of Hepatitis C in Greece ranges from 0.5% to 2%. The most important risk factors for HCV infection include blood product transfusion, intravenous drug use, chronic hemodialysis, organ transplantation, occupational exposure, sexual transmission, and vertical transmission. Because of lack of vaccine or effective post-exposure prophylaxis for HCV, the main focus of prevention is to recognize and control these risk factors. HCV infection in Greece is closely associated with the development of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and primary hepatocellular carcinoma. As far as the genotype distribution is concerned genotype 1 estimated to be 45%-47% and it constitutes the prevalent genotype in Greece, followed by genotype 3.

  20. Classical Greece, Black Historians, and Martin Bernal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squeri, Lawrence

    1989-01-01

    Explores the work of Martin Bernal in tracing the roots of Greek civilization to Africa. Discusses the Ancient, Aryan, and Revised Ancient models for explaining Greek origins. Observes that Bernal's thesis comes at a time of increased interest in non-Western history. Suggests that views of ancient Greece will never be the same. (SG)

  1. On the dynamics of synoptic scale cyclones associated with flood events in Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocas, Helena; Katavoutas, George; Tsanis, Ioannis; Iordanidou, Vasiliki

    2015-04-01

    Flood events in the Mediterranean are frequently linked to synoptic scale cyclones, although topographical or anthropogenic factors can play important role. The knowledge of the vertical profile and dynamics of these cyclones can serve as a reliable early flood warning system that can further help in hazard mitigation and risk management planning. Crete is the second largest island in the eastern Mediterranean region, being characterized by high precipitation amounts during winter, frequently causing flood events. The objective of this study is to examine the dynamic and thermodynamic mechanisms at the upper and lower levels responsible for the generation of these events, according to their origin domain. The flooding events were recorded for a period of almost 20 years. The surface cyclones are identified with the aid of MS scheme that was appropriately modified and extensively employed in the Mediterranean region in previous studies. Then, the software VTS, specially developed for the Mediterranean cyclones, was employed to investigate the vertical extension, slope and dynamic/kinematic characteristics of the surface cyclones. Composite maps of dynamic/thermodynamic parameters, such as potential vorticity, temperature advection, divergence, surface fluxes were then constructed before and during the time of the flood. The dataset includes 6-hourly surface and isobaric analyses on a 0.5° x 0.5° regular latitude-longitude grid, as derived from the ERA-INTERIM Reanalysis of the ECMWF. It was found that cyclones associated with flood events in Crete mainly generate over northern Africa or southern eastern Mediterranean region and experience their minimum pressure over Crete or southwestern Greece. About 84% of the cyclones extend up to 500hPa, demonstrating that they are well vertically well-organized systems. The vast majority (almost 84%) of the surface cyclones attains their minimum pressure when their 500 hpa counterparts are located in the NW or SW, confirming

  2. Migration and HIV epidemic in Greece.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Arvanitis, Michail; Masgala, Aikaterini; Paraskeva, Dimitra

    2005-06-01

    Over the last decade, Greece has experienced a massive influx of migrants from countries in South Eastern/Central Europe, the Middle East, Asia and Africa. This study aimed to estimate the percentage and the specific characteristics of HIV-positive migrants reported in Greece, and to describe the secular trend of migrants' proportion among HIV-infected individuals. Secondary analysis of data reported to the Hellenic Centre for Infectious Diseases Control (HCIDC) during the years 1989-2003. From 1989 to 2003, 6292 HIV-positive cases were reported to HCIDC. Data show that 749 people (439 males, 303 females) originated from countries other than Greece. Most HIV-positive migrants come from Sub-Saharan Africa (32.44%) and nearly 20% from Central and Eastern Europe. In the Greek population, men who have sex with men (MSM) constitute 50.47% of cases, while 16.15% are heterosexuals. The epidemic profile follows a different pattern among migrants (P<0.05). Heterosexual transmission accounts for 41.52% of HIV-positive reported migrants, while 19.09% are MSM. An 11% increase for each subsequent year in the rate of HIV-positive migrants reported in Greece has been estimated using a Poisson regression model fitted to the data (IR 1.11; 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.13). The results suggest an increasing trend of HIV-seropositive migrants in Greece during recent years. Group-based interventions, better access to health care and a comprehensive public approach should be applied to migrants.

  3. Guidelines for the recognition of cemetery remains in Greece.

    PubMed

    Eliopoulos, Constantine; Moraitis, Konstantinos; Reyes, Federico; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Manolis, Sotiris

    2011-06-01

    Forensic pathologists frequently consult anthropologists for the identification of skeletonized human remains. These remains may be the result of criminal activity or remains that were unearthed because of erosion, or during construction projects. In some cases, human remains that had been previously buried in a cemetery may be the subject of a forensic investigation. Early recognition of cemetery remains prevents unnecessary efforts and conserves precious resources. One of the key characteristics of cemetery remains is the presence of embalmed tissue. However, there are countries where embalming is not a common practice, and other clues must be sought for identifying previously buried remains. Current funerary customs in Greece and, in particular, the tradition of exhumations result in a large number of misplaced human remains. The present study presents examples of cemetery remains from Greece and offers guidelines for recognizing changes on skeletal remains that may be indicative of a cemetery origin. Location of discovery, condition of the remains, and the types of associated artifacts are all factors that aid forensic anthropologists in identifying cemetery remains.

  4. Medical training in Greece: A crisis in progress.

    PubMed

    Makris, Gregory C; Trigkidis, Kyriakos K; Apiranthiti, Katerina; Malietzis, George; Alexiou, Vangelis G; Falagas, Matthew E

    2015-08-01

    We sought to evaluate the opinions of medical students and graduates regarding the quality of medical education in Greece. Two online questionnaires concerning the undergraduate medical education and specialty training respectively were distributed. Regarding the quality of undergraduate medical education, 52.1% of participants replied favorably while clinical training was found satisfactory by 45.1. Dissatisfaction rates with research opportunities and support from tutors reached 88.4 and 83.3%, respectively. The majority (75.3%) supported the introduction of examinations for commencing specialty training. 52.3% of physicians were satisfied with the quality of specialty training. The most common complaint was the absence of a formal educational program. 67.2% of participants were dissatisfied with working conditions during their specialty training, with 70.1% working >60 h per week. Physicians practicing medical specialties were more satisfied with the quality of specialty training than those practicing surgical specialties (odds ratio: 1.43; 95% confidence limits: 1.09-1.87) and were less likely to work for >60 h per week (odds ratio: 0.66; 95% confidence limits: 0.48-0.9). Opinions expressed in this survey highlight the need for reforming medical education in Greece.

  5. Estimating instream constituent loads using replicate synoptic sampling, Peru Creek, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Kimball, Briant A.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Nimick, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The synoptic mass balance approach is often used to evaluate constituent mass loading in streams affected by mine drainage. Spatial profiles of constituent mass load are used to identify sources of contamination and prioritize sites for remedial action. This paper presents a field scale study in which replicate synoptic sampling campaigns are used to quantify the aggregate uncertainty in constituent load that arises from (1) laboratory analyses of constituent and tracer concentrations, (2) field sampling error, and (3) temporal variation in concentration from diel constituent cycles and/or source variation. Consideration of these factors represents an advance in the application of the synoptic mass balance approach by placing error bars on estimates of constituent load and by allowing all sources of uncertainty to be quantified in aggregate; previous applications of the approach have provided only point estimates of constituent load and considered only a subset of the possible errors. Given estimates of aggregate uncertainty, site specific data and expert judgement may be used to qualitatively assess the contributions of individual factors to uncertainty. This assessment can be used to guide the collection of additional data to reduce uncertainty. Further, error bars provided by the replicate approach can aid the investigator in the interpretation of spatial loading profiles and the subsequent identification of constituent source areas within the watershed.The replicate sampling approach is applied to Peru Creek, a stream receiving acidic, metal-rich effluent from the Pennsylvania Mine. Other sources of acidity and metals within the study reach include a wetland area adjacent to the mine and tributary inflow from Cinnamon Gulch. Analysis of data collected under low-flow conditions indicates that concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn in Peru Creek exceed aquatic life standards. Constituent loading within the study reach is dominated by effluent from the

  6. Estimating instream constituent loads using replicate synoptic sampling, Peru Creek, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Kimball, Briant A.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Nimick, David A.

    2013-05-01

    SummaryThe synoptic mass balance approach is often used to evaluate constituent mass loading in streams affected by mine drainage. Spatial profiles of constituent mass load are used to identify sources of contamination and prioritize sites for remedial action. This paper presents a field scale study in which replicate synoptic sampling campaigns are used to quantify the aggregate uncertainty in constituent load that arises from (1) laboratory analyses of constituent and tracer concentrations, (2) field sampling error, and (3) temporal variation in concentration from diel constituent cycles and/or source variation. Consideration of these factors represents an advance in the application of the synoptic mass balance approach by placing error bars on estimates of constituent load and by allowing all sources of uncertainty to be quantified in aggregate; previous applications of the approach have provided only point estimates of constituent load and considered only a subset of the possible errors. Given estimates of aggregate uncertainty, site specific data and expert judgement may be used to qualitatively assess the contributions of individual factors to uncertainty. This assessment can be used to guide the collection of additional data to reduce uncertainty. Further, error bars provided by the replicate approach can aid the investigator in the interpretation of spatial loading profiles and the subsequent identification of constituent source areas within the watershed. The replicate sampling approach is applied to Peru Creek, a stream receiving acidic, metal-rich effluent from the Pennsylvania Mine. Other sources of acidity and metals within the study reach include a wetland area adjacent to the mine and tributary inflow from Cinnamon Gulch. Analysis of data collected under low-flow conditions indicates that concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn in Peru Creek exceed aquatic life standards. Constituent loading within the study reach is dominated by effluent

  7. Line - organised convection putting fire to forest area of Halkidiki, Northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachou, M.; Brikas, D.; Pytharoulis, I.

    2010-09-01

    The organisation of convection in a line often coincides with the end of heat waves in the Southern Balkans. This was indeed the case on the 21st of August 2006, when the tail of an eastward moving cold front put an end to the preceding heat wave and, at the same time, triggered thunderstorms and windstorms in Southern Bulgaria and Northern Greece. The associated electric activity initiated a fire in Kassandra, Halkidiki, Greece. Due to the prolonged drought and the strong winds, the fire spread quickly. It lasted for three days, costing two human lives, burning an extended forest area, as well as destroying hotels and resort facilities. Availabla data are: i) European Centre for Medium - range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses, ii) RADAR reflectivity data from the Weather Modification Dept. of the Hellenic Agricultural Insurance Organisation and iii) surface and upper air data from the airport ‘Makedonia’ of Thessaloniki, Greece. The heat wave, that affected Greece during the 5 - day period prior to the line convection, was associated with the establishment of a hot, but very stable at low levels, boundary layer, probably modified part of the Saharan air layer, advected to the area of interest. Destabilisation occurred due to surface heating, as well as upper level cold air advection. From the synoptic point of view, upward motion prevails under the inflection point of the subtropical and polar jet streams, indicating once more how important are, for upper level divergence, the curvature changes along the flow. In the meso-α scale, the line convection formed along and just ahead of a shallow, frontogenetically active cold frontal zone. Hence, the line under study may be called a squall line. It is suggested that such zones play a key role in triggering severe weather in the same area, as well as cyclogenesis in the Mediterranean area. Previous studies have shown numerous severe weather events to occur along such zones. In the meso-β scale, the line under

  8. Coastal erosion and accretion rates in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foteinis, Spyros; Papadopoulos, Costas; Koutsogiannaki, Irini; Synolakis, Costas

    2010-05-01

    Erosion threatens many coastal regions of Greece. Anthropogenic changes of landforms such as coastal roads built on even narrow beaches, sand mining for construction, poor design of coastal structures that interfere with sediment, and dams without sediment bypasses have significantly reduced beach widths. We present erosion rates for different beaches, some of which are in sensitive ecosystems, otherwise "protected" by local and EU ordinances. By comparing inferences of beach widths in varying intervals from 1933 to 2006, we infer that the construction of dams in Acheloos river in western Greece, built in a faraonic attempt to partially divert its flows to eastern Greece, this is responsible for up to 20m/year erosion rates observed in certain locales in the Acheloos delta. More characteristic erosion rates in the region are ~ 2m/year. By contrast, there appears rapid accretion of up to 4m/year in the beaches around the Nestos delta in northern Greece (Papadopoulos, 2009). In beaches that are not near large river deltas, erosion rates range from 0.5m/year to 1m/year. While we have not done comprehensive comparisons among coastlines with different levels of coastal development, it does appear that rapid coastal development correlates well with erosion rates. The underlying problem is the complete lack of any semblance of coastal zone management in Greece and substandard design of coastal structures, which are often sited without any measurements of waves and currents offshore (Synolakis et al, 2008). Beach maintenance remains an exotic concept for most local authorities, who invariably prefer to build hard coastal structures to "protect" versus nourish, siting lack of experience with nourishment and "environmental" concerns. In certain cases, choices are dictated by costs, the larger the cost the easier the project gets approved by regulatory authorities, hence the preference for concrete or rubble structures. We conclude that, unless urgent salvage measures are

  9. Tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marios Karagiannis, Georgios; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    Greece is vulnerable to tsunamis, due to the length of the coastline, its islands and its geographical proximity to the Hellenic Arc, an active subduction zone. Historically, about 10% of all world tsunamis occur in the Mediterranean region. Here we review existing tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece. We analyze capabilities across the disaster management continuum, including prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Specifically, we focus on issues like legal requirements, stakeholders, hazard mitigation practices, emergency operations plans, public awareness and education, community-based approaches and early-warning systems. Our research is based on a review of existing literature and official documentation, on previous projects, as well as on interviews with civil protection officials in Greece. In terms of tsunami disaster prevention and hazard mitigation, the lack of tsunami inundation maps, except for some areas in Crete, makes it quite difficult to get public support for hazard mitigation practices. Urban and spatial planning tools in Greece allow the planner to take into account hazards and establish buffer zones near hazard areas. However, the application of such ordinances at the local and regional levels is often difficult. Eminent domain is not supported by law and there are no regulatory provisions regarding tax abatement as a disaster prevention tool. Building codes require buildings and other structures to withstand lateral dynamic earthquake loads, but there are no provisions for resistance to impact loading from water born debris Public education about tsunamis has increased during the last half-decade but remains sporadic. In terms of disaster preparedness, Greece does have a National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC) and is a Member of UNESCO's Tsunami Program for North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (NEAM) region. Several exercises have been organized in the framework of the NEAM Tsunami Warning

  10. Stratospheric warmings: Synoptic, dynamic and general-circulation aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcinturff, R. M. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Synoptic descriptions consist largely of case studies, which involve a distinction between major and minor warmings. Results of energetics studies show the importance of tropospheric-stratospheric interaction, and the significance of the pressure-work term near the tropopause. Theoretical studies have suggested the role of wave-zonal flow interaction as well as nonlinear interaction between eddies, chemical and photochemical reactions, boundary forcing, and other factors. Numerical models have been based on such considerations, and these are discussed under various categories. Some indication is given as to why some of the models have been more successful than others in simulating warnings. The question of ozone and its role in warmings is briefly discussed. Finally, a broad view is taken of stratospheric warmings in relation to man's activities.

  11. Effect of season and synoptic storm type on precipitation chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Topol, L.E.; Vijayakumar, R.; McKinley, C.M.; Waldron, T.L.

    1986-04-01

    For a two-year period, the chemistry of daily precipitation samples for a site in southern Indiana was analyzed for effect of seasons and synoptic storm types. The storms were classified as frontal, cyclonic, convective and other. Statistically significant (5 percent level) higher concentrations of sulfate, ammonium and hydrogen ion and lower sodium occurred in the warm seasons (April-September) than in the cold (October-March); nitrate, chloride and calcium concentrations were similar in both seasons. In general, convective and frontal storms contained the highest concentrations of ions, and cyclonic and other the lowest. Frontal storms showed significant higher sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and hydrogen ion and lower sodium in warm seasons than in cold, while cyclonic storms yielded significant (1 percent level) higher nitrate in the cold seasons. These results are generally consistent with the well-known behavior of the meteorological weather system categories.

  12. THE M 33 SYNOPTIC STELLAR SURVEY. I. CEPHEID VARIABLES

    SciTech Connect

    Pellerin, Anne; Macri, Lucas M. E-mail: lmacri@physics.tamu.edu

    2011-04-01

    We have conducted a ground-based BVI synoptic survey of the Local Group galaxy M 33 which covers most of its disk and spans a period of 7 years. The survey targets luminous, long-period variables such as Cepheids and Miras and combines images from the DIRECT project and follow-up observations at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope. This paper, the first in a series, presents the discovery and characterization of 564 Cepheid variables, which represent a factor of two increase over previous samples with calibrated point-spread function (PSF) photometry. We also describe the details of the observations and analysis of the survey data, including the use of archival Hubble Space Telescope images to characterize biases in our ground-based PSF photometry.

  13. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope OCS and TCS models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, German; Delgado, Francisco

    2010-07-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a project envisioned as a system of systems with demanding science, technical, and operational requirements, that must perform as a fully integrated unit. The design and implementation of such a system poses big engineering challenges when performing requirements analysis, detailed interface definitions, operational modes and control strategy studies. The OMG System Modeling Language (SysML) has been selected as the framework for the systems engineering analysis and documentation for the LSST. Models for the overall system architecture and different observatory subsystems have been built describing requirements, structure, interfaces and behavior. In this paper we show the models for the Observatory Control System (OCS) and the Telescope Control System (TCS), and how this methodology has helped in the clarification of the design and requirements. In one common language, the relationships of the OCS, TCS, Camera and Data management subsystems are captured with models of the structure, behavior, requirements and the traceability between them.

  14. Synoptic weather patterns associated with carbon dioxide levels in Northern Spain.

    PubMed

    García, M Angeles; Sánchez, M Luisa; Pérez, Isidro A

    2010-07-15

    Measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide, CO(2), were continuously carried out in the upper Spanish plateau over a three-year campaign, 2003-2005. Temporal CO(2) variations were examined. The results allow identification of the average data representative of background conditions, 382.9 ppm, with values ranging from 346.2 to 502.5 ppm. The weekly cycle evidences a difference of 0.2 ppm between weekday and weekend residuals, with levels increasing during the week. Seasonal variation in monthly means was inferred, the largest peak in appearing in spring, about 388 ppm. High values were also recorded in autumn, particularly in 2005 with an additional 5 ppm. By contrast, minimum values were obtained in July, between 374 and 379 ppm. A link between CO(2) concentrations and meteorological variables is explored. Analysis of surface wind speed intervals shows that low winds are the most frequent and are linked to the highest concentrations, around 395 ppm at night and in spring. CO(2) concentrations drop significantly for the 3.1-5.3 ms(-1) interval from which steady levels, around 378 ppm except in autumn, were observed. If different temperature intervals are considered, the 10-15 degrees C interval establishes the boundary between the extreme mean CO(2) levels, except for winter, 5-10 degrees C. The mean associated values ranged between 376.0 and 390.4 ppm, with a greater contrast in spring, 12.8 ppm. Finally, the relation between synoptic-scale atmospheric transport patterns and maximum CO(2) concentrations was also examined. The highest values occur in spring with some quite frequent synoptic situations: continental ridges, troughs to the west, interactions of the two and Atlantic ridges. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of synoptic weather on influenza infection incidences: a retrospective study utilizing digital disease surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Naizhuo; Cao, Guofeng; Vanos, Jennifer K.; Vecellio, Daniel J.

    2017-02-01

    The environmental drivers and mechanisms of influenza dynamics remain unclear. The recent development of influenza surveillance-particularly the emergence of digital epidemiology-provides an opportunity to further understand this puzzle as an area within applied human biometeorology. This paper investigates the short-term weather effects on human influenza activity at a synoptic scale during cold seasons. Using 10 years (2005-2014) of municipal level influenza surveillance data (an adjustment of the Google Flu Trends estimation from the Centers for Disease Control's virologic surveillance data) and daily spatial synoptic classification weather types, we explore and compare the effects of weather exposure on the influenza infection incidences in 79 cities across the USA. We find that during the cold seasons the presence of the polar [i.e., dry polar (DP) and moist polar (MP)] weather types is significantly associated with increasing influenza likelihood in 62 and 68% of the studied cities, respectively, while the presence of tropical [i.e., dry tropical (DT) and moist tropical (MT)] weather types is associated with a significantly decreasing occurrence of influenza in 56 and 43% of the cities, respectively. The MP and the DP weather types exhibit similar close positive correlations with influenza infection incidences, indicating that both cold-dry and cold-moist air provide favorable conditions for the occurrence of influenza in the cold seasons. Additionally, when tropical weather types are present, the humid (MT) and the dry (DT) weather types have similar strong impacts to inhibit the occurrence of influenza. These findings suggest that temperature is a more dominating atmospheric factor than moisture that impacts the occurrences of influenza in cold seasons.

  16. The effects of synoptic weather on influenza infection incidences: a retrospective study utilizing digital disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Naizhuo; Cao, Guofeng; Vanos, Jennifer K; Vecellio, Daniel J

    2017-02-11

    The environmental drivers and mechanisms of influenza dynamics remain unclear. The recent development of influenza surveillance--particularly the emergence of digital epidemiology--provides an opportunity to further understand this puzzle as an area within applied human biometeorology. This paper investigates the short-term weather effects on human influenza activity at a synoptic scale during cold seasons. Using 10 years (2005-2014) of municipal level influenza surveillance data (an adjustment of the Google Flu Trends estimation from the Centers for Disease Control's virologic surveillance data) and daily spatial synoptic classification weather types, we explore and compare the effects of weather exposure on the influenza infection incidences in 79 cities across the USA. We find that during the cold seasons the presence of the polar [i.e., dry polar (DP) and moist polar (MP)] weather types is significantly associated with increasing influenza likelihood in 62 and 68% of the studied cities, respectively, while the presence of tropical [i.e., dry tropical (DT) and moist tropical (MT)] weather types is associated with a significantly decreasing occurrence of influenza in 56 and 43% of the cities, respectively. The MP and the DP weather types exhibit similar close positive correlations with influenza infection incidences, indicating that both cold-dry and cold-moist air provide favorable conditions for the occurrence of influenza in the cold seasons. Additionally, when tropical weather types are present, the humid (MT) and the dry (DT) weather types have similar strong impacts to inhibit the occurrence of influenza. These findings suggest that temperature is a more dominating atmospheric factor than moisture that impacts the occurrences of influenza in cold seasons.

  17. The Palomar-Quest Digital Synoptic Sky Survey: Summary and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djorgovski, Stanislav G.; Baltay, C.; Mahabal, A.; Rabinowitz, D.; Drake, A.; Donalek, C.; Glikman, E.; Graham, M.; Williams, R.; Ellman, N.; Scalzo, R.; Bauer, A.; Nugent, P.; PQ Survey Team

    2009-05-01

    The Palomar-Quest (PQ) digital synoptic sky survey was conducted over a period of 5 years, ending in September 2008. The survey is a joint venture between groups at Yale and Caltech, with collaborating groups world-wide. The data were obtained using the Palomar 48-inch Samuel Oschin telescope and QUEST-2 112 CCD camera, with up to 4 distinct filters (Johnson UBRI or Gunn griz systems). Data were taken in the drift scan mode, in 4.6 deg wide strips of a constant declination, typically with 2 passes per night. The survey covered a total area of 15,500 deg2, with up to several tens of passes per location, and with the time baselines ranging from minutes to years. About 15 TB or raw data were collected in the course of about 550 nights (including non-photometric conditions). In addition, a somewhat larger amount of data over a larger number of nights have been taken in the point-and-stare mode, in a single broad-band red filter. The data have been processed using independent pipelines at Yale, Caltech, and LBNL. The survey was fully VO-compliant, and served as a testbed for development of a number of VO-related standards and technologies. All of the data are now in the process of being reprocessed and recalibrated, and will be made fully publicly available. Given the synoptic nature of the survey, most of the initial scientific studies involve exploration of various time-domain phenomena, such as Supernovae, variability of AGN, and high-amplitude variable stars. We have also conducted searches for high-redshift quasars, gravitational lenses, and other projects. We will describe some of the results to date.

  18. Synoptic-dynamics of California Cold Air Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotjahn, R.; Zhang, R.

    2016-12-01

    Grotjahn and Faure (2008) identified large scale meteorological patterns (LSMPs) associated with cold air outbreaks (CAOs) that affect California and much of the west coast of America. The LSMPs at onset have a strong warm ridge over the Bering Sea and western Alaska, another ridge over the Southeastern US, and a cold trough in between. We show the synoptic properties of how these LSMPs develop. A previously unheralded feature (strong surface pressure in the Gulf of Alaska) is key to the development of unusual warmth over Alaska and flow of unusual cold southeastward and then westward to the Pacific Northwest and California to create the CAO. Three dimensional trajectory analysis and lag-lead composites with bootstrap resampling significance of temperature and mass fields describe the synoptic evolution. A variety of tools reveal the dynamics of the LSMPs evolution. Temperature equation analysis identifies regions of local change due mainly to advection versus diabatic effects while tracing the path of the CAO airmass. The three-dimensional temperature structure and motion provide insight into how the strong anomalous high pressure develops in the Gulf of Alaska. Quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity shows the variability between different CAO events prior to onset and hints at CAO clustering. Small amplitude wave activity flux shows largest amplitudes on the south sides of the LSMP features in the mass field beginning nearly a week in advance of the CAO reaching California. Finite amplitude local wave activity (LWA) tracks the growth of a large LWA center over the Aleutians that broadens longitudinally splitting off an LWA center that migrates over western Canada into the western US, with another center heading west across the Bering Sea. Tropopause level divergent wind fields hint at a tropical connection but mainly encourage the westward migration of the cold air mass into California in the last days before onset.

  19. Synoptic forcing of wind relaxations at Pt. Conception, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fewings, Melanie R.; Washburn, Libe; Dorman, Clive E.; Gotschalk, Christopher; Lombardo, Kelly

    2016-08-01

    Over the California Current upwelling system in summer, the prevailing upwelling-favorable winds episodically weaken (relax) or reverse direction for a few days. Near Pt. Conception, California, the wind usually does not reverse, but wind relaxation allows poleward oceanic coastal flow with ecological consequences. To determine the offshore extent and synoptic forcing of these wind relaxations, we formed composite averages of wind stress from the QuikSCAT satellite and atmospheric pressure from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) using 67 wind relaxations during summer 2000-2009. Wind relaxations at Pt. Conception are the third stage of an event sequence that repeatedly affects the west coast of North America in summer. First, 5-7 days before the wind weakens near Pt. Conception, the wind weakens or reverses off Oregon and northern California. Second, the upwelling-favorable wind intensifies along central California. Third, the wind relaxes at Pt. Conception, and the area of weakened winds extends poleward to northern California over 3-5 days. The NARR underestimates the wind stress within ˜200 km of coastal capes by a factor of 2. Wind relaxations at Pt. Conception are caused by offshore extension of the desert heat low. This synoptic forcing is related to event cycles that cause wind reversal as in Halliwell and Allen (1987) and Mass and Bond (1996), but includes weaker events. The wind relaxations extend ˜600 km offshore, similarly to the California-scale hydraulic expansion fan shaping the prevailing winds, and ˜1000 km alongshore, limited by an opposing pressure gradient force at Cape Mendocino.

  20. Stakeholder involvement in nuclear crisis management in Greece.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, K G; Tzialla, C E; Papachristodoulou, C A; Papanikolaou, C; Apostolopoulos, C

    2005-01-01

    The setting up of the Greek Stakeholders Group in the framework of the EC Food and Agriculture Restoration Management Involving Networked Groups (FARMING) project is described. The Group included members from more than 20 governmental and non-governmental organisations, having interest and/or responsibilities in the management of a crisis following a nuclear accident. The stakeholders, during their meetings in 2002, discussed the agricultural countermeasures and rural waste disposal options which have been compiled by the EC Sustainable Restoration and Long-Term Management of Contaminated Rural, Urban and Industrial Ecosystems (STRATEGY) project. All stakeholders agreed that the most preferable were those options that ensure public acceptance, minimise environmental impact and maintain farming practices and acceptable living and working conditions. Their views are synoptically presented along with the major conclusions from the stakeholders meetings regarding nuclear crisis management.

  1. Education For Sustainability - Experiences From Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baronos, Athena

    2016-11-01

    One of the main issues involved is changing people's attitudes, values, behavior and consumption patterns. University education in Greece aims to educate engineers so that besides acquiring theoretical knowledge, they also learn to show competences and are motivated to act accordingly. Educating for sustainable development also entails the development of critical capacities and the necessary skills to be able to identify and formulate problems. This paper outlines the way in which an approach to teaching sustainability has been embodied in the Industrial Design, West Macedonia Greece. More specifically, it describes a course to develop comprehensive case studies and support material in order to aid, Industrial Design students in understanding the sustainability concepts and how solutions can be developed

  2. Synoptic variability of extreme snowfall in the St. Elias Mountains, Yukon, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andin, Caroline; Zdanowicz, Christian; Copland, Luke

    2015-04-01

    -stretched Aleutian Low (AL) having an easternmost node near the Kenai Peninsula, conditions that drove a strong southwesterly upper airstream across the Gulf of Alaska towards the coast. Situations with a single-node, westerly-shifted AL were comparatively rare. The spatial configuration of the synoptic AL pressure pattern appears to play a greater role in determining snowfall amount in the central St. Elias Mountains than do pressure anomalies within the AL. The estimated snowfall gradient from coastal Alaska to the central St. Elias Mountains during intense snowfall events averaged +2.0 ± 0.7 mm/km (SWE), while the continental-side gradient from the mountains towards the Yukon plateau averaged -3.3 ± 0.9 mm/km (SWE). The findings presented here can better constrain the climatic interpretation of long proxy records of snow accumulation variations developed from glacier cores drilled in the St. Elias Mountains or nearby regions.

  3. Albanian and Polish undocumented workers in Greece: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, G; Romaniszyn, K

    1998-01-01

    "This article deals with the migration of undocumented workers from Albania and Poland to Greece. Its underlying assumption is that migration from the former post-communist countries to Greece is not a homogeneous phenomenon, thus allowing for a distinction and comparison between the migration waves from Poland and Albania to Greece. The article shows that economic migration from Albania and Poland to Greece is primarily an economically triggered phenomenon which results from both individual rational choices and social, structural settings, and which verifies a general tendency of mass flows, characteristic of the era of disorganized capitalism." (EXCERPT)

  4. Medical Informatics Education & Research in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Chouvarda, I.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives This paper aims to present an overview of the medical informatics landscape in Greece, to describe the Greek ehealth background and to highlight the main education and research axes in medical informatics, along with activities, achievements and pitfalls. Methods With respect to research and education, formal and informal sources were investigated and information was collected and presented in a qualitative manner, including also quantitative indicators when possible. Results Greece has adopted and applied medical informatics education in various ways, including undergraduate courses in health sciences schools as well as multidisciplinary postgraduate courses. There is a continuous research effort, and large participation in EU-wide initiatives, in all the spectrum of medical informatics research, with notable scientific contributions, although technology maturation is not without barriers. Wide-scale deployment of eHealth is anticipated in the healthcare system in the near future. While ePrescription deployment has been an important step, ICT for integrated care and telehealth have a lot of room for further deployment. Conclusions Greece is a valuable contributor in the European medical informatics arena, and has the potential to offer more as long as the barriers of research and innovation fragmentation are addressed and alleviated. PMID:26123910

  5. Medical Informatics Education & Research in Greece.

    PubMed

    Chouvarda, I; Maglaveras, N

    2015-08-13

    This paper aims to present an overview of the medical informatics landscape in Greece, to describe the Greek ehealth background and to highlight the main education and research axes in medical informatics, along with activities, achievements and pitfalls. With respect to research and education, formal and informal sources were investigated and information was collected and presented in a qualitative manner, including also quantitative indicators when possible. Greece has adopted and applied medical informatics education in various ways, including undergraduate courses in health sciences schools as well as multidisciplinary postgraduate courses. There is a continuous research effort, and large participation in EU-wide initiatives, in all the spectrum of medical informatics research, with notable scientific contributions, although technology maturation is not without barriers. Wide-scale deployment of eHealth is anticipated in the healthcare system in the near future. While ePrescription deployment has been an important step, ICT for integrated care and telehealth have a lot of room for further deployment. Greece is a valuable contributor in the European medical informatics arena, and has the potential to offer more as long as the barriers of research and innovation fragmentation are addressed and alleviated.

  6. Novel phleboviruses detected in ticks, Greece.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Kontana, Anastasia; Tsioka, Katerina; Chaligiannis, Ilias; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2016-07-01

    Since 2009, when severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus and Heartland virus have been identified and associated with disease in humans, the interest on tick-borne phleboviruses is increasing rapidly. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of tick-borne phleboviruses in Greece and compare them with respective ones detected worldwide. Ticks collected from goats and sheep in 60 sites of 13 regional units of Greece were grouped in pools (1-3 ticks per pool) and tested for the presence of phleboviral RNA. Six of 210 pools were positive; they consisted of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from sheep in 3 regional units of Greece: Pella (2/30, 6.7%), Imathia (2/21, 9.5%), and Ioannina (2/28, 7.1%). The overall tick minimum infection rate was 2.1%. The sequences of the Greek phlebovirus (provisionally named Antigone virus) form a distinct clade in the tick-borne phleboviruses, differing by >40% from the currently known phleboviruses. Any probable implication of these viruses to public health remains to be elucidated.

  7. Synoptic sampling and principal components analysis to identify sources of water and metals to an acid mine drainage stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrne, Patrick; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katie

    2017-01-01

    Combining the synoptic mass balance approach with principal components analysis (PCA) can be an effective method for discretising the chemistry of inflows and source areas in watersheds where contamination is diffuse in nature and/or complicated by groundwater interactions. This paper presents a field-scale study in which synoptic sampling and PCA are employed in a mineralized watershed (Lion Creek, Colorado, USA) under low flow conditions to (i) quantify the impacts of mining activity on stream water quality; (ii) quantify the spatial pattern of constituent loading; and (iii) identify inflow sources most responsible for observed changes in stream chemistry and constituent loading. Several of the constituents investigated (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) fail to meet chronic aquatic life standards along most of the study reach. The spatial pattern of constituent loading suggests four primary sources of contamination under low flow conditions. Three of these sources are associated with acidic (pH <3.1) seeps that enter along the left bank of Lion Creek. Investigation of inflow water (trace metal and major ion) chemistry using PCA suggests a hydraulic connection between many of the left bank inflows and mine water in the Minnesota Mine shaft located to the north-east of the river channel. In addition, water chemistry data during a rainfall-runoff event suggests the spatial pattern of constituent loading may be modified during rainfall due to dissolution of efflorescent salts or erosion of streamside tailings. These data point to the complexity of contaminant mobilisation processes and constituent loading in mining-affected watersheds but the combined synoptic sampling and PCA approach enables a conceptual model of contaminant dynamics to be developed to inform remediation.

  8. The impact of synoptic weather on UK surface ozone and implications for premature mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, R. J.; Butt, E. W.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Doherty, R. M.; Fenech, S.; Schmidt, A.; Arnold, S. R.; Savage, N. H.

    2016-12-01

    Air pollutants, such as ozone, have adverse impacts on human health and cause, for example, respiratory and cardiovascular problems. In the United Kingdom (UK), peak surface ozone concentrations typically occur in the spring and summer and are controlled by emission of precursor gases, tropospheric chemistry and local meteorology which can be influenced by large-scale synoptic weather regimes. In this study we composite surface and satellite observations of summer-time (April to September) ozone under different UK atmospheric circulation patterns, as defined by the Lamb weather types. Anticyclonic conditions and easterly flows are shown to significantly enhance ozone concentrations over the UK relative to summer-time average values. Anticyclonic stability and light winds aid the trapping of ozone and its precursor gases near the surface. Easterly flows (NE, E, SE) transport ozone and precursor gases from polluted regions in continental Europe (e.g. the Benelux region) to the UK. Cyclonic conditions and westerly flows, associated with unstable weather, transport ozone from the UK mainland, replacing it with clean maritime (North Atlantic) air masses. Increased cloud cover also likely decrease ozone production rates. We show that the UK Met Office regional air quality model successfully reproduces UK summer-time ozone concentrations and ozone enhancements under anticyclonic and south-easterly conditions for the summer of 2006. By using established ozone exposure-health burden metrics, anticyclonic and easterly condition enhanced surface ozone concentrations pose the greatest public health risk.

  9. Combining dispersion modelling with synoptic patterns to understand the wind-borne transport into the UK of the bluetongue disease vector.

    PubMed

    Burgin, Laura; Ekström, Marie; Dessai, Suraje

    2017-07-01

    Bluetongue, an economically important animal disease, can be spread over long distances by carriage of insect vectors (Culicoides biting midges) on the wind. The weather conditions which influence the midge's flight are controlled by synoptic scale atmospheric circulations. A method is proposed that links wind-borne dispersion of the insects to synoptic circulation through the use of a dispersion model in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. We illustrate how to identify the main synoptic situations present during times of midge incursions into the UK from the European continent. A PCA was conducted on high-pass-filtered mean sea-level pressure data for a domain centred over north-west Europe from 2005 to 2007. A clustering algorithm applied to the PCA scores indicated the data should be divided into five classes for which averages were calculated, providing a classification of the main synoptic types present. Midge incursion events were found to mainly occur in two synoptic categories; 64.8% were associated with a pattern displaying a pressure gradient over the North Atlantic leading to moderate south-westerly flow over the UK and 17.9% of the events occurred when high pressure dominated the region leading to south-easterly or easterly winds. The winds indicated by the pressure maps generally compared well against observations from a surface station and analysis charts. This technique could be used to assess frequency and timings of incursions of virus into new areas on seasonal and decadal timescales, currently not possible with other dispersion or biological modelling methods.

  10. Combining dispersion modelling with synoptic patterns to understand the wind-borne transport into the UK of the bluetongue disease vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgin, Laura; Ekström, Marie; Dessai, Suraje

    2017-07-01

    Bluetongue, an economically important animal disease, can be spread over long distances by carriage of insect vectors ( Culicoides biting midges) on the wind. The weather conditions which influence the midge's flight are controlled by synoptic scale atmospheric circulations. A method is proposed that links wind-borne dispersion of the insects to synoptic circulation through the use of a dispersion model in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. We illustrate how to identify the main synoptic situations present during times of midge incursions into the UK from the European continent. A PCA was conducted on high-pass-filtered mean sea-level pressure data for a domain centred over north-west Europe from 2005 to 2007. A clustering algorithm applied to the PCA scores indicated the data should be divided into five classes for which averages were calculated, providing a classification of the main synoptic types present. Midge incursion events were found to mainly occur in two synoptic categories; 64.8% were associated with a pattern displaying a pressure gradient over the North Atlantic leading to moderate south-westerly flow over the UK and 17.9% of the events occurred when high pressure dominated the region leading to south-easterly or easterly winds. The winds indicated by the pressure maps generally compared well against observations from a surface station and analysis charts. This technique could be used to assess frequency and timings of incursions of virus into new areas on seasonal and decadal timescales, currently not possible with other dispersion or biological modelling methods.

  11. Combining dispersion modelling with synoptic patterns to understand the wind-borne transport into the UK of the bluetongue disease vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgin, Laura; Ekström, Marie; Dessai, Suraje

    2017-01-01

    Bluetongue, an economically important animal disease, can be spread over long distances by carriage of insect vectors (Culicoides biting midges) on the wind. The weather conditions which influence the midge's flight are controlled by synoptic scale atmospheric circulations. A method is proposed that links wind-borne dispersion of the insects to synoptic circulation through the use of a dispersion model in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. We illustrate how to identify the main synoptic situations present during times of midge incursions into the UK from the European continent. A PCA was conducted on high-pass-filtered mean sea-level pressure data for a domain centred over north-west Europe from 2005 to 2007. A clustering algorithm applied to the PCA scores indicated the data should be divided into five classes for which averages were calculated, providing a classification of the main synoptic types present. Midge incursion events were found to mainly occur in two synoptic categories; 64.8% were associated with a pattern displaying a pressure gradient over the North Atlantic leading to moderate south-westerly flow over the UK and 17.9% of the events occurred when high pressure dominated the region leading to south-easterly or easterly winds. The winds indicated by the pressure maps generally compared well against observations from a surface station and analysis charts. This technique could be used to assess frequency and timings of incursions of virus into new areas on seasonal and decadal timescales, currently not possible with other dispersion or biological modelling methods.

  12. Identification and interpretation of representative ozone distributions in association with the sea breeze from different synoptic winds over the coastal urban area in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Oh, In-Bo; Lee, Hwa Woon; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2007-12-01

    To aid the studies of long-term impact assessment of cumulative ozone (O3) exposures, the representative 8-hr O3 pollution patterns have been identified over the Greater Seoul Area (GSA) in Korea. Principal component analysis and two-stage clustering techniques were used to identify the representative O3 patterns, and numerical and observational analyses were also used to interpret the identified horizontal distribution patterns. The results yielded three major O3 distribution patterns, and each of the three patterns was found to have strong correlations with local and synoptic meteorological conditions over the GSA. For example, pattern 1, accounting for 46% of O3 concentration distributions, mostly occurred under relatively weak westerly synoptic winds. The predominant features of this pattern were infrequent high O3 levels but a distinct gradient of O3 concentration from the western coastal area to the eastern inland area that was mainly induced by the local sea breeze. Pattern 2, accounting for 31% of O3 concentration distributions, was found with higher O3 levels in the western coastal area but lower in the eastern inland area. This is due to the modified sea breeze under the relatively stronger easterly opposing synoptic wind, affecting the high O3 occurrence in the western coastal area only. However, pattern 3, accounting for 21% of O3 concentration distributions, showed significantly higher O3 concentrations over the whole GSA mainly due to the retarded and slow-moving sea-breeze front under the weak opposing synoptic flow. Modeling study also indicated that local and synoptic meteorological processes play a major role in determining the high O3 concentration distribution patterns over the GSA.

  13. Prevalence of Secondary Traumatic Stress Among Psychiatric Nurses in Greece.

    PubMed

    Mangoulia, Polyxeni; Koukia, Evmorfia; Alevizopoulos, George; Fildissis, George; Katostaras, Theofanis

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of secondary traumatic stress/compassion fatigue (STS/CF), burnout (BO) and compassion satisfaction (CS) in psychiatric nurses, and their risk factors. The Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL R-IV) and a demographic and work related characteristics questionnaire were distributed to 174 psychiatric nurses in 12 public hospitals in Greece. The majority of participants were at the high risk category for STS/CF (44.8%) and BO (49.4%), while only 8.1% of nurses expressed high potential for CS. Awareness of the factors associated with STS may help nurses to prevent or offset the development of this condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Long survival in a 69,XXX triploid infant in Greece.

    PubMed

    Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Vassiliou, Georgia; Sekerli, Eleni; Sidiropoulou, Vasiliki; Tsiga, Alexandra; Dimopoulou, Despina; Voyiatzis, Nikolaos

    2005-12-30

    The live birth of a triploidy infant is a very rare event and death usually occurs within the first hours of life. Triploid cases with a survival of more than two months are infrequent. We report on an infant with a 69,XXX chromosome constitution who survived 164 days. Chromosomal analysis demonstrated a 69,XXX karyotype with no evidence of mosaicism. This is the longest survival reported for this condition to date in Greece and the fourth longest worldwide. The infant was admitted to our clinic several times due to respiratory problems, and supplementary oxygen was required. The improved survival of our case was possibly due to better management of respiratory illness and prematurity, and these are essential factors that physicians should consider carefully with such rare cases.

  15. Western Greece unconventional hydrocarbon potential from oil shale and shale gas reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakitsios, Vasileios; Agiadi, Konstantina

    2013-04-01

    It is clear that we are gradually running out of new sedimentary basins to explore for conventional oil and gas and that the reserves of conventional oil, which can be produced cheaply, are limited. This is the reason why several major oil companies invest in what are often called unconventional hydrocarbons: mainly oil shales, heavy oil, tar sand and shale gas. In western Greece exist important oil and gas shale reservoirs which must be added to its hydrocarbon potential1,2. Regarding oil shales, Western Greece presents significant underground immature, or close to the early maturation stage, source rocks with black shale composition. These source rock oils may be produced by applying an in-situ conversion process (ICP). A modern technology, yet unproven at a commercial scale, is the thermally conductive in-situ conversion technology, developed by Shell3. Since most of western Greece source rocks are black shales with high organic content, those, which are immature or close to the maturity limit have sufficient thickness and are located below 1500 meters depth, may be converted artificially by in situ pyrolysis. In western Greece, there are several extensive areas with these characteristics, which may be subject of exploitation in the future2. Shale gas reservoirs in Western Greece are quite possibly present in all areas where shales occur below the ground-water level, with significant extent and organic matter content greater than 1%, and during their geological history, were found under conditions corresponding to the gas window (generally at depths over 5,000 to 6,000m). Western Greece contains argillaceous source rocks, found within the gas window, from which shale gas may be produced and consequently these rocks represent exploitable shale gas reservoirs. Considering the inevitable increase in crude oil prices, it is expected that at some point soon Western Greece shales will most probably be targeted. Exploration for conventional petroleum reservoirs

  16. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  17. The effects of implementing synoptic pathology reporting in cancer diagnosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sluijter, Caro E; van Lonkhuijzen, Luc R C W; van Slooten, Henk-Jan; Nagtegaal, Iris D; Overbeek, Lucy I H

    2016-06-01

    Pathology reporting is evolving from a traditional narrative report to a more structured synoptic report. Narrative reporting can cause misinterpretation due to lack of information and structure. In this systematic review, we evaluate the impact of synoptic reporting on completeness of pathology reports and quality of pathology evaluation for solid tumours. Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane databases were systematically searched to identify studies describing the effect of synoptic reporting implementation on completeness of reporting and quality of pathology evaluation of solid malignant tumours. Thirty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies, except one, reported an increased overall completeness of pathology reports after introduction of synoptic reporting (SR). Most frequently studied cancers were breast (n = 9) and colorectal cancer (n = 16). For breast cancer, narrative reports adequately described 'tumour type' and 'nodal status'. Synoptic reporting resulted in improved description of 'resection margins', 'DCIS size', 'location' and 'presence of calcifications'. For colorectal cancer, narrative reports adequately reported 'tumour type', 'invasion depth', 'lymph node counts' and 'nodal status'. Synoptic reporting resulted in increased reporting of 'circumferential margin', 'resection margin', 'perineural invasion' and 'lymphovascular invasion'. In addition, increased numbers of reported lymph nodes were found in synoptic reports. Narrative reports of other cancer types described the traditional parameters adequately, whereas for 'resection margins' and '(lympho)vascular/perineural invasion', implementation of synoptic reporting was necessary. Synoptic reporting results in improved reporting of clinical relevant data. Demonstration of clinical impact of this improved method of pathology reporting is required for successful introduction and implementation in daily pathology practice.

  18. The impact of economic austerity and prosperity events on suicide in Greece: a 30-year interrupted time-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C; Kastanaki, Anastasia E; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis; Tzougas, John; Kranioti, Elena F; Theodorakis, Pavlos N; Carr, Brendan G; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To complete a 30-year interrupted time-series analysis of the impact of austerity-related and prosperity-related events on the occurrence of suicide across Greece. Setting Greece from 1 January 1983 to 31 December 2012. Participants A total of 11 505 suicides, 9079 by men and 2426 by women, occurring in Greece over the study period. Primary and secondary outcomes National data from the Hellenic Statistical Authority assembled as 360 monthly counts of: all suicides, male suicides, female suicides and all suicides plus potentially misclassified suicides. Results In 30 years, the highest months of suicide in Greece occurred in 2012. The passage of new austerity measures in June 2011 marked the beginning of significant, abrupt and sustained increases in total suicides (+35.7%, p<0.001) and male suicides (+18.5%, p<0.01). Sensitivity analyses that figured in undercounting of suicides also found a significant, abrupt and sustained increase in June 2011 (+20.5%, p<0.001). Suicides by men in Greece also underwent a significant, abrupt and sustained increase in October 2008 when the Greek recession began (+13.1%, p<0.01), and an abrupt but temporary increase in April 2012 following a public suicide committed in response to austerity conditions (+29.7%, p<0.05). Suicides by women in Greece also underwent an abrupt and sustained increase in May 2011 following austerity-related events (+35.8%, p<0.05). One prosperity-related event, the January 2002 launch of the Euro in Greece, marked an abrupt but temporary decrease in male suicides (−27.1%, p<0.05). Conclusions This is the first multidecade, national analysis of suicide in Greece using monthly data. Select austerity-related events in Greece corresponded to statistically significant increases for suicides overall, as well as for suicides among men and women. The consideration of future austerity measures should give greater weight to the unintended mental health consequences that may follow and the public

  19. The impact of economic austerity and prosperity events on suicide in Greece: a 30-year interrupted time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    Branas, Charles C; Kastanaki, Anastasia E; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis; Tzougas, John; Kranioti, Elena F; Theodorakis, Pavlos N; Carr, Brendan G; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2015-02-02

    To complete a 30-year interrupted time-series analysis of the impact of austerity-related and prosperity-related events on the occurrence of suicide across Greece. Greece from 1 January 1983 to 31 December 2012. A total of 11 505 suicides, 9079 by men and 2426 by women, occurring in Greece over the study period. National data from the Hellenic Statistical Authority assembled as 360 monthly counts of: all suicides, male suicides, female suicides and all suicides plus potentially misclassified suicides. In 30 years, the highest months of suicide in Greece occurred in 2012. The passage of new austerity measures in June 2011 marked the beginning of significant, abrupt and sustained increases in total suicides (+35.7%, p<0.001) and male suicides (+18.5%, p<0.01). Sensitivity analyses that figured in undercounting of suicides also found a significant, abrupt and sustained increase in June 2011 (+20.5%, p<0.001). Suicides by men in Greece also underwent a significant, abrupt and sustained increase in October 2008 when the Greek recession began (+13.1%, p<0.01), and an abrupt but temporary increase in April 2012 following a public suicide committed in response to austerity conditions (+29.7%, p<0.05). Suicides by women in Greece also underwent an abrupt and sustained increase in May 2011 following austerity-related events (+35.8%, p<0.05). One prosperity-related event, the January 2002 launch of the Euro in Greece, marked an abrupt but temporary decrease in male suicides (-27.1%, p<0.05). This is the first multidecade, national analysis of suicide in Greece using monthly data. Select austerity-related events in Greece corresponded to statistically significant increases for suicides overall, as well as for suicides among men and women. The consideration of future austerity measures should give greater weight to the unintended mental health consequences that may follow and the public messaging of these policies and related events. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  20. Synoptic- and Mesoscale Weather Situations Associated with Tornadoes in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, M.; Sprenger, M.; Moore, R. W.

    2010-09-01

    Tornado research is mainly practiced in and focused on the United States, but tornadoes occur all over the world and cause damage and casualties. In this study, the focus is given to the synoptic- and mesoscale environment which leads to tornadoes in Central Europe. Consideration is given to 15 significant events (defined to be equal to F2 tornadoes) between 2005 and 2006 and in a band north of the Alps and extending from Eastern France to Poland with focus on Germany. Tornado data are taken from the European Severe Weather Database (ESWD), which includes the date, time, location and intensity on the Fujita scale of the event. Three aspects are discussed: (a) The synoptic- and mesoscale weather situation is analysed. The tornado events are characterised with respect to upper-level (jet streaks, PV anomalies) and low-level (fronts) forcings by operational ECMWF analysis data. Moreover, satellite data and surface weather charts of the German Weather Service are taken into account. In many cases, tornadoes took place close to an upper-level PV anomaly (streamer or cut-off). Most events occur under the cyclonic left side (exit and entrance region) of the jet stream. (b) The applicability of US tornado indices is investigated. Consideration is given to typical tornado indices used in the US: convective available potential energy (CAPE), storm-relative helicity (SRH) and the energy helicity index (EHI). It will be shown that the indices are only partly applicable to European settings. On average all indices are significantly lower than in the US. (c) Factors that predetermine the atmosphere for severe convection and tornadoes are discussed. For this reason, regions of moisture source are determined by Lagrangian backward trajectories. In most cases European trajectories start over the Atlantic, whereas US trajectories origin in the Gulf of Mexico. Due to the Alps the moisture transport from the Mediterranean is hindered. Moreover, it can be shown that the destabilization

  1. Los Alamos geostationary orbit synoptic data set: a compilation of energetic particle data

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.N.; Higbie, P.R.; Belian, R.D.; Aiello, W.P.; Hones, E.W. Jr.; Tech, E.R.; Halbig, M.F.; Payne, J.B.; Robinson, R.; Kedge, S.

    1981-08-01

    Energetic electron (30 to 2000 keV) and proton (145 keV to 150 MeV) measurements made by Los Alamos National Laboratory sensors at geostationary orbit 6.6 R/sub E/ are summarized. The data are plotted in terms of daily average spectra, 3-h local time averages, and in a variety of statistical formats. The data summarize conditions from mid-1976 through 1978 (S/C 1976-059) and from early 1977 through 1978 (S/C 1977-007). The compilations correspond to measurements at 35/sup 0/W, 70/sup 0/W, and 135/sup 0/W geographic longitude and, thus, are indicative of conditions at 9/sup 0/, 11/sup 0/, and 4.8/sup 0/ geomagnetic latitude, respectively. Most of this report is comprised of data plots that are organized according to Carrington solar rotations so that the data can be easily compared to solar rotation-dependent interplanetary data. As shown in prior studies, variations in solar wind conditions modulate particle intensity within the terrestrial magnetosphere. The effects of these variations are demonstrated and discussed. Potential uses of the Synoptic Data Set by the scientific and applications-oriented communities are also discussed.

  2. Ionospheric absorption, typical ionization, conductivity, and possible synoptic heating parameters in the upper atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.K.; Bhatnagar, V.P.

    1989-04-01

    Relations for the average energetic particle heating and the typical Hall and Pedersen conductances, as functions of the ground-based Hf radio absorption, are determined. Collis and coworkers used the geosynchronous GEOS 2 particle data to relate or ''calibrate'' the auroral absorption on the same magnetic field lines with five levels of D region ionization. These ionospheric models are related to a Chapman layer that extends these models into the E region. The average energetic particle heating is calculated for each of these models using recent expressions for the effective recombination coefficient. The corresponding height-integrated heating rates are determined and related to the absorption with a quadratic expression. The average Hall and Pedersen conductivities are calculated for each of the nominal absorption ionospheric models. The corresponding height-integrated conductances for nighttime conditions are determined and related to the absorption. Expressions for these conductances during disturbed sunlit conditions are also determined. These relations can be used in conjunction with simultaneous ground-based riometric and magnetic observations to determines the average Hall and Pedersen currents and the Joule heating. The typical daily rate of temperature increase in the mesosphere for storm conditions is several 10 K for both the energetic particle and the Joule heating. The increasing importance of these parameters of the upper and middle atmospheres is discussed. It is proposed that northern hemisphere ionospheric, current, and heating synoptic models and parameters be investigated for use on a regular basis. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  3. Prediction of PM10 grades in Seoul, Korea using a neural network model based on synoptic patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, S. K.; Oh, H. R.; Ho, C. H.; Kim, J.; Song, C. K.; Chang, L. S.; Lee, J. B.

    2016-12-01

    As of November 2014, the Korean Ministry of Environment (KME) started forecasting the level of ambient particulate matter with diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM10) as four grades: low (PM10 ≤ 30 μg m-3), moderate (30 < PM10 ≤ 80 μg m-3), high (80 < PM10 ≤ 150 μg m-3), and very high (PM10 > 150 μg m-3). Due to short history of forecast, overall performance of the operational forecasting system and its hit rate for the four PM10 grades are difficult to evaluate. In attempt to provide a statistical reference for the current air quality forecasting system, we hindcasted the four PM10 grades for the cold seasons (October-March) of 2001-2014 in Seoul, Korea using a neural network model based on the synoptic patterns of meteorological fields such as geopotential height, air temperature, relative humidity, and wind. In the form of cosine similarity, the distinctive synoptic patterns for each PM10 grades are well quantified as predictors to train the neural network model. Using these fields as predictors and considering the PM10 concentration in Seoul from the day before prediction as an additional predictor, an overall hit rate of 69% was achieved; the hit rates for the low, moderate, high, and very high PM10 grades were 33%, 83%, 45%, and 33%, respectively. This study reveals that the synoptic patterns of meteorological fields are useful predictors for the identification of favorable conditions for each PM10 grade, and the associated transboundary transport and local accumulation of PM10 from the industrialized regions of China. Consequently, the assessments of predictability obtained from the neural network model in this study are reliable to use as a statistical reference for the current air quality forecasting system.

  4. Numerical modeling of an intense precipitation event and its associated lightning activity over northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pytharoulis, I.; Kotsopoulos, S.; Tegoulias, I.; Kartsios, S.; Bampzelis, D.; Karacostas, T.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates an intense precipitation event and its lightning activity that affected northern Greece and primarily Thessaloniki on 15 July 2014. The precipitation measurement of 98.5 mm in 15 h at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki set a new absolute record maximum. The thermodynamic analysis indicated that the event took place in an environment that could support deep thunderstorm activity. The development of this intense event was associated with significant low-level convergence and upper-level divergence even before its triggering and a positive vertical gradient of relative vorticity advection. The high resolution (1.667 km × 1.667 km) non-hydrostatic WRF-ARW numerical weather prediction model was used to simulate this intense precipitation event, while the Lightning Potential Index was utilized to calculate the potential for lightning activity. Sensitivity experiments suggested that although the strong synoptic forcing assumed primary role in the occurrence of intense precipitation and lightning activity, their spatiotemporal variability was affected by topography. The application of the very fine resolution topography of NASA Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission improved the simulated precipitation and the calculated lightning potential.

  5. Synoptic analysis and hindcast of an intense bow echo in Western Europe: The 09 June 2014 storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Luca; Ermert, Volker; Kelemen, Fanni D.; Ludwig, Patrick; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2017-04-01

    On Pentecost Monday of 09 June 2014, a severe mesoscale convective system (MCS) hit Belgium and Western Germany. This storm was one of the most severe thunderstorms in Germany for decades. The synoptic-scale and mesoscale characteristics of this storm are analyzed based on remote sensing data and in-situ measurements. Moreover, the forecast potential of the storm is evaluated using sensitivity experiments with a regional climate model. The key ingredients for the development of the Pentecost storm were the concurrent presence of low-level moisture, atmospheric conditional instability and wind shear. The synoptic and mesoscale analysis shows that the outflow of a decaying MCS above northern France triggered the storm, which exhibited the typical features of a bow echo like a mesovortex and rear inflow jet. This resulted in hurricane-force wind gusts (reaching 40 m/s) along a narrow swath in the Rhine-Ruhr region leading to substantial damage. Operational numerical weather predictions models mostly failed to forecast the storm, but high-resolution regional model hindcasts enable a realistic simulation of the storm. The model experiments reveal that the development of the bow echo is particularly sensitive to the initial wind field and the lower tropospheric moisture content. Correct initial and boundary conditions are therefore necessary for realistic numerical forecasts of such a bow echo event. We conclude that the Pentecost storm exhibited a comparable structure and a similar intensity to the observed bow echo systems in the United States.

  6. Lifelong Education in Greece: Recent Developments and Current Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karalis, Thanassis; Vergidis, Dimitris

    2004-01-01

    This article concerns recent developments and current trends in lifelong education in Greece, specifically those related with funding from European Social Fund (ESF). The analysis undertaken focuses mainly on (a) the expansion of continuing training activities in Greece during the past ten years and the development of new training organizations as…

  7. Intellectual Assessment of Children and Adolescents: The Case of Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bablekou, Zoe; Kazi, Smaragda

    2016-01-01

    The article reviews the history of intellectual assessment of children and adolescents in Greece, as well as procedures, current practices, and future directions. Although the history of special education is long in Greece, there has been very sporadic and incoherent legislation and decision making on the subject. Currently, intelligence tests are…

  8. Conducting Qualitative Research on Desertification in Western Lesvos, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iosifides, Theodoros; Politidis, Theodoros

    2005-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to present some critical methodological strategies employed in a qualitative research study on local socioeconomic development and desertification in western Lesvos, Greece. Through in-depth qualitative interviews with local producers in western Lesvos, Greece, an effort was made to identify and analyze the links…

  9. Intellectual Assessment of Children and Adolescents: The Case of Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bablekou, Zoe; Kazi, Smaragda

    2016-01-01

    The article reviews the history of intellectual assessment of children and adolescents in Greece, as well as procedures, current practices, and future directions. Although the history of special education is long in Greece, there has been very sporadic and incoherent legislation and decision making on the subject. Currently, intelligence tests are…

  10. Educational Reform in Greece: Central Concepts and a Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gounari, Panayota; Grollios, George

    2012-01-01

    The case of Greece as the most recent neoliberal experiment can provide valuable insights not only about a generalized attack on the welfare state and the public good, but also about the radical changes in public education that are altering its public mission, vision, and goals. In this paper first we trace the educational landscape in Greece as…

  11. Educational Reform in Greece: Central Concepts and a Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gounari, Panayota; Grollios, George

    2012-01-01

    The case of Greece as the most recent neoliberal experiment can provide valuable insights not only about a generalized attack on the welfare state and the public good, but also about the radical changes in public education that are altering its public mission, vision, and goals. In this paper first we trace the educational landscape in Greece as…

  12. Academic Libraries in Greece: The Present Situation and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Dean H., Ed.

    The purpose of this collection of essays is to examine academic libraries in Greece at a time when the potential for changes and advance in librarianship is great. The 15 papers are as follows: "International Interlibrary Cooperation: Exchanging Goals, Values and Culture" (Don L. Tolliver); "Academic Libraries in Greece" (James…

  13. Conducting Qualitative Research on Desertification in Western Lesvos, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iosifides, Theodoros; Politidis, Theodoros

    2005-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to present some critical methodological strategies employed in a qualitative research study on local socioeconomic development and desertification in western Lesvos, Greece. Through in-depth qualitative interviews with local producers in western Lesvos, Greece, an effort was made to identify and analyze the links…

  14. H-alpha Off-limb Carrington Synoptic Charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertello, L.; Hughes, A.; Pevtsov, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of solar prominences (and filaments) reveal complex structures, with significant differences inmorphology, lifetime, and complexity of their magnetic field environment. Studies of thesesolar features are important for understanding not only their origin but also their role as precursors ofenergetic events such as flares and coronal mass ejections.The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) operated by the National Solar Observatory provides, amongother products, high-cadence broad-band intensity measurements centered in the core ofH-alpha spectral line. Prominences and filaments are quite visible in these 2Kx2K images, that havebeen obtained since 2010. We recentlystarted a project to produce an archive of H-alpha off-limb Carrington Synoptic Charts to be usedfor systematic studies of prominences. Charts are produced to show both spatial and temporal variabilityof these features in four radius zones covering 1.01 to 1.11 solar radii. Here we describe the applied methodologyand show some preliminary results. Potential applications of interest to the solar and heliospheric communitiesare also briefly discussed.

  15. Synoptic Mid-IR Spectra ToO Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helton, L. Andrew; Woodward, Chick; Evans, Nye; Geballe, Tom; Spitzer Nova Team

    2007-02-01

    Stars are the engines of energy production and chemical evolution in our Universe, depositing radiative and mechanical energy into their environments and enriching the ambient ISM with elements synthesized in their interiors and dust grains condensed in their atmospheres. Classical novae (CN) contribute to this cycle of chemical enrichment through explosive nucleosynthesis and the violent ejection of material dredged from the white dwarf progenitor and mixed with the accreted surface layers. We propose to obtain mid-IR spectra of a new galactic CN in outburst to investigate aspects of the CN phenomenon including the in situ formation and mineralogy of nova dust and the elemental abundances resulting from thermonuclear runaway. Synoptic, high S/N Michelle spectra permit: 1) determination of the grain size distribution and mineral composition of nova dust; 2) estimation of chemical abundances of nova ejecta from coronal and other emission line spectroscopy; and 3) measurement of the density and masses of the ejecta. This Gemini `Target of Opportunity' initiative (trigger K=5- 8 mag, assuming adequate PWFS guide stars exist) complements our extensive Spitzer, Chandra, Swift, XMM-Newton CN DDT/ToO programs.

  16. Curvature wavefront sensing for the large synoptic survey telescope.

    PubMed

    Xin, Bo; Claver, Chuck; Liang, Ming; Chandrasekharan, Srinivasan; Angeli, George; Shipsey, Ian

    2015-10-20

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will use an active optics system (AOS) to maintain alignment and surface figure on its three large mirrors. Corrective actions fed to the LSST AOS are determined from information derived from four curvature wavefront sensors located at the corners of the focal plane. Each wavefront sensor is a split detector such that the halves are 1 mm on either side of focus. In this paper, we describe the extensions to published curvature wavefront sensing algorithms needed to address challenges presented by the LSST, namely the large central obscuration, the fast f/1.23 beam, off-axis pupil distortions, and vignetting at the sensor locations. We also describe corrections needed for the split sensors and the effects from the angular separation of different stars providing the intrafocal and extrafocal images. Lastly, we present simulations that demonstrate convergence, linearity, and negligible noise when compared to atmospheric effects when the algorithm extensions are applied to the LSST optical system. The algorithm extensions reported here are generic and can easily be adapted to other wide-field optical systems including similar telescopes with large central obscuration and off-axis curvature sensing.

  17. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope concept design overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbendam, Victor L.

    2008-07-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope Project is a public-private partnership that has successfully completed the Concept Design of its wide-field ground based survey system and started several long-lead construction activities using private funding. The telescope has a 3-mirror wide field optical system with an 8.4 meter primary, 3.4 meter secondary, and 5 meter tertiary mirror. The reflective optics feed three refractive elements and a 64 cm 3.2 gigapixel camera. The telescope will be located on the summit of Cerro Pachón in Chile. The LSST data management system will reduce, transport, alert, archive the roughly 15 terabytes of data produced nightly, and will serve the raw and catalog data accumulating at an average of 7 petabytes per year to the community without any proprietary period. This survey will yield contiguous overlapping imaging of 20,000 square degrees of sky in 6 optical filter bands covering wavelengths from 320 to 1080nm. The project continues to attract institutional partners and has acquired non-federal funding sufficient to construct the primary mirror, already in progress at the University of Arizona, and fund detector prototype efforts, two of the longest lead items in the LSST. The project has submitted a proposal for construction to the National Science Foundation Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (MREFC) program and is preparing for a 2011 funding authorization.

  18. Synoptic scale wind field properties from the SEASAT SASS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, W. J., Jr.; Sylvester, W. B.; Salfi, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Dealiased SEASAT SEASAT A Scatterometer System SASS vector winds obtained during the Gulf Of Alaska SEASAT Experiment GOASEX program are processed to obtain superobservations centered on a one degree by one degree grid. The grid. The results provide values for the combined effects of mesoscale variability and communication noise on the individual SASS winds. These superobservations winds are then processed further to obtain estimates of synoptic scale vector winds stress fields, the horizontal divergence of the wind, the curl of the wind stress and the vertical velocity at 200 m above the sea surface, each with appropriate standard deviations of the estimates for each grid point value. They also explain the concentration of water vapor, liquid water and precipitation found by means of the SMMR Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer at fronts and occlusions in terms of strong warm, moist air advection in the warm air sector accompanied by convergence in the friction layer. Their quality is far superior to that of analyses based on conventional data, which are shown to yield many inconsistencies.

  19. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope project management control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantor, Jeffrey P.

    2012-09-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) program is jointly funded by the NSF, the DOE, and private institutions and donors. From an NSF funding standpoint, the LSST is a Major Research Equipment and Facilities (MREFC) project. The NSF funding process requires proposals and D&D reviews to include activity-based budgets and schedules; documented basis of estimates; risk-based contingency analysis; cost escalation and categorization. "Out-of-the box," the commercial tool Primavera P6 contains approximately 90% of the planning and estimating capability needed to satisfy R&D phase requirements, and it is customizable/configurable for remainder with relatively little effort. We describe the customization/configuration and use of Primavera for the LSST Project Management Control System (PMCS), assess our experience to date, and describe future directions. Examples in this paper are drawn from the LSST Data Management System (DMS), which is one of three main subsystems of the LSST and is funded by the NSF. By astronomy standards the LSST DMS is a large data management project, processing and archiving over 70 petabyes of image data, producing over 20 petabytes of catalogs annually, and generating 2 million transient alerts per night. Over the 6-year construction and commissioning phase, the DM project is estimated to require 600,000 hours of engineering effort. In total, the DMS cost is approximately 60% hardware/system software and 40% labor.

  20. Statistical and Mathematical Methods for Synoptic Time Domain Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahabal, Ashish A.; SAMSI Synoptic Surveys Time Domain Working Group

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in detector technology, electronics, data storage, and computation have enabled astronomers to collect larger and larger datasets, and moreover, pose interesting questions to answer with those data. The complexity of the data allows data science techniques to be used. These have to be grounded in sound techniques. Identify interesting mathematical and statistical challenges and working on their solutions is one of the aims of the year-long ‘Statistical, Mathematical and Computational Methods for Astronomy (ASTRO)’ program of SAMSI. Of the many working groups that have been formed, one is on Synoptic Time Domain Surveys. Within this we have various subgroups discussing topics such as Designing Statistical Features for Optimal Classification, Scheduling Observations, Incorporating Unstructured Information, Detecting Outliers, Lightcurve Decomposition and Interpolation, Domain Adaptation, and also Designing a Data Challenge. We will briefly highlight some of the work going on in these subgroups along with their interconnections, and the plans for the near future. We will also highlight the overlaps with the other SAMSI working groups and also indicate how the wider astronomy community can both participate and benefit from the activities.

  1. Echelon approach to areas of concern in synoptic regional monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Wayne; Patil, Ganapati P.; Joly, Kyle

    1997-01-01

    Echelons provide an objective approach to prospecting for areas of potential concern in synoptic regional monitoring of a surface variable. Echelons can be regarded informally as stacked hill forms. The strategy is to identify regions of the surface which are elevated relative to surroundings (Relative ELEVATIONS or RELEVATIONS). These are areas which would continue to expand as islands with receding (virtual) floodwaters. Levels where islands would merge are critical elevations which delimit echelons in the vertical dimension. Families of echelons consist of surface sectors constituting separate islands for deeper waters that merge as water level declines. Pits which would hold water are disregarded in such a progression, but a complementary analysis of pits is obtained using the surface as a virtual mould to cast a counter-surface (bathymetric analysis). An echelon tree is a family tree of echelons with peaks as terminals and the lowest level as root. An echelon tree thus provides a dendrogram representation of surface topology which enables graph theoretic analysis and comparison of surface structures. Echelon top view maps show echelon cover sectors on the base plane. An echelon table summarizes characteristics of echelons as instances or cases of hill form surface structure. Determination of echelons requires only ordinal strength for the surface variable, and is thus appropriate for environmental indices as well as measurements. Since echelons are inherent in a surface rather than perceptual, they provide a basis for computer-intelligent understanding of surfaces. Echelons are given for broad-scale mammalian species richness in Pennsylvania.

  2. Synoptic Mapping of Convective Structure from Undersampled Satellite Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salby, Murry; Sassi, Fabrizio

    2001-05-01

    Climate properties regulated by convection, such as water vapor, cloud cover, and related distributions, are undersampled in asynoptic data from an individual orbiting platform, which must therefore be restricted to time-mean distributions. A procedure is developed to identify small-scale undersampled variance in asynoptic data and reject it, leaving a more accurate representation of large-scale variance that describes the organization of climate properties. The procedure is validated against high-resolution distributions that have been constructed from six satellites simultaneously observing the earth. Observing the high-resolution distributions asynoptically is shown to result in sampling error at large scales that is as great as the large-scale signal present, limiting the usefulness of the raw asynoptic data to time-mean distributions. However, processing the asynoptic data to reject undersampled incoherent variability reduces the error variance to 10% or less, yielding a fairly accurate representation of large-scale coherent variability, which then can be mapped synoptically on periods as short as 2.0 days. Made possible then are studies of how cloud, water vapor, and related distributions are organized by unsteady elements of the general circulation, which cannot be studied in the raw asynoptic data.

  3. Meteorological observations of synoptic disturbances: Sensitivity to latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Jeff R.

    1994-01-01

    The Mars pathfinder MET experiment will make pressure, temperature, and wind measurements on the surface of Mars. The Viking Lander Meteorology Experiment measurements were marked by the presence of variations associated with synoptic weather disturbances throughout the fall and winter season. Numerical simulations of the Mars atmospheric circulation show that the winter midlatitudes are the center of activity for traveling disturbances of planetary scale, disturbances that have their fundamental origin in the baroclinic instability of the wintertime Mars atmospheric circulation. The studies are consistent with Viking observations in that the disturbances decay in amplitude toward lower latitudes. The further north the Mars Pathfinder is located, the more clearly it will be able to detect the signatures of the midlatitude weather system. A landing site close to 15 deg N should allow measurement of the weather disturbances, along with observations of the thermal tides, slope winds, and the relatively steady winds associated with the general circulation - the 'trade winds' of Mars. A landing site near 15 deg N would be significantly further equatorward than the Viking Lander 1 site, and thus would provide more of a view of tropical circulation processes.

  4. Palomar-Quest Synoptic Sky Survey - Data Release 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahabal, Ashish A.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Donalek, C.; Drake, A. J.; Glikman, E.; Graham, M. J.; Williams, R. D.; Baltay, C.; Rabinowitz, D.; Bauer, A.; Ellman, N.; Scalzo, R.; PQ Survey Team

    2009-05-01

    Palomar-Quest (PQ) synoptic survey obtained data over a period of 5 years. ending in Sep. 2008. Carried out using the Palomar 48-inch Schmidt telescope and a camera with 112 CCDs, PQ covered 500 sq. degrees on a typical good night in up to four filters. The epochs for the four filters were 3 minutes apart thereby providing baselines from minutes to years with PQ, and decades when combined with other observations. We describe the First Data Release of the Survey (PQ DR1). The release represents multi-filter multi-epoch images and catalogs, as well as coadded images for a contiguous 1000 sq. degrees (120 deg < RA < 240 deg, 11 deg < Dec < 20 deg). Three different filter sets were used including Johnson B, R, I and Gunn g, r, i, z bands. The total number of detections in DR1 is 170M with over 10M distinct objects, down to 21 mag in individual epochs (depending on filter). Coadding of images typically reaches the depths comparable to or greater than SDSS. The number of passes range from a few to several tens per pointing. We describe the different data products and access modalities. The procedures comply with the Virtual Observatory standards e.g. the catalogs get served using the CASJOBS interface and image cutouts through SIAP. Accompanying posters provide more details on photometric calibrations and selected initial scientific studies. The PQ survey is partially supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF).

  5. South Hemispheric Teleconnection to Eastern Mediterranean synoptic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osetinsky, I.; Alpert, P.

    2009-04-01

    The teleconnections between the Eastern Mediterranean regional climate and large-scaled tropical and midlatitudinal global indices are becoming widely recognized due to the recent publications. We will present the unexpectedly high correlations between the Eastern Mediterranean synoptic system of the Red Sea Trough and global and hemispheric temperature indices. The Red Sea Trough is the pressure pattern originated from the Sudanese Low and stretched over the warm surface of the Red Sea northward, sometimes reaching up to the Western Turkey. We calculated the correlations between the annual number of the Red Sea Trough days over the Eastern Mediterranean region (RST thereafter), and anomalies of the global and northern and southern hemispheric annual temperatures (TG, TNH, TSH, respectively), for 1948-2000. The annual data, both for the RST and for temperatures, were taken unsmoothed. We got the following remarkable correlations: 0.61 between the RST and TG, 0.51 - between RST and TNH, and 0.65 - between RST and TSH. The lower correlation for the Northern Hemisphere (NH), as compared to the Southern Hemisphere (SH), may be explained considering a distribution of continents and oceans. This carries, on the one hand side, a higher NH than SH mankind activity influencing the natural connections, and on the other - an enhanced SH than NH atmospheric circulation.

  6. Synoptic IPS and Yohkoh soft X-ray observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hick, P.; Jackson, B. V.; Rappoport, S.; Woan, G.; Slater, G.; Strong, K.; Uchida, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Interplanetary scintillation measurements of the disturbance factor, g, from October 1991 to October 1992 are used to construct synoptic Carrington maps. These maps, which show the structure of the quiet solar wind, are compared with X-ray Carrington maps from the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) instrument. For the period studied the global structure outlined by (weakly) enhanced g-values apparent in the interplanetary scintillation (IPS) maps tend to match the active regions (as shown in the X-ray maps) significantly better than the heliospheric current sheet. Contrary to traditional opinion, which views active regions as magnetically closed structures that do not have any significant impact on the solar wind flow, our results suggest that density fluctuations in the solar wind are significantly enhanced over active regions. These results support the suggestion by Uchida et al. (1992), based on Yohkoh observations of expanding active regions, that active regions play a role in feeding mass into the quiet solar wind.

  7. Synoptic Factors Affecting Structure Predictability of Hurricane Alex (2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Aleman, J. J.; Evans, J. L.; Kowaleski, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    On January 7, 2016, a disturbance formed over the western North Atlantic basin. After undergoing tropical transition, the system became the first hurricane of 2016 - and the first North Atlantic hurricane to form in January since 1938. Already an extremely rare hurricane event, Alex then underwent extratropical transition [ET] just north of the Azores Islands. We examine the factors affecting Alex's structural evolution through a new technique called path-clustering. In this way, 51 ensembles from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Ensemble Prediction System (ECMWF-EPS) are grouped based on similarities in the storm's path through the Cyclone Phase Space (CPS). The differing clusters group various possible scenarios of structural development represented in the ensemble forecasts. As a result, it is possible to shed light on the role of the synoptic scale in changing the structure of this hurricane in the midlatitudes through intercomparison of the most "realistic" forecast of the evolution of Alex and the other physically plausible modes of its development.

  8. Spatio-temporal activity of lightnings over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Matsangouras, I. T.; Chronis, T. G.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events are always associated with convective weather conditions driving to intense lightning activity: Cloud to Ground (CG), Ground to Cloud (GC) and Cloud to Cloud (CC). Thus, the study of lightnings, which typically occur during thunderstorms, gives evidence of the spatio-temporal variability of intense precipitation. Lightning is a natural phenomenon in the atmosphere, being a major cause of storm related with deaths and main trigger of forest fires during dry season. Lightning affects the many electrochemical systems of the body causing nerve damage, memory loss, personality change, and emotional problems. Besides, among the various nitrogen oxides sources, the contribution from lightning likely represents the largest uncertainty. An operational lightning detection network (LDN) has been established since 2007 by HNMS, consisting of eight time-of-arrival sensors (TOA), spatially distributed across Greek territory. In this study, the spatial and temporal variability of recorded lightnings (CG, GC and CC) are analyzed over Greece, during the period from January 14, 2008 to December 31, 2009, for the first time. The data for retrieving the location and time-of-occurrence of lightning were acquired from Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). In addition to the analysis of spatio-temporal activity over Greece, the HNMS-LDN characteristics are also presented. The results of the performed analysis reveal the specific geographical sub-regions associated with lightnings incidence. Lightning activity occurs mainly during the autumn season, followed by summer and spring. Higher frequencies of flashes appear over Ionian and Aegean Sea than over land during winter period against continental mountainous regions during summer period.

  9. Evaluation of the synoptic and mesoscale predictive capabilities of a mesoscale atmospheric simulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, S. E.; Skillman, W. C.; Kocin, P. J.; Wetzel, P. J.; Brill, K.; Keyser, D. A.; Mccumber, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    The overall performance characteristics of a limited area, hydrostatic, fine (52 km) mesh, primitive equation, numerical weather prediction model are determined in anticipation of satellite data assimilations with the model. The synoptic and mesoscale predictive capabilities of version 2.0 of this model, the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS 2.0), were evaluated. The two part study is based on a sample of approximately thirty 12h and 24h forecasts of atmospheric flow patterns during spring and early summer. The synoptic scale evaluation results benchmark the performance of MASS 2.0 against that of an operational, synoptic scale weather prediction model, the Limited area Fine Mesh (LFM). The large sample allows for the calculation of statistically significant measures of forecast accuracy and the determination of systematic model errors. The synoptic scale benchmark is required before unsmoothed mesoscale forecast fields can be seriously considered.

  10. Projected Near-Earth Object Discovery Performance of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesley, Steven R.; Veres, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This report describes the methodology and results of an assessment study of the performance of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) in its planned efforts to detect and catalog near-Earth objects (NEOs).

  11. Relationship Between Extreme Precipitation Events in the Mackenzie and Yukon Watersheds and Synoptic Circulation Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassano, E. N.; Cassano, J. J.

    2007-12-01

    The relationships between synoptic circulation patterns and extreme precipitation events in northwestern North America are investigated. The method of self-organizing maps (SOMs) is used to objectively identify synoptic circulation patterns in sea level pressure data from the ERA40 Reanalysis over the time period of 1957-2002. Days with extreme basin-averaged precipitation values (defined as days in the top 10th and 1st percentiles) were identified for the Mackenzie and Yukon watersheds using precipitation from the ERA40 Reanalysis dataset. The synoptic patterns associated with the extreme events were identified for both annual and seasonal time scales to allow for analysis of the patterns responsible for extreme events throughout the year. Many of the extreme events identified were associated with synoptic patterns characterized by pronounced cyclonic systems.

  12. New perspectives on the synoptic and mesoscale structure of Hurricane Catarina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira Filho, Augusto José; Pezza, Alexandre Bernardes; Simmonds, Ian; Lima, Raquel Silva; Vianna, Marcio

    2010-02-01

    This work explores in detail synoptic and mesoscale features of Hurricane Catarina during its life cycle from a decaying baroclinic wave to a tropical depression that underwent tropical transition (TT) and finally to a Category 2 hurricane at landfall over Santa Catarina State coast, southern Brazil. This unique system caused 11 deaths mostly off the Brazilian coast and an estimated half billion dollars in damage in a matter of a few hours on 28 March 2004. Although the closest meteorological station available was tens of kilometres away from the eye, in situ meteorological measurements provided by a work-team sent to the area where the eye made landfall unequivocally reproduces the tropical signature with category 2 strength, adding to previous analysis where this data was not available. Further analyses are based mostly on remote sensing data available at the time of the event. A classic dipole blocking set synoptic conditions for Hurricane Catarina to develop, dynamically contributing to the low wind shear observed. On the other hand, on its westward transit, large scale subsidence limited its strength and vertical development. Catarina had relatively cool SST conditions, but this was mitigated by favourable air-sea fluxes leading to latent heat release-driven processes during the mature phase. The ocean's dynamic topography also suggested the presence of nearby warm core rings which may have facilitated the transition and post-transition intensification. Since there were no records of such a system at least in the past 30 years and given that SSTs were generally below 26 °C and vertical shear was usually strong, despite all satellite data available, the system was initially classified as an extratropical cyclone. Here we hypothesise that this categorization was based on inadequate regional scale model outputs which did not account for the importance of the latent heat fluxes over the ocean. Hurricane Catarina represents a dramatic event on weather systems in

  13. Spatial and temporal wind variability over Spain and its relationship with synoptic weather types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorente-Plazas, R.; Montavez, J. P.; García-Valero, J. A.; Gómez-Navarro, J. J.; Jerez, S.; Baró, R.; Jiménez, P. A.; Jiménez-Guerrero, P.

    2012-04-01

    The knowledge of the spatial and temporal variability of the wind over a given area is crucial for multiple purposes, like wind power generation, pollutant dispersion, risk evaluation, hydrological processes, etc. On the other hand, the assessment of the synoptic conditions related to wind behavior can be very useful for several applications. In the framework of wind power, integrating the effects of large-scale on wind behavior could improve the scheduling of the power generation, as well as to avoid damage in wind turbines due to extreme wind events. In this work, we present a methodology which contributes to the improvement in wind energy profits manly in two aspects. By one hand, performing an objective wind regionalization of an extensive area allows the identification of complementary regions. On the other hand, the association of wind field to WT can be used as a convenient tool for medium-range weather forecast, as well as to perform future wind projections under different climate change scenarios. We have analyzed the wind variability using a network of 448 wind observations evenly distributed over Spain (except Canary Islands). The first step was to obtain regions with similar temporal behavior. This was performed by using a clustering method based on the main principal modes of variability, obtained through PCA analysis. The hierarchical Ward`s method is used to provide the initial seeds to a subsequent no-hirarchical k-means method. The analysis was carried out for daily mean series of wind speed encompassing the period 2001-2007, considering each season separately. The number of regions obtained with a similar wind speed behaviour depends on the season (8 in winter, 7 in spring, 6 in summer and autumn, and 13 for the whole year). The common regions in all seasons can be roughly associated to the following areas: High Ebro Valley, Low Ebro Valley, the Mediterranean Basin, the Guadalquivir Valley, the Cantabrian Coast and the Iberian Plateaus. It is

  14. Synoptic patterns of atmospheric circulation associated with intense precipitation events over the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Eliane Barbosa; Lucio, Paulo Sérgio; Santos e Silva, Cláudio Moisés

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to characterize the atmospheric patterns associated with the occurrence of intense precipitation events (IPE) in different sub-regions of the Brazilian Amazon. Intense rainfall cases over six sub-regions were selected from a precipitation data set for the period from 1983 to 2012. The composition technique was used to characterize the prevailing atmospheric patterns for the occurrence of IPE. In the south of the Amazon, the composition fields showed a favorable configuration for the formation of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ). Along the coast, the intense precipitation events must be associated with mesoscale systems, such as squall lines. In the northwest, they are apparently associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and/or local convection. The results reveal the complexity of the synoptic environment associated with the formation and development of weather systems that produce heavy rainfall in the Amazon Basin. Several factors can interfere as conditions in large-scale, local conditions and thermodynamic factors.

  15. Synoptic patterns of atmospheric circulation associated with intense precipitation events over the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Eliane Barbosa; Lucio, Paulo Sérgio; Santos e Silva, Cláudio Moisés

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to characterize the atmospheric patterns associated with the occurrence of intense precipitation events (IPE) in different sub-regions of the Brazilian Amazon. Intense rainfall cases over six sub-regions were selected from a precipitation data set for the period from 1983 to 2012. The composition technique was used to characterize the prevailing atmospheric patterns for the occurrence of IPE. In the south of the Amazon, the composition fields showed a favorable configuration for the formation of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ). Along the coast, the intense precipitation events must be associated with mesoscale systems, such as squall lines. In the northwest, they are apparently associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and/or local convection. The results reveal the complexity of the synoptic environment associated with the formation and development of weather systems that produce heavy rainfall in the Amazon Basin. Several factors can interfere as conditions in large-scale, local conditions and thermodynamic factors.

  16. Solar system exploration from the Moon: Synoptic and comparative study of bodies in our Planetary system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruston, P.; Mumma, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    An observational approach to Planetary Sciences and exploration from Earth applies to a quite limited number of targets, but most of these are spatially complex, and exhibit variability and evolution on a number of temporal scales which lie within the scope of possible observations. Advancing our understanding of the underlying physics requires the study of interactions between the various elements of such systems, and also requires study of the comparative response of both a given object to various conditions and of comparable objects to similar conditions. These studies are best conducted in 'campaigns', i.e. comprehensive programs combining simultaneous coherent observations of every interacting piece of the puzzle. The requirements include both imaging and spectroscopy over a wide spectral range, from UV to IR. While temporal simultaneity of operation in various modes is a key feature, these observations are also conducted over extended periods of time. The moon is a prime site offering long unbroken observation times and high positional stability, observations at small angular separation from the sun, comparative studies of planet Earth, and valuable technical advantages. A lunar observatory should become a central piece of any coherent set of planetary missions, supplying in-situ explorations with the synoptic and comparative data necessary for proper advance planning, correlative observations during the active exploratory phase, and follow-up studies of the target body or of related objects.

  17. Inner shelf circulation patterns driven by synoptic weather systems on the South Carolina Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Kumar, N.; Voulgaris, G.

    2015-12-01

    The meteorological forcing on the inner shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina (USA) has been analyzed using wind records extending over a period of 10 years. This analysis identified three synoptic systems classified as cold fronts, warm fronts and tropical storms. The typical temporal evolution of each system has been fully characterized statistically; the associated temporal evolution of the offshore, directional, spectral wave conditions have also been identified for the duration of each event. These typical wind and wave conditions are used to numerically investigate the response of the inner shelf. In addition, the influence of the curved coastline is examined. The numerical experiments were carried out using the ROMS and SWAN models of the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment-Transport (COAWST) modeling system and the results are presented. The results to-date suggest that, within the inner shelf a variability in the alongshore pressure gradient that is related to the alongshore variability of the relative angle between the wind forcing and the coastline. This coastline variability seems to affect the relative importance of the cross-shore / alongshore forcings creating different vertical structures of current at locations with different relative angle between wind forcing and coastline. Finally, the inclusion of the waves enhances the spatial differences observed for each case. These differences are explained in terms of momentum balance analysis.

  18. Solar system exploration from the Moon: Synoptic and comparative study of bodies in our Planetary system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruston, P.; Mumma, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    An observational approach to Planetary Sciences and exploration from Earth applies to a quite limited number of targets, but most of these are spatially complex, and exhibit variability and evolution on a number of temporal scales which lie within the scope of possible observations. Advancing our understanding of the underlying physics requires the study of interactions between the various elements of such systems, and also requires study of the comparative response of both a given object to various conditions and of comparable objects to similar conditions. These studies are best conducted in 'campaigns', i.e. comprehensive programs combining simultaneous coherent observations of every interacting piece of the puzzle. The requirements include both imaging and spectroscopy over a wide spectral range, from UV to IR. While temporal simultaneity of operation in various modes is a key feature, these observations are also conducted over extended periods of time. The moon is a prime site offering long unbroken observation times and high positional stability, observations at small angular separation from the sun, comparative studies of planet Earth, and valuable technical advantages. A lunar observatory should become a central piece of any coherent set of planetary missions, supplying in-situ explorations with the synoptic and comparative data necessary for proper advance planning, correlative observations during the active exploratory phase, and follow-up studies of the target body or of related objects.

  19. Extended Edited Synoptic Cloud Reports from Ships and Land Stations Over the Globe, 1952-1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, C.J.; Warren, S.G.

    1999-08-01

    Surface synoptic weather reports for the entire globe, gathered from various available data sets, were processed, edited, and rewritten to provide a single data set of individual observations of clouds, spanning the 44 years 1952-1995 for ship data and the 26 years 1971-1996 for land station data. In addition to the cloud portion of the synoptic report, each edited report also includes the associated pressure, present weather, wind, air temperature, and dew point (and sea surface temperature over oceans).

  20. Vascular nursing in Greece: luxury or necessity?

    PubMed

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Bitza, Christina; Papanas, Nikolaos; Matsagkas, Miltiadis; Lazarides, Miltos K

    2013-09-01

    Although peripheral arterial disease is prevalent in the primary care setting, insufficient vascular education among nurses and physicians coupled with certain economic constraints undermines treatment efficacy. Moreover, the burden of advanced venous pathology such as posthrombotic syndrome, venous ulcers, and lymphedema remains suboptimally treated. This article advocates the development of a vascular nursing specialty as a means to improving vascular care especially nowadays, when health care providers dictate comprehensive and cost-effective nursing practice and patient management. It also presents the first attempt to organize a Vascular Nursing Educational Session in Greece.

  1. Archaeomagnetism in Macedonia, Greece: a progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, M. E.; Kontopoulou, D.

    A project has been initiated to gather archaeomagnetic data from the rich archaeological heritage of Macedonia. We report here results from the first five kilns studied, which range in age from Hellenistic to Byzantine (broadly speaking, from 500BC to 1500AD). With so few data, and such a long time interval, we are obviously far from defining the geomagnetic secular variation in northern Greece. Nevertheless, a useful first step has been taken, and the results obtained so far compare favourably with the much larger data set from nearby Bulgaria.

  2. Distributional effects of environmental policies in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekakis, Joseph N.

    1990-07-01

    Environmental protection policies generate an equity question concerning the fair allocation of environmental benefits and costs. This paper presents evidence from Greece during the 1980s. The findings reveal that Greek environmental policies, in the form of government self-regulatory programs, are mostly regressive in nature. At the regional level these programs combine all forms of vertical equity. Since the public sector finances the majority of related expenditures out of taxes, the regressive elements of environmental policies have been reinforced by discretionary fiscal measures and tax evasion, accompanied by inflation, which have distorted the country's progressive tax system.

  3. Seismic hazard in Greece. I. Magnitude recurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makropoulos, Kostas C.; Burton, Paul W.

    1985-08-01

    Two different methods are applied to the earthquake catalogue for Greece (Makropoulos and Burton, 1981), MB catalogue, to evaluate Greek seismic hazard in terms of magnitude: earthquake strain energy release and Gumbel's third asymptotic distribution of extreme values. It is found that there is a close relationship between results from the two methods. In places where the cumulative strain energy release graphs include at least one well defined cycle of periodicity of strain release, then the parameters of the third type asymptote are well defined with small uncertainties. In almost all cases the magnitude distribution shows a remarkably good third type asymptotic behaviour. The results are presented in the form of graphs and contour maps of annual and 80-year modes, and magnitudes with 70% probability of not being exceeded in the next 50 and 100 years. For six of the most heavily industrial and highly populated centres of Greece magnitude hazard parameters are also derived and examined in more detail, thereby illustrating the direct applicability of the methods in terms of zoning. The close agreement between observed and predicted extreme magnitudes shows that the sample period considered (1900-1978), is long enough to obtain statistically stable estimates. For Athens the upper bound magnitude is found to be 6.7 ± 0.3 (within 100 km) and 6.8 ± 0.4 (100 km) from the two methods respectively, whereas for Corinth an earthquake of magnitude 6.5 has a mean return period of 43 years. Greece as a whole has an upper bound magnitude 8.7 ± 0.6 and earthquakes of a size similar to the 1903 Kithira event ( M ≈ 8.0) have a mean return period of about 200 years. The significantly different maps contouring magnitudes of the annual and 80-year modes result from the fact that each place has its own distribution curvature for magnitude occurrence, and thus they are not a linear extrapolation of each other. However, as longer return periods are considered, these differences

  4. Dusty Gust Fronts at Synoptic Scale, Initiated and Maintained by Moist Convection over the Sahara Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bou Karam, D.; Williams, E.; McGraw-Herdeg, M.; Janiga, M.; Cuesta, J.; Flamant, C.; Pelon, J.; Thorncroft, C.

    2009-12-01

    So-called ‘dry’ microburst outflows are well known phenomena in desert environments when rain from moist convection aloft evaporates into deep, dry-adiabatic boundary layers. Extreme synoptic scale versions of this convective scale phenomenon have been documented in this study, in which the collective episodes of convective downdraft feed a common cold pool that expands as a gust front density current, raising large amount of dust in the boundary layer, and initiating new moist convection over the Sahara. Satellite observations from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infra-Red Imager (SEVIRI) and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) combined with selected West African surface station observations have been integrated to study the gust front and its associated dust activity in the period of August 3-6, 2006. The meteorological conditions accompanying this event have been described using the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses. The gust front was initiated by a cluster of isolated cumulonimbus clouds over central Niger at 1400 UT on August 3 that lengthened to MCS size over Mali by the end of the day. At maximum expansion on August 5, the extending gust front exceeded 1500 km in length, with a transited area of lofted dust reaching a million square kilometers, mostly over southern Algeria and northern Mali. The northward gust front speed, estimated with SEVERI imagery, is rapid in initial stages but declines with time as the cold air absorbs heat from the hot desert surface and the gust front density contrast is diluted. The synoptic character of this event (both the length and the duration) allows for four intersections with CALIPSO orbits, thereby providing information on the evolution of the characteristics of the dusty gust front during its lifetime. Young dusty gust fronts (i.e. during the first 24 hours of the event) were characterized by lidar reflectivity at 532 nm in excess of 3 x

  5. Linking storm surge activity and circulation variability along the Spanish coast through a synoptic pattern classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasilla Álvarez, Domingo; Garcia Codrón, Juan Carlos

    2010-05-01

    ://www.cdc.noaa.gov/map/clim/st_data.html). The second task was to evaluate the performance of each circulation type on the spatial patterns of a daily fire danger risk index (Canadian Fire Weather Index, FWI). Finally, anomaly maps of several surface and low level climate variables, corresponding to the dates of ignition of the very large forest fires within each synoptic pattern, were calculated to provide insight of the specific conditions associated to those extreme events. A principal component analysis upon 6 hourly residuals highlighted the homogeneous behaviour of the tide gauges and provided a regional quantitative index to identify the largest storm surges. The leading PCA displayed a homogeneous spatial pattern, describing the low frequency variability along the entire coast, in spite of different orientations of the coast, accounting for more than 80% of the total variability. The second PCA displayed opposite phases between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Furthermore, the results suggest that surges are a regional rather than local phenomenon, probably related to the same single physical forcing. The comparison between extreme surge events and circulation patterns highlighted that single physical mechanism is represented by extratropical cyclonic disturbances located at the north-western corner of the Iberian Peninsula, responsible for an environment characterized by low pressure readings and westerly-southwesterly winds. That wind pattern acquires an onshore component in the Atlantic coast, but becomes offshore in the Mediterranean. So, the main mechanism responsible for those storm surges is the inverse barometer effect, being the wind dragging secondary. The main physical forcing of the storm surges, the extratropical cyclones, have experience a reduction of this frequency and a marked reduction in their strength since 1950, replaced by stable circulations. Both conditions suggest a long term reduction of the frequency and the magnitude of storm surges.

  6. An analysis of photovoltaic irrigation system for olive orchards in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taousanidis, N.; Gavros, K.

    2016-11-01

    Olive tree cultivation is of major importance in Greece. It has been proved that irrigation of olive orchards increases their production. The classic method followed is diesel pump irrigation. Since Greece favours high insolation the alternative of photovoltaic pumping is proposed. A case study for an olive orchard in Crete is studied with the two alternatives. The photovoltaic pumping system is a direct pumping system as olive trees tolerate even deficit irrigation and storage tank increases the cost. A comparison using the Life Cycle Costing method is proposed. Considerations about climate and economic conditions are taken into account and the study concludes with the profound advantage of the renewable system over the conventional one in strict economic terms.

  7. Prevalence of Legionella spp. in water systems of hospitals and hotels in South Western Greece.

    PubMed

    Fragou, K; Kokkinos, P; Gogos, C; Alamanos, Y; Vantarakis, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Legionella spp. in water systems of hospitals and hotels located in South Western Greece, to study the molecular epidemiology of the isolated strains and their possible association with bacterial contamination (total count and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), the water pH, and temperature. A prevalence survey for Legionella spp. by culturing techniques in water distribution systems of eight hospitals and nine hotels occurred in South Western Greece. Water sampling and microbiological analysis were carried out following the ISO methods. Legionella pneumophila was detected in 33% and 36% of the distribution systems of hospitals and hotels, respectively. Our survey results suggest a frequent prevalence of elevated concentrations of Legionella spp. in water systems of hospitals and hotels. Our investigation has confirmed the need to regularly monitor the microbiological condition of water systems in hospitals and hotels.

  8. A synoptic climatology of derecho producing mesoscale convective systems in the North-Central Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Mace L.; Mote, Thomas L.; Byrd, Stephen F.

    2000-09-01

    Synoptic-scale environments favourable for producing derechos, or widespread convectively induced windstorms, in the North-Central Plains are examined with the goal of providing pattern-recognition/diagnosis techniques. Fifteen derechos were identified across the North-Central Plains region during 1986-1995. The synoptic environment at the initiation, mid-point and decay of each derecho was then evaluated using surface, upper-air and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)/National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis datasets.Results suggest that the synoptic environment is critical in maintaining derecho producing mesoscale convective systems (DMCSs). The synoptic environment in place downstream of the MCS initiation region determines the movement and potential strength of the system. Circulation around surface low pressure increased the instability gradient and maximized leading edge convergence in the initiation region of nearly all events regardless of DMCS location or movement. Other commonalities in the environments of these events include the presence of a weak thermal boundary, high convective instability and a layer of dry low-to-mid-tropospheric air. Of the two corridors sampled, northeastward moving derechos tend to initiate east of synoptic-scale troughs, while southeastward moving derechos form on the northeast periphery of a synoptic-scale ridge. Other differences between these two DMCS events are also discussed.

  9. The differential impact of the financial crisis on Health in Ireland and Greece: A quasi-experimental approach

    PubMed Central

    Hessel, P; Vandoros, S; Avendano, M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Greece and Ireland suffered an economic recession of similar magnitude, but whether their health has deteriorated as a result has not yet been well established. Study design Based on five waves (2006-2010) of the European Union Statistics of Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) survey we implemented a difference-in-differences (DID) approach that compared trends in self-rated health in Greece and Ireland before and after the crisis with trends in a control population (Poland) that did not experience a recession and had health trends comparable to both countries before the crisis. Methods Logistic regression using a difference-in-differences (DID) approach. Results A simple examination of trends suggests that there was no significant change in health in Greece or Ireland following the onset of the financial crisis. However, DID estimates that incorporated a control population suggest an increase in the prevalence of poor-self rated health in Greece (OR=1.216; CI=1.11 - 1.32). Effects were most pronounced for older individuals and those living in high-density areas, but effects in Greece were overwhelmingly consistent in different population sub-groups. In contrast, DID estimates revealed no effect of the financial crisis in Ireland (OR=0.97; CI=0.81-1.16). Conclusions Contradicting results from a simple comparison of single-country trends, DID estimates suggest that the financial crisis has led to deterioration of population health trends in Greece but not in Ireland, where policies may have prevented a worsening of health as a result of the recent economic crisis. PMID:25369355

  10. [Medical myths and notions in Ancient Greece].

    PubMed

    Boulogne, J

    2001-01-01

    The article deals with the views on health and disease prevalent in Ancient Greece, the cradle of modern European medicine, focusing on the ever-present myths functioning in that realm despite attempts to rationally explain medical phenomena. On the basis of the works of Hippocrates and Galen, the author has distinguished five different epistemological attitudes towards those phenomena: the holistic, macrocosmological, monistic, anti-hypothetical and eclectic. The first was based on the idea of mechanical and logical causes. In medicine it is marked by determinism connected with climatic conditions. Hippocrates believed that health depended on the weather, in particular on the effects of winds, types of water and properties of soil. Myth emerged in this conception in the way matter - earth, water, air and fire - was conceived, particular in the properties ascribed to them: cold, humidity, aridity and warmth. The author charges that this conception was permeated with ethnocentrism and cites examples invoked by Hippocrates on the basis of his observations on the Scythians. The macrocosmological attitude involves subordinating medicine to cosmology. Man's body is a microcosm. The author cites the treatise 'On Diets', in which the greatest importance both in the universe and in processes taking place in the human body as ascribed to two factors - fire and water. Their combination was said to have played a crucial role in the typology of corporal and mental constitutions. Those features, together with the seasons of the year, mode of behaviour and food, constitute the four forces guiding vital processes. The author then presents the embryogenic conception contained in the cosmological treatise. It was based on such things as numerological speculations, hence - despite its rationalistic assumptions, consigns it to the mythic. The third attitude, the monistic approach, presents a treatise ascribed to Hippocrates 'On the Sacred Disease' and dealing with epilepsy. The

  11. Real Time Data in Synoptic Meteolorolgy and Weather Forecasting Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campetella, C. M.; Gassmann, M. I.

    2006-05-01

    from GOES-12 from the Unidata Internet Data Distribution (IDD) system. The data now being routinely received have impacted not only the meteorological education in the DAOS, but also have been instructive in techniques for Internet-based data sharing for our students. The DAOS has made a substantial effort to provide undergraduate students with experience in manipulating, displaying, and analyzing weather data in real-time through interactive displays of data using visualization tools provided by Unidata. Two of the specific courses whose curriculum have been improved are synoptic meteorology and a laboratory on weather prediction. Some laboratory materials have been developed to reflect current data as applied to the lecture material. This talk will briefly describe the data compiled and the fields used to analyze an intense cyclogenesis event that occurred over the La Plata River in August, 2005. This event was used as a case study for discussions in the Synoptic Weather Laboratory degree course of Atmospheric Sciences Licentiate.

  12. Synoptic observations of space weather processes in the inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskinen, H.

    Space weather in the magnetosphere is driven by coronal mass ejections and other solar wind disturbances. The magnetosphere has, in turn, a remarkable capability of further processing the energy and plasma coming from the solar wind. One way of determining the severeness of magnetic storms is to estimate the strength of the westward ring current carried by ions at energies of tens of keV that are transported to the inner magnetosphere by a complicated interplay between strengthening of the magnetospheric convection and substorm-related injections. A particularly intriguing phenomenon is the appearance of relativistic electrons all over the inner magnetosphere. These electrons are sometimes called "killer electrons", as they have been assigned to several serious damages of satellites. Finally, most of the storm and substorm energy is dissipated in the polar ionospheres through Joule heating and electron precipitation. Sometimes the ionospheric currents vary extremely fast and may induce damaging currents in the large electric conductors on the Earth's surface. In order to understand these and related processes in a global perspective it is essential to make simultaneous and continuous observations of the entire energy and plasma transfer chain from the surface of the Sun to the Earth. Perhaps of the most severely neglected region in this chain is the equatorial magnetosphere from low altitudes out to the geostationary orbit, i.e., the region from the inner radiation belt to the outer parts of the ring current. A valuable improvement to this state of affairs would be to deploy at least three satellites to nearly geostationary transfer orbits with roughly evenly spaced lines of apsides. These satellites should carry well-focused instruments for studies of the most critical particle species with measurements of electric and magnetic fields. The operations of these satellites should be performed synoptically and well-correlated with other observations of the Sun, solar

  13. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope preliminary design overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbendam, V. L.; Sweeney, D.

    2010-07-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Project is a public-private partnership that is well into the design and development of the complete observatory system to conduct a wide fast deep survey and to process and serve the data. The telescope has a 3-mirror wide field optical system with an 8.4 meter primary, 3.4 meter secondary, and 5 meter tertiary mirror. The reflective optics feed three refractive elements and a 64 cm 3.2 gigapixel camera. The LSST data management system will reduce, transport, alert and archive the roughly 15 terabytes of data produced nightly, and will serve the raw and catalog data accumulating at an average of 7 petabytes per year to the community without any proprietary period. The project has completed several data challenges designed to prototype and test the data management system to significant pre-construction levels. The project continues to attract institutional partners and has acquired non-federal funding sufficient to construct the primary mirror, already in progress at the University of Arizona, build the secondary mirror substrate, completed by Corning, and fund detector prototype efforts, several that have been tested on the sky. A focus of the project is systems engineering, risk reduction through prototyping and major efforts in image simulation and operation simulations. The project has submitted a proposal for construction to the National Science Foundation Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (MREFC) program and has prepared project advocacy papers for the National Research Council's Astronomy 2010 Decadal Survey. The project is preparing for a 2012 construction funding authorization.

  14. Asteroid Detection with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Lynne

    2015-08-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be a ground-based, optical, all-sky, rapid cadence survey project with tremendous potential for discovering and characterizing asteroids. With LSST's large 6.5m diameter, wide 9.6 square degree field of view, and rapid observational cadence, LSST will discover more than 5 million asteroids over its ten year survey lifetime. Building on the results of existing surveys such as NEO-WISE, SDSS and PanSTARRS, this will provide a wealth of information about the dynamical structure and physical properties of the main asteroid belt.With a single visit limiting magnitude of 24.5 in r band, LSST will detect asteroids in the main belt down to sub-kilometer sizes. This results in a substantial overlap between the detected main belt asteroids and known NEO population, providing better understanding of the source population for NEOs. The current strawman for the LSST observational cadence is two visits (each visit is a pair of back-to-back 15 second exposures) per field separated by about 30 minutes, covering the entire visible sky every 3-4 days throughout the observing season. Most main belt asteroids will receive on the order of 200-300 observations, with visits spread between six broadband filters, ugrizy. When coupled with LSST's precise photometric and astrometric calibration, a significant fraction of the asteroid sample will obtain colors accurate to about 0.02-0.05 magnitudes and with sufficient number of observations to perform sparse lightcurve inversion. This dataset will increase the number of asteroids with photometric colors, and the number of objects with rotation period and shape information, by more than an order of magnitude, and provide unprecedented measurements of Yarkovsky effects and YORP evolution. Color information combined with proper orbital elements will enable identification of asteroid families down to much smaller sizes, permitting size distribution measurements and providing constraints on the

  15. Synoptic-scale dust transport events in the southern Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchi, R.; Cristofanelli, P.; Marinoni, A.; Bourcier, L.; Laj, P.; Calzolari, F.; Adhikary, B.; Verza, G. P.; Vuillermoz, E.; Bonasoni, P.

    2014-06-01

    The variability of long-range dust transport events observed in the southern Himalaya and its relation with source areas have been studied thanks to five years’ continuous measurements which were carried out at the “Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid” (NCO-P, 27°57‧N, 86°48‧E), the highest Northern Hemisphere GAW-WMO global station sited at 5079 m a.s.l. in the high Khumbu valley (Nepal) on the southern Himalaya. During the period March 2006-February 2011, the analyses of the aerosol particle concentrations and LAGRANTO three-dimensional backward trajectories indicated the occurrence of 275 days affected by synoptic-scale dust transport, which account for 22.2% of the investigated period. The frequency of dust transport days (DTDs) showed a clear seasonal cycle, with the highest seasonal value observed during pre-monsoon season (33.5% of the pre-monsoon’s days are DTDs). Large enhancements in coarse aerosol number concentration N1-10 (average: +689%) and mass PM1-10 (average: +1086%) were observed during the dust transport events as compared to the days without dust (dust-free days, DFDs). In addition, the single scattering albedo (SSA) also showed higher values, ranging from 0.87 to 0.90, during DTDs with respect to DFDs (0.80-0.87). The predominant source of mineral dust reaching the measurement site was identified in the arid regions of the north-western Indian subcontinent (Thar desert), which accounted for 41.6% of the trajectories points associated with DTDs. Seasonal analysis also indicated that the winter season was significantly influenced by far western desert regions, such as North Africa and the Arabic Peninsula.

  16. Asteroid Discovery and Characterization with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. Lynne; Jurić, Mario; Ivezić, Željko

    2016-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be a ground-based, optical, all-sky, rapid cadence survey project with tremendous potential for discovering and characterizing asteroids. With LSST's large 6.5m diameter primary mirror, a wide 9.6 square degree field of view 3.2 Gigapixel camera, and rapid observational cadence, LSST will discover more than 5 million asteroids over its ten year survey lifetime. With a single visit limiting magnitude of 24.5 in r band, LSST will be able to detect asteroids in the Main Belt down to sub-kilometer sizes. The current strawman for the LSST survey strategy is to obtain two visits (each `visit' being a pair of back-to-back 15s exposures) per field, separated by about 30 minutes, covering the entire visible sky every 3-4 days throughout the observing season, for ten years. The catalogs generated by LSST will increase the known number of small bodies in the Solar System by a factor of 10-100 times, among all populations. The median number of observations for Main Belt asteroids will be on the order of 200-300, with Near Earth Objects receiving a median of 90 observations. These observations will be spread among ugrizy bandpasses, providing photometric colors and allow sparse lightcurve inversion to determine rotation periods, spin axes, and shape information. These catalogs will be created using automated detection software, the LSST Moving Object Processing System (MOPS), that will take advantage of the carefully characterized LSST optical system, cosmetically clean camera, and recent improvements in difference imaging. Tests with the prototype MOPS software indicate that linking detections (and thus `discovery') will be possible at LSST depths with our working model for the survey strategy, but evaluation of MOPS and improvements in the survey strategy will continue. All data products and software created by LSST will be publicly available.

  17. Synoptic Observations for Physical Characterization of Fast Rotator NEOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikwaya Eluo, Jean-Baptiste; Hergenrother, Carl W.

    2014-11-01

    NEOs can be studied not only dynamically, to learn about their impact hazard, but also physically, to establish various properties important both to better address their potential hazard and also to understand what they can tell us about the origin of the solar system and its ongoing processes.Taking advantage of the two-meter-class telescopes around Tucson, we plan to observe NEOs synoptically using telescopes at three different locations: VATT (Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope) at Mount Graham (longitude: -109.8719, latitude: 32.7016, elevation: 10469 feet), Bok 2.3 m at Kitt Peak (longitude: -111.6004, latitude: 31.9629, elevation: 6795 feet) and Kuiper 1.5-m at Mount Bigelow (longitude: -110.7345, latitude: 32.4165, elevation: 8235 feet). All three telescopes will aim simultaneously at the same object, each with a different instrument. The three telescopes will be part of the Arizona Robotic Telescope (ART) network, a University of Arizona initiative to provide near real-time observations of Target of Opportunity objects across the visible and near-infrared wavelengths. The VATT-4K optical imager mounted on the VATT has already been used for photometry. In the future we plan to utilize the BCSpec (Boller & Chivens Spectrograph) for visible spectroscopy on Bok 2.3 meter and a near-infrared instrument on Kuiper 1.5 meter. We report here the preliminary results of several NEOs whose rotation rate and color have been estimated using photometry with images recorded with VATT-4K. 2009 SQ104 has a rotation rate of 6.85+/- 0.03 h, 2014 AY28 has a rotation rate of 0.91 +/- 0.02 h, 2014 EC of 0.54 +/-0.04 h, 2014 FA44 of 3.45 +/- 0.05 h, and 2014 KS40 of 1.11 +/- 0.06 h.

  18. The role of synoptic and intraseasonal anomalies in the life cycle of summer rainfall extremes over South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Fernando E.; Grimm, Alice M.

    2016-05-01

    The main goal of this study is to describe the role of synoptic and intraseasonal anomalies during the life cycle of summer rainfall extremes over South America. Eastward-propagating synoptic-scale midlatitude waves are the main drivers of extreme precipitation events south of the Amazon and their interaction with intraseasonal anomalies over South America is important for heavy rainfall over the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) region and the La Plata basin. Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) convective activity in the western Pacific (phases 6 and 7) leads 31 out of 81 extremes over the SACZ region by nearly 10 days. The connection between the MJO and rainfall extremes in other regions is less robust. During El Niño seasons extremes are more frequent in the La Plata basin, with decreased importance of intraseasonal anomalies. Precipitation extremes over the La Plata basin tend to be less frequent and also shorter during La Niña summers and, consequently, less hazardous. In the SACZ and the southeastern Brazilian coast, heavy rainfall is also more frequent under El Niño conditions, while La Niña episodes also increase extreme events in the southeastern coast. Extremes over the southeastern coast during El Niños are favored by strong intraseasonal anomalies flanking the subtropical jet, while during La Niñas intraseasonal anomalies are not significant.

  19. Analysis of the synoptic winter mortality climatology in five regions of England: Searching for evidence of weather signals.

    PubMed

    Paschalidou, A K; Kassomenos, P A; McGregor, G R

    2017-11-15

    Although heat-related mortality has received considerable research attention, the impact of cold weather on public health is less well-developed, probably due to the fact that physiological responses to cold weather can vary substantially among individuals, age groups, diseases etc., depending on a number of behavioral and physiological factors. In the current work we use the classification techniques provided by the COST-733 software to link synoptic circulation patterns with excess cold-related mortality in 5 regions of England. We conclude that, regardless of the classification scheme used, the most hazardous conditions for public health in England are associated with the prevalence of the Easterly type of weather, favoring advection of cold air from continental Europe. It is noteworthy that there has been observed little-to-no regional variation with regards to the classification results among the 5 regions, suggestive of a spatially homogenous response of mortality to the atmospheric patterns identified. In general, the 10 different groupings of days used reveal that excess winter mortality is linked with the lowest daily minimum/maximum temperatures in the area. However it is not uncommon to observe high mortality rates during days with higher, in relative terms, temperatures, when rapidly changing weather results in an increase of mortality. Such a finding confirms the complexity of cold-related mortality and highlights the importance of synoptic climatology in understanding of the phenomenon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A 26 year high-resolution dynamical downscaling over the Wasatch Mountains: Synoptic effects on winter precipitation performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalzitti, Jason; Strong, Courtenay; Kochanski, Adam K.

    2016-04-01

    A 26 year high-resolution dynamical downscaling over the Wasatch Mountains of Utah, USA, was performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with initial and boundary conditions derived from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis. Precipitation validation was conducted on the inner (4 km resolution) domain with Snowpack Telemetry (SNOTEL) and Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model data sets. Analysis of seasonal performance reveals the model's overall good skill at reproducing the spatial distribution of precipitation. Annual precipitation validates within ˜20% of SNOTEL. The largest monthly biases occurred in December-January (˜+30%) stemming from a small set of high-precipitation events. Composite analysis of cold season days with large positive or negative precipitation biases reveals two distinct synoptic regimes with significantly different moisture, temperature, and circulation patterns that respectively enhanced geopotential height and moisture biases consistent with the sign of their mean precipitation biases. The number of cold season days with large (>5 mm) positive precipitation bias was negatively correlated with El Niño (r = - 0.55), indicating storm track-related effects on the sign of the bias consistent with the distinct synoptic regimes revealed by the above-noted composite analyses.

  1. Interannual variations in fire weather, fire extent, and synoptic-scale circulation patterns in northern California and Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouet, Valerie; Taylor, Alan H.; Carleton, Andrew M.; Skinner, Carl N.

    2009-03-01

    The Mediterranean climate region on the west coast of the United States is characterized by wet winters and dry summers, and by high fire activity. The importance of synoptic-scale circulation patterns (ENSO, PDO, PNA) on fire-climate interactions is evident in contemporary fire data sets and in pre-Euroamerican tree-ring-based fire records. We investigated how interannual variability in two fire weather indices, the Haines index (HI) and the Energy Release Component (ERC), in the Mediterranean region of southern Oregon and northern California is related to atmospheric circulation and fire extent. Years with high and low fire weather index values corresponded to years with a high and low annual area burned, respectively. HI combines atmospheric moisture with atmospheric instability and variation in HI was more strongly associated with interannual variation in wildfire extent than ERC, which is based on moisture alone. The association between fire extent and HI was also higher for fires in southern Oregon than in northern California. In terms of synoptic-scale circulation patterns, years of high fire risk (i.e., increased potential for erratic fire behavior, represented by HI and ERC) were associated with positive winter PNA and PDO conditions, characterized by enhanced regional mid-tropospheric ridging and low atmospheric moisture. The time lag we found between fire risk potential and prior winter circulation patterns could contribute to the development of long-lead fire-climate forecasting.

  2. Patients' perceptions of generic drugs in Greece.

    PubMed

    Skaltsas, Leonora N; Vasileiou, Konstantinos Z

    2015-11-01

    The use of generic drugs is growing increasingly around the world and in Greece, in particular, in order to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure. However, patients' perceptions and attitudes about generics have only partially been studied so far in Greece. This study aimed to examine the factors that influence the attitude of patients and consumers regarding generic drugs. A questionnaire survey of 364 patients visiting a pharmacy was conducted. The questionnaire consisted of 29 questions, including questions regarding their knowledge about generics, the reasons for using them, their previous experience, their willingness for generic substitution, and the factors behind these choices. Nearly half of the participants in the survey know the term 'generic' and that it has a lower price compared to the brand name drug. Their views on safety and efficacy vary significantly and the main source of information on generics is the media and the internet. The lack of knowledge is the main barrier for attitudes of doctors. Health professionals play the most influential role for the substitution of a branded drug by a generic, followed by the cost of the generic. Almost half of the patients know about generic drugs, with their lower price being the most popular feature which most patients are familiar with. It seems that primarily the doctor and, subsequently the pharmacist play the most important role in a patient's decision to replace his/her medicine with a generic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anciet marble quarries in Lesvos island Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mataragkas, M.; Mataragkas, D.

    2009-04-01

    ANCIENT MARBLE QUARRIES IN LESBOS ISLAND, GREECE Varti- Matarangas M.1 & Matarangas D. 1 Institute of Geological and Mining Exploration (IGME), Olympic Village, Entrance C, ACHARNAE 13677, GREECE myrsini@igme.gr , myrsini@otenet.g r A B S T R A C T Ten ancient marble quarries of Lesbos Island, most of them previously unknown, have been studied, in the frame of the research study on the ancient marble quarries in the Aegean Sea. In the present paper the geological, petrological and morphological features of the aforementioned quarries are examined. Concerning the six ancient quarries located in the areas of Tarti, Agia Paraskevi (Tsaf), Mageiras, Loutra, Latomi (Plomari) and Thermi, the authochthonous neopaleozoic unit constitutes their geological formation, while their hosting lithological formations are the included crystalline limestone lens like beds. In two ancient quarries in the areas Moria and Alyfanta, the geological formation is the authochthonous upper Triassic series and the hosting lithological formation the upper Triassic carbonate sequence, while in the areas of Akrasi-Abeliko and Karyni, the geological formation is the thrust Triassic unit and the lithological hosting formations are the included strongly deformed or not crystalline limestone lenticular beds. Furthermore, the petrographic features were also determined permitting the identification of the building stones that have been used.

  4. Clustering of Synoptic Pattern over the Korean Peninsula from Meteorological Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinah; Heo, Kiyoung; Choi, Jungwoon; Jung, Sanghoon

    2017-04-01

    Numerical modeling data on meteorological and ocean science is one of example of big geographic data sources. The properties of the data including the volume, variety, and dynamic aspects pose new challenges for geographic visualization, and visual geoanalytics using big data analysis using machine learning method. A combination of algorithmic and visual approaches that make sense of large volumes of various types of spatiotemporal data are required to gain knowledge about complex phenomena. In the East coast of Korea, it is suffering from property damages and human causalities due to abnormal high waves (swell-like high-height waves). It is known to be caused by local meteorological conditions on the East Sea of Korean Peninsula in previous research and they proposed three kinds of pressure patterns that generate abnormal high waves. However, they cannot describe all kinds of pressure patterns that generate abnormal high waves. In our study, we propose unsupervised machine learning method for pattern clustering and applied it to classify a pattern which has occurred abnormal high waves using numerical meteorological model's reanalysis data from 2000 to 2015 and past historical records of accidents by abnormal high waves. About 25,000 patterns of total spatial distribution of sea surface pressure are clustered into 30 patterns and they are classified into seasonal sea level pressure patterns based on meteorological characteristics of Korean peninsula. Moreover, in order to determine the representative patterns which occurs abnormal high waves, we classified it again using historical accidents cases among the winter season pressure patterns. In this work, we clustered synoptic pattern over the Korean Peninsula in meteorological modeling reanalysis data and we could understand a seasonal variation through identifying the occurrence of clustered synoptic pattern. For the future work, we have to identify the relationship of wave modeling data for better understanding

  5. Influence of synoptic and local atmospheric patterns on PM10 air pollution levels: a model application to Naples (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortelli, Alberto; Scafetta, Nicola; Mazzarella, Adriano

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the relationship between synoptic/local meteorological patterns and PM10 air pollution levels in the metropolitan area of Naples, Italy. We found that severe air pollution crises occurred when the 850 and 500 hpa geopotential heights and their relative temperatures present maximum values above the city. The most relevant synoptic parameter was the 850 hPa geopotential height, which is located about 1500 m of altitude. We compared local meteorological conditions (specifically wind stress, rain amount and thermal inversion) against the urban air pollution levels from 2009 to 2013. We found several empirical criteria for forecasting high daily PM10 air pollution levels in Naples. Pollution crises occurred when (a) the wind stress was between 1 and 2 m/s, (b) the thermal inversion between two strategic locations was at least 3°C/200 m and (c) it did not significantly rain for at least 7 days. Beside these meteorological conditions, severe pollution crises occurred also during festivals when fireworks and bonfires are lighted, and during anomalous breeze conditions and severe fire accidents. Finally, we propose a basic model to predict PM10 concentration levels from local meteorological conditions that can be easily forecast a few days in advance. The synthetic PM10 record predicted by the model was found to correlate with the PM10 observations with a correlation coefficient close to 0.80 with a confidence level greater than 99%. The proposed model is expected to provide reliable information to city officials to carry out practical strategies to mitigate air pollution effects. Although the proposed model equation is calibrated on the topographical and meteorological conditions of Naples, it should be easily adaptable to alternative locations.

  6. The 20 February 2010 Madeira flash-floods: synoptic analysis and extreme rainfall assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, M.; Trigo, R. M.; Pinto, J. G.; Lopes, S.; Lopes, A.; Ulbrich, S.; Magro, C.

    2012-03-01

    This study aims to characterise the rainfall exceptionality and the meteorological context of the 20 February 2010 flash-floods in Madeira (Portugal). Daily and hourly precipitation records from the available rain-gauge station networks are evaluated in order to reconstitute the temporal evolution of the rainstorm, as its geographic incidence, contributing to understand the flash-flood dynamics and the type and spatial distribution of the associated impacts. The exceptionality of the rainstorm is further confirmed by the return period associated with the daily precipitation registered at the two long-term record stations, with 146.9 mm observed in the city of Funchal and 333.8 mm on the mountain top, corresponding to an estimated return period of approximately 290 yr and 90 yr, respectively. Furthermore, the synoptic associated situation responsible for the flash-floods is analysed using different sources of information, e.g., weather charts, reanalysis data, Meteosat images and radiosounding data, with the focus on two main issues: (1) the dynamical conditions that promoted such anomalous humidity availability over the Madeira region on 20 February 2010 and (2) the uplift mechanism that induced deep convection activity.

  7. Mysida and Lophogastrida of Greece: a preliminary checklist

    PubMed Central

    Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of Mysida and Lophogastrida of Greece was created within the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), which is one of the applications of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) resuming efforts to develop a complete checklist of species recorded and reported from Greek waters. The objectives of the present study were to update and cross-check taxonomically all records of Mysida and Lophogastrida species known to occur in Greek waters in order to search for inaccuracies and omissions. New information The up-to-date checklist of Mysida and Lophogastrida of Greece comprises 49 species, classified to 25 genera. PMID:27932912

  8. Relative contributions of synoptic and intraseasonal variations to strong cold events over eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Lei; Wu, Renguang; Jiao, Yang

    2017-09-01

    The present study investigates the relative roles of intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) and synoptic variations in strong cold events over eastern China during the boreal winter. The ISOs and synoptic variations explain about 55% and 20% of the total area-mean temperature anomaly in eastern China, respectively. The advection of synoptic winds on synoptic temperature gradients has a leading contribution to the temperature decrease before the cold events and thus the synoptic variations are important in determining the time of peak cold anomalies. The ISOs have a larger role in sustaining the cold events. The height anomalies associated with ISOs and synoptic variations are manifested as Rossby wave trains propagating along the polar front jet over the Eurasian continent before the cold events. They both contribute to the deepening of the East Asian trough and the development of cold events. Compared to the ISO wave train, the synoptic wave train has a smaller spatial scale and moves faster. There are obvious intraseasonal signals in the stratosphere about 1 week before the cold events over eastern China. Large negative height anomalies associated with the weakening of the polar vortex are observed over the North Atlantic. These anomalies move eastwards and propagate downwards after reaching the west coast of Europe. The downward moving stratospheric signal triggers height anomalies in the troposphere over the entrance region of the polar front jet. Then the anomalies propagate towards East Asia along the wave train, contributing to the intensification of the Siberian high and the East Asian trough and the occurrence of cold events over eastern China.

  9. The disease burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Kourlaba, Georgia; Hillas, Georgios; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros; Maniadakis, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of the study was to estimate the self-reported prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Greece and to quantify its burden on patients’ daily activities, productivity, and psychological status. Methods A population-based, random digit-dialed telephone nationwide survey was conducted between July 10, 2015 and July 31, 2015 in order to recruit patients with COPD in Greece. Among the 11,471 persons contacted, 3,414 met the inclusion criterion of age ≥40 years and completed the screening questions regarding COPD. Of the 362 subjects who reported that they had been diagnosed with COPD, 351 completed the survey. Data on demographic and lifestyle characteristics, comorbidities, disease history, perceived disease severity, breathlessness severity, symptoms severity, limitations in daily activities, psychological distress, and productivity were collected. All data were collected through the telephone interview method using a structured questionnaire. Results The overall self-reported COPD prevalence was 10.6%. Among 351 participants, only 9% reported that they suffered from severe breathlessness. The mean COPD assessment test score was 19.0, with 84% of participants having a COPD assessment test score ≥10. As for the perceived severity of COPD, the majority of subjects considered that their respiratory condition was of moderate (34.2%) or mild severity (33.9%). Overall, the participants reported a significant impact of COPD on their daily life. For instance, 61.5% of them reported that their respiratory condition has affected their sports activities. Moreover, 73% of subjects considered that the health care system could do more for them than it actually does. Almost one-fourth of the participants reported that they had missed work during the past 12 months due to their respiratory symptoms, with the mean number of days lost being 10. Conclusion This survey provides insightful data regarding the impact of COPD on Greek

  10. Malaria in Greece: historical and current reflections on a re-emerging vector borne disease.

    PubMed

    Danis, Kostas; Lenglet, Annick; Tseroni, Maria; Baka, Agoritsa; Tsiodras, Sotiris; Bonovas, Stefanos

    2013-01-01

    Between 2009 and September 2012, locally acquired cases of P. vivax infection were reported in Greece, mostly from the agricultural area of Evrotas, Lakonia (n = 48), but also sporadically from five other regions (n = 14), suggesting that conditions in these areas are favourable for local transmission of malaria. The risk of re-establishment of malaria in Greece will depend on whether the receptivity for disease transmission (presence of the mosquito vector and adequate ecological and climatic factors) and the vulnerability (importation of the parasite in human reservoirs or presence of infected mosquito vectors) continue to be present in the country. The continuous implementation of the integrated preparedness and response plan for malaria that covers all aspects from surveillance and laboratory diagnosis to vector control and the reorganization of public health infrastructures are necessary to prevent transmission and control the disease in the long term. However, the impact of the severe economic crisis on current health-care, public health infrastructures and vector control constitute a great challenge for the future. The current threat of renewed sustained local malaria transmission in Greece (and thus in continental Europe) merits an international response, including financial and technical support, from European and international stakeholders.

  11. Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation for projection of end stage renal disease patients in Greece.

    PubMed

    Rodina-Theocharaki, A; Bliznakova, K; Pallikarakis, N

    2012-07-01

    End stage renal disease (ESRD) treatment methods are considered to be among the most expensive procedures for chronic conditions worldwide which also have severe impact on patients' quality of life. During the last decade, Greece has been among the countries with the highest incidence and prevalence, while at the same time with the lowest kidney transplantation rates. Predicting future patients' number on Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) is essential for health care providers in order to achieve more effective resource management. In this study a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation is presented for predicting the future number of ESRD patients for the period 2009-2020 in Greece. The MCMC model comprises Monte Carlo sampling techniques applied on probability distributions of the constructed Markov Chain. The model predicts that there will be 15,147 prevalent patients on RRT in Greece by 2020. Additionally, a cost-effectiveness analysis was performed on a scenario of gradually reducing the hemodialysis patients in favor of increasing the transplantation number by 2020. The proposed scenario showed net savings of 86.54 million Euros for the period 2009-2020 compared to the base-case prediction.

  12. Neurosurgery during the Bronze Age: a skull trepanation in 1900 BC Greece.

    PubMed

    Papagrigorakis, Manolis J; Toulas, Panagiotis; Tsilivakos, Manolis G; Kousoulis, Antonis A; Skorda, Despoina; Orfanidis, George; Synodinos, Philippos N

    2014-02-01

    Paleoneurosurgery represents a comparatively new developing direction of neurosurgery dealing with archaeological skull and spine finds and studying their neurosurgical aspects. Trepanation of the cranial vault was a widespread surgical procedure in antiquity and the most convincing evidence of the ancient origin of neurosurgery. The present study considers a case of trepanation from the Middle Bronze Age Greece (1900-1600 B.C.). The skull under study belongs to skeletal material unearthed from Kirra, Delphi (Central Greece). Macroscopic examination and palpation, as well as three-dimensional computed tomography, were used in this study. There is osteological evidence that the skull belongs to a man who died at 30-35 years of age. The procedure of trepanation was performed on the right parietal bone. Both macroscopic and computed tomography evaluation demonstrate an intravital bone reaction at the edges of the aperture. Projected on the right surface of the brain, the trepanation is located on the level of the central groove. The small dimensions and the symmetrical shape of this hole give us an indication that it was made by a metal tool. We conclude that this paleopathological case provides valuable information about the condition of life and the pre-Hippocratic neurosurgical practice in Bronze Age Greece. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ground source heat pumps (GSHP) for heating and cooling in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimera, Nikoletta

    This report presents the results of a theoretical study about the feasibility of closed loop Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP) for heating and cooling in Greece in terms of their impact on the capital and running costs of the building services systems of the buildings. The main aim of carrying out this study was to investigate if the heating and cooling potential of the ground could be utilized cost efficiently to serve the buildings energy demand in the Greek region. At first, an existing implementation of a closed loop GSHP system in Greece is presented and its efficiency is discussed. The aim of doing so was to understand the way of sizing such systems and the efficiency of this technology in Greek climatic and ground conditions. In a separate part of this report, the impact of different user behaviour and of various ways of sizing a GSHP system is investigated in terms of the cost impact of the examined different options as well as of their effect on the internal health and comfort conditions. After the building simulation under different scenarios, it was concluded that the user behavior - the operation of windows mostly - can result in great savings on the annual energy bills. The conclusions of this first part of the report about the user behaviour and the way of sizing GSHP systems were utilized in the next part of it, where a GSHP system is proposed for a building currently under construction in central Greece. A simple 30-year cost analysis was used in order to estimate the performance of the proposed GSHP system in economic terms and to compare it with the conventional HVAC system commonly used in Greece. According to the results of the analysis, the capital cost of installing a GSHP system for heating and cooling in buildings in Greece appears higher than the cost of conventional HVAC systems. More specifically, the capital cost of an installation for heating including gas boilers and a cooling system based on air conditioning split units is about the

  14. The main characteristics of atmospheric circulation associated with fog in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houssos, E. E.; Lolis, C. J.; Bartzokas, A.

    2009-11-01

    The characteristics of the atmospheric circulation over Europe and the Mediterranean associated with the formation and the dissipation of fog in Greece are examined. The data used consists of: i) 3-hourly meteorological observations recorded at 16 meteorological stations in Greece and ii) daily (00:00 UTC) 2.5×2.5 grid point values of mean sea-level pressure, 500 hPa geopotential height, 850 hPa and 500 hPa air temperatures and 1000-500 hPa thickness over Europe for the period 1957-2002. 1055 fog events are extracted from the 3-hourly meteorological observations. A specific methodology scheme including S-mode Factor Analysis and k-means Cluster Analysis is applied to the grid point data sets for the first day of a fog event (D day), the day prior to D day (D-1 day) and the day that follows the last day of a fog event (END day) and the 1055 evolutions of the atmospheric circulation associated with fog events in Greece are classified into 10 clusters. The mean patterns of MSL Pressure, 850 hPa and 500 hPa air temperatures, 1000-500 hPa thickness and 500 hPa geopotential height show that in most of the clusters, the presence of anticyclonic conditions over the Balkans, a warm front passage, or a weak, humid southerly flow induced by the presence of a shallow depression over the western Mediterranean favor fog formation in Greece, while the dissipation of fog occurs when drier air masses are transferred over the Balkans. The main differences among the 10 clusters refer to the exact position, the intensity and the specific evolution of the surface and the upper air systems, the season of their predominance and the area of the Greek territory that mainly refer to.

  15. A qualitative study on discrimination and ethical implications in stroke care in contemporary Greece.

    PubMed

    Theofanidis, Dimitrios

    2015-12-01

    Contemporary stroke care is diverse, contributing to complex ethical dilemmas and controversies. In Greece, continuing austerity measures and an ageing population are expected to increase the burden of stroke on health care delivery. We sought to explore ethical views and stances of health care professionals caring for stroke patients in Greece. Forms of discrimination against elderly hospitalized patients were also addressed. A qualitative design was adopted whereby an informal focus group interview and follow-up, face-to-face individual interviews were undertaken. The sample consisted of 12 nurses working in clinical areas with stroke patients. Their mean age was 31 years with a mean work experience of 10 years. Individual discussions were audio taped after subject consent and were transcribed verbatim subsequently for keywords-in-context analysis. Analysis of the focus interview revealed several recurring themes, namely, ward destination, admission policies, the concepts of age as related to stroke. Individual interviews highlighted several other topics, such as preferences for specific types of patients, communication capacity of the patient's condition, and his or her individual characteristics as a favoring or limiting factors, and challenges to age-related criteria for treatment. There is an age-related criteria of 65 years for ward destination after stroke as set by a ministerial decree, which is still practiced. Moreover, younger stroke patients may be offered more thorough assessments and clinical tests and therapies. Discrepancies in the level of care pose an ethical concern regarding levels of care for older stroke patients in Greece. A longstanding, age-related national policy in Greece regarding hospital admission criteria is shown to be a detrimental influence on ward admission for stroke patients. This policy, coupled with prehospital care protocols, was shown to promote ageism against this patient group. The age-related agenda in the Greek health

  16. Upper Cretaceous exhumation of the western Rhodope Metamorphic Province (Chalkidiki Peninsula, northern Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kydonakis, Konstantinos; Gallagher, Kerry; Brun, Jean-Pierre; Jolivet, Marc; Gueydan, Frédéric; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios

    2014-06-01

    The Vertiskos Unit of northern Greece is an elongated basement belt with a complex poly-metamorphic history. It extends from Greece (Chalkidiki peninsula), to the south, up to Serbia, in the north, and arguably represents the westernmost part of the Rhodope Metamorphic Province (northern Greece to southern Bulgaria). The Vertiskos Unit experienced a medium pressure lower amphibolite-facies metamorphic overprint during the Alpine Orogeny. The available medium-temperature geochronology implies that it remained at temperature of approximately 300°C (or slightly higher) during Lower Cretaceous. In order to constrain its post-Lower Cretaceous thermal history, until near-surface exposure, we applied apatite fission track analysis. The central ages obtained range from 68.5 ± 3.8 to 46.6 ± 3.6 Ma (uppermost Cretaceous to Middle Eocene) and mean track lengths between 13 and 13.5 µm. We applied two inverse thermal modeling approaches using either each sample independently (high degree of freedom in the thermal history, better data fit) or all samples together interpreting them as a vertical profile (simpler thermal history, worse data fit). Irrespective of the modeling approach, we conclude that the bulk thermal history of the Vertiskos Unit crosses the high-temperature limit of the apatite partial annealing zone by the uppermost Cretaceous and reaches near-surface conditions as early as lower/middle Eocene. These results contrast with the thermal history of the other domains of the Rhodope Metamorphic Province further east (namely the Southern Rhodope Core Complex and the Northern Rhodope Complex) and establish the Vertiskos basement complex as the oldest exhumed coherent basement fragment of the Rhodope Metamorphic Province and Greece.

  17. Spatial database for the management of "urban geology" geothematic information: the case of Drama City, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantelias, Eustathios; Zervakou, Alexandra D.; Tsombos, Panagiotis I.; Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.

    2008-10-01

    The aggregation of population in big cities leads to the concentration of human activities, economic wealth, over consumption of natural resources and urban growth without planning and sustainable management. As a result, urban societies are exposed to various dangers and threats with economical, social, ecological - environmental impacts on the urban surroundings. Problems associated with urban development are related to their geological conditions and those of their surroundings, e.g. flooding, land subsidence, groundwater pollution, soil contamination, earthquakes, landslides, etc. For these reasons, no sustainable urban planning can be done without geological information support. The first systematic recording, codification and documentation of "urban geology" geothematic information in Greece is implemented by the Institute of Geological and Mineral Exploration (I.G.M.E.) in the frame of project "Collection, codification and documentation of geothematic information for urban and suburban areas in Greece - pilot applications". Through the implementation of this project, all geothematic information derived from geological mapping, geotechnical - geochemical - geophysical research and measurements in four pilot areas of Greece Drama (North Greece), Nafplio & Sparti (Peloponnesus) and Thrakomakedones (Attica) is stored and processed in specially designed geodatabases in GIS environment containing vector and raster data. For the specific GIS application ArcGIS Personal Geodatabase is used. Data is classified in geothematic layers, grouped in geothematic datasets (e.g. Topography, Geology - Tectonics, Submarine Geology, Technical Geology, Hydrogeology, Soils, Radioactive elements, etc) and being processed in order to produced multifunctional geothematic maps. All compiled data constitute the essential base for land use planning and environmental protection in specific urban areas. With the termination of the project the produced geodatabase and other digital data

  18. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope: From Science Drivers to Reference Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ivezic, Z.; Axelrod, T.; Brandt, W.N.; Burke, D.L.; Claver, C.F.; Connolly, A.; Cook, K.H.; Gee, P.; Gilmore, D.K.; Jacoby, S.H.; Jones, R.L.; Kahn, S.M.; Kantor, J.P.; Krabbendam, V.; Lupton, R.H.; Monet, D.G.; Pinto, P.A.; Saha, A.; Schalk, T.L.; Schneider, D.P.; Strauss, Michael A.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /LSST Corp. /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /NOAO, Tucson /LLNL, Livermore /UC, Davis /Princeton U., Astrophys. Sci. Dept. /Naval Observ., Flagstaff /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /UC, Santa Cruz /Harvard U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Illinois U., Urbana

    2011-10-14

    In the history of astronomy, major advances in our understanding of the Universe have come from dramatic improvements in our ability to accurately measure astronomical quantities. Aided by rapid progress in information technology, current sky surveys are changing the way we view and study the Universe. Next-generation surveys will maintain this revolutionary progress. We focus here on the most ambitious survey currently planned in the visible band, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). LSST will have unique survey capability in the faint time domain. The LSST design is driven by four main science themes: constraining dark energy and dark matter, taking an inventory of the Solar System, exploring the transient optical sky, and mapping the Milky Way. It will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain multiple images covering the sky that is visible from Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. The current baseline design, with an 8.4 m (6.5 m effective) primary mirror, a 9.6 deg{sup 2} field of view, and a 3,200 Megapixel camera, will allow about 10,000 square degrees of sky to be covered using pairs of 15-second exposures in two photometric bands every three nights on average. The system is designed to yield high image quality, as well as superb astrometric and photometric accuracy. The survey area will include 30,000 deg{sup 2} with {delta} < +34.5{sup o}, and will be imaged multiple times in six bands, ugrizy, covering the wavelength range 320-1050 nm. About 90% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg{sup 2} region about 1000 times in the six bands during the anticipated 10 years of operation. These data will result in databases including 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars, and will serve the majority of science programs. The remaining 10% of the observing time will be allocated to special programs such as Very Deep and Very Fast time domain surveys. We describe how the

  19. Synoptic Sky Surveys: Lessons Learned and Challenges Ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djorgovski, Stanislav G.; CRTS Team

    2014-01-01

    A new generation of synoptic sky surveys is now opening the time domain for a systematic exploration, presenting both great new scientific opportunities as well as the challenges. These surveys are touching essentially all subfields of astronomy, producing large statistical samples of the known types of objects and events (e.g., SNe, AGN, variable stars of many kinds), and have already uncovered previously unknown subtypes of these (e.g., rare or peculiar types of SNe). They are generating new science now, and paving the way for even larger surveys to come, e.g., the LSST. Our ability to fully exploit such forthcoming facilities depends critically on the science, methodology, and experience that are being accumulated now. Among the outstanding challenges the foremost is our ability to conduct an effective follow-up of the interesting events discovered by the surveys in any wavelength regime. The follow-up resources, especially spectroscopy, are already be severely limited, and this problem will grow by orders of magnitude. This requires an intelligent down-selection of the most astrophysically interesting events to follow. The first step in that process is an automated, real-time, iterative classification of transient events, that incorporates heterogeneous data from the surveys themselves, archival information (spatial, temporal, and multiwavelength), and the incoming follow-up observations. The second step is an optimal automated event prioritization and allocation of the available follow-up resources that also change in time. Both of these challenges are highly non-trivial, and require a strong cyber-infrastructure based on the Virtual Observatory data grid, and the various astroinformatics efforts now under way. This is inherently an astronomy of telescope-computational systems, that increasingly depends on novel machine learning and artificial intelligence tools. Another arena with a strong potential for discovery is an archival, non-time-critical exploration

  20. Solar System science with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Lynne; Brown, Mike; Ivezić, Zeljko; Jurić, Mario; Malhotra, Renu; Trilling, David

    2015-11-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST; http://lsst.org) will be a large-aperture, wide-field, ground-based telescope that will survey half the sky every few nights in six optical bands from 320 to 1050 nm. It will explore a wide range of astrophysical questions, ranging from performing a census of the Solar System, to examining the nature of dark energy. It is currently in construction, slated for first light in 2019 and full operations by 2022.The LSST will survey over 20,000 square degrees with a rapid observational cadence, to typical limiting magnitudes of r~24.5 in each visit (9.6 square degree field of view). Automated software will link the individual detections into orbits; these orbits, as well as precisely calibrated astrometry (~50mas) and photometry (~0.01-0.02 mag) in multiple bandpasses will be available as LSST data products. The resulting data set will have tremendous potential for planetary astronomy; multi-color catalogs of hundreds of thousands of NEOs and Jupiter Trojans, millions of asteroids, tens of thousands of TNOs, as well as thousands of other objects such as comets and irregular satellites of the major planets.LSST catalogs will increase the sample size of objects with well-known orbits 10-100 times for small body populations throughout the Solar System, enabling a major increase in the completeness level of the inventory of most dynamical classes of small bodies and generating new insights into planetary formation and evolution. Precision multi-color photometry will allow determination of lightcurves and colors, as well as spin state and shape modeling through sparse lightcurve inversion. LSST is currently investigating survey strategies to optimize science return across a broad range of goals. To aid in this investigation, we are making a series of realistic simulated survey pointing histories available together with a Python software package to model and evaluate survey detections for a user-defined input population. Preliminary

  1. The Little Ice Age climate of New Zealand reconstructed from Southern Alps cirque glaciers: a synoptic type approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorrey, Andrew; Fauchereau, Nicolas; Stanton, Craig; Chappell, Petra; Phipps, Steven; Mackintosh, Andrew; Renwick, James; Goodwin, Ian; Fowler, Anthony

    2014-06-01

    Little Ice Age (LIA) austral summer temperature anomalies were derived from palaeoequilibrium line altitudes at 22 cirque glacier sites across the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Modern analog seasons with temperature anomalies akin to the LIA reconstructions were selected, and then applied in a sampling of high-resolution gridded New Zealand climate data and global reanalysis data to generate LIA climate composites at local, regional and hemispheric scales. The composite anomaly patterns assist in improving our understanding of atmospheric circulation contributions to the LIA climate state, allow an interrogation of synoptic type frequency changes for the LIA relative to present, and provide a hemispheric context of the past conditions in New Zealand. An LIA summer temperature anomaly of -0.56 °C (±0.29 °C) for the Southern Alps based on palaeo-equilibrium lines compares well with local tree-ring reconstructions of austral summer temperature. Reconstructed geopotential height at 1,000 hPa (z1000) suggests enhanced southwesterly flow across New Zealand occurred during the LIA to generate the terrestrial temperature anomalies. The mean atmospheric circulation pattern for summer resulted from a crucial reduction of the `HSE'-blocking synoptic type (highs over and to the west of NZ; largely settled conditions) and increases in both the `T'- and `SW'-trough synoptic types (lows passing over NZ; enhanced southerly and southwesterly flow) relative to normal. Associated land-based temperature and precipitation anomalies suggest both colder- and wetter-than-normal conditions were a pervasive component of the base climate state across New Zealand during the LIA, as were colder-than-normal Tasman Sea surface temperatures. Proxy temperature and circulation evidence were used to corroborate the spatially heterogeneous Southern Hemisphere composite z1000 and sea surface temperature patterns generated in this study. A comparison of the composites to climate mode archetypes

  2. Cluster analysis: A technique for estimating the synoptic meteorological controls on air and precipitation chemistry—Results from Eskdalemuir, South Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorling, S. R.; Davies, T. D.; Pierce, C. E.

    Clustering of isobaric trajectories arriving at Eskdalemuir, south Scotland, enabled us to isolate the influences of atmospheric transport patterns and precipitation amount on gas, aerosol and precipitation chemistry at this site. We conclude that at Eskdalemuir, 55% of the variation in summer season non-sea-salt sulphate concentration in rain may be explained by upwind history defined by trajectory clustering and by precipitation amount. Each cluster of trajectories could be described by distinct synoptic weather conditions, leading to the interesting prospect of assigning a typical ion concentration in precipitation to a given synoptic weather pattern. The scale of the synoptic patterns identified in this study were shown to be able to explain the variation in sulphur dioxide concentrations observed across a network of 50 stations contributing to the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme. There is greater confidence in Global Climate Model simulations of future circulation patterns as a result of climate change than of equivalent simulations of temperature and precipitation distributions. A first approximation of future levels of ion deposition may therefore best be inferred from circulation pattern-ion concentration relationships of the type developed in this paper. The influence of other less certain changes in precipitation type/amount, scavenging processes and emission levels should then be assessed against a background of changes in the frequency of circulation patterns.

  3. PRISM4: Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping mid Piacenzian paleoenvironmental reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowsett, H. J.; Dolan, A. M.; Rowley, D. B.; Moucha, R.; Forte, A. M.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Pound, M. J.; Salzmann, U.; Robinson, M. M.; Chandler, M. A.; Foley, K.; Haywood, A.

    2016-12-01

    Past Intervals in Earth history provide unique windows into conditions much different than those observed today. We investigated the paleoenvironments of a past warm interval in the mid Piacenzian ( 3 million years ago). The PRISM4 reconstruction contains twelve internally consistent and integrated data sets representing our best synoptic understanding of surface temperature, vegetation, soils, lakes, ice sheets, topography, and bathymetry. Starting points in the generation of our Piacenzian reconstruction are basic geochemical, faunal, floral, soil, cryospheric, topographic, bathymetric, sedimentologic, and stratigraphic data. Marine and terrestral temperature estimates are based upon multiple proxies (including faunal, floral, geochemical, and biomarker analyses). The reconstruction of Piacenzian global vegetation is based on the integration of paleobotanical data and BIOME4 model outputs. Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets are derived from the previous PRISM3 and PLISMIP (Pliocene Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project) results, respectively. Paleogeography is based upon an initial ETOPO1 digital elevation model incorporating PRISM4 ice sheets, GIA, and adjustments due to mantle convection. Soils are determined through comparison of sedimentological and stratigraphic data with the BIOME reconstruction. Lakes are determined from stratigraphic and sedimentological data. Sea-level equivalent (+20 m) is estimated from the reduced volume of the PRISM4 ice sheets and is consistent with our PRISM4 paleogeography. While not an analog for future conditions, the PRISM4 conceptual reconstruction provides insights into processes that occurred in the past and can inform us about the future. We will discuss the use of these data as boundary conditions and verification for global climate model simulations of the Pliocene, aimed at improving our understanding of the climate system as we prepare for future changes.

  4. The record precipitation and flood event in Iberia in December 1876: description and synoptic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, Ricardo; Varino, Filipa; Ramos, Alexandre; Valente, Maria; Zêzere, José; Vaquero, José; Gouveia, Célia; Russo, Ana

    2014-04-01

    The first week of December 1876 was marked by extreme weather conditions that affected the south-western sector of the Iberian Peninsula, leading to an all-time record flow in two large international rivers. As a direct consequence, several Portuguese and Spanish towns and villages located in the banks of both rivers suffered serious flood damage on 7 December 1876. These unusual floods were amplified by the preceding particularly autumn wet months, with October 1876 presenting extremely high precipitation anomalies for all western Iberia stations. Two recently digitised stations in Portugal (Lisbon and Evora), present a peak value on 5 December 1876. Furthermore, the values of precipitation registered between 28 November and 7 December were so remarkable that, the episode of 1876 still corresponds to the maximum average daily precipitation values for temporal scales between 2 and 10 days. Using several different data sources, such as historical newspapers of that time, meteorological data recently digitised from several stations in Portugal and Spain and the recently available 20th Century Reanalysis, we provide a detailed analysis on the socio-economic impacts, precipitation values and the atmospheric circulation conditions associated with this event. The atmospheric circulation during these months was assessed at the monthly, daily and sub-daily scales. All months considered present an intense negative NAO index value, with November 1876 corresponding to the lowest NAO value on record since 1865. We have also computed a multivariable analysis of surface and upper air fields in order to provide some enlightening into the evolution of the synoptic conditions in the week prior to the floods. These events resulted from the continuous pouring of precipitation registered between 28 November and 7 December, due to the consecutive passage of Atlantic low-pressure systems fuelled by the presence of an atmospheric-river tropical moisture flow over central Atlantic Ocean.

  5. Regional climates in the GISS global circulation model - Synoptic-scale circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewitson, B.; Crane, R. G.

    1992-01-01

    A major weakness of current general circulation models (GCMs) is their perceived inability to predict reliably the regional consequences of a global-scale change, and it is these regional-scale predictions that are necessary for studies of human-environmental response. For large areas of the extratropics, the local climate is controlled by the synoptic-scale atmospheric circulation, and it is the purpose of this paper to evaluate the synoptic-scale circulation of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM. A methodology for validating the daily synoptic circulation using Principal Component Analysis is described, and the methodology is then applied to the GCM simulation of sea level pressure over the continental United States (excluding Alaska). The analysis demonstrates that the GISS 4 x 5 deg GCM Model II effectively simulates the synoptic-scale atmospheric circulation over the United States. The modes of variance describing the atmospheric circulation of the model are comparable to those found in the observed data, and these modes explain similar amounts of variance in their respective datasets. The temporal behavior of these circulation modes in the synoptic time frame are also comparable.

  6. Regional climates in the GISS global circulation model - Synoptic-scale circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewitson, B.; Crane, R. G.

    1992-01-01

    A major weakness of current general circulation models (GCMs) is their perceived inability to predict reliably the regional consequences of a global-scale change, and it is these regional-scale predictions that are necessary for studies of human-environmental response. For large areas of the extratropics, the local climate is controlled by the synoptic-scale atmospheric circulation, and it is the purpose of this paper to evaluate the synoptic-scale circulation of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM. A methodology for validating the daily synoptic circulation using Principal Component Analysis is described, and the methodology is then applied to the GCM simulation of sea level pressure over the continental United States (excluding Alaska). The analysis demonstrates that the GISS 4 x 5 deg GCM Model II effectively simulates the synoptic-scale atmospheric circulation over the United States. The modes of variance describing the atmospheric circulation of the model are comparable to those found in the observed data, and these modes explain similar amounts of variance in their respective datasets. The temporal behavior of these circulation modes in the synoptic time frame are also comparable.

  7. Vocational Education and Training in Greece: The European Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paleocrassas, Stamatis

    1992-01-01

    Gives a brief review of Greece's current vocational education/training system, compares it to European models, describes the European Community process of harmonization of vocational qualifications, and discusses new legislation establishing a national vocational education/training system. (SK)

  8. Suicide in Greece: 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Kontaxakis, V; Papaslanis, Th; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Tsouvelas, G; Giotakos, O; Papadimitriou, G Ν

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008 several European countries have fallen into a financial crisis. This crisis has mainly affected the Greek population. The lower of income and the increase of unemployment as consequences of crisis lead to negative effects on people's mental health. Usually, in periods of economic crisis there is an increase of suicidality of population. The aim of this study is to examine the changes of suicide rates in Greece during the last decade (2001-2011) with particular consideration in the recent period of economic crisis (2008-2011). Data regarding the greek general population and the crude data on suicides were obtained from the Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT). We assessed the specific suicide rate, i.e. the number of suicide cases per 100.000 inhabitants (SSR) using population data on the 2001 and 2011 census. Yearly and mean total, age and sex-SSR were calculated in five years age groups. There were no suicide cases among children under the age of fifteen. We compared total and male, female SSR during the period before the crisis (2001-2007) and during the crisis (2008-2011). During the decade 2001-2011 a total number of 4133 suicide cases were recorded. There were 3423 (82.8%) male suicides and 710 (17.2%) female suicides. During the decade 2001-2011 total SSR increased by 38.4%. In males increased by 33.1% and in females by 69.6%. In the period before the crisis (2001-2007) total SSR decreased by 3.9%. In males decreased by 8.4% but in females increased by 22.3%. During the period of crisis (2008-2011) total SSR increased by 27.2%. In males increased by 26.9% and in females by 28.5%. There was a statistically significant increase in total SSR during the crisis regarding subjects 50-54 years old (t=3.43, p=0.007) and in total SSR of males (t=2.31, p=0.047) as well as of the males age groups 50-54 (t=3.56, p=0.006), 45-49 (t=2.87, p=0.02), 30-34 (t=2.96, p=0.02). There were no statistically significant differences both in total SSR and in SSR of all

  9. Greece's health crisis: from austerity to denialism.

    PubMed

    Kentikelenis, Alexander; Karanikolos, Marina; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2014-02-22

    Greece's economic crisis has deepened since it was bailed out by the international community in 2010. The country underwent the sixth consecutive year of economic contraction in 2013, with its economy shrinking by 20% between 2008 and 2012, and anaemic or no growth projected for 2014. Unemployment has more than tripled, from 7·7% in 2008 to 24·3% in 2012, and long-term unemployment reached 14·4%. We review the background to the crisis, assess how austerity measures have affected the health of the Greek population and their access to public health services, and examine the political response to the mounting evidence of a Greek public health tragedy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    PubMed

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality.

  11. Greece Financial Crisis and Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Mechili, Aggelos E; Kalokairinou, Athena; Kaitelidou, Dafni; Diomidous, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    The last six years the global community is facing an economic crisis that first appeared in USA. This crisis has a lot of impacts especially in health sector. Unemployment, job insecurity and the loss of disposable income have a significant impact in health too. The main objective of this research was to investigate the quality of life of the general population in Greece during the financial crisis. To collect the data it has been used the Greek version of Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36v2). In general, income, level of education, cohabitation and parenthood had a significant impact in quality of life. As a conclusion, unemployed participants' score was lower in the entire dimensions and in the two summary scales too.

  12. Preterm birth in ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    PubMed

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2017-01-01

    This report refers to preterm birth in Ancient Greece based on mythological, historical and archeological data. The two antique goddesses, patronesses of labor and birth, Artemis and Eileithyia, cared for full-term, as well as preterm infants, among them for the mythological preterms Dionysos and Eurystheus. The former was rapidly transported by Hermes and received special care by the nymphs Hyades in a mountain cave with "incubator" properties. Historical data are related to the nine months duration of a normal pregnancy, to the definition of "Elitomina" (preterms), the lower limit of viability, the causes for preterm birth, the existence of small for gestational age infants and relevant causes, the physical examination of neonates and postpartum care. Lastly, excavations in Athens and Astypalaia discovered burials - in wells or pots - of preterm infants with gestational age 24-37 weeks.

  13. The practice of electroconvulsive therapy in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kaliora, Styliani C; Braga, Raphael J; Petrides, Georgios; Chatzimanolis, John; Papadimitriou, George N; Zervas, Iannis M

    2013-09-01

    To describe the practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in Greece. A survey was conducted during the academic year 2008-2009. Electroconvulsive therapy use was investigated for 2007. All civilian institutions providing inpatient care were included. Centers that provided ECT completed a 57-item questionnaire. Centers that did not offer ECT completed a 13-item questionnaire. Fifty-five (82.1%) of 67 institutions responded. Electroconvulsive therapy was offered in 18 hospitals. Only 2 of 10 university hospitals offered ECT. Overall, 137 patients were treated with 1271 sessions in 2007. Only 1.47% discontinued treatment owing to adverse events. There were no deaths. Schizophrenia was the most common diagnosis (41.3%) among those receiving ECT, followed by major depression (28.9%), bipolar depression (9.1%), catatonia (4.1%), suicidal ideation (3.3%), and schizoaffective disorder (2.5%). Physicians considered major depression (93.8%), catatonia (86.5%), schizophrenia (56.3%), and mania (50%) the most appropriate indications. Written informed consent was required in 77.8% of the institutions, whereas the rest required verbal consent. Bilateral ECT was the preferred electrode placement (88.9%). Modified ECT was used exclusively. Propofol was the preferred anesthetic (44.4%), followed by thiopental (38.9%). Seven (38.9%) of 18 hospitals used a fixed stimulus dose at first treatment. Five (27.8%) of 18 hospitals used the half-age method. Continuation/maintenance ECT was used in 33.3% of the hospitals. Outpatient ECT was seldom used. Lack of training, difficult access to anesthesiology, billing issues, and stigma were cited as the main impediments to the practice of ECT. Electroconvulsive therapy is practiced in moderate numbers in Greece and almost exclusively on an inpatient basis. Lack of training and lack of availability of anesthesiologists were cited as the most common obstacles to providing ECT.

  14. Greece’s Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-07

    economic downturn (which requires expansionary fiscal policies ) – are at odds with each other. Some question, then, how long the government will be able to...countries, like Greece, have had higher levels of wage growth and more expansionary fiscal policies , leading to less competitive exports and lower...unified monetary policy and diverse fiscal policies . It has also come to light that complex financial instruments may have played a role in helping Greece

  15. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila from hotels of Greece.

    PubMed

    Alexiou, S D; Antoniadis, A; Papapaganagiotou, J; Stefanou, T

    1989-03-01

    Twenty water samples collected from 6 hotels situated in various areas of Greece were examined for the presence of Legionella pneumophila and Legionella-like organisms. Five of the six hotels included in this investigation were associated with cases of legionellosis. Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 and 8 were isolated from four of six hotels, mainly from the hot water supply system. This is the first isolation and identification of L. pneumophila in Greece.

  16. Synoptic backgrounds of the widest wildfire in Mazandaran Province of Iran during December 11-13, 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghavidel, Yousef; Farajzadeh, Manuchehr; Khaleghi Babaei, Meysam

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, atmospheric origins of the widest wildfire in Mazandaran province on 11-13th of December, 2010 have been investigated. Data sets of this research include maximum daily temperature (MDT), minimum relative humidity (MRH) of terrestrial stations, dynamic and thermodynamic features of the atmosphere, Gridded data sets of Self-Calibrated Palmer drought severity index (SCPDSI) and global drought dataset standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) and data related to the time and the extent of the wildfire. The ``environmental to circulation'' approach to synoptic classification has been used to investigate relationships between local-scale surface environment (wildfire) and the synoptic-scale atmospheric circulation conditions. Results of study show that during the 3-day wide wildfire, the average of MDT and the MRH was significantly different from the long-term average. During the aforementioned wildfire, the average of MDT in Mazandaran province was 26 °C and the average of MRH was reported 35 %. The long-term average of MDT and the MRH in Mazandaran province during 3 days of wildfire was 12.3 °C and 68 %, respectively. Therefore, the MDT has a positive abnormality of 13.7 °C and the MRH has a negative abnormality of 33 %. In addition, monthly SCPDSI and SPEI indicated severe drought conditions at December 2010 in Mazandaran. Analysis of SLP maps shows that during the 3-day fire, a pressure center of 1110 hPa on Persian Gulf and a very low-pressure center on Turkey and Asia Minor were created. Normally, this event has caused the pressure gradient and warm and dry air advection from Arabian Peninsula to higher longitudes, particularly Mazandaran province. Consequently, the MDT increased and the wildfire of Mazandaran forest took place in an area of 220 ha. Zonal wind maps signify the weakness of Zonal wind and meridional wind maps show the southern direction of meridional wind flow during the wide wildfire. Moreover, Omega maps prove

  17. An Air Mass Based Approach to the Establishment of Spring Season Synoptic Characteristics in the Northeast United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, R.; Messina, A.; Godek, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    identified for the onset of spring. Late spring frequencies are similar but with more variability in all moist variety air mass frequencies. These findings indicate that, from a synoptic perspective, springs in the Northeast can be defined by dry air mass conditions through time but modern springs are also warmer than those of past decades and the initiation of the season is likely arriving earlier. The end of the Northeast spring season may also be represented by more variable day-to-day air mass conditions in modern times than detected in past decades. 1950 - 1975 (black) and 1976 - 2010 (gray) Philadelphia, PA Spring air mass frequency (%).

  18. Characteristics of the atmospheric circulation associated with cold-season heavy rainfall and flooding over a complex terrain region in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstathiou, G. A.; Lolis, C. J.; Zoumakis, N. M.; Kassomenos, P.; Melas, D.

    2014-01-01

    Raingauge data from four meteorological stations in Chalkidiki peninsula (Greece) were used to identify the characteristics of the synoptic circulation patterns associated with cold-season heavy rainfall events and corresponding flooding over the area. Precipitation climatology over the complex topography of Chalkidiki is characterized by limited annual rainfall, but in the occurrence of heavy rainfall episodes daily accumulations are exceptionally high with increased precipitation rates, leading often to severe flooding. Fifty-five cases of high daily accumulations for the period of 1997 to 2010, mostly observed during December and October, were classified into eight clusters by applying S-Mode Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis to the ERA-Interim grid point reanalysis data. The results revealed that, in most cases, intense rainfall and flooding is produced by synoptic scale disturbances that generate and sustain cyclonic activity over south Italy, the Ionian, and less frequently over the Aegean Sea. In particular, the atmospheric circulation patterns associated with heavy rainfall are characterized by the presence of a southeasterly-easterly low-level humid flow over Chalkidiki in conjunction with the potentially unstable lower troposphere influenced by mid-level cyclonic vorticity advection and enhanced low-level convergence over the complex terrain.

  19. Ascidiacea (Chordata: Tunicata) of Greece: an updated checklist.

    PubMed

    Antoniadou, Chryssanthi; Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The checklist of the ascidian fauna (Tunicata: Ascidiacea) of Greece was compiled within the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an application of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) aiming to produce a complete checklist of species recorded from Greece. This checklist was constructed by updating an existing one with the inclusion of recently published records. All the reported species from Greek waters were taxonomically revised and cross-checked with the Ascidiacea World Database. The updated checklist of the class Ascidiacea of Greece comprises 75 species, classified in 33 genera, 12 families, and 3 orders. In total, 8 species have been added to the previous species list (4 Aplousobranchia, 2 Phlebobranchia, and 2 Stolidobranchia). Aplousobranchia was the most speciose order, followed by Stolidobranchia. Most species belonged to the families Didemnidae, Polyclinidae, Pyuridae, Ascidiidae, and Styelidae; these 4 families comprise 76% of the Greek ascidian species richness. The present effort revealed the limited taxonomic research effort devoted to the ascidian fauna of Greece, which is attributed to the lack of experts and low sampling effort. Therefore, major knowledge gaps on the ascidian diversity of Greece occur and further research in this field is needed.

  20. Ascidiacea (Chordata: Tunicata) of Greece: an updated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of the ascidian fauna (Tunicata: Ascidiacea) of Greece was compiled within the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an application of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) aiming to produce a complete checklist of species recorded from Greece. This checklist was constructed by updating an existing one with the inclusion of recently published records. All the reported species from Greek waters were taxonomically revised and cross-checked with the Ascidiacea World Database. New information The updated checklist of the class Ascidiacea of Greece comprises 75 species, classified in 33 genera, 12 families, and 3 orders. In total, 8 species have been added to the previous species list (4 Aplousobranchia, 2 Phlebobranchia, and 2 Stolidobranchia). Aplousobranchia was the most speciose order, followed by Stolidobranchia. Most species belonged to the families Didemnidae, Polyclinidae, Pyuridae, Ascidiidae, and Styelidae; these 4 families comprise 76% of the Greek ascidian species richness. The present effort revealed the limited taxonomic research effort devoted to the ascidian fauna of Greece, which is attributed to the lack of experts and low sampling effort. Therefore, major knowledge gaps on the ascidian diversity of Greece occur and further research in this field is needed. PMID:27932910

  1. The impact of sea breeze under different synoptic patterns on air pollution within Athens basin.

    PubMed

    Mavrakou, Thaleia; Philippopoulos, Kostas; Deligiorgi, Despina

    2012-09-01

    Air quality in densely populated urban coastal areas is directly related to the coupling of the synoptic and the local scale flows. The dispersion conditions within Athens basin, under the influence of different meteorological forcings, lead to distinct spatio-temporal air pollution patterns. The aim of the current observational research is to identify and examine the effect of sea breeze under different atmospheric circulation patterns on air pollution levels for a one-year study period (2007). The study employs surface pressure maps, routine meteorological observations at two coastal sites and nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) concentrations from a network of four air quality stations within the Athens basin. A three-step methodology is applied that incorporates a set of criteria for classifying atmospheric circulation and identifying sea breeze events under each circulation pattern. Two types of sea breeze development are identified (pure sea breeze-PSB and modified sea breeze-MSB) with distinct characteristics. Sea breeze is found to develop more frequently under offshore compared to onshore and parallel to the shoreline background flows. Poor dispersion conditions (high nitrogen oxides-NO(x) and O(3) concentrations) are connected to the pure sea breeze cases and to those cases where sea breeze interacts with a moderate northerly flow during the warm period. The levels of NO(x) and O(3) for the northern Athens basin area are found to be significantly higher during the sea breeze days compared to the Etesian days. Regarding the diurnal variation of ozone for the sea breeze days, peak concentrations and higher intra-daily ranges are observed. Day-to-day pollution accumulation (build-up effect) is measured for O(3) at the northern stations in the Athens basin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Solar wind dynamic pressure effect on planetary wave propagation and synoptic-scale Rossby wave breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hua; Franzke, Christian; Martius, Olivia; Jarvis, Martin J.; Phillips, Tony

    2013-05-01

    We provide statistical evidence of the effect of the solar wind dynamic pressure (Psw) on the northern winter and spring circulations. We find that the vertical structure of the Northern Annular Mode (NAM), the zonal mean circulation, and Eliassen-Palm (EP)-flux anomalies show a dynamically consistent pattern of downward propagation over a period of ~45 days in response to positive Psw anomalies. When the solar irradiance is high, the signature of Psw is marked by a positive NAM anomaly descending from the stratosphere to the surface during winter. When the solar irradiance is low, the Psw signal has the opposite sign, occurs in spring, and is confined to the stratosphere. The negative Psw signal in the NAM under low solar irradiance conditions is primarily governed by enhanced vertical EP-flux divergence and a warmer polar region. The winter Psw signal under high solar irradiance conditions is associated with positive anomalies of the horizontal EP-flux divergence at 55°N-75°N and negative anomalies at 25°N-45°N, which corresponds to the positive NAM anomaly. The EP-flux divergence anomalies occur ~15 days ahead of the mean-flow changes. A significant equatorward shift of synoptic-scale Rossby wave breaking (RWB) near the tropopause is detected during January-March, corresponding to increased anticyclonic RWB and a decrease in cyclonic RWB. We suggest that the barotropic instability associated with asymmetric ozone in the upper stratosphere and the baroclinic instability associated with the polar vortex in the middle and lower stratosphere play a critical role for the winter signal and its downward propagation.

  3. Exploiting Synoptic-Scale Climate Processes to Develop Nonstationary, Probabilistic Flood Hazard Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, C. M.; Brown, C.; Doss-Gollin, J.

    2016-12-01

    Climate model projections are commonly used for water resources management and planning under nonstationarity, but they do not reliably reproduce intense short-term precipitation and are instead more skilled at broader spatial scales. To provide a credible estimate of flood trend that reflects climate uncertainty, we present a framework that exploits the connections between synoptic-scale oceanic and atmospheric patterns and local-scale flood-producing meteorological events to develop long-term flood hazard projections. We demonstrate the method for the Iowa River, where high flow episodes have been found to correlate with tropical moisture exports that are associated with a pressure dipole across the eastern continental United States We characterize the relationship between flooding on the Iowa River and this pressure dipole through a nonstationary Pareto-Poisson peaks-over-threshold probability distribution estimated based on the historic record. We then combine the results of a trend analysis of dipole index in the historic record with the results of a trend analysis of the dipole index as simulated by General Circulation Models (GCMs) under climate change conditions through a Bayesian framework. The resulting nonstationary posterior distribution of dipole index, combined with the dipole-conditioned peaks-over-threshold flood frequency model, connects local flood hazard to changes in large-scale atmospheric pressure and circulation patterns that are related to flooding in a process-driven framework. The Iowa River example demonstrates that the resulting nonstationary, probabilistic flood hazard projection may be used to inform risk-based flood adaptation decisions.

  4. Prologue for a synoptic catalog: combining a hospital library catalog and a bookseller's catalog.

    PubMed

    Colglazier, M L

    1996-01-01

    This article introduces the synoptic catalog, a computerized combination of a hospital library catalog and a bookseller's catalog. Majors Scientific Books and Richmond Memorial Hospital Libraries in Virginia collaborated to develop the model. A logical evolution in catalog theory and practice, the design expands the identification, collocation, and evaluation functions of the traditional library catalog. This article explains the procedures and specifications, including system requirements, record mapping, design details, scope, record transmission, timing, record importing, and file maintenance. The result is a single-interface catalog providing simultaneous and consistent searching of combined information databases. Bookseller records in the synoptic catalog can be modified to indicate library ownership. The synoptic catalog design supports cost-effective collection development and focuses on actual information needs of library users. This report discusses user convenience, budget requirements, publisher advertising, collection development, productivity, and library-bookseller relations. User response to the catalog has been favorable, but improvements are needed.

  5. Prologue for a synoptic catalog: combining a hospital library catalog and a bookseller's catalog.

    PubMed Central

    Colglazier, M L

    1996-01-01

    This article introduces the synoptic catalog, a computerized combination of a hospital library catalog and a bookseller's catalog. Majors Scientific Books and Richmond Memorial Hospital Libraries in Virginia collaborated to develop the model. A logical evolution in catalog theory and practice, the design expands the identification, collocation, and evaluation functions of the traditional library catalog. This article explains the procedures and specifications, including system requirements, record mapping, design details, scope, record transmission, timing, record importing, and file maintenance. The result is a single-interface catalog providing simultaneous and consistent searching of combined information databases. Bookseller records in the synoptic catalog can be modified to indicate library ownership. The synoptic catalog design supports cost-effective collection development and focuses on actual information needs of library users. This report discusses user convenience, budget requirements, publisher advertising, collection development, productivity, and library-bookseller relations. User response to the catalog has been favorable, but improvements are needed. PMID:8938329

  6. Effect of uncertainties in solar synoptic magnetic flux maps in modeling of solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Bertello, Luca; MacNeice, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Recently, the NSO/SOLIS team developed variance (error) maps that represent uncertainties in magnetic flux synoptic charts. These uncertainties are determined by the spatial variances of the magnetic flux distribution from full disk magnetograms that contribute to each bin in the synoptic chart. Here we present a study of the effects of variances on solar wind parameters (wind speed, density, magnetic field, and temperature) derived using the WSA-ENLIL model and ensemble modeling approach. We compare the results of the modeling with near-Earth solar wind magnetic field and plasma data as extracted from NASA/GSFC's OMNI data set. We show that analysis of uncertainties may be useful for understanding the sensitivity of the model predictions to short-term evolution of magnetic field and noise in the synoptic magnetograms.

  7. ALISSA: Abridged Landslide Inventory of Spain for synoptic Susceptibility Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervás, Javier

    2014-05-01

    natively collected in kml format, while these and additional landslide attributes extracted from literature are finally stored in an ArcGIS database. In order to not "over-inventory" landslides in some densely mapped areas, some basic registration rules are applied, including neglecting very small landslides as well as small landslides affecting road cuts, and keeping a minimum distance of approximately 100 m between mappable landslide centroids, thus not over-registering rockfalls or partly reactivated large landslides. Although the main purpose of the inventory was to collect fairly distributed landslide locations in Spain for synoptic landslide susceptibility mapping, ALISSA systematically includes also bibliographic references and information on lithology. Including harmonised, major landslide typology is often not possible because of lack of information on landslide type or the unclear classification used in a number of documents and maps. Other landslide properties such as volume or size, date of occurrence or reactivation, activity and damage caused are at the moment occasionally included as they are not relevant to the model used to produce ELSUS 1000 v1. It should be noted that the bibliographical references associated to the inventoried landslides will enable in many instances to collect additional information for engineering works and hazard and risk assessment. ALISSA currently holds over 1400 landslides, including most large landslides and landslides causing major damage in mainland Spain and the Balearic Islands. Although it can be considered to fairly portray landslide distribution in Spain, especially large slides and flows, the inventory is quite far from including all the landslides occurred in the country, bearing also in mind the somehow restrictive landslide registration rules applied for the main purpose of the inventory. In particular, rockfalls and debris flows appear poorly covered. In addition, there are some landslide-prone areas where landslides

  8. Transport Variability in the Korea/Tsushima Strait: Characteristics and Relationship to Synoptic Atmospheric Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Boonsoon; Hirose, Naoki; Fukudome, Ken-ichi

    2014-06-01

    The characteristics of high-frequency transport variation through the Korea/Tsushima Strait and its response to atmospheric synoptic forcing are investigated by using acoustic velocity measurements and a barotropic model. The first principal mode for the current data in the high-frequency band (3-50 days) is mostly coherent to transport variation through the strait. As the dominant mode, the cross-sectional pattern of the transport variability is clarified: strong axes exist in the centers of the western and eastern channels of the strait. Seasonal change in the high-frequency variability is also elucidated: it is strong from November to January, peaks in April and September, and is weak from May to August. Both data analysis and numerical experiments clarify that the transport variation is mainly attributable to wind and pressure forcing, especially in a synoptic time band (3-9 days). The amplitude of the high-frequency variability is even stronger than that of seasonal transport variation. The lagged cross-covariance reveals a spatial pattern that causes the transport variation to be a synoptic weather system passing eastward along the mid-latitudes with a period of around 5 days. The transport response to this synoptic change is investigated through numerical experiments with idealized atmospheric forcing. The experiments reveal that about 40-50% of the total transport fluctuations in the synoptic time band are explained by the idealized forcing, with a contribution from wind stress higher than that from pressure. Sensitivity experiments on the forcing area show that the pressure-driven transport fluctuation is mainly determined by forcing over the East/Japan Sea. Additional experiments indicate that the strait transport fluctuation responds coherently to the local and remote winds of the synoptic atmospheric forcing.

  9. Synoptic and mesoscale aspects of ice storms in the northeastern U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, Christopher M.

    Ice storms are among the most hazardous, disruptive, and costly meteorological phenomena in the northeastern United States. The accretion of freezing rain during ice storms endangers human safety, compromises public infrastructure, and causes economic losses on local and regional scales. Furthermore, ice storms present a major operational forecast challenge due to the combined influence of synoptic, mesoscale, and microphysical processes on precipitation type. In consideration of these socioeconomic impacts and forecast issues, we have identified three primary objectives for this thesis: 1) create long-term climatologies of freezing rain and ice storms in the northeastern U.S., 2) identify antecedent environments conducive to ice storms and dynamical mechanisms responsible for freezing rain, and 3) increase situational awareness of the synoptic and mesoscale processes that govern the evolution of ice storms. The climatology portion of this thesis examines the temporal and spatial variability of freezing rain and ice storms during the 1975-2010 and 1993-2010 periods, respectively. Individual ice storms are also partitioned by five characteristic synoptic-scale weather patterns. Synoptic composite maps for the two most common event types (Type G and Type BC) illustrate how large-scale circulation patterns and associated quasi-geostrophic (QG) forcing, thermal boundaries, and moisture transport establish environments favorable for freezing rain. Composite cross sections also offer critical insights into synoptic-mesoscale linkages that influence the duration and intensity of freezing rain. The composite analysis for both event types suggests that ice storms occur in association with QG ascent and low-level frontogenetical forcing beneath the equatorward entrance region of an upper-level jet. Moreover, low- to midlevel warm advection and moisture transport, in conjunction with near-surface ageostrophic cold advection on the poleward side of a surface warm front, helps

  10. Bridging knowledge to develop an action plan for integrated care for chronic diseases in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Lionis, Christos; Yfantopoulos, John

    2015-01-01

    The health, social and economic impact of chronic diseases is well documented in Europe. However, chronic diseases threaten relatively more the ‘memorandum and peripheral’ Eurozone countries (i.e., Greece, Spain, Portugal and Ireland), which were under heavy recession after the economic crisis in 2009. Especially in Greece, where the crisis was the most severe across Europe, the austerity measures affected mainly people with chronic diseases. As a result, the urgency to tackle the threat of chronic diseases in Greece by promoting public health and providing effective chronic care while flattening the rising health care expenditure is eminent. In many European countries, integrated care is seen as a means to achieve this. The aim of this paper was to support Greek health policy makers to develop an action plan from 2015 onwards, to integrate care by bridging local policy context and needs with knowledge and experience from other European countries. To achieve this aim, we adopted a conceptual framework developed by the World Health Organization on one hand to analyse the status of integrated care in Greece, and on the other to develop an action plan for reform. The action plan was based on an analysis of the Greek health care system regarding prerequisite conditions to integrate care, a clear understanding of its context and successful examples of integrated care from other European countries. This study showed that chronic diseases are poorly addressed in Greece and integrated care is in embryonic stage. Greek policy makers have to realise that this is the opportunity to make substantial reforms in chronic care. Failing to reform towards integrated care would lead to the significant risk of collapse of the Greek health care system with all associated negative consequences. The action plan provided in this paper could support policy makers to make the first serious step to face this challenge. The details and specifications of the action plan can only be decided

  11. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-01-01

    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011–2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini’s shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano. PMID:26507183

  12. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece.

    PubMed

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-10-28

    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini's shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano.

  13. Resistant Shigella strains in refugees, August-October 2015, Greece.

    PubMed

    Georgakopoulou, T; Mandilara, G; Mellou, K; Tryfinopoulou, K; Chrisostomou, A; Lillakou, H; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Vatopoulos, A

    2016-08-01

    Shigellosis is endemic in most developing countries and thus a known risk in refugees and internally displaced persons. In 2015, a massive influx of refugees into Greece, due to the political crisis in the Middle East, led to the development of appropriate conditions for outbreaks of communicable diseases as shigellosis. We present a cluster of 16 shigellosis cases in refugees, detected by the implementation of a syndromic notification system in one transit centre in Athens, between 20 August and 7 October 2015. Both Shigella flexneri (n = 8) and S. sonnei (n = 8) were identified, distributed in various serotypes. All tested isolates (n = 13) were multidrug resistant; seven were CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers. Our results indicate lack of a potential common source, although pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing results revealed small clusters in isolates of the same serotype indicating possible limited person-to-person transmission without identifying secondary community cases related to the refugees. To prevent the spread of shigellosis, empirical antibiotic treatment as well as environmental hygiene measures were implemented. The detection of multi-drug resistance is important for determining the appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment for the more severe cases, while at the same time real-time typing is useful for epidemiological investigation and control measures.

  14. Development of a road transport emission inventory for Greece and the Greater Athens Area: effects of important parameters.

    PubMed

    Fameli, K M; Assimakopoulos, V D

    2015-02-01

    Traffic is considered one of the major polluting sectors and as a consequence a significant cause for the measured exceedances of ambient air quality limit values mainly in urban areas. The Greater Athens Area (located in Attica), the most populated area in Greece, faces severe air pollution problems due to the combination of high road traffic emissions, complex topography and local meteorological conditions. Even though several efforts were made to construct traffic emission inventories for Greece and Attica, still there is not a spatially and temporally resolved one, based on data from relevant authorities and organisations. The present work aims to estimate road emissions in Greece and Attica based on the top down approach. The programme COPERT 4 was used to calculate the annual total emissions from the road transport sector for the period 2006-2010 and an emission inventory for Greece and Attica was developed with high spatial (6 × 6 km(2) for Greece and 2 × 2 km(2) for Attica) and temporal (1-hour) resolutions. The results revealed that about 40% of national CO₂, CO, VOC and NMVOC values and 30% of NOx and particles are emitted in Attica. The fuel consumption and the subsequent reduction of annual mileage driven in combination with the import of new engine anti-pollution technologies affected CO₂, CO, VOC and NMVOC emissions. The major part of CO (56.53%) and CO₂ (66.15%) emissions was due to passenger cars (2010), while heavy duty vehicles (HDVs) were connected with NOx, PM₂.₅ and PM₁₀ emissions with 51.27%, 43.97% and 38.13% respectively (2010). The fleet composition, the penetration of diesel fuelled cars, the increase of urban average speed and the fleet renewal are among the most effective parameters towards the emission reduction strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Male germplasm in relation to environmental conditions: synoptic focus on DNA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Tiersch, Terrence R.; Green, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    Wild animals are generally more sensitive than humans to environmental stressors, thus they act as sentinels for resource degradation. Sublethal stress is generally manifested first at the sub-organismal level, where immune systems are compromised, reproductive success is reduced, and genetic integrity is altered. Biomarkers - variables quantifiably responsive to changes in the environment - provide useful information to resource managers and regulatory agencies. Biomarkers of sperm quality are proving useful in this capacity, as well as in artificial breeding. Cellular and molecular bioassays can help to determine mechanisms of action of deleterious agents, predict fertility and reproductive potential, and model population-wide and community level effects. A sequence of biomarker assays can be tailored to fit species of concern, to study physiological effects responsive to known contamination events, and can be selectively applied to fresh, thawed, and fixed samples, as well as those shipped to the laboratory from field sites.

  16. Synoptic Conditions of the Occurrence of Sea Breezes on the Polish Coast of the Baltic Sea,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-03

    3] studied them for a sector of the Atlantic coast of the United States of America, and Estoque [2] carried out theoretical work of the mechanism in...author and on calculations of Estoque , and still requires confirmation by mea- surements. The whole phenomenon should be studied more thoroughly under

  17. Synoptic-scale and mesoscale environments conducive to forest fires during the October 2003 extreme fire event in Southern California

    Treesearch

    Chenjie Huang; Y.L. Lin; M.L. Kaplan; Joseph J.J. Charney

    2009-01-01

    This study has employed both observational data and numerical simulation results to diagnose the synoptic-scale and mesoscale environments conducive to forest fires during the October 2003 extreme fire event in southern California. A three-stage process is proposed to illustrate the coupling of the synoptic-scale forcing that is evident from the observations,...

  18. Observations of synoptic-scale land surface variability and its coupling with the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Christopher M.; Parker, Douglas J.; Lloyd, Colin R.; Thorncroft, Chris D.

    2005-04-01

    Cloud-free brightness temperatures from satellite are used to interpret changes in the state of the land surface energy balance from day to day across the tropical semi-arid region of North Africa. The method provides an assessment of the spatial and temporal patterns in the surface characteristics. The variability in brightness temperature is closely linked to precipitation, as inferred from available rain-gauge data and satellite cold-cloud imagery. Temperatures drop sharply after rainfall, and increase gradually in subsequent days consistent with surface drying. The analysis shows that surface temperatures (and therefore fluxes) are well-organized at the synoptic scale, and can be linked to the westward propagation of mesoscale convective systems and African easterly waves (AEWs).The modulation of rainfall and cloud cover by weather systems is a key element in producing variability in surface fluxes of heat and moisture. To examine the relationships between surface variability and the atmosphere, a composite of anomalously warm (and dry) surface conditions with spatial coherence over a given longitude band is constructed from satellite data covering a single wet season. Operational analyses are used to examine atmospheric anomalies associated with these composited 'hotspots'. Surface moisture variations on the scale of several hundred km and larger can generate anomalous heat-lows during the day and, according to the operational analyses, generate cyclonic vorticity overnight. These vortices appear to be responsible for the observed modulation of cold cloud in the vicinity of the hotspot, and may influence the characteristics of AEWs in the Northern Sahel. Furthermore, theoretical ideas suggest that surface hotspots are likely to trigger a westward-propagating Rossby-wave response; this process is demonstrated here in a simple numerical model.

  19. Synoptical Auroral Ovals: A Comparison study with TIMED/GUVI Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, K.; Paxton, L.; Zhang, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Whether the aurora Australis is a mirror image of its northern hemispheric counterpart is a question that auroral physicists have been wanting to answer. Owing to geophysical constraints, especially the large offset between the location of the southern magnetic and southern geographic poles, there is a paucity of information about the aurora Australis. Comparisons of some instantansous global-scale northern and southern auroras acquired conjugately by Polar and IMAGE spacecraft recently have shown mixed results. In this study, we present data from a different source to provide insight into the global morphology and behavior of the auroral oval. Approximately 20,000 Earth's disk FUV images acquired from the Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI) on-board NASA's Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite between February 2002 and February 2006 are processed and analyzed. Synoptic auroral distributions for the northern and southern ovals are derived. Our study result reveals that the statistical oval is nearly hemispherically symmetric (within ±80%). Several known features in the morphology of the aurora Borealis are also observed in the Southern Hemisphere: For instance, the auroral midday gap and the premidnight maximum. The hemispherical symmetry of the auroras deteriorates as the partition of solar illumination in the two hemisphere polar region becomes asymmetric. It is estimated that the solar illumination effect accounts for up to ~50% of the hemispheric asymmetry. We found evidence that suggests that the aurora is suppressed under sunlit conditions in the South just as it is in the North. We also found that the auroral energy flux increases monotonically with the increase of the solar zenith angle. These results suggest that ionospheric conductivity plays an active role in regulating magnetospheric energy deposition in the auroral zone.

  20. Synoptic climatological analysis of persistent cold air pools over the Carpathian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabóné André, Karolina; Bartholy, Judit; Pongrácz, Rita

    2016-04-01

    A persistent cold air pool (PCAP) is a winter-time, anticyclone-related weather event over a relatively large basin. During this time the air is colder near the surface than aloft. This inversion near the surface can last even for weeks. As the cold air cools down, relative humidity increases and fog forms. The entire life cycle of a PCAP depends on the large scale circulation pattern. PCAP usually appears when an anticyclone builds up after a cold front passed over the examined basin, and it is usually destructed by a coming strong cold front of another midlatitude cyclone. Moreover, the intensity of the anticyclone affects the intensity of the PCAP. PCAP may result in different hazards for the population: (1) Temperature inversion in the surface layers together with weak wind may lead to severe air pollution causing health problems for many people, especially, elderly and children. (2) The fog and/or smog during chilly weather conditions often results in freezing rain. Both fog and freezing rain can distract transportation and electricity supply. Unfortunately, the numerical weather prediction models have difficulties to predict PCAP formation and destruction. One of the reasons is that PCAP is not defined objectively with a simple formula, which could be easily applied to the numerical output data. However, according to some recommendations from the synoptic literature, the shallow convective potential energy (SCPE) can be used to mathematically describe PCAP. In this study, we used the ERA-Interim reanalysis datasets to examine this very specific weather event (i.e., PCAP) over the Carpathian Basin. The connection between the mean sea level pressure and some PCAP measures (e.g., SCPE, energy deficit, etc.) is evaluated. For instance, we used logistic regression to identify PCAP periods over the Carpathian Basin. Then, further statistical analysis includes the evaluation of the length and intensity of these PCAP periods.

  1. Linking Scales of Sediment Dynamics from Sand Grains to the Synoptic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calantoni, J.; Palmsten, M.; Penko, A.; Frank, D. P.; Simeonov, J.

    2016-12-01

    In the Sediment Dynamics Section at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory we perform basic and applied research focused on understanding seafloor, estuarine, and riverine sediments. We are motivated by the need to predict the dynamical properties of sediments. A multi-disciplinary team of scientists and engineers works in a collaborative environment to simulate, model and observe phenomena in both the laboratory and field at scales from the motions of individual sand grains immersed in fluid up to tens of kilometers and several days. Simulation and modeling efforts are focused on a new probabilistic paradigm to bridge the gap from grain scale physics to large-scale morpohdynamics. We propose to utilize a hierarchy of computationally intensive, high fidelity simulations to populate a probabilistic framework to make predictions across a range of cascading length and time scales. The success of our approach relies on rigorous validation of our high fidelity simulations using detailed laboratory and field measurements of fluid-particle turbulence at the scales of interest. Recent advances in optical imaging techniques have made it possible to make highly resolved three-dimensional measurements of fluid-particle turbulent interactions in the laboratory with spatial and temporal resolutions at or near the Kolmogorov scale. Work is ongoing to transition these technologies for use in the field. Synoptic field observational efforts are focused on combining remote sensing with in situ measurements to provide both validation for emerging predictive capabilities and optimization for data assimilation and boundary conditions for operational forecasting. We will present an overview of results from our modeling efforts along with relevant laboratory and field observations.

  2. Using synoptic classification and trajectory analysis to assess air quality during the winter heating period in Ürümqi, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lili; Wang, Yuesi; Sun, Yang; Li, Yuanyuan

    2012-03-01

    Synoptic patterns identified by an automated procedure employing principal-component analysis and a two-stage cluster analysis, and backward trajectory analysis clustered by the HYSPLIT4.9 model were used to examine air quality patterns over Ürümqi, China, one of the most heavily polluted cities in the world. Six synoptic patterns representing different atmospheric circulation patterns and air-mass characteristics were classified during the winter heating periods from 2001 to 2008, and seven trajectory clusters representing different paths of air masses arriving at Ürümqi were calculated during the winter heating periods from 2005 to 2008. Then air quality was evaluated using these two approaches, and significant variations were found across both synoptic patterns and trajectory clusters. The heaviest air-pollution episodes occurred when Ürümqi was either in an extremely cold, strong anticyclone or at the front of a migrating cyclone. Both conditions were characterized by with light winds, cold, wet surface air, and relatively dry upper air. Ürümqi was predominately influenced by air masses from the southwest and from local areas. Air pollution index (API) levels were highest for air masses originating from the southwest with a longer path or for the local area, because of transport from semi-desert/desert regions by strong winds and because of local heavy pollution emissions, respectively. The interactions between these two analytical approaches showed that poor diffusion conditions, together with local circulation, enhanced air pollution, besides, regional air-mass transport caused by strong winds contributed to serious air quality under relatively good diffusion conditions.

  3. Application of spatial synoptic classification in evaluating links between heat stress and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in Prague, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Aleš; Kyselý, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Spatial synoptic classification (SSC) is here first employed in assessing heat-related mortality and morbidity in Central Europe. It is applied for examining links between weather patterns and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality and morbidity in an extended summer season (16 May-15 September) during 1994-2009. As in previous studies, two SSC air masses (AMs)—dry tropical (DT) and moist tropical (MT)—are associated with significant excess CVD mortality in Prague, while effects on CVD hospital admissions are small and insignificant. Excess mortality for ischaemic heart diseases is more strongly associated with DT, while MT has adverse effect especially on cerebrovascular mortality. Links between the oppressive AMs and excess mortality relate also to conditions on previous days, as DT and MT occur in typical sequences. The highest CVD mortality deviations are found 1 day after a hot spell's onset, when temperature as well as frequency of the oppressive AMs are highest. Following this peak is typically DT- to MT-like weather transition, characterized by decrease in temperature and increase in humidity. The transition between upward (DT) and downward (MT) phases is associated with the largest excess CVD mortality, and the change contributes to the increased and more lagged effects on cerebrovascular mortality. The study highlights the importance of critically evaluating SSC's applicability and benefits within warning systems relative to other synoptic and epidemiological approaches. Only a subset of days with the oppressive AMs is associated with excess mortality, and regression models accounting for possible meteorological and other factors explain little of the mortality variance.

  4. Prediction skill of tropical synoptic scale transients from ECMWF and NCEP ensemble prediction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Taraphdar, S.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Leung, L. Ruby; Landu, Kiranmayi

    2016-12-05

    The prediction skill of tropical synoptic scale transients (SSTR) such as monsoon low and depression during the boreal summer of 2007–2009 are assessed using high resolution ECMWF and NCEP TIGGE forecasts data. By analyzing 246 forecasts for lead times up to 10 days, it is found that the models have good skills in forecasting the planetary scale means but the skills of SSTR remain poor, with the latter showing no skill beyond 2 days for the global tropics and Indian region. Consistent forecast skills among precipitation, velocity potential, and vorticity provide evidence that convection is the primary process responsible for precipitation. The poor skills of SSTR can be attributed to the larger random error in the models as they fail to predict the locations and timings of SSTR. Strong correlation between the random error and synoptic precipitation suggests that the former starts to develop from regions of convection. As the NCEP model has larger biases of synoptic scale precipitation, it has a tendency to generate more random error that ultimately reduces the prediction skill of synoptic systems in that model. Finally, the larger biases in NCEP may be attributed to the model moist physics and/or coarser horizontal resolution compared to ECMWF.

  5. Long-term Synoptic Observations of Ca II K and Magnetic Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertello, L.; Pevtsov, A. A.; Tlatov, A. G.

    2016-04-01

    Long-term synoptic observations in the resonance line of Ca II K and measurements of the solar magnetic flux over several decades constitute a fundamental database for a variety of retrospective analyzes of the state of the solar magnetism. These data archives may also hold the key for untangling some of the mysteries behind the solar dynamo, which in turn could result in a better predictive capability of current dynamo models. Synoptic Ca II K observations began in 1907 at the Kodaikanal observatory (India) and in 1915 at the Mt Wilson (California, USA) solar observatory. By the early 1970s a number of synoptic programs for solar magnetic observations were established that provided full disk magnetograms. These programs include measurements carried out at the Mt Wilson 150-foot solar tower, Wilcox observatory (California, USA), and by the National Solar Observatory (NSO, USA). Today the NSO is continuing these observations through its Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) facility. We will review some of these historical observations, their properties, and their importance for understanding the behavior of the solar magnetic field over multidecadal time scales. We will also show recent results about using Ca II K spectroheliograms and sunspot magnetic field measurements to reconstruct homogeneous series of pseudo-magnetograms prior the magnetograph era.

  6. All-Sky Image Fusion for a Synoptic Survey Telescope in Arctic and Antarctic Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grøtte, M.; Virani, S.; Holzinger, M.; Register, A.; Perez, C.; Tapia, J.

    2016-09-01

    Near-Earth object (NEO) detection, transient astronomical event detection, and Space Situational Awareness (SSA) support are all provided by wide-field, high cadence synoptic telescope surveys. Many such exquisite and monolithic synoptic surveys achieve impressive performance and are certainly changing these application areas. In the past 15 years Raven-class telescopes have made a clear case for the utility of commercial-off-the-shelf systems in SSA. This paper documents the initial efforts and next steps for the Omnidirectional Space Situational Awareness (OmniSSA) array, a wide-field-of-view synoptic survey system that leverages the Raven-class telescope paradigm. The approach utilizes multiple overlapping wide field-of-view sensors with post-processing super resolution and image stacking techniques to generate synthetic images equivalent to larger wide field-of-view systems. The synthetic array offers potential to utilize a plurality of components that are individually low cost and commercial off-the-shelf. A brief survey of synoptic survey systems is presented, followed by a description of the current hardware implementation of the OmniSSA array and preliminary out-of-the-box results for baseline OmniSSA camera SR and image stacking routines.

  7. SYNOPTIC ASSESSMENT OF WETLAND FUNCTION: A PLANNING TOOL FOR PROTECTION OF WETLAND SPECIES DIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a synoptic assessment intended to maximize the benefits to wetland species biodiversity gained through Clean Water Act regulatory efforts within 225 sub-basins in Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 7), USA. Our assessment...

  8. SYNOPTIC ASSESSMENT OF WETLAND FUNCTION: A PLANNING TOOL FOR PROTECTION OF WETLAND SPECIES BIODIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a synoptic assessment intended to maximize the benefits to wetland species biodiversity gained through Clean Water Act regulatory efforts within 225 sub-basins in Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas (U.S. EPA, Region 7) USA. Our assessment provides a method for identif...

  9. SYNOPTIC ASSESSMENT OF WETLAND FUNCTION: A PLANNING TOOL FOR PROTECTION OF WETLAND SPECIES DIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a synoptic assessment intended to maximize the benefits to wetland species biodiversity gained through Clean Water Act regulatory efforts within 225 sub-basins in Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 7), USA. Our assessment...

  10. Prediction skill of tropical synoptic scale transients from ECMWF and NCEP ensemble prediction systems

    DOE PAGES

    Taraphdar, S.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Leung, L. Ruby; ...

    2016-12-05

    The prediction skill of tropical synoptic scale transients (SSTR) such as monsoon low and depression during the boreal summer of 2007–2009 are assessed using high resolution ECMWF and NCEP TIGGE forecasts data. By analyzing 246 forecasts for lead times up to 10 days, it is found that the models have good skills in forecasting the planetary scale means but the skills of SSTR remain poor, with the latter showing no skill beyond 2 days for the global tropics and Indian region. Consistent forecast skills among precipitation, velocity potential, and vorticity provide evidence that convection is the primary process responsible formore » precipitation. The poor skills of SSTR can be attributed to the larger random error in the models as they fail to predict the locations and timings of SSTR. Strong correlation between the random error and synoptic precipitation suggests that the former starts to develop from regions of convection. As the NCEP model has larger biases of synoptic scale precipitation, it has a tendency to generate more random error that ultimately reduces the prediction skill of synoptic systems in that model. Finally, the larger biases in NCEP may be attributed to the model moist physics and/or coarser horizontal resolution compared to ECMWF.« less

  11. The Application of Synoptic Weather Forecasting Rules to Selected Weather Situations in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Fred E.

    The document describes the use of weather maps and data in teaching introductory college courses in synoptic meteorology. Students examine weather changes at three-hour intervals from data obtained from the "Monthly Summary of Local Climatological Data." Weather variables in the local summary include sky cover, air temperature, dew point, relative…

  12. Snowfall in the northwest Iberian Peninsula: synoptic circulation patterns and their influence on snow day trends.

    PubMed

    Merino, Andrés; Fernández, Sergio; Hermida, Lucía; López, Laura; Sánchez, José Luis; García-Ortega, Eduardo; Gascón, Estíbaliz

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, a decrease in snowfall attributed to the effects of global warming (among other causes) has become evident. However, it is reasonable to investigate meteorological causes for such decrease, by analyzing changes in synoptic scale patterns. On the Iberian Peninsula, the Castilla y León region in the northwest consists of a central plateau surrounded by mountain ranges. This creates snowfalls that are considered both an important water resource and a transportation risk. In this work, we develop a classification of synoptic situations that produced important snowfalls at observation stations in the major cities of Castilla y León from 1960 to 2011. We used principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster techniques to define four synoptic patterns conducive to snowfall in the region. Once we confirmed homogeneity of the series and serial correlation of the snowfallday records at the stations from 1960 to 2011, we carried out a Mann-Kendall test. The results show a negative trend at most stations, so there are a decreased number of snowfall days. Finally, variations in these meteorological variables were related to changes in the frequencies of snow events belonging to each synoptic pattern favorable for snowfall production at the observatory locations.

  13. The Application of Synoptic Weather Forecasting Rules to Selected Weather Situations in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Fred E.

    The document describes the use of weather maps and data in teaching introductory college courses in synoptic meteorology. Students examine weather changes at three-hour intervals from data obtained from the "Monthly Summary of Local Climatological Data." Weather variables in the local summary include sky cover, air temperature, dew point, relative…

  14. Are synoptic circulation types able to characterize the climate of an Alpine region?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panziera, Luca; Laiti, Lavinia; Giovannini, Lorenzo; Zardi, Dino

    2015-04-01

    This study exploits a comprehensive data set of surface temperature, rainfall, solar radiation and wind measurements to investigate the relation between synoptic circulation types and the climate of Trentino, a mountainous region in the South-Eastern Alps. Synoptic patterns are classified over different isobaric levels by means of an existing classification method according to their degree of zonality, meridionality and vorticity. Distinct seasonal anomalies of mean daily temperature, total daily rainfall, daily solar irradiation and mean daily wind intensity are associated with most circulation types. Their magnitude varies not only among weather types, but also within the same type for different levels and seasons. Moreover, extreme meteorological events occur with preferential circulation types, since the frequency of occurrence of extremes for each synoptic pattern rarely coincides with the climatological value. The ability of the classification method to resolve the variations of mean daily temperature, solar irradiation, total rainfall and mean wind intensity is also investigated. It is shown that the isobaric level considered by the classification scheme providing the highest predictive capability depends on the season and the atmospheric variable. Finally, this study demonstrates that the mesoscale mechanisms resulting from the interaction of the large-scale flow with the local orography determine the character of the weather associated with each synoptic pattern, strongly influencing the climate of Trentino.

  15. Synoptic Forcing of Net Precipitation in the Mackenzie and Yukon Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassano, J. J.; Cassano, E. N.; Shaw, M. J.

    2006-12-01

    A synoptic climatology of sea level pressure (SLP) patterns over Alaska, eastern Siberia, and western Canada for 1957 to 2002 is created using the method of self-organizing maps (SOMs). This synoptic climatology is based on data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts 40-year reanalysis (ERA-40). A total of 35 synoptic weather patterns are identified in the data, and for each of these patterns the mean precipitation, evaporation, and net precipitation over the Mackenzie and Yukon watersheds are calculated. This data is analyzed on both annual and seasonal timescales to describe the role of synoptic forcing in driving these hydrologic variables. The ERA-40 based climatology is then compared with output from the Polar MM5 regional atmospheric model for the period 1979 to 2002. A novel SOM-based technique is used to attribute differences in precipitation, evaporation, and net precipitation between ERA-40 and the Polar MM5 simulations to circulation and non-circulation components. This research is a contribution to the National Science Foundation's Freshwater Integration project.

  16. Prediction skill of tropical synoptic scale transients from ECMWF and NCEP Ensemble Prediction Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Taraphdar, S.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Leung, L. Ruby; Landu, Kiranmayi

    2016-01-05

    Abstract

    The prediction skill of tropical synoptic scale transients (SSTR) such as monsoon low and depression during the boreal summer of 2007–2009 are assessed using high resolution ECMWF and NCEP TIGGE forecasts data. By analyzing 246 forecasts for lead times up to 10 days, it is found that the models have good skills in forecasting the planetary scale means but the skills of SSTR remain poor, with the latter showing no skill beyond 2 days for the global tropics and Indian region. Consistent forecast skills among precipitation, velocity potential, and vorticity provide evidence that convection is the primary process responsible for precipitation. The poor skills of SSTR can be attributed to the larger random error in the models as they fail to predict the locations and timings of SSTR. Strong correlation between the random error and synoptic precipitation suggests that the former starts to develop from regions of convection. As the NCEP model has larger biases of synoptic scale precipitation, it has a tendency to generate more random error that ultimately reduces the prediction skill of synoptic systems in that model. The larger biases in NCEP may be attributed to the model moist physics and/or coarser horizontal resolution compared to ECMWF.

  17. Lodgepole pine site index in relation to synoptic measures of climate, soil moisture and soil nutrients.

    Treesearch

    G. Geoff Wang; Shongming Huang; Robert A. Monserud; Ryan J. Klos

    2004-01-01

    Lodgepole pine site index was examined in relation to synoptic measures of topography, soil moisture, and soil nutrients in Alberta. Data came from 214 lodgepole pine-dominated stands sampled as a part of the provincial permanent sample plot program. Spatial location (elevation, latitude, and longitude) and natural subregions (NSRs) were topographic variables that...

  18. Comparison of Accuracy and Speed of Information Identification by Nonpathologists in Synoptic Reports With Different Formats.

    PubMed

    Renshaw, Andrew A; Gould, Edwin W

    2017-03-01

    - The College of American Pathologists requires synoptic reports for specific types of pathology reports. - To compare the accuracy and speed of information retrieval in synoptic reports of different formats. - We assessed the performance of 28 nonpathologists from 4 different types of users (cancer registrars, MDs, medical non-MDs, and nonmedical) at identifying specific information in various formatted synoptic reports, using a computerized quiz that measured both accuracy and speed. - There was no significant difference in the accuracy of data identification for any user group or in any format. While there were significant differences in raw time between users, these were eliminated when normalized times were used. Compared with the standard format of a required data element (RDE) and response on 1 line, both a list of responses without an RDE (21%, P < .001) and a paired response with more concise text (33%, P < .001) were significantly faster. In contrast, both the 2-line format (RDE header on one line, response indented on the second line) (12%, P < .001) and a report with the RDE response pairs in a random order were significantly slower (16%, P < .001). - There are significant differences in ease of use by nonpathologists between different synoptic report formats. Such information may be useful in deciding between different format options.

  19. Snowfall in the Northwest Iberian Peninsula: Synoptic Circulation Patterns and Their Influence on Snow Day Trends

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Andrés; Fernández, Sergio; Hermida, Lucía; López, Laura; Sánchez, José Luis; García-Ortega, Eduardo; Gascón, Estíbaliz

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, a decrease in snowfall attributed to the effects of global warming (among other causes) has become evident. However, it is reasonable to investigate meteorological causes for such decrease, by analyzing changes in synoptic scale patterns. On the Iberian Peninsula, the Castilla y León region in the northwest consists of a central plateau surrounded by mountain ranges. This creates snowfalls that are considered both an important water resource and a transportation risk. In this work, we develop a classification of synoptic situations that produced important snowfalls at observation stations in the major cities of Castilla y León from 1960 to 2011. We used principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster techniques to define four synoptic patterns conducive to snowfall in the region. Once we confirmed homogeneity of the series and serial correlation of the snowfallday records at the stations from 1960 to 2011, we carried out a Mann-Kendall test. The results show a negative trend at most stations, so there are a decreased number of snowfall days. Finally, variations in these meteorological variables were related to changes in the frequencies of snow events belonging to each synoptic pattern favorable for snowfall production at the observatory locations. PMID:25152912

  20. Synoptic analysis of heat-related mortality in Sydney, Australia, 1993-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaneckova, Pavla; Hart, Melissa A.; Beggs, Paul J.; de Dear, Richard J.

    2008-07-01

    Exposure to extremely hot weather has been associated with increased mortality. Temporal Synoptic Index is an effective method used to analyze the relationship between mortality and combined weather factors. The aim of this study is to examine the short-term effect of ambient heat on mortality in Sydney during the warmest 6-month period (October-March) for the years 1993-2001. Eleven synoptic categories were related to daily mortality rates in Sydney. Two distinctive warm categories were associated with significantly higher mortality rates. Hot, dry and relatively rare Synoptic Category 7 (SC7) days showed the highest daily mortality rates, followed by warm and humid SC3 days, which occurred more frequently. Increased mortality was more pronounced among the elderly population, and gender-stratified analysis showed women to be more vulnerable. Mortality on the day of the weather event was higher than 1 or 2 days after the adverse synoptic situation. Ozone and particulate matter smaller than 10 µm were found at high concentrations in SC3 and SC7, respectively, but their impact on mortality was not clear. The population of Sydney was found to be vulnerable to high temperatures, with a lower susceptibility than those of some cities in the USA and Europe.

  1. Laron syndrome. First report from Greece.

    PubMed

    Galli-Tsinopoulou, Assimina; Nousia-Arvanitakis, Sanda; Tsinopoulos, Ioannis; Bechlivanides, Christos; Shevah, Orit; Laron, Zvi

    2003-01-01

    Laron-type dwarfism is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deletions or mutations of the growth hormone receptor gene. It is characterized by high circulating levels of growth hormone (GH) and low levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Patients are refractory to both endogenous and exogenous GH, and present severe growth retardation and obesity. Therapy with recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I) accelerates linear growth. We describe a 2-year old girl with Laron syndrome, who presented with postnatal growth failure and hypoglycaemic seizures. Her evaluation disclosed high GH values during a glucagon test (peak GH value 170 ng/ml) and very low IGF I value (0.1 ng/ml) with no rise following GH administration. The growth velocity improved considerably with the administration of IGF I. Molecular analysis showed a heterozygous mutation on exon 4 of the GH receptor gene, inherited from the mother, a rather puzzling finding considering the clinical findings in mother and infant. This case constitutes the first report of Laron syndrome from Greece.

  2. Space Radar Image of Athens, Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This space radar image of Athens, Greece, shows the sprawling, modern development of this ancient capital city. Densely populated urban areas appear in shades of pink and light green. The Acropolis the dark green triangular patch in the center of the image. Archaeological discoveries indicate Athens has been continuously occupied for at least the last 5,000 years. Numerous ships, shown as bright dots, are seen in the harbor areas in the upper left part of the image. The port city of Piraeus is at the left center. This image is 45 kilometers by 45 kilometers (28 miles by 28 miles) and is centered at 37.9 degrees north latitude, 23.7 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations are as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 2, 1994 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  3. Burns during Easter festivities in Greece.

    PubMed

    Pallantzas, A; Kourakos, P; Stampolidis, N; Papagianni, E; Balagoura, A; Stathopoulos, A; Polizoi, A; Emvalomata, A; Evaggelopoulou, M; Castana, O

    2012-12-31

    Easter is the most important holiday for the Greek Church. It is rich in traditions and rituals but during the Greek Easter festivities, especially at midnight Mass on Easter Saturday night, it is customary to throw fireworks around. These fireworks are not part of the true Easter tradition and they are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, in the past few years, the custom has become more and more popular in Greece. There are some local variations, mainly in the Aegean islands, where homemade rockets are used to have a "rocket war". The rockets consist of wooden sticks loaded with an explosive mixture containing gunpowder and launched from special platforms. Many severe injuries involving loss of sight and limbs as well as major burns are also caused by the use of illegal fireworks at Easter. Every year numerous burn victims are hospitalized. The most affected areas are the face, the upper extremities, and the chest, often in association with slight or severe wounds and injuries. This study presents our department's experience with incidents due to the use of fireworks during Easter festivities.

  4. Monitoring Santorini volcano (Greece) breathing from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foumelis, Michael; Trasatti, Elisa; Papageorgiou, Elena; Stramondo, Salvatore; Parcharidis, Issaak

    2013-04-01

    Since its last eruption in 1950, Santorini volcano (Greece) remained in a dormant state. This is also evidenced for the period 1992-2010 by the gradual deflation signal over Nea Kameni as measured by satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) with low rates of about 5-6 mm yr-1 as well as by the absence of seismic activity within the caldera. However, at the beginning of 2011 the volcano showed signs of unrest with increased microseismic activity and significant ground uplift, reaching 14 cm within a year (2011 March-2012 March), according to InSAR time-series. ALOS PALSAR data indicate the onset of the phenomenon in early 2010 where an aseismic pre-unrest phase of increased subsidence (1-3 cm) preceded the uplift. Joint inversions of SAR and GPS velocities using spherical and spheroidal magmatic source types indicate their location offshore at about 1 km north of Nea Kameni and between 3.5 and 3.8 km depth. The estimated volume variation rate is 6 × 106 m3 yr-1 to 9 × 106 m3 yr-1. A gradual slowing in the rate of inflation within the first quarter of 2012 is apparent by ENVISAT data, while subsequent observations from RADARSAT-2 confirm the observed trend.

  5. Euthanasia in Greece: moral and ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Vidalis, A; Dardavessis, T; Kaprinis, G

    1998-04-01

    Euthanasia as a concept and a practice has led to enormous debate in Greece, as well as in other countries. In this study, we examined the views of the public and of professionals on the issue of euthanasia. A self-administered questionnaire of 28 items was completed by 417 subjects, and provided information about attitudes towards the moral and ethical problems of euthanasia. Psychiatric speculations which arose during the approach of this issue were seen in the majority of the responses (88.3%). Psychodynamic unconscious processes reinforced and violated mechanisms and motives in favour of, or against euthanasia. Of the respondents, 44.3% were against life extension with mechanical devices. Putative main risk factors for suicidal ideation and the desire for death were: pain 66.2%, despair 60.2%, depression 59.7%, and psychopathology 38.6%. This study thus revealed that apart from pain, psychosocial factors play a key role in leading people to ask for euthanasia. On the other hand, the knowledge of the public and professionals regarding this issue is not sufficient, and thus discussion of euthanasia by Medical Societies is needed and necessary.

  6. Burns during Easter festivities in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Pallantzas, A.; Kourakos, P.; Stampolidis, N.; Papagianni, E.; Balagoura, A.; Stathopoulos, A.; Polizoi, A.; Emvalomata, A.; Evaggelopoulou, M.; Castana, O.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Easter is the most important holiday for the Greek Church. It is rich in traditions and rituals but during the Greek Easter festivities, especially at midnight Mass on Easter Saturday night, it is customary to throw fireworks around. These fireworks are not part of the true Easter tradition and they are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, in the past few years, the custom has become more and more popular in Greece. There are some local variations, mainly in the Aegean islands, where homemade rockets are used to have a “rocket war”. The rockets consist of wooden sticks loaded with an explosive mixture containing gunpowder and launched from special platforms. Many severe injuries involving loss of sight and limbs as well as major burns are also caused by the use of illegal fireworks at Easter. Every year numerous burn victims are hospitalized. The most affected areas are the face, the upper extremities, and the chest, often in association with slight or severe wounds and injuries. This study presents our department’s experience with incidents due to the use of fireworks during Easter festivities. PMID:23766749

  7. Space Radar Image of Athens, Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This space radar image of Athens, Greece, shows the sprawling, modern development of this ancient capital city. Densely populated urban areas appear in shades of pink and light green. The Acropolis the dark green triangular patch in the center of the image. Archaeological discoveries indicate Athens has been continuously occupied for at least the last 5,000 years. Numerous ships, shown as bright dots, are seen in the harbor areas in the upper left part of the image. The port city of Piraeus is at the left center. This image is 45 kilometers by 45 kilometers (28 miles by 28 miles) and is centered at 37.9 degrees north latitude, 23.7 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations are as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 2, 1994 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  8. Attenuation of coda waves in northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzidimitriou, P. M.

    1993-03-01

    The single scattering model has been applied for the estimation of coda Q values for local earthquakes that occurred in northern Greece during the period 1983 1989 and recorded by the telemetered network of the Geophysical Laboratory of the University of Thessaloniki. Coda Q estimations were made for four frequency bands centered at 1.5 Hz, 3.0 Hz, 6.0 Hz and 12.0 Hz and for the lapse time windows 10 20 sec, 15 30 sec, 20 45 sec, 30 60 sec and 50 100 sec. The coda Q values obtained show a clear frequency dependence of the form Q c =Q 0 f n , while Q 0 and n depend on the lapse time window. Q 0 was found equal to 33 and n equal to 1.01 for the time window of 10 to 20 sec, while for the other windows Q 0 increased from 60 to 129, with n being stable, close to 0.75. This lapse time dependence is interpreted as due to a depth dependent attenuation. The high attenuation and the strong frequency dependence found are characteristic of an area with high seismicity, in agreement with studies in other seismic regions.

  9. Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment In Greece Using Gis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papathoma, M.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Zong, Y.; Smith, D.

    A new methodology is described that uses GIS (Geographical Information System)to determine tsunami vulnerability at different spatial and temporal scales. The method- ology is based on the construction of a GIS database, which may be used by different end-users and under varying hazard scenarios. Primary data are collected for a range of parameters that relate to the natural environment, land use, the built environment, the local economy and services, as well as socio-economic parameters. The methodol- ogy permits interrogation of the primary datasets by several different end-user groups. For example, the GIS may be used: (1) by the emergency services in order to locate large numbers of casualties, to organise the immediate post-tsunami disaster response and to design evacuation routes; (2) by insurance companies in order to set the premi- ums of individual buildings and businesses and (3) by the municipal authorities as a tool for local planning (planning regulations, relocation of buildings). The results of two applications of the methodology in Greece are presented. The first application in Herakleio (Crete) relates to the impact that the 1650AD tsunami would have in the area under the current circumstances. The worse case scenario for the second application is based on the 1963 tsunami, which affected the coastal segment west of Aeghio in Peloponnese. The two case studies provide valuable information for civil protection, disaster management and planning.

  10. Vector Magnetic Field Synoptic Charts from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Hoeksema, J. Todd; Sun, Xudong; Hayashi, Keiji

    2017-02-01

    Vector magnetic field synoptic charts from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) are now available for each Carrington Rotation (CR) starting from CR 2097 in May 2010. Synoptic charts are produced using 720-second cadence full-disk vector magnetograms remapped to Carrington coordinates. The vector field is derived from the Stokes parameters (I, Q, U, V) using a Milne-Eddington-based inversion model. The 180° azimuth ambiguity is resolved using the minimum energy algorithm for pixels in active regions and for strong-field pixels (the field is greater than about 150 G) in quiet-Sun regions. Three other methods are used for the rest of the pixels: the potential-field method, the radial acute-angle method, and the random method. The vector field synoptic charts computed using these three disambiguation methods are evaluated. The noise in the three components of the vector magnetic field is generally much higher in the potential-field method charts. The component noise levels are significantly different in the radial-acute charts. However, the noise levels in the random-method charts are lower and comparable. The assumptions used in the potential-field and radial-acute methods to disambiguate the weak transverse field introduce bias that propagates differently into the three vector-field components, leading to unreasonable pattern and artifacts, whereas the random method appears not to introduce any systematic bias. The current sheet on the source surface, computed using the potential-field source-surface model applied to random-method charts, agrees with the best solution (the result computed from the synoptic charts with the minimum energy algorithm applied to each and every pixel in the vector magnetograms) much better than the other two. Differences in the synoptic charts determined with the best method and the random method are much smaller than those from the best method and the other two. This comparison indicates that the random method is better for vector

  11. Fine particulate matter events associated with synoptic weather patterns, long-range transport paths and mixing height in the Taipei Basin, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Li-Wei

    2015-07-01

    Asian dust storms (ADS) and PM2.5 (particle pollution) events have an evident influence on air quality in Taiwan. However, the synoptic weather patterns and atmospheric conditions on ADS days are not entirely similar to those related to PM2.5 event days. The aim of this study is to clarify the weather characteristics such as synoptic weather patterns, long-range transport paths, and stagnant conditions that precipitate PM2.5 events. Air quality and meteorological data from 2006 to 2013 were obtained from government-owned observation stations, and the mixing height was estimated in relation to the Nozaki planetary boundary layer height. This study used back trajectories as simulated gridded analysis data, which were based on kinematic trajectory analysis using NASA's GMAO (Global Modeling Assimilation Office) and NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) analyses. For testing the differences between means of two large, independent samples, the confidence interval of a common statistical indicator was employed. The results show that in comparison to low PM2.5 level days, weather features such as stagnant conditions, including low mixing height and low wind speed, low rainfall amount, and high solar hours, are favorable for inducing PM2.5 events. Eighty percent of the synoptic weather patterns on PM2.5 days were associated with either polar continental high pressure, a high-pressure system in mainland China moving from the continent to the sea, or a stationary front stretching from southern China to the East Sea, and moving eastwards. More than 81% of the contributing factors of the causes of PM2.5 events were found to be related to stagnant conditions. The pattern of the contributing factors causing the maximum-recorded concentration of PM2.5, (73.90 μg/m3) was attributed to local emissions, and a long-range transport time that was extended for a longer period over the land than over the sea. The synoptic weather patterns were also found to affect the

  12. Pedagogical Systems and the Construction of the Primary School Teacher in the Teachers' Training Institution (Didaskalio) in Greece (1830-1933): Issues of Power and Governmentality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolakaki, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the governmentality in the pedagogical systems through the teachers' mission and the corresponding teachers' education in Greece from the construction of the nation/state and for about a century, according to the socio-economical conditions that emerged. It does so in order to analyse the relation of society, the…

  13. Empirical and modeled synoptic cloud climatology of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, R. G.; Crane, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    A daily climatology of the atmospheric circulation of the Arctic and the associated cloud conditions were determined. These are used for comparisons with the variability of general circulation model, generated circulation, and cloud cover for the same region.

  14. Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education: Education Policy Advice for Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The future of Greece's well-being will depend on improving educational performance to boost productivity and improve social outcomes. In the current economic context, with the need to get best value for spending, Greece must and can address inefficiencies in its education system. The challenges are significant. For example, Greece lags behind many…

  15. Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education: Education Policy Advice for Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The future of Greece's well-being will depend on improving educational performance to boost productivity and improve social outcomes. In the current economic context, with the need to get best value for spending, Greece must and can address inefficiencies in its education system. The challenges are significant. For example, Greece lags behind many…

  16. Synoptic operative record for point of care outcomes: a leap forward in knowledge translation.

    PubMed

    Mack, L A; Dabbs, K; Temple, W J

    2010-09-01

    Modern information technology coupled with synoptic methodology allows point of care, real time outcomes generation. Our objective was to review province-wide breast cancer surgery outcomes from a prospective synoptic operative record to demonstrate its value in knowledge translation. All synoptic reports for breast cancer procedures from 2006 until March 2010 were reviewed and descriptively analyzed. Key outcomes included frequency of breast cancer procedures captured over time, methods of breast cancer detection, clinical staging, method of axillary staging, breast conservation and reconstruction rates. Further analysis involved important decision-making for mastectomy and resource allocation for surgery. Four thousand nine hundred fifty-five breast cancer procedures were recorded synoptically; greater than 80% of cases provincially. Method of breast cancer detection was 49%, 45% and 4% by screening radiology, patient or family, and physician, respectively. Pathologic diagnoses were via core or mammotome biopsy in 94%; nearly half of all patients were clinical Stage I at time of operation. Overall rate of breast conservation was 48%. Of the 65% who had no contra-indication to breast conservation surgery, 76% had breast conservation and 4% had primary reconstruction. Of those having mastectomy, one third were due to patient choice. Seventy-nine percent had sentinel node staging, 18% had full axillary dissection and 3% had no axillary staging. A new paradigm of creating medical records using synoptic electronic templates allows prospective outcomes generation at point of care by the surgeon which is unparalleled in its depth of surgical detail capturing surgical decision-making. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Design of a consensus-derived synoptic operative report for lung cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Laura; Shargall, Yaron; Schieman, Colin; Seely, Andrew J; Srinathan, Sadeesh; Malthaner, Richard A; Pierre, Andrew F; Safieddine, Najib; Vaillancourt, Rosaire; Plourde, Madelaine; Bond, James; Johnson, Scott; Smith, Shona E; Finley, Christian J

    2014-04-01

    For lung cancer surgery, a narrative operative report is the standard reporting procedure, whereas a synoptic-style report is increasingly utilized by healthcare professionals in various specialties with great success. A synoptic operative report more succinctly and accurately captures vital information and is rapidly generated with good intraobserver reliability. The objective of this study was to systematically develop a synoptic operative report for lung cancer surgery following a modified Delphi consensus model with the support of the Canadian thoracic surgery community. Using online survey software, thoracic surgeons and related physicians were asked to suggest and rate data elements for a synoptic report following the modified Delphi consensus model. The consensus exercise-derived template was forwarded to a small working group, who further refined the definition and priority designation of elements until the working group had reached a satisfactory consensus. In all, 139 physicians were invited to participate in the consensus exercise, with 36.7%, 44.6%, and 19.5% response rates, respectively, in the three rounds. Eighty-nine elements were agreed upon at the conclusion of the exercise, but 141 elements were forwarded to the working group. The working group agreed upon a final data set of 180 independently defined data elements, with 72 mandatory and 108 optional elements for implementation in the final report. This study demonstrates the process involved in developing a multidisciplinary, consensus-based synoptic lung cancer operative report. This novel report style is a quality improvement initiative to improve the capture, dissemination, readability, and potential utility of critical surgical information. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of synoptic circulation on air quality and pollution-related human health in the Yangtze River Delta region.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhiheng; Gao, Meng; Sun, Jiaren; Fan, Shaojia

    2017-12-31

    PM2.5 and O3 pollution are of concern for the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region due to their adverse impact on human health. In conjunction with a complex distribution of emission sources, the synoptic circulation conditions control the temporal and spatial variability of air pollution levels and hence the pollution-related health burdens. In this study, a long-term synoptic circulation catalogue is developed by applying the automated Lamb weather type method to the ECMWF mean sea level pressure reanalysis for the YRD region during 2013-2016. Ten typical circulation types are examined in relation to the transport pathways and diffusion conditions, and then multi-site surface observations of PM2.5 and O3 are composited for different circulation conditions. The results show that each circulation type is characterized with distinct air mass origin, diffusion condition and air quality level. The anticyclonic type (Type A) corresponds to the highest regional PM2.5 concentration (68.5μg/m(3)) due to the subsidence flow and long-range transport, while the westerly types (Types SW, W and NW) correspond to the higher regional maximum daily 8-h running average O3 (MDA8 O3) concentration (>100μg/m(3)) due to favorable local meteorological conditions. Regional transport causes an east-high and west-low PM2.5 distribution in westerly types but a west-high and east-low PM2.5 distribution in easterly types (Types SE, E and NE). In contrast, nearly all the types show an east-high and west-low O3 distribution, suggesting the predominated impacts of precursor emissions. By using established exposure-response functions, the health impact assessment (HIA) shows that Type W poses the greatest public health risk with mean daily excess mortality of 77.3 (95% CI: 61.9, 92.6) deaths and O3 pollution accounts for approximately 70% of this health burden. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Understanding the effects of boundary layer and synoptic meteorology on new particle formation based on WRF simulations and measurements in Southern Indiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, P.; El Afandi, G.; Plale, B.; Pryor, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the occurrence and intensity of new particle formation at the local and regional scale and i) the evolution of boundary layer properties and ii) the presence of specific synoptic conditions. Although progress has been made in understanding new particle formation dynamics, the role of boundary layer conditions and synoptic systems as limiting variables for nucleation has not been clearly quantified. Our analysis couples simulation results from the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) at 3 and 9 km resolution with measurements of vertical profiles of ultra-fine particles, gas phase concentrations and meteorological parameters collected along an 80 km transect in Southern Indiana, during the Nucleation In ForesTs (NIFTy) experiment, at three locations representative of forest, small town and urban environment. The analysis of daily vertical atmospheric profiles of Turbulence Kinetic Energy (TKE), simulated by WRF, allows us to assess the role of mixing in initiating particle nucleation as a consequence of the enhanced probability of cluster collision and the entrainment of air masses rich of nucleation precursors (e.g. sulfuric acid plumes). Further insights to identify the limiting factors for the occurrence of an event day and explain the local differences in terms of nucleation intensity among the sites are provided by the analysis of simulated profiles of the planetary boundary layer height, temperature, relative humidity and stability. In order to identify the sources of the measured nucleation precursors (sulfuric acid, volatile organic compounds and ammonia), isobaric back trajectories at multiple levels are computed and coupled with emission inventory data provided by EPA. Work is continuing to examine the influence of the synoptic meteorological context (e.g. cold front passage, atmospheric stagnation, etc.) in dictating nucleation occurrence using multi-scale WRF simulations.

  20. Large scale and synoptic features associated with extreme precipitation over South America: A review and case studies for the first decade of the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, Iracema Fonseca Albuquerque

    2012-11-01

    Flooding or droughts over South America affect the population and several sectors of the economy such as agriculture, energy and transport. Floods occur due to extreme precipitation from mesoscale precipitating systems, which can often be embedded in synoptic systems that are influenced by large scale conditions that are in turn influenced by climate variability. Droughts are associated with lack of or reduced influence of these synoptic systems, and also affected by persistent large scale conditions. El Niño-Southern Oscillation episodes have been related to droughts in Amazonia and northeastern Brazil and flooding in southeastern South America. Other extreme cases have been associated with Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. Extreme cases also occur in association with tropical-extratropical interactions, through atmospheric circulation anomalies in both tropics and extratropics. In the present review, studies of precipitation extremes in South America and some examples of extreme precipitation in several regions of South America in the 21st century are shown, and a discussion of the associated mechanisms is included. The influences of tropical and extratropical large scale climate variability - such as the Pacific and Atlantic SST, the Pacific South America pattern, the Southern Hemisphere annular mode and features of the North Atlantic Oscillation - on extremes over South America are mentioned. Daily precipitation extremes over South America are often related to convective development within synoptic systems, such as frontal systems and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone, in the Southeastern Brazil. Intertropical Convergence Zone and easterly disturbances are the main systems in which convective development can occur related to precipitation extremes in Northeastern region. In La Plata basin, extremes are associated with highly organized convective systems originating in the lee of the Andes that propagate eastward.

  1. Epidemiological Observations on Cryptosporidiosis in Diarrheic Goat Kids in Greece.

    PubMed

    Giadinis, Nektarios D; Papadopoulos, Elias; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Papanikolopoulou, Vasiliki; Karanikola, Sofia; Diakou, Anastasia; Vergidis, Vergos; Xiao, Lihua; Ioannidou, Evi; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in diarrheic goat kids in Greece and the risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. Altogether, 292 diarrheic 4-15-day-old goat kids from 54 dairy goat herds of Northern Greece were examined. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 223 of 292 (76.4%) goat kids and the intensity of infection was scored as "high" in 142 samples, "moderate" in 45 samples, and "low" in 36 samples. Larger herds (>200 animals) had higher infection rates than smaller ones, although this difference was not statistically significant. Significantly higher infection rates were observed in herds during late kidding season (1 January to 30 April) compared to the early one (1 September to 31 December). These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is very common in diarrheic goat kids in Greece, especially in large herds during the late parturition season.

  2. An annotated checklist of earthworms of Greece (Clitellata: Megadrili).

    PubMed

    Szederjesi, Tímea; Vavoulidou, Evangelia; Chalkia, Christina; Dányi, László; Csuzdi, Csaba

    2017-05-26

    The earthworm fauna of Greece is reviewed. According to the up-to-date checklist, the earthworm fauna of Greece consists of 67 species and subspecies, of which 59 taxa belong to the family Lumbricidae, three to Megascolecidae, two to Acanthodrilidae and to Ocnerodrilidae and one taxon to the family Criodrilidae. Three species are recorded for the first time from the country: Allolobophora kosowensis kosowensis Karaman, 1968, Amynthas gracilis (Kinberg, 1867) and Eukerria saltensis (Beddard, 1895). Eisenia spelaea var. athenica Černosvitov, 1938 is proposed to be a synonym of Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826). The earthworm fauna of Greece is characterized by a large number of strict endemic species belonging to the family Lumbricidae (9 taxa), together wit