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Sample records for green attack damage

  1. Southern Pine Beetles Attack Felled Green Timber

    Treesearch

    John C. Moser; Robert A. Sommers; Peter L. Lorio; J. Robert Bridges; Jeffrey J. Witcosky

    1987-01-01

    Southern pine beetles attacked green, uninfested downed trees and logs, as well as nearby standing trees. Beetles infesting horizontal trees and decked logs reproduced sufficiently to indicate that in some circumstances freshly cut, green trees may provide a utilizable resource for beetle populations.

  2. A continuum damage relation for hydrogen attack cavitation

    SciTech Connect

    Burg, M.W.D. van der; Giessen, E. van der

    1997-07-01

    A continuum damage relation (CDR) is proposed to describe the failure process of hydrogen attack, i.e., grain boundary cavitation of steels under conditions of high temperature and high hydrogen pressure. The cavitation is caused by the chemical reaction of hydrogen with grain boundary carbides forming cavities filled with high pressure methane. The micromechanisms described are the grain boundary cavitation and the dislocation creep of the grains. The CDR is based on two extreme cavitation rate distribution modes. In the first mode, the cavitation rate along the facets is uniform, resulting in a hydrostatic dilatation while the creep deformations remain relatively small. In the second mode, cavitation proceeds predominantly on grain boundary facets transverse to the principal macroscopic stress. This part of the CDR builds on Tvergaard`s constitutive relation for intergranular creep rupture [Tvergaard, V., Acta Metallurgica, 1984, 32, 1977] where the facet cavitation is constrained by creep of the surrounding grains. The mode corresponding to the highest cavitation rate is the active mode. The two-dimensional version of the CDR is verified against detailed finite element analyses of hydrogen attack in planar polycrystalline aggregates. Finally, the generalization to a three-dimensional CDR is discussed.

  3. Assessment of damage in 'green' composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Paweł H.; Ostachowicz, Wiesław M.; Touchard, Fabienne; Boustie, Michel; Chocinski-Arnault, Laurence; Pascual Gonzalez, Pedro; Berthe, Laurent; de Vasconcellos, Davi; Sorrentino, Luigi

    2017-04-01

    The behaviour of eco-composites, when subjected to laser or mechanical impact loadings, is not well known yet. A research was proposed looking at the behaviour of `green' and synthetic composites under impact loading. The study was focused on composites reinforced with short, medium and long fibres. Short fibre composites were made of spruce fibres and ABS. The fibres were used both as received and after a thermal treatment. Another set of samples was made of 60 mm-long flax fibres. Two types of thermoplastic polymers were used as matrices: polypropylene and polylactide. Also a woven eco-composite was investigated. It was made of plain woven hemp fabric impregnated with epoxy resin. A fully synthetic woven composite, used as reference laminate for comparison with `green' composites, was prepared by using a plain weave woven glass fabric impregnated with epoxy resin. Mechanical impacts were performed by means of a falling dart impact testing machine. The specimens were tested at different impact energy levels (from 1J to 5J) by keeping constant the mass of the impactor and varying the drop height. Laser impact tests were performed by means of a high power laser shock facility. All the samples were tested at six different laser shock intensities, keeping constant the shock diameter and the pulse duration. Six assessment techniques were employed in order to analyse and compare impact damages: eye observation, back face relief, terahertz spectroscopy, laser vibrometry, X-ray micro-tomography and microscopic observations. Different damage detection thresholds for each material and technique were obtained.

  4. Defensive Cyber Battle Damage Assessment Through Attack Methodology Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-25

    15 2.2.3. Network Forensic Analysis ......................................................................... 15 2.2.4...Forensic Analysis Process........................................................................... 15 2.3. Computer Attack Taxonomy...66 15 . DCBDA AAT Analysis and TAAT Creation

  5. Estimating the probability of mountain pine beetle red-attack damage

    Treesearch

    Michael A Wulder; J. C. White; Barbara J Bentz; M. F. Alvarez; N. C. Coops

    2006-01-01

    Accurate spatial information on the location and extent of mountain pine beetle infestation is critical for the planning of mitigation and treatment activities. Areas of mixed forest and variable terrain present unique challenges for the detection and mapping of mountain pine beetle red-attack damage, as red-attack has a more heterogeneous distribution under these...

  6. Collateral Damage to Satellites from an EMP Attack

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Radiation Effects on Satellites 42 VI.A Photon Effects 44 VI.A. 1 Energy Distribution and Material Dependence 44 VI.A.2 X-ray Effects 47...Spectrum Issues 79 VILLA.2.b Photon Induced Thermomechanical Damage 79 VIII.A.2.b.i Single Layer Anti-Reflection ( SLAR ) Coating 80 VIII.A.2.b.ii...keV binned in 0.1L increments) as a function of time is shown for three of the 16 energy channels of the MEA instrument carried by the CRRES

  7. Mechanical damage to green and red lentil seeds.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Feizollah; Valizade, Saman; Dowlatshah, Ali

    2017-07-01

    In this research, the breakage susceptibility of two classes of lentil (green and red) was evaluated as affected by impact energy and seed moisture content. The experiments were conducted at impact energies of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 J, and moisture contents of 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, 20 and 25% (wet basis). Results showed that red lentil seeds had more breakage than green seeds and the difference in breakage percentage between green and red lentil seeds was significant at 0.01% level according to analysis of variance (p < .01). Percentage breakage of both green and red lentil seeds increased as the energy of impact increased. With increasing the seed moisture content of the both green and red lentils, the breakage percentage of seeds decreased. The average values of seeds breakage green and red lentil seeds varied from 100 to 67.7% and from 100 to 93.1%, respectively, as the seeds moisture content increased from 10 to 25%. The optimum seed moisture at which minimum damage was observed was 17.5% for green lentil and 15% for red lentil. Mathematical relationships composed of lentil seeds moisture content and energy of impact were developed for accurate description of the breakage percentage of green and red lentil seeds under impact loading.

  8. Building Damage-Resilient Dominating Sets in Complex Networks against Random and Targeted Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Molnár, F.; Derzsy, N.; Szymanski, B. K.; Korniss, G.

    2015-01-01

    We study the vulnerability of dominating sets against random and targeted node removals in complex networks. While small, cost-efficient dominating sets play a significant role in controllability and observability of these networks, a fixed and intact network structure is always implicitly assumed. We find that cost-efficiency of dominating sets optimized for small size alone comes at a price of being vulnerable to damage; domination in the remaining network can be severely disrupted, even if a small fraction of dominator nodes are lost. We develop two new methods for finding flexible dominating sets, allowing either adjustable overall resilience, or dominating set size, while maximizing the dominated fraction of the remaining network after the attack. We analyze the efficiency of each method on synthetic scale-free networks, as well as real complex networks. PMID:25662371

  9. Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids ameliorates neuronal damage and reduces lesion extent in a mouse model of transient ischemic attack.

    PubMed

    Miao, Ming-San; Guo, Lin; Li, Rui-Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Lei

    2016-03-01

    Flavonoids are a major component in the traditional Chinese medicine Radix Ilicis Pubescentis. Previous studies have shown that the administration of Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids is protective in cerebral ischemia. However, to our knowledge, no studies have examined whether the total flavonoids extracted from Radix Ilicis Pubescentis prevent or ameliorate neuronal damage following transient ischemic attacks. Therefore, Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids question and the potential underlying mechanisms. Thus, beginning 3 days before the induction of a mouse model of transient ischemic attack using tert-butyl hydroperoxide injections, mice were intragastrically administered 0.3, 0.15, or 0.075 g/kg of Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids daily for 10 days. The results of spectrophotometric analyses demonstrated that Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids enhanced oxygen free radical scavenging and reduced pathological alterations in the brain. Hematoxylin-eosin staining results showed that Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids reduced hippocampal neuronal damage and cerebral vascular injury in this mouse model of transient ischemic attack. These results suggest that the antioxidant effects of Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids alleviate the damage to brain tissue caused by transient ischemic attack.

  10. Otolithic Membrane Damage in Patients with Endolymphatic Hydrops and Drop Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Calzada, Audrey P.; Lopez, Ivan A.; Ishiyama, Gail; Ishiyama, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Objectives 1. Evaluate the otolithic membrane in patients with endolymphatic hydrops (EH) and vestibular drop attacks (VDA) undergoing ablative labyrinthectomy. 2. Correlate intraoperative findings to archival temporal bone specimens of patients with EH. Study Design Retrospective case review Setting Tertiary referral center Specimen source 1. Patients undergoing labyrinthectomy for incapacitating Meniere’s disease (MD), delayed EH, VDA, or acoustic neuroma (AN) between 2004 and 2011. 2. Archival temporal bone specimens of patients with MD. Interventions Ablative labyrinthectomy Main outcome measures Examination of the utricular otolithic membrane. Results The otolithic membrane of the utricle was evaluated intraoperatively in 28 patients undergoing labyrinthectomy. 7 (25%) had a history of VDA, 6 (21%) had delayed EH, 9 (32%) had MD, and 6 (21%) had AN. All patients with VDA showed evidence of a disrupted utricular otolithic membrane, whereas only 50% and 56% of patients with delayed EH and MD respectively, demonstrated otolithic membrane disruption (p = 0.051). None of the patients with AN showed otolithic membrane disruption (p = 0.004). The mean thickness of the otolithic membrane in 5 archival temporal bone MD specimens was 11.45 micrometers versus 38 micrometers in normal specimens (p=0.001). Conclusions The otolithic membrane is consistently damaged in patients with VDA. In addition, there is a significantly higher incidence of otolithic membrane injury in patients with MD and delayed EH compared to patients without hydrops, suggesting that the underlying pathophysiology in VDA results from injury to the otolithic membrane of the saccule and utricle, resulting in free-floating otoliths and atrophy. PMID:23064391

  11. Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... a million people in the U.S. have a heart attack. About half of them die. Many people have permanent heart damage or die because they don't get ... It's important to know the symptoms of a heart attack and call 9-1-1 if someone ...

  12. Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... it as instructed while awaiting emergency help. Take aspirin, if recommended . Taking aspirin during a heart attack could reduce heart damage by helping to keep your blood from clotting. Aspirin can interact with other medications, however, so don' ...

  13. An extended diffraction tomography method for quantifying structural damage using numerical Green's functions.

    PubMed

    Chan, Eugene; Rose, L R Francis; Wang, Chun H

    2015-05-01

    Existing damage imaging algorithms for detecting and quantifying structural defects, particularly those based on diffraction tomography, assume far-field conditions for the scattered field data. This paper presents a major extension of diffraction tomography that can overcome this limitation and utilises a near-field multi-static data matrix as the input data. This new algorithm, which employs numerical solutions of the dynamic Green's functions, makes it possible to quantitatively image laminar damage even in complex structures for which the dynamic Green's functions are not available analytically. To validate this new method, the numerical Green's functions and the multi-static data matrix for laminar damage in flat and stiffened isotropic plates are first determined using finite element models. Next, these results are time-gated to remove boundary reflections, followed by discrete Fourier transform to obtain the amplitude and phase information for both the baseline (damage-free) and the scattered wave fields. Using these computationally generated results and experimental verification, it is shown that the new imaging algorithm is capable of accurately determining the damage geometry, size and severity for a variety of damage sizes and shapes, including multi-site damage. Some aspects of minimal sensors requirement pertinent to image quality and practical implementation are also briefly discussed.

  14. Myeloperoxidase targets oxidative host attacks to Salmonella and prevents collateral tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Schürmann, Nura; Forrer, Pascal; Casse, Olivier; Li, Jiagui; Felmy, Boas; Burgener, Anne-Valérie; Ehrenfeuchter, Nikolaus; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich; Recher, Mike; Hess, Christoph; Tschan-Plessl, Astrid; Khanna, Nina; Bumann, Dirk

    2017-01-23

    Host control of infections crucially depends on the capability to kill pathogens with reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, these toxic molecules can also readily damage host components and cause severe immunopathology. Here, we show that neutrophils use their most abundant granule protein, myeloperoxidase, to target ROS specifically to pathogens while minimizing collateral tissue damage. A computational model predicted that myeloperoxidase efficiently scavenges diffusible H2O2 at the surface of phagosomal Salmonella and converts it into highly reactive HOCl (bleach), which rapidly damages biomolecules within a radius of less than 0.1 μm. Myeloperoxidase-deficient neutrophils were predicted to accumulate large quantities of H2O2 that still effectively kill Salmonella, but most H2O2 would leak from the phagosome. Salmonella stimulation of neutrophils from normal and myeloperoxidase-deficient human donors experimentally confirmed an inverse relationship between myeloperoxidase activity and extracellular H2O2 release. Myeloperoxidase-deficient mice infected with Salmonella had elevated hydrogen peroxide tissue levels and exacerbated oxidative damage of host lipids and DNA, despite almost normal Salmonella control. These data show that myeloperoxidase has a major function in mitigating collateral tissue damage during antimicrobial oxidative bursts, by converting diffusible long-lived H2O2 into highly reactive, microbicidal and locally confined HOCl at pathogen surfaces.

  15. Mechanism and Site of Attack for Direct Damage to DNA by Low-Energy Electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, X.; Sanche, L.

    2005-05-20

    We report results on the desorption of OH{sup -} induced by 0-19 eV electrons incident on self-assembled monolayer films made of single and double DNA strands of different orientations with respect to a gold substrate. Such measurements make it possible to deduce the mechanism and site of OH{sup -} formation within a biomolecule as complex as DNA. This type of damage is attributed to dissociative electron attachment to the phosphate group of DNA, when it contains the counterion H{sup +}.

  16. The effect of green tea on oxidative damage and tumour formation in Lobund-Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Jacintha; Sheridan, Juliette; Mulcahy, Hugh; Tenniswood, Martin; Morrissey, Colm

    2008-11-01

    A number of epidemiological studies suggest that the consumption of green tea reduces the incidence of prostate cancer. As the major catechins present in green tea are potent antioxidants, we hypothesized that genetic and cellular damage induced by oxygen free radicals could be significantly reduced by potent antioxidants in green tea, thus reducing the cumulative genetic and cellular damage with age, and slowing or preventing tumour formation. Long-term administration of a decaffeinated green tea extract to Lobund-Wistar rats for periods up to 26 months almost halved the incidence of primary tumours in the genitourinary tract when compared with an age-matched cohort receiving just water. We observed no inhibition of DNA adduct formation or lipid peroxidation in animals consuming green tea compared with animals consuming deionized water. The decrease in tumour formation was associated with an increase in 8-hydroxy-2'deoxyguanosine and 4-hydroxynonenal content (markers of DNA adduct formation and lipid peroxidation, respectively) in the epithelium of the ventral prostate in aging animals. In addition, there was an increase in 8-hydroxy-2'deoxyguanosine expression, but no change in 4-hydroxynonenal expression in the seminal vesicles of older animals. An age-associated increase in expression of the antioxidant enzymes manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase in the epithelium of the ventral prostate of aging animals was observed. Furthermore, there was also an increase in manganese superoxide dismutase expression, but no change in catalase expression in the seminal vesicles of older animals. These data demonstrate that consumption of green tea decreases the incidence of genitourinary tract tumours in the Lobund-Wistar rat, but has no effect on age-associated DNA adduct formation and lipid peroxidation in the ventral prostate and seminal vesicles of the aging rat.

  17. Green tea extract (Camellia sinensis) fermented by Lactobacillus fermentum attenuates alcohol-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Ho; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun

    2012-01-01

    Here, the impact of an extract derived from green tea (Camellia sinensis) and fermentation with Lactobacilli fermentum strain OCS19 was explored with acute alcohol-induced liver damage. The study employed the HepG2 hepatic cell line and an in vivo murine model of liver damage. L. fermentum-fermented green tea extract (FGTE) was found to possess pronounced alcohol metabolizing enzyme activity. It significantly enhanced the cell viability of HepG2 cells following of them exposure, to ethanol (p<0.05) as compared with an extract derived from Hovenia dulcis, a positive control that is known for its action as an alcohol antagonist. Our in vivo studies indicated that prior administration of FGTE to alcohol-exposed mice significantly prevented subsequent increases in blood alcohol concentration (p<0.05), in addition to the induction of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and triglycerides (p<0.05). Furthermore, the activity of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and its mRNA expression level both increased in the livers of mice treated with FGTE, similarly to the H. dulcis-treated group. Taken together, these results may suggest that green tea extract coupled with L. fermentum fermentation attenuates the risk of ethanol-induced liver damage.

  18. A Green's Function Approach to Simulate DNA Damage by the Indirect Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Ianik; Cicinotta, Francis A.

    2013-01-01

    The DNA damage is of fundamental importance in the understanding of the effects of ionizing radiation. DNA is damaged by the direct effect of radiation (e.g. direct ionization) and by indirect effect (e.g. damage by.OH radicals created by the radiolysis of water). Despite years of research, many questions on the DNA damage by ionizing radiation remains. In the recent years, the Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDE) have been used extensively in biochemistry [1], notably to simulate biochemical networks in time and space [2]. In our future work on DNA damage, we wish to use an approach based on the GFDE to refine existing models on the indirect effect of ionizing radiation on DNA. To do so, we will use the code RITRACKS [3] developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center to simulate the radiation track structure and calculate the position of radiolytic species after irradiation. We have also recently developed an efficient Monte-Carlo sampling algorithm for the GFDE of reversible reactions with an intermediate state [4], which can be modified and adapted to simulate DNA damage by free radicals. To do so, we will use the known reaction rate constants between radicals (OH, eaq, H,...) and the DNA bases, sugars and phosphates and use the sampling algorithms to simulate the diffusion of free radicals and chemical reactions with DNA. These techniques should help the understanding of the contribution of the indirect effect in the formation of DNA damage and double-strand breaks.

  19. Effect of green light spectra on the reduction of retinal damage and stress in goldfish, Carassius auratus

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Jin Ah; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-07-22

    We investigated the effect of light spectra on retinal damage and stress in goldfish using green (530 nm) and red (620 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at three intensities each (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 W/m{sup 2}). We measured the change in the levels of plasma cortisol and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and expression and levels of caspase-3. The apoptotic response of green and red LED spectra was assessed using the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Stress indicator (cortisol and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3) decreased in green light, but increased in red light with higher light intensities over time. The TUNEL assay revealed that more apoptotic cells were detected in outer nuclear layers after exposure to red LED over time with the increase in light intensity, than the other spectra. These results indicate that green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress, whereas red light induces it. Therefore, red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. -- Highlights: •Green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress. •Green spectra reduce caspase production and apoptosis. •Red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. •The retina of goldfish recognizes green spectra as a stable environment.

  20. Radioprotection against DNA damage by an extract of Indian green mussel, Perna viridis (L).

    PubMed

    Kumaran, Sreekumar P; Kutty, Binoj C; Chatterji, Anil; Subrayan, Parameswaran P; Mishra, Kaushala Prasad

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the radioprotective ability of a hydrolysate prepared using an enzyme-acid hydrolysis method from the green mussel Perna viridis in terms of its ability to prevent radiation-induced damage in plasmid DNA, cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and DNA damage in mice lymphocytes. The mussel hydrolysate (MH) present during irradiation showed significant protection from gamma-radiation-induced strand breaks in plasmid DNA as evaluated by gel electrophoresis. Viability studies by trypan blue dye exclusion and MTT assay showed that preincubation of mice splenic lymphocytes with MH protected them from gamma-radiation-mediated killing. Moreover, the presence of MH during irradiation of isolated mice lymphocytes significantly decreased the DNA damage, as measured by comet assay. Measurement of intracellular ROS by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence revealed that the presence of MH effectively reduced the ROS generated in lymphocytes by both chemical method and gamma-irradiation. Prevention of DNA damage both in plasmid and lymphocytes and cell death in lymphocytes appears correlated with reduction of oxidatively generated free radicals. It is concluded that protection against radiation-induced cell death and DNA damage by MH was attributable to reduction of reactive free radical species generated by gamma-radiation.

  1. Damage Characterization of Bio and Green Polyethylene-Birch Composites under Creep and Cyclic Testing with Multivariable Acoustic Emissions.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Alencar; Toubal, Lotfi; Koffi, Demagna; Erchiqui, Fouad

    2015-11-02

    Despite the knowledge gained in recent years regarding the use of acoustic emissions (AEs) in ecologically friendly, natural fiber-reinforced composites (including certain composites with bio-sourced matrices), there is still a knowledge gap in the understanding of the difference in damage behavior between green and biocomposites. Thus, this article investigates the behavior of two comparable green and biocomposites with tests that better reflect real-life applications, i.e., load-unloading and creep testing, to determine the evolution of the damage process. Comparing the mechanical results with the AE, it can be concluded that the addition of a coupling agent (CA) markedly reduced the ratio of AE damage to mechanical damage. CA had an extremely beneficial effect on green composites because the Kaiser effect was dominant during cyclic testing. During the creep tests, the use of a CA also avoided the transition to new damaging phases in both composites. The long-term applications of PE green material must be chosen carefully because bio and green composites with similar properties exhibited different damage processes in tests such as cycling and creep that could not be previously understood using only monotonic testing.

  2. Damage Characterization of Bio and Green Polyethylene–Birch Composites under Creep and Cyclic Testing with Multivariable Acoustic Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Alencar; Toubal, Lotfi; Koffi, Demagna; Erchiqui, Fouad

    2015-01-01

    Despite the knowledge gained in recent years regarding the use of acoustic emissions (AEs) in ecologically friendly, natural fiber-reinforced composites (including certain composites with bio-sourced matrices), there is still a knowledge gap in the understanding of the difference in damage behavior between green and biocomposites. Thus, this article investigates the behavior of two comparable green and biocomposites with tests that better reflect real-life applications, i.e., load-unloading and creep testing, to determine the evolution of the damage process. Comparing the mechanical results with the AE, it can be concluded that the addition of a coupling agent (CA) markedly reduced the ratio of AE damage to mechanical damage. CA had an extremely beneficial effect on green composites because the Kaiser effect was dominant during cyclic testing. During the creep tests, the use of a CA also avoided the transition to new damaging phases in both composites. The long-term applications of PE green material must be chosen carefully because bio and green composites with similar properties exhibited different damage processes in tests such as cycling and creep that could not be previously understood using only monotonic testing. PMID:28793640

  3. Chinese green tea consumption reduces oxidative stress, inflammation and tissues damage in smoke exposed rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Awaida, Wajdy; Akash, Muhanad; Aburubaiha, Zaid; Talib, Wamidh H.; Shehadeh, Hayel

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): One cause of cigarette smoking is oxidative stress that may alter the cellular antioxidant defense system, induce apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and damage in liver, lung, and kidney. It has been shown that Chinese green tea (CGT) (Lung Chen Tea) has higher antioxidant property than black tea. In this paper, we will explore the preventive effect of CGT on cigarette smoke-induced oxidative damage, apoptosis and tissues inflammation in albino rat model. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were randomly divided into four groups, i.e. sham air (SA), cigarette smoke (CS), CGT 2% plus SA or plus CS. The exposure to smoking was carried out as a single daily dose (1 cigarette/rat) for a period of 90 days using an electronically controlled smoking machine. Sham control albino rats were exposed to air instead of cigarette smoke. Tissues were collected 24 hr after last CS exposure for histology and all enzyme assays. Apoptosis was evidenced by the fragmentation of DNA using TUNEL assay. Results: Long-term administration of cigarette smoke altered the cellular antioxidant defense system, induced apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and damage in liver, lung, and kidney. All these pathophysiological and biochemical events were significantly improved when the cigarette smoke-exposed albino rats were given CGT infusion as a drink instead of water. Conclusion: Exposure of albino rat model to cigarette smoke caused oxidative stress, altered the cellular antioxidant defense system, induced apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and tissues damage, which could be prevented by supplementation of CGT. PMID:25729541

  4. Chlorination induced damage and recovery in marine diatoms: Assay by SYTOX® Green staining.

    PubMed

    Venkatnarayanan, Srinivas; Sriyutha Murthy, P; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam; Venugopalan, Vayalam P

    2017-01-20

    Phytoplankton entrained into cooling water systems of coastal power stations are subjected to acute chemical stress due to biocides (chlorine) used for biofouling control. They are subsequently released into the environment, where they may survive/recover or succumb. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of a centric (Chaetoceros lorenzianus) and pennate (Navicula sp.) diatom to in-plant administered concentrations of chlorine (0.2-0.5mg/L, TRO). Viability of cells exposed to chlorine was assessed by SYTOX® Green fluorimetry and was compared with other conventional end points like total cell counts, chlorophyll a content and cellular autofluorescence. Results showed a concentration-dependant reduction in viability, chlorophyll a and autofluorescence. C. lorenzianus cells were more susceptible to chlorine compared to Navicula sp. SYTOX® Green staining appears to be a sensitive method to assess chlorine-induced damages. The data show that in-use levels of chlorination can potentially impact entrained organisms; however, they can recover when returned to coastal waters.

  5. DNA Damage during G2 Phase Does Not Affect Cell Cycle Progression of the Green Alga Scenedesmus quadricauda

    PubMed Central

    Vítová, Milada; Bišová, Kateřina; Zachleder, Vilém

    2011-01-01

    DNA damage is a threat to genomic integrity in all living organisms. Plants and green algae are particularly susceptible to DNA damage especially that caused by UV light, due to their light dependency for photosynthesis. For survival of a plant, and other eukaryotic cells, it is essential for an organism to continuously check the integrity of its genetic material and, when damaged, to repair it immediately. Cells therefore utilize a DNA damage response pathway that is responsible for sensing, reacting to and repairing damaged DNA. We have studied the effect of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, zeocin, caffeine and combinations of these on the cell cycle of the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda. The cells delayed S phase and underwent a permanent G2 phase block if DNA metabolism was affected prior to S phase; the G2 phase block imposed by zeocin was partially abolished by caffeine. No cell cycle block was observed if the treatment with zeocin occurred in G2 phase and the cells divided normally. CDKA and CDKB kinases regulate mitosis in S. quadricauda; their kinase activities were inhibited by Wee1. CDKA, CDKB protein levels were stabilized in the presence of zeocin. In contrast, the protein level of Wee1 was unaffected by DNA perturbing treatments. Wee1 therefore does not appear to be involved in the DNA damage response in S. quadricauda. Our results imply a specific reaction to DNA damage in S. quadricauda, with no cell cycle arrest, after experiencing DNA damage during G2 phase. PMID:21603605

  6. DNA damage during G2 phase does not affect cell cycle progression of the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda.

    PubMed

    Hlavová, Monika; Čížková, Mária; Vítová, Milada; Bišová, Kateřina; Zachleder, Vilém

    2011-01-01

    DNA damage is a threat to genomic integrity in all living organisms. Plants and green algae are particularly susceptible to DNA damage especially that caused by UV light, due to their light dependency for photosynthesis. For survival of a plant, and other eukaryotic cells, it is essential for an organism to continuously check the integrity of its genetic material and, when damaged, to repair it immediately. Cells therefore utilize a DNA damage response pathway that is responsible for sensing, reacting to and repairing damaged DNA. We have studied the effect of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, zeocin, caffeine and combinations of these on the cell cycle of the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda. The cells delayed S phase and underwent a permanent G2 phase block if DNA metabolism was affected prior to S phase; the G2 phase block imposed by zeocin was partially abolished by caffeine. No cell cycle block was observed if the treatment with zeocin occurred in G2 phase and the cells divided normally. CDKA and CDKB kinases regulate mitosis in S. quadricauda; their kinase activities were inhibited by Wee1. CDKA, CDKB protein levels were stabilized in the presence of zeocin. In contrast, the protein level of Wee1 was unaffected by DNA perturbing treatments. Wee1 therefore does not appear to be involved in the DNA damage response in S. quadricauda. Our results imply a specific reaction to DNA damage in S. quadricauda, with no cell cycle arrest, after experiencing DNA damage during G2 phase.

  7. Green tea extract supplementation gives protection against exercise-induced oxidative damage in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Jówko, Ewa; Sacharuk, Jaroslaw; Balasińska, Bozena; Ostaszewski, Piotr; Charmas, Malgorzata; Charmas, Robert

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a long-term (4-week) green tea extract (GTE) supplementation in combination with strength training on selected blood markers of oxidative stress and muscular damage after a short-term exercise in previously untrained men. We hypothesized that GTE supplementation would elevate antioxidant potential and attenuate exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscular damage. Thirty-five male students were exposed to 4 weeks of strength training and received (in a randomized, double-blind design) GTE (n = 17; 640 mg polyphenols/d) or placebo (P; n = 18). Before (term I) and after 4 weeks of strength training and supplementation (term II), students performed a short-term muscular endurance test. Blood samples were collected at rest, 5 minutes after the muscular endurance test, and after 24 hours of recovery. Supplementation with GTE enhanced plasma total polyphenols at rest and 5 minutes after the muscular endurance test. Supplementation also contributed to the rise of resting total antioxidant status in plasma. Throughout the experiment (terms I and II), a reduction in plasma lipid hydroxyperoxides was observed 24 hours after the muscular endurance test. Four weeks of strength training resulted in an increase in plasma lipid hydroxyperoxides at rest, but only in the P group. In term I, the muscular endurance test induced an increase in activity of creatine kinase in plasma after 24 hours of recovery in both the P and GTE groups. In term II, plasma creatine kinase activity after 24 hours of recovery was elevated only in the P group. In conclusion, in previously untrained men, dietary supplementation with GTE (in combination with strength training) enhances the antioxidant defense system in plasma at rest and, in turn, may give protection against oxidative damage induced by both short-term muscular endurance test and long-term strength training.

  8. Augmenting the existing survey hierarchy for mountain pine beetle red-attack damage with satellite remotely sensed data

    Treesearch

    M. A. Wulder; J. C. White; B. J. Bentz; T. Ebata

    2006-01-01

    Estimates of the location and extent of the red-attack stage of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) infestations are critical for forest management. The degree of spatial and temporal precision required for these estimates varies according to the management objectives and the nature of the infestation. This paper outlines the range...

  9. Heart Attack Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Heart Attack Coronary Artery Disease, Angina Basic Facts & Information What ... and oxygen supply; this is what causes a heart attack. If the damaged area is small, however, your ...

  10. Efficacy of verbenone and green leaf volatiles for protecting whitebark and limber pines from attack by mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Gillette, Nancy E; Kegley, Sandra J; Costello, Sheryl L; Mori, Sylvia R; Webster, Jeffrey N; Mehmel, Constance J; Wood, David L

    2014-08-01

    To develop safe and effective methods to protect whitebark pines, Pinus albicaulis Engelmann, and limber pines, Pinus flexilis James, from attack by mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), we compared verbenone and verbenone plus green leaf volatiles (GLVs) for prevention of beetle attack. We used two strategies: area-wide protection where semiochemical-releasing flakes are dispersed over the forest floor, and individual tree tests where flakes are applied to tree trunks. The area-wide bioassays were conducted by applying verbenone- and GLV-releasing flakes without stickers to the forest floor on 0.81-ha plots dominated by whitebark pines in the State of Washington with four replicates. We conducted individual tree bioassays by applying the same formulations with stickers to whitebark and limber pines in Montana and Colorado, respectively. In all three situations, both verbenone-alone and verbenone plus GLVs significantly increased the proportion of trees escaping mass attack by beetles, but the two formulations were not significantly different from one another. Despite a lack of significance at a Bonferroni-adjusted α = 0.05, adding GLVs gave slightly greater absolute levels of tree protection in most cases. Monitoring traps placed in the area-wide treatments in Washington showed similar outcomes for numbers of beetles trapped: both treatments had significantly fewer beetles than controls, and they were not significantly different from one another. At peak flight, however, plots with GLVs combined with verbenone had roughly 40% fewer beetles than plots with verbenone alone. GLVs are considerably cheaper than verbenone, so tests of higher application rates may be warranted to achieve enhanced tree protection at reasonable cost.

  11. Effect of green light spectra on the reduction of retinal damage and stress in goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Song, Jin Ah; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-07-22

    We investigated the effect of light spectra on retinal damage and stress in goldfish using green (530 nm) and red (620 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at three intensities each (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 W/m(2)). We measured the change in the levels of plasma cortisol and H2O2 and expression and levels of caspase-3. The apoptotic response of green and red LED spectra was assessed using the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Stress indicator (cortisol and H2O2) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3) decreased in green light, but increased in red light with higher light intensities over time. The TUNEL assay revealed that more apoptotic cells were detected in outer nuclear layers after exposure to red LED over time with the increase in light intensity, than the other spectra. These results indicate that green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress, whereas red light induces it. Therefore, red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Green tea metabolite EGCG protects membranes against oxidative damage in vitro.

    PubMed

    Saffari, Yasi; Sadrzadeh, S M Hossein

    2004-02-06

    Green tea polyphenols like epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) have been proposed as a cancer chemopreventative. Several studies have shown that EGCG can act as an antioxidant by trapping proxyl radicals and inhibiting lipid peroxidation. The main propose of this study is to investigate the antioxidant capacity of EGCG using erythrocyte membrane-bound ATPases as a model. The effects of EGCG on t-butylhydroperoxide-induced lipid peroxidation and the activity of membrane-bound ATPases in human erythrocyte membranes were studied. The extent of oxidative damage in membranes was assessed by measuring lipid peroxidation, (TBARS, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances formation) and the activity of ATPases (Na(+)/K(+), Ca(2+), and CaM-activated Ca(2+) pump ATPases). EGCG blocked t-BHP induced lipid peroxidation in erythrocyte membranes, significantly (0.45 +/- 0.02 vs 0.20 +/- 0.01; t-BHP vs t-BHP + EGCG respectively, microm/L TBARS) (p < 0.05). EGCG also protected ATPases against t-BHP induced damage; for Na/K ATPase (2.4 +/- 0.2 vs 1.6 +/- 0.1 vs 2.44 +/- 0.2, nmol Pi/min/mg protein, control vs t-BHP vs t-BHP and EGCG respectively), for Ca ATPase (5.8 +/- 0.4 vs 3.9 +/- 0.3 vs 5.6 +/- 0.34, nmol Pi/min/mg protein, control vs t-BHP vs t-BHP and EGCG respectively) and for CaM-Ca ATPase (14.7 +/- 0.7 vs 7.3 +/- 0.4 vs 11.6 +/- 0.55, nmol Pi/min/mg protein, control vs t-BHP vs t-BHP and EGCG respectively) (p < 0.05). In conclusion our results indicate that EGCG is a powerful antioxidant that is capable protecting erythrocyte membrane-bound ATPases against oxidative stress.

  13. Strength loss in MA-MOX green pellets from radiation damage to binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessing, Paul A.; Cannon, W. Roger; Egeland, Gerald W.; Zuck, Larry D.; Jewell, James K.; Akers, Douglas W.; Groenewold, Gary S.

    2013-06-01

    The fracture strength of green Minor Actinides (MA)-MOX pellets containing 75 wt.% DUO2, 20 wt.% PuO2, 3 wt.% AmO2 and 2 wt.% NpO2 was studied as a function of storage time, after mixing with the binder and before sintering, to test the effect of radiation damage on binders. Fracture strength degraded continuously over the 10 days of the study for all three binders studied: PEG binder (Carbowax 8000), microcrystalline wax (Mobilcer X) and styrene-acrylic copolymer (Duramax B1022) but the fracture strength of Duramax B1022 degraded the least. For instance, for several hours after mixing Carbowax 8000 with MA-MOX, the fracture strength of a pellet was reasonably high and pellets were easily handled without breaking but the pellets were too weak to handle after 10 days. Strength measured using diametral compression test showed that strength degradation was more rapid in pellets containing 1.0 wt.% Carbowax PEG 8000 compared to those containing only 0.2 wt.%, suggesting that irradiation not only left the binder less effective but also reduced the pellet strength. In contrast the strength of pellets containing Duramax B1022 degraded very little over the 10 days period. It was suggested that the styrene portion present in the Duramax B1022 copolymer provided the radiation resistance.

  14. Influence of green tea extract on oxidative damage and apoptosis induced by deltamethrin in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ogaly, Hanan A; Khalaf, A A; Ibrahim, Marwa A; Galal, Mona K; Abd-Elsalam, Reham M

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of an aqueous extract of green tea leaves (GTE) against neurotoxicity and oxidative damage induced by deltamethrin (DM) in male rats. Four different groups of rats were used: the 1st group was the vehicle treated control group, the 2nd group received DM (0.6 mg/kg BW), the 3rd group received DM plus GTE, and the 4th received GTE alone (25 mg/kg BW). The brain tissues were collected at the end of the experimental regimen for subsequent investigation. Rats that were given DM had a highly significant elevation in MDA content, nitric oxide concentration, DNA fragmentation and expression level of apoptotic genes, TP53 and COX2. Additionally, a significant reduction in the total antioxidant capacity in the second group was detected. The findings for the 3rd group highlight the efficacy of GTE as a neuro-protectant in DM-induced neurotoxicity through improving the oxidative status and DNA fragmentation as well as suppressing the expression of the TP53 and COX2 genes. In conclusion, GTE, at a concentration of 25mg/kg/day, protected against DM-induced neurotoxicity through its antioxidant and antiapoptotic influence; therefore, it can be used as a protective natural product against DM-induced neurotoxicity.

  15. Strength Loss in MA-MOX Green Pellets from Radiation Damage to Binders

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Lessing; W.R. Cannon; Gerald W. Egeland; Larry D. Zuck; James K. Jewell; Douglas W. Akers; Gary S. Groenewold

    2013-06-01

    The fracture strength of green Minor Actinides (MA)-MOX pellets containing 75 wt.% DUO2, 20 wt. % PuO2, 3 wt. % AmO2 and 2 wt. % NpO2 was studied as a function of storage time, after mixing in the binder and before sintering, to test the effect of radiation damage on binders. Fracture strength degraded continuously over the 10 days of the study for all three binders studied: PEG binder (Carbowax 8000), microcrystalline wax (Mobilcer X) and Styrene-acrylic copolymer (Duramax B1022) but the fracture strength of Duramax B1022 degraded the least. For instance, for several hours after mixing Carbowax 8000 with MA MOX, the fracture strength of a pellet was reasonably high and pellets were easily handled without breaking but the pellets were too weak to handle after 10 days. Strength measured using diametral compression test showed strength degradation was more rapid in pellets containing 1.0 wt. % Carbowax PEG 8000 compared to those containing only 0.2 wt. %, suggesting that irradiation not only left the binder less effective but also reduced the pellet strength. In contrast the strength of pellets containing Duramax B1022 degraded very little over the 10 day period. It was suggested that the styrene portion of the Duramax B1022 copolymer provided the radiation resistance.

  16. The influence of alkali-free and alkaline shotcrete accelerators within cement systems Influence of the temperature on the sulfate attack mechanisms and damage

    SciTech Connect

    Paglia, C.; Wombacher, F.; Boehni, H

    2003-03-01

    The resistance to sulfate attack of mixtures accelerated with alkali-free and alkaline accelerators was found to be mainly influenced by the Al{sup 3+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} added via the admixtures. Microstructural observations showed decalcification and disintegration of the CSH gel, which acted as an additional Ca{sup 2+} supplier as compared to the CH for ettringite formation. The CSH decalcification was mainly observed with a homogeneous distribution of the alkali-free admixture. The disintegration of the CSH gel increased the porosity and allowed more sulfate solution to penetrate into the specimens. This process promoted the swelling of the specimens and directly contributed to the expansion, explaining the lack of a direct relationship between the ettringite formation and the expansion. Moreover, the CSH gel disintegration, typical for MgSO{sub 4} attack, also occurred with Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions and depending on the aluminate-sulfate distribution and the extent of the CSH gel disintegration, different damage types were detected. At higher temperatures (65 deg. C) the damage was mainly controlled by the growth, the rearrangement and the thermal stability of ettringite.

  17. Electrospinning of Biodegradable and Biocompatible Nanofiber Patches from Solutions of ``Green'' Materials for Plant Protection against Fungi Attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sett, Soumyadip; Lee, Minwook; Yarin, Alexander; Moghadam, S. M. Alavi; Meinke, Matthias; Schroeder, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    Biodegradable and biocompatible soy protein/petroleum-derived polymer monolithic fibers containing adhesives were electrospun on commercial rayon pads. The polymers used, PVA and PCL, are widely used in the biomedical industry, including such applications as drug delivery and scaffold manufacturing. Soy protein is an abundant waste of SoyDiesel production, and is widely used as a nutrient. The soy content in our fibers was as high as 40% w/w. Four different adhesives, including ordinary wood glue, repositionable glue and FDA-approved pressure-sensitive glue were used for electrospinning and electrospraying. The normal and shear adhesive strengths of the patches developed in this work were measured and compared. The adhesive strength was sufficient enough to withstand normal atmospheric conditions. These biodegradable and biocompatible nano-textured patches are ready to be used on prune locations without being carried away by wind and will protect plants against fungi attack at these locations, preventing diseases like Vine Decline.

  18. Early perception of stink bug damage in developing seeds of field-grown soybean induces chemical defences and reduces bug attack.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Romina; Barneto, Jesica; Barriga, Lucia G; Sardoy, Pedro M; Balestrasse, Karina; Andrade, Andrea M; Pagano, Eduardo A; Alemano, Sergio G; Zavala, Jorge A

    2016-08-01

    Southern green stink bugs (Nezara viridula L.) invade field-grown soybean crops, where they feed on developing seeds and inject phytotoxic saliva, which causes yield reduction. Although leaf responses to herbivory are well studied, no information is available about the regulation of defences in seeds. This study demonstrated that mitogen-activated protein kinases MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6 are expressed and activated in developing seeds of field-grown soybean and regulate a defensive response after stink bug damage. Although 10-20 min after stink bug feeding on seeds induced the expression of MPK3, MPK6 and MPK4, only MPK6 was phosphorylated after damage. Herbivory induced an early peak of jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation and ethylene (ET) emission after 3 h in developing seeds, whereas salicylic acid (SA) was also induced early, and at increasing levels up to 72 h after damage. Damaged seeds upregulated defensive genes typically modulated by JA/ET or SA, which in turn reduced the activity of digestive enzymes in the gut of stink bugs. Induced seeds were less preferred by stink bugs. This study shows that stink bug damage induces seed defences, which is perceived early by MPKs that may activate defence metabolic pathways in developing seeds of field-grown soybean. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Tempol protects against intravitreous indocyanine green-induced retinal damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Thaler, Sebastian; Voykov, Bogomil; Willmann, Gabriel; Fiedorowicz, Michal; Rejdak, Robert; Gekeler, Florian; May, C Albrecht; Schatz, Andreas; Schuettauf, Frank

    2012-11-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) has been widely used as a vital dye for macular surgery. However, ICG can be toxic to retinal cells. Here we evaluate whether tempol (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl), a free radical scavenger, can protect against ICG-induced retinal damage in rats. Brown Norway rats received intravitreal injections of ICG 0.5 % or BSS as controls. Tempol (20 mg/kg BW) or PBS as a control was administered intraperitoneally 24 h and 30 min before ICG and once daily for 7 consecutive days. Tempol was detected in the retina using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. One week after ICG injections, the effects of tempol on retinal toxicity were assessed by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) back-labeling and by light microscopy. Electroretinography (ERG) was performed after 1 and 2 weeks. ICG administration reduced RGC numbers by 17 % (1,943 ± 45 vs. 2,342 ± 31 RGCs/mm(2)). Tempol treatment rescued RGCs in a significant manner (2,258 ± 36, p < 0.01) and diminished morphological changes detected by light microscopy. ICG-injected eyes showed a significant reduction of ERG potentials only in PBS-treated animals (V(max) 530 ± 145 µV vs. 779 ± 179 µV, p = 0.0052), but not in the tempol-treated group. Tempol significantly attenuates ICG-induced toxicity in rat retinas and may therefore be considered for further evaluation as accompanying treatment in ICG-assisted chromovitrectomy.

  20. Camellia sinensis (green tea) extract attenuate acrylamide induced testicular damage in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Yassa, Heba A; George, Safaa M; Refaiy, Abeer El Refaiy M; Moneim, Effat M Abdel

    2014-10-01

    Acrylamide is a proved toxin for testicular function, found in food when heated for long period of time. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is a potent antioxidant; the aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of green tea extract against the toxic effects of acrylamide in rat testes. acrylamide was administered orally to rats in different doses and also the extract of green tea was administered orally to different groups of animals in combination with the acrylamide. The weight of animals, testosterone hormone level and histopathological effect upon testicles were evaluated. Testosterone hormone level in serum, and histopathological findings were significantly improved with the co-administration of green tea extract with the acrylamide. Green tea extract reversed all the toxic effects of acrylamide even in high dose for long period (90 days). Green tea extract is a potent antioxidant antidote for the acrylamide toxic effects upon testicular function. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  1. Heart attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... infarction; Non-ST - elevation myocardial infarction; NSTEMI; CAD - heart attack; Coronary artery disease - heart attack ... made up of cholesterol and other cells. A heart attack may occur when: A tear in the ...

  2. Pharmacodynamic Interaction of Green Tea Extract with Hydrochlorothiazide against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Myocardial Damage.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Manodeep; Kamath, Jagadish Vasudev; Bhattacharjee, Ananya

    2014-05-01

    Treatment of ischemic hypertensive patients with hydrochlorothiazide can precipitate cardiac arrhythmias. Green tea by virtue of its antioxidant potential is responsible for cardio-protective activity. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pharmacodynamic interaction of green tea extract with hydrochlorothiazide against cyclophosphamide-induced myocardial toxicity. Rats were treated with high (500 mg/kg, p.o.) and low (100 mg/kg, p.o.) dose of green tea extract in alone and interactive groups for 10 days. Standard, high, and low dose of interactive groups received hydrochlorothiazide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) for last 7 days. Apart from normal control, all other groups were subjected to cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg, i.p.) toxicity on day first and the effects of different treatments were evaluated by changes in electrocardiographic parameters, serum biomarkers, and tissue antioxidant levels. Apart from that, lipid profile and histological studies were also carried out. Compared to cyclophosphamide control group, both high and low dose of green tea exhibited significant decrease in serum biomarkers and increase in tissue antioxidant levels. Green tea treatment was also responsible for significant improvement in echocardiography (ECG) parameter, lipid profile, and histological score. Incorporation of high and low dose of green tea with hydrochlorothiazide-exhibited significant protection compared to hydrochlorothiazide-alone-treated group. The present findings clearly suggested that green tea extract dose dependently reduces cyclophosphamide-induced myocardial toxicity. Green tea when combined with hydrochlorothiazide can reduce the associated side effects and exhibits myocardial protection.

  3. The Effect of Green Tea and Sour Tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Supplementation on Oxidative Stress and Muscle Damage in Athletes.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Amir; Pourmasoumi, Makan; Kafeshani, Marzieh; Karimian, Jahangir; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Entezari, Mohammad Hasan

    2017-05-04

    Additional oxygen consumption during intense exercises may lead to oxidative stress and contribute to muscular fatigue. Green tea and sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), which contain various flavonoids and polyphenols, have many healthful properties such as anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and heart protecting effects. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of green tea and sour tea supplementation on oxidative stress and muscle damage in soccer athletes. This randomized, double-blind control trial was conducted on 54 male soccer players. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups to receive: 450 mg/d green tea extract (GTE) in the first group (n = 18), 450 mg/d sour tea extract (STE) in the second group (n = 18) and 450 mg/d maltodextrin in the control group (n = 18). Fasting whole blood samples were taken under resting conditions at the beginning and the end of the study to quantify the serum levels of muscle damage indices, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and oxidative stress biomarkers, malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). After six weeks intervention, athletes who received GTE and STE supplements compared with the placebo had a significantly decreased MDA level (P = 0.008). Furthermore, STE supplementation resulted in a significant increase in TAC level compared with GTE and placebo groups (P = 0.01). However, supplementation with GTE and STE had no significant effects on muscle damage indices. GTE and STE supplementation have beneficial effects on oxidative stress status in male athletes. However, both kinds of tea extract did not affect muscle damage status.

  4. Photoinduced conformational changes in DNA by poly(vinyl alcohol) carrying a malachite green moiety for protecting DNA against attack by nuclease.

    PubMed

    Uda, Ryoko M; Matsui, Takashi

    2015-11-14

    Light is a highly advantageous means of specific cell targeting. Though targeted gene delivery is an important characteristic of an ideal delivery vehicle, there has been little effort to develop a photoresponsive vector. Among nonviral vectors, cationic substances interact effectively with negatively charged DNA. With this property in mind, we designed copolymers of poly(vinyl alcohol) carrying a malachite green moiety (PVAMG) with different molecular weights. Though PVAMG has no affinity for DNA in the absence of light, it undergoes photoionization in the presence of light to afford cationic DNA binding sites. The DNA-PVAMG complex was investigated with respect to DNA conformational changes and its protective nature, which are important properties for nonviral vectors. PVAMG irradiation promoted DNA conformational transitions from coils to partial globules to compacted globules. The complex had a protective effect against DNase I after PVAMG irradiation, while DNA was degraded under dark conditions. The effect on DNA transition and the protective nature were sensitive to the molecular weight of PVAMG. The data regarding binding constants and binding mode provided insight into the structure of the DNA-PVAMG complex. To withstand DNase I attacks, complexation results in the compaction of DNA, which is further covered with PVAMG.

  5. The Neuroprotective Effects of Brazilian Green Propolis on Neurodegenerative Damage in Human Neuronal SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Junjun; Meng, Jie; Zhu, Aiqin; Zhong, Xin; Wu, Shizheng; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress and synapse dysfunction are the major neurodegenerative damage correlated to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have found that Brazilian green propolis (propolis) improves the cognitive functions of mild cognitive impairment patients living at high altitude; however, mechanism underlying the effects of propolis is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of propolis on oxidative stress, expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), the critical factors of synapse efficacy, using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Pretreatment with propolis significantly ameliorated the hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, propolis significantly reduced the H2O2-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from mitochondria and 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG, the DNA oxidative damage marker) but significantly reversed the fibrillar β-amyloid and IL-1β-impaired BDNF-induced Arc expression in SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, propolis significantly upregulated BDNF mRNA expression in time- and dose-dependent manners. In addition, propolis induced Arc mRNA and protein expression via phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K). These observations strongly suggest that propolis protects from the neurodegenerative damage in neurons through the properties of various antioxidants. The present study provides a potential molecular mechanism of Brazilian green propolis in prevention of cognitive impairment in AD as well as aging. PMID:28265338

  6. Therapeutic effect of green tea extract on alcohol induced hepatic mitochondrial DNA damage in albino wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Reddyvari, Hymavathi; Govatati, Suresh; Matha, Sumanth Kumar; Korla, Swapna Vahini; Malempati, Sravanthi; Pasupuleti, Sreenivasa Rao; Bhanoori, Manjula; Nallanchakravarthula, Varadacharyulu

    2017-05-01

    The present study principally sought to investigate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) supplementation on hepatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in alcohol receiving rats. MtDNA was isolated from hepatic tissues of albino wistar rats after alcohol treatment with and without GTE supplementation. Entire displacement loop (D-loop) of mtDNA was screened by PCR-Sanger's sequencing method. In addition, mtDNA deletions and antioxidant activity were measured in hepatic tissue of all rats. Results showed increased frequency of D-loop mutations in alcoholic rats (ALC). DNA mfold analysis predicted higher free energy for 15507C and 16116C alleles compared to their corresponding wild alleles which represents less stable secondary structures with negative impact on overall mtDNA function. Interestingly, D-loop mutations observed in ALC rats were successfully restored on GTE supplementation. MtDNA deletions were observed in ALC rats, but intact native mtDNA was found in ALC + GTE group suggesting alcohol induced oxidative damage of mtDNA and ameliorative effect of GTE. Furthermore, markedly decreased activities of glutathione peroxidise, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione content were identified in ALC rats; however, GTE supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) restored these levels close to normal. In conclusion, green tea could be used as an effective nutraceutical against alcohol induced mitochondrial DNA damage.

  7. The Neuroprotective Effects of Brazilian Green Propolis on Neurodegenerative Damage in Human Neuronal SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    Ni, Junjun; Wu, Zhou; Meng, Jie; Zhu, Aiqin; Zhong, Xin; Wu, Shizheng; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress and synapse dysfunction are the major neurodegenerative damage correlated to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have found that Brazilian green propolis (propolis) improves the cognitive functions of mild cognitive impairment patients living at high altitude; however, mechanism underlying the effects of propolis is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of propolis on oxidative stress, expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), the critical factors of synapse efficacy, using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Pretreatment with propolis significantly ameliorated the hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, propolis significantly reduced the H2O2-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from mitochondria and 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG, the DNA oxidative damage marker) but significantly reversed the fibrillar β-amyloid and IL-1β-impaired BDNF-induced Arc expression in SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, propolis significantly upregulated BDNF mRNA expression in time- and dose-dependent manners. In addition, propolis induced Arc mRNA and protein expression via phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K). These observations strongly suggest that propolis protects from the neurodegenerative damage in neurons through the properties of various antioxidants. The present study provides a potential molecular mechanism of Brazilian green propolis in prevention of cognitive impairment in AD as well as aging.

  8. Potential interaction of green tea extract with hydrochlorothiazide against doxorubicin-induced myocardial damage.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Manodeep; Kamath, Jagadish V; Bhattacharjee, Ananya

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of ischemic hypertensive patients with hydrochlorothiazide can precipitate cardiac arrhythmias. Green tea, by virtue of its antioxidant potential, is responsible for cardio-protective activity. The present study was under taken to evaluate the pharmacodynamic interaction of green tea extract with hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced myocardial toxicity. Rats were treated with high (500 mg/kg, p.o.) and low (100 mg/kg, p.o.) dose of green tea extract in alone and interactive groups for 28 days. Standard, high and low dose of interactive groups received hydrochlorothiazide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) for the last 7 days. Apart from normal controls, all other groups were subjected to DOX (3 mg/kg, i.p.) toxicity on Days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28, and the effect of different treatments was evaluated by changes in electrocardiographic parameters, serum biomarkers and tissue antioxidant levels. Apart from that, lipid profile and histological studies were also carried out. Compared with the DOX control group, both high and low dose of green tea exhibited a significant decrease in serum biomarkers and increase in tissue antioxidant levels. Green tea treatment was also responsible for significant improvement in ECG parameter, lipid profile and histological score. Incorporation of high and low dose of green tea with HCTZ exhibited significant protection compared with the HCTZ alone treated group. The present findings clearly suggest that the green tea extract dose-dependently reduces DOX-induced myocardial toxicity. Green tea when combined with HCTZ can reduce the associated side-effects and exhibits myocardial protection.

  9. The main catechin of green tea, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), reduces bleomycin-induced DNA damage in human leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Glei, M; Pool-Zobel, B L

    2006-04-01

    Interest in the beneficial effects of green tea has led to investigations on activities by the main catechin (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). This antioxidative compound could contribute to cancer chemoprevention by acting antigenotoxic. To further explore this hypothesis we investigated antigenotoxic potentials of low EGCG concentrations in human peripheral leucocytes. Leucocytes isolated from whole blood were (1) stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin, (2) damaged with genotoxic bleomycin, and (3) post-incubated to allow DNA repair. After each phase DNA integrity was measured with the comet assay. EGCG (2, 20, 100 microM) was added either during phases 1, 2 or 3 or during the whole process (1-3), to delineate mechanisms of antigenotoxicity reflecting induction of detoxification (phase 1), scavenging of radicals (phase 2), stimulation of repair (phase 3), respectively. Bleomycin induced breaks and endonuclease III specific damage, but EGCG did not affect damage or repair of these lesions when added during phases 1, 2 or 3. However, the application of EGCG during phases 1 and 2 significantly reduced both bleomycin-induced breaks and endonuclease III sensitive sites. EGCG added during all phases impaired persistence of damage. Our studies show that the continuous presence of EGCG can reduce radical-induced DNA damage in primary leucocytes, possibly due to a combination of different mechanisms. Together the findings support the hypotheses that EGCG acts protective in human cells.

  10. Dexamethasone loaded core-shell SF/PEO nanofibers via green electrospinning reduced endothelial cells inflammatory damage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiming; Li, Dawei; Ei-Shanshory, Ahmed; El-Newehy, Mohamed; Ei-Hamshary, Hany A; Al-Deyab, Salem S; He, Chuanglong; Mo, Xiumei

    2015-02-01

    Silk fibroin (SF)/PEO nanofibers prepared by green electrospinning is safe, non-toxic and environment friendly, it is a potential drug delivery carrier for tissue engineering. In this study, a core-shell nanofibers named as Dex@SF/PEO were obtained by green electrospinning with SF/PEO as the shell and dexamethasone (Dex) in the core. The nanofiber morphology and core-shell structure were studied by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The Dex release behavior from the nanofibers was tested by High Performance liquid (HPLC) method. The protective effect of drug loaded nanofibers mats on Porcine hip artery endothelial cells (PIECs) against LPS-induced inflammatory damage were determined by MTT assay. TEM result showed the distinct core-shell structure of nanofibers. In vitro drug release studies demonstrated that dexamethasone can sustain release over 192 h and core-shell nanofibers showed more slow release of Dex compared with the blending electrospinning nanofibers. Anti-inflammatory activity in vitro showed that released Dex can reduce the PIECs inflammatory damage and apoptosis which induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Dex@SF/PEO nanofibers are safe and non-toxic because of no harmful organic solvents used in the preparation, it is a promising environment friendly drug carrier for tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Matcha, a powdered green tea, ameliorates the progression of renal and hepatic damage in type 2 diabetic OLETF rats.

    PubMed

    Yamabe, Noriko; Kang, Ki Sung; Hur, Jong Moon; Yokozawa, Takako

    2009-08-01

    Matcha, a powdered green tea produced by grinding with a stone mill, has been popularly used in the traditional tea ceremony and foods in Japan. Matcha is well known to be richer in some nutritional elements and epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate than other green teas. In our previous study, epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate exhibited protective effects against renal damage in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy. In the present study, we investigated the preventive effects of Matcha (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day) on the progression of hepatic and renal damage in type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. OLETF rats were orally administered Matcha for 16 weeks, and we assessed biochemical parameters in the serum, liver, and kidney and expression levels of major products of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), N(6)-(carboxylmethyl)lysine (CML) and N(6)-(carboxylethyl)lysine (CEL), receptor for AGE (RAGE), and sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs)-1 and -2. Serum total protein levels were significantly increased by Matcha administration, whereas the serum albumin and glycosylated protein levels as well as the renal glucose and triglyceride levels were only slightly or not at all affected. However, Matcha treatment significantly lowered the glucose, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels in the serum and liver, renal AGE levels, and the serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels. In addition, Matcha supplementation resulted in decreases in the renal CML, CEL, and RAGE expressions as well as an increase in hepatic SREBP-2 expression, but not that of SREBP-1. These results suggest that Matcha protects against hepatic and renal damage through the suppression of renal AGE accumulation, by decreases in hepatic glucose, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels, and by its antioxidant activities.

  12. DNA damage in male gonad cells of Green mussel (Perna viridis) upon exposure to tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Nagarajappa; Ganguly, Anutosh; Goswami, Usha

    2006-05-01

    DNA damage (determined by the Comet Assay) and the occurrence of deformed nuclei were measured as endpoints of genotoxicity in male gonad cells of the marine mussel (Perna viridis). Upon exposure of the organism to varying concentrations of extracts of smoked and non-smoked cigar tobacco over a period of 16 days, DNA damage was found to be highest in marine mussels exposed to extracts of smoked cigar tobacco. Conversely, more deformed nuclei were detected in marine mussels exposed to extracts of non-smoked cigar tobacco. The level of DNA damage and the number of deformed nuclei reach a maximum at day 12 of exposure to both extracts but decrease thereafter. This phenomenon is attributed to the organism's capacity to maintain the integrity of its genetic material upon exposure to potential genotoxicants present in the tobacco extracts. A dose response in DNA damage and deformed nuclei was also detected in isolated gonad cells upon in vitro exposure to hydrogen peroxide a known DNA strand breaking agent. The results of this study indicate that the DNA in male gonad cells of the marine mussel is damaged upon exposure to genotoxicants, and suggests the suitability of the organism for future investigations into the effect of such agents on its reproductive capacities.

  13. Protective effect of green tea extract against proline-induced oxidative damage in the rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Delwing-Dal Magro, Débora; Roecker, Roberto; Junges, Gustavo M; Rodrigues, André F; Delwing-de Lima, Daniela; da Cruz, José G P; Wyse, Angela T S; Pitz, Heloisa S; Zeni, Ana L B

    2016-10-01

    We investigated, in vivo (acute and chronic), the effects of proline on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) and on the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in renal tissues (cortex and medulla) of rats. For acute administration, 29-day-old rats received a single subcutaneous injection of proline (18.2μmol/g body weight) or an equivalent volume of 0.9% saline solution and were sacrificed 1h later. For chronic treatment, proline was injected subcutaneously in the rats twice a day from the 6th to the 28th day of age, and the animals were killed 12h after the last injection. The results showed that acute administration of proline enhanced CAT, SOD and GSH-Px activities, as well as, TBARS in the cortex and decreased CAT activity in the medulla, while chronic treatment increased the activities of SOD in the cortex and increased CAT, SOD and GSH-Px in the medulla of rats. Furthermore, the green tea extract treatment for one week or from the 6th to the 28th day of age prevented the alterations caused by acute and chronic, respectively, proline administration. Herein, we demonstrated that proline alters antioxidant defenses and induces lipid peroxidation in the kidney of rats and the green tea extract was capable to counteract the proline-induced alterations.

  14. A model of photothermally induced damage to the retina during indocyanine-green-assisted peeling of the inner limiting membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pini, Roberto; Toci, Guido; Rossi, Francesca; Giansanti, Fabrizio; Menchini, Ugo

    2004-07-01

    Intentional removal of the inner limiting membrane (ILM) in macular hole surgery is becoming a well-recognized procedure. It is usually performed with the assistance of Indocyanine Green (ICG), which selectively stains the membrane, in order to facilitate the visual control of surgery operations. In this theoretical study we investigate the possibility of heat damage to the retina being caused by the combination of ICG staining with the illumination provided by a standard light source for vitreo-retinal surgery, composed of a Xenon lamp and an optical fiber delivery system. For this purpose, we set up a bi-dimensional analytical model that describes light absorption and heat conduction in ICG-stained ILM and in retinal structures.

  15. Neuroprotection by Brazilian Green Propolis against In vitro and In vivo Ischemic Neuronal Damage

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    We examined whether Brazilian green propolis, a widely used folk medicine, has a neuroprotective function in vitro and/or in vivo. In vitro, propolis significantly inhibited neurotoxicity induced in neuronally differentiated PC12 cell cultures by either 24 h hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure or 48 h serum deprivation. Regarding the possible underlying mechanism, propolis protected against oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation) in mouse forebrain homogenates and scavenged free radicals [induced by diphenyl-p-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). In mice in vivo, propolis [30 or 100 mg/kg; intraperitoneally administered four times (at 2 days, 1 day and 60 min before, and at 4 h after induction of focal cerebral ischemia by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion)] reduced brain infarction at 24 h after the occlusion. Thus, a propolis-induced inhibition of oxidative stress may be partly responsible for its neuroprotective function against in vitro cell death and in vivo focal cerebral ischemia. PMID:15937561

  16. Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... test your blood several times during the first 24 hours to 48 hours after yours symptoms start.Other ... do to help prevent heart attack?A healthy lifestyle can help prevent heart attack. This ... your stress.Controlling your blood pressure.Managing your ...

  17. Mitigation of oxidative damage by green tea polyphenols and Tai Chi exercise in postmenopausal women with osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Qian, Guoqing; Xue, Kathy; Tang, Lili; Wang, Franklin; Song, Xiao; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Pence, Barbara C; Shen, Chwan-Li; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disease predominantly in postmenopausal women. Green tea polyphenols (GTP) and Tai Chi (TC) have been shown to be beneficial on human bone health. This study examined the efficacy of GTP and TC on mitigation of oxidative damage in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. A 6-month randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 171 postmenopausal women with osteopenia, who were recruited from Lubbock County, Texas. These participants were treated with placebo, GTP (500 mg daily), placebo + TC (60-minute group exercise, 3 times/week), or GTP (500 mg daily) + TC (60-minute group exercise, 3 times/week), respectively. Their blood and urine samples were collected at the baseline, 1-, 3- and 6-months during intervention for assessing levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), an oxidative DNA damage biomarker, and concentrations of serum and urine GTP components. The elevated concentrations of serum and urinary GTP components demonstrated a good adherence for the trial. A significant reduction of urinary 8-OHdG concentrations was found in all three treated groups during 3-month (P<0.001) and 6-month (P<0.001) intervention, as compared to the placebo group. The significant time- and dose-effects on mitigation of the oxidative damage biomarker were also found for GTP, TC, and GTP+TC intervened groups. Our study demonstrated that GTP and TC interventions were effective strategies of reducing the levels of oxidative stress, a putative mechanism for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, and more importantly, working in an additive manner, which holds the potential as alternative tools to improve bone health in this population. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00625391.

  18. Remote damage control during the attacks on Paris: Lessons learned by the Paris Fire Brigade and evolutions in the rescue system.

    PubMed

    Lesaffre, Xavier; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Violin, Yann; Frattini, Benoit; Rivet, Catherine; Stibbe, Olivier; Faure, Florian; Godefroy, Anne; Gallet, Jean-Claude; Ausset, Sylvain

    2017-03-20

    On November 13, 2015, in 40 minutes, Paris suffered 4 suicide bombers attacks, shootings at 3 different restaurant terraces and an attack on the Bataclan concert hall resulting in 130 dead and 495 wounded. How did the Parisian rescue system respond and how did it evolve since?We proved we could deploy quickly wide prehospital and hospital resources and teams' equipment and preparedness is being further developed. In order to secure a swifter initial response we need a better integration of the operators of the rescue chain with a simpler and more robust organization as well as improved communications channels. We must continue to anticipate and prepare for possible future attacks.

  19. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Heart Attack Treatment of a Heart Attack Life After a Heart Attack Heart Failure About Heart Failure ... a Heart Attack • Treatment of a Heart Attack • Life After a Heart Attack Lifestyle Changes Recovery FAQs • Heart ...

  20. About Heart Attacks

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Heart Attack Treatment of a Heart Attack Life After a Heart Attack Heart Failure About Heart Failure ... a Heart Attack • Treatment of a Heart Attack • Life After a Heart Attack Lifestyle Changes Recovery FAQs • Heart ...

  1. Using natural dietary sources of antioxidants to protect against ultraviolet and visible radiation-induced DNA damage: an investigation of human green tea ingestion.

    PubMed

    Malhomme de la Roche, Helena; Seagrove, Susan; Mehta, Anisha; Divekar, Preshita; Campbell, Sandra; Curnow, Alison

    2010-11-03

    Oral ingestion of green tea is a potent dietary source of antioxidant polyphenols. These compounds are of interest as they may be able to provide additional protection to the body to help prevent the deleterious effects of ultraviolet A and visible radiation (UVA/VIS) produced indirectly via reactive oxygen species (ROS) in sunlight exposed skin. A small clinical study was conducted in ten healthy adult volunteers. Samples of whole blood were obtained from each before and 30, 60 and 90 min following ingestion of three breakfast cups of green tea (540 ml in total) prepared in a standardised manner. Peripheral leucocytes were isolated from each blood sample and exposed to increasing periods of UVA/VIS irradiation in the laboratory (0, 9, 12 or 18 min). Alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (the comet assay) was then conducted to determine the level of DNA damage in each sample from each individual. The findings support those of our previous pilot study and indicate that drinking green tea did significantly reduce the genotoxic effects observed in peripheral blood cells 60 min following ingestion when artificially exposed to 12 min of UVA/VIS irradiation in the laboratory. It is postulated that this protection is afforded by the polyphenol compounds (known to be contained within green tea) via scavenging or quenching of the damaging ROS induced by this form of light exposure. Further investigation should consider whether this dietary-induced protection could be extended to cells of the skin.

  2. Oviposition preference by the green lacewing Chrysoperla rufilabris for blackmargined aphids on pecan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pecan is attacked by three species of aphids (Monellia caryella [Fitch], Melanocallis caryaefoliae [Davis], and Monelliopsis pecanis Bissell) causing damage to leaves that can reduce tree nut yield. In this study, we assayed the ovipositional response of the green lacewing Chrysoperla rufilabris (B...

  3. The protective effect of green tea extract on lead induced oxidative and DNA damage on rat brain.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, A A; Moselhy, Walaa A; Abdel-Hamed, Marwa I

    2012-06-01

    The role of green tea in protection against neurotoxicity induced by lead acetate was investigated in rats. Five equal groups, each of ten rats were used. The first group was served as control, the second, third, and fourth groups were given lead acetate, lead acetate and green tea, and green tea only, respectively, for one month, the fifth group was administered lead acetate for one month followed by green tea for 15 days. Lead acetate was given orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg b. wt, while green tea was given in drinking water at a concentration of 5 g/L. Lead acetate administration induced loss of body weight and decreased concentration of reduced glutathione and SOD activity in brain tissues as well as significantly high DNA fragmentation and pathological changes. Co-administration of green tea with lead acetate significantly alleviated these adverse effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Early Detection of Mountain Pine Beetle Damage in Ponderosa Pine Forests of the Black Hills Using Hyperspectral and WorldView-2 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Vitaliy Alekseyevich

    A leading cause for mortality in the pine forests of western North America, the mountain pine beetle, has impacted over 400,000 acres of ponderosa pine forest in the Black Hills of South Dakota since 1996. Methods aimed at earlier detection, prior to visual manifestation of a mountain pine beetle damage in the tree crown, have not been successful because of the overlap and variability of spectral response between the initial stages of attack (green-attacked) and non-attacked tree crowns. Needle-level reflectance spectra was measured from green-attack and non-attack ponderosa pine trees in early spring following an infestation and analyzed using a multi-statistical approach to determine which spectral features best discriminate green-attack needles. Green-attack reflectance was significantly higher than non-attack from 424-717 nm and 1151-2400 nm. Bands in the shortwave-infrared had increased measures of separation between classes compared to visible and near-infrared bands. Peaks in separation related to moisture absorption features, from 1451-1540 nm and 1973-2103 nm, and pigment absorption features from 462-520 nm and 663-689 nm, were consistently observed over multiple statistical analyses. While these features show promise for operational canopy-level detection, it is unknown if they can be scaled up due to large within-class variability and spectral overlap between classes. To examine the potential for canopy-level detection, in-situ training data was collected for green-attack and non-attack trees from known locations within the Black Hills at a similar time a WorldView-2 image was acquired of the study area. Along with eight WV-2 bands, all possible normalized two-band indices were calculated to examine the suitability of WV-2 data for detecting green-attack damage. The performance of three different classifiers, logistic regression, linear discriminant analysis, Random Forest, was evaluated. Normalized two-band indices using a combination of a near

  5. Douglas-fir beetle attack and tree mortality following wildfire

    Treesearch

    Sharon M. Hood; Barbara Bentz; Kevin C. Ryan

    2003-01-01

    A major concern after wildfires is the buildup of bark beetle populations in fire injured trees, and subsequent attack and population buildup in adjacent unburned areas. To examine this concern, we documented fire injury and insect attacks in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) on the 2001 Green Knoll Fire, Wyoming to determine attack preferences, brood production, and...

  6. The fluorescence properties and binding mechanism of SYTOX green, a bright, low photo-damage DNA intercalating agent.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Shreyasi; Cattoni, Diego I; Nöllmann, Marcelo

    2015-07-01

    DNA intercalators are widely used in cancer therapeutics, to probe protein-DNA interactions and to investigate the statistical-mechanical properties of DNA. Here, we employ single-molecule fluorescence microscopy, magnetic tweezers, and ensemble-binding assays to investigate the fluorescence properties and binding mechanism of SYTOX green, a DNA labeling dye previously used for staining dead cells and becoming of common use for single-molecule methodologies. Specifically, we show that SYTOX green presents several advantages with respect to other dyes: (1) binds DNA rapidly and with high affinity; (2) has a good signal-to-noise ratio even at low concentrations; (3) exhibits a low photobleaching rate; and (4) induces lower light-induced DNA degradation. Finally, we show that SYTOX green is a DNA intercalator that binds DNA cooperatively with a binding site of 3.5 bp, increasing the DNA length upon binding by 43%, while not affecting its mechanical properties.

  7. Logging damage to residual trees following partial cutting in a green ash-sugarberry stand in the Mississippi Delta

    Treesearch

    James S. Meadows

    1993-01-01

    Partial cutting in bottomland hardwoods to control stand density and species composition sometimes results in logging damage to the lower bole and/or roots of residual trees. If severe, logging damage may lead to a decline in tree vigor, which may subsequently stimulate the production of epicormic branches, causing a decrease in bole quality and an eventual loss in...

  8. Logging Damage to Residual Trees Following Partial Cutting in a Green Ash-Sugarberry Stand in the Mississippi Delta

    Treesearch

    James S. Meadows

    1993-01-01

    Partial cutting in bottomland hardwoods to control stand density and species composition sometimes results in logging damage to the lower bole and/or roots of residual trees. If severe, logging damage may lead to a decline in tree vigor, which may subsequently stimulate the production of epicormic branches, causing a decrease in bole quality and an eventual loss in...

  9. Antigenotoxic and Apoptotic Activity of Green Tea Polyphenol Extracts on Hexavalent Chromium-Induced DNA Damage in Peripheral Blood of CD-1 Mice: Analysis with Differential Acridine Orange/Ethidium Bromide Staining

    PubMed Central

    García-Rodríguez, María del Carmen; Carvente-Juárez, Megumi Monserrat; Altamirano-Lozano, Mario Agustín

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the modulating effects of green tea polyphenols on genotoxic damage and apoptotic activity induced by hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] in CD-1 mice. Animals were divided into the following groups: (i) injected with vehicle; (ii) treated with green tea polyphenols (30 mg/kg) via gavage; (iii) injected with CrO3 (20 mg/kg) intraperitoneally; (iv) treated with green tea polyphenols in addition to CrO3. Genotoxic damage was evaluated by examining micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCEs) obtained from peripheral blood at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment. Induction of apoptosis and cell viability were assessed by differential acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining. Treatment of green tea polyphenols led to no significant changes in the MN-PCEs. However, CrO3 treatment significantly increased MN-PCEs at 24 and 48 h after injection. Green tea polyphenols treatment prior to CrO3 injection led to a decrease in MN-PCEs compared to the group treated with CrO3 only. The average of apoptotic cells was increased at 48 h after treatment compared to control mice, suggesting that apoptosis could contribute to eliminate the DNA damaged cells induced by Cr (VI). Our findings support the proposed protective effects of green tea polyphenols against the genotoxic damage induced by Cr (VI). PMID:24363823

  10. HC-NIDS: signatures and simulations for detecting cyber-attacks aiming to cause damage against cyber-physical energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-01

    Physical device safety is typically implemented locally using embedded controllers, while operations safety is primarily performed in control centers. Safe operations can be enhanced by correct design of device-level control algorithms, and protocols, procedures and operator training at the control-room level, but all can fail. Moreover, these elements exchange data and issue commands via vulnerable communication layers. In order to secure these gaps and enhance operational safety, we believe monitoring of command sequences must be combined with an awareness of physical device limitations and automata models that capture safety mechanisms. One way of doing this is by leveraging specification-based intrusion detection to monitor for physical constraint violations. The method can also verify that physical infrastructure state is consistent with monitoring information and control commands exchanged between field devices and control centers. This additional security layer enhances protection from both outsider attacks and insider mistakes. We implemented specification-based SCADA command analyzers using physical constraint algorithms directly in the Bro framework and Broccoli APIs for three separate scenarios: a water heater, an automated distribution system, and an over-current protection scheme. To accomplish this, we added low-level analyzers capable of examining control system-specific protocol packets for both Modbus TCP and DNP3, and also higher-level analyzers able to interpret device command and data streams within the context of each device’s physical capabilities and present operational state. Thus the software that we are making available includes the Bro/Broccoli scripts for these three scenarios, as well as simulators, written in C, of those scenarios that generate sample traffic that is monitored by the Bro/Broccoli scripts. In addition, we have also implemented systems to directly pull cyber-physical information from the OSIsoft PI historian system. We

  11. Heart Attack Symptoms in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Heart Attack Treatment of a Heart Attack Life After a Heart Attack Heart Failure About Heart Failure ... a Heart Attack • Treatment of a Heart Attack • Life After a Heart Attack Lifestyle Changes Recovery FAQs • Heart ...

  12. Green Synthesized Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanoparticles Induce Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Lathyrus sativus L. Root Bioassay System

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Kamal K.; Golari, Dambaru; Venugopal, A.; Achary, V. Mohan M.; Phaomei, Ganngam; Parinandi, Narasimham L.; Sahu, Hrushi K.; Panda, Brahma B.

    2017-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP-GS) were synthesised from the precursor zinc acetate (Zn(CH3COO)2) through the green route using the milky latex from milk weed (Calotropis gigantea L. R. Br) by alkaline precipitation. Formation of the ZnONP-GS was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy followed by characterization and confirmation by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Both the ZnONP-GS and the commercially available ZnONP-S (Sigma-Aldrich) and cationic Zn2+ from Zn(CH3COO)2 were tested in a dose range of 0–100 mg·L−1 for their potency (i) to induce oxidative stress as measured by the generation reactive oxygen species (ROS: O2•−, H2O2 and •OH), cell death, and lipid peroxidation; (ii) to modulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX); and (iii) to cause DNA damage as determined by Comet assay in Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay system. Antioxidants such as Tiron and dimethylthiourea significantly attenuated the ZnONP-induced oxidative and DNA damage, suggesting the involvement of ROS therein. Our study demonstrated that both ZnONP-GS and ZnONP-S induced oxidative stress and DNA damage to a similar extent but were significantly less potent than Zn2+ alone. PMID:28524089

  13. Green Synthesized Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanoparticles Induce Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Lathyrus sativus L. Root Bioassay System.

    PubMed

    Panda, Kamal K; Golari, Dambaru; Venugopal, A; Achary, V Mohan M; Phaomei, Ganngam; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Sahu, Hrushi K; Panda, Brahma B

    2017-05-18

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP-GS) were synthesised from the precursor zinc acetate (Zn(CH₃COO)₂) through the green route using the milky latex from milk weed (Calotropis gigantea L. R. Br) by alkaline precipitation. Formation of the ZnONP-GS was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy followed by characterization and confirmation by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Both the ZnONP-GS and the commercially available ZnONP-S (Sigma-Aldrich) and cationic Zn(2+) from Zn(CH₃COO)₂ were tested in a dose range of 0-100 mg·L(-1) for their potency (i) to induce oxidative stress as measured by the generation reactive oxygen species (ROS: O₂(•-), H₂O₂ and (•)OH), cell death, and lipid peroxidation; (ii) to modulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX); and (iii) to cause DNA damage as determined by Comet assay in Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay system. Antioxidants such as Tiron and dimethylthiourea significantly attenuated the ZnONP-induced oxidative and DNA damage, suggesting the involvement of ROS therein. Our study demonstrated that both ZnONP-GS and ZnONP-S induced oxidative stress and DNA damage to a similar extent but were significantly less potent than Zn(2+) alone.

  14. Protective effects of green and white tea against benzo(a)pyrene induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in murine model.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Sharma, V L; Sehgal, Amit; Jain, Mridula

    2012-01-01

    In the current investigation, the ameliorative effect of green tea (GT) and white tea (WT) against benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induced oxidative stress and DNA damage has been studied in the livers and lungs of Balb/c mice. A single dose of BaP (125 mg/kg, b.w. orally) increased the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased endogenous antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutahione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) significantly. Pretreatment with GT and WT for 35 days before a single dose of BaP elevated the decreased activity of GR, SOD, and CAT in liver tissue and also tended to normalize the levels of GSH and LPO in both hepatic and pulmonary tissues. The percentage of DNA in comet tail and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels reflected the decreasing pattern of DNA damage from the BaP-treated group to the groups that received pretreatment with GT and WT. Our study concludes that both GT and WT are effective in combating BaP induced oxidative insult and DNA damage. However, WT was found to be more protective than GT with respect to CAT (only in the liver), percentage of DNA in comet tail (only in the lungs), GST activity, and GSH content in both the tissues.

  15. Influence of fruit age of the Brazilian Green Dwarf coconut on the relationship between Aceria guerreronis population density and percentage of fruit damage.

    PubMed

    Sousa, André Silva Guimarães; Argolo, Poliane Sá; Gondim, Manoel Guedes Correa; de Moraes, Gilberto José; Oliveira, Anibal Ramadan

    2017-08-22

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae), is one of the main coconut pests in the American, African and parts of the Asian continents, reaching densities of several thousand mites per fruit. Diagrammatic scales have been developed to standardize the estimation of the population densities of A. guerreronis according to the estimated percentage of damage, but these have not taken into account the possible effect of fruit age, although previous studies have already reported the variation in mite numbers with fruit age. The objective of this study was to re-construct the relation between damage and mite density at different fruit ages collected in an urban coconut plantation containing the green dwarf variety ranging from the beginning to nearly the end of the infestation, as regularly seen under field conditions in northeast Brazil, in order to improve future estimates with diagrammatic scales. The percentage of damage was estimated with two diagrammatic scales on a total of 470 fruits from 1 to 5 months old, from a field at Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, determining the respective number of mites on each fruit. The results suggested that in estimates with diagrammatic scales: (1) fruit age has a major effect on the estimation of A. guerreronis densities, (2) fruits of different ages should be analyzed separately, and (3) regular evaluation of infestation levels should be done preferably on fruits of about 3-4 months old, which show the highest densities.

  16. Rupture process of the main shock of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake with special reference to damaging ground motions: waveform inversion with empirical Green's functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozu, Atsushi; Nagasaka, Yosuke

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the rupture process of the main shock of the Kumamoto earthquake, particularly the generation of strong ground motions in the frequency range relevant to structural damage, was investigated based on the inversion of strong ground motions. Strong-motion records in the near-source region were mainly utilized because the authors were interested in the generation mechanism of damaging ground motions in the near-source region. Empirical Green's functions (EGFs) were applied to avoid uncertainty in the subsurface structure model. Four cases of inversions with different combinations of small events were used to investigate the dependence of the inversion results on the selection of the small events. It was found that the dependence of the final slip distribution and peak slip velocity distribution on the selection of the EGF events is small. The results clearly indicate that a region of significantly large slip and slip velocity existed approximately 15 km northeast of the hypocenter. However, no "asperity" was observed between the hypocenter and Mashiki. Thus, it is not appropriate to conclude that the large-amplitude pulse-like ground motion in Mashiki was generated by the forward-directivity effect associated with the rupture of an asperity. As far as the source effect is concerned, the ground motion in Mashiki cannot be interpreted as the worst case scenario. On the other hand, the rupture of the "asperity" 15 km northeast of the hypocenter should have caused significantly large ground motions in regions close to the asperity. The significant damage of highway bridges in the region can potentially be attributed to the rupture of the asperity. The result of this study was compared with an inversion result obtained from numerical Green's functions for a layered half-space. The two results share the main features in spite of the difference of the Green's functions and stations used. Therefore, it can be concluded that these two source models capture the

  17. Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Müllauer, Wolfram Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

    2013-10-15

    A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

  18. Afghanistan: Green-on-Blue Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-02

    threat is a recent training video, prepared jointly by the Asymmetric Warfare Group ( AWG ), the Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL), the Training and...Partnering Environments, A Guide for Military Leaders. The AWG identified the need for developing an insider threat handbook to “help educate and

  19. The cost of attack in competing networks

    PubMed Central

    Podobnik, B.

    2015-01-01

    Real-world attacks can be interpreted as the result of competitive interactions between networks, ranging from predator–prey networks to networks of countries under economic sanctions. Although the purpose of an attack is to damage a target network, it also curtails the ability of the attacker, which must choose the duration and magnitude of an attack to avoid negative impacts on its own functioning. Nevertheless, despite the large number of studies on interconnected networks, the consequences of initiating an attack have never been studied. Here, we address this issue by introducing a model of network competition where a resilient network is willing to partially weaken its own resilience in order to more severely damage a less resilient competitor. The attacking network can take over the competitor's nodes after their long inactivity. However, owing to a feedback mechanism the takeovers weaken the resilience of the attacking network. We define a conservation law that relates the feedback mechanism to the resilience dynamics for two competing networks. Within this formalism, we determine the cost and optimal duration of an attack, allowing a network to evaluate the risk of initiating hostilities. PMID:26490628

  20. Experiments on a wind turbine blade testing an indication for damage using the causal and anti-causal Green's function reconstructed from a diffuse field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tippmann, Jeffery D.; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco

    2014-03-01

    The increasing demand for renewable and clean power generation has resulted in increasing sizes of rotor blades in wind turbine systems. The demanding and variable operational environments have introduced the need for structural health monitoring systems in the blades in order to prevent unexpected downtime events in the operation of the power plant. Many non-destructive evaluation methods used for structural health monitoring purposes need external excitation sources. However, several systems already accepted in the wind turbine industry are passive. Here we present a new approach to health monitoring of a wind turbine blade using only passive sensors and the existing noise created on the blade during operation. This is achieved using a known method to reconstruct the causal and anticausal time-domain Green's function between any two points in an array of passive sensors placed in a diffuse field. Damage is indicated when the similarity between the causal and anticausal signals decrease due to nonlinearities introduced from structural damage. This method was studied experimentally using a CX-100 wind turbine test blade located at the UCSD's Powell Structural Laboratories where a diffuse field was approximated by exciting the skin of the blade with a random signal at several locations.

  1. Protecting complex infrastructures against multiple strategic attackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausken, Kjell

    2011-01-01

    Infrastructures are analysed subject to defence by a strategic defender and attack by multiple strategic attackers. A framework is developed where each agent determines how much to invest in defending versus attacking each of multiple targets. A target can have economic, human and symbolic values, which generally vary across agents. Investment expenditure functions for each agent can be linear in the investment effort, concave, convex, logistic, can increase incrementally, or can be subject to budget constraints. Contest success functions (e.g., ratio and difference forms) determine the probability of a successful attack on each target, dependent on the relative investments of the defender and attackers on each target, and on characteristics of the contest. Targets can be in parallel, in series, interlinked, interdependent or independent. The defender minimises the expected damage plus the defence expenditures. Each attacker maximises the expected damage minus the attack expenditures. The number of free choice variables equals the number of agents times the number of targets, or lower if there are budget constraints. Each agent is interested in how his investments vary across the targets, and the impact on his utilities. Alternative optimisation programmes are discussed, together with repeated games, dynamic games and incomplete information. An example is provided for illustration.

  2. Pericarditis - after heart attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000166.htm Pericarditis - after heart attack To use the sharing features on this page, ... occur in the days or weeks following a heart attack . Causes Two types of pericarditis can occur after ...

  3. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  4. UVB-induced DNA and photosystem II damage in two intertidal green macroalgae: distinct survival strategies in UV-screening and non-screening Chlorophyta.

    PubMed

    Pescheck, Frauke; Lohbeck, Kai T; Roleda, Michael Y; Bilger, Wolfgang

    2014-03-05

    Ultraviolet-B-induced (UVB, 280-315 nm) accumulation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and deactivation of photosystem II (PS II) was quantified in two intertidal green macroalgae, Ulva clathrata and Rhizoclonium riparium. The species were chosen due to their shared habitats but contrasting UVB screening potentials. In the non-screening U. clathrata CPDs accumulated and PS II activity declined as a linear function of applied UVB irradiance. In R. riparium UVB-induced damage was significantly lower than in U. clathrata, demonstrating an efficient UVB protection of DNA and PS II by screening. Based on the UVB irradiance reaching the chloroplasts, both species showed an identical intrinsic sensitivity of PS II towards UVB, but DNA lesions accumulated slower in U. clathrata. While repair of CPDs was similar in both species, U. clathrata was capable of restoring its PS II function decidedly faster than R. riparium. In R. riparium efficient screening may represent an adaptation to its high light habitat, whereas in U. clathrata high repair rates of PS II appear to be important to survive natural UVB exposure. The role of shading of the nucleus by the large chloroplasts in U. clathrata is discussed.

  5. Seven Deadliest Network Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Prowell, Stacy J; Borkin, Michael; Kraus, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting networks? Then you need "Seven Deadliest Network Attacks". This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to networks, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: Denial of Service; War Dialing; Penetration 'Testing'; Protocol Tunneling; Spanning Tree Attacks; Man-in-the-Middle; and, Password Replay. Knowledge is power, find out about the most dominant attacks currently waging war on computers and networks globally. Discover the best ways to defend against these vicious attacks; step-by-step instruction shows you how. Institute countermeasures, don't be caught defenseless again, learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable.

  6. Return of ambiguity attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craver, Scott A.

    2002-04-01

    The ambiguity attack, or invertibility attack, was described several years ago as a potential threat to digital watermarking systems. By manipulating the invertibility of watermark embedding, one could negate or subvert the meaning of a copyright mark. These attacks were easily prevented, however, with the appropriate application of one-way functions and cryptographic hashes in watermarking protocols. New research in watermarking, however, has caused the ambiguity attack to resurface as a threat, and this time it will not be as easy averted. Recent work in public-key watermarking create scenarios in which one-way functions may be ineffective against this threat. Furthermore, there are also positive uses for ambiguity attacks, as components in watermarking protocols. This paper provides an overview of the past and possible future of these unusual attacks.

  7. Traumatic tiger attack.

    PubMed

    Chum, Marvin; Ng, Wai Pui

    2011-11-01

    Attacks on humans by large cats are uncommon occurrences and thus the principles of managing such injuries are not well documented. The authors here report the case of an 11-year-old boy who was mauled by a privately owned tiger. The attack resulted in multiple cranial lacerations and fractures, dissection of the internal carotid artery, and persistent neurological deficits. This case outlines the multiple sources of injury and pathology that can result from such an attack. Discussion is focused on the pattern of injury seen in large feline attacks and the treatment approach.

  8. Depression After Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... ATVB) Circulation → Circ: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology → Circ: Cardiovascular Genetics → Circ: Cardiovascular ... Patient Page Depression After Heart Attack Why Should I Be Concerned ...

  9. Identification of cooling tower wood attack and methods of control

    SciTech Connect

    Song, P.; Trulear, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Biological and chemical attack can greatly accelerate the deterioration of cooling tower wood. The damage, once inflicted, is irreversible and often results in premature and costly wood replacement. Biological attack is more serious than chemical, and is difficult to detect. Control of both types is essential for good tower maintenance A review of wood structures, types of attack and methods of control are presented. Effects of alkaline cooling water operation on wood deterioration are also discussed.

  10. Information Security: Code Red, Code Red II, and SirCam Attacks Highlight Need for Proactive Measures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-29

    Despite some similarities, each of the recent attacks is very different in its makeup , method of attack, and potential damage. Generally, Code Red...would like to discuss the makeup and potential threat that each of these viruses pose as well as reported damages. I would also like to talk about...similarities, each of the recent attacks is very different in its makeup , method of attack, and potential damage. Generally, Code Red and Code Red II are both

  11. Can You Recognize a Heart Attack? Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Heart Attack Treatment of a Heart Attack Life After a Heart Attack Heart Failure About Heart Failure ... a Heart Attack • Treatment of a Heart Attack • Life After a Heart Attack Lifestyle Changes Recovery FAQs • Heart ...

  12. Stroke following rottweiler attack.

    PubMed

    Miller, S J; Copass, M; Johansen, K; Winn, H R

    1993-02-01

    A previously healthy 50-year-old man suffered a major right cerebral infarction shortly after receiving head and neck bites in an attack by two rottweilers. Arteriography revealed occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery, an intimal flap and pseudoaneurysm in the high right internal carotid artery just proximal to the skull base, and an obstructed right vertebral artery. The powerful jaw mechanism of rottweilers and other large mastiff-type dogs makes their bites particularly destructive. The predilection of these animals for attacking the head and upper body makes occult crush injury to the extracranial cerebral vessels an important diagnostic consideration following such attacks.

  13. [Atypical panic attacks].

    PubMed

    Boulenger, Jean-Philippe

    2009-04-20

    Panic attacks are acute episodes of severe anxiety characterized by a brutal onset and a progressive ending. When atypical, this symptomatic picture is often the cause of diagnostic errors sometimes costly in terms of clinical work-up and repeated specialized advices. Each of the classical components of panic attacks (psychological, physical, behavioural) being able to give rise to an atypical presentation, these components must be systematically evaluated. The semiological analysis of these attacks, their clinical background and their occurrence in young adults, mostly women, will contribute to the right diagnosis of these emotional reactions so frequent in general practice.

  14. Supply Chain Attack Framework and Attack Patterns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Malware is embedded in a replacement server motherboard (e.g., in the flash memory) in order to alter server functionality from that intended. Attack...Slashdot: Dell Ships Infected Motherboards July 21, 2010(c/o Rick Dove) Threat: An adversary with access to hardware procurement, maintenance, or upgrade...control can embed malware in a critical component server motherboard . Vulnerabilities: The control processes and mechanisms for hardware

  15. Signs of a Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... attack Heart Health and Stroke Signs of a heart attack Related information Make the Call. Don't Miss ... to top More information on Signs of a heart attack Read more from womenshealth.gov Make the Call, ...

  16. New sensitivity analysis attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Choubassi, Maha; Moulin, Pierre

    2005-03-01

    The sensitivity analysis attacks by Kalker et al. constitute a known family of watermark removal attacks exploiting a vulnerability in some watermarking protocols: the attacker's unlimited access to the watermark detector. In this paper, a new attack on spread spectrum schemes is designed. We first examine one of Kalker's algorithms and prove its convergence using the law of large numbers, which gives more insight into the problem. Next, a new algorithm is presented and compared to existing ones. Various detection algorithms are considered including correlation detectors and normalized correlation detectors, as well as other, more complicated algorithms. Our algorithm is noniterative and requires at most n+1 operations, where n is the dimension of the signal. Moreover, the new approach directly estimates the watermark by exploiting the simple geometry of the detection boundary and the information leaked by the detector.

  17. A fatal leopard attack.

    PubMed

    Hejna, Petr

    2010-05-01

    A rare case of a big cat fatal attack is presented. A male leopard that had escaped from its unlocked cage attacked a 26-year-old male zoo worker. The man sustained penetrating injuries to the neck with consequent external bleeding. The man died while being transported to the hospital as a result of the injuries sustained. The wounds discovered on the victim's body corresponded with the known methods of leopard attacks and with findings on the carcasses of animals killed by leopards in the wild. The conclusion of the medicolegal investigation was that the underlying cause of death was a bite wound to the neck which lacerated the left internal jugular vein, the two main branches of the left external carotid artery, and the cervical spine. The cause of death was massive external bleeding. Special attention is paid to the general pattern of injuries sustained from big cat attacks.

  18. Transient Ischemic Attack

    MedlinePlus

    A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a stroke lasts only a few minutes. It happens when the blood supply to part of the brain is briefly blocked. Symptoms of a TIA are like other stroke symptoms, but do not ...

  19. Transient Ischemic Attack

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... TIA Cardiac Catheter Cholesterol Heart Attack Stent © 2017, American Heart Association, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use prohibited. The content in this library is for educational purposes only, and therefore is ...

  20. Cooperating attackers in neural cryptography.

    PubMed

    Shacham, Lanir N; Klein, Einat; Mislovaty, Rachel; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2004-06-01

    A successful attack strategy in neural cryptography is presented. The neural cryptosystem, based on synchronization of neural networks by mutual learning, has been recently shown to be secure under different attack strategies. The success of the advanced attacker presented here, called the "majority-flipping attacker," does not decay with the parameters of the model. This attacker's outstanding success is due to its using a group of attackers which cooperate throughout the synchronization process, unlike any other attack strategy known. An analytical description of this attack is also presented, and fits the results of simulations.

  1. 7 CFR 29.3017 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungous or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot is considered damaged. (See...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3017 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungous or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot is considered damaged. (See...

  3. 7 CFR 29.3017 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungous or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot is considered damaged. (See...

  4. 7 CFR 30.17 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungous or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Any tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot shall be included in damaged...

  5. 7 CFR 30.17 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungous or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Any tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot shall be included in damaged...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3017 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungous or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot is considered damaged. (See Rule...

  7. 7 CFR 29.3017 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungous or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot is considered damaged. (See Rule...

  8. Fatal big cat attacks.

    PubMed

    Cohle, S D; Harlan, C W; Harlan, G

    1990-09-01

    Two cases of fatal attacks by large cats are presented. In the first case, a 30-year-old female zoo worker was attacked by a jaguar that had escaped its cage. In the second case, a 2-year-old girl was fatally injured by her father's pet leopard. The pattern of injuries in these cases is nearly identical to those of these cats' prey in the wild.

  9. Effects of single dose and regular intake of green tea (Camellia sinensis) on DNA damage, DNA repair, and heme oxygenase-1 expression in a randomized controlled human supplementation study.

    PubMed

    Ho, Cyrus K; Choi, Siu-wai; Siu, Parco M; Benzie, Iris F F

    2014-06-01

    Regular intake of green tea (Camellia sinensis) lowers DNA damage in humans, but molecular mechanisms of genoprotection are not clear. Protection could be via direct antioxidant effects of tea catechins, but, paradoxically, catechins have pro-oxidant activity in vitro, and it is hypothesized that mechanisms relate to redox-sensitive cytoprotective adaptations. We investigated this hypothesis, focusing particularly on effects on the DNA repair enzyme human oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (hOGG1), and heme oxygenase-1, a protein that has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. A randomized, placebo-controlled, human supplementation study of crossover design was performed. Subjects (n = 16) took a single dose (200 mL of 1.5%, w/v) and 7-days of (2 × 200 mL 1%, w/v per day) green tea (with water as control treatment). Lymphocytic DNA damage was ∼30% (p < 0.001) lower at 60 and 120 min after the single dose and in fasting samples collected after 7-day tea supplementation. Lymphocytic hOGG1 activity was higher (p < 0.0001) at 60 and 120 min after tea ingestion. Significant increases (p < 0.0005) were seen in hOGG1 activity and heme oxygenase-1 after 7 days. Results indicate that molecular triggering of redox-sensitive cytoprotective adaptations and posttranslational changes affecting hOGG1 occur in vivo in response to both a single dose and regular intake of green tea, and contribute to the observed genoprotective effects of green tea.

  10. Death due to attack from chow dog.

    PubMed

    Bux, R C; McDowell, J D

    1992-12-01

    It is estimated that between one and four million persons per year are bitten by dogs in the United States. While most injuries associated with the bites are minor, serious sequelae, and even death, may occur. Most victims of fatal dog attacks are children < 1 year of age or elderly women. The most frequent cause of death is hemorrhage and shock from major vessel damage. A case is reported in which an elderly woman was attacked by her pet Chow dog. The victim received multiple superficial abrasions, contusions, and lacerations from the dog attack. A large perforation of the right external pudendal vein and three perforations of the left superficial femoral vein resulted in exsanguination and death. Fractures of the left 2nd through 4th ribs with underlying pulmonary contusion were also found.

  11. Attack optimization for unequal moderate forces

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-06-01

    Attack allocation optimizations produce stability indices for unsymmetrical forces that indicate significant regions of both stability and instability and that have their minimum values roughly when the two sides have equal forces. This note derives combined stability indices for unsymmetrical offensive force configurations. The indices are based on optimal allocations of offensive missiles between vulnerable missiles and value based on the minimization of first strike cost, which is done analytically. Exchanges are modeled probabalistically and their results are converted into first and second strike costs through approximations to the damage to the value target sets held at risk. The stability index is the product of the ratio of first to second strike costs seen by the two sides. Optimal allocations scale directly on the opponent`s vulnerable missiles, inversely on one`s own total weapons, and only logarithmically on the attacker`s damage preference, kill probability, and relative target set. The defender`s allocation scales in a similar manner on the attacker`s parameters. First and second strike magnitudes increase roughly linearly for the side with greater forces and decrease linearly for the side with fewer. Conversely, the first and second strike magnitudes decrease for the side with greater forces and increase for the side with fewer. These trends are derived and discussed analytically. The resulting stability indices exhibit a minimum where the two sides have roughly equal forces. If one side has much larger forces than the other, his costs drop to levels low enough that he is relatively insensitive to whether he strikes first or second. These calculations are performed with the analytic attack allocation appropriate for moderate forces, so some differences could be expected for the largest of the forces considered.

  12. Green Tea Versus Traditional Korean Teas: Antibacterial/Antifungal or Both?

    PubMed

    Muthu, Manikandan; Gopal, Judy; Min, Shang Xiao; Chun, Sechul

    2016-10-01

    The feasibility of utilizing the antimicrobial activity of naturally available teas was studied. Eleven teas including 2 green teas and 9 other traditional Korean mixed teas were tested for their antimicrobial properties. Antibacterial and antifungal properties were assessed. The results showed that green teas possessed significant antifungal and antibacterial properties, while most of the mixed teas showed some amount of antifungal activity and almost insignificant antibacterial properties. Confocal microscopic imaging revealed mycelial damage as well as attack on sporophores rather than spores/spore germination to be the reason behind the antifungal activity. EGCG was identified as the crucial catechin for antimicrobial activity. The study confirmed that green tea had a clear edge over the traditional mixed teas when it comes to antimicrobial activity.

  13. What Causes a Heart Attack?

    MedlinePlus

    ... explains how a heart attack occurs and encourages women to seek care right away for heart attack symptoms. For more information, visit www.hearttruth.gov or the Health Topics Heart Attack and Heart Disease in Women articles. What is a heart attack? 05/22/ ...

  14. Collaborative Attack vs. Collaborative Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shouhuai

    We have witnessed many attacks in the cyberspace. However, most attacks are launched by individual attackers even though an attack may involve many compromised computers. In this paper, we envision what we believe to be the next generation cyber attacks — collaborative attacks. Collaborative attacks can be launched by multiple attackers (i.e., human attackers or criminal organizations), each of which may have some specialized expertise. This is possible because cyber attacks can become very sophisticated and specialization of attack expertise naturally becomes relevant. To counter collaborative attacks, we might need collaborative defense because each “chain” in a collaborative attack may be only adequately dealt with by a different defender. In order to understand collaborative attack and collaborative defense, we present a high-level abstracted framework for evaluating the effectiveness of collaborative defense against collaborative attacks. As a first step towards realizing and instantiating the framework, we explore a characterization of collaborative attacks and collaborative defense from the relevant perspectives.

  15. Fatal crocodile attack.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Shee, Biplab; Sukul, Biswajit

    2013-11-01

    Attacks on human beings by various animals leading to varied types of injuries and even death in some cases are not uncommon. Crocodile attacks on humans have been reported from a number of countries across the globe. Deaths in such attacks are mostly due to mechanical injuries or drowning. Bites by the crocodiles often cause the limbs to be separated from the body. The present case refers to an incident of a fatal attack by a crocodile on a 35 years old female where only the mutilated head of the female was recovered. Multiple lacerated wounds over the face and scalp along with fracture of the cranial bones was detected on autopsy. Two distinct bite marks in the form of punched in holes were noted over the parietal and frontal bones. Injuries on the head with its traumatic amputation from the body were sufficient to cause death. However, the presence of other fatal injuries on the unrecovered body parts could not be ruled out.

  16. Word Attack Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follettie, Joseph F.

    A limited analysis of alternative approaches to phonemic-level word attack instruction is provided in this document. The instruction segment begins with training in letter-sound correspondences for which mastery of certain skills is assumed. Instruction ends with the decoding of novel items having a consonant-vowel-consonant construction. Contents…

  17. Oviposition response of green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) to aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and potential attractants on pecan.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, Brian A; Cottrell, Ted E

    2007-06-01

    Pecan foliage is attacked by three species of aphids [Monellia caryella (Fitch), Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis), and Monelliopsis pecanis Bissell], resulting in damage that can reduce tree nut yield. In this study, we assayed the ovipositional response of the green lacewing Chrysoperla rufilabris (Burmeister) to M. caryella and M. caryaefoliae at high and low aphid densities and the development of C. rufilabris larvae when fed solely on each of the three pecan aphid species. During 2004 and 2005, combinations of attractants and food sprays were applied to pecan trees in an orchard to monitor green lacewing ovipositional response. We found that C. rufilabris laid more eggs on seedling trees infested with the M. caryella (at both high and low densities) than on seedlings infested with M. caryaefoliae. Development of C. rufilabris was unaffected by aphid species. At least one attractant/food spray treatment applied to trees in an orchard significantly increased green lacewing oviposition for three of the five treatment dates over both years. These results show that larvae of C. rufilabris will consume all aphid species attacking pecan, even though female ovipositional response can differ for aphid species. It is likely that combinations of attractants and food sprays can be used to enhance green lacewing populations in orchards.

  18. [Apate terebrans (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) attacking neem trees in Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Rodolfo M; dos Anjos, Norivaldo; Mourão, Sheila A

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and records the attack of adults Apate terebrans (Pallas) to a neem plantation located in Guarani, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in March 2007. The damage was characterized by a hole in the trunk, from where the shot-hole-borer enters constructing tunnels and feeding on the wood. This is the first record of A. terebrans attacking neem trees in Brazil.

  19. Localized attacks on spatially embedded networks with dependencies.

    PubMed

    Berezin, Yehiel; Bashan, Amir; Danziger, Michael M; Li, Daqing; Havlin, Shlomo

    2015-03-11

    Many real world complex systems such as critical infrastructure networks are embedded in space and their components may depend on one another to function. They are also susceptible to geographically localized damage caused by malicious attacks or natural disasters. Here, we study a general model of spatially embedded networks with dependencies under localized attacks. We develop a theoretical and numerical approach to describe and predict the effects of localized attacks on spatially embedded systems with dependencies. Surprisingly, we find that a localized attack can cause substantially more damage than an equivalent random attack. Furthermore, we find that for a broad range of parameters, systems which appear stable are in fact metastable. Though robust to random failures-even of finite fraction-if subjected to a localized attack larger than a critical size which is independent of the system size (i.e., a zero fraction), a cascading failure emerges which leads to complete system collapse. Our results demonstrate the potential high risk of localized attacks on spatially embedded network systems with dependencies and may be useful for designing more resilient systems.

  20. Localized attacks on spatially embedded networks with dependencies

    PubMed Central

    Berezin, Yehiel; Bashan, Amir; Danziger, Michael M.; Li, Daqing; Havlin, Shlomo

    2015-01-01

    Many real world complex systems such as critical infrastructure networks are embedded in space and their components may depend on one another to function. They are also susceptible to geographically localized damage caused by malicious attacks or natural disasters. Here, we study a general model of spatially embedded networks with dependencies under localized attacks. We develop a theoretical and numerical approach to describe and predict the effects of localized attacks on spatially embedded systems with dependencies. Surprisingly, we find that a localized attack can cause substantially more damage than an equivalent random attack. Furthermore, we find that for a broad range of parameters, systems which appear stable are in fact metastable. Though robust to random failures—even of finite fraction—if subjected to a localized attack larger than a critical size which is independent of the system size (i.e., a zero fraction), a cascading failure emerges which leads to complete system collapse. Our results demonstrate the potential high risk of localized attacks on spatially embedded network systems with dependencies and may be useful for designing more resilient systems. PMID:25757572

  1. An Attack Surface Metric

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Introduction Measurement of security, both qualitatively and quantitatively, has been a long standing challenge to the research community , and is of...our approach to related work in Section 2. We introduce the entry point and exit point framework in Section 3. We present the definitions of...ignores the specific system configuration that gave rise to the vulnerability, and it does not capture a system’s future attackability. Our approach

  2. Survival of child after lion attack

    PubMed Central

    Dabdoub, Carlos F.; Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Chavez, Mario; Molina, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Background: Injuries to humans caused by attacks from large predators are very rare, especially in the United States, Europe, or Latin America. A few cases were reported on accidents in zoos or animal farms, being very uncommon in children. The purposes of this report include describing the case of a child who sustained an attack by a lion named “Bang-Bang”, which resulted in injuries to the head, chest, and abdomen, as well as the subsequent neurosurgical treatment and providing a review of the literature. Case Description: We report the case of an 8-year-old boy who was attacked by a lion during a circus show. The patient underwent an emergent neurosurgical procedure, including parietal craniectomy, cleaning, and extensive surgical debridement of the wounds. Despite open severe head trauma with brain damage as well as thorax and abdomen trauma, the child survived, with minimal neurological sequelae. Conclusions: Human injury resulting from encounters with nondomesticated animals is increasingly rising throughout the world. This case highlights the potentially violent and aggressive nature of wild mammals held in captivity. Unusual wild animal attacks and the complex injuries that result may pose a challenge to surgeons practicing in resource-limited settings. In this sense, the best treatment in the mentioned case is the prevention of human injuries by these animals. In addition, to attend to these infrequent cases, the authors emphasize the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to achieve the best cosmetic and functional results. PMID:23869277

  3. Plants Under Attack

    PubMed Central

    De Vos, Martin; Van Oosten, Vivian R; Jander, Georg; Dicke, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    To defend themselves, plants activate inducible defense mechanisms that are effective against the invader that is encountered. There is partial overlap in the defense signaling pathways that are induced by insect herbivores and microbial pathogens that may result in cross-resistance. We have previously shown that infestation by tissue-chewing Pieris rapae larvae induces resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana against subsequent attack by the microbial pathogens Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), Xanthomonas campestris pv. armoraciae (Xca) and turnip crinkle virus (TCV). Phloem-feeding aphids, such as the generalist Myzus persicae, have a stealthy feeding strategy that is very different from chewing by lepidopteran larvae. Yet, M. persicae feeding results in a large transcriptomic change. Here, we report on the effectiveness of the defense response that is triggered by M. persicae infestation, as well as the sensitivity of M. persicae to microbially-induced resistance. M. persicae reproduction was not affected by prior conspecific feeding, nor was aphid-induced resistance effective against subsequent attack by Pst, Xca or TCV. Moreover, induced systemic resistance (ISR) triggered by beneficial Pseudomonas fluorescens rhizobacteria was not effective against M. persicae. However, systemic acquired resistance (SAR) induced by prior infection with avirulent Pst was associated with reduced aphid reproduction. These data provide insight into the effectiveness of pathogen and insect resistance and highlight the complexity of the defense responses that are triggered during multitrophic plant-attacker interactions. PMID:19704549

  4. When women attack.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Bryan; Davis, Catasha; Coppini, David; Kim, Young Mie; Knisely, Sandra; McLeod, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The common assumption that female candidates on the campaign trail should not go on the attack, because such tactics contradict gender stereotypes, has not received consistent support. We argue that in some circumstances gender stereotypes will favor female politicians going negative. To test this proposition, this study examines how gender cues affect voter reactions to negative ads in the context of a political sex scandal, a context that should prime gender stereotypes that favor females. Using an online experiment involving a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 599), we manipulate the gender and partisan affiliation of a politician who attacks a male opponent caught in a sex scandal involving sexually suggestive texting to a female intern. Results show that in the context of a sex scandal, a female candidate going on the attack is evaluated more positively than a male. Moreover, while female participants viewed the female sponsor more favorably, sponsor gender had no effect on male participants. Partisanship also influenced candidate evaluations: the Democratic female candidate was evaluated more favorably than her Republican female counterpart.

  5. Effect of needle damage on the release rate of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) volatiles.

    PubMed

    Su, Jian-Wei; Zeng, Ju-Ping; Qin, Xiao-Wei; Ge, Feng

    2009-03-01

    The effect of needle damage on the release rate of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) volatiles was examined. Needles were continuously damaged by mechanical damage (MDP) or by feeding of pine caterpillar (Dendrolimus punctatus) larvae (LFP); undamaged pine was used as a control (UDP). Volatiles were collected before damage, and at 16, 24, 40, 48, 64, 72, 88 and 96 h post-damage, and analyzed. The analyses revealed that 19 compounds identified as constitutive volatiles from UDP were terpenes and green leaf odors. The release rate of volatiles from MDP or LFP was higher than that from UDP. At 96 h post-damage, emission from MDP or LFP returned to the same level as that of UDP. Some volatiles, including sabinene, ocimene, limonene-1,2-epoxide, linalool, linalool acetate, germacrene D: -4-ol, farnesol, and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene were induced by mechanical damage and/or larval attack. Furthermore, the release rate of linalool acetate, farnesol, or (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene from LFP was higher than that from MDP. Based on an exact estimation of the proportion of damaged pine needles, a significant linear correlation between the release rate of total volatiles identified and the proportion of damaged needles was found in the case of LFP but not MDP.

  6. Life After a Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... explains how a heart attack occurs and encourages women to seek care right away for heart attack symptoms. For more information, visit www.hearttruth.gov or the Health Topics Heart Attack and Heart Disease in Women articles. All of Our Stories Are Red: Jennifer's ...

  7. Smoking behaviour under intense terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Keinan-Boker, Lital; Kohn, Robert; Billig, Miriam; Levav, Itzhak

    2011-06-01

    Smoking is one of the varied psychological reactions to stress. This study examined the rate and changes in cigarette smoking among former Gaza and current West Bank Jewish settlers subjected to direct and indirect terrorist attacks during the Al-Aksa Intifada. The relationship with degree of religious observance and emotional distress was explored as well. In this cross-sectional study, the respondents were settlers randomly selected and interviewed by telephone (N = 706). The interview schedule included socio-demographic items, information on direct exposure to terrorist attacks (e.g. threat to life or physical integrity, personal losses, property damage) and on steady and changes in smoking habits, and a scale to measure emotional distress. In contrast with the country population, a larger percentage of settlers who smoked increased the number of cigarettes consumed with exposure to terrorism (10 and 27%, respectively). Respondents who were injured or had their home damaged reported a higher rate of smoking during the preceding year (30 and 20%, respectively). Emotional distress was related to cigarette smoking, but not in the controlled analysis. Religious observance had no effect. Direct or indirect exposure to terrorist attacks had an impact on smoking prevalence rates and on changes in smoking habits. Studies investigating reactions to traumatic events should include a detailed section on smoking while mental health interventions should address the needs of smokers.

  8. Replacement Attack: A New Zero Text Watermarking Attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashardoost, Morteza; Mohd Rahim, Mohd Shafry; Saba, Tanzila; Rehman, Amjad

    2017-03-01

    The main objective of zero watermarking methods that are suggested for the authentication of textual properties is to increase the fragility of produced watermarks against tampering attacks. On the other hand, zero watermarking attacks intend to alter the contents of document without changing the watermark. In this paper, the Replacement attack is proposed, which focuses on maintaining the location of the words in the document. The proposed text watermarking attack is specifically effective on watermarking approaches that exploit words' transition in the document. The evaluation outcomes prove that tested word-based method are unable to detect the existence of replacement attack in the document. Moreover, the comparison results show that the size of Replacement attack is estimated less accurate than other common types of zero text watermarking attacks.

  9. Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  10. Insects betray themselves in nature to predators by rapid isomerization of green leaf volatiles.

    PubMed

    Allmann, Silke; Baldwin, Ian T

    2010-08-27

    Plants emit green leaf volatiles (GLVs) in response to herbivore damage, thereby attracting predators of the herbivores as part of an indirect defense. The GLV component of this indirect defense was thought to be a general wound signal lacking herbivore-specific information. We found that Manduca sexta-infested Nicotiana attenuata attract the generalist hemipteran predator Geocoris spp. as the result of an herbivore-induced decrease in the (Z)/(E) ratio of released GLVs, and that these changes in the volatile bouquet triple the foraging efficiency of predators in nature. These (E)-isomers are produced from plant-derived (Z)-isomers but are converted by a heat-labile constituent of herbivore oral secretions. Hence, attacking herbivores initiate the release of an indirect defense a full day before the attacked plants manufacture their own defensive compounds.

  11. RISK DISCLOSURE AGAINST ATTACK ON CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi

    This paper analyzes the government's defensive and disclosure strategies to reduce the damage caused by terrorists that attack critical infrastructures using subjective game theory. The government recognizes a terrorist as a hidden opponent and the government's decision making about the policies against terror attacks depends on the belief about the existence of terrorist. In addition, it is not necessarily true that the government and the terrorist play the common game and make their decisions. Considering these points, the paper formulates the model in which the government and the terrorist formulate the subjective games respectively, and they induce the strategies using the equilibriums of their subjective games. The paper concluded that the government's disclosure about the implementation of the countermeasure, rather than the disclosure of warning level related with the belief about the existence of terrorist, brings about the higher increment of the subjective payoffs of the government.

  12. Modeling Partial Attacks with Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Amerson; Bond, Mike; Clulow, Jolyon

    The automated and formal analysis of cryptographic primitives, security protocols and Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) up to date has been focused on discovering attacks that completely break the security of a system. However, there are attacks that do not immediately break a system but weaken the security sufficiently for the adversary. We term these attacks partial attacks and present the first methodology for the modeling and automated analysis of this genre of attacks by describing two approaches. The first approach reasons about entropy and was used to simulate and verify an attack on the ECB|ECB|OFB triple-mode DES block-cipher. The second approach reasons about possibility sets and was used to simulate and verify an attack on the personal identification number (PIN) derivation algorithm used in the IBM 4758 Common Cryptographic Architecture.

  13. Improving Attack Graph Visualization through Data Reduction and Attack Grouping

    SciTech Connect

    John Homer; Ashok Varikuti; Xinming Ou; Miles A. McQueen

    2008-09-01

    Various tools exist to analyze enterprise network systems and to produce attack graphs detailing how attackers might penetrate into the system. These attack graphs, however, are often complex and difficult to comprehend fully, and a human user may find it problematic to reach appropriate configuration decisions. This paper presents methodologies that can 1) automatically identify portions of an attack graph that do not help a user to understand the core security problems and so can be trimmed, and 2) automatically group similar attack steps as virtual nodes in a model of the network topology, to immediately increase the understandability of the data. We believe both methods are important steps toward improving visualization of attack graphs to make them more useful in configuration management for large enterprise networks. We implemented our methods using one of the existing attack-graph toolkits. Initial experimentation shows that the proposed approaches can 1) significantly reduce the complexity of attack graphs by trimming a large portion of the graph that is not needed for a user to understand the security problem, and 2) significantly increase the accessibility and understandability of the data presented in the attack graph by clearly showing, within a generated visualization of the network topology, the number and type of potential attacks to which each host is exposed.

  14. DNS Rebinding Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    action [From 2] The same origin policy is also called Single Origin or Same Site Policy. It was originally released with Netscape Navigator 2.0 and...success Netscape 8.2.1 Windows XP / SP2 success Opera 9.0.2 Windows 2000 / SP4 success Table 6. Satoh’s attack results using Adobe Flash Player...dns/dns-rebinding.pdf. Retrieved May 2009. [4] D. Dean, E. W. Felten, and D. S. Wallach “Java Security: From HotJava to Netscape and Beyond

  15. l-Theanine, an amino acid in green tea, attenuates beta-amyloid-induced cognitive dysfunction and neurotoxicity: reduction in oxidative damage and inactivation of ERK/p38 kinase and NF-kappaB pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Yong Kyung; Park, Sang Gi; Choi, Im Seop; Ban, Jung Ok; Park, Hyoung Kook; Nam, Sang-Yoon; Yun, Young Won; Han, Sang Bae; Oh, Ki Wan; Hong, Jin Tae

    2009-12-01

    Amyloid beta (Abeta)-induced neurotoxicity is a major pathological mechanism of Alzheimer disease (AD). In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of l-theanine, a component of green tea (Camellia sinensis), on Abeta(1-42)-induced neuronal cell death and memory impairment. Oral treatment of l-theanine (2 and 4 mg/kg) for 5 weeks in the drinking water of mice, followed by injection of Abeta(1-42) (2 microg/mouse, icv), significantly attenuated Abeta(1-42)-induced memory impairment. Furthermore, l-theanine reduced Abeta(1-42) levels and the accompanying Abeta(1-42)-induced neuronal cell death in the cortex and hippocampus of the brain. Moreover, l-theanine inhibited Abeta(1-42)-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase as well as the activity of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). l-Theanine also significantly reduced oxidative protein and lipid damage and the elevation of glutathione levels in the brain. These data suggest that the positive effects of l-theanine on memory may be mediated by suppression of ERK/p38 and NF-kappaB as well as the reduction of macromolecular oxidative damage. Thus, l-theanine may be useful in the prevention and treatment of AD.

  16. Risk Due to Radiological Terror Attacks With Natural Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva; Stan, Rydell

    2008-08-07

    The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe and Russia. Five different modes of attack (T) are possible: (1) Covert irradiation of an individual in order to deliver a high individual dose; (2) Covert irradiation of a group of persons delivering a large collective dose; (3) Contamination of food or drink; (4) Generation of radioactive aerosols or solutions; (5) Combination of Ra-226 with conventional explosives (Dirty Bomb).This paper assesses the risk (R) of such criminal acts in terms of: (a) Probability of terrorist motivation deploying a certain attack mode T; (b) Probability of success by the terrorists for the selected attack mode T; (c) Primary damage consequence (C) to the attacked target (activity, dose); (d) Secondary damage consequence (C') to the attacked target (psychological and socio-economic effects); (e) Probability that the consequences (C, C') cannot be brought under control, resulting in a failure to manage successfully the emergency situation due to logistical and/or technical deficits in implementing adequate countermeasures. Extensive computer modelling is used to determine the potential impact of such a criminal attack on directly affected victims and on the environment.

  17. Risk Due to Radiological Terror Attacks With Natural Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Stan, Rydell; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe and Russia. Five different modes of attack (T) are possible: (1) Covert irradiation of an individual in order to deliver a high individual dose; (2) Covert irradiation of a group of persons delivering a large collective dose; (3) Contamination of food or drink; (4) Generation of radioactive aerosols or solutions; (5) Combination of Ra-226 with conventional explosives (Dirty Bomb). This paper assesses the risk (R) of such criminal acts in terms of: (a) Probability of terrorist motivation deploying a certain attack mode T; (b) Probability of success by the terrorists for the selected attack mode T; (c) Primary damage consequence (C) to the attacked target (activity, dose); (d) Secondary damage consequence (C') to the attacked target (psychological and socio-economic effects); (e) Probability that the consequences (C, C') cannot be brought under control, resulting in a failure to manage successfully the emergency situation due to logistical and/or technical deficits in implementing adequate countermeasures. Extensive computer modelling is used to determine the potential impact of such a criminal attack on directly affected victims and on the environment.

  18. [Evaluation of Hyalospila ptychis (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) damage in coconut palm].

    PubMed

    Moura, José I L; Sgrillo, Kátia R P A; Cazorla, Irene M; Sgrillo, Ricardo B; Delabie, Jacques H C

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the losses provoked by the moth Hyalospila ptychis (Dyar) on green-dwarf coconut trees at Una, State of Bahia, Brazil. Inflorescences of 100 trees were inspected monthly, from April 1997 to March 1998, in a 15 ha orchard. The number of coconuts per inflorescence, fruits damaged by H. ptychis, and fruit losses due to other causes, were recorded. The number of nuts per inflorescence followed a seasonal variation. The average losses caused by the pest were around 2% of the coconuts and the proportion of losses due to other causes was 59,4%. The number of coconuts lost for other causes and attacked by H. ptychis followed the seasonal variation of the number of fruits per inflorescence. The percent of coconuts attacked by H. ptychis was significantly and positively correlated with monthly average temperature.

  19. Metrics for Assessment of Smart Grid Data Integrity Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Annarita Giani; Miles McQueen; Russell Bent; Kameshwar Poolla; Mark Hinrichs

    2012-07-01

    There is an emerging consensus that the nation’s electricity grid is vulnerable to cyber attacks. This vulnerability arises from the increasing reliance on using remote measurements, transmitting them over legacy data networks to system operators who make critical decisions based on available data. Data integrity attacks are a class of cyber attacks that involve a compromise of information that is processed by the grid operator. This information can include meter readings of injected power at remote generators, power flows on transmission lines, and relay states. These data integrity attacks have consequences only when the system operator responds to compromised data by redispatching generation under normal or contingency protocols. These consequences include (a) financial losses from sub-optimal economic dispatch to service loads, (b) robustness/resiliency losses from placing the grid at operating points that are at greater risk from contingencies, and (c) systemic losses resulting from cascading failures induced by poor operational choices. This paper is focused on understanding the connections between grid operational procedures and cyber attacks. We first offer two examples to illustrate how data integrity attacks can cause economic and physical damage by misleading operators into taking inappropriate decisions. We then focus on unobservable data integrity attacks involving power meter data. These are coordinated attacks where the compromised data are consistent with the physics of power flow, and are therefore passed by any bad data detection algorithm. We develop metrics to assess the economic impact of these attacks under re-dispatch decisions using optimal power flow methods. These metrics can be use to prioritize the adoption of appropriate countermeasures including PMU placement, encryption, hardware upgrades, and advance attack detection algorithms.

  20. Green Tea Polyphenols Ameliorate the Early Renal Damage Induced by a High-Fat Diet via Ketogenesis/SIRT3 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yi, Weijie; Xie, Xiao; Du, Miying; Bu, Yongjun; Wu, Nannan; Yang, Hui; Tian, Chong; Xu, Fangyi; Xiang, Siyun; Zhang, Piwei; Chen, Zhuo; Zuo, Xuezhi; Ying, Chenjiang

    2017-01-01

    Several reports in the literature have suggested the renoprotective effects of ketone bodies and green tea polyphenols (GTPs). Our previous study found that GTP consumption could elevate the renal expression of the ketogenic rate-limiting enzyme, which was decreased by a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats. Here, we investigated whether ketogenesis can mediate renoprotection by GTPs against an HFD. Wistar rats were fed a standard or HFD with or without GTPs for 18 weeks. The renal oxidative stress level, kidney function, renal expression, and activity levels of mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase 2 (HMGCS2) and sirtuin 3(SIRT3) were detected. The increased renal oxidative stress and the loss of renal function induced by the HFD were ameliorated by GTPs. Renal ketogenesis and SIRT3 expression and activity levels, which were reduced by the HFD, were restored by GTPs. In vitro, HEK293 cells were transfected with the eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA HMGCS2. GTP treatment could upregulate HMGCS2 and SIRT3 expression. Although SIRT3 expression was not affected by HMGCS2 transfection, the 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) level and the acetyl-MnSOD (K122)/MnSOD ratio were reduced in HMGCS2-transfected cells in the context of H2O2. The ketogenesis/SIRT3 pathway mediates the renoprotection of GTPs against the oxidative stress induced by an HFD.

  1. Detection of metal induced cytopathological alterations and DNA damage in the gills and hepatopancreas of green mussel Perna viridis from Ennore Estuary, Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Vasanthi, Lourduraj A; Revathi, Peranandam; Babu Rajendran, Ramaswamy; Munuswamy, Natesan

    2017-04-15

    This study report the impact of heavy metals on cytopathology and DNA damage in the gills and hepatopancreas of Perna viridis collected from Ennore estuary and the Kovalam coastal waters. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed significant differences among all variables at the scale of plots. The ultrastructural alterations such as lack of microvilli, distorted mitochondria, electron dense particles and the presence of large mucous droplets were common in the gill and hepatopancreatic cells of mussels from Ennore estuary. However, the gill and hepatopancreatic cells of P. viridis from Kovalam revealed normal compartmentalization of cells. The percentage of tail DNA in the mussels from Ennore estuary was recorded as 12.44 and 10.14% in the gills and hepatopancreas respectively. Overall, it has been demonstrated that the Comet and cytopathological assays are useful biomarkers to assess the level of pollution and it provide reliable information on ecotoxicology and genotoxicology of coastal waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Studies on sulfate attack: Mechanisms, test methods, and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhanam, Manu

    The objective of this research study was to investigate various issues pertaining to the mechanism, testing methods, and modeling of sulfate attack in concrete. The study was divided into the following segments: (1) effect of gypsum formation on the expansion of mortars, (2) attack by the magnesium ion, (3) sulfate attack in the presence of chloride ions---differentiating seawater and groundwater attack, (4) use of admixtures to mitigate sulfate attack---entrained air, sodium citrate, silica fume, and metakaolin, (5) effects of temperature and concentration of the attack solution, (6) development of new test methods using concrete specimens, and (7) modeling of the sulfate attack phenomenon. Mortar specimens using portland cement (PC) and tricalcium silicate (C 3S), with or without mineral admixtures, were prepared and immersed in different sulfate solutions. In addition to this, portland cement concrete specimens were also prepared and subjected to complete and partial immersion in sulfate solutions. Physical measurements, chemical analyses and microstructural studies were performed periodically on the specimens. Gypsum formation was seen to cause expansion of the C3S mortar specimens. Statistical analyses of the data also indicated that the quantity of gypsum was the most significant factor controlling the expansion of mortar bars. The attack by magnesium ion was found to drive the reaction towards the formation of brucite. Decalcification of the C-S-H and its subsequent conversion to the non-cementitious M-S-H was identified as the mechanism of destruction in magnesium sulfate attack. Mineral admixtures were beneficial in combating sodium sulfate attack, while reducing the resistance to magnesium sulfate attack. Air entrainment did not change the measured physical properties, but reduced the visible distress of the mortars. Sodium citrate caused a substantial reduction in the rate of damage of the mortars due to its retarding effect. Temperature and

  3. Dog pack attack: hunting humans.

    PubMed

    Avis, S P

    1999-09-01

    Dog bite-related fatalities, although unusual, accounted for 304 deaths in the United States between 1979 and 1996 and 6 fatalities in Canada between 1994 and 1996. Fatal dog pack attacks and attacks involving human predation are less common. The following describes a dog pack attack on a family of four involving 2 fatalities with predation of the victims. Factors previously identified that contribute to pack attacks and predation, including prior group hunting, social feeding, territorial defense, lack of human interaction, and prey stimuli, are discussed.

  4. 7 CFR 29.2263 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungous or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot is considered damaged. (See Rule...

  5. 7 CFR 29.6011 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6011 Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot or other fungus or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold,...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3514 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3514 Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungus or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot...

  7. 7 CFR 29.6011 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6011 Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot or other fungus or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold,...

  8. 7 CFR 29.1012 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1012 Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungus or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot...

  9. 7 CFR 29.2263 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungous or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot is considered damaged. (See Rule...

  10. 7 CFR 30.17 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungous or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Any tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot shall be included in...

  11. 7 CFR 29.3514 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3514 Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungus or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot...

  12. 7 CFR 30.17 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungous or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Any tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot shall be included in...

  13. 7 CFR 29.1012 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1012 Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungus or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot...

  14. 7 CFR 29.3514 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3514 Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungus or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot...

  15. 7 CFR 30.17 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungous or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Any tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot shall be included in...

  16. 7 CFR 29.6011 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6011 Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot or other fungus or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold,...

  17. 7 CFR 29.1012 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1012 Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungus or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot...

  18. 7 CFR 29.2263 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungous or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot is considered damaged. (See Rule...

  19. 7 CFR 29.1012 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1012 Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungus or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot is...

  20. 7 CFR 29.6011 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6011 Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot or other fungus or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold, must...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3514 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3514 Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungus or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot is...

  2. 7 CFR 29.1012 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1012 Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungus or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot is...

  3. 7 CFR 29.2263 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungous or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot is considered damaged. (See Rule 20...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3514 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3514 Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungus or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot is...

  5. 7 CFR 29.6011 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6011 Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot or other fungus or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold, must...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2263 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungous or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot is considered damaged. (See Rule 20...

  7. Interaction of insecticide and media moisture on ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attacks on ornamental trees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exotic ambrosia beetles, particularly Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford), are among the most economically damaging pests of ornamental trees in nurseries. Growers have had few tactics besides insecticide applications to reduce ambrosia beetle attacks but rec...

  8. Scenario Graphs and Attack Graphs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-14

    46 6.1 Vulnerability Analysis of a Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 6.2 Sandia Red Team Attack Graph...asymptotic bound. The test machine was a 1Ghz Pentium III with 1GB of RAM, running Red Hat Linux 7.3. Figure 4.1(a) plots running time of the implemen...host scanning tools network information vulnerability Attack Graph network Red

  9. [Heart-attack in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Výtisková, T; Suchá, D; Fučíková, Z

    To describe hear-attack on crystal meth addicted pregnant woman. Case report. Acute heart-attack during pregnancy means unexpected obstetric complication. The consequences could be fatal for the mother and the fetus. Although good delivery management and treatment could reduce morbidity and mortality to a minimum.

  10. Susceptibility and Interactions of Drosophila suzukii and Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Damaging Strawberry.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, D; Andreazza, F; Botton, M; Baronio, C A; Nava, D E

    2017-02-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) has been recently detected causing damage to strawberries in Brazil. Infestation in strawberry culture has often been observed jointly with the presence of Zaprionus indianus Gupta. This study investigated the susceptibility of strawberries at three ripening stages to infestation of D. suzukii and Z. indianus and their interaction. In the laboratory, strawberries cv. Albion at different ripening stages (green, semi-ripe and ripe) were exposed to D. suzukii and Z. indianus for 24 h in choice and no-choice bioassays. Additionally, we evaluated the effects of mechanical damage incurred artificially or by D. suzukii oviposition on Z. indianus infestation. In no-choice bioassay, there were no significant differences in fruit susceptibility to D. suzukii infestation at different ripening stages. However, in choice bioassay, D. suzukii adults preferred to oviposit on R fruit. The presence of mechanical damage did not increase susceptibility of fruit to D. suzukii oviposition. For Z. indianus, there was greater susceptibility of R fruit in relation to SR and G fruit in both the choice and no-choice bioassays. There was a significant and positive interaction of mechanical damage and damage caused by D. suzukii to R fruit and infestation by Z. indianus, which was not observed in SR and G fruit. Although infestation of Z. indianus is related to attack damaged or decaying fruit, this work shows that this species has the ability to oviposit and develop in healthy strawberry fruit with and increased infestation level when the fruit has damage to its epidermis.

  11. Gout attacks and lunar cycle.

    PubMed

    Mikulecký, M; Rovenský, J

    2000-07-01

    The aim was to search for periodical fluctuations in daily occurrence of gout attacks during the synodic lunar cycle. 126 gout attacks were recorded between 1972 and 1994 at known calendar dates. The synodic plexogram, displaying the number of attacks for each day of the cycle, was processed by cosinor regression. A pronounced cycling was found, with highest peaks under the new and full moon (syzygigies). Thus, the maximal occurrence of attacks coincides with the peaking lunisolar tidal effect. Similar relation of attacks to synodic moon was seen in bronchial asthma of children, and a reciprocal one in paroxysmal tachyarrhythmia. Differing pathogenetic backgrounds of these diseases substantiate the observed differences in their putative reactions on the changing cosmogeophysical environment.

  12. Invisible Trojan-horse attack.

    PubMed

    Sajeed, Shihan; Minshull, Carter; Jain, Nitin; Makarov, Vadim

    2017-08-21

    We demonstrate the experimental feasibility of a Trojan-horse attack that remains nearly invisible to the single-photon detectors employed in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, such as Clavis2 from ID Quantique. We perform a detailed numerical comparison of the attack performance against Scarani-Ac´ın-Ribordy-Gisin (SARG04) QKD protocol at 1924 nm versus that at 1536 nm. The attack strategy was proposed earlier but found to be unsuccessful at the latter wavelength, as reported in N. Jain et al., New J. Phys. 16, 123030 (2014). However at 1924 nm, we show experimentally that the noise response of the detectors to bright pulses is greatly reduced, and show by modeling that the same attack will succeed. The invisible nature of the attack poses a threat to the security of practical QKD if proper countermeasures are not adopted.

  13. Protecting water and wastewater infrastructure from cyber attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panguluri, Srinivas; Phillips, William; Cusimano, John

    2011-12-01

    Multiple organizations over the years have collected and analyzed data on cyber attacks and they all agree on one conclusion: cyber attacks are real and can cause significant damages. This paper presents some recent statistics on cyber attacks and resulting damages. Water and wastewater utilities must adopt countermeasures to prevent or minimize the damage in case of such attacks. Many unique challenges are faced by the water and wastewater industry while selecting and implementing security countermeasures; the key challenges are: 1) the increasing interconnection of their business and control system networks, 2) large variation of proprietary industrial control equipment utilized, 3) multitude of cross-sector cyber-security standards, and 4) the differences in the equipment vendor's approaches to meet these security standards. The utilities can meet these challenges by voluntarily selecting and adopting security standards, conducting a gap analysis, performing vulnerability/risk analysis, and undertaking countermeasures that best meets their security and organizational requirements. Utilities should optimally utilize their limited resources to prepare and implement necessary programs that are designed to increase cyber-security over the years. Implementing cyber security does not necessarily have to be expensive, substantial improvements can be accomplished through policy, procedure, training and awareness. Utilities can also get creative and allocate more funding through annual budgets and reduce dependence upon capital improvement programs to achieve improvements in cyber-security.

  14. Enhancing community integrity of networks against multilevel targeted attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lijia; Gong, Maoguo; Cai, Qing; Jiao, Licheng

    2013-08-01

    The community structure and the robustness are two important properties of networks for analyzing the functionality of complex systems. The community structure is crucial to understand the potential functionality of complex systems, while the robustness is indispensable to protect the functionality of complex systems from malicious attacks. When a network suffers from an unpredictable attack, its structural integrity would be damaged. Earlier studies focused on the integrity of the node structure or the edge structure when a network suffers from a single-level malicious attack on the nodes or the edges. In this study, we model the attack on the network as a two-level targeted one. Then, we propose a community robustness index to evaluate the integrality of the community structure when the network suffers from the modeled attack. The proposed index plays an important role in analyzing the ability of the real systems to resist unpredictable failures. Finally, based on the proposed community robustness index, a greedy algorithm is devised to mitigate the network attack. Experiments on three real network systems show that with minor changes in links the community robustness of networks can be greatly improved. The results also demonstrate that the community structures in the optimized networks remain practically unchanged compared with the original ones.

  15. Vulnerability of water supply systems to cyber-physical attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galelli, Stefano; Taormina, Riccardo; Tippenhauer, Nils; Salomons, Elad; Ostfeld, Avi

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of smart meters, distributed sensor networks and industrial control systems has largely improved the level of service provided by modern water supply systems. Yet, the progressive computerization exposes these critical infrastructures to cyber-physical attacks, which are generally aimed at stealing critical information (cyber-espionage) or causing service disruption (denial-of-service). Recent statistics show that water and power utilities are undergoing frequent attacks - such as the December power outage in Ukraine - , attracting the interest of operators and security agencies. Taking the security of Water Distribution Networks (WDNs) as domain of study, our work seeks to characterize the vulnerability of WDNs to cyber-physical attacks, so as to conceive adequate defense mechanisms. We extend the functionality of EPANET, which models hydraulic and water quality processes in pressurized pipe networks, to include a cyber layer vulnerable to repeated attacks. Simulation results on a medium-scale network show that several hydraulic actuators (valves and pumps, for example) can be easily attacked, causing both service disruption - i.e., water spillage and loss of pressure - and structural damages - e.g., pipes burst. Our work highlights the need for adequate countermeasures, such as attacks detection and reactive control systems.

  16. Coronary Artery Dissection: Not Just a Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Heart Attack Treatment of a Heart Attack Life After a Heart Attack Heart Failure About Heart Failure ... a Heart Attack • Treatment of a Heart Attack • Life After a Heart Attack Lifestyle Changes Recovery FAQs • Heart ...

  17. Heart Attack or Sudden Cardiac Arrest: How Are They Different?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Heart Attack Treatment of a Heart Attack Life After a Heart Attack Heart Failure About Heart Failure ... a Heart Attack • Treatment of a Heart Attack • Life After a Heart Attack Lifestyle Changes Recovery FAQs • Heart ...

  18. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  19. Allergens might trigger migraine attacks.

    PubMed

    Bektas, Hesna; Karabulut, Hayriye; Doganay, Beyza; Acar, Baran

    2017-03-01

    Migraine is a common primary headache disorder. The mechanisms underlying the onset of a migraine attack are not completely understood. Environmental changes and a number of other factors could induce migraine attacks. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the frequency of migraine attacks and allergens. Migraine patients without aura, and healthy individuals similar in age and gender without a history of headache and allergy were prospectively included in the study. The duration of migraine, the frequency of migraine attacks, the medication history, and the symptoms during attacks were questioned. Migraine disability assessment score (MIDAS) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were obtained. Allergen extracts including dust, fungi, insect, animal epithelium, pollens, and food allergens were applied for allergy tests. 49 migraine patients and 49 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. There was no significant difference in terms of age and gender. The median migraine disease duration, the number of attacks in a month, and the duration of attacks were, respectively, 5.5 years (1-44), 4 (1-10) day/month, and 24 (4-72) h. The mean MIDAS grade was 2.45 ± 0.14 (1-4), and mean VAS score was 7.89 ± 0.27 (4-10). The positivity of allergy tests was 55.1 % (27/49) in the migraine group and 32.7 % (16/49) in the control group (p < 0.05). The allergy tests were positive for house dust, red birch, hazel tree, olive tree, nettle, and wheat. The frequency of migraine attacks was higher in allergy-test-positive patients than in negative ones in the migraine group (p = 0.001). The migraine patients who had frequent attacks should be examined for allergies.

  20. Versatile attack weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quist, D.

    1992-11-01

    The air defense threat to air strike forces continues to increase, both in quality and quantity. Third World countries now possess Integrated Air Defense (AID) capabilities equaling that of major powers. Radio Frequency (RF) only Anti-Radiation Homing (ARH) weapons are being effectively neutralized by countermeasure improvements in these land based and satellite IAD systems. The cost of piecemeal modification of existing weapon systems or the continuous fielding of threat specific weapon systems is becoming prohibitive. A low funded in-house project was started in 1988 that confronts this defense threat situation with a multi-mode multi-mission weapon system which is affordable to employ in large quantities. The system has capabilities as both a defense suppression weapon and a surgical strike weapon. Employment can be facilitated from a reduced threat environment to air strike forces. Other objectives for this innovative weapon system are the capabilities for high target damage, countermeasure resistance, real time aim point selection, and real time Battle Damage Assessment (BDA). Technical feasibility of the various system and subsystem elements were verified by theoretical analysis. Many were also verified by physical demonstration in prototype hardware.

  1. Green Thunderstorms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohren, Craig F.; Fraser, Alistair B.

    1993-11-01

    Green thunderstorms are observed occasionally, yet with one exception they have received no scientific attention, experimental or theoretical. Fraser suggested that thunderstorms themselves are not green but that a thick thunderstorm provides a dark backdrop for green airlight near sundown. Greenness is a consequence of reddened sunlight illuminating selective scatterers along the observer's line of sight. Bohron's alternative explanation is that green thunderstorms may be a consequence of the intrinsic blueness of clouds because of selective absorption by pure water, liquid or solid. Most clouds are so thin that the light transmitted by them is not markedly colored because of selective absorption. Only the most massive clouds-large both vertically and horizontally-are thick enough to shift the color of incident sunlight upon transmission. If that incident light is sunlight reddened at sundown, the transmitted light can be perceptually green. These two explanations do not exclude one another but allow for multiple causes, including those not yet identified.

  2. Paroxetine-associated hypereosinophilia may clinically resemble a panic attack.

    PubMed

    Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Sato, Yasushi; Kato, Hiroyuki; Kaneko, Sunao

    2012-01-01

    Hypereosinophilia is asymptomatic but can induce organ damage, which may cause neurological system abnormalities. We recently encountered a 29-year-old woman with depressive episodes who had eosinophilia as well as hyperventilation attacks, tremor, insomnia, and arthralgia of extremities after receiving paroxetine treatment. In parallel with the decrease in paroxetine dose, eosinophil count decreased and the related symptoms improved. Because it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between psychiatric symptoms such as panic attack and eosinophilia-related symptoms, frequent hematologic examination is required for patients treated with paroxetine.

  3. Understand Your Risk of Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lowdown on: Total Cholesterol: Your total cholesterol score is calculated using the following equation: HDL + LDL + ... Coronary Artery Dissection: Not Just a Heart Attack • Warning Signs of a Heart Attack Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  4. Genetic attack on neural cryptography

    SciTech Connect

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Naeh, Rivka; Kanter, Ido

    2006-03-15

    Different scaling properties for the complexity of bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning are essential for the security of neural cryptography. Incrementing the synaptic depth of the networks increases the synchronization time only polynomially, but the success of the geometric attack is reduced exponentially and it clearly fails in the limit of infinite synaptic depth. This method is improved by adding a genetic algorithm, which selects the fittest neural networks. The probability of a successful genetic attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that scaling laws observed in the case of other attacks hold for the improved algorithm, too. The number of networks needed for an effective attack grows exponentially with increasing synaptic depth. In addition, finite-size effects caused by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning are analyzed. These learning rules converge to the random walk rule if the synaptic depth is small compared to the square root of the system size.

  5. Genetic attack on neural cryptography.

    PubMed

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Naeh, Rivka; Kanter, Ido

    2006-03-01

    Different scaling properties for the complexity of bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning are essential for the security of neural cryptography. Incrementing the synaptic depth of the networks increases the synchronization time only polynomially, but the success of the geometric attack is reduced exponentially and it clearly fails in the limit of infinite synaptic depth. This method is improved by adding a genetic algorithm, which selects the fittest neural networks. The probability of a successful genetic attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that scaling laws observed in the case of other attacks hold for the improved algorithm, too. The number of networks needed for an effective attack grows exponentially with increasing synaptic depth. In addition, finite-size effects caused by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning are analyzed. These learning rules converge to the random walk rule if the synaptic depth is small compared to the square root of the system size.

  6. Sleep apnea and panic attacks.

    PubMed

    Edlund, M J; McNamara, M E; Millman, R P

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 301 sleep apnea patients demonstrated that obstructive sleep apnea may cause nocturnal panic attack symptoms. Sleep apnea should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nocturnal panic disorder.

  7. Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    2005 FEB 2005 Selective Availability Anti- Spoofing Module (SAASM)/ GPS Anti-Jam Production Award N/A MAR 2005 SEP 2005 MAR 2005 Change Explanations...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-503 Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) As of FY 2015 President’s Budget...2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  8. Global Mapping of Cyber Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    use Symantec’s World Intelligence Network Environment ( WINE ) Intrusion Prevention System 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13...Symantec’s World Intelligence Network Environment ( WINE ) Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) telemetry data which contain attack reports from more than 10...government. The authors would like to thank Symantec for granting us access to the WINE IPS telemetry data. The cyber-attack data used in the paper is

  9. Duloxetine-related panic attacks.

    PubMed

    Sabljić, Vladimir; Rakun, Radmir; Ružić, Klementina; Grahovac, Tanja

    2011-03-01

    Side-effects arising on the grounds of antidepressant administration pose as a substantial obstacle hindering successful depressive disorder treatment. Side-effects, especially those severe or those manifested through dramatic clinical presentations such as panic attacks, make the treatment far more difficult and shake patients' trust in both the treatment and the treating physician. This case report deals with a patient experiencing a moderately severe depressive episode, who responded to duloxetine treatment administered in the initial dose of 30 mg per day with as many as three panic attacks in two days. Upon duloxetine withdrawal, these panic attacks ceased as well. The patient continued tianeptine and alprazolam treatment during which no significant side-effects had been seen, so that she gradually recovered. Some of the available literature sources have suggested the possibility of duloxetine administration to the end of generalised anxiety disorder and panic attack treatment. However, they are outnumbered by the contributions reporting about duloxetine-related anxiety, aggressiveness and panic attacks. In line with the foregoing, further monitoring of each and every duloxetine-administered patient group needs to be pursued so as to be able to evaluate treatment benefits and weigh them against risks of anxiety or panic attack onset.

  10. Additive attacks on speaker recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokh Baroughi, Alireza; Craver, Scott

    2014-02-01

    Speaker recognition is used to identify a speaker's voice from among a group of known speakers. A common method of speaker recognition is a classification based on cepstral coefficients of the speaker's voice, using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to model each speaker. In this paper we try to fool a speaker recognition system using additive noise such that an intruder is recognized as a target user. Our attack uses a mixture selected from a target user's GMM model, inverting the cepstral transformation to produce noise samples. In our 5 speaker data base, we achieve an attack success rate of 50% with a noise signal at 10dB SNR, and 95% by increasing noise power to 0dB SNR. The importance of this attack is its simplicity and flexibility: it can be employed in real time with no processing of an attacker's voice, and little computation is needed at the moment of detection, allowing the attack to be performed by a small portable device. For any target user, knowing that user's model or voice sample is sufficient to compute the attack signal, and it is enough that the intruder plays it while he/she is uttering to be classiffed as the victim.

  11. Greene Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article profiles the 37-year-old researcher Jay P. Greene and his controversial research studies on education. Most people learn early to trust the things they see first, but Greene adheres to a different creed. People are deceived by their own eyes. He believed that visual betrayal is as evident as it is in how people think…

  12. 7 CFR 29.2513 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2513 Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungus or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot is considered damaged. (See Rule 20, § 29.2636.) ...

  13. 7 CFR 29.2513 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2513 Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungus or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot is considered damaged. (See Rule 20, § 29.2636.)...

  14. Outpatient management of transient ischaemic attack

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Victor Weng Keong; Soon, Derek Tuck Loong; Yeo, Leonard Leong Litt

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a significant cause of death and disability in Singapore; in 2014, it was the fourth most common cause of death. Transient ischaemic attack (TIA) is defined as a transient episode of neurological dysfunction caused by focal brain, spinal cord or retinal ischaemia without evidence of acute infarction. The diagnosis of TIA/acute stroke needs to be considered in all patients who present with sudden focal neurological dysfunction. Prompt referral for assessment, neuroimaging and intervention provides the best chance for neurological recovery and/or minimising further neurological damage. Primary care physicians have a crucial role in TIA/stroke prevention and management. This includes referring patients with suspected acute TIA/stroke to hospitals with stroke treatment facilities immediately; managing the modifiable risk factors of cerebral ischaemia; continuing prescription of antiplatelet agents and/or anticoagulation where indicated; and teaching patients to recognise and respond to suspected cerebral ischaemia using the FAST (face, arm, speech, time) acronym. PMID:27995263

  15. Green commercial building insurance in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu Xin Ou; Chew, Boon Cheong; Loo, Heoy Shin; Tan, Lay Hong

    2017-03-01

    Green building construction is growing tremendously globally even in Malaysia. Currently, there are approximate 636 buildings have registered and to be certified with Green Building Index. Among these buildings, 45 buildings have already fulfilled the requirements and fully certified. The other buildings still under provisional certification stage. Malaysia had adopted Green Building Index in 2009 to support a move to promote green building concept. Malaysia starts to move towards green building because Malaysian construction and building industry realizes that both energy consumed and waste produced are reduced without irreversible impacts to ecosystems. Consequently, insurance companies such as Fireman's Fund from America has started the green building insurance policies for their green building in the year of 2006, while Malaysia still remain the coverage for green buildings using conventional property insurance. There are lacks of efforts to be seen from insurance companies to propose green building insurance for these green buildings. There are a few factors which can take into consideration for insurance companies to start the very first green building insurance in Malaysia. Although there are challenges, some efficient strategies have been identified to overcome the problems. The methods used in this research topic is qualitative research. The results obtained shows that green commercial building insurance has a huge business opportunity in Malaysia because the number of green commercial buildings are increasing tremendously in Malaysia. It is a favor to implement green building insurance in Malaysia. Furthermore, insurance companies can consider to add in extra coverage in standard building policy to provide extra protection for non-certified green buildings which have the intention to rebuilt in green when damage happens. Generally, it is very important to introduce green commercial buildings insurance into Malaysia so that all of the green commercial

  16. Analytical Characterization of Internet Security Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellke, Sarah H.

    2010-01-01

    Internet security attacks have drawn significant attention due to their enormously adverse impact. These attacks includes Malware (Viruses, Worms, Trojan Horse), Denial of Service, Packet Sniffer, and Password Attacks. There is an increasing need to provide adequate defense mechanisms against these attacks. My thesis proposal deals with analytical…

  17. Analytical Characterization of Internet Security Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellke, Sarah H.

    2010-01-01

    Internet security attacks have drawn significant attention due to their enormously adverse impact. These attacks includes Malware (Viruses, Worms, Trojan Horse), Denial of Service, Packet Sniffer, and Password Attacks. There is an increasing need to provide adequate defense mechanisms against these attacks. My thesis proposal deals with analytical…

  18. How Is a Heart Attack Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... explains how a heart attack occurs and encourages women to seek care right away for heart attack symptoms. For more information, visit www.hearttruth.gov or the Health Topics Heart Attack and Heart Disease in Women articles. What is a heart attack? 05/22/ ...

  19. How Is a Heart Attack Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... explains how a heart attack occurs and encourages women to seek care right away for heart attack symptoms. For more information, visit www.hearttruth.gov or the Health Topics Heart Attack and Heart Disease in Women articles. What is a heart attack? 05/22/ ...

  20. Eyespots divert attacks by fish

    PubMed Central

    Kjernsmo, Karin; Merilaita, Sami

    2013-01-01

    Eyespots (colour patterns consisting of concentric rings) are found in a wide range of animal taxa and are often assumed to have an anti-predator function. Previous experiments have found strong evidence for an intimidating effect of eyespots against passerine birds. Some eyespots have been suggested to increase prey survival by diverting attacks towards less vital body parts or a direction that would facilitate escape. While eyespots in aquatic environments are widespread, their function is extremely understudied. Therefore, we investigated the protective function of eyespots against attacking fish. We used artificial prey and predator-naive three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) as predators to test both the diversion (deflection) and the intimidation hypothesis. Interestingly, our results showed that eyespots smaller than the fish’ own eye very effectively draw the attacks of the fish towards them. Furthermore, our experiment also showed that this was not due to the conspicuousness of the eyespot, because attack latency did not differ between prey items with and without eyespots. We found little support for an intimidating effect by larger eyespots. Even though also other markings might misdirect attacks, we can conclude that the misdirecting function may have played an important role in the evolution of eyespots in aquatic environments. PMID:23864602

  1. Eyespots divert attacks by fish.

    PubMed

    Kjernsmo, Karin; Merilaita, Sami

    2013-09-07

    Eyespots (colour patterns consisting of concentric rings) are found in a wide range of animal taxa and are often assumed to have an anti-predator function. Previous experiments have found strong evidence for an intimidating effect of eyespots against passerine birds. Some eyespots have been suggested to increase prey survival by diverting attacks towards less vital body parts or a direction that would facilitate escape. While eyespots in aquatic environments are widespread, their function is extremely understudied. Therefore, we investigated the protective function of eyespots against attacking fish. We used artificial prey and predator-naive three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) as predators to test both the diversion (deflection) and the intimidation hypothesis. Interestingly, our results showed that eyespots smaller than the fish' own eye very effectively draw the attacks of the fish towards them. Furthermore, our experiment also showed that this was not due to the conspicuousness of the eyespot, because attack latency did not differ between prey items with and without eyespots. We found little support for an intimidating effect by larger eyespots. Even though also other markings might misdirect attacks, we can conclude that the misdirecting function may have played an important role in the evolution of eyespots in aquatic environments.

  2. Choriocapillaris photodynamic therapy using indocyanine green.

    PubMed

    Costa, R A; Farah, M E; Freymüller, E; Morales, P H; Smith, R; Cardillo, J A

    2001-10-01

    To evaluate the potential of photodynamic therapy using indocyanine green for occlusion of choroidal neovascularization, the authors studied efficiency and collateral damage of photodynamic therapy-induced photothrombosis in the rabbit choriocapillary layer. Fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and light and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the efficiency of photodynamic therapy-induced photothrombosis using indocyanine green as the photosensitizer, and to assess the resultant collateral damage. The delivery system consisted of a modified infrared diode laser tuned to 810 nm, near the maximum absorption peak of indocyanine green. Choriocapillary occlusion was achieved at indocyanine green doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg and a radiant as low as 6.3 J/cm(2). When photodynamic therapy was performed with indocyanine green doses of 10 mg/kg, damage to the neural retina was minimal. Only inner photoreceptor segments showed degeneration, probably secondary to choroidal ischemia. Bruch membrane remained intact. Retinal pigment epithelium was invariably damaged, as seen with other photosensitizers. Temporary occlusion of large choroidal vessels occurred at both dye doses. In this experimental study, photodynamic therapy using indocyanine green and 810-nm light irradiation produced endothelium-bound intraluminal photothrombosis, with preservation of the retinal architecture and minimal loss of visual cells. Membrane targetability, hydrophilic and fluorescent properties, and activation at 805 nm suggest indocyanine green as a potential photosensitizer for choroidal neovascularization. These combined considerations point toward further study of photodynamic therapy using indocyanine green for the treatment of choroidal vascular disease.

  3. Panic attacks in generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Van Ameringen, Michael; Simpson, William; Patterson, Beth; Mancini, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Panic attacks have been reported by patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in response to catastrophic worry. This has not been characterized in the literature. We examined the prevalence of GAD panic attacks in an anxiety disorders clinic sample. Charts of 254 patients with DSM-IV GAD were retrospectively evaluated. The presence and type of panic attacks were examined as well as correlates including comorbidity, baseline symptom severity, demographic variables, and family history. Twenty-one percent had GAD panic attacks, 21.7% had situationally predisposed attacks, 15.6% had situationally bound attacks, and 39.4% had unexpected panic attacks. The individuals who had GAD panic attacks had higher scores on the Anxiety Sensitivity Index compared with those who also had other types of panic attacks. One in five patients with GAD reported GAD panic attacks; however, these individuals did not differ significantly on the correlates that were evaluated. These findings require replication and further evaluation.

  4. Green Engineering

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  5. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  6. Green Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Green Tool represents infiltration-based stormwater control practices. It allows modelers to select a BMP type, channel shape and BMP unit dimensions, outflow control devices, and infiltration method. The program generates an HSPF-formatted FTABLE.

  7. Green Giant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Details the design of the Bahen Centre for Information Technology at the University of Toronto, particularly its emphasis on "green," or sustainable, design. Includes floor plans and photographs. (EV)

  8. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  9. Green Giant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Details the design of the Bahen Centre for Information Technology at the University of Toronto, particularly its emphasis on "green," or sustainable, design. Includes floor plans and photographs. (EV)

  10. Code Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, John

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the integrated approach to green design in the new Computer Science Building at Toronto's York University. The building design fulfills the university's demand to combine an energy efficient design with sustainability. Floor and site plans are included. (GR)

  11. Green Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  12. Green Chile Pepper Harvest Mechanization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pungent green chile (genus /Capsicum/, also spelled chili) is a large, fragile fruit growing on berry shrubs. Chile is harvested by hand to maximize yields and minimize fruit damage. Labor for hand harvesting chile is increasingly costly and difficult to obtain. Harvest mechanization is viewed as...

  13. Nonlinear analysis of NPP safety against the aircraft attack

    SciTech Connect

    Králik, Juraj; Králik, Juraj

    2016-06-08

    The paper presents the nonlinear probabilistic analysis of the reinforced concrete buildings of nuclear power plant under the aircraft attack. The dynamic load is defined in time on base of the airplane impact simulations considering the real stiffness, masses, direction and velocity of the flight. The dynamic response is calculated in the system ANSYS using the transient nonlinear analysis solution method. The damage of the concrete wall is evaluated in accordance with the standard NDRC considering the spalling, scabbing and perforation effects. The simple and detailed calculations of the wall damage are compared.

  14. Nonlinear analysis of NPP safety against the aircraft attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Králik, Juraj; Králik, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the nonlinear probabilistic analysis of the reinforced concrete buildings of nuclear power plant under the aircraft attack. The dynamic load is defined in time on base of the airplane impact simulations considering the real stiffness, masses, direction and velocity of the flight. The dynamic response is calculated in the system ANSYS using the transient nonlinear analysis solution method. The damage of the concrete wall is evaluated in accordance with the standard NDRC considering the spalling, scabbing and perforation effects. The simple and detailed calculations of the wall damage are compared.

  15. Evaluation of Word Attack Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follettie, Joseph F.

    A framework for more apt and sensitive evaluation of generalized word attack skill--the heart of oral reading skill--is presented. The paper envisions the design and development of oral reading instruction as bounded by a fully-specified evaluation scheme. (Author)

  16. Mitigating Higher Ed Cyber Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Gary; Ashford, Tina

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation we will discuss the many and varied cyber attacks that have recently occurred in the higher ed community. We will discuss the perpetrators, the victims, the impact and how these institutions have evolved to meet this threat. Mitigation techniques and defense strategies will be covered as will a discussion of effective security…

  17. A General Framework for the Assessment of Power System Vulnerability to Malicious Attacks.

    PubMed

    Piccinelli, R; Sansavini, G; Lucchetti, R; Zio, E

    2017-02-23

    The protection and safe operations of power systems heavily rely on the identification of the causes of damage and service disruption. This article presents a general framework for the assessment of power system vulnerability to malicious attacks. The concept of susceptibility to an attack is employed to quantitatively evaluate the degree of exposure of the system and its components to intentional offensive actions. A scenario with two agents having opposing objectives is proposed, i.e., a defender having multiple alternatives of protection strategies for system elements, and an attacker having multiple alternatives of attack strategies against different combinations of system elements. The defender aims to minimize the system susceptibility to the attack, subject to budget constraints; on the other hand, the attacker aims to maximize the susceptibility. The problem is defined as a zero-sum game between the defender and the attacker. The assumption that the interests of the attacker and the defender are opposite makes it irrelevant whether or not the defender shows the strategy he/she will use. Thus, the approaches "leader-follower game" or "simultaneous game" do not provide differences as far as the results are concerned. The results show an example of such a situation, and the von Neumann theorem is applied to find the (mixed) equilibrium strategies of the attacker and of the defender.

  18. Terrorist attacks escalate in frequency and fatalities preceding highly lethal attacks.

    PubMed

    Martens, Andy; Sainudiin, Raazesh; Sibley, Chris G; Schimel, Jeff; Webber, David

    2014-01-01

    Highly lethal terrorist attacks, which we define as those killing 21 or more people, account for 50% of the total number of people killed in all terrorist attacks combined, yet comprise only 3.5% of terrorist attacks. Given the disproportionate influence of these incidents, uncovering systematic patterns in attacks that precede and anticipate these highly lethal attacks may be of value for understanding attacks that exact a heavy toll on life. Here we examined whether the activity of terrorist groups escalates--both in the number of people killed per attack and in the frequency of attacks--leading up to highly lethal attacks. Analyses of terrorist attacks drawn from a state-of-the-art international terrorism database (The Global Terrorism Database) showed evidence for both types of escalation leading up to highly lethal attacks, though complexities to the patterns emerged as well. These patterns of escalation do not emerge among terrorist groups that never commit a highly lethal attack.

  19. Attack Vulnerability of Network Controllability

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Controllability of complex networks has attracted much attention, and understanding the robustness of network controllability against potential attacks and failures is of practical significance. In this paper, we systematically investigate the attack vulnerability of network controllability for the canonical model networks as well as the real-world networks subject to attacks on nodes and edges. The attack strategies are selected based on degree and betweenness centralities calculated for either the initial network or the current network during the removal, among which random failure is as a comparison. It is found that the node-based strategies are often more harmful to the network controllability than the edge-based ones, and so are the recalculated strategies than their counterparts. The Barabási-Albert scale-free model, which has a highly biased structure, proves to be the most vulnerable of the tested model networks. In contrast, the Erdős-Rényi random model, which lacks structural bias, exhibits much better robustness to both node-based and edge-based attacks. We also survey the control robustness of 25 real-world networks, and the numerical results show that most real networks are control robust to random node failures, which has not been observed in the model networks. And the recalculated betweenness-based strategy is the most efficient way to harm the controllability of real-world networks. Besides, we find that the edge degree is not a good quantity to measure the importance of an edge in terms of network controllability. PMID:27588941

  20. Crony Attack: Strategic Attack’s Silver Bullet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air University Press,Maxwell AFB,AL...or implied within are solely those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of Air University, the United States Air Force, the...methodology, and investigates a prom- inent case where the United States apparently used this strategy. This thesis treats crony attack primarily as a form

  1. The effect of asymmetric attack on trim angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Ballistic range tests were conducted to determine the effect of an asymmetrically ablated heat shield on the trim angle of attack of an entry vehicle. The tests, which were in support of Project Galileo, were conducted in atmospheric air at Mach numbers from 0.7 to 2.0. For the results for the configuration that was tested, the deduced trim angle varied between 13 deg and 21 deg.

  2. Green Power Partnership Videos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Green Power Partnership develops videos on a regular basis that explore a variety of topics including, Green Power partnership, green power purchasing, Renewable energy certificates, among others.

  3. Timing Is Everything with Heart Attacks

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_167205.html Timing Is Everything With Heart Attacks These crises tend to be more frequent on ... new research that suggests these periods are when heart attacks are most likely to occur. On the flip ...

  4. Being active after a heart attack (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... best activity when you start exercising after a heart attack. Start slowly, and increase the amount of time ... best activity when you start exercising after a heart attack. Start slowly, and increase the amount of time ...

  5. Can Vitamins Help Prevent a Heart Attack?

    MedlinePlus

    ... taking vitamins help prevent heart disease or a heart attack? Answers from Rekha Mankad, M.D. It's not yet clear ... risk of developing heart disease or having a heart attack. But, what is known is that no vitamin ...

  6. Silent Heart Attack: What Are the Risks?

    MedlinePlus

    ... those for a heart attack with symptoms. The risk factors include: Smoking or chewing tobacco Family history of heart disease Age High cholesterol High blood pressure Diabetes Lack of exercise Being overweight Having a silent heart attack puts ...

  7. Beware Heart Attack Risk from Shoveling Snow

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163566.html Beware Heart Attack Risk From Shoveling Snow Canadian study finds cases ... why men are more likely to suffer a heart attack after a heavy snowfall, researchers report. In a ...

  8. Out of the frying pan into the fire: behavioral reactions to terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2006-04-01

    A low-probability, high-damage event in which many people are killed at one point of time is called a dread risk. Dread risks can cause direct damage and, in addition, indirect damage mediated though the minds of citizens. I analyze the behavioral reactions of Americans to the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, and provide evidence for the dread hypothesis: (i) Americans reduced their air travel after the attack; (ii) for a period of one year following the attacks, interstate highway travel increased, suggesting that a proportion of those who did not fly instead drove to their destination; and (iii) for the same period, in each month the number of fatal highway crashes exceeded the base line of the previous years. An estimated 1,500 Americans died on the road in the attempt to avoid the fate of the passengers who were killed in the four fatal flights.

  9. Terror attacks influence driving behavior in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Stecklov, Guy; Goldstein, Joshua R.

    2004-01-01

    Terror attacks in Israel produce a temporary lull in light accidents followed by a 35% spike in fatal accidents on Israeli roads 3 days after the attack. Our results are based on time-series analysis of Israeli traffic flows, accidents, and terror attacks from January 2001 through June 2002. Whereas prior studies have focused on subjective reports of posttraumatic stress, our study shows a population-level behavioral response to violent terror attacks. PMID:15448203

  10. Terror attacks influence driving behavior in Israel.

    PubMed

    Stecklov, Guy; Goldstein, Joshua R

    2004-10-05

    Terror attacks in Israel produce a temporary lull in light accidents followed by a 35% spike in fatal accidents on Israeli roads 3 days after the attack. Our results are based on time-series analysis of Israeli traffic flows, accidents, and terror attacks from January 2001 through June 2002. Whereas prior studies have focused on subjective reports of posttraumatic stress, our study shows a population-level behavioral response to violent terror attacks.

  11. Green Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    More and more people are viewing the world through green-tinted glasses, and those ideas about making school and university facilities more environmentally friendly suddenly are appearing to be prudent and responsible. Among the groups that have been advocating for environmentally friendly school design for years are the Collaborative for High…

  12. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts.

  13. Buying Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  14. Green Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    In the world of higher education, even the most ambitious sustainability plans often begin with tiny steps taken by individual departments. Michael Crowley, a program manager for Environmental Health & Engineering (EH&E) and former assistant director of the Harvard (Massachusetts) Green Campus Initiative, explains that going for small wins through…

  15. Green Coffee

    MedlinePlus

    ... of IBS. Thinning bones (osteoporosis): Caffeine from green coffee and other sources can increase the amount of calcium that is flushed out in the urine. This might weaken bones. If you have osteoporosis, limit caffeine consumption to less than 300 mg per day (approximately ...

  16. Green pioneers.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  17. Green Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    More and more people are viewing the world through green-tinted glasses, and those ideas about making school and university facilities more environmentally friendly suddenly are appearing to be prudent and responsible. Among the groups that have been advocating for environmentally friendly school design for years are the Collaborative for High…

  18. Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  19. Buying Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  20. Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  1. Green Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    In the world of higher education, even the most ambitious sustainability plans often begin with tiny steps taken by individual departments. Michael Crowley, a program manager for Environmental Health & Engineering (EH&E) and former assistant director of the Harvard (Massachusetts) Green Campus Initiative, explains that going for small wins through…

  2. Network Attack Reference Data Set

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    change without human intervention, while anomaly detection techniques often result in a high degree of false positives and can sometimes be re-trained...change without human intervention and therefore can introduce false negatives in its reports. Anomaly detection techniques, through systems that detect...attacks) to the best of our knowledge. Us- ing TCPUtils, the IP addresses of this traffic were translated to reflect the chosen class B address ranges

  3. High Angle of Attack Aerodynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    describe the behaviour of the air. The Symposium made it clear that the present state of knowledge in the area of high angle-of-attack aerodynamics...TESTING EXPERIENCE by C.W. Smith and C.A.Anderson S FOREBODY-WING VORTEX INTERACTIONS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON DEPARTURE AND SPIN RESISTANCE by A.MSkow...Figure 6) caused by asymmetric flow conditions. ., s already mentioned, asymmetric flow occurs not only when an air- craft flies at non-zero sideslip

  4. Biomechanics of knife stab attacks.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, E K; Nicol, A C; Lane, J V; Gray, T G

    1999-10-25

    Equipment, materials and methods for the measurement of the biomechanical parameters governing knife stab attacks have been developed and data have been presented that are relevant to the improvement of standards for the testing of stab-resistant materials. A six-camera Vicon motion analysis system was used to measure velocity, and derive energy and momentum during the approach phase of the attack and a specially developed force-measuring knife was used to measure three-dimensional forces and torque during the impact phase. The body segments associated with the knife were modelled as a series of rigid segments: trunk, upper arm, forearm and hand. The velocities of these segments, together with knowledge of the mass distribution from biomechanical tables, allowed the calculation of the individual segment energy and momentum values. The instrumented knife measured four components of load: axial force (along the length of the blade), cutting force (parallel to the breadth of the blade), lateral force (across the blade) and torque (twisting action) using foil strain gauges. Twenty volunteers were asked to stab a target with near maximal effort. Three styles of stab were used: a short thrust forward, a horizontal style sweep around the body and an overhand stab. These styles were chosen based on reported incidents, providing more realistic data than had previously existed. The 95th percentile values for axial force and energy were 1885 N and 69 J, respectively. The ability of current test methods to reproduce the mechanical parameters measured in human stab attacks has been assessed. It was found that current test methods could reproduce the range of energy and force values measured in the human stab attacks, although the simulation was not accurate in some respects. Non-axial force and torque values were also found to be significant in the human tests, but these are not reproduced in the standard mechanical tests.

  5. The Reverse Statistical Disclosure Attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallesh, Nayantara; Wright, Matthew

    Statistical disclosure is a well-studied technique that an attacker can use to uncover relations between users in mix-based anonymity systems. Prior work has focused on finding the receivers to whom a given targeted user sends. In this paper, we investigate the effectiveness of statistical disclosure in finding all of a users' contacts, including those from whom she receives messages. To this end, we propose a new attack called the Reverse Statistical Disclosure Attack (RSDA). RSDA uses observations of all users sending patterns to estimate both the targeted user's sending pattern and her receiving pattern. The estimated patterns are combined to find a set of the targeted user's most likely contacts. We study the performance of RSDA in simulation using different mix network configurations and also study the effectiveness of cover traffic as a countermeasure. Our results show that that RSDA outperforms the traditional SDA in finding the user's contacts, particularly as the amounts of user traffic and cover traffic rise.

  6. Flashbulb memories of Paris attacks

    PubMed Central

    El Haj, Mohamad; Gandolphe, Marie-Charlotte; Wawrziczny, Emilie; Antoine, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Flashbulb memories are detailed and vivid memories of attributes of the reception context of surprising and emotionally arousing public events. Patient concerns and diagnosis: This paper offers a fine-grained view of flashbulb memories in a patient with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Interventions: The patient underwent a directed interview about the 13 November 2015 attacks in Paris. Outcomes: Unlike her memory about the date and month of the attacks, the patient provided accurate information about the year, time and places they occurred. The patient also provided accurate information about how she first became aware of the attacks, where she was, with whom, what she was doing, and what time it was when she learned about them. As for the affective characteristics of these memories, she tended to have high ratings of vividness and rehearsal. Negative emotional states and great surprise and novelty were also reported. Lessons: By assessing the impact of flashbulb memories in this patient with AD, this paper offers a unique view into how such memories may trigger a considerable recall of context as well much subjective reliving. PMID:27861395

  7. Review of Existing Wormhole Attack Discovery Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Review of Existing Wormhole Attack Discovery Techniques Maria Alexandrovna Gorlatova The scientific or...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Review of Existing Wormhole Attack Discovery Techniques 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Review of Existing Wormhole Attack

  8. On Mitigating Distributed Denial of Service Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zhiqiang

    2006-01-01

    Denial of service (DoS) attacks and distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks are probably the most ferocious threats in the Internet, resulting in tremendous economic and social implications/impacts on our daily lives that are increasingly depending on the well-being of the Internet. How to mitigate these attacks effectively and efficiently…

  9. Cyberprints: Identifying Cyber Attackers by Feature Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Benjamin A.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of attributing cyber attacks is one of increasing importance. Without a solid method of demonstrating the origin of a cyber attack, any attempts to deter would-be cyber attackers are wasted. Existing methods of attribution make unfounded assumptions about the environment in which they will operate: omniscience (the ability to gather,…

  10. On Mitigating Distributed Denial of Service Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zhiqiang

    2006-01-01

    Denial of service (DoS) attacks and distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks are probably the most ferocious threats in the Internet, resulting in tremendous economic and social implications/impacts on our daily lives that are increasingly depending on the well-being of the Internet. How to mitigate these attacks effectively and efficiently…

  11. Cyberprints: Identifying Cyber Attackers by Feature Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Benjamin A.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of attributing cyber attacks is one of increasing importance. Without a solid method of demonstrating the origin of a cyber attack, any attempts to deter would-be cyber attackers are wasted. Existing methods of attribution make unfounded assumptions about the environment in which they will operate: omniscience (the ability to gather,…

  12. Snowpack Response to Changes in Forest Condition Over Six Years Post Mountain Pine Beetle Attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, R.; Boon, S.

    2011-12-01

    Since 1994, 17.5 million hectares of lodgepole pine dominated forest in British Columbia have been attacked by mountain pine beetle (MPB). More than 6 million hectares of timber in Alberta are susceptible, as are lodgepole pine stands throughout the western United States. Such extensive forest die-off raises concern regarding increased snow accumulation and ablation rates in affected stands and associated increases in snowmelt generated streamflow. To quantify changes in snow accumulation and ablation post-MPB, forest condition and snow were monitored in an attacked young lodgepole pine stand, a mature mixed species green stand and a clearcut near Mayson Lake in the southern interior of BC. Surveys began in 2006, the year following attack, and continued until 2011, as trees turned from green to red to grey. Forest canopy loss was described by canopy transmittance and litter in and on the snowpack. Canopy transmittance in the attacked stand increased from 27% in fall 2007 to 49% in spring 2011. Canopy transmittance in the mature stand remained constant, averaging 19% across the stand. The greatest canopy loss in the attacked stand occurred in summer 2009 when canopy transmittance increased from 35% to 42%. However, the largest accumulation of litter over a winter was measured in the spring of 2009 when the weight of litter in the snowpack (210 g m-2) was double that in the green stand and ten times the amount collected in 2010, by which time trees were turning grey. At mid-melt 2009, snow surface litter cover in the attacked stand varied from 0% to 54% and averaged 18% compared to ≤9% in other years. Increases in forest litter in the attacked stand caused a more rapid decay in snow surface albedo in spring 2009 than in other years. Snow water equivalent near the onset of melt varied significantly from year to year; from 148 mm to 263 mm on April 1 in the clearcut, 88 mm to 191 mm in the attacked pine, and 65 mm to 144 mm in the green mature stand. The strongest

  13. Cyber attacks against state estimation in power systems: Vulnerability analysis and protection strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuan

    Power grid is one of the most critical infrastructures in a nation and could suffer a variety of cyber attacks. With the development of Smart Grid, false data injection attack has recently attracted wide research interest. This thesis proposes a false data attack model with incomplete network information and develops optimal attack strategies for attacking load measurements and the real-time topology of a power grid. The impacts of false data on the economic and reliable operations of power systems are quantitatively analyzed in this thesis. To mitigate the risk of cyber attacks, a distributed protection strategies are also developed. It has been shown that an attacker can design false data to avoid being detected by the control center if the network information of a power grid is known to the attacker. In practice, however, it is very hard or even impossible for an attacker to obtain all network information of a power grid. In this thesis, we propose a local load redistribution attacking model based on incomplete network information and show that an attacker only needs to obtain the network information of the local attacking region to inject false data into smart meters in the local region without being detected by the state estimator. A heuristic algorithm is developed to determine a feasible attacking region by obtaining reduced network information. This thesis investigates the impacts of false data on the operations of power systems. It has been shown that false data can be designed by an attacker to: 1) mask the real-time topology of a power grid; 2) overload a transmission line; 3) disturb the line outage detection based on PMU data. To mitigate the risk of cyber attacks, this thesis proposes a new protection strategy, which intends to mitigate the damage effects of false data injection attacks by protecting a small set of critical measurements. To further reduce the computation complexity, a mixed integer linear programming approach is also proposed to

  14. Nonstructural carbohydrate dynamics of lodgepole pine dying from mountain pine beetle attack.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Erin; Rogers, Bruce J; Hodgkinson, Robert; Landhäusser, Simon M

    2016-01-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks are an important cause of tree death, but the process by which trees die remains poorly understood. The effect of beetle attack on whole-tree nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) dynamics is particularly unclear, despite the potential role of carbohydrates in plant defense and survival. We monitored NSC dynamics of all organs in attacked and protected lodgepole pines (Pinus contorta) during a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in British Columbia, starting before beetle flight in June 2011 through October 2012, when most attacked trees had died. Following attack, NSC concentrations were first reduced in the attacked region of the bole. The first NSC reduction in a distant organ appeared in the needles at the end of 2011, while branch and root NSC did not decline until much later in 2012. Attacked trees that were still alive in October 2012 had less beetle damage, which was negatively correlated with initial bark sugar concentrations in the attack region. The NSC dynamics of dying trees indicate that trees were killed by a loss of water conduction and not girdling. Further, our results identify locally reduced carbohydrate availability as an important mechanism by which stressors like drought may increase tree susceptibility to biotic attack. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Efficiency of attack strategies on complex model and real-world networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellingeri, Michele; Cassi, Davide; Vincenzi, Simone

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the efficiency of attack strategies to network nodes when targeting several complex model and real-world networks. We tested 5 attack strategies, 3 of which were introduced in this work for the first time, to attack 3 model networks (Erdos and Renyi, Barabasi and Albert preferential attachment network, and scale-free network configuration models) and 3 real networks (Gnutella peer-to-peer network, email network of the University of Rovira i Virgili, and immunoglobulin interaction network). Nodes were removed sequentially according to the importance criterion defined by the attack strategy, and we used the size of the largest connected component (LCC) as a measure of network damage. We found that the efficiency of attack strategies (fraction of nodes to be deleted for a given reduction of LCC size) depends on the topology of the network, although attacks based on either the number of connections of a node or betweenness centrality were often the most efficient strategies. Sequential deletion of nodes in decreasing order of betweenness centrality was the most efficient attack strategy when targeting real-world networks. The relative efficiency of attack strategies often changed during the sequential removal of nodes, especially for networks with power-law degree distribution.

  16. Psychopathology of panic attacks in panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Uhlenhuth, E H; Leon, Andrew C; Matuzas, William

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the relationships among certain subtypes of panic attacks (full vs. limited symptom; spontaneous vs. situational) and between these subtypes, panic disorder subtypes, and other characteristics of panic disorder, especially agoraphobia. Data were drawn from a large (n = 1,168) treatment study of panic disorder in which panic attacks were carefully subtyped and counted using a diary. Relationships between variables at baseline were examined primarily using non-parametric methods, and the course of improvement for panic subtypes among completers was plotted. The median number of spontaneous panic attacks per week at baseline was similar among patients with panic disorder without agoraphobia (PD), limited phobic avoidance (PDL), and agoraphobia (PDA). The median number of situational attacks and the median agoraphobia ratings rose progressively across diagnostic subtypes. Anticipatory anxiety, HAM-A, HAM-D, and disability scores were higher in PDA than in PD. Full and limited symptom panic attacks were positively correlated. The proportion of total attacks that were limited rose during the first two weeks of treatment, suggesting conversion of full to limited symptom attacks before complete disappearance. Spontaneous and situational attacks were correlated minimally or not at all. Agoraphobia ratings were more positively correlated with situational than with spontaneous panic attacks. Few of the correlations among measures at baseline were high. Full and limited symptom panic attacks differ primarily in severity. Spontaneous and situational attacks are relatively independent, and situational attacks are more closely related to agoraphobia. These findings are consistent with previous work suggesting that spontaneous attacks reflect a biological component, whereas situational attacks reflect a cognitive component in the psychopathology-- and possibly the pathogenesis-- of panic disorder. This provides a rationale for the use of combined

  17. Realities of Deterrence and Retaliatory Options to Attacks in Space and Cyberspace

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-15

    life in a kinetic attack far outweighs the damage one can commit with a cyber attack; that is, it is disproportional.”71 In the end, “it can be...argued that [taking a life ] far outweighs the damage [caused by] a cyberattack [sic]” and suggests that if proportionality will not hold, neither will...simply framed as a ‘bits-for-lives’ trade-off, in which the value placed on the challenger’s life is always higher than the value placed on the

  18. Ballistic Beloniformes attacking through Snell's Window.

    PubMed

    Day, R D; Mueller, F; Carseldine, L; Meyers-Cherry, N; Tibbetts, I R

    2016-02-01

    Needlefishes (Beloniformes) were observed employing a range of stalking and attacking behaviours to attack schools of bait fishes ranging from the use of tactics common to predatory fishes to a novel behaviour: the use of leaping, aerial attacks. These aerial attacks are suggested to serve two purposes: to extend the attack range of the needlefishes and to reduce their prey's potential for evasion. Furthermore, a third purpose is hypothesized that the needlefishes are taking advantage of Snell's Window, an optical effect which may mask their approach to their prey. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. Lightweight Distance Bounding Protocol against Relay Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Seok; Cho, Kookrae; Yum, Dae Hyun; Hong, Sung Je; Lee, Pil Joong

    Traditional authentication protocols are based on cryptographic techniques to achieve identity verification. Distance bounding protocols are an enhanced type of authentication protocol built upon both signal traversal time measurement and cryptographic techniques to accomplish distance verification as well as identity verification. A distance bounding protocol is usually designed to defend against the relay attack and the distance fraud attack. As there are applications to which the distance fraud attack is not a serious threat, we propose a streamlined distance bounding protocol that focuses on the relay attack. The proposed protocol is more efficient than previous protocols and has a low false acceptance rate under the relay attack.

  20. The Meniere attack: an ischemia/reperfusion disorder of inner ear sensory tissues.

    PubMed

    Foster, C A; Breeze, R E

    2013-12-01

    We believe Meniere attacks arise as a chance association of endolymphatic hydrops and vascular risk factors for intracerebral ischemia. Hydrops acts as a variable Starling resistor upon the inner ear vasculature that is capable of inducing ischemic attacks only in people with reduced perfusion pressure in the ear. The unique characteristics of the attacks (loss of vestibular response and hearing acutely followed by a return to apparent normalcy over hours) are explained by the differential sensitivity of the inner ear tissues to transient ischemia, with the sensory tissues (dendrites, hair cells) vulnerable to hours-long ischemia/reperfusion injury, and the stria vulnerable to ischemia due to its high metabolic rate. Permanent hearing loss and vestibular damage after many attacks would result when small areas of irreversible sensory cell damage accumulate and become confluent. This theory is supported by the strong correlation of hydrops with Meniere attacks, the finding that autoregulation of cochlear blood flow is impaired in the hydropic ear, and studies demonstrating that symptoms and signs in people and in animal models vary with conditions that alter perfusion pressure in the inner ear. Induction of Meniere attacks in animal models requires both hydrops and a mechanism that reduces perfusion pressure, such as epinephrine injection or head dependency. There is a strong clinical association between Meniere attacks and disorders that increase the risk for cerebrovascular ischemia, such as migraine. The excitable tissues in the sensory structures have long been known to be more vulnerable to ischemia than the remaining aural tissues, and are now known to be vulnerable to excitotoxicity induced by ischemia/reperfusion. This correlates well with autopsy evidence of damage to dendrites and hair cells and with strial atrophy in late Meniere disease cases. If this hypothesis is confirmed, treatment of vascular risk factors may allow control of symptoms and result in a

  1. Green toxicology.

    PubMed

    Maertens, Alexandra; Anastas, Nicholas; Spencer, Pamela J; Stephens, Martin; Goldberg, Alan; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Historically, early identification and characterization of adverse effects of industrial chemicals was difficult because conventional toxicological test methods did not meet R&D needs for rapid, relatively inexpensive methods amenable to small amounts of test material. The pharmaceutical industry now front-loads toxicity testing, using in silico, in vitro, and less demanding animal tests at earlier stages of product development to identify and anticipate undesirable toxicological effects and optimize product development. The Green Chemistry movement embraces similar ideas for development of less toxic products, safer processes, and less waste and exposure. Further, the concept of benign design suggests ways to consider possible toxicities before the actual synthesis and to apply some structure/activity rules (SAR) and in silico methods. This requires not only scientific development but also a change in corporate culture in which synthetic chemists work with toxicologists. An emerging discipline called Green Toxicology (Anastas, 2012) provides a framework for integrating the principles of toxicology into the enterprise of designing safer chemicals, thereby minimizing potential toxicity as early in production as possible. Green Toxicology`s novel utility lies in driving innovation by moving safety considerations to the earliest stage in a chemical`s lifecycle, i.e., to molecular design. In principle, this field is no different than other subdisciplines of toxicology that endeavor to focus on a specific area - for example, clinical, environmental or forensic toxicology. We use the same principles and tools to evaluate an existing substance or to design a new one. The unique emphasis is in using 21st century toxicology tools as a preventative strategy to "design out" undesired human health and environmental effects, thereby increasing the likelihood of launching a successful, sustainable product. Starting with the formation of a steering group and a series of workshops

  2. Psychological interventions following terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Mansdorf, Irwin J

    2008-01-01

    Psychological reactions to terror attacks have been documented as ranging from no symptoms to transient behavioural symptoms to more serious posttraumatic stress. A review of representative studies is presented, with a critical analysis of the salient points of the various psychological intervention strategies for terrorist attacks. Common aspects of both most intervention approaches include multifaceted models that foster social support and include a preparatory phase, a phase of 'psychological first aid' and a follow-up phase of referral for more severe cases. The notion of intervention for all who may show some symptoms is not universally accepted. Where treatment or intervention is used, the debriefing aspect of CISM (Critical Incident Stress Management) remains highly disputed, with the focus on intrusively revisiting the trauma appearing to have questionable value at best. Some data questions whether formal treatment or intervention is necessary or even desirable. For many who choose not to seek out any help following a trauma, clinical data shows no negative results. Moreover, the preponderance of data shows that conventional 'debriefing' is not recommended. If the debriefing mechanism is refined so that intrusive emotional rehashing of the traumatic event is eliminated, the resultant interventions resemble resilience based approaches. Further defining when intervention is called for and refining the mechanisms of intervention in multi-stage intervention.

  3. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month). The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human) brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF) to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication) group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF). Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine. PMID:21936901

  4. Cervical spine injury: tiger attack.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Meredith; Utter, Philip; Szatkowski, Jan; Patrick, Todd; Duncan, William; Turner, Norman; Dekutoski, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Reports of tiger attacks in the United States are rare. This article presents a case of a young woman who was violently attacked by a Siberian tiger and sustained penetrating trauma to the neck, cervical spine, and bilateral lower extremities. This article presents both diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients who may present with similar injuries. Animal bites from large animals are prone to infection in 10% to 20% of cases. Most infections are polymicrobial, with Pasteurella multicida being the most common isolate. Animal bites also mandate consideration of tetanus and rabies prophylaxis. The decision to administer postexposure rabies prophylaxis is dependent on the type of animal involved, whether the exposure was provoked, the local epidemiology of rabies, and the availability of the animal for observation or testing. Assessment of patients with cervical spine injury requires knowledge of possible associated injuries. Evaluation involves assessment of plain radiographs and computed tomography for evaluation of the cervical spine for bony injury. Furthermore, computed angiography is advantageous to noninvasively evaluate carotid or vertebral artery injury at the same setting in patients with deep cervical puncture wounds. Surgical treatment of unstable cervical spine fractures with lateral mass screw and rod fixation has been reported in the literature to have superior biomechanical properties compared to anterior and posterior instrumentation and fusion. In recent clinical studies, the use of lateral mass screws for traumatic injury of the cervical spine has been associated with excellent maintenance of alignment and minimal complications.

  5. Shoulder injuries from attacking motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagi, Shigeru; Nishimura, Tetsu; Itoh, Masaru; Wada, Yuhei; Watanabe, Naoki

    1997-03-01

    Sports injuries have bothered professional players. Although many medical doctors try to treat injured players, to prevent sports injuries is more important. Hence, it is required to clear a kinematic mechanism of the sport injuries. A shoulder of volleyball attacker or baseball pitcher is often inured by playing motion. The injuries are mainly caused at the end of long head tendon, which is located in the upper side of scapula. Generally, a muscle and tendon have enough strength against tensile force, however, it seems that they are sometimes defeated by the lateral force. It is imagined that the effect of the lateral force has a possibility of injuring the tendon. If we find the influence of the lateral force on the injured portion, the mechanism of injuries must be cleared. In our research, volleyball attacking motion is taken by high speed video cameras. We analyze the motion as links system and obtain an acceleration of an arm and a shoulder from video image data. The generated force at a shoulder joint is calculated and resolved into the lateral and longitudinal forces. Our final goal is to discuss a possibility that the lateral force causes the injuries.

  6. Transient Ischemic Attack Definition, Diagnosis, and Risk Stratification

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, A. Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Transient ischemic attack (TIA) can convey a high imminent risk for the development of a major stroke and is therefore considered to be a medical emergency. Recent evidence indicates that TIA with imaging proof of brain infarction represents an extremely unstable condition with early risk of stroke that is as much as 20 times higher than the risk after TIA without tissue damage. The use of neuroimaging in TIA is therefore critical not only for diagnosis but also for accurate risk-stratification. In this article, we discuss recent advances in diagnostic imaging, categorizations, and risk stratification in TIA. PMID:21640301

  7. Logging damage

    Treesearch

    Ralph D. Nyland

    1989-01-01

    The best commercial logging will damage at least some residual trees during all forms of partial cutting, no matter how carefully done. Yet recommendations at the end of this Note show there is much that you can do to limit damage by proper road and trail layout, proper training and supervision of crews, appropriate equipment, and diligence.

  8. 7 CFR 29.2513 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2513 Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungus or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...

  9. 7 CFR 29.2513 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2513 Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungus or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...

  10. 7 CFR 29.2513 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2513 Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungus or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...

  11. Percolation of localized attack on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Shuai; Huang, Xuqing; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2015-02-01

    The robustness of complex networks against node failure and malicious attack has been of interest for decades, while most of the research has focused on random attack or hub-targeted attack. In many real-world scenarios, however, attacks are neither random nor hub-targeted, but localized, where a group of neighboring nodes in a network are attacked and fail. In this paper we develop a percolation framework to analytically and numerically study the robustness of complex networks against such localized attack. In particular, we investigate this robustness in Erdős-Rényi networks, random-regular networks, and scale-free networks. Our results provide insight into how to better protect networks, enhance cybersecurity, and facilitate the design of more robust infrastructures.

  12. Are global terrorist attacks time-correlated?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele

    2006-04-01

    Is there any kind of “memory” in the sequence of terror attacks worldwide? Are the terrorist attacks non-randomly time distributed? Our analysis suggests that they are correlated, which means that a terror event is not independent from the time elapsed since the previous event. But, if we consider terror attacks with a large severity index (number of fatalities or injured), the phenomenon is unpredictable, since it approaches a Poisson process (random, independent and uncorrelated).

  13. A Study of Gaps in Attack Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-12

    This problem also hinders classification, taxonomy generation, malware labeling, and information sharing. In fact, it has been shown that the majority...be developed to conceal predictions and to confuse the adversary. Gap: Lack well-accepted attack taxonomies Likelihood: L Impact: L Cost: L 21...Description Improving the analysis of attacks requires well-developed taxonomies that capture the steps, requirements, and dependencies of attack components

  14. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  15. PKI Layer Cake: New Collision Attacks against the Global X.509 Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminsky, Dan; Patterson, Meredith L.; Sassaman, Len

    Research unveiled in December of 2008 [15] showed how MD5's long-known flaws could be actively exploited to attack the real-worldCertification Authority infrastructure. In this paper, we demonstrate two new classes of collision, which will be somewhat trickier to address than previous attacks against X.509: the applicability of MD2 preimage attacks against the primary root certificate for Verisign, and the difficulty of validating X.509 Names contained within PKCS#10 Certificate Requests.We also draw particular attention to two possibly unrecognized vectors for implementation flaws that have been problematic in the past: the ASN.1 BER decoder required to parsePKCS#10, and the potential for SQL injection fromtext contained within its requests. Finally, we explore why the implications of these attacks are broader than some have realized - first, because Client Authentication is sometimes tied to X.509, and second, because Extended Validation certificates were only intended to stop phishing attacks from names similar to trusted brands. As per the work of Adam Barth and Collin Jackson [4], EV does not prevent an attacker who can synthesize or acquire a "low assurance" certificate for a given name from acquiring the "green bar" EV experience.

  16. Security under Uncertainty: Adaptive Attackers Are More Challenging to Human Defenders than Random Attackers

    PubMed Central

    Moisan, Frédéric; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2017-01-01

    Game Theory is a common approach used to understand attacker and defender motives, strategies, and allocation of limited security resources. For example, many defense algorithms are based on game-theoretic solutions that conclude that randomization of defense actions assures unpredictability, creating difficulties for a human attacker. However, many game-theoretic solutions often rely on idealized assumptions of decision making that underplay the role of human cognition and information uncertainty. The consequence is that we know little about how effective these algorithms are against human players. Using a simplified security game, we study the type of attack strategy and the uncertainty about an attacker's strategy in a laboratory experiment where participants play the role of defenders against a simulated attacker. Our goal is to compare a human defender's behavior in three levels of uncertainty (Information Level: Certain, Risky, Uncertain) and three types of attacker's strategy (Attacker's strategy: Minimax, Random, Adaptive) in a between-subjects experimental design. Best defense performance is achieved when defenders play against a minimax and a random attack strategy compared to an adaptive strategy. Furthermore, when payoffs are certain, defenders are as efficient against random attack strategy as they are against an adaptive strategy, but when payoffs are uncertain, defenders have most difficulties defending against an adaptive attacker compared to a random attacker. We conclude that given conditions of uncertainty in many security problems, defense algorithms would be more efficient if they are adaptive to the attacker actions, taking advantage of the attacker's human inefficiencies. PMID:28690557

  17. Do Unexpected Panic Attacks Occur Spontaneously?

    PubMed Central

    Meuret, Alicia E.; Rosenfield, David; Wilhelm, Frank H.; Zhou, Enlu; Conrad, Ansgar; Ritz, Thomas; Roth, Walton T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Spontaneous or unexpected panic attacks, per definition, occur out-of-the blue, in absence of cues or triggers. Accordingly, physiological arousal or instability should occur at the onset of or during the attack, but not preceding it. To test this hypothesisweexaminedif points of significant autonomic changes preceded the onset of spontaneous panic attacks. Methods Forty-three panic disorder patients underwent repeated 24-hour ambulatory monitoring. Thirteen naturally panic attacks were recorded during 1,960 hours of monitoring. Minute-by-minute epochs beginning 60 minutes before, and continuing to 10 minutes after, the onset of individual attacks were examined for respiration, heart rate, and skin conductance level. Measures were controlled for physical activity and vocalization, and compared to time matched control periods within the same person. Results Significant patterns of instability across a numberof autonomic and respiratory variables were detected as early as 47 minutes before panic onset. The final minutes prior to onset were dominated by respiratory changes, with significant decreases in tidal volume followed by abrupt PCO2 increases. Panic attack onset was characterized by heart rate and tidal volume increases and a drop in PCO2. Symptom report was consistent with these changes. Skin conductance levels were generally elevated in the hour before and duringthe attacks. Changes in the matched control periods were largely absent. Conclusions Significant autonomic irregularities preceded the onset of attacks that were reported as abrupt and unexpected. The findings invite reconsideration of the current diagnostic distinction betweenuncuedand cued panic attacks. PMID:21783179

  18. Colon motility during a panic attack.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Paul E; Cocjin, Jose

    2005-01-01

    To document the temporal relationship between a panic attack and high amplitude propagating contractions. Colon manometry was used to discriminate between functional defecation problems and colon neuromuscular disease. By chance, the patent developed a panic attack during the test session. Coincident with the panic attack, there was a continuous series of high amplitude propagating contractions. There were 15 high amplitude propagating contractions over 45 minutes, initially at a rate of 4 per 10 minutes, gradually slowing to 1.5 per 10 minutes. These data may explain the cause for gastrointestinal distress and diarrhea in some patients with panic attacks.

  19. Detecting Denial of Service Attacks in Tor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danner, Norman; Krizanc, Danny; Liberatore, Marc

    Tor is currently one of the more popular systems for anonymizing near real-time communications on the Internet. Recently, Borisov et al. proposed a denial of service based attack on Tor (and related systems) that significantly increases the probability of compromising the anonymity provided. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for detecting such attacks and examine the effectiveness of the obvious approach to evading such detection. We implement a simplified version of the detection algorithm and study whether the attack may be in progress on the current Tor network. Our preliminary measurements indicate that the attack was probably not implemented during the period we observed the network.

  20. Cougar attacks on humans: a case report.

    PubMed

    McKee, Denise

    2003-01-01

    Cougar attacks on humans are increasing. Presented is a case report of a nonfatal 2-year-old male cougar attack on an 8-year-old girl in British Columbia. Discussions of wound management, rabies postexposure prophylaxis (RPEP), and the possible psychologic ramifications of such an attack are presented. Also reviewed are recommendations on actions that may be helpful in preventing an attack following a sudden encounter with a cougar. Humans must learn to coexist with cougars, which present a small but real threat to people.

  1. Cement composition and sulfate attack

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, Natalya; Zayed, Abla . E-mail: zayed@eng.usf.edu

    2007-04-15

    Four cements were used to address the effect of tricalcium silicate content of cement on external sulfate attack in sodium sulfate solution. The selected cements had similar fineness and Bogue-calculated tricalcium aluminate content but variable tricalcium silicates. Durability was assessed using linear expansion and compressive strength. Phases associated with deterioration were examined using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Mineralogical phase content of the as-received cements was studied by X-ray diffraction using two methods: internal standard and Rietveld analysis. The results indicate that phase content of cements determined by X-ray mineralogical analysis correlates better with the mortar performance in sulfate environment than Bogue content. Additionally, it was found that in cements containing triclacium aluminate only in the cubic form, the observed deterioration is affected by tricalcium silicate content. Morphological similarities between hydration products of high tricalcium aluminate and high tricalcium silicate cements exposed to sodium sulfate environment were also observed.

  2. When Sinuses Attack! (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... you have a cold? continue When Good Sinuses Go Bad What about that cold that won't go away? A cold virus can: damage the delicate ... if you are feeling well enough, you can go to school or go outside and play. In ...

  3. Planning guidance for emergency response to a hypothetical nuclear attack on Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubayr, Nasser Ali M.

    The threat of nuclear attack will remain imminent in an ever-advancing society. Saudi Arabia is not immune to this threat. This dissertation establishes planning guidance for response to a nuclear attack on Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, based on a hypothetical scenario of a nuclear detonation. A case scenario of a one-megaton thermonuclear bomb detonated at ground level over Riyadh is used to support the thesis. Previous nuclear tests and the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings have been used to present possible effects on Riyadh. US planning guidance and lessons learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear plants accidents have been used to develop the emergency response guidance. The planning guidance outlines a rapid response to the nuclear detonation. Four damage zones have been identified; severe damage zone, moderate damage zone, light damage zone and dangerous fallout zone. Actions that are recommended, and those that should be avoided, have been determined for each zone. Shelter/ evacuation evaluation for blast-affected and fallout-affected areas is the basis for the recommendation that shelter in place is the best decision for the first hours to days after the attack. Guidelines for medical care response and population monitoring and decontamination are included to reduce the early and long-term effects of the attack. Recommendations to the Saudi Arabian authorities have been made to facilitate suitable preparedness and response for such an event.

  4. Efficient initial attacks: analysis of capacity and funding provides insights to wildfire protection planning

    Treesearch

    Jeremy Fried; Paul. Meznarich

    2014-01-01

    Large wildfires in the United States pose significant challenges to fire management agencies charged with protecting lives, property, and natural resources. A vigorous initial response to a wildfire, a process referred to as "initial attack," can greatly reduce the likelihood of the fire becoming larger and causing substantial damage. Successful...

  5. Formosan and native subterranean termite attack of pressure-treated SPF wood species exposed in Louisiana

    Treesearch

    Stan Lebow; Todd Shupe; Bessie Woodward; Douglas Crawford; Brian Via; Cherilyn Hatfield

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the relative ability of three types of wood preservatives to inhibit attack by Formosan subterranean termites (FST) (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) and native subterranean termites (Reticulitermes spp.). The study also evaluated the roles of preservative retention and penetration in preventing termite damage. Sections of boards from six wood...

  6. Phytotoxicity, bioaccumulation and degradation of isoproturon in green algae.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yan Fang; Miao, Shan Shan; Lu, Yi Chen; Qiu, Chong Bin; Zhou, You; Yang, Hong

    2012-12-01

    Isoproturon (IPU) is a pesticide used for protection of land crops from weed or pathogen attack. Recent survey shows that IPU has been detected as a contaminant in aquatic systems and may have negative impact on aquatic organisms. To understand the phytotoxicity and potential accumulation and degradation of IPU in algae, a comprehensive study was performed with the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Algae exposed to 5-50 μg L(-1) IPU for 3d displayed progressive inhibition of cell growth and reduced chlorophyll fluorescence. Time-course experiments with 25 μg L(-1) IPU for 6d showed similar growth responses. The 72 h EC50 value for IPU was 43.25 μg L(-1), NOEC was 5 μg L(-1) and LOEC was 15 μg L(-1). Treatment with IPU induced oxidative stress. This was validated by a group of antioxidant enzymes, whose activities were promoted by IPU exposure. The up-regulation of several genes coding for the enzymes confirmed the observation. IPU was shown to be readily accumulated by C. reinhardtii. However, the alga showed a weak ability to degrade IPU accumulated in its cells, which was best presented at the lower concentration (5 μg L(-1)) of IPU in the medium. The imbalance of accumulation and degradation of IPU may be the cause that resulted in the detrimental growth and cellular damage.

  7. Injuries from bear (Ursus thibetanus) attacks in Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Tak, Shafaat Rashid; Dar, Gh Nabi; Halwai, Manzoor Ahmed; Mir, Bashir Ahmed

    2009-03-01

    Strict conservation of wildlife and encroachment into its habitat have led to an increase in the number of wild animal-inflicted injuries and fatalities in Kashmir. The aim of this study was to report injuries inflicted during bear attacks and discuss their management and sequelae. A retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Orthopedics Government Medical College Srinagar, University of Kashmir, from January 2003 to June 2007. A total of 254 cases (186 males, 68 females) with history of bear attacks were recorded over a period of 54 months. Eighty percent of victims were attacked in the maize fields and apple orchards and 20% in the dense forests while collecting firewood or tending to the cattle. Lacerations of the head and neck and fractures of the upper limbs and facial and skull bones were the striking observations. Permanent facial disfigurement, hearing loss, loss of digits, residual neurodeficit, and persistent psychological morbidity were the long-term sequelae in most of the patients. Wild animal-inflicted injuries are a neglected part of trauma. There should be a high index of suspicion when treating these injuries, as serious underlying bone or soft-tissue damage can be overlooked. Management of these injuries involves all subspecialties of trauma to achieve the best functional outcome.

  8. New GREEN Products for the Military Aviation Maintenance Community

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    that is energy or water efficient Non-ozone depleting substances  Low or non-toxic or hazardous chemicals Environmentally preferred products...WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT 17 New GREEN Products (NAVAIR), cont‘d. micro-mesh cloths NSNs pending cleaning with water only...Tagnite—superior corrosion & abrasion resistance; helps prevent galvanic attack; superior paint adhesion WARFIGHTER FOCUSED, GLOBALLY

  9. Green Power Partner Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  10. Green Power Community News

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page features news about EPA's Green Power Communities. GPCs are a subset of the Green Power Partnership; municipalities or tribal governments where government, businesses, and residents collectively use enough green power to meet GPP requirements.

  11. Cued panic attacks in body dysmorphic disorder.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Katharine A; Menard, William; Bjornsson, Andri S

    2013-05-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a common and often severe disorder. Clinical observations suggest that panic attacks triggered by BDD symptoms may be common. However, to our knowledge, no study has examined such panic attacks in BDD. We investigated the prevalence, clinical features, and correlates of BDD- triggered panic attacks in individuals with this disorder. Panic attacks and other variables were assessed using reliable and valid measures in 76 individuals with lifetime DSM-IV BDD. 28.9% (95% CI, 18.5%-39.4%) of participants reported lifetime panic attacks triggered by BDD symptoms. The most common triggers of such attacks were feeling that others were looking at or scrutinizing the perceived appearance defects (61.9%), looking in the mirror at perceived defects (38.1%), and being in bright light where perceived defects would be more visible (23.8%). The most common panic attack symptoms were palpitations (86.4%), sweating (66.7%), shortness of breath (63.6%), trembling or shaking (63.6%), and fear of losing control or going crazy (63.6%). Compared to participants without such panic attacks, those with BDD-triggered panic attacks had more severe lifetime BDD, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms, as well as poorer functioning and quality of life on a number of measures. They were also less likely to be employed and more likely to have been psychiatrically hospitalized and to have had suicidal ideation due to BDD. Panic attacks triggered by BDD-related situations appear com- mon in individuals with this disorder. BDD-triggered panic attacks were associated with greater symptom severity and morbidity.

  12. Cued Panic Attacks in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Katharine A.; Menard, William; Bjornsson, Andri S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a common and often severe disorder. Clinical observations suggest that panic attacks triggered by BDD symptoms may be common. However, to our knowledge, no study has examined such panic attacks in BDD. We investigated the prevalence, clinical features, and correlates of BDD-triggered panic attacks in individuals with this disorder. Methods Panic attacks and other variables were assessed using reliable and valid measures in 76 individuals with lifetime DSM-IV BDD. Results 28.9% (95% CI, 18.5%–39.4%) of participants reported lifetime panic attacks triggered by BDD symptoms. The most common triggers of such attacks were feeling that others were looking at or scrutinizing the perceived appearance defects (61.9%), looking in the mirror at perceived defects (38.1%), and being in bright light where perceived defects would be more visible (23.8%). The most common panic attack symptoms were palpitations (86.4%), sweating (66.7%), shortness of breath (63.6%), trembling or shaking (63.6%), and fear of losing control or going crazy (63.6%). Compared to participants without such panic attacks, those with BDD-triggered panic attacks had more severe lifetime BDD, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms, as well as poorer functioning and quality of life on a number of measures. They were also less likely to be employed and more likely to have been psychiatrically hospitalized and to have had suicidal ideation due to BDD. Conclusions Panic attacks triggered by BDD-related situations appear common in individuals with this disorder. BDD-triggered panic attacks were associated with greater symptom severity and morbidity. PMID:23653076

  13. Optical detection of DNA damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kim R.; Apostol, A.; Cembrano, J.

    1999-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive fluorescence assay for oxidative damage to calf thymus DNA is reported. A decrease in the transition temperature for strand separation resulted from exposure of the DNA to the reactive decomposition products of 3- morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) (i.e., nitric oxide, superoxide, peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals). A decrease in melting temperature of 12 degrees Celsius was indicative of oxidative damage including single strand chain breaks. Double stranded (ds) and single stranded (ss) forms of DNA were determined using the indicator dyes ethidium bromide and PicoGreen. The change in DNA 'melting' curves was dependant on the concentration of SIN-1 and was most pronounced at 75 degrees Celsius. This chemically induced damage was significantly inhibited by sodium citrate, tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris), and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), but was unaffected by superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, ethylenediamine tetraacietic acid (EDTA), or deferoxamine. Lowest observable effect level for SIN-1-induced damage was 200 (mu) M.

  14. Green Gullies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    18 June 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a series of small gullies on the north wall of a crater within the much larger Green Crater in Noachis Terra, Mars. The gullies might have formed by seepage and runoff of ground water; others have suggested that melting snow or ice might create such gullies. The crater floor exhibits a field of sand dunes and some wispy, dark streaks left by passing dust devils.

    Location near: 53.0oS, 8.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  15. A new potent natural antioxidant mixture provides global protection against oxidative skin cell damage.

    PubMed

    Jorge, A T S; Arroteia, K F; Lago, J C; de Sá-Rocha, V M; Gesztesi, J; Moreira, P L

    2011-04-01

    Oxidative stress occurs when there is an over production of free radicals and cells are not able to neutralize them by their own antioxidant mechanisms. These excess of free radicals will attack cellular macromolecules leading to cell damage, function impairment or death. Because of that, antioxidant substances have been largely used in products to offer complementary protection. In this study a new mixture of three known antioxidants (cocoa, green tea and alpha-tocopherol) was evaluated and its antioxidant protection was assessed focusing on its capacity to protect main cell macromolecules. Results have shown that it has a high antioxidant capacity by protecting lipids, DNA and proteins against oxidative damage. The antioxidant effect of the mixture on cells was also investigated and it was able to reduce oxidative stress generated by lipopolisacharide in human fibroblasts. Finally, as the mixture has proved to be highly antioxidant, its effect on cell senescence was evaluated, and it was demonstrated that fibroblasts in culture had delayed senescence when treated with these actives on a mixture. All results together provide important data about a new antioxidant mixture that uses a small amount of actives and is able to protect cell against oxidative damages in a global way.

  16. [Panic attacks simulate presence of somatic illnesses].

    PubMed

    Latas, Milan; Soldatović, Ivan; Stamenović, Marko; Starcević, Vladan

    2009-01-01

    Panic attacks are characterized with sudden attacks of anxiety with numerous somatic symptoms, such as palpitations, tachycardia, tachypnea, nausea, vertigo. The objective of this study was to analyze symptoms of panic attacks in patients with panic disorder, especially, to determine the specific relationship of somatic and neurological symptoms of panic attacks in boundaries of somatic systems. The study sample consisted of 97 patients with primary diagnosis of panic disorder, without any acute, severe and unstable somatic illness. The presence and frequency of symptoms of panic attacks were estimated by the Panic Disorder Questionnaire. The study results indicate that the most frequent symptoms of panic attacks were cardiological signs (heart pounding or racing) and trembling, followed by unsteady and fainting feeling symptoms, sweating, respiratory symptoms and gastroenterological symptoms. The results of correlation analyses indicate that symptoms of panic attacks classified into cardiovascular, gastro-enterological, respiratory and neurootological systems show statistically significant correlations. The results of analyses of symptoms of panic attacks point to their intercorrelation. This specific association of the symptoms, if they are examined on their own in the patients, could lead to false clinical manifestation of some somatic illness. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze adequately and make the proper differential diagnosis of patients with panic disorder.

  17. British used Congreve Rockets to Attack Napoleon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Sir William Congreve developed a rocket with a range of about 9,000 feet. The incendiary rocket used black powder, an iron case, and a 16-foot guide stick. In 1806, British used Congreve rockets to attack Napoleon's headquarters in France. In 1807, Congreve directed a rocket attack against Copenhagen.

  18. British used Congreve Rockets to Attack Napoleon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Sir William Congreve developed a rocket with a range of about 9,000 feet. The incendiary rocket used black powder, an iron case, and a 16-foot guide stick. In 1806, British used Congreve rockets to attack Napoleon's headquarters in France. In 1807, Congreve directed a rocket attack against Copenhagen.

  19. Preventive attack in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Prebeck, S.R.

    1993-05-28

    The decline of the Soviet Union upset the world`s balance of power and opened the door to third world proliferation since the superpowers no longer have tight control over their client-states. This increase in proliferation raised the issue of how the United States (US) should respond to a third world nation that is acquiring nuclear weapons. Should the United States depend on preventive attacks to stop the proliferation of nuclear weapons. This is not a new issue. Proliferation and preventive war have both been issues since the end of World War II. The United States considered a preventive attack against the Soviet Union in the postwar years. The Soviet Union considered preventive attacks against the People`s Republic of China in 1969. Israel conducted a preventive attack in 1981 against the Osiraq nuclear reactor in Iraq. Preventive attacks are politically untenable and are not militarily possible. Without perfect political conditions, it is unacceptable for the only remaining superpower to attack a second-rate power. It is militarily impossible for the United States to guarantee the removal of all nuclear weapons in a single preventive attack. This study concludes that the United States should not depend on preventive attacks to stop proliferation of nuclear weapons.

  20. 47 CFR 76.1612 - Personal attack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal attack. 76.1612 Section 76.1612 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1612 Personal attack. (a) When, during origination cablecasting of...

  1. Concrete under sulphate attack: an isotope study on sulphur sources.

    PubMed

    Mittermayr, Florian; Bauer, Christoph; Klammer, Dietmar; Böttcher, Michael E; Leis, Albrecht; Escher, Peter; Dietzel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The formation of secondary sulphate minerals such as thaumasite, ettringite and gypsum is a process causing severe damage to concrete constructions. A major key to understand the complex reactions, involving concrete deterioration is to decipher the cause of its appearance, including the sources of the involved elements. In the present study, sulphate attack on the concrete of two Austrian tunnels is investigated. The distribution of stable sulphur isotopes is successfully applied to decipher the source(s) of sulphur in the deteriorating sulphate-bearing minerals. Interestingly, δ(34)S values of sulphate in local groundwater and in the deteriorating minerals are mostly in the range from+14 to+27 ‰. These δ(34)S values match the isotope patterns of regional Permian and Triassic marine evaporites. Soot relicts from steam- and diesel-driven trains found in one of the tunnels show δ(34)S values from-3 to+5 ‰, and are therefore assumed to be of minor importance for sulphate attack on the concretes. In areas of pyrite-containing sedimentary rocks, the δ(34)S values of sulphate from damaged concrete range between-1 and+11 ‰. The latter range reflects the impact of sulphide oxidation on local groundwater sulphate.

  2. Fundamental studies of hydrogen attack in carbon-0.5molybdenum steel and weldments applied in petroelum and petrochemical industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng

    High temperature hydrogen attack (HTHA) is a form of surface decarburization, internal decarburization, and/or intergranular cracking in steels exposed to high temperature (>400°F) and high hydrogen pressure. Hydrogen attack is an irreversible process which can cause permanent damage resulting in degradation of mechanical properties and failures such as leakage, bursting, fire, and/or explosion. The continuous progression of hydrogen attack in C-0.5Mo steel and weldments below the C-0.5Mo Nelson Curve has caused a significant concern for the integrity and serviceability of C-0.5Mo steel utilized for pressure vessels and piping in the petroleum refinery and petrochemical industries. A state-of-the-art literature review was implemented to provide a comprehensive overview of the published research efforts on hydrogen attack studies. The evolution of "Nelson Curves" for carbon steel, C-0.5Mo, and Cr-Mo steels was historically reviewed in regard to design applications and limitations. Testing techniques for hydrogen attack assessment were summarized under the categories of hydrogen exposure testing, mechanical evaluation, and dilatometric swelling testing. In accord with the demands of these industries, fundamental studies of hydrogen attack in C-0.5Mo steel and weldments were accomplished in terms of quantitative methodologies for hydrogen damage evaluation; hydrogen damage assessment of service exposed weldments and autoclave exposed materials; effects of carbon and alloying elements, heat treatments, hot and cold working, welding processes and postweld heat treatment (PWHT) on hydrogen attack susceptibility; development of continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams for C-0.5Mo base metals and the coarse grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ); carbide evaluation for the C-0.5Mo steel after service exposure and heat treatment; methane evolution by the reaction of hydrogen and carbides; hydrogen diffusion and methane pressure through the wall thickness of one

  3. Terrorist Attacks Escalate in Frequency and Fatalities Preceding Highly Lethal Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Andy; Sainudiin, Raazesh; Sibley, Chris G.; Schimel, Jeff; Webber, David

    2014-01-01

    Highly lethal terrorist attacks, which we define as those killing 21 or more people, account for 50% of the total number of people killed in all terrorist attacks combined, yet comprise only 3.5% of terrorist attacks. Given the disproportionate influence of these incidents, uncovering systematic patterns in attacks that precede and anticipate these highly lethal attacks may be of value for understanding attacks that exact a heavy toll on life. Here we examined whether the activity of terrorist groups escalates–both in the number of people killed per attack and in the frequency of attacks–leading up to highly lethal attacks. Analyses of terrorist attacks drawn from a state-of-the-art international terrorism database (The Global Terrorism Database) showed evidence for both types of escalation leading up to highly lethal attacks, though complexities to the patterns emerged as well. These patterns of escalation do not emerge among terrorist groups that never commit a highly lethal attack. PMID:24755753

  4. Reconfigurable flight control for high angle of attack fighter aircraft, with wind tunnel study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Bilal Ahmed

    In this work we studied Reconfigurable Flight Control Systems to achieve acceptable performance of a fighter aircraft, even in the event of wing damage to the aircraft at low speeds and high angle of attack, which is typical of many combat maneuvers. Equations of motion for the damaged aircraft were derived, which helped in building simulators. A new methodology combining experimental and numerical aerodynamic prediction was proposed and implemented. For this a wind-tunnel study of a similar configuration was carried out to study the aerodynamics at low speeds and high angle of attack. A baseline control system for undamaged aircraft was developed, and finally a reconfigurable flight control scheme was implemented to keep the aircraft flyable even after the damage.

  5. Hill-Climbing Attacks and Robust Online Signature Verification Algorithm against Hill-Climbing Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Daigo

    Attacks using hill-climbing methods have been reported as a vulnerability of biometric authentication systems. In this paper, we propose a robust online signature verification algorithm against such attacks. Specifically, the attack considered in this paper is a hill-climbing forged data attack. Artificial forgeries are generated offline by using the hill-climbing method, and the forgeries are input to a target system to be attacked. In this paper, we analyze the menace of hill-climbing forged data attacks using six types of hill-climbing forged data and propose a robust algorithm by incorporating the hill-climbing method into an online signature verification algorithm. Experiments to evaluate the proposed system were performed using a public online signature database. The proposed algorithm showed improved performance against this kind of attack.

  6. Green nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoff B.

    2011-10-01

    Nanotechnology, in particular nanophotonics, is proving essential to achieving green outcomes of sustainability and renewable energy at the scales needed. Coatings, composites and polymeric structures used in windows, roof and wall coatings, energy storage, insulation and other components in energy efficient buildings will increasingly involve nanostructure, as will solar cells. Nanostructures have the potential to revolutionize thermoelectric power and may one day provide efficient refrigerant free cooling. Nanomaterials enable optimization of optical, opto-electrical and thermal responses to this urgent task. Optical harmonization of material responses to environmental energy flows involves (i) large changes in spectral response over limited wavelength bands (ii) tailoring to environmental dynamics. The latter includes engineering angle of incidence dependencies and switchable (or chromogenic) responses. Nanomaterials can be made at sufficient scale and low enough cost to be both economic and to have a high impact on a short time scale. Issues to be addressed include human safety and property changes induced during manufacture, handling and outdoor use. Unexpected bonuses have arisen in this work, for example the savings and environmental benefits of cool roofs extend beyond the more obvious benefit of reduced heat flows from the roof into the building.

  7. Green chromatography.

    PubMed

    Płotka, Justyna; Tobiszewski, Marek; Sulej, Anna Maria; Kupska, Magdalena; Górecki, Tadeusz; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-09-13

    Analysis of organic compounds in samples characterized by different composition of the matrix is very important in many areas. A vast majority of organic compound determinations are performed using gas or liquid chromatographic methods. It is thus very important that these methods have negligible environmental impact. Chromatographic techniques have the potential to be greener at all steps of the analysis, from sample collection and preparation to separation and final determination. The paper summarizes the approaches used to accomplish the goals of green chromatography. While complete elimination of sample preparation would be an ideal approach, it is not always practical. Solventless extraction techniques offer a very good alternative. Where solvents must be used, the focus should be on the minimization of their consumption. The approaches used to make chromatographic separations greener differ depending on the type of chromatography. In gas chromatography it is advisable to move away from using helium as the carrier gas because it is a non-renewable resource. GC separations using low thermal mass technology can be greener because of energy savings offered by this technology. In liquid chromatography the focus should be on the reduction of solvent consumption and replacement of toxic and environmentally hazardous solvents with more benign alternatives. Multidimensional separation techniques have the potential to make the analysis greener in both GC and LC. The environmental impact of the method is often determined by the location of the instrument with respect to the sample collection point. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatial Pattern of Attacks of the Invasive Woodwasp Sirex noctilio, at Landscape and Stand Scales.

    PubMed

    Lantschner, M Victoria; Corley, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Invasive insect pests are responsible for important damage to native and plantation forests, when population outbreaks occur. Understanding the spatial pattern of attacks by forest pest populations is essential to improve our understanding of insect population dynamics and for predicting attack risk by invasives or planning pest management strategies. The woodwasp Sirex noctilio is an invasive woodwasp that has become probably the most important pest of pine plantations in the Southern Hemisphere. Our aim was to study the spatial dynamics of S. noctilio populations in Southern Argentina. Specifically we describe: (1) the spatial patterns of S. noctilio outbreaks and their relation with environmental factors at a landscape scale; and (2) characterize the spatial pattern of attacked trees at the stand scale. We surveyed the spatial distribution of S. noctilio outbreaks in three pine plantation landscapes, and we assessed potential associations with topographic variables, habitat characteristics, and distance to other outbreaks. We also looked at the spatial distribution of attacked trees in 20 stands with different levels of infestation, and assessed the relationship of attacks with stand composition and management. We found that the spatial pattern of pine stands with S. noctilio outbreaks at the landscape scale is influenced mainly by the host species present, slope aspect, and distance to other outbreaks. At a stand scale, there is strong aggregation of attacked trees in stands with intermediate infestation levels, and the degree of attacks is influenced by host species and plantation management. We conclude that the pattern of S. noctilio damage at different spatial scales is influenced by a combination of both inherent population dynamics and the underlying patterns of environmental factors. Our results have important implications for the understanding and management of invasive insect outbreaks in forest systems.

  9. Spatial Pattern of Attacks of the Invasive Woodwasp Sirex noctilio, at Landscape and Stand Scales

    PubMed Central

    Lantschner, M. Victoria; Corley, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive insect pests are responsible for important damage to native and plantation forests, when population outbreaks occur. Understanding the spatial pattern of attacks by forest pest populations is essential to improve our understanding of insect population dynamics and for predicting attack risk by invasives or planning pest management strategies. The woodwasp Sirex noctilio is an invasive woodwasp that has become probably the most important pest of pine plantations in the Southern Hemisphere. Our aim was to study the spatial dynamics of S. noctilio populations in Southern Argentina. Specifically we describe: (1) the spatial patterns of S. noctilio outbreaks and their relation with environmental factors at a landscape scale; and (2) characterize the spatial pattern of attacked trees at the stand scale. We surveyed the spatial distribution of S. noctilio outbreaks in three pine plantation landscapes, and we assessed potential associations with topographic variables, habitat characteristics, and distance to other outbreaks. We also looked at the spatial distribution of attacked trees in 20 stands with different levels of infestation, and assessed the relationship of attacks with stand composition and management. We found that the spatial pattern of pine stands with S. noctilio outbreaks at the landscape scale is influenced mainly by the host species present, slope aspect, and distance to other outbreaks. At a stand scale, there is strong aggregation of attacked trees in stands with intermediate infestation levels, and the degree of attacks is influenced by host species and plantation management. We conclude that the pattern of S. noctilio damage at different spatial scales is influenced by a combination of both inherent population dynamics and the underlying patterns of environmental factors. Our results have important implications for the understanding and management of invasive insect outbreaks in forest systems. PMID:25992640

  10. Smart Grid Integrity Attacks: Characterizations and Countermeasures

    SciTech Connect

    Annarita Giani; Eilyan Bitar; Miles McQueen; Pramod Khargonekar; Kameshwar Poolla

    2011-10-01

    Real power injections at loads and generators, and real power flows on selected lines in a transmission network are monitored, transmitted over a SCADA network to the system operator, and used in state estimation algorithms to make dispatch, re-balance and other energy management system [EMS] decisions. Coordinated cyber attacks of power meter readings can be arranged to be undetectable by any bad data detection algorithm. These unobservable attacks present a serious threat to grid operations. Of particular interest are sparse attacks that involve the compromise of a modest number of meter readings. An efficient algorithm to find all unobservable attacks [under standard DC load flow approximations] involving the compromise of exactly two power injection meters and an arbitrary number of power meters on lines is presented. This requires O(n2m) flops for a power system with n buses and m line meters. If all lines are metered, there exist canonical forms that characterize all 3, 4, and 5-sparse unobservable attacks. These can be quickly detected in power systems using standard graph algorithms. Known secure phase measurement units [PMUs] can be used as countermeasures against an arbitrary collection of cyber attacks. Finding the minimum number of necessary PMUs is NP-hard. It is shown that p + 1 PMUs at carefully chosen buses are sufficient to neutralize a collection of p cyber attacks.

  11. Adaptive cyber-attack modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsalves, Paul G.; Dougherty, Edward T.

    2006-05-01

    The pervasiveness of software and networked information systems is evident across a broad spectrum of business and government sectors. Such reliance provides an ample opportunity not only for the nefarious exploits of lone wolf computer hackers, but for more systematic software attacks from organized entities. Much effort and focus has been placed on preventing and ameliorating network and OS attacks, a concomitant emphasis is required to address protection of mission critical software. Typical software protection technique and methodology evaluation and verification and validation (V&V) involves the use of a team of subject matter experts (SMEs) to mimic potential attackers or hackers. This manpower intensive, time-consuming, and potentially cost-prohibitive approach is not amenable to performing the necessary multiple non-subjective analyses required to support quantifying software protection levels. To facilitate the evaluation and V&V of software protection solutions, we have designed and developed a prototype adaptive cyber attack modeling system. Our approach integrates an off-line mechanism for rapid construction of Bayesian belief network (BN) attack models with an on-line model instantiation, adaptation and knowledge acquisition scheme. Off-line model construction is supported via a knowledge elicitation approach for identifying key domain requirements and a process for translating these requirements into a library of BN-based cyber-attack models. On-line attack modeling and knowledge acquisition is supported via BN evidence propagation and model parameter learning.

  12. Attack detection in unattended sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Curt; Monnier, Camille; Fry, Gerald; Girod, Lewis; Luke, Jahn

    2010-04-01

    Because sensor networks are often deployed in hostile environments where their security and integrity may be compromised, it is essential to maximize the reliability and trustworthiness of existing and envisioned sensor networks. During operations, the sensor network must be robust to deception, node compromise, and various other attacks, while maintaining the operator's situational awareness regarding the health and integrity of the system. To address these needs, we have designed a Framework to Ensure and Assess Trustworthiness in Sensor systems (FEATS) to identify attacks on sensor system integrity and inform the operator of sensor data trustworthiness. We have developed and validated unsupervised anomaly detection algorithms for sensor data captured from an experimental acoustic sensor platform under a number of attack scenarios. The platform, which contains four audio microphones, was exposed to two physical attacks (audio filtering and audio playback) as well as a live replay attack (replaying live audio data that is captured at a remote location), which is analogous to a wormhole attack in the routing layer. With our unsupervised learning algorithms, we were able to successfully identify the presence of various attacks.

  13. Situational awareness of a coordinated cyber attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudit, Moises; Stotz, Adam; Holender, Michael

    2005-03-01

    As technology continues to advance, services and capabilities become computerized, and an ever increasing amount of business is conducted electronically the threat of cyber attacks gets compounded by the complexity of such attacks and the criticality of the information which must be secured. A new age of virtual warfare has dawned in which seconds can differentiate between the protection of vital information and/or services and a malicious attacker attaining their goal. In this paper we present a novel approach in the real-time detection of multistage coordinated cyber attacks and the promising initial testing results we have obtained. We introduce INFERD (INformation Fusion Engine for Real-time Decision-making), an adaptable information fusion engine which performs fusion at levels zero, one, and two to provide real-time situational assessment and its application to the cyber domain in the ECCARS (Event Correlation for Cyber Attack Recognition System) system. The advantages to our approach are fourfold: (1) The complexity of the attacks which we consider, (2) the level of abstraction in which the analyst interacts with the attack scenarios, (3) the speed at which the information fusion is presented and performed, and (4) our disregard for ad-hoc rules or a priori parameters.

  14. Green Streets Transforming Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In its 6 years, the Green Streets, Green Jobs, Green Towns (G3) Partnership grants program has generated nearly $18 million for over 90 projects throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed, including work that has created a collective 8 miles of green streets.

  15. What is green?

    SciTech Connect

    Satyanarayana, D.V.

    1998-12-31

    The definition of Green as it pertains to Green Chemicals or Green Corrosion Inhibition seems to be vague. Even though the scientific and engineering communities use this word frequently, there seems to be a lack of consensus on the definition. The paper describes the various definitions and their overall impact on Green.

  16. Detecting Unknown Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks That Contain Mobile Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Banković, Zorana; Fraga, David; Moya, José M.; Vallejo, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    As wireless sensor networks are usually deployed in unattended areas, security policies cannot be updated in a timely fashion upon identification of new attacks. This gives enough time for attackers to cause significant damage. Thus, it is of great importance to provide protection from unknown attacks. However, existing solutions are mostly concentrated on known attacks. On the other hand, mobility can make the sensor network more resilient to failures, reactive to events, and able to support disparate missions with a common set of sensors, yet the problem of security becomes more complicated. In order to address the issue of security in networks with mobile nodes, we propose a machine learning solution for anomaly detection along with the feature extraction process that tries to detect temporal and spatial inconsistencies in the sequences of sensed values and the routing paths used to forward these values to the base station. We also propose a special way to treat mobile nodes, which is the main novelty of this work. The data produced in the presence of an attacker are treated as outliers, and detected using clustering techniques. These techniques are further coupled with a reputation system, in this way isolating compromised nodes in timely fashion. The proposal exhibits good performances at detecting and confining previously unseen attacks, including the cases when mobile nodes are compromised. PMID:23112632

  17. Detecting unknown attacks in wireless sensor networks that contain mobile nodes.

    PubMed

    Banković, Zorana; Fraga, David; Moya, José M; Vallejo, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    As wireless sensor networks are usually deployed in unattended areas, security policies cannot be updated in a timely fashion upon identification of new attacks. This gives enough time for attackers to cause significant damage. Thus, it is of great importance to provide protection from unknown attacks. However, existing solutions are mostly concentrated on known attacks. On the other hand, mobility can make the sensor network more resilient to failures, reactive to events, and able to support disparate missions with a common set of sensors, yet the problem of security becomes more complicated. In order to address the issue of security in networks with mobile nodes, we propose a machine learning solution for anomaly detection along with the feature extraction process that tries to detect temporal and spatial inconsistencies in the sequences of sensed values and the routing paths used to forward these values to the base station. We also propose a special way to treat mobile nodes, which is the main novelty of this work. The data produced in the presence of an attacker are treated as outliers, and detected using clustering techniques. These techniques are further coupled with a reputation system, in this way isolating compromised nodes in timely fashion. The proposal exhibits good performances at detecting and confining previously unseen attacks, including the cases when mobile nodes are compromised.

  18. A comparison of bitemark injuries between fatal wolf and domestic dog attacks.

    PubMed

    Wong, J K; Blenkinsop, B; Sweet, J; Wood, R E

    1999-06-01

    Bitemark patterns in adult human victims following a fatal wolf pack attack and a domestic dog pack attack are compared. Both victims exhibited a concentration of wounds to the extremities, left and right torso, but not to the groin or internal organs. The neck and face of the domestic dog attack victim were primary sites of attack while the feral wolf pack victim was spared damage to the neck, but had facial tissue destroyed postmortem. Most punctures were found on the ventral aspect of the domestic victim and dorsal aspect of the feral victim. It is speculated that most wounds were attributable to dominant animals of both packs and in both victims and this suggests a co-ordination of activity between. Differences in bitemark patterns may well have been caused in part by differences in genetics, training, breeding, socialization and impetus of attack between wolves and dogs. Distinct differences in bitemark patterns were found in these two human victims of a wolf and domestic dog attacks.

  19. Do unexpected panic attacks occur spontaneously?

    PubMed

    Meuret, Alicia E; Rosenfield, David; Wilhelm, Frank H; Zhou, Enlu; Conrad, Ansgar; Ritz, Thomas; Roth, Walton T

    2011-11-15

    Spontaneous or unexpected panic attacks, per definition, occur "out of the blue," in the absence of cues or triggers. Accordingly, physiological arousal or instability should occur at the onset of, or during, the attack, but not preceding it. To test this hypothesis, we examined if points of significant autonomic changes preceded the onset of spontaneous panic attacks. Forty-three panic disorder patients underwent repeated 24-hour ambulatory monitoring. Thirteen natural panic attacks were recorded during 1960 hours of monitoring. Minute-by-minute epochs beginning 60 minutes before and continuing to 10 minutes after the onset of individual attacks were examined for respiration, heart rate, and skin conductance level. Measures were controlled for physical activity and vocalization and compared with time matched control periods within the same person. Significant patterns of instability across a number of autonomic and respiratory variables were detected as early as 47 minutes before panic onset. The final minutes before onset were dominated by respiratory changes, with significant decreases in tidal volume followed by abrupt carbon dioxide partial pressure increases. Panic attack onset was characterized by heart rate and tidal volume increases and a drop in carbon dioxide partial pressure. Symptom report was consistent with these changes. Skin conductance levels were generally elevated in the hour before, and during, the attacks. Changes in the matched control periods were largely absent. Significant autonomic irregularities preceded the onset of attacks that were reported as abrupt and unexpected. The findings invite reconsideration of the current diagnostic distinction between uncued and cued panic attacks. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. CPAD: Cyber-Physical Attack Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Ferragut, Erik M; Laska, Jason A

    2016-06-02

    The CPAD technology relates to anomaly detection and more specifically to cyber physical attack detection. It infers underlying physical relationships between components by analyzing the sensor measurements of a system. It then uses these measurements to detect signs of a non-physically realizable state, which is indicative of an integrity attack on the system. CPAD can be used on any highly-instrumented cyber-physical system to detect integrity attacks and identify the component or components compromised. It has applications to power transmission and distribution, nuclear and industrial plants, and complex vehicles.

  1. Study of Host-Based Cyber Attack Precursor Symptom Detection Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jae-Gu; Kim, Jong Hyun; Seo, Dongil; Soh, Wooyoung; Kim, Seoksoo

    Botnet-based cyber attacks cause large-scale damage with increasingly intelligent tools, which has called for varied research on bot detection. In this study, we developed a method of monitoring behaviors of host-based processes from the point that a bot header attempts to make zombie PCs, detecting cyber attack precursor symptoms. We designed an algorithm that figures out characteristics of botnet which attempts to launch malicious behaviors by means of signature registration, which is for process/reputation/network traffic/packet/source analysis and a white list, as a measure to respond to bots from the end point.

  2. Identifying positioning-based attacks against 3D printed objects and the 3D printing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2017-05-01

    Zeltmann, et al. demonstrated that structural integrity and other quality damage to objects can be caused by changing its position on a 3D printer's build plate. On some printers, for example, object surfaces and support members may be stronger when oriented parallel to the X or Y axis. The challenge presented by the need to assure 3D printed object orientation is that this can be altered in numerous places throughout the system. This paper considers attack scenarios and discusses where attacks that change printing orientation can occur in the process. An imaging-based solution to combat this problem is presented.

  3. After Cancer, Higher Risk of Severe Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... this type of heart attack, called ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). One in 10 had a history of ... that cancer survivors had a higher rate of heart attack, not all of those attacks proved fatal. In ...

  4. Trichobothrial mediation of an aquatic escape response: Directional jumps by the fishing spider, Dolomedes triton, foil frog attacks

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Robert. B.

    2003-01-01

    Fishing spiders (Pisauridae) frequent the surfaces of ponds and streams and thereby expose themselves to predation by a variety of aquatic and semi-aquatic vertebrates. To assess the possibility that the impressive jumps of fishing spiders from the water surface function in evading attacks by frogs, attacks by bullfrogs (Rana catesbiana) and green frogs (R. clamitans) on Dolomedes triton were studied. Both the attack dynamics of the frogs and the evasive behaviors of the spiders were recorded at 250 frames per second. A freeze-dried bullfrog, propelled toward spiders with acceleration, posture, and position that approximated the natural attack posture and dynamics, was used to assess the spiders' behavior. Qualitatively, the spiders responded to these mock-attacks just as they had to attacks by live frogs: jumping (N=29 jumps, 56.9% of instances), rearing the legs nearest the attacking frog (N=15, 29.4%), or showing no visible response (N=7, 13.7%). Spiders that jumped always did so away (in the vertical plane) from the attack (mean =137° vs. vertical at 90° or horizontally toward the frog at 0°). The involvement of the trichobothria (leg hairs sensitive to air movements), and the eyes as sensory mediators of the evasion response was assessed. Spiders with deactivated trichobothria were significantly impaired relative to intact and sham-deactivated spiders, and relative to spiders in total darkness. Thus, functional trichobothria, unlike the eyes, are both necessary and sufficient mediators of the evasion response. Measurements of air flow during frog attacks suggest that an exponential rise in flow velocity is the airborne signature of an attack. Abbreviation: a acceleration (m s−2) fps frames per second HS high-speed video v velocity (m s−1) PMID:15841235

  5. People with Increased Risk of Eye Damage from UV Light

    MedlinePlus

    ... With Increased Risk of Eye Damage from UV Light Written by: Shirley Dang Apr. 30, 2014 Everyone ... photosensitivity, though the reaction is rare. People with light-colored eyes Have blue or green eyes? Cover ...

  6. Developing a Media Moisture Threshold for Nurseries to Reduce Tree Stress and Ambrosia Beetle Attacks.

    PubMed

    Frank, Steven D; Ranger, Christopher M

    2016-08-01

    Exotic ambrosia beetles are among the most damaging pests of trees grown in nurseries. The primary pests Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motschulsky and Xylosandrus germanus Blandford use ethanol to locate vulnerable trees. Research, primarily with X. germanus, has shown that flood-stressed trees emit ethanol and are preferentially attacked by ambrosia beetles. Our goal was to develop a media (also called potting soil) moisture threshold as an integrated pest management (IPM) tactic and assess grower practices that lead to ambrosia beetle attacks. Flooded Cornus florida L., Cornus kousa Burg., and Magnolia grandiflora L. trees incurred more attacks than unflooded trees that were not attacked. To determine optimal media moisture levels, we grew flood-tolerant Acer rubrum L. and flood-intolerant C. florida in containers with 10, 30, 50, 70, or 90% media moisture. No flooded or unflooded A. rubrum were attacked. However, C. florida grown in 70 or 90% moisture were attacked and died, whereas trees at 30 and 50% moisture were not attacked. Thus, we suggest an upper moisture threshold of 50% when growing C. florida and other flood-intolerant trees. However, during peak ambrosia beetle flight activity in spring 2013 and 2014, we found that media moisture levels in commercial nurseries were often between 50 and 90%. Implementing a media moisture threshold, as a new IPM tool, could reduce ambrosia beetle attacks and the need for insecticide applications, which is currently the only available management tactic. Future research should focus on how changes in substrates, irrigation, and other practices could help growers meet this threshold. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Insect elicitors and exposure to green leafy volatiles differentially upregulate major octadecanoids and transcripts of 12-oxo phytodienoic acid reductases in Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Engelberth, Jürgen; Seidl-Adams, Irmgard; Schultz, Jack C; Tumlinson, James H

    2007-06-01

    The induction of jasmonic acid (JA) is one of the major signaling events in plants in response to insect herbivore damage and leads to the activation of direct and indirect defensive measures. Green leafy volatiles, which constitute a major portion of volatile organic compounds, often are released in response to insect herbivore attack and have been shown to significantly activate JA production in exposed corn (Zea mays) seedlings, thereby priming these plants specifically against subsequent herbivore attack. To explore the factors determining the specificity of the octadecanoid signaling pathway in corn, we analyzed qualitative and quantitative changes in major octadecanoids. The time course and the amount of induced JA and 12-oxophytodienoic acid levels in corn seedlings were strikingly different after wounding, application of caterpillar regurgitant, or treatment with cis-3-hexenyl acetate (Z-3-6:AC). Exposure to Z-3-6:AC induced accumulation of transcripts encoded by three putative 12-oxophytodienoate10,11-reductase genes (ZmOPR1/2, ZmOPR5, and ZmOPR8). Although changes in ZmOPR5 RNAs were detected only after exposure to Z-3-6:AC, ZmOPR1/2 RNAs and ZmOPR8 RNAs also were abundant after treatment with crude regurgitant elicitor or mechanical damage. The physiological implications of these findings in the context of plant-insect interactions are discussed.

  8. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-01-01

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction. PMID:27075559

  9. Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes complications - heart; Coronary artery disease - diabetes; CAD - diabetes; Cerebrovascular disease - diabetes ... People with diabetes have a higher chance of having heart attacks and strokes. Smoking and having high blood pressure and high ...

  10. Outdoor Air Pollution, Heart Attack and Stroke

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevated outdoor ambient air particle pollution triggers heart attacks, strokes, and abnormal heart rhythms and worsens heart failure in individuals at high risk due to underlying medical conditions. Emergency Medical Services in communities are the first responders to these eme...

  11. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-04-14

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction.

  12. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Attack Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Attack Symptoms Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... NHLBI has uncovered some of the causes of heart diseases and conditions, as well as ways to prevent ...

  13. Identifying and Analyzing Web Server Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, Christian; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.; Frincke, Deborah A.; Komisarczuk, Peter; Muschevici, Radu; Welch, Ian D.

    2008-08-29

    Abstract: Client honeypots can be used to identify malicious web servers that attack web browsers and push malware to client machines. Merely recording network traffic is insufficient to perform comprehensive forensic analyses of such attacks. Custom tools are required to access and analyze network protocol data. Moreover, specialized methods are required to perform a behavioral analysis of an attack, which helps determine exactly what transpired on the attacked system. This paper proposes a record/replay mechanism that enables forensic investigators to extract application data from recorded network streams and allows applications to interact with this data in order to conduct behavioral analyses. Implementations for the HTTP and DNS protocols are presented and their utility in network forensic investigations is demonstrated.

  14. On localization attacks against cloud infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Linqiang; Yu, Wei; Sistani, Mohammad Ali

    2013-05-01

    One of the key characteristics of cloud computing is the device and location independence that enables the user to access systems regardless of their location. Because cloud computing is heavily based on sharing resource, it is vulnerable to cyber attacks. In this paper, we investigate a localization attack that enables the adversary to leverage central processing unit (CPU) resources to localize the physical location of server used by victims. By increasing and reducing CPU usage through the malicious virtual machine (VM), the response time from the victim VM will increase and decrease correspondingly. In this way, by embedding the probing signal into the CPU usage and correlating the same pattern in the response time from the victim VM, the adversary can find the location of victim VM. To determine attack accuracy, we investigate features in both the time and frequency domains. We conduct both theoretical and experimental study to demonstrate the effectiveness of such an attack.

  15. Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162514.html Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain Virus can copy itself thousands ... New research paints a chilling portrait of how Zika ravages the infant brain. Scientists from the U.S. ...

  16. Evaluation of the Single Keybit Template Attack

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    27 v Page 3.5 Measures of Performance...17 MOP Measures of Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 x...include en- cryption standards, leakage models, correlation, classification theory, previous tem- plate attacks and measures of performance. 2.1

  17. Visualizing Risks: Icons for Information Attack Scenarios

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    Visualizing Risks : Icons for Information Attack Scenarios Hilary H. Hosmer Data Security, Inc. Bedford, MA 01730 Email: hosmer@datasecinc.com...and omissions, thus speeding up risk analysis, requirements gathering, safeguard selection, cryptographic protocol analysis, and INFOSEC training...

  18. Using agility to combat cyber attacks.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kerry

    2017-06-01

    Some incident response practitioners feel that they have been locked in a battle with cyber criminals since the popular adoption of the internet. Initially, organisations made great inroads in preventing and containing cyber attacks. In the last few years, however, cyber criminals have become adept at eluding defence security technologies and rapidly modifying their exploit strategies for financial or political gains. Similar to changes in military combat tactics, cyber criminals utilise distributed attack cells, real-time communications, and rapidly mutating exploits to minimise the potential for detection. Cyber criminals have changed their attack paradigm. This paper describes a new incident response paradigm aimed at combating the new model of cyber attacks with an emphasis on agility to increase the organisation's ability to respond rapidly to these new challenges.

  19. Integrated approach for investigating the durability of self-consolidating concrete to sulfate attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassuoni, Mohamed Tamer F.

    The growing use of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) in various infrastructure applications exposed to sulfate-rich environments necessitates conducting comprehensive research to evaluate its durability to external sulfate attack. Since the reliability and adequacy of standard sulfate immersion tests have been questioned, the current thesis introduced an integrated testing approach for assessing the durability of a wide scope of SCC mixtures to external sulfate attack. This testing approach involved progressive levels of complexity from single to multiple damage processes. A new series of sulfate attack tests involving multiple field-like parameters and combined damage mechanisms (various cations, controlled pH, wetting-drying, partial immersion, freezing-thawing, and cyclic cold-hot conditions with or without sustained flexural loading) were designed to evaluate the performance (suitability) of the SCC mixtures under various sulfate attack exposure scenarios. The main mixture design variables of SCC included the type of binder (single, binary, ternary and quaternary), air-entrainment, sand-to-aggregate mass ratio and hybrid fibre reinforcement. The comprehensive database and knowledge obtained from this research were used to develop smart models (fuzzy and neuro-fuzzy inference systems) based on artificial-intelligence to evaluate and predict the performance of the SCC mixtures under various sulfate attack exposure regimes implemented in this study. In full immersion tests involving high concentration sodium and magnesium sulfate solutions with controlled pH, the low penetrability of SCC was responsible for the high durability of specimens. Ternary and quaternary cementitious systems with or without limestone materials provided a passivating layer, with or without acid neutralization capacity, which protected SCC from severe damage in the aggressive sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate solutions. In contrast to conclusions drawn from the sodium sulfate immersion

  20. Panic attack history and smoking topography.

    PubMed

    Farris, Samantha G; Brown, Lily A; Goodwin, Renee D; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-02-01

    Little is known about panic attacks and puffing topography, a behavioral index of the value of smoking reinforcement. This study examined smoking style during the course of smoking of a single cigarette among adult daily smokers with and without a history of panic attacks. Participants (n=124, Mage=43.9, SD=9.7; 44.4% female) were non-treatment seeking daily smokers. Lifetime panic attack history was assessed via diagnostic assessment; 28.2% (n=35) of the sample had a panic attack history. Participants smoked one cigarette during an ad libitum smoking trial. Puff volume, duration, and inter-puff interval were measured using the Clinical Research Support System (CReSS) pocket device. Regression analyses revealed that panic attack status was not associated with significant differences in average puff volume, duration, or inter-puff interval. Multi-level modeling was used to examine puffing trajectories. Puff-level data revealed that there was a significant quadratic time x panic effect for puff volume and duration. Those with a panic attack history demonstrated relatively sustained levels of both puff volume and duration over time, whereas those without a history of panic attacks demonstrated an increase followed by a decrease in volume and duration over time. These effects were not accounted for by the presence of general psychopathology. Smokers with a panic attack history demonstrate more persistent efforts to self-regulate the delivery of nicotine, and thus may be at risk for continued smoking and dependence. Tailored treatment may be needed to address unique vulnerabilities among this group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cyber Security Audit and Attack Detection Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Dale

    2012-05-31

    This goal of this project was to develop cyber security audit and attack detection tools for industrial control systems (ICS). Digital Bond developed and released a tool named Bandolier that audits ICS components commonly used in the energy sector against an optimal security configuration. The Portaledge Project developed a capability for the PI Historian, the most widely used Historian in the energy sector, to aggregate security events and detect cyber attacks.

  2. Attack by Pyemotes johnmoseri (Acari: Pyemotidae)

    Treesearch

    Tulin Askit; Ibrahim Cakmak; John Moser

    2007-01-01

    The Aegean Region of Turkey is one of the largest dried fig producers in the world. A Turkish cultivar sarilop (Ficus carica cv. Calimyrna L.) possesses good qualities for drying process, and has been grown extensively for many years in Turkey. Hypoborus ficus is the most common xylophagous insect attacking fig trees in Aydin (Aks¸it et al. 2003). This pest attacks...

  3. Heart Attack - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arabic) النوبة القلبية - العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Heart Attack Srčani udar - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Heart Attack 心脏病发作 - 简体中文 (Chinese - ...

  4. Green tea and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Hyung; Bae, Jae-Hoon; Im, Sung-Soon; Song, Dae-Kyu

    2014-03-01

    Green tea and coffee consumption have been widely popular worldwide. These beverages contain caffeine to activate the central nervous system by adenosine receptor blockade, and due to the caffeine, addiction or tolerance may occur. In addition to this caffeine effect, green tea and coffee consumption have always been at the center of discussions about human health, disease, and longevity. In particular, green tea catechins are involved in many biological activities such as antioxidation and modulation of various cellular lipid and proteins. Thus, they are beneficial against degenerative diseases, including obesity, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and various inflammatory diseases. Some reports also suggest that daily consumption of tea catechins may help in controlling type 2 diabetes. However, other studies have reported that chronic consumption of green tea may result in hepatic failure, neuronal damage, and exacerbation of diabetes, suggesting that interindividual variations in the green tea effect are large. This review will focus on the effect of green tea catechins extracted from the Camellia sinensis plant on type 2 diabetes and obesity, and the possible mechanistic explanation for the experimental results mainly from our laboratory. It is hoped that green tea can be consumed in a suitable manner as a supplement to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes and obesity.

  5. Severe attacks by dogs: characteristics of the dogs, the victims, and the attack settings.

    PubMed

    Wright, J C

    1985-01-01

    Sixteen incidents involving dog bites fitting the description "severe" were identified among 5,711 dog bite incidents reported to health departments in five South Carolina counties (population 750,912 in 1980) between July 1, 1979, and June 30, 1982. A "severe" attack was defined as one in which the dog "repeatedly bit or vigorously shook its victim, and the victim or the person intervening had extreme difficulty terminating the attack." Information from health department records was clarified by interviews with animal control officers, health and police officials, and persons with firsthand knowledge of the events. Investigation disclosed that the dogs involved in the 16 severe attacks were reproductively intact males. The median age of the dogs was 3 years. A majority of the attacks were by American Staffordshire terriers, St. Bernards, and cocker spaniels. Ten of the dogs had been aggressive toward people or other dogs before the incident that was investigated. Ten of the 16 victims of severe attacks were 10 years of age or younger; the median age of all 16 victims was 8 years. Twelve of the victims either were members of the family that owned the attacking dog or had had contact with the dog before the attack. Eleven of the victims were bitten on the head, neck, or shoulders. In 88 percent of the cases, the attacks took place in the owner's yard or home, or in the adjoining yard. In 10 of the 16 incidents, members of the victims' families witnessed the attacks. The characteristics of these attacks, only one of which proved fatal, were similar in many respects to those that have been reported for other dog bite incidents that resulted in fatalities. On the basis of this study, the author estimates that a risk of 2 fatalities per 1,000 reported dog bites may exist nationwide. Suggestions made for the prevention of severe attacks focus on changing the behavior of both potential canine attackers and potential victims.

  6. Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Right Hemisphere Brain Damage [ en Español ] What is right hemisphere brain ... right hemisphere brain damage ? What is right hemisphere brain damage? Right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) is damage ...

  7. Safety assessment of green tea based beverages and dried green tea extracts as nutritional supplements.

    PubMed

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Fujii, Kenkichi; Shibata, Eiichiro; Morita, Osamu; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2017-08-05

    The safety of green tea infusions and green tea extract (GTE)-based products is reviewed regarding catechins. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin present in green tea, is suspected of being responsible for liver toxicity reported in humans consuming food supplements. Intake of EGCG with green tea infusions and GTE-based beverages is up to about 450mg EGCG/person/day in Europe and higher in Asia. Consumption of green tea is not associated with liver damage in humans, and green tea infusion and GTE-based beverages are considered safe in the range of historical uses. In animal studies, EGCG's potency for liver effects is highly dependent on conditions of administration. Use of NOAELs from bolus administration to derive a tolerable upper intake level applying the margin of safety concept results in acceptable EGCG-doses lower than those from one cup of green tea. NOAELs from toxicity studies applying EGCG with diet/split of the daily dose are a better point of departure for risk characterization. In clinical intervention studies, liver effects were not observed after intakes below 600mg EGCG/person/day. Thus, a tolerable upper intake level of 300mg EGCG/person/day is proposed for food supplements; this gives a twofold safety margin to clinical studies that did not report liver effects and a margin of safety of 100 to the NOAELs in animal studies with dietary administration of green tea catechins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Detecting Sirex noctilio grey-attacked and lightning-struck pine trees using airborne hyperspectral data, random forest and support vector machines classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Rahman, Elfatih M.; Mutanga, Onisimo; Adam, Elhadi; Ismail, Riyad

    2014-02-01

    The visual progression of sirex (Sirex noctilio) infestation symptoms has been categorized into three distinct infestation phases, namely the green, red and grey stages. The grey stage is the final stage which leads to almost complete defoliation resulting in dead standing trees or snags. Dead standing pine trees however, could also be due to the lightning damage. Hence, the objective of the present study was to distinguish amongst healthy, sirex grey-attacked and lightning-damaged pine trees using AISA Eagle hyperspectral data, random forest (RF) and support vector machines (SVM) classifiers. Our study also presents an opportunity to look at the possibility of separating amongst the previously mentioned pine trees damage classes and other landscape classes on the study area. The results of the present study revealed the robustness of the two machine learning classifiers with an overall accuracy of 74.50% (total disagreement = 26%) for RF and 73.50% (total disagreement = 27%) for SVM using all the remaining AISA Eagle spectral bands after removing the noisy ones. When the most useful spectral bands as measured by RF were exploited, the overall accuracy was considerably improved; 78% (total disagreement = 22%) for RF and 76.50% (total disagreement = 24%) for SVM. There was no significant difference between the performances of the two classifiers as demonstrated by the results of McNemar's test (chi-squared; χ2 = 0.14, and 0.03 when all the remaining ASIA Eagle wavebands, after removing the noisy ones and the most important wavebands were used, respectively). This study concludes that AISA Eagle data classified using RF and SVM algorithms provide relatively accurate information that is important to the forest industry for making informed decision regarding pine plantations health protocols.

  9. Green Power Partnership 100 Green Power Users

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners on this list use green power to meet 100 of their U.S. organization-wide electricity use.

  10. Fertile green: green facilitates creative performance.

    PubMed

    Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Elliot, Andrew J; Maier, Markus A; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2012-06-01

    The present research sought to extend the nascent literature on color and psychological functioning by examining whether perception of the color green facilitates creativity. In four experiments, we demonstrated that a brief glimpse of green prior to a creativity task enhances creative performance. This green effect was observed using both achromatic (white, gray) and chromatic (red, blue) contrast colors that were carefully matched on nonhue properties, and using both picture-based and word-based assessments of creativity. Participants were not aware of the purpose of the experiment, and null effects were obtained on participants' self-reported mood and positive activation. These findings indicate that green has implications beyond aesthetics and suggest the need for sustained empirical work on the functional meaning of green.

  11. Green Power Partner List

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  12. Urban Greening Bay Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  13. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The CAFE Green Flight Challenge sponsored by Google will be held at the CAFE Foundation Flight Test Center at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. The Green Flight Challeng...

  14. What Is Green Power?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership defines Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit.

  15. Green Infrastructure Modeling Tools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Modeling tools support planning and design decisions on a range of scales from setting a green infrastructure target for an entire watershed to designing a green infrastructure practice for a particular site.

  16. Green Power Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  17. Green Power Community Benefits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Learn more about becoming a Green Power Community, including recognition opportunities.

  18. Green Power Markets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership defines Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit.

  19. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure, such as rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns, and constructed wetlands, is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff that flows into wastewater treatment plants or into waterbodies...

  20. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure, such as rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns, and constructed wetlands, is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff that flows into wastewater treatment plants or into waterbodies...

  1. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit is a toolkit of 5 EPA green infrastructure models and tools, along with communication materials, that can be used as a teaching tool and a quick reference resource when making GI implementation decisions.

  2. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  3. A Game Theoretic Approach to Cyber Attack Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Liu

    2005-11-28

    The area investigated by this project is cyber attack prediction. With a focus on correlation-based prediction, current attack prediction methodologies overlook the strategic nature of cyber attack-defense scenarios. As a result, current cyber attack prediction methodologies are very limited in predicting strategic behaviors of attackers in enforcing nontrivial cyber attacks such as DDoS attacks, and may result in low accuracy in correlation-based predictions. This project develops a game theoretic framework for cyber attack prediction, where an automatic game-theory-based attack prediction method is proposed. Being able to quantitatively predict the likelihood of (sequences of) attack actions, our attack prediction methodology can predict fine-grained strategic behaviors of attackers and may greatly improve the accuracy of correlation-based prediction. To our best knowledge, this project develops the first comprehensive framework for incentive-based modeling and inference of attack intent, objectives, and strategies; and this project develops the first method that can predict fine-grained strategic behaviors of attackers. The significance of this research and the benefit to the public can be demonstrated to certain extent by (a) the severe threat of cyber attacks to the critical infrastructures of the nation, including many infrastructures overseen by the Department of Energy, (b) the importance of cyber security to critical infrastructure protection, and (c) the importance of cyber attack prediction to achieving cyber security.

  4. Who Is at Risk for a Heart Attack?

    MedlinePlus

    ... explains how a heart attack occurs and encourages women to seek care right away for heart attack symptoms. For more information, visit www.hearttruth.gov or the Health Topics Heart Attack and Heart Disease in Women articles. What is a heart attack? 05/22/ ...

  5. What Are the Symptoms of a Heart Attack?

    MedlinePlus

    ... explains how a heart attack occurs and encourages women to seek care right away for heart attack symptoms. For more information, visit www.hearttruth.gov or the Health Topics Heart Attack and Heart Disease in Women articles. What is a heart attack? 05/22/ ...

  6. Know the Warning Signs of a Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... No. 22 Know the Warning Signs of a Heart Attack What is a heart attack? Aheart attack happens when the blood vessels that ... hurting your heart muscle. Another name for a heart attack is myocardial infarction, or MI. If you have ...

  7. Does tent caterpillar attack reduce the food quality of red alder foliage?

    PubMed

    Myers, Judith H; Williams, Kathy S

    1984-04-01

    We assayed the quality of red alder trees for western tent caterpillar growth and survival to test the hypothesis that caterpillar feeding stimulates plant defenses in both attacked and adjacent trees. Three years of high tent caterpillar density were necessary before deterioration in foliage quality occurred, and even then only foliage from trees which were almost completely defoliated in the current year reduced the growth of caterpillars. Both tent size and mean egg mass size increased after the second year of high density which indicates that good conditions still existed for tent caterpillars after 2 to 3 years of heavy feeding.Egg masses which were moved to areas where trees had not recently supported a high caterpillar population produced significantly smaller tents than endemic controls in 1982. Therefore the small tent and egg mass size of the high density population in 1982 was inherent to the insects rather than modified by food source. In 1983 the tents from introduced egg masses were as large as naturally occurring tents.If lightly attacked trees within areas of high caterpillar density are better defended against insect attack, this does not show up in their ability to support caterpillar growth and survival. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that trees communicate insect attack and stimulate chemical defenses in adjacent trees. Reduced foliage quality seems to be a result of extensive insect damage rather than a defense against insect damage.

  8. Performance Evaluation of AODV with Blackhole Attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dara, Karuna

    2010-11-01

    A Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a temporary network set up by a wireless mobile computers moving arbitrary in the places that have no network infrastructure. These nodes maintain connectivity in a decentralized manner. Since the nodes communicate with each other, they cooperate by forwarding data packets to other nodes in the network. Thus the nodes find a path to the destination node using routing protocols. However, due to security vulnerabilities of the routing protocols, mobile ad-hoc networks are unprotected to attacks of the malicious nodes. One of these attacks is the Black Hole Attack against network integrity absorbing all data packets in the network. Since the data packets do not reach the destination node on account of this attack, data loss will occur. In this paper, we simulated the black hole attack in various mobile ad-hoc network scenarios using AODV routing protocol of MANET and have tried to find a effect if number of nodes are increased with increase in malicious nodes.

  9. Periorbital trauma from pit bull terrier attacks.

    PubMed

    Wladis, Edward J; Dewan, Mohit A

    2012-06-01

    To report the nature of periorbital trauma after pit bull attacks. While these attacks have been well-characterized in the popular media, no case series has documented the ophthalmic manifestations of this trauma. We retrospectively reviewed all cases of pit bull terrier attacks that presented to the oculoplastic and orbital surgery service at Albany Medical Center between 2008 and 2011. The age, gender, extent of the injuries, care provided, follow up interval, and complication rate were evaluated for each patient. Seven patients were identified, with a mean age of 17.2 years. Six of the seven patients were in the pediatric age group. All patients suffered eyelid lacerations, and only one patient had additional injuries. Four patients (57.2%) suffered a canalicular laceration. Despite the lack of post-operative oral antibiotic use, no patient developed a wound infection. In the ophthalmic setting, pit bull terrier attacks most frequently involve children and result in eyelid lacerations. Canalicular injuries are common after these attacks.

  10. Subclinical endophthalmitis following a rooster attack.

    PubMed

    Lekse Kovach, Jaclyn; Maguluri, Srilakshmi; Recchia, Franco M

    2006-12-01

    Ocular injury resulting from rooster attacks is rarely reported in the literature. Sadly, the target of these attacks is most often children younger than 3 years old, whose naiveté of the aggressive, territorial behavior of birds can place them at risk. Acute sequelae of these attacks can result in a lifetime of visual impairment. The possibility of a subacute or occult infection is an unusual occurrence that must always be considered. In an effort to prevent future attacks and ocular casualties, we present a case of a 12-month-old boy who suffered an open globe following a rooster attack. The open globe was emergently repaired. One week later, a white cataract was noticed on examination in the absence of systemic or ocular signs of inflammation. Traumatic endophthalmitis and lenticular abscess were suspected during examination under anesthesia. Vitrectomy, lensectomy, and injection of intravitreal antibiotics were performed. Culture of lenticular and vitreous aspirates grew alpha-streptococcus. Alpha-streptococcal endophthalmitis can result from ocular injuries caused by rooster pecking. The infection may present insidiously and without typical ocular or systemic symptoms or signs. Management is challenging and may require surgery.

  11. High angle of attack hypersonic aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harloff, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    A new aerodynamics force model is presented which is based on modified Newtonian theory and empirical correlations. The algebraic model was developed for complete vehicles from take off to orbital speeds and for large angles of attack. Predictions are compared to results for a wind tunnel model at a Mach number of 20, and the full scale Shuttle Orbiter for Mach numbers from 0.25 to 20 for angles of attack from 0 to 50 deg. The maximum shuttle orbiter lift/drag at Mach 10 and 20 is 1.85 at 20-deg angle-of-attack. Aerodynamic force predictions are made for a transatmospheric vehicle, which is a derivative of the Shuttle Orbiter, for Mach numbers from 4 to 27 at angles of attack from 5 to 40 deg. Predicted aerodynamic force data indicate that lift/drag ratios of 5.2 at Mach number 10 and 3.6 at Mach number 26 are obtainable. Changes in force coefficients with changes in: nose angle, sweep angle, and (volume exp 2/3)/planform area are quantified for Mach numbers of 10 and 26. Lift/drag ratios increase with decreasing nose angle and (volume exp 2/3)/planform area and increasing wing sweep angle. Lift/drag ratios are independent of these variables for angles of attack in excess of 20 deg at Mach 10 and 30 deg at Mach 26.

  12. [Hyperventilation: not a cause of panic attacks].

    PubMed

    Spinhoven, P; Onstein, E J; Sterk, P J

    1993-11-06

    To investigate the importance of hyperventilation in the pathogenesis of panic attacks. Descriptive. The Jelgersma Outpatient Clinic at Oegstgeest and the University Hospital Leiden, the Netherlands. In 57 psychiatric patients with a panic disorder and 96 somatic patients with unexplained somatic complaints suggestive of hyperventilation, a Hyperventilation Provocation Test (HVPT) was conducted. Of the somatic patients, 33 had recently experienced a panic attack. During the test, various physiological and symptom criteria for the Hyperventilation Syndrome were assessed. Several measures for concomitant psychopathology were collected as well. No significant differences were found in physiological criteria for the Hyperventilation Syndrome between psychiatric patients with a panic disorder (PD) and somatic patients with (PA+) or without (PA-) a recent panic attack. On all symptom criteria, however, PD and PA+ patients obtained comparable scores, while both groups scored higher than PA- patients. On most measures for concomitant psychopathology, PD patients scored higher than PA+ patients, who on their part scored higher than PA- patients. Hyperventilation is of secondary importance in the pathogenesis of panic attacks and an early diagnosis of panic attacks or panic disorder may be conducive to more adequate treatment.

  13. Individual triptan selection in migraine attack therapy.

    PubMed

    Belvís, Robert; Pagonabarraga, Javier; Kulisevsky, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    About 6% of men and 18% of women suffer migraine attacks. Migraine can induce a great impact in the quality of life of the patient and the costs of medical care and lost productivity can be also high. There are two therapeutic approaches in the treatment of migraine: preventive therapy and acute treatment of migraine attack. Immediate treatment with selective serotonin [5-HT1B/1T] receptor agonists (so-called triptans) is the first-line option in the acute treatment of moderate-severe migraine attacks. The introduction in early nineties of triptans was a revolution in migraine therapy and evidences about their efficacy are at present irrefutable. At the moment, there are seven marketed molecules: sumatriptan, rizatriptan, zolmitriptan, eletriptan, naratriptan, almotriptan and frovatriptan. Obviously, every molecule has different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodinamic properties and, moreover, some triptans have several formulations: tablets, dissolvable tablets, nasal and injections. The prescription of one of these seven triptans for a specified patient is based in the drug profile: efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Despite there are a lot of published studies using triptans, no clinical trial has analyzed all the molecules at the same time. Other data to take account in the final prescription are clinical characteristics of the migraine attack and patient characteristics: labour aspects, style of life and the patient medical history. We present a state-of-the-art of the triptan selection in treatment of moderate-severe migraine attacks.

  14. Damage-tolerance strategies for nacre tablets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengnan; Zhu, Xinqiao; Li, Qiyang; Wang, Rizhi; Wang, Xiaoxiang

    2016-05-01

    Nacre, a natural armor, exhibits prominent penetration resistance against predatory attacks. Unraveling its hierarchical toughening mechanisms and damage-tolerance design strategies may provide significant inspiration for the pursuit of high-performance artificial armors. In this work, relationships between the structure and mechanical performance of nacre were investigated. The results show that other than their brick-and-mortar structure, individual nacre tablets significantly contribute to the damage localization of nacre. Affected by intracrystalline organics, the tablets exhibit a unique fracture behavior. The synergistic action of the nanoscale deformation mechanisms increases the energy dissipation efficiency of the tablets and contributes to the preservation of the structural and functional integrity of the shell.

  15. LED-Induced fluorescence and image analysis to detect stink bug damage in cotton bolls

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stink bugs represent a major agricultural pest complex attacking more than 200 wild and cultivated plants, including cotton in the southeastern US. Stink bug feeding on developing cotton bolls will cause boll abortion or lint staining and thus reduced yield and lint value. Current methods for stink bug detection involve manual harvesting and cracking open of a sizable number of immature cotton bolls for visual inspection. This process is cumbersome, time consuming, and requires a moderate level of experience to obtain accurate estimates. To improve detection of stink bug feeding, we present here a method based on fluorescent imaging and subsequent image analyses to determine the likelihood of stink bug damage in cotton bolls. Results Damage to different structures of cotton bolls including lint and carpal wall can be observed under blue LED-induced fluorescence. Generally speaking, damaged regions fluoresce green, whereas non-damaged regions with chlorophyll fluoresce red. However, similar fluorescence emission is also observable on cotton bolls that have not been fed upon by stink bugs. Criteria based on fluorescent intensity and the size of the fluorescent spot allow to differentiate between true positives (fluorescent regions associated with stink bug feeding) and false positives (fluorescent regions due to other causes). We found a detection rates with two combined criteria of 87% for true-positive marks and of 8% for false-positive marks. Conclusions The imaging technique presented herein gives rise to a possible detection apparatus where a cotton boll is imaged in the field and images processed by software. The unique fluorescent signature left by stink bugs can be used to determine with high probability if a cotton boll has been punctured by a stink bug. We believe this technique, when integrated in a suitable device, could be used for more accurate detection in the field and allow for more optimized application of pest control. PMID:23421982

  16. LED-Induced fluorescence and image analysis to detect stink bug damage in cotton bolls.

    PubMed

    Mustafic, Adnan; Roberts, Erin E; Toews, Michael D; Haidekker, Mark A

    2013-02-20

    Stink bugs represent a major agricultural pest complex attacking more than 200 wild and cultivated plants, including cotton in the southeastern US. Stink bug feeding on developing cotton bolls will cause boll abortion or lint staining and thus reduced yield and lint value. Current methods for stink bug detection involve manual harvesting and cracking open of a sizable number of immature cotton bolls for visual inspection. This process is cumbersome, time consuming, and requires a moderate level of experience to obtain accurate estimates. To improve detection of stink bug feeding, we present here a method based on fluorescent imaging and subsequent image analyses to determine the likelihood of stink bug damage in cotton bolls. Damage to different structures of cotton bolls including lint and carpal wall can be observed under blue LED-induced fluorescence. Generally speaking, damaged regions fluoresce green, whereas non-damaged regions with chlorophyll fluoresce red. However, similar fluorescence emission is also observable on cotton bolls that have not been fed upon by stink bugs. Criteria based on fluorescent intensity and the size of the fluorescent spot allow to differentiate between true positives (fluorescent regions associated with stink bug feeding) and false positives (fluorescent regions due to other causes). We found a detection rates with two combined criteria of 87% for true-positive marks and of 8% for false-positive marks. The imaging technique presented herein gives rise to a possible detection apparatus where a cotton boll is imaged in the field and images processed by software. The unique fluorescent signature left by stink bugs can be used to determine with high probability if a cotton boll has been punctured by a stink bug. We believe this technique, when integrated in a suitable device, could be used for more accurate detection in the field and allow for more optimized application of pest control.

  17. Vulnerability analysis and critical areas identification of the power systems under terrorist attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuliang; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Mingwei; Min, Xu

    2017-05-01

    This paper takes central China power grid (CCPG) as an example, and analyzes the vulnerability of the power systems under terrorist attacks. To simulate the intelligence of terrorist attacks, a method of critical attack area identification according to community structures is introduced. Meanwhile, three types of vulnerability models and the corresponding vulnerability metrics are given for comparative analysis. On this basis, influence of terrorist attacks on different critical areas is studied. Identifying the vulnerability of different critical areas will be conducted. At the same time, vulnerabilities of critical areas under different tolerance parameters and different vulnerability models are acquired and compared. Results show that only a few number of vertex disruptions may cause some critical areas collapse completely, they can generate great performance losses the whole systems. Further more, the variation of vulnerability values under different scenarios is very large. Critical areas which can cause greater damage under terrorist attacks should be given priority of protection to reduce vulnerability. The proposed method can be applied to analyze the vulnerability of other infrastructure systems, they can help decision makers search mitigation action and optimum protection strategy.

  18. Modeling Resources Allocation in Attacker-Defender Games with "Warm Up" CSF.

    PubMed

    Guan, Peiqiu; Zhuang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Like many other engineering investments, the attacker's and defender's investments may have limited impact without initial capital to "warm up" the systems. This article studies such "warm up" effects on both the attack and defense equilibrium strategies in a sequential-move game model by developing a class of novel and more realistic contest success functions. We first solve a single-target attacker-defender game analytically and provide numerical solutions to a multiple-target case. We compare the results of the models with and without consideration of the investment "warm up" effects, and find that the defender would suffer higher expected damage, and either underestimate the attacker effort or waste defense investment if the defender falsely believes that no investment "warm up" effects exist. We illustrate the model results with real data, and compare the results of the models with and without consideration of the correlation between the "warm up" threshold and the investment effectiveness. Interestingly, we find that the defender is suggested to give up defending all the targets when the attack or the defense "warm up" thresholds are sufficiently high. This article provides new insights and suggestions on policy implications for homeland security resource allocation.

  19. The impact of neoliberal "political attack" on health: the case of the "Scottish effect".

    PubMed

    Collins, Chik; McCartney, Gerry

    2011-01-01

    The health impact of neoliberal "shock treatment" has been explored in relation to the former USSR, but much remains to be done to ascertain its impact elsewhere. The authors consider the "Scottish Effect" in health-the unexplained excess mortality in Scotland, compared with the rest of Britain, after accounting for deprivation. A prevalent but as yet untested view is that this effect is linked to the neoliberal "political attack" against the organized working class, implemented by the post-1979 U.K. Conservative governments. The article begins to develop and test this view in the form of a "political attack hypothesis". It shows how the west of Scotland became a particular target for the political attack planned by the U.K. Conservative Party prior to its election in 1979; outlines how such an attack might affect health; and shows that after 1979 the United Kingdom as a whole was exposed to neoliberalism in a way other European nations were not and, crucially, that the west of Scotland was more vulnerable to its damaging effects than other U.K. regions. The authors conclude that it is now appropriate to explore more fully the role of neoliberal political attack in creating the "Scottish Effect" in health.

  20. Green Streets Help Baltimore, Others

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fifteen Green Streets, Green Towns, Green Jobs (G3) grants for will support projects in three states, including the conversion of hard surfaces to green space at Sarah’s Hope, a homeless shelter in a troubled Baltimore neighborhood.

  1. Green Power Communities Brochure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Green Power Communities Brochure provides basic information about GPP's Green Power Communities (GPCs). The four-page brochure includes information about how to become a GPC, the benefits of procuring green power, and examples of how current GPCs are u

  2. Show Me the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Gone are the days when green campus initiatives were a balm to the soul and a drain on the wallet. Today's environmental initiatives are all about saving lots of green--in every sense of the word. The environmental benefits of green campus projects--whether wind turbines or better insulation--are pretty clear. Unfortunately, in today's…

  3. The Green Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  4. In the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Education officials used to debate whether they could afford to pursue green design and construction. Now the green movement has gained a foothold not just in education, but in society at large, and the prevailing attitude seems to have shifted. Can schools afford "not" to go green? As budgets are slashed repeatedly, education administrators must…

  5. EPA's Green Roof Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  6. What Is Green?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokrandt, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Green is a question with varying answers and sometimes no answer at all. It is a question of location, resources, people, environment, and money. As green really has no end point, a teacher's goal should be to teach students to question and consider green. In this article, the author provides several useful metrics to help technology teachers…

  7. Show Me the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Gone are the days when green campus initiatives were a balm to the soul and a drain on the wallet. Today's environmental initiatives are all about saving lots of green--in every sense of the word. The environmental benefits of green campus projects--whether wind turbines or better insulation--are pretty clear. Unfortunately, in today's…

  8. Public Libraries Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Going green is now a national issue, and patrons expect their library to respond in the same way many corporations have. Libraries are going green with logos on their Web sites, programs for the public, and a host of other initiatives. This is the first book to focus strictly on the library's role in going green, helping you with: (1) Collection…

  9. In the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Education officials used to debate whether they could afford to pursue green design and construction. Now the green movement has gained a foothold not just in education, but in society at large, and the prevailing attitude seems to have shifted. Can schools afford "not" to go green? As budgets are slashed repeatedly, education administrators must…

  10. The Green Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  11. EPA's Green Roof Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  12. What Is Green?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokrandt, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Green is a question with varying answers and sometimes no answer at all. It is a question of location, resources, people, environment, and money. As green really has no end point, a teacher's goal should be to teach students to question and consider green. In this article, the author provides several useful metrics to help technology teachers…

  13. Public Libraries Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Going green is now a national issue, and patrons expect their library to respond in the same way many corporations have. Libraries are going green with logos on their Web sites, programs for the public, and a host of other initiatives. This is the first book to focus strictly on the library's role in going green, helping you with: (1) Collection…

  14. Attack-tolerant networked control system: an approach for detection the controller stealthy hijacking attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atta Yaseen, Amer; Bayart, Mireille

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a new approach will be introduced as a development for the attack-tolerant scheme in the Networked Control System (NCS). The objective is to be able to detect an attack such as the Stuxnet case where the controller is reprogrammed and hijacked. Besides the ability to detect the stealthy controller hijacking attack, the advantage of this approach is that there is no need for a priori mathematical model of the controller. In order to implement the proposed scheme, a specific detector for the controller hijacking attack is designed. The performance of this scheme is evaluated be connected the detector to NCS with basic security elements such as Data Encryption Standard (DES), Message Digest (MD5), and timestamp. The detector is tested along with networked PI controller under stealthy hijacking attack. The test results of the proposed method show that the hijacked controller can be significantly detected and recovered.

  15. Distance Bounding Protocols: Authentication Logic Analysis and Collusion Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    than preventing or deterring, collusion attacks. We show that colluding verifiers who are capable of implementing wormhole attacks can defeat even...away. We will illustrate this using (a) standard collusion and also (b) wormhole in Figure 2. A wormhole attack is one in which a fast link is set up...be- tween the victims and an attacker who is outside of the normal range. The wormhole attack may appear to be an overkill for this problem since

  16. Discovering Collaborative Cyber Attack Patterns Using Social Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Haitao; Yang, Shanchieh Jay

    This paper investigates collaborative cyber attacks based on social network analysis. An Attack Social Graph (ASG) is defined to represent cyber attacks on the Internet. Features are extracted from ASGs to analyze collaborative patterns. We use principle component analysis to reduce the feature space, and hierarchical clustering to group attack sources that exhibit similar behavior. Experiments with real world data illustrate that our framework can effectively reduce from large dataset to clusters of attack sources exhibiting critical collaborative patterns.

  17. Quantifying Mixed Uncertainties in Cyber Attacker Payoffs

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Samrat; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Tipireddy, Ramakrishna; Oster, Matthew R.; Saha, Sudip

    2015-04-15

    Representation and propagation of uncertainty in cyber attacker payoffs is a key aspect of security games. Past research has primarily focused on representing the defender’s beliefs about attacker payoffs as point utility estimates. More recently, within the physical security domain, attacker payoff uncertainties have been represented as Uniform and Gaussian probability distributions, and intervals. Within cyber-settings, continuous probability distributions may still be appropriate for addressing statistical (aleatory) uncertainties where the defender may assume that the attacker’s payoffs differ over time. However, systematic (epistemic) uncertainties may exist, where the defender may not have sufficient knowledge or there is insufficient information about the attacker’s payoff generation mechanism. Such epistemic uncertainties are more suitably represented as probability boxes with intervals. In this study, we explore the mathematical treatment of such mixed payoff uncertainties.

  18. Robustness of interdependent networks under targeted attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xuqing; Gao, Jianxi; Buldyrev, Sergey; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-02-01

    When an initial failure of nodes occurs in interdependent networks, a cascade of failure between the networks occurs. Earlier studies focused on random initial failures. Here we study the robustness of interdependent networks under targeted attack on high or low degree nodes. We introduce a general technique which maps the targeted-attack problem in interdependent networks to the random-attack problem in a transformed pair of interdependent networks. We find that when the highly connected nodes are protected and have lower probability to fail, in contrast to single scale-free (SF) networks where the percolation threshold pc=0, coupled SF networks are significantly more vulnerable with pc significantly larger than zero. The result implies that interdependent networks are difficult to defend by strategies such as protecting the high degree nodes that have been found useful to significantly improve robustness of single networks.

  19. Robustness of interdependent networks under targeted attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xuqing; Gao, Jianxi; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-06-01

    When an initial failure of nodes occurs in interdependent networks, a cascade of failure between the networks occurs. Earlier studies focused on random initial failures. Here we study the robustness of interdependent networks under targeted attack on high or low degree nodes. We introduce a general technique which maps the targeted-attack problem in interdependent networks to the random-attack problem in a transformed pair of interdependent networks. We find that when the highly connected nodes are protected and have lower probability to fail, in contrast to single scale-free (SF) networks where the percolation threshold pc=0, coupled SF networks are significantly more vulnerable with pc significantly larger than zero. The result implies that interdependent networks are difficult to defend by strategies such as protecting the high degree nodes that have been found useful to significantly improve robustness of single networks.

  20. BFT replication resistant to MAC attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbierski, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    Over the last decade numerous Byzantine fault-tolerant (BFT) replication protocols have been proposed in the literature. However, the vast majority of these solutions reuse the same authentication scheme, which makes them susceptible to a so called MAC attack. Such vulnerability enables malicious clients to undetectably prevent the replicated service from processing incoming client requests, and consequently making it permanently unavailable. While some BFT protocols attempted to address this issue by using different authentication mechanisms, they at the same time significantly degraded the performance achieved in correct environments. This article presents a novel adaptive authentication mechanism which can be combined with practically any Byzantine fault-tolerant replication protocol. Unlike previous solutions, the proposed scheme dynamically switches between two operation modes to combine high performance in correct environments and liveness during MAC attacks. The experiment results presented in the article demonstrate that the proposed mechanism can sufficiently tolerate MAC attacks without introducing any observable overhead whenever no faults are present.

  1. A Traceability Attack against e-Passports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chothia, Tom; Smirnov, Vitaliy

    Since 2004, many nations have started issuing "e-passports" containing an RFID tag that, when powered, broadcasts information. It is claimed that these passports are more secure and that our data will be protected from any possible unauthorised attempts to read it. In this paper we show that there is a flaw in one of the passport's protocols that makes it possible to trace the movements of a particular passport, without having to break the passport's cryptographic key. All an attacker has to do is to record one session between the passport and a legitimate reader, then by replaying a particular message, the attacker can distinguish that passport from any other. We have implemented our attack and tested it successfully against passports issued by a range of nations.

  2. Responding to chemical attack. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bagley, R.W.

    1991-02-11

    In view of Iraq's stated intention of using chemical weapons in the Persian Gulf War, the Coalition forces must be prepared to respond. Iraq is capable of conducting such an attack. While the use of chemical weapons may not be militarily significant, the political effect of the use and the response to it may be very significant. Responses including the use of chemical and nuclear weapons are assessed in terms of their legality, political cost, and military effectiveness and found unacceptable. Reliance on diplomatic protests and on post-war criminal sanctions are judged ineffective. A response in the form of increased conventional attack on the Iraqi chemical infrastructure is recommended because that response will preserve the present Coalition, effectively counter the chemical attack, contribute to regional stability, and enhance the reputation of the United States for lawfulness and dependability.

  3. Identifying inference attacks against healthcare data repositories

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Jaideep; Shafiq, Basit; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    Health care data repositories play an important role in driving progress in medical research. Finding new pathways to discovery requires having adequate data and relevant analysis. However, it is critical to ensure the privacy and security of the stored data. In this paper, we identify a dangerous inference attack against naive suppression based approaches that are used to protect sensitive information. We base our attack on the querying system provided by the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, though it applies in general to any medical database providing a query capability. We also discuss potential solutions to this problem. PMID:24303279

  4. Predation: Prey plumage adaptation against falcon attack.

    PubMed

    Palleroni, Alberto; Miller, Cory T; Hauser, Marc; Marler, Peter

    2005-04-21

    Several plumage types are found in feral pigeons (Columba livia), but one type imparts a clear survival advantage during attacks by the swiftest of all predators--the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). Here we use quantitative field observations and experiments to demonstrate both the selective nature of the falcon's choice of prey and the effect of plumage coloration on the survival of feral pigeons. This plumage colour is an independently heritable trait that is likely to be an antipredator adaptation against high-speed attacks in open air space.

  5. Attacks and infections in percolation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Hans-Karl; Stenull, Olaf

    2017-08-01

    We discuss attacks and infections at propagating fronts of percolation processes based on the extended general epidemic process. The scaling behavior of the number of the attacked and infected sites in the long time limit at the ordinary and tricritical percolation transitions is governed by specific composite operators of the field-theoretic representation of this process. We calculate corresponding critical exponents for tricritical percolation in mean-field theory and for ordinary percolation to 1-loop order. Our results agree well with the available numerical data.

  6. A treatment for the acute migraine attack.

    PubMed

    Adam, E I

    1987-01-01

    A compound analgesic/anti-emetic formulation was significantly effective in reducing the severity of acute attacks of migraine, in a double-blind, randomized, crossover trial of 34 patients referred to a migraine clinic. The preparation contained paracetamol (acetaminophen) 500 mg, codeine phosphate 8 mg, buclizine hydrochloride 6.25 mg and dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate 10 mg. The dosage was two tablets taken as early as possible in the acute attack. No specific factors could be identified which influenced response to treatment. Patients with a long history of migraine (more than 10 years) responded as well as those with a recent onset of the condition.

  7. Indocyanine green video angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frambach, Donald A.

    1994-06-01

    Over the last two years, ophthalmologists have begun to use indocyanine green angiography as a supplement to fluorescein angiography. Unlike fluorescein, indocyanine green absorbs near infrared and emits slightly longer infrared light. Therefore, indocyanine green angiography images structures deeper in the retina and through blood, pigment, and turbid serous fluid that accumulates in a number of diseases. In addition, indocyanine green shows very different properties of dye leakage than does fluorescein and this can be used to identify certain abnormal blood vessels that grow beneath the retinas of patients with macular degeneration. Finally, indocyanine green fluoresces only 4% as efficiently as fluorescein which has presented a major technical problem until highly amplified video systems have become available to ophthalmologists. We have used a scanning laser ophthalmoscope to perform video indocyanine green angiography at the Doheny Eye Institute since November, 1991. In this paper, I will present several clinical cases that demonstrate the clinical usefulness of indocyanine green angiography.

  8. Green Nail Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Osteopathic Medicine Disease Database Contributors Doctor Derm App Skin Facts Aging and Sun Damage Beauty Myths Preventing Sun Damage Skin Cancer Detection Skin Disease Links Sun Safety Document ...

  9. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  10. CASE STUDY: DIELDRIN ATTACK IN DALYAN LAGOON

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the first two weeks of December 2005, NATO sponsored an Advanced Study Institute (ASI) in Istanbul, Turkey. Part of this ASI involved a case study of a terrorist attack, where a chemical was assumed to be dumped into Sulunger Lake in Turkey. This chapter documents the re...

  11. Responses to the September 11, 2001 Attacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Frances E.

    2001-01-01

    This editorial introduces a special section devoted to chronicling the responses of art therapists after the September 11th attacks. The section contains 10 articles from therapists in New York City, New Jersey, Long Island, Washington, DC, and California. Articles include stories of the reactions of the therapists as well as their work with…

  12. Adversarial Feature Selection Against Evasion Attacks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Chan, Patrick P K; Biggio, Battista; Yeung, Daniel S; Roli, Fabio

    2016-03-01

    Pattern recognition and machine learning techniques have been increasingly adopted in adversarial settings such as spam, intrusion, and malware detection, although their security against well-crafted attacks that aim to evade detection by manipulating data at test time has not yet been thoroughly assessed. While previous work has been mainly focused on devising adversary-aware classification algorithms to counter evasion attempts, only few authors have considered the impact of using reduced feature sets on classifier security against the same attacks. An interesting, preliminary result is that classifier security to evasion may be even worsened by the application of feature selection. In this paper, we provide a more detailed investigation of this aspect, shedding some light on the security properties of feature selection against evasion attacks. Inspired by previous work on adversary-aware classifiers, we propose a novel adversary-aware feature selection model that can improve classifier security against evasion attacks, by incorporating specific assumptions on the adversary's data manipulation strategy. We focus on an efficient, wrapper-based implementation of our approach, and experimentally validate its soundness on different application examples, including spam and malware detection.

  13. Plant defences against herbivore and insect attack

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plants deploy a number of defences against attack by insects and other herbivores. Direct defence is conferred by plant products and structures that deter or kill the herbivores. Chemical toxins and deterrents vary widely among plant species, and some typical toxins include alkaloids, terpenoids, st...

  14. Panic attacks after treatment with zuclopenthixol decanoate.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anil; Soni, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    The association between neuroleptics and anxiety is unclear: neuroleptics have been used to treat anxiety though may also themselves be anxiogenic. We present the case of a man who developed new onset panic attacks after treatment with zuclopenthixol decanoate, a commonly administered depot antipsychotic. We review the literature on the association between antipsychotics and anxiety and present possible pathophysiological mechanisms.

  15. Attack Classification Schema for Smart City WSNs

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Font, Victor; Garrigues, Carles; Rifà-Pous, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Urban areas around the world are populating their streets with wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in order to feed incipient smart city IT systems with metropolitan data. In the future smart cities, WSN technology will have a massive presence in the streets, and the operation of municipal services will be based to a great extent on data gathered with this technology. However, from an information security point of view, WSNs can have failures and can be the target of many different types of attacks. Therefore, this raises concerns about the reliability of this technology in a smart city context. Traditionally, security measures in WSNs have been proposed to protect specific protocols in an environment with total control of a single network. This approach is not valid for smart cities, as multiple external providers deploy a plethora of WSNs with different security requirements. Hence, a new security perspective needs to be adopted to protect WSNs in smart cities. Considering security issues related to the deployment of WSNs as a main data source in smart cities, in this article, we propose an intrusion detection framework and an attack classification schema to assist smart city administrators to delimit the most plausible attacks and to point out the components and providers affected by incidents. We demonstrate the use of the classification schema providing a proof of concept based on a simulated selective forwarding attack affecting a parking and a sound WSN. PMID:28379192

  16. Prescribing patterns in agoraphobia with panic attacks.

    PubMed

    Evans, L E; Oei, T P; Hoey, H

    1988-01-18

    Although medication is used commonly in the treatment of agoraphobia with panic attacks, the actual drug-prescribing patterns of the medical profession have not been well studied in this condition. The present study compares the prescribing patterns of general practitioners and psychiatrists in their treatment of agoraphobia with panic attacks. The medical records of 111 agoraphobic patients with panic attacks were analysed and divided into those who were referred by general practitioners and those who were referred by psychiatrists. Over all, in the treatment of agoraphobia with panic attacks, general practitioners prescribed drugs less often than did psychiatrists. They used fewer combinations of drugs and tended to prescribe tricyclic antidepressant agents in doses which generally are considered to be below the therapeutic range. This finding would suggest that general practitioners are less effective than are psychiatrists in prescribing for this condition as judged by current practice, although they are less likely to prescribe combinations of drugs--a practice which might well be to their credit.

  17. Association between Terror Attacks and Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul

    2009-01-01

    Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the…

  18. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  19. Shark Attack! Sinking Your Teeth into Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    Presents a real life shark attack story and studies arm reattachment surgery to teach human anatomy. Discusses how knowledge of anatomy can be put to use in the real world and how the arm functions. Includes teaching notes and suggestions for classroom management. (YDS)

  20. Categorizing Network Attacks Using Pattern Classification Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    attacks into predefined categories such as Flooding Denial of Service, Distributed Denial of Service, Nukers, and Portscans . Such categorization decreases...Detection of Stealthy Portscans . Tech- nical Report, Silicon Defense, 2000. [Stevens94] Stevens, W. Richard. TCP/IP Illustrated Volume 1 . Reading: Addison

  1. CASE STUDY: DIELDRIN ATTACK IN DALYAN LAGOON

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the first two weeks of December 2005, NATO sponsored an Advanced Study Institute (ASI) in Istanbul, Turkey. Part of this ASI involved a case study of a terrorist attack, where a chemical was assumed to be dumped into Sulunger Lake in Turkey. This chapter documents the re...

  2. Shark Attack! Sinking Your Teeth into Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    Presents a real life shark attack story and studies arm reattachment surgery to teach human anatomy. Discusses how knowledge of anatomy can be put to use in the real world and how the arm functions. Includes teaching notes and suggestions for classroom management. (YDS)

  3. Triage of casualties after nuclear attack.

    PubMed

    Pledger, H G

    1986-09-20

    Casualties from a nuclear attack on the United Kingdom would overwhelm the health services, and health workers would be faced with many more people seeking help than could be offered treatment. Discussion is needed to determine which methods of medical and non-medical triage would be acceptable and feasible.

  4. Association between Terror Attacks and Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul

    2009-01-01

    Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the…

  5. Intrusion-Tolerant Replication under Attack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Much of our critical infrastructure is controlled by large software systems whose participants are distributed across the Internet. As our dependence on these critical systems continues to grow, it becomes increasingly important that they meet strict availability and performance requirements, even in the face of malicious attacks, including those…

  6. Intrusion-Tolerant Replication under Attack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Much of our critical infrastructure is controlled by large software systems whose participants are distributed across the Internet. As our dependence on these critical systems continues to grow, it becomes increasingly important that they meet strict availability and performance requirements, even in the face of malicious attacks, including those…

  7. Improvement of Hungarian Joint Terminal Attack Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-13

    Forward Looking Infrared GLTD Ground Laser Target Designator HDF Hungarian Defense Force JFO Joint Fires Observer JTAC Joint Terminal Attack Controller......FLIR at least. Laser capability is another important material requirement for CAS aircraft. Laser systems contain two important components. A low

  8. Attack Classification Schema for Smart City WSNs.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Font, Victor; Garrigues, Carles; Rifà-Pous, Helena

    2017-04-05

    Urban areas around the world are populating their streets with wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in order to feed incipient smart city IT systems with metropolitan data. In the future smart cities, WSN technology will have a massive presence in the streets, and the operation of municipal services will be based to a great extent on data gathered with this technology. However, from an information security point of view, WSNs can have failures and can be the target of many different types of attacks. Therefore, this raises concerns about the reliability of this technology in a smart city context. Traditionally, security measures in WSNs have been proposed to protect specific protocols in an environment with total control of a single network. This approach is not valid for smart cities, as multiple external providers deploy a plethora of WSNs with different security requirements. Hence, a new security perspective needs to be adopted to protect WSNs in smart cities. Considering security issues related to the deployment of WSNs as a main data source in smart cities, in this article, we propose an intrusion detection framework and an attack classification schema to assist smart city administrators to delimit the most plausible attacks and to point out the components and providers affected by incidents. We demonstrate the use of the classification schema providing a proof of concept based on a simulated selective forwarding attack affecting a parking and a sound WSN.

  9. Wrap-Attack Pack: Product Packaging Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seung Hwan; Hoffman, K. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Although many marketing courses discuss traditional concepts pertaining to product strategy, concepts specifically relating to packaging are often glossed over. This exercise, "Wrap-Attack Pack," teaches students about the utilitarian and hedonic design elements of packaging. More specifically, the primary objective is to creatively…

  10. Decontamination in the Aftermath of a Radiological Attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassif, Jaime

    2004-05-01

    Much of the damage caused by a radiological weapon would result from long-term contamination, yet the U.S. lacks a coherent plan for cleanup in the aftermath of an attack. A rapidly implemented decontamination strategy could minimize economic damage by restoring normal activity, when possible, and could ease the cleanup process, which can become more difficult as time passes. Loose dust particles can become trapped under layers of oxidized metal and organic materials or penetrate deeper into porous surfaces, and reactive elements, such as cesium-137, chemically bind to components of glass, asphalt and concrete. Decontamination planning requires identification of appropriate existing technologies that are transferable from small-scale tasks, such as nuclear facility decommissioning, and adaptable to urban-scale operations. Applicable technologies should effectively contain and remove fixed and loose contamination with α-, β- and γ-emitters without generating large quantities of secondary waste. Development of new technologies is also necessary, particularly to improve α-detection, as is research to test existing technologies for their effectiveness in large-scale operations. These techniques will be most effective if integrated into a broad strategy that identifies appropriate exposure limits, prioritizes decontamination tasks and assigns authority and responsibility for performing these tasks. This talk will address existing decontamination thresholds and suggest ways to modify them and will discuss appropriate, existing technologies that can decontaminate to the required levels.

  11. Green Streets: Urban Green and Birth Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Abelt, Kathryn; McLafferty, Sara

    2017-07-13

    Recent scholarship points to a protective association between green space and birth outcomes as well a positive relationship between blue space and wellbeing. We add to this body of literature by exploring the relationship between expectant mothers' exposure to green and blue spaces and adverse birth outcomes in New York City. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the NYC Street Tree Census, and access to major green spaces served as measures of greenness, while proximity to waterfront areas represented access to blue space. Associations between these factors and adverse birth outcomes, including preterm birth, term birthweight, term low birthweight, and small for gestational age, were evaluated via mixed-effects linear and logistic regression models. The analyses were conducted separately for women living in deprived neighborhoods to test for differential effects on mothers in these areas. The results indicate that women in deprived neighborhoods suffer from higher rates adverse birth outcomes and lower levels of residential greenness. In adjusted models, a significant inverse association between nearby street trees and the odds of preterm birth was found for all women. However, we did not identify a consistent significant relationship between adverse birth outcomes and NDVI, access to major green spaces, or waterfront access when individual covariates were taken into account.

  12. Damaged Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Saturn V vehicle, carrying the unmarned orbital workshop for the Skylab-1 mission, lifted off successfully and all systems performed normally. Sixty-three seconds into the flight, engineers in the operation support and control center saw an unexpected telemetry indication that signalled that damages occurred on one solar array and the micrometeoroid shield during the launch. The micrometeoroid shield, a thin protective cylinder surrounding the workshop protecting it from tiny space particles and the sun's scorching heat, ripped loose from its position around the workshop. This caused the loss of one solar wing and jammed the other. Still unoccupied, the Skylab was stricken with the loss of the heat shield and sunlight beat mercilessly on the lab's sensitive skin. Internal temperatures soared, rendering the station uninhabitable, threatening foods, medicines, films, and experiments. This image, taken during a fly-around inspection by the Skylab-2 crew, shows a crippled Skylab in orbit. The crew found their home in space to be in serious shape; the heat shield gone, one solar wing gone, and the other jammed. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed, tested, rehearsed, and approved three repair options. These options included a parasol sunshade and a twin-pole sunshade to restore the temperature inside the workshop, and a set of metal cutting tools to free the jammed solar panel.

  13. Error and attack vulnerability of temporal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajanovski, S.; Scellato, S.; Leontiadis, I.

    2012-06-01

    The study of real-world communication systems via complex network models has greatly expanded our understanding on how information flows, even in completely decentralized architectures such as mobile wireless networks. Nonetheless, static network models cannot capture the time-varying aspects and, therefore, various temporal metrics have been introduced. In this paper, we investigate the robustness of time-varying networks under various failures and intelligent attacks. We adopt a methodology to evaluate the impact of such events on the network connectivity by employing temporal metrics in order to select and remove nodes based on how critical they are considered for the network. We also define the temporal robustness range, a new metric that quantifies the disruption caused by an attack strategy to a given temporal network. Our results show that in real-world networks, where some nodes are more dominant than others, temporal connectivity is significantly more affected by intelligent attacks than by random failures. Moreover, different intelligent attack strategies have a similar effect on the robustness: even small subsets of highly connected nodes act as a bottleneck in the temporal information flow, becoming critical weak points of the entire system. Additionally, the same nodes are the most important across a range of different importance metrics, expressing the correlation between highly connected nodes and those that trigger most of the changes in the optimal information spreading. Contrarily, we show that in randomly generated networks, where all the nodes have similar properties, random errors and intelligent attacks exhibit similar behavior. These conclusions may help us in design of more robust systems and fault-tolerant network architectures.

  14. Effects of Motivation: Rewarding Hackers for Undetected Attacks Cause Analysts to Perform Poorly.

    PubMed

    Maqbool, Zahid; Makhijani, Nidhi; Pammi, V S Chandrasekhar; Dutt, Varun

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how monetary motivations influence decision making of humans performing as security analysts and hackers in a cybersecurity game. Cyberattacks are increasing at an alarming rate. As cyberattacks often cause damage to existing cyber infrastructures, it is important to understand how monetary rewards may influence decision making of hackers and analysts in the cyber world. Currently, only limited attention has been given to this area. In an experiment, participants were randomly assigned to three between-subjects conditions ( n = 26 for each condition): equal payoff, where the magnitude of monetary rewards for hackers and defenders was the same; rewarding hacker, where the magnitude of monetary reward for hacker's successful attack was 10 times the reward for analyst's successful defense; and rewarding analyst, where the magnitude of monetary reward for analyst's successful defense was 10 times the reward for hacker's successful attack. In all conditions, half of the participants were human hackers playing against Nash analysts and half were human analysts playing against Nash hackers. Results revealed that monetary rewards for human hackers and analysts caused a decrease in attack and defend actions compared with the baseline. Furthermore, rewarding human hackers for undetected attacks made analysts deviate significantly from their optimal behavior. If hackers are rewarded for their undetected attack actions, then this causes analysts to deviate from optimal defend proportions. Thus, analysts need to be trained not become overenthusiastic in defending networks. Applications of our results are to networks where the influence of monetary rewards may cause information theft and system damage.

  15. FLoc: Dependable Link Access for Legitimate Traffic in Flooding Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-23

    Constant Bit Rate (CBR), Shrew [14], and covert [15] attacks) and by comparing the FLoc results with those of other approaches (e.g., Pushback [5...Bit Rate (CBR) attack (Fig. 10 6(b)), and a Shrew attack (Fig. 6(c)) [6]. The aim of the high- population TCP attack is to reduce the bandwidth of...and are rate-limited accordingly. In the Shrew attack, each attack source sends 2.0 Mbps traffic only during 0.25RTT seconds within an interval of

  16. FLoc : Dependable Link Access for Legitimate Traffic in Flooding Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-23

    Constant Bit Rate (CBR), Shrew [14], and covert [15] attacks) and by comparing the FLoc results with those of other approaches (e.g., Pushback [5...Bit Rate (CBR) attack (Fig. 10 6(b)), and a Shrew attack (Fig. 6(c)) [6]. The aim of the high- population TCP attack is to reduce the bandwidth of...MTDs and are rate-limited accordingly. In the Shrew attack, each attack source sends 2.0 Mbps traffic only during 0.25RTT seconds within an interval of

  17. Background of Civil Defense and Current Damage Limiting Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romm, Joseph

    A brief history of civil defense administration precedes analysis of nuclear attack conditions and the influence of protective measures. Damage limitation procedure is explained in terms of--(1) blast effects, (2) radiation doses, (3) geographical fallout distribution patterns, and (4) national shelter needs. Major concept emphasis relates to--(1)…

  18. Impact of heat stress on the emissions of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, phenolic BVOC and green leaf volatiles from several tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleist, E.; Mentel, T. F.; Andres, S.; Bohne, A.; Folkers, A.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Rudich, Y.; Springer, M.; Tillmann, R.; Wildt, J.

    2012-07-01

    Changes in the biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from European beech, Palestine oak, Scots pine, and Norway spruce exposed to heat stress were measured in a laboratory setup. In general, heat stress decreased the de novo emissions of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and phenolic BVOC. Decreasing emission strength with heat stress was independent of the tree species and whether the de novo emissions being constitutive or induced by biotic stress. In contrast, heat stress induced emissions of green leaf volatiles. It also amplified the release of monoterpenes stored in resin ducts of conifers probably due to heat-induced damage of these resin ducts. The increased release of monoterpenes could be strong and long lasting. But, despite of such strong monoterpene emission pulses, the net effect of heat stress on BVOC emissions from conifers can be an overall decrease. In particular during insect attack on conifers the plants showed de novo emissions of sesquiterpenes and phenolic BVOC which exceeded constitutive monoterpene emissions from pools. The heat stress induced decrease of these de novo emissions was larger than the increased release caused by damage of resin ducts. We project that global change induced heat waves may cause increased BVOC emissions only in cases where the respective areas are predominantly covered with conifers that do not emit high amounts of sesquiterpenes and phenolic BVOC. Otherwise the overall effect of heat stress will be a decrease in BVOC emissions.

  19. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles trigger sporulation in entomopathogenic fungi: the case of Neozygites tanajoae infecting the cassava green mite.

    PubMed

    Hountondji, Fabien C C; Sabelis, Maurice W; Hanna, Rachid; Janssen, Arne

    2005-05-01

    A large body of evidence shows that plants release volatile chemicals upon attack by herbivores. These volatiles influence the performance of natural enemies. Nearly all the evidence on the effect of plant volatiles on natural enemies of herbivores concerns predators, parasitoids, and entomophagous nematodes. However, other entomopathogens, such as fungi, have not been studied yet for the way they exploit the chemical information that the plant conveys on the presence of herbivores. We tested the hypothesis that volatiles emanating from cassava plants infested by green mites (Mononychellus tanajoa) trigger sporulation in three isolates of the acaropathogenic fungus Neozygites tanajoae. Tests were conducted under climatic conditions optimal to fungal conidiation, such that the influence of the plant volatiles could only alter the quantity of conidia produced. For two isolates (Altal.brz and Colal.brz), it was found that, compared with clean air, the presence of volatiles from clean, excised leaf discs suppressed conidia production. This suppressive effect disappeared in the presence of herbivore-damaged leaves for the isolate Colal.brz. For the third isolate, no significant effects were observed. Another experiment differing mainly in the amount of volatiles showed that two isolates produced more conidia when exposed to herbivore-damaged leaves compared with clean air. Taken together, the results show that volatiles from clean plants suppress conidiation, whereas herbivore-induced plant volatiles promote conidiation of N. tanajoae. These opposing effects suggest that the entomopathogenic fungus tunes the release of spores to herbivore-induced plant signals indicating the presence of hosts.

  20. Vulnerability of impulse attack-free four random phase mask cryptosystems to chosen-plaintext attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tuo; Shi, Yishi

    2016-03-01

    An attack-free four random phase mask cryptosystem is breached in the paper. The decryption key of the system can be easily accessed by the opponent by using a new type of powerful three-dimensional phase retrieval method. Our result, to the best of our knowledge, is the first work to show this security flaw in the attack-free four random phase mask cryptosystem. Meanwhile, a set of numerical simulations is provided to demonstrate the robustness of the presented method.

  1. [Emergency procedures for taking care of the victims of bomb attacks: logistical and medical aspects].

    PubMed

    Giard, R W M; Overbeke, A J P M

    2006-07-08

    In The Netherlands the threat of terrorist attacks also exist. Both doctors and hospitals alike should be prepared for such attacks both on the logistical as well as the medical level. Most terrorist attacks are carried out with explosives. This results in many victims and in cases of explosions in closed or semi-closed areas, often results in complex medical problems in many of the victims. An explosion that occurs as the result ofa bomb detonating can result in 4 patterns of injury: the primary explosion injury caused by the pressure of the blast, the secondary injuries caused by flying debris, the tertiary injuries caused by the explosion wind, and the quaternary caused by heat and fire. Common injuries seen following an explosion include: lung damage, neurological damage, abdominal injuries, bone fractures and skeletal damage and crush-syndrome. The triage occurs at the site of the explosion as well as on arrival in hospital. One especially important aspect of this is the sorting and selecting between victims who are likely to develop complex problems and who therefore need to receive aggressive treatment in a specially equipped centre and those patients for whom the nearest emergency department will suffice their needs. The triage should be repeated considering the possibility that initial estimates on these points may have been wrong. Epidemiological research should be carried out for each attack in order to make an inventory of the number of victims, the injuries incurred, the assessment of the effects of the medical help received and an assessment of the effectiveness of the total aid received.

  2. New estimates of lethality of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attacks on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush): Implications for fisheries management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Chipman, B.D.; Marsden, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control in North America costs millions of dollars each year, and control measures are guided by assessment of lamprey-induced damage to fisheries. The favored prey of sea lamprey in freshwater ecosystems has been lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). A key parameter in assessing sea lamprey damage, as well as managing lake trout fisheries, is the probability of an adult lake trout surviving a lamprey attack. The conventional value for this parameter has been 0.55, based on laboratory experiments. In contrast, based on catch curve analysis, mark-recapture techniques, and observed wounding rates, we estimated that adult lake trout in Lake Champlain have a 0.74 probability of surviving a lamprey attack. Although sea lamprey growth in Lake Champlain was lower than that observed in Lake Huron, application of an individual-based model to both lakes indicated that the probability of surviving an attack in Lake Champlain was only 1.1 times higher than that in Lake Huron. Thus, we estimated that lake trout survive a lamprey attack in Lake Huron with a probability of 0.66. Therefore, our results suggested that lethality of a sea lamprey attack on lake trout has been overestimated in previous model applications used in fisheries management. ?? 2008 NRC.

  3. Volatile and Within-Needle Terpene Changes to Douglas-fir Trees Associated With Douglas-fir Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Attack.

    PubMed

    Giunta, A D; Runyon, J B; Jenkins, M J; Teich, M

    2016-08-01

    Mass attack by tree-killing bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) brings about large chemical changes in host trees that can have important ecological consequences. For example, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack increases emission of terpenes by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), affecting foliage flammability with consequences for wildfires. In this study, we measured chemical changes to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Mirb.) Franco) foliage in response to attack by Douglas-fir beetles (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins) as trees die and crowns transitioned from green/healthy, to green-infested (year of attack), to yellow (year after attack), and red (2 yr after attack). We found large differences in volatile and within-needle terpene concentrations among crown classes and variation across a growing season. In general, emissions and concentrations of total and individual terpenes were greater for yellow and red needles than green needles. Douglas-fir beetle attack increased emissions and concentrations of terpene compounds linked to increased tree flammability in other conifer species and compounds known to attract beetles (e.g., [Formula: see text]-pinene, camphene, and D-limonene). There was little relationship between air temperature or within-needle concentrations of terpenes and emission of terpenes, suggesting that passive emission of terpenes (e.g., from dead foliage) does not fully explain changes in volatile emissions. The potential physiological causes and ecological consequences of these bark beetle-associated chemical changes are discussed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Malachite green photosensitive plates.

    PubMed

    Solano, C

    1989-08-15

    An experimental study of the behavior of malachite green sensitized plates was carried out. The transmittance variation of the irradiated plates was taken as a parameter. It has been observed that photoreduction in the malachite green plates is present only when ammonium dichromate is added to the plates. The introduction of external electron donors does not improve the photochemical reaction. It has been determined that malachite green molecules form a weak complex with the dichromate molecules and this complex can only be destroyed photochemically. This effect can explain the limited response of the malachite green dichromated plates.

  5. Greening America's Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical assistance program to help cities and towns develop an implementable vision of distinctive, environmentally friendly neighborhoods using green infrastructure and other sustainable design strategies.

  6. Optimal Attack Strategy in Random Scale-Free Networks Based on Incomplete Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Wu, Jun; Li, Yong; Deng, Hong-Zhong; Tan, Yue-Jin

    2011-06-01

    We introduce an attack model based on incomplete information, which means that we can obtain the information from partial nodes. We investigate the optimal attack strategy in random scale-free networks both analytically and numerically. We show that the attack strategy can affect the attack effect remarkably and the OAS can achieve better attack effect than other typical attack strategies. It is found that when the attack intensity is small, the attacker should attack more nodes in the “white area" in which we can obtain attack information; when the attack intensity is greater, the attacker should attack more nodes in the “black area" in which we can not obtain attack information. Moreover, we show that there is an inflection point in the curve of optimal attack proportion. For a given magnitude of attack information, the optimal attack proportion decreases with the attack intensity before the inflection point and then increases after the inflection point.

  7. CT Scans Might Help Gauge Heart Attack Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_167148.html CT Scans Might Help Gauge Heart Attack Risk Researchers aim to identify vulnerable patients before ... into irreversible plaque could potentially help cardiologists prevent heart attacks, the scientists said. "Currently, CT only tells you ...

  8. Calcium Supplements: A Risk Factor for Heart Attack?

    MedlinePlus

    ... that calcium supplements may increase the risk of heart attack. Is this true? Answers from Rekha Mankad, M. ... calcium supplements may increase your risk of a heart attack. Other doctors believe that calcium supplements have little ...

  9. Fatal First-Time Heart Attacks More Common in Blacks

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_167101.html Fatal First-Time Heart Attacks More Common in Blacks: Study Black men are ... likely than whites to die of a first heart attack, a new analysis suggests. Two out of three ...

  10. Aspirin to Prevent a First Heart Attack or Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Aspirin to Prevent a First Heart Attack or Stroke ... immediate medical attention. What if I’m taking aspirin to prevent another heart attack or stroke? The ...

  11. High Pain Tolerance Tied to 'Silent' Heart Attack Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... 162666.html High Pain Tolerance Tied to 'Silent' Heart Attack Risk Unusual symptoms include upper back or jaw ... be at increased risk of having a "silent" heart attack, a new study hints. Chest pain is one ...

  12. Trans Fat Bans May Have Cut Heart Attack, Stroke Rate

    MedlinePlus

    ... 164605.html Trans Fat Bans May Have Cut Heart Attack, Stroke Rate Pending FDA regulations should remove nearly ... Could the contents of your cupcake affect your heart attack risk? It seems so, according to a new ...

  13. Calcium Buildup in Young Arteries May Signal Heart Attack Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Calcium Buildup in Young Arteries May Signal Heart Attack Risk Even small amount in 30s, 40s appears ... their arteries are already at risk of a heart attack, a new study finds. Among those 32 to ...

  14. Nonlinear optical cryptosystem resistant to standard and hybrid attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Aloka

    2016-06-01

    We propose a nonlinear optical cryptosystem that is resistant to amplitude-phase retrieval attacks, known-plaintext attack and chosen-plaintext attack. A squaring operation is introduced in the encryption path, which thwarts the iterative attacks. This nonlinear operation tends to amplify the error in the estimation during an iterative attack. The decryption process requires the use of a square-root operation. Thus, in the reverse path also, the attacks encounter the nonlinear square-root operation. These two nonlinearities make the iterative attacks unstable, thereby leading to non-convergence of the mean square error (MSE). Our technique is also resistant to hybrid attacks. The technique is general and is shown to work on a variety of images of the type grayscale and binary. Numerical simulation results corroborate the effectiveness of the proposed cryptosystem.

  15. Two fatal tiger attacks in zoos.

    PubMed

    Tantius, Britta; Wittschieber, Daniel; Schmidt, Sven; Rothschild, Markus A; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2016-01-01

    Two captive tiger attacks are presented that took place in Cologne and Münster zoos. Both attacks occurred when the handlers, intent on cleaning the enclosures, entered whilst the tigers accidently retained access to the location, and thus defended their territory against the perceived intruders. Both victims suffered fatal neck injuries from the bites. At Münster, colleagues managed to lure the tiger away from its victim to enable treatment, whilst the Cologne zoo tiger had to be shot in order to allow access to be gained. Whilst it was judged that human error led to the deaths of the experienced zookeepers, the investigation in Münster was closed as no third party was found to be at fault, whereas the Cologne zoo director was initially charged with being negligent. These charges were subsequently dismissed as safety regulations were found to be up to date.

  16. Identifying and treating patients with panic attacks.

    PubMed

    Pary, R; Lewis, S

    1992-09-01

    Panic disorder occurs in up to 3 percent of the population and can be socially, emotionally and occupationally disabling. A thorough clinical evaluation is crucial to exclude illnesses with similar presentations, particularly acute cardiac, gastrointestinal or neurologic disease. The noradrenergic nervous system is involved in panic attacks. These attacks are described as sudden, unexpected episodes of intense fear or discomfort, usually lasting five to 30 minutes. Appropriate medications include benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Alprazolam and clonazepam are quickly effective in alleviating panic, but they cause significant symptoms upon discontinuation. The best-studied drug in the treatment of panic disorder is imipramine; like other tricyclic antidepressants, it can cause increased jitteriness early in treatment. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors may be particularly helpful in patients with panic disorder who exhibit social avoidance. Behavior therapy, an important component of treatment, involves the patient's confrontation of fears or phobias.

  17. Cell phone camera ballistics: attacks and countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinebach, Martin; Liu, Huajian; Fan, Peishuai; Katzenbeisser, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Multimedia forensics deals with the analysis of multimedia data to gather information on its origin and authenticity. One therefore needs to distinguish classical criminal forensics (which today also uses multimedia data as evidence) and multimedia forensics where the actual case is based on a media file. One example for the latter is camera forensics where pixel error patters are used as fingerprints identifying a camera as the source of an image. Of course multimedia forensics can become a tool for criminal forensics when evidence used in a criminal investigation is likely to be manipulated. At this point an important question arises: How reliable are these algorithms? Can a judge trust their results? How easy are they to manipulate? In this work we show how camera forensics can be attacked and introduce a potential countermeasure against these attacks.

  18. Making MANET secured against malicious attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kush, Ashwani; Taneja, Sunil; Kush, Shagun

    2011-12-01

    A Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) is characterized by mobile nodes, multihop wireless connectivity, infrastructureless environment and dynamic topology. A recent trend in Ad Hoc network routing is the reactive ondemand philosophy where routes are established only when required. Stable Routing is of major concern in Ad hoc routing. Security and Power efficiency are the major concerns in this field. This paper is an effort to use security to achieve more reliable routing. The ad hoc environment is accessible to both legitimate network users and malicious attackers. The proposed scheme is intended to incorporate security aspect on existing protocols. The study will help in making protocol more robust against attacks to achieve stable routing in routing protocols.

  19. Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Hilland, D.; Phipps, G.; Jingle, C.; Newton, G.

    1997-12-31

    The Air Force Research Laboratory`s Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW/AR program objectives are: (a) develop cost- effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (b) demonstrate innovative, light-weight, low-power, laser and RF sensors. The program focuses on the demonstration of RF and laser sensors. The RF sensor effort includes the investigation of interferometric antenna arrays, multi-arm spiral and butler matrix antennas, wideband receivers, adaptive processors, and improved processing algorithms. The laser sensor effort includes the investigation of alternative detectors, broadband grating and optical designs, active pixel sensing, and improved processing algorithms.

  20. Localization-Free Detection of Replica Node Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Similarity Estimation with Group Deployment Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chao; Yang, Lijun; Wu, Meng

    2017-01-15

    Due to the unattended nature and poor security guarantee of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs), adversaries can easily make replicas of compromised nodes, and place them throughout the network to launch various types of attacks. Such an attack is dangerous because it enables the adversaries to control large numbers of nodes and extend the damage of attacks to most of the network with quite limited cost. To stop the node replica attack, we propose a location similarity-based detection scheme using deployment knowledge. Compared with prior solutions, our scheme provides extra functionalities that prevent replicas from generating false location claims without deploying resource-consuming localization techniques on the resource-constraint sensor nodes. We evaluate the security performance of our proposal under different attack strategies through heuristic analysis, and show that our scheme achieves secure and robust replica detection by increasing the cost of node replication. Additionally, we evaluate the impact of network environment on the proposed scheme through theoretic analysis and simulation experiments, and indicate that our scheme achieves effectiveness and efficiency with substantially lower communication, computational, and storage overhead than prior works under different situations and attack strategies.

  1. Localization-Free Detection of Replica Node Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Similarity Estimation with Group Deployment Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Chao; Yang, Lijun; Wu, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Due to the unattended nature and poor security guarantee of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs), adversaries can easily make replicas of compromised nodes, and place them throughout the network to launch various types of attacks. Such an attack is dangerous because it enables the adversaries to control large numbers of nodes and extend the damage of attacks to most of the network with quite limited cost. To stop the node replica attack, we propose a location similarity-based detection scheme using deployment knowledge. Compared with prior solutions, our scheme provides extra functionalities that prevent replicas from generating false location claims without deploying resource-consuming localization techniques on the resource-constraint sensor nodes. We evaluate the security performance of our proposal under different attack strategies through heuristic analysis, and show that our scheme achieves secure and robust replica detection by increasing the cost of node replication. Additionally, we evaluate the impact of network environment on the proposed scheme through theoretic analysis and simulation experiments, and indicate that our scheme achieves effectiveness and efficiency with substantially lower communication, computational, and storage overhead than prior works under different situations and attack strategies. PMID:28098846

  2. Green tea: nature's defense against malignancies.

    PubMed

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef

    2009-05-01

    The current practice of introducing phytochemicals to support the immune system or fight against diseases is based on centuries old traditions. Nutritional support is a recent advancement in the domain of diet-based therapies; green tea and its constituents are one of the important components of these strategies to prevent and cure various malignancies. The anti-carcinogenic and anti-mutagenic activities of green tea were highlighted some years ago suggesting that it could reduce the prevalence of cancer and even provide protection. The pharmacological actions of green tea are mainly attributed to polyphenols that includes epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), epicatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin. Green tea and its components effectively mitigate cellular damage arising due to oxidative stress. Green tea is supposed to enhance humoral and cell-mediated immunity, decreasing the risk of certain cancers, and may have certain advantage in treating inflammatory disorders. Much of the cancer chemopreventive properties of green tea are mediated by EGCG that induces apoptosis and promotes cell growth arrest, by altering the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins, activating killer caspases, and suppressing nuclear factor kappa-B activation. Besides, it regulates and promotes IL-23 dependent DNA repair and stimulates cytotoxic T cells activities in a tumor microenvironment. It also blocks carcinogenesis by modulating the signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, transformation, inflammation and metastasis. The review is intended to highlight the chemistry of green tea, its antioxidant potential, its immunopotentiating properties and mode of action against various cancer cell lines that showed its potential as a chemopreventive agent against colon, skin, lung, prostate, and breast cancer.

  3. America under attack: ACHE affiliates respond.

    PubMed

    Lanser, Ellen G

    2002-01-01

    In the midst of the horror and uncertainty that swept over America on September 11, the healthcare sector helped to keep our nation firmly anchored. Within moments of the terrorist attacks, healthcare organizations in New York, Washington, D.C., and the surrounding areas responded swiftly, calmly, and effectively. Many of these hospitals are led by ACHE affiliates. Following are their accounts of that day, lessons they learned, and plans for the future.

  4. Strategic Attack of National Electrical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    subsystem the step-up transformers are the most lu­ crative targets. According to a study by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), the step-up...the Army Air Forces, to analyze the dete­ rioration of the German economy through bombing and determine the “date when deterioration will have...German economy , and steel production essential to war production, these industries would only be slightly affected by an attack on power facilities

  5. Computer Network Attack: An Operational Tool?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-17

    Spectrum of Conflict, Cyber Warfare , Preemptive Strike, Effects Based Targeting. 15. Abstract: Computer Network Attack (CNA) is defined as...great deal of attention as the world’s capabilities in cyber - warfare grow. 11 Although addressing the wide ranging legal aspects of CNA is beyond the...the notion of cyber - warfare has not yet developed to the point that international norms have been established.15 These norms will be developed in

  6. Replication Does Survive Information Warfare Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    warfare, storage jamming, unauthorized modification, Trojan horse 1 INTRODUCTION Ammann, Jajodia, McCollum, and Blaustein define information warfare as the...information warfare, and we adopt the latter term. To provide context, Amman et al. specifically do not consider Trojan horses within the database system...called internal jammers (McDermott and Goldschalg, 1996b)), but instead consider a wide range of attacks other than Trojan horses . Both groups agree that

  7. Armed Deterrence: Countering Soft Target Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-06

    for Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) detachments because it provides a visual “deterrent” against soft target attacks. Further, if perceptual...deterrence should fail, an “open carry” firearms policy is most often the only viable means to stop (deny) an active shooter in order to safeguard...problem by first examining current terrorist trends and active shooters events, to include their motivations. The paper then exposes the hazards affecting

  8. Securing iris recognition systems against masquerade attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbally, Javier; Gomez-Barrero, Marta; Ross, Arun; Fierrez, Julian; Ortega-Garcia, Javier

    2013-05-01

    A novel two-stage protection scheme for automatic iris recognition systems against masquerade attacks carried out with synthetically reconstructed iris images is presented. The method uses different characteristics of real iris images to differentiate them from the synthetic ones, thereby addressing important security flaws detected in state-of-the-art commercial systems. Experiments are carried out on the publicly available Biosecure Database and demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed security enhancing approach.

  9. Baiting Inside Attackers using Decoy Documents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-16

    viruses and worm attacks as the most reported security incident according to a report from the US Computer Security Institute (CSI) [20]. The annual...incidents were cited by 59 percent of respondents, while only 52 percent said they had encountered a conventional virus in the previous year. The state...their own legitimate credentials). One possible solution for masquerade detection involves anomaly detection [19]. In this approach, users actions are

  10. Word Attack Skills, "Making Phonics Reasonable."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Patti Lynn

    A word attack program that begins with phonics and incorporates various aspects of a linguistics approach is described in this paper. Regardless of the material that is used, there are 13 consonant sounds which are easier to learn than others: b, d, j, f, k, p, t, l, m, n, r, v, and z. W and h would be introduced next because in isolation they…

  11. A Socio-Technical Approach to Preventing, Mitigating, and Recovering from Ransomware Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hardeep

    2016-01-01

    Summary Recently there have been several high-profile ransomware attacks involving hospitals around the world. Ransomware is intended to damage or disable a user’s computer unless the user makes a payment. Once the attack has been launched, users have three options: 1) try to restore their data from backup; 2) pay the ransom; or 3) lose their data. In this manuscript, we discuss a socio-technical approach to address ransomware and outline four overarching steps that organizations can undertake to secure an electronic health record (EHR) system and the underlying computing infrastructure. First, health IT professionals need to ensure adequate system protection by correctly installing and configuring computers and networks that connect them. Next, the health care organizations need to ensure more reliable system defense by implementing user-focused strategies, including simulation and training on correct and complete use of computers and network applications. Concomitantly, the organization needs to monitor computer and application use continuously in an effort to detect suspicious activities and identify and address security problems before they cause harm. Finally, organizations need to respond adequately to and recover quickly from ransomware attacks and take actions to prevent them in future. We also elaborate on recommendations from other authoritative sources, including the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Similar to approaches to address other complex socio-technical health IT challenges, the responsibility of preventing, mitigating, and recovering from these attacks is shared between health IT professionals and end-users. PMID:27437066

  12. A Socio-Technical Approach to Preventing, Mitigating, and Recovering from Ransomware Attacks.

    PubMed

    Sittig, Dean F; Singh, Hardeep

    2016-01-01

    Recently there have been several high-profile ransomware attacks involving hospitals around the world. Ransomware is intended to damage or disable a user's computer unless the user makes a payment. Once the attack has been launched, users have three options: 1) try to restore their data from backup; 2) pay the ransom; or 3) lose their data. In this manuscript, we discuss a socio-technical approach to address ransomware and outline four overarching steps that organizations can undertake to secure an electronic health record (EHR) system and the underlying computing infrastructure. First, health IT professionals need to ensure adequate system protection by correctly installing and configuring computers and networks that connect them. Next, the health care organizations need to ensure more reliable system defense by implementing user-focused strategies, including simulation and training on correct and complete use of computers and network applications. Concomitantly, the organization needs to monitor computer and application use continuously in an effort to detect suspicious activities and identify and address security problems before they cause harm. Finally, organizations need to respond adequately to and recover quickly from ransomware attacks and take actions to prevent them in future. We also elaborate on recommendations from other authoritative sources, including the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Similar to approaches to address other complex socio-technical health IT challenges, the responsibility of preventing, mitigating, and recovering from these attacks is shared between health IT professionals and end-users.

  13. Neutrophil Attack Triggers Extracellular Trap-Dependent Candida Cell Wall Remodeling and Altered Immune Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Hopke, Alex; Nicke, Nadine; Hidu, Erica E.; Degani, Genny; Popolo, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens hide immunogenic epitopes from the host to evade immunity, persist and cause infection. The opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, which can cause fatal disease in immunocompromised patient populations, offers a good example as it masks the inflammatory epitope β-glucan in its cell wall from host recognition. It has been demonstrated previously that β-glucan becomes exposed during infection in vivo but the mechanism behind this exposure was unknown. Here, we show that this unmasking involves neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) mediated attack, which triggers changes in fungal cell wall architecture that enhance immune recognition by the Dectin-1 β-glucan receptor in vitro. Furthermore, using a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis, we demonstrate the requirement for neutrophils in triggering these fungal cell wall changes in vivo. Importantly, we found that fungal epitope unmasking requires an active fungal response in addition to the stimulus provided by neutrophil attack. NET-mediated damage initiates fungal MAP kinase-driven responses, particularly by Hog1, that dynamically relocalize cell wall remodeling machinery including Chs3, Phr1 and Sur7. Neutrophil-initiated cell wall disruptions augment some macrophage cytokine responses to attacked fungi. This work provides insight into host-pathogen interactions during disseminated candidiasis, including valuable information about how the C. albicans cell wall responds to the biotic stress of immune attack. Our results highlight the important but underappreciated concept that pattern recognition during infection is dynamic and depends on the host-pathogen dialog. PMID:27223610

  14. Proactive Alleviation Procedure to Handle Black Hole Attack and Its Version

    PubMed Central

    Babu, M. Rajesh; Dian, S. Moses; Chelladurai, Siva; Palaniappan, Mathiyalagan

    2015-01-01

    The world is moving towards a new realm of computing such as Internet of Things. The Internet of Things, however, envisions connecting almost all objects within the world to the Internet by recognizing them as smart objects. In doing so, the existing networks which include wired, wireless, and ad hoc networks should be utilized. Moreover, apart from other networks, the ad hoc network is full of security challenges. For instance, the MANET (mobile ad hoc network) is susceptible to various attacks in which the black hole attacks and its versions do serious damage to the entire MANET infrastructure. The severity of this attack increases, when the compromised MANET nodes work in cooperation with each other to make a cooperative black hole attack. Therefore this paper proposes an alleviation procedure which consists of timely mandate procedure, hole detection algorithm, and sensitive guard procedure to detect the maliciously behaving nodes. It has been observed that the proposed procedure is cost-effective and ensures QoS guarantee by assuring resource availability thus making the MANET appropriate for Internet of Things. PMID:26495430

  15. Proactive Alleviation Procedure to Handle Black Hole Attack and Its Version.

    PubMed

    Babu, M Rajesh; Dian, S Moses; Chelladurai, Siva; Palaniappan, Mathiyalagan

    2015-01-01

    The world is moving towards a new realm of computing such as Internet of Things. The Internet of Things, however, envisions connecting almost all objects within the world to the Internet by recognizing them as smart objects. In doing so, the existing networks which include wired, wireless, and ad hoc networks should be utilized. Moreover, apart from other networks, the ad hoc network is full of security challenges. For instance, the MANET (mobile ad hoc network) is susceptible to various attacks in which the black hole attacks and its versions do serious damage to the entire MANET infrastructure. The severity of this attack increases, when the compromised MANET nodes work in cooperation with each other to make a cooperative black hole attack. Therefore this paper proposes an alleviation procedure which consists of timely mandate procedure, hole detection algorithm, and sensitive guard procedure to detect the maliciously behaving nodes. It has been observed that the proposed procedure is cost-effective and ensures QoS guarantee by assuring resource availability thus making the MANET appropriate for Internet of Things.

  16. SiC: An Agent Based Architecture for Preventing and Detecting Attacks to Ubiquitous Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinzón, Cristian; de Paz, Yanira; Bajo, Javier; Abraham, Ajith; Corchado, Juan M.

    One of the main attacks to ubiquitous databases is the structure query language (SQL) injection attack, which causes severe damages both in the commercial aspect and in the user’s confidence. This chapter proposes the SiC architecture as a solution to the SQL injection attack problem. This is a hierarchical distributed multiagent architecture, which involves an entirely new approach with respect to existing architectures for the prevention and detection of SQL injections. SiC incorporates a kind of intelligent agent, which integrates a case-based reasoning system. This agent, which is the core of the architecture, allows the application of detection techniques based on anomalies as well as those based on patterns, providing a great degree of autonomy, flexibility, robustness and dynamic scalability. The characteristics of the multiagent system allow an architecture to detect attacks from different types of devices, regardless of the physical location. The architecture has been tested on a medical database, guaranteeing safe access from various devices such as PDAs and notebook computers.

  17. The Green Tea Catechin Epigallocatechin Gallate Ameliorates Graft-versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Westphal, Sabine; McGeary, Aleixandria; Rudloff, Sandra; Wilke, Andrea; Penack, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a standard treatment for leukemia and other hematologic malignancies. The major complication of allo-HSCT is graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), a progressive inflammatory illness characterized by donor immune cells attacking the organs of the recipient. Current GVHD prevention and treatment strategies use immune suppressive drugs and/or anti-T cell reagents these can lead to increased risk of infections and tumor relapse. Recent research demonstrated that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a component found in green tea leaves at a level of 25–35% at dry weight, may be useful in the inhibition of GVHD due to its immune modulatory, anti-oxidative and anti-angiogenic capacities. In murine allo-HSCT recipients treated with EGCG, we found significantly reduced GVHD scores, reduced target organ GVHD and improved survival. EGCG treated allo-HSCT recipients had significantly higher numbers of regulatory T cells in GVHD target organs and in the blood. Furthermore, EGCG treatment resulted in diminished oxidative stress indicated by significant changes of glutathione blood levels as well as glutathione peroxidase in the colon. In summary, our study provides novel evidence demonstrating that EGCG ameliorates lethal GVHD and reduces GVHD-related target organ damage. Possible mechanisms are increased regulatory T cell numbers and reduced oxidative stress. PMID:28103249

  18. Hereditary angioedema: management of laryngeal attacks.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Sandra C; Zuraw, Bruce L

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) patients suffering from laryngeal attacks in the United States faced severely limited treatment options until 2008. These potentially life-threatening episodes occur in over one-half of the patients affected by HAE during their lifetimes. Acute therapy had been relegated to supportive care, intubation, and consideration of fresh frozen plasma (FFP)--the latter with the potential for actually accelerating the speed and severity of the swelling. In this article we will review the recently approved and emerging HAE treatments that have evolved from the recognition that bradykinin generation is the fundamental abnormality leading to attacks of angioedema. Acute therapy for laryngeal attacks will be discussed including purified plasma-derived C1 inhibitor (C1INH), recombinant C1INH, an inhibitor of plasma kallikrein (ecallantide), and a B2 receptor antagonist (icatibant). Prophylactic care has also been transformed from a reliance on attenuated androgens with their attendant side effects to C1INH replacement. The arrival of these novel therapies promises to transform the future management of HAE.

  19. Fuzzy Expert System for Heart Attack Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Norlida; Arbaiy, Nureize; Shah, Noor Aziyan Ahmad; Afizah Afif@Afip, Zehan

    2017-08-01

    Heart attack is one of the serious illnesses and reported as the main killer disease. Early prevention is significant to reduce the risk of having the disease. The prevention efforts can be strengthen through awareness and education about risk factor and healthy lifestyle. Therefore the knowledge dissemination is needed to play role in order to distribute and educate public in health care management and disease prevention. Since the knowledge dissemination in medical is important, there is a need to develop a knowledge based system that can emulate human intelligence to assist decision making process. Thereby, this study utilized hybrid artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to develop a Fuzzy Expert System for Diagnosing Heart Attack Disease (HAD). This system integrates fuzzy logic with expert system, which helps the medical practitioner and people to predict the risk and as well as diagnosing heart attack based on given symptom. The development of HAD is expected not only providing expert knowledge but potentially become one of learning resources to help citizens to develop awareness about heart-healthy lifestyle.

  20. Security of quantum cryptography against individual attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slutsky, Boris A.; Rao, Ramesh; Sun, Pang-Chen; Fainman, Y.

    1998-04-01

    An attempt to eavesdrop on a quantum cryptographic channel reveals itself through errors it inevitably introduces into the transmission. We investigate the relationship between the induced error rate and the maximum amount of information the eavesdropper can extract, in both the two-state B92 [B92 refers to the work of C. H. Bennett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3121 (1992)] and the four-state BB84 [BB84 refers to the work of C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing, Bangalore, India (IEEE, New York, 1984), pp. 175-179] quantum cryptographic protocols. In each case, the optimal eavesdropping method that on average yields the most information for a given error rate is explicitly constructed. Analysis is limited to eavesdropping strategies where each bit of the quantum transmission is attacked individually and independently from other bits. Subject to this restriction, however, we believe that all attacks not forbidden by physical laws are covered. Unlike previous work, the eavesdropper's advantage is measured in terms of Renyi (rather than Shannon) information, and with respect only to bits received error-free by Bob (rather than all bits). This alters both the maximum extractable information and the optimal eavesdropping attack. The result can be used directly at the privacy amplification stage of the protocol to accomplish secure communication over a noisy channel.

  1. Major dog attack injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, N E; Chochinov, H; Fraser, V

    1983-10-01

    Children are frequently admitted to a hospital with injuries sustained as a result of being attacked by a dog. Over a 5-year period (1977 to 1981), 57 such patients have been treated at the Winnipeg Children's Hospital. Half of the dog attack victims were 5 years or younger with injuries occurring more often in boys (55%). The majority of patients (95%) sustained puncture wounds and lacerations to the face (77%) and extremities (23%). In three of the cases, the dog attack victims presented with peritonitis secondary to bowel perforation and were treated successfully. A fourth child died as a result of his injuries prior to reaching the hospital. In the past, much attention has been focused on soft tissue injuries and their cosmetic repair. It is also important to recognize that the small child is particularly vulnerable to dog maulings from which the injuries sustained may be life threatening or lethal. Prevention seems to be the only rational approach to solving this problem.

  2. Cryptogenic Drop Attacks: An Affliction of Women

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, D. L.; Matthews, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    A drop attack was defined as falling without warning, not apparently due to any malfunction of the legs, not induced by change of posture or movement of the head, and not accompanied by vertigo or other cephalic sensation. All 33 patients attending a neurological clinic with a primary complaint fulfilling these criteria were women, and a further seven examples were found by questioning 200 consecutive patients at a gynaecological clinic. No affected male was found. In all but one patient, falls occurred only when walking. They were not due to wearing high-heeled shoes. The average age at onset was 44·5 years and in younger women onset was often during pregnancy. The accepted causes of drop attacks were not found with certainty in any of these patients. The sex incidence and the circumstances of the falls suggest that the cause may lie in differences between the two sexes in the mechanism of walking rather than in any central disturbance. Drop attacks in women commonly occur as an isolated symptom for many years, and although distressing have no serious prognostic implications. PMID:4689829

  3. Enhancing network robustness against malicious attacks.

    PubMed

    Zeng, An; Liu, Weiping

    2012-06-01

    In a recent work [Schneider et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 3838 (2011)], the authors proposed a simple measure for network robustness under malicious attacks on nodes. Using a greedy algorithm, they found that the optimal structure with respect to this quantity is an onion structure in which high-degree nodes form a core surrounded by rings of nodes with decreasing degree. However, in real networks the failure can also occur in links such as dysfunctional power cables and blocked airlines. Accordingly, complementary to the node-robustness measurement (R(n)), we propose a link-robustness index (R(l)). We show that solely enhancing R(n) cannot guarantee the improvement of R(l). Moreover, the structure of an R(l)-optimized network is found to be entirely different from that of an onion network. In order to design robust networks that are resistant to a more realistic attack condition, we propose a hybrid greedy algorithm that takes both the R(n) and R(l) into account. We validate the robustness of our generated networks against malicious attacks mixed with both nodes and links failure. Finally, some economical constraints for swapping the links in real networks are considered, and significant improvement in both aspects of robustness is still achieved.

  4. Enhancing network robustness against malicious attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, An; Liu, Weiping

    2012-06-01

    In a recent work [Schneider , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USAPNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.1009440108 108, 3838 (2011)], the authors proposed a simple measure for network robustness under malicious attacks on nodes. Using a greedy algorithm, they found that the optimal structure with respect to this quantity is an onion structure in which high-degree nodes form a core surrounded by rings of nodes with decreasing degree. However, in real networks the failure can also occur in links such as dysfunctional power cables and blocked airlines. Accordingly, complementary to the node-robustness measurement (Rn), we propose a link-robustness index (Rl). We show that solely enhancing Rn cannot guarantee the improvement of Rl. Moreover, the structure of an Rl-optimized network is found to be entirely different from that of an onion network. In order to design robust networks that are resistant to a more realistic attack condition, we propose a hybrid greedy algorithm that takes both the Rn and Rl into account. We validate the robustness of our generated networks against malicious attacks mixed with both nodes and links failure. Finally, some economical constraints for swapping the links in real networks are considered, and significant improvement in both aspects of robustness is still achieved.

  5. What Can We Learn?--The Algonquin Bear Attack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Describes a bear attack in Algonquin Park in Lake Opeongo (Canada) in which a man and woman were killed. Hypothesizes that the bear deliberately preyed on its victims and concludes that the bear was physically normal. Despite this isolated attack, the chance of being attacked by a black bear when camping is virtually nonexistent. (KS)

  6. Early Warning and Prediction of Interest Attacks and Exploits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    EARLY WARNING AND PREDICTION OF INTERNET ATTACKS AND EXPLOITS THESIS Brian P. Zeitz... EARLY WARNING AND PREDICTION OF INTERNET ATTACKS AND EXPLOITS THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer...RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED iv AFIT/GIA/ENG/05-06 EARLY WARNING AND PREDICTION OF INTERNET ATTACKS AND EXPLOITS

  7. What Can We Learn?--The Algonquin Bear Attack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Describes a bear attack in Algonquin Park in Lake Opeongo (Canada) in which a man and woman were killed. Hypothesizes that the bear deliberately preyed on its victims and concludes that the bear was physically normal. Despite this isolated attack, the chance of being attacked by a black bear when camping is virtually nonexistent. (KS)

  8. Minimum State Awareness for Resilient Control Systems Under Cyber-Attack

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, Roger; Fugate, David L; McIntyre, Timothy J

    2012-01-01

    State awareness for a control system is the accurate knowledge of the internal states of the system realization. To maintain stable operation, a controller requires a certain degree of state awareness. By definition, a cyber-attacker decreases the state awareness by modifying or removing the information available to the operator and control system. By doing so, the attacker can directly cause damage to the physical system through the control system, or indirectly by causing the operator to react in a damaging manner to the false information. In a number of recent papers, detection and mitigation strategies have been proposed that assume state awareness. The goal of the attacker to reduce or remove state awareness makes this assumption invalid for most situations. One of the central problems of resilient control is developing methods to retain sufficient state awareness to continue operation during a cyberattack. In this paper, we will define state awareness, discuss the consequences of loss of state awareness, and some potential research directions for maintaining state awareness.

  9. Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Species, Flight, and Attack on Living Eastern Cottonwood Trees.

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, D R; D.C. Booth: M.S. Wallace

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT In spring 2002, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infested an intensively managed 22-ha tree plantation on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Nearly 3,500 scolytids representing 28 species were captured in ethanol-baited traps from 18 June 2002 to 18 April 2004. More than 88% of total captures were exotic species. Five species [Dryoxylon onoharaensum (Murayama), Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus (Zimmermann), Xyleborus atratus Eichhoff, and Xyleborus impressus Eichhoff]) were collected in South Carolina for the first time. Of four tree species in the plantation, eastern cottonwood, Populus deltoides Bartram, was the only one attacked, with nearly 40% of the trees sustaining ambrosia beetle damage. Clone ST66 sustained more damage than clone S7C15. ST66 trees receiving fertilization were attacked more frequently than trees receiving irrigation, irrigation_fertilization, or controls, although the number of S7C15 trees attacked did not differ among treatments. The study location is near major shipping ports; our results demonstrate the necessity for intensive monitoring programs to determine the arrival, spread, ecology, and impact of exotic scolytids.

  10. Green Cleaning Label Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  11. Sowing Green Seeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yingjun, Chen; Jianzhuang, Rong

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with the development of environmental education Hunan Yueyang Middle School Number One. Famous for its beautiful environment and lush green trees, the school has won titles such as "park" unit, "garden" school, "green school" and "National Advanced Unit for Environmental Education." In…

  12. Green Buildings and Health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  13. Custodial Operations: Green & Sustainable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, J. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Custodial Operations can have a significant impact on institutional green and sustainable goals if given the proper support and challenge. This article describes the green and sustainable custodial operations in place at Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota. The article reviews the college's sustainable efforts on biodegradables, packaging,…

  14. 10 Paths to Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Some institutions may feel comfortable with a few baby steps into the green world, while others may be ready to commit totally to environmental consciousness. Here, the author discusses 10 areas in which educators and administrators can beef up their green portfolio. These areas are in: alternative fuel, bikes/walking, water, education tools,…

  15. Green Cleaning Label Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  16. Green Building Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sailor, David Jean

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  17. Greening the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Norma Velia

    2011-01-01

    Because educators vicariously touch the future through their students, the author believes that they sometimes have the uncanny ability to see the future. One common future forecast is the phenomenal growth of green jobs in the emerging green economy, leading to the creation of the "Reach of the Sun" Solar Energy Academy at La Mirada…

  18. 10 Paths to Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Some institutions may feel comfortable with a few baby steps into the green world, while others may be ready to commit totally to environmental consciousness. Here, the author discusses 10 areas in which educators and administrators can beef up their green portfolio. These areas are in: alternative fuel, bikes/walking, water, education tools,…

  19. The Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huke, Robert E.

    1985-01-01

    Modern agriculture's green revolution refers to a complex package that includes improved seeds and a wide range of efficient management practices. The genetic history of and technological developments that led to the green revolution are described, and its impact discussed. (RM)

  20. Lighting: Green Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniccia, Dorine

    2003-01-01

    Explains that by using sustainable (green) building practices, schools and universities can make their lighting systems more efficient, noting that embracing green design principles can help schools attract students. Discusses lighting-control technologies (occupancy sensing technology, daylighting technology, and scheduling based technologies),…