Science.gov

Sample records for green chemical syntheses

  1. ADVANCES IN GREEN CHEMISTRY: CHEMICAL SYNTHESES USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION, ISBN 81-901238-5-8

    EPA Science Inventory

    16. Abstract Advances in Green Chemistry: Chemical Syntheses Using Microwave Irradiation
    Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses in solvents as well as under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predomi...

  2. Synthesis, characterization, biocompatible and anticancer activity of green and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles - A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kummara, Sivaiah; Patil, Mrityunjaya B; Uriah, Tiewlasubon

    2016-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are superior cluster of nanomaterials that are recently recognized for their different applications in various pharmaceutical and clinical settings. The objective of this work deals with novel method for biosynthesis of AgNPs using Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf extract as reducing agent. These bio and chemical synthesized nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV-vis Spectroscopy, Nanotarc, Dynamic light scattering (DLS), Zeta Potential (ZP), Transmission Electron Microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The obtained results from Nanotrac and TEM revealed that the synthesized AgNPs possess spherical shape with a mean diameter at 94nm for green and 104nm for chemical method, the zeta potential values was -12.02mV for green AgNPs and -10.4mV for chemical AgNPs. In addition, FT-IR measurement analysis was conceded out to identify the Ag(+) ions reduced from the specific functional groups on the AgNPs, which increased the stability of the particles. Further, we compared the toxicities of green and chemical AgNPs against human skin dermal fibroblast (HDFa) and brine shrimp followed by anticancer activity in NCI-H460 cells. We observed green AgNPs cause dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Further, we proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect and induction of cellular apoptosis in NCI-H460 cells. Furthermore, green AgNPs had no significant changes in cell viability, ROS production and apoptotic changes in HDFa cells. In contrary, we observed that the chemical AgNPs possess significant toxicities in HDFa cells. Hence, the green AgNPs were able to induce selective toxicity in cancer cells than the chemical AgNPs. Furthermore, green AgNPs exhibit less toxic effects against human red blood cells and brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii than the chemical AgNPs. It was concluded, that apart from being superior over chemical AgNPs, the green Ag

  3. White biotechnology for green chemistry: fermentative 2-oxocarboxylic acids as novel building blocks for subsequent chemical syntheses.

    PubMed

    Stottmeister, U; Aurich, A; Wilde, H; Andersch, J; Schmidt, S; Sicker, D

    2005-12-01

    Functionalized compounds, which are difficult to produce by classical chemical synthesis, are of special interest as biotechnologically available targets. They represent useful building blocks for subsequent organic syntheses, wherein they can undergo stereoselective or regioselective reactions. "White Biotechnology" (as defined by the European Chemical Industry [ http://www.europabio.org/white_biotech.htm ], as part of a sustainable "Green Chemistry,") supports new applications of chemicals produced via biotechnology. Environmental aspects of this interdisciplinary combination include: Use of renewable feedstock Optimization of biotechnological processes by means of: New "high performance" microorganisms On-line measurement of substrates and products in bioreactors Alternative product isolation, resulting in higher yields, and lower energy demand In this overview we describe biotechnologically produced pyruvic, 2-oxopentaric and 2-oxohexaric acids as promising new building blocks for synthetic chemistry. In the first part, the microbial formation of 2-oxocarboxylic acids (2-OCAs) in general, and optimization of the fermentation steps required to form pyruvic acid, 2-oxoglutaric acid, and 2-oxo-D-gluconic acid are described, highlighting the fundamental advantages in comparison to chemical syntheses. In the second part, a set of chemical formula schemes demonstrate that 2-OCAs are applicable as building blocks in the chemical synthesis of, e.g., hydrophilic triazines, spiro-connected heterocycles, benzotriazines, and pyranoic amino acids. Finally, some perspectives are discussed.

  4. Characterization and Biocompatibility of ``Green'' Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulton, Michael; Kunzelman, Samantha; Braydich-Stolle, Laura; Nadagouda, M.; Varma, R.; Hussain, Saber

    2008-10-01

    With ever increasing emphasis on nanotechnology, silver nanoparticle are being considered for many antimicrobial needs ranging from catheter coatings, to burn wound bandages. Current synthesis methods for creating silver nanoparticles typically call for potentially hazardous chemicals, extreme heat, and produce environmentally dangerous byproducts. As a culture intent on reducing our carbon footprint on the earth, societies' focus has turned to ``green'' production capabilities. Therefore, if nanotechnology is to continue to grow at its current rate it is essential that novel ``green'' synthesis of nanoparticles becomes a reality. Furthermore, with the current and near-future applications of silver nanoparticles in biological systems it is imperative to fully analyze the potential toxic effects of these nanoparticles. In this study we have shown that by reducing silver nitrate in solutions of tea extract or epinephrine of varying concentrations spherical silver nanoparticle are formed. Furthermore, evaluation of mitochondrial function (MTS) and membrane integrity (LDH) in alveolar rat macrophages and human keratinocytes showed that these ``green'' synthesized silver nanoparticles were nontoxic.

  5. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign. PMID:18768813

  6. ‘GREENER’ CHEMICAL SYNTHESES USING MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The diverse nature of chemical entities requires various green strategic pathways in our quest towards attaining sustainability. A solvent-free approach that involves microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) catalyzed by the surfaces of less-expensive and recyclable ...

  7. A green chemistry approach for synthesizing biocompatible gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a fascinating class of nanomaterial that can be used for a wide range of biomedical applications, including bio-imaging, lateral flow assays, environmental detection and purification, data storage, drug delivery, biomarkers, catalysis, chemical sensors, and DNA detection. Biological synthesis of nanoparticles appears to be simple, cost-effective, non-toxic, and easy to use for controlling size, shape, and stability, which is unlike the chemically synthesized nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to synthesize homogeneous AuNPs using pharmaceutically important Ganoderma spp. We developed a simple, non-toxic, and green method for water-soluble AuNP synthesis by treating gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl4) with a hot aqueous extract of the Ganoderma spp. mycelia. The formation of biologically synthesized AuNPs (bio-AuNPs) was characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the biocompatibility of as-prepared AuNPs was evaluated using a series of assays, such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, and reactive oxygen species generation (ROS) in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). The color change of the solution from yellow to reddish pink and strong surface plasmon resonance were observed at 520 nm using UV-visible spectroscopy, and that indicated the formation of AuNPs. DLS analysis revealed the size distribution of AuNPs in liquid solution, and the average size of AuNPs was 20 nm. The size and morphology of AuNPs were investigated using TEM. The biocompatibility effect of as-prepared AuNPs was investigated in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by using various concentrations of AuNPs (10 to 100 μM) for 24 h. Our findings suggest that AuNPs are non-cytotoxic and biocompatible. To the best of our knowledge

  8. A green chemistry approach for synthesizing biocompatible gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, JaeWoong; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a fascinating class of nanomaterial that can be used for a wide range of biomedical applications, including bio-imaging, lateral flow assays, environmental detection and purification, data storage, drug delivery, biomarkers, catalysis, chemical sensors, and DNA detection. Biological synthesis of nanoparticles appears to be simple, cost-effective, non-toxic, and easy to use for controlling size, shape, and stability, which is unlike the chemically synthesized nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to synthesize homogeneous AuNPs using pharmaceutically important Ganoderma spp. We developed a simple, non-toxic, and green method for water-soluble AuNP synthesis by treating gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl4) with a hot aqueous extract of the Ganoderma spp. mycelia. The formation of biologically synthesized AuNPs (bio-AuNPs) was characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the biocompatibility of as-prepared AuNPs was evaluated using a series of assays, such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, and reactive oxygen species generation (ROS) in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). The color change of the solution from yellow to reddish pink and strong surface plasmon resonance were observed at 520 nm using UV-visible spectroscopy, and that indicated the formation of AuNPs. DLS analysis revealed the size distribution of AuNPs in liquid solution, and the average size of AuNPs was 20 nm. The size and morphology of AuNPs were investigated using TEM. The biocompatibility effect of as-prepared AuNPs was investigated in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by using various concentrations of AuNPs (10 to 100 μM) for 24 h. Our findings suggest that AuNPs are non-cytotoxic and biocompatible. To the best of our knowledge

  9. A green chemistry approach for synthesizing biocompatible gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, JaeWoong; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a fascinating class of nanomaterial that can be used for a wide range of biomedical applications, including bio-imaging, lateral flow assays, environmental detection and purification, data storage, drug delivery, biomarkers, catalysis, chemical sensors, and DNA detection. Biological synthesis of nanoparticles appears to be simple, cost-effective, non-toxic, and easy to use for controlling size, shape, and stability, which is unlike the chemically synthesized nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to synthesize homogeneous AuNPs using pharmaceutically important Ganoderma spp . We developed a simple, non-toxic, and green method for water-soluble AuNP synthesis by treating gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl4) with a hot aqueous extract of the Ganoderma spp . mycelia. The formation of biologically synthesized AuNPs (bio-AuNPs) was characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the biocompatibility of as-prepared AuNPs was evaluated using a series of assays, such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, and reactive oxygen species generation (ROS) in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). The color change of the solution from yellow to reddish pink and strong surface plasmon resonance were observed at 520 nm using UV-visible spectroscopy, and that indicated the formation of AuNPs. DLS analysis revealed the size distribution of AuNPs in liquid solution, and the average size of AuNPs was 20 nm. The size and morphology of AuNPs were investigated using TEM. The biocompatibility effect of as-prepared AuNPs was investigated in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by using various concentrations of AuNPs (10 to 100 μM) for 24 h. Our findings suggest that AuNPs are non-cytotoxic and biocompatible. To the best of our knowledge

  10. Electrical and optical characterization of green synthesized Gd2S3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Somnath; Sarkar, A.

    2016-05-01

    Gadolinium sulphide (Gd2S3) is a magnetic semiconductor with large band gap. Gd2S3 was synthesized following chemical and green techniques. Later process provides good stability of the nano clusters (NC) due to in-situ capping of Gd2S3 NC. It has been found that the optical band gap in Gd2S3 developed by green synthesis is lowered considerably over that in chemically synthesized Gd2S3. The green agencies used in this work are Jatropha Latex and dilute Garlic extract; both are enriched in sulphur and other organic polymer molecules. Simple observation shows that Gd2S3 NC retains residual magnetization. In this work optical and electrical characterization of the developed Gd2S3 specimens are carried out. The overall results obtained are good.

  11. Evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of green synthesized silver nanoparticles by Piper longum fruit.

    PubMed

    Reddy, N Jayachandra; Nagoor Vali, D; Rani, M; Rani, S Sudha

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles synthesized through bio-green method has been reported to have biomedical applications to control pathogenic microbes as it is cost effective compared to commonly used physical and chemical methods. In present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized using aqueous Piper longum fruit extract (PLFE) and confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average particle size of 46nm as determined by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) particle size analyzer respectively. FT-IR spectrum revealed the capping of the phytoconstituents, probably polyphenols from P. longum fruit extract and stabilizing the nanoparticles. Further the ferric ion reducing test, confirmed that the capping agents were condensed tannins. The aqueous P. longum fruit extract (PLFE) and the green synthesized silver nanoparticles (PLAgNPs) showed powerful antioxidant properties in in vitro antioxidant assays. The results from the antimicrobial assays suggested that green synthesized silver nanoparticles (PLAgNPs) were more potent against pathogenic bacteria than the P. longum fruit extract (PLFE) alone. The nanoparticles also showed potent cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines with an IC 50 value of 67μg/ml/24h by the MTT assay. These results support the advantages of using bio-green method for synthesizing silver nanoparticles with antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities those are simple and cost effective as well.

  12. Evaluation of green synthesized silver nanoparticles against parasites.

    PubMed

    Marimuthu, Sampath; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Elango, Gandhi; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal

    2011-06-01

    Green nanoparticle synthesis has been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract and eco-friendly reducing and capping agents. The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Mimosa pudica Gaertn (Mimosaceae) against the larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi, filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini (Acari: Ixodidae). Parasite larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of M. pudica and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. AgNPs were rapidly synthesized using the leaf extract of M. pudica and the formation of nanoparticles was observed within 6 h. The results recorded from UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs against the larvae of A. subpictus, C. quinquefasciatus, and R. microplus (LC(50) = 13.90, 11.73, and 8.98 mg/L, r (2) = 0.411, 0.286, and 0.479), respectively. This is the first report on antiparasitic activity of the plant extract and synthesized AgNPs.

  13. Antibacterial and catalytic activities of green synthesized silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindhu, M. R.; Umadevi, M.

    2015-01-01

    The aqueous beetroot extract was used as reducing agent for silver nanoparticles synthesis. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface plasmon resonance peak of synthesized nanoparticles was observed at 438 nm. As the concentration of beetroot extract increases, absorption spectra shows blue shift with decreasing particle size. The prepared silver nanoparticles were well dispersed, spherical in shape with the average particle size of 15 nm. The prepared silver nanoparticles are effective in inhibiting the growth of both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The prepared silver nanoparticles reveal faster catalytic activity. This natural method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles offers a valuable contribution in the area of green synthesis and nanotechnology avoiding the presence of hazardous and toxic solvents and waste.

  14. Antibacterial and catalytic activities of green synthesized silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bindhu, M R; Umadevi, M

    2015-01-25

    The aqueous beetroot extract was used as reducing agent for silver nanoparticles synthesis. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface plasmon resonance peak of synthesized nanoparticles was observed at 438 nm. As the concentration of beetroot extract increases, absorption spectra shows blue shift with decreasing particle size. The prepared silver nanoparticles were well dispersed, spherical in shape with the average particle size of 15 nm. The prepared silver nanoparticles are effective in inhibiting the growth of both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The prepared silver nanoparticles reveal faster catalytic activity. This natural method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles offers a valuable contribution in the area of green synthesis and nanotechnology avoiding the presence of hazardous and toxic solvents and waste.

  15. Chemically synthesized FePt nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, Victor; Abel, Frank; Hu, Xiaocao; Crespo, Patricia; Hadjipanayis, George

    2014-03-01

    FePt nanoparticles (NPs) are being widely investigated due to their high potential applications in magnetic recording media and biomedicine. These NPs are expected to be ideal candidates due to their excellent magnetic properties, such as high K and high Ms together with a high chemical stability. In this work, the FePt NPs have been synthesized by chemical routes according to the method reported by M. Chen et al.[2] At high temperature, surfactants together with iron pentacarbonyl are added to the solution and thermally decomposed. By controlling the injection temperature and the heating rate, we have been able to obtain homogeneous spherical clusters with an average size of 38 +/- 10 nm formed by 5 nm-FePt NPs. These clusters are found to be superparamagnetic above Tb of 55 K whereas at 5 K exhibit a coercive field of 1.2 kOe. Furthermore, these NPs seem to be highly stable in water after replacing the surfactants by TMAOH. These clusters appear to be good candidates for MRI and hyperthermia applications. This work was supported by NSF DMR-0302544.

  16. Spectral Studies of UV and Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of AZO Dye and Textile Dye Effluents Using Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Mariselvam, R.; Ranjitsingh, A. J. A.; Mosae Selvakumar, P.; Alarfaj, Abdullah A.; Munusamy, Murugan A.

    2016-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of the chemical dye AZO and dye effluents in different time duration has been investigated using biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles. Dye industry effluents and AZO dye undergo degradation to form harmless intermediate and colourless products following irradiation by UV and solar light in the presence of green synthesized silver nanoparticles. The degree of degradation was tested under the experimental conditions such as PH, temperature, and absorbance of the dye in UV and solar light was measured. The degradation was higher in the UV light source than in the solar light source. Green synthesized silver nanoparticles in the UV light source were found to expedite the dye degradation process. PMID:27382364

  17. Spectral Studies of UV and Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of AZO Dye and Textile Dye Effluents Using Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mariselvam, R; Ranjitsingh, A J A; Mosae Selvakumar, P; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A

    2016-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of the chemical dye AZO and dye effluents in different time duration has been investigated using biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles. Dye industry effluents and AZO dye undergo degradation to form harmless intermediate and colourless products following irradiation by UV and solar light in the presence of green synthesized silver nanoparticles. The degree of degradation was tested under the experimental conditions such as P(H), temperature, and absorbance of the dye in UV and solar light was measured. The degradation was higher in the UV light source than in the solar light source. Green synthesized silver nanoparticles in the UV light source were found to expedite the dye degradation process.

  18. Green synthesized conditions impacting on the reactivity of Fe NPs for the degradation of malachite green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lanlan; Luo, Fang; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates green tea extract synthesized conditions impacting on the reactivity of iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) used for the degradation of malachite green (MG), including the volume ratio of Fe2+ and tea extract, the solution pH and temperature. Results indicated that the reactivity of Fe NPs increased with higher temperature, but fell with increasing pH and the volume ratio of Fe2+ and tea extract. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that Fe NPs were spherical in shape, their diameter was 70-80 nm and they were mainly composed of iron oxide nanoparticles. UV-visible (UV-vis) indicated that reactivity of Fe NPs used in degradation of MG significantly depended on the synthesized conditions of Fe NPs. This was due to their impact on the reactivity and morphology of Fe NPs. Finally, degradation of MG showed that 90.56% of MG was removed using Fe NPs.

  19. Green synthesized conditions impacting on the reactivity of Fe NPs for the degradation of malachite green.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lanlan; Luo, Fang; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2015-02-25

    This study investigates green tea extract synthesized conditions impacting on the reactivity of iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) used for the degradation of malachite green (MG), including the volume ratio of Fe(2+) and tea extract, the solution pH and temperature. Results indicated that the reactivity of Fe NPs increased with higher temperature, but fell with increasing pH and the volume ratio of Fe(2+) and tea extract. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that Fe NPs were spherical in shape, their diameter was 70-80 nm and they were mainly composed of iron oxide nanoparticles. UV-visible (UV-vis) indicated that reactivity of Fe NPs used in degradation of MG significantly depended on the synthesized conditions of Fe NPs. This was due to their impact on the reactivity and morphology of Fe NPs. Finally, degradation of MG showed that 90.56% of MG was removed using Fe NPs.

  20. CHEMICAL SYNTHESES IN AQUEOUS MEDIA USING MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of efficient, selective and eco-friendly synthetic methods has remained a major focus of our research group. Microwave (MW) irradiation as alternative energy source in conjunction with water as reaction media has proven to be a successful 'greener' chemical appro...

  1. 'GREENER' CHEMICAL SYNTHESES USING ALTERNATE REACTION CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave (MW) irradiation in conjunction with water as reaction media has proven to be a greener chemical approach for expeditious N-alkylation reactions of amines and hydrazines wherein the reactions under mildly basic conditions afford tertiary amines and double N-alkylation t...

  2. Chemical evolution - Recent syntheses of bioorganic molecules.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephen-Sherwood, E.; Oro, J.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the important developments that have occurred in abiological biomonomer and biopolymer synthesis since about 1967, and discussion of their significance for the field of chemical evolution and the origin of life. The major portion of the review is devoted to important developments in the abiotic formation of bioorganic monomers and their condensation to biopolymers under conditions presumed to have prevailed on the primeval earth. Special attention is given to contributions shedding light on the mechanism of synthesis and selection of amino acids and on interactions of amino acids and polypeptides with nucleotides and oligonucleotides.

  3. EFFICIENT AND GREENER CHEMICAL SYNTHESES USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The diverse nature of chemical entities requires various ‘green’ strategic pathways in our quest towards attaining sustainability. A solvent-free approach involving microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) catalyzed by the surfaces of less-expensive and rec...

  4. Green synthesis and antimicrobial activity of monodisperse silver nanoparticles synthesized using Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yan-yu; Yang, Hui; Wang, Tao; Wang, Chuang

    2016-11-01

    Various parts of plants can be used as a raw material for the synthesis of nanoparticles, which is eco-friendly way and does not involve any harmful chemicals. In this project, Ginkgo biloba leaf, an abundantly available medicinal plant in China, was for the first time adopted as a reducing and stabilizing agent to synthesize smaller sized and stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). To improve the quality of AgNPs, the reduction was accelerated by changing the concentrations of initial Ag+ (0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mol/L) of the reaction mixture consisting of silver nitrate solution (AgNO3) and Ginkgo biloba leaf extract. At pH = 8 and lower AgNO3 concentration (0.02 mol/L), a colloid consisting of well-dispersed spherical nanoparticles was obtained. The synthesized nanocrystals were successfully characterized by UV-vis and XRD. TEM images revealed the size of the spherical AgNPs ranged between 10-16 nm. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of sbnd NH2, sbnd OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the nanoparticles. The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited good antibacterial activities against gram-negative bacteria and gram-positive bacteria. Compared to traditional chemical methods, Ginkgo biloba leaf extract provides an easy green synthetical way. It is anticipated that the biosynthesized AgNPs can be used in areas such as cosmetics, foods and medical applications.

  5. GREEN CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS THROUGH CATALYSIS AND ALTERNATE REACTION CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green chemical synthesis through catalysis and alternate reaction conditions

    Encompassing green chemistry techniques and methodologies, we have initiated several projects at the National Risk Management Research laboratory that focus on the design and development of chemic...

  6. Monodispersive CoPt Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Chemical Reduction Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Cheng-Min; Hui, Chao; Yang, Tian-Zhong; Xiao, Cong-Wen; En, Shu-Tang; Ding, Hao; Gao, Hong-Jun

    2008-04-01

    Monodispersive CoPt nanoparticles in sizes of about 2.2 nm are synthesized by superhydride reduction of CoCl2 and PtCl2 in diphenyl ether. The as-prepared nanoparticles show a chemically disordered A1 structure and are superparamagnetic. Thermal annealing transforms the A1 structure into chemically ordered L10 structure and the particles are ferromagnetic at room temperature.

  7. Antimicrobial potential of green synthesized CeO2 nanoparticles from Olea europaea leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Maqbool, Qaisar; Nazar, Mudassar; Naz, Sania; Hussain, Talib; Jabeen, Nyla; Kausar, Rizwan; Anwaar, Sadaf; Abbas, Fazal; Jan, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the green fabrication of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) using Olea europaea leaf extract and their applications as effective antimicrobial agents. O. europaea leaf extract functions as a chelating agent for reduction of cerium nitrate. The resulting CeO2 NPs exhibit pure single-face cubic structure, which is examined by X-ray diffraction, with a uniform spherical shape and a mean size 24 nm observed through scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy confirms the characteristic absorption peak of CeO2 NPs at 315 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflects stretching frequencies at 459 cm−1, showing utilization of natural components for the production of NPs. Thermal gravimetric analysis predicts the successful capping of CeO2 NPs by bioactive molecules present in the plant extract. The antimicrobial studies show significant zone of inhibition against bacterial and fungal strains. The higher activities shown by the green synthesized NPs than the plant extract lead to the conclusion that they can be effectively used in biomedical application. Furthermore, reduction of cerium salt by plant extract will reduce environmental impact over chemical synthesis. PMID:27785011

  8. Antibacterial Activity of Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles Using Vasaka (Justicia adhatoda L.) Leaf Extract.

    PubMed

    Bose, Debadin; Chatterjee, Someswar

    2015-06-01

    There is an increasing demand for silver nanoparticles due to its wide applicability in various area of biological science such as in field of antimicrobial and therapeutics, biosensing, drug delivery etc. To use in bioprocess the silver nanoparticles should be biocompatible and free from toxic chemicals. In the present study we report a cost effective and environment friendly route for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Vasaka (Justicia adhatoda L.) leaf extract as reducing as well as capping agent. This plant has been opted for the present study for its known medicinal properties and it is easily available. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles are characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and TEM analysis. It is observed the nanoparticles are well shaped and the average particle size is 20 nm in the range of 5-50 nm. The antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles against Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 741 has been measured by disc diffusion method, agar cup assay and serial dilution turbidity measurement assay. The results show green synthesized silver nanoparticles, using Vasaka leaf extract, have a potential to inhibit the growth of bacteria.

  9. Antimicrobial potential of green synthesized CeO2 nanoparticles from Olea europaea leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Maqbool, Qaisar; Nazar, Mudassar; Naz, Sania; Hussain, Talib; Jabeen, Nyla; Kausar, Rizwan; Anwaar, Sadaf; Abbas, Fazal; Jan, Tariq

    This article reports the green fabrication of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) using Olea europaea leaf extract and their applications as effective antimicrobial agents. O. europaea leaf extract functions as a chelating agent for reduction of cerium nitrate. The resulting CeO2 NPs exhibit pure single-face cubic structure, which is examined by X-ray diffraction, with a uniform spherical shape and a mean size 24 nm observed through scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy confirms the characteristic absorption peak of CeO2 NPs at 315 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflects stretching frequencies at 459 cm(-1), showing utilization of natural components for the production of NPs. Thermal gravimetric analysis predicts the successful capping of CeO2 NPs by bioactive molecules present in the plant extract. The antimicrobial studies show significant zone of inhibition against bacterial and fungal strains. The higher activities shown by the green synthesized NPs than the plant extract lead to the conclusion that they can be effectively used in biomedical application. Furthermore, reduction of cerium salt by plant extract will reduce environmental impact over chemical synthesis.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Nigella sativa leaf extract in comparison with chemical silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Amooaghaie, Rayhaneh; Saeri, Mohammad Reza; Azizi, Morteza

    2015-10-01

    Despite the development potential in the field of nanotechnology, there is a concern about possible effects of nanoparticles on the environment and human health. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by 'green' and 'chemical' methods. In the wet-chemistry method, sodium borohydrate, sodium citrate and silver nitrate were used as raw materials. Leaf extract of Nigella sativa was used as reducing as well as capping agent to reduce silver nitrate in the green synthesis method. In addition, toxic responses of both synthesized AgNPs were monitored on bone-building stem cells of mice as well as seed germination and seedling growth of six different plants (Lolium, wheat, bean and common vetch, lettuce and canola). In both synthesis methods, the colorless reaction mixtures turned brown and UV-visible spectra confirmed the presence of silver nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations revealed the predominance of silver nanosized crystallites and fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated the role of different functional groups in the synthetic process. MTT assay showed cell viability of bone-building stem cells of mice was further in the green AgNPs synthesized using black cumin extract than chemical AgNPs. IC50 (inhibitory concentrations) values for seed germination, root and shoot length for 6 plants in green AgNPs exposures were higher than the chemical AgNPs. These results suggest that cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity of the green synthesized AgNPs were significantly less than wet-chemistry synthesized ones. This study indicated an economical, simple and efficient ecofriendly technique using leaves of N. sativa for synthesis of AgNPs and confirmed that green AgNPs are safer than chemically-synthesized AgNPs.

  11. Chemical phase analysis of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Bharti, Amardeep Goyal, Navdeep; Singh, Suman; Singla, M. L.

    2015-08-28

    Noble-metal nanoparticles are of great interest because of its broad applications almost in every stream (i.e. biology, chemistry and engineering) due to their unique size/shape dependant properties. In this paper, chemical phase of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) has been investigated via fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These nanaoparticles were synthesized by seed-growth method controlled by urea and dextrose results to highly stable 12-20 nm particle size revealed by zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  12. Silver-based biohybrids "green" synthesized from Chelidonium majus L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbinta-Patrascu, Marcela Elisabeta; Badea, Nicoleta; Ungureanu, Camelia; Constantin, Marioara; Pirvu, Cristian; Rau, Ileana

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes an original bio-design of organic/inorganic hybrid architectures containing biomimetic membranes and celandine-nanoAg for different bioapplications. A simple, time efficient, low-cost and ecofriendly bottom-up procedure was used to build for the first time, celandine/nanoAg-based hybrids. Dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine bio-inspired lipid bilayers were obtained by thin film hydration method. Chlorophyll a inserted into these liposomes was used as a spectral marker to detect the changes occurred in the artificial membranes. For the first time, silver nanoparticles were eco-synthesized using an aqueous extract of celandine (Chelidonium majus L.). The physical stability of the samples was evaluated in terms of zeta potential. Chlorophyll a photonic properties (based on UV-Vis absorption and emission spectra) were used to monitor the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and of bio-based hybrids. The size of samples was monitored by Dynamic Light Scattering measurements and the morphological aspects were provided by Atomic Force Microscopy analysis. The obtained silver-based biohybrids exhibited high antioxidant activity (98.48%) and strong antimicrobial properties against Escherichia coli ATCC 8738 (offering an inhibition zone of 51 mm diameter) and presented good physical stability (zeta potential reached the value of -30.7 mV) as compared to phyto-nanoAg alone.

  13. Green synthesized nanoparticles in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases and cancer-a brief review.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Nanobiomedicine and parasitology are facing a number of key challenges, which mostly deal with the paucity of effective preventive and curative tools against mosquito-borne diseases and cancer. In this scenario, the employ of botanical and invertebrate extracts as reducing, stabilizing and capping agents for the synthesis of nanoparticles is advantageous over chemical and physical methods, since it is one-pot, cheap, and does not require high pressure, energy, temperature, or the use of highly toxic chemicals. Considering the overlooked connection between mosquito vector activity and the spread of cancer in USA, this review focused on the current knowledge available about green synthesized nanoparticles with efficacy against mosquito-borne diseases and cancer. Green fabricated metal nanoparticles showed antiplasmodial activity that often encompasses the efficacy of currently marked drugs for malaria treatment. They have been also reported as growth inhibitors against dengue virus (serotype DEN-2), with moderate cytotoxicity on mammalian cells. However, this feature is strongly dependent to the botanical agents employed during nanosynthesis. In addition, green nanoparticles have been successfully used to reduce mosquito young instar populations in the field. The final section focuses on some issues for future research, with special reference to the chemical standardization of the botanical extracts used for nanosynthesis and the potential effects on green fabricated nanoparticles on non-target organisms.

  14. Using Green Star Metrics to Optimize the Greenness of Literature Protocols for Syntheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Rita C. C.; Ribeiro, M. Gabriela T. C.; Machado, Adélio A. S. C.

    2015-01-01

    A procedure to improve the greenness of a synthesis, without performing laboratory work, using alternative protocols available in the literature is presented. The greenness evaluation involves the separate assessment of the different steps described in the available protocols--reaction, isolation, and purification--as well as the global process,…

  15. Holistic Metrics for Assessment of the Greenness of Chemical Reactions in the Context of Chemical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, M. Gabriela T. C.; Machado, Adelio A. S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Two new semiquantitative green chemistry metrics, the green circle and the green matrix, have been developed for quick assessment of the greenness of a chemical reaction or process, even without performing the experiment from a protocol if enough detail is provided in it. The evaluation is based on the 12 principles of green chemistry. The…

  16. Green and sustainable chemical synthesis using flow microreactors.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Jun-ichi; Kim, Heejin; Nagaki, Aiichiro

    2011-03-21

    Several features that allow flow microreactors contribute to green and sustainable chemical synthesis are presented: (1) For extremely fast reactions, kinetics often cannot be used because of the lack of homogeneity of the reaction environment when they are conducted in batch macroreactors. Better controllability, by virtue of fast mixing based on short diffusion paths in microreactors, however, leads to a higher selectivity of the products, based on kinetics considerations. Therefore, less waste is produced. (2) Reactions involving highly unstable intermediates usually require very low temperatures when they are conducted in macrobatch reactors. By virtue of short residence times, flow microreactors enable performing such reactions at ambient temperatures, avoiding cryogenic conditions and minimizing the energy required for cooling. (3) By virtue of the precise residence time control, flow microreactors allow to avoid the use of auxiliary substances such as protecting groups, enabling highly atom- and step-economical straightforward syntheses. The development of several test plants based on microreaction technology has proved that flow microreactor synthesis can be applied to the green and sustainable production of chemical substances on industrial scales. (4) Microreactor technology enables on-demand and on-site synthesis, which leads to less energy for transportation and easy recycling of substances.

  17. Size-dependent antimicrobial properties of sugar-encapsulated gold nanoparticles synthesized by a green method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badwaik, Vivek D.; Vangala, Lakshmisri M.; Pender, Dillon S.; Willis, Chad B.; Aguilar, Zoraida P.; Gonzalez, Matthew S.; Paripelly, Rammohan; Dakshinamurthy, Rajalingam

    2012-11-01

    The antimicrobial properties of dextrose-encapsulated gold nanoparticles (dGNPs) with average diameters of 25, 60, and 120 nm (± 5) and synthesized by green chemistry principles were investigated against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Studies were performed involving the effect of dGNPs on the growth, morphology, and ultrastructural properties of bacteria. dGNPs were found to have significant dose-dependent antibacterial activity which was also proportional to their size. Experiments revealed the dGNPs to be bacteriostatic as well as bactericidal. The dGNPs exhibited their bactericidal action by disrupting the bacterial cell membrane which leads to the leakage of cytoplasmic content. The overall outcome of this study suggests that green-synthesized dGNPs hold promise as a potent antibacterial agent against a wide range of disease-causing bacteria by preventing and controlling possible infections or diseases.

  18. Magnetic and Structural Properties of Chemically Synthesized Ni and

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonder, Michael; Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra L.; Zhang, X. Q.; Rieke, R. D.

    1996-03-01

    The reduction of nickel salts using a technique developed by Rieke and co-workers produces highly chemically reactive particles with enhanced magnetic properties due to their nanoscale size. As-synthesized particles are 2-5 nm in diameter and range from superparamagnetic to ferromagnetic, depending on synthesis details. Grain sizes from 5 nm to 1000 nm have been produced by subsequent vacuum annealing. The maximum coercivities and remanence ratios are obtained during the first half-hour to hour of annealing. Coercivities in these systems may be up to ten times the value of bulk nickel, with remanence ratios approaching 0.5. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the nickel grains are square and sometimes embedded in a lithium halide matrix. Under appropriate synthesis and annealing conditions, the as-synthesized particles can be transformed into the metastable Ni_3C phase, which has important implications in catalysis. Comparison with Stoner-Wohlfarth and Holz-Scherrer predictions of the magnetic properties will be made.

  19. Electrochemical behavior of chemically synthesized selenium thin film.

    PubMed

    Patil, A M; Kumbhar, V S; Chodankar, N R; Lokhande, A C; Lokhande, C D

    2016-05-01

    The facile and low cost simple chemical bath deposition (CBD) method is employed to synthesize red colored selenium thin films. These selenium films are characterized for structural, morphological, topographical and wettability studies. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern showed the crystalline nature of selenium thin film with hexagonal crystal structure. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study displays selenium nanoparticles ranging from 20 to 475 nm. A specific surface area of 30.5 m(2) g(-1) is observed for selenium nanoparticles. The selenium nanoparticles hold mesopores in the range of 1.39 nm, taking benefits of the good physicochemical stability and excellent porosity. Subsequently, the electrochemical properties of selenium thin films are deliberated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The selenium thin film shows specific capacitance (Cs) of 21.98 F g(-1) with 91% electrochemical stability.

  20. Biocatalytic and antibacterial visualization of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Hemidesmus indicus.

    PubMed

    Latha, M; Sumathi, M; Manikandan, R; Arumugam, A; Prabhu, N M

    2015-05-01

    In the present investigation, we described the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plant leaf extract of Hemidesmus indicus. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). TEM images proved that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average particle size of 25.24 nm. To evaluate antibacterial efficacy, bacteria was isolated from poultry gut and subjected to 16S rRNA characterization and confirmed as Shigella sonnei. The in vitro antibacterial efficacy of synthesized silver nanoparticles was studied by agar bioassay, well diffusion and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) assay. The H. indicus mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles shows rapid synthesis and higher inhibitory activity (34 ± 0.2 mm) against isolated bacteria S. sonnei at 40 μg/ml.

  1. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2002 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2002 award winner, Chemical Specialties, developed an alkaline copper quaternary wood preservative to replace chromated copper arsenate preservative phased out due to risk to children.

  2. In vitro anticancer potential of BaCO3 nanoparticles synthesized via green route.

    PubMed

    Nagajyothi, P C; Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Sreekanth, T V M; Shim, Jaesool

    2016-03-01

    Green synthesis of nanoparticles is a growing research area because of their potential applications in nanomedicine. Barium carbonate nanoparticles (BaCO3 NPs) were synthesized using an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica seed as a reducing agent. These particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), Energy-dispersive-X-ray (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. HR-TEM images are confirmed that green synthesized BaCO3 NPs have spherical, triangular and uneven shapes. EDX analysis confirmed the presence of Ba, C and O. The peaks at 2θ of 19.45, 23.90, 24.29, 27.72, 33.71, 34.08, 34.60, 41.98, 42.95, 44.18, 44.85, and 46.78 corresponding to (110), (111), (021), (002), (200), (112), (130), (221), (041), (202), (132) and (113) showed that BaCO3 NPs average size was ~18.3 nm. SAED pattern confirmed that BaCO3 NPs are crystalline nature. BaCO3 NPs significantly inhibited cervical carcinoma cells, as evidenced by cytotoxicity assay. Immunofluorescence and fluorescence assays showed that BaCO3 NPs increased the expression and activity of caspase-3, an autocatalytic enzyme that promotes apoptosis. According to the results, green synthesis route has great potential for easy, rapid, inexpensive, eco-friendly and efficient development of novel multifunctional nanoparticles for the treatment of cancer.

  3. Chemically synthesized Iron-Platinum binary alloy nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colak, Levent

    exhibit the chemically disordered A1 (fcc) structure. We have shown that in order to obtain the L10 phase with high magnetocrystalline anisotropy, one should heat treat the as-made nanoparticles at high temperatures (800 °C) and with long periods of annealing time (>120 min). However, aggregation and sintering were inevitable with these parameters. Therefore, we have employed several different approaches for the sintering prevention of chemically synthesized FePt NPs such as formation of FePt NPs/carbon multilayered structures by sputtering of carbon onto FePt NPs previously deposited on a silicon substrate, impregnation of NPs into ordered mesoporous silica (SBA-15) and coating the NPs with a SiO2 shell. In addition to these approaches, we also propose the use of a revolutionary technique which is the construction of hollow mesoporous zirconia shells with exactly one FePt NP in each shell. Among these methods, FePt@SBA-15 mesoporous structures, FePt@SiO2 coating and FePt@hm-ZrO2 encapsulation showed very promising results. A high coercivity value of 8.6 kOe was obtained without a significant size change by annealing at 700 °C for 2h with the FePt@SBA-15 structures. However, minor aggregation on the surface of SBA-15 or within the pores was observed due to diffusion of the NPs. The sintering problem was solved completely by the silica coating technique. We have found that higher temperatures and longer annealing times (900 °C for 24 and 48h) are necessary to develop the coercivity (˜ 13 kOe) for these NPs due to the restricted geometry. By investigating the inter-particle interactions via Henkel plots and the relaxation measurements, it is concluded that interactions (either exchange of dipolar) are absent or negligibly weak and magnetization reversal is governed by coherent rotation. When samples with multi-particle occupancy per silica shell were annealed at 900 °C for 12 h, a high coercivity value of ˜ 8 kOe was obtained at room temperature. Hence, it is

  4. Differential Toxicity Characterization of Green Alternative Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing the toxicity of a chemical across all possible disease domains and understanding its dose- response behavior cost millions to tens of millions of dollars per chemical, and can take years to decades to evaluate fully. This expense and the lack of regulatory requirements ...

  5. Green synthesized cerium oxide nanoparticle: A prospective drug against oxidative harm.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Debanjan; Mukherjee, Riya; Patra, Mousumi; Banik, Milon; Dasgupta, Rakhi; Mukherjee, Manabendra; Basu, Tarakdas

    2016-11-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticle (CeONP) of size 2-3nm was synthesized by a new, simple and green method at ambient temperature, using cerium nitrate as prime precursor and Aloe vera leaf extract as stabilizing agent. Of the two oxidation states (+3) and (+4) of cerium, it was dominantly present in (+3) state in CeONP and cyclic conversion of Ce(III)O→Ce(IV)O→Ce(III)O by reaction with H2O2 implied uninterrupted antioxidant property of CeONP. Moreover, the higher oxygen defect in the crystal lattice produced particles with higher antioxidant activity. CeONP was found to neutralize the deleterious effects of H2O2 viz., cell death, generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and loss of connectivity in mouse neural cells. Therefore, CeONP might have potential use in future as an anti-oxidant drug.

  6. Silver/polysaccharide-based nanofibrous materials synthesized from green chemistry approach.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rodríguez, M A; Garza-Navarro, M A; Moreno-Cortez, I E; Lucio-Porto, R; González-González, V A

    2016-01-20

    In this contribution a novel green chemistry approach for the synthesis of nanofibrous materials based on blends of carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC)-silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) composite and polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA) is proposed. These nanofibrous materials were obtained from the electrospinning of blends of aqueous solutions of CMC-AgNPs composite and PVA, which were prepared at different CMC/PVA weight ratios in order to electrospin nanofibers applying a constant tension of 15kV. The synthesized materials were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy; as well as Fourier-transform infrared, ultraviolet and Raman spectroscopic techniques. Experimental evidence suggests that the diameter of the nanofibers is thinner than any other reported in the literature regarding the electrospinning of CMC. This feature is related to the interactions of AgNPs with carboxyl functional groups of the CMC, which diminish those between the later and acetyl groups of PVA.

  7. Fucan-coated silver nanoparticles synthesized by a green method induce human renal adenocarcinoma cell death.

    PubMed

    Rocha Amorim, Monica Oliveira; Lopes Gomes, Dayanne; Dantas, Larisse Araujo; Silva Viana, Rony Lucas; Chiquetti, Samanta Cristina; Almeida-Lima, Jailma; Silva Costa, Leandro; Oliveira Rocha, Hugo Alexandre

    2016-12-01

    Polysaccharides containing sulfated L-fucose are often called fucans. The seaweed Spatoglossum schröederi synthesizes three fucans, among which fucan A is the most abundant. This polymer is not cytotoxic against various normal cell lines and is non-toxic to rats when administered at high doses. In addition, it exhibits low toxicity against tumor cells. With the aim of increasing the toxicity of fucan A, silver nanoparticles containing this polysaccharide were synthesized using a green chemistry method. The mean size of these nanoparticles was 210nm. They exhibited a spherical shape and negative surface charge and were stable for 14 months. When incubated with cells, these nanoparticles did not show any toxic effects against various normal cell lines; however, they decreased the viability of various tumor cells, especially renal adenocarcinoma cells 786-0. Flow cytometry analyses showed that the nanoparticles induced cell death responses of 786-0 cells through necrosis. Assays performed with several renal cell lines (HEK, VERO, MDCK) showed that these nanoparticles only induce death of 786-0 cells. The data obtained herein leads to the conclusion that fucan A nanoparticles are promising agents against renal adenocarcinoma.

  8. Antimicrobial activity and physical characterization of silver nanoparticles green synthesized using nitrate reductase from Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Gholami-Shabani, Mohammadhassan; Akbarzadeh, Azim; Norouzian, Dariush; Amini, Abdolhossein; Gholami-Shabani, Zeynab; Imani, Afshin; Chiani, Mohsen; Riazi, Gholamhossein; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2014-04-01

    Nanostructures from natural sources have received major attention due to wide array of biological activities and less toxicity for humans, animals, and the environment. In the present study, silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using a fungal nitrate reductase, and their biological activity was assessed against human pathogenic fungi and bacteria. The enzyme was isolated from Fusarium oxysporum IRAN 31C after culturing on malt extract-glucose-yeast extract-peptone (MGYP) medium. The enzyme was purified by a combination of ultrafiltration and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE Sephadex and its molecular weight was estimated by gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300. The purified enzyme had a maximum yield of 50.84 % with a final purification of 70 folds. With a molecular weight of 214 KDa, it is composed of three subunits of 125, 60, and 25 KDa. The purified enzyme was successfully used for synthesis of silver nanoparticles in a way dependent upon NADPH using gelatin as a capping agent. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering spectroscopy, and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. These stable nonaggregating nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average size of 50 nm and a zeta potential of -34.3. Evaluation of the antimicrobial effects of synthesized nanoparticles by disk diffusion method showed strong growth inhibitory activity against all tested human pathogenic fungi and bacteria as evident from inhibition zones that ranged from 14 to 25 mm. Successful green synthesis of biologically active silver nanoparticles by a nitrate reductase from F. oxysporum in the present work not only reduces laborious downstream steps such as purification of nanoparticle from interfering cellular components, but also provides a constant source of safe biologically-active nanomaterials with potential application in agriculture and medicine.

  9. Green chemicals: Searching for cleaner solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, A.

    1994-10-05

    While increased pressure from EPA has solvents producers scrambling to find greener alternatives, many say the cost effectiveness and performance characteristics of traditional technologies are such that they will not disappear quickly. Though a variety of alternative {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} solvents have been developed and commercialized, better means of solvent recovery have also come along, ensuring continued use of many organic solvents. The 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA), designed to eliminate volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone depleters, and other hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), has put limits on many organic solvents. Those most under fire are chlorinated solvents, such as methylene chloride, 1,1,1 trichloroethylene (methyl chloroform), and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-113. Producers have been developing a variety of lower VOC solvents to replace those being phased out or regulated. Among those likely to experience most growth are aliphatic hydrocarbons to replace chlorinated solvents in cleaning applications. Growth is also expected for alcohols, esters, and glycol ethers for other end-use applications.

  10. OPTIMIZING POTENTIAL GREEN REPLACEMENT CHEMICALS – BALANCING FUNCTION AND RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    An important focus of green chemistry is the design of new chemicals that are inherently less toxic than the ones they might replace, but still retain required functional properties. A variety of methods exist to measure or model both functional and toxicity surrogates that could...

  11. Green Synthesis and Catalytic Activity of Gold Nanoparticles Synthesized by Artemisia capillaris Water Extract.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soo Hyeon; Ahn, Eun-Young; Park, Youmie

    2016-12-01

    Gold nanoparticles were synthesized using a water extract of Artemisia capillaris (AC-AuNPs) under different extract concentrations, and their catalytic activity was evaluated in a 4-nitrophenol reduction reaction in the presence of sodium borohydride. The AC-AuNPs showed violet or wine colors with characteristic surface plasmon resonance bands at 534~543 nm that were dependent on the extract concentration. Spherical nanoparticles with an average size of 16.88 ± 5.47~29.93 ± 9.80 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy. A blue shift in the maximum surface plasmon resonance was observed with increasing extract concentration. The face-centered cubic structure of AC-AuNPs was confirmed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis. Based on phytochemical screening and Fourier transform infrared spectra, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and amino acids present in the extract contributed to the reduction of Au ions to AC-AuNPs. The average size of the AC-AuNPs decreased as the extract concentration during the synthesis was increased. Higher 4-nitrophenol reduction reaction rate constants were observed for smaller sizes. The extract in the AC-AuNPs was removed by centrifugation to investigate the effect of the extract in the reduction reaction. Interestingly, the removal of extracts greatly enhanced their catalytic activity by up to 50.4 %. The proposed experimental method, which uses simple centrifugation, can be applied to other metallic nanoparticles that are green synthesized with plant extracts to enhance their catalytic activity.

  12. Green Synthesis and Catalytic Activity of Gold Nanoparticles Synthesized by Artemisia capillaris Water Extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Soo Hyeon; Ahn, Eun-Young; Park, Youmie

    2016-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles were synthesized using a water extract of Artemisia capillaris (AC-AuNPs) under different extract concentrations, and their catalytic activity was evaluated in a 4-nitrophenol reduction reaction in the presence of sodium borohydride. The AC-AuNPs showed violet or wine colors with characteristic surface plasmon resonance bands at 534 543 nm that were dependent on the extract concentration. Spherical nanoparticles with an average size of 16.88 ± 5.47 29.93 ± 9.80 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy. A blue shift in the maximum surface plasmon resonance was observed with increasing extract concentration. The face-centered cubic structure of AC-AuNPs was confirmed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis. Based on phytochemical screening and Fourier transform infrared spectra, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and amino acids present in the extract contributed to the reduction of Au ions to AC-AuNPs. The average size of the AC-AuNPs decreased as the extract concentration during the synthesis was increased. Higher 4-nitrophenol reduction reaction rate constants were observed for smaller sizes. The extract in the AC-AuNPs was removed by centrifugation to investigate the effect of the extract in the reduction reaction. Interestingly, the removal of extracts greatly enhanced their catalytic activity by up to 50.4 %. The proposed experimental method, which uses simple centrifugation, can be applied to other metallic nanoparticles that are green synthesized with plant extracts to enhance their catalytic activity.

  13. A low cost, green method to synthesize GaN nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jun-Wei; Zhang, Yue-Fei; Li, Yong-He; Su, Chao-hua; Song, Xue-Mei; Yan, Hui; Wang, Ru-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of gallium nitride nanowires (GaN NWs) by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) are successfully demonstrated in this work. The simple and green synthesis route is to introduce gallium oxide (Ga2O3) and nitrogen (N2) for the growth of nanowires. The prepared GaN nanowires have a single crystalline wurtzite structure, which the length of some nanowires is up to 20 μm, with a maximum diameter about 140 nm. The morphology and quantity of the nanowires can be modulated by the growth substrate and process parameters. In addition, the photoluminescence and field emission properties of the prepared GaN nanowires have been investigated, which were found to be largely affected by their structures. This work renders an environmentally benign strategy and a facile approach for controllable structures on nanodevice. PMID:26643613

  14. High activity redox catalysts synthesized by chemical vapor impregnation.

    PubMed

    Forde, Michael M; Kesavan, Lokesh; Bin Saiman, Mohd Izham; He, Qian; Dimitratos, Nikolaos; Lopez-Sanchez, Jose Antonio; Jenkins, Robert L; Taylor, Stuart H; Kiely, Christopher J; Hutchings, Graham J

    2014-01-28

    The use of precious metals in heterogeneous catalysis relies on the preparation of small nanoparticles that are stable under reaction conditions. To date, most conventional routes used to prepare noble metal nanoparticles have drawbacks related to surface contamination, particle agglomeration, and reproducibility restraints. We have prepared titania-supported palladium (Pd) and platinum (Pt) catalysts using a simplified vapor deposition technique termed chemical vapor impregnation (CVI) that can be performed in any standard chemical laboratory. These materials, composed of nanoparticles typically below 3 nm in size, show remarkable activity under mild conditions for oxidation and hydrogenation reactions of industrial importance. We demonstrate the preparation of bimetallic Pd-Pt homogeneous alloy nanoparticles by this new CVI method, which show synergistic effects in toluene oxidation. The versatility of our CVI methodology to be able to tailor the composition and morphology of supported nanoparticles in an easily accessible and scalable manner is further demonstrated by the synthesis of Pdshell-Aucore nanoparticles using CVI deposition of Pd onto preformed Au nanoparticles supported on titania (prepared by sol immobilization) in addition to the presence of monometallic Au and Pd nanoparticles.

  15. Template synthesized molecularly imprinted polymer nanotube membranes for chemical separations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Juan; Zhou, Wen-Hui; Yin, Xiao-Fei; Zhuang, Zhi-Xia; Yang, Huang-Hao; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2006-12-20

    In this report, we describe the synthesis of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanotube membrane, using a porous anodic alumina oxide (AAO) membrane by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The use of a MIP nanotube membrane in chemical separations gives the advantage of high affinity and selectivity. Furthermore, because the molecular imprinting technique can be applied to different kinds of target molecules, ranging from small organic molecules to peptides and proteins, such MIP nanotube membranes will considerably broaden the application of nanotube membranes in chemical separations and sensors. This report also shows that the ATRP route is an efficient procedure for the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers. Furthermore, the ATRP route works well in its formation of MIP nanotubes within a porous AAO membrane. The controllable nature of ATRP allows the growth of a MIP nanotube with uniform pores and adjustable thickness. Thus, using the same route, it is possible to tailor the synthesis of MIP nanotube membranes with either thicker MIP nanotubes for capacity improvement or thinner nanotubes for efficiency improvement.

  16. beta. -Sulfopyruvate: chemical and enzymatic syntheses and enzymatic assay

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, C.L.; Griffith, O.W.

    1986-01-01

    BETA-Sulfopyruvic acid (2-carboxy-2-oxoethanesulfonic acid) is prepared in greater than 90% yield by reaction of bromopyruvic acid with sodium sulfite. ..beta..-(/sup 35/S)Sulfopyruvate is prepared by transamination between (/sup 35/)cysteinesulfonate (cysteate) and ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate using mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase isolated from rat liver. Following either chemical or enzymatic synthesis the crude reaction product is conveniently purified by chromatography on Dowex 1; ..beta..-sulfopyruvate is isolated as the stable, water-soluble dilithium salt. ..beta..-Sulfopyruvate is shown to be an alternative substrate of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase; in the presence of 0.25 mM NADH, ..beta..-sulfopyruvate is reduced with an apparent K/sub m/ of 6.3 mM and a V/sub max/ equal to about 40% of that observed with oxaloacetate. This finding forms the basis of a convenient spectrophotometric assay of ..beta..-sulfopyruvate.

  17. Chemically synthesized magnetic Co-Fe-Ga alloy nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Takatomo; Shima, Mutsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic properties of Co2Fe x Ga y alloy nanoparticles in the L21 ordered phase produced by chemical synthesis and post annealing have been investigated. Structural analyses of the Co2Fe x Ga y samples by X-ray diffraction show that both ordered B2 and L21 phases are formed when Ga composition is in the range 0.66 ≤ y ≤ 1.42. With increasing y from 0.58 to 1.4 at x = 1.0, the coercivity increases from 7.1 to 23 mT, while the saturation magnetization decreases from 970 to 410 kA/m. Microstructural analyses using TEM reveal that the alloy particles annealed at 973 K are agglomerated by sintering. When Al(NO3)3 was added during the synthesis, the average particle size significantly decreases from 84 to 12 nm, presumably due to the formation of aluminum oxides, resulting in the decrease in coercivity from 29 to 5.1 mT.

  18. Antibacterial activity of silver bionanocomposites synthesized by chemical reduction route

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to investigate the functions of polymers and size of nanoparticles on the antibacterial activity of silver bionanocomposites (Ag BNCs). In this research, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were incorporated into biodegradable polymers that are chitosan, gelatin and both polymers via chemical reduction method in solvent in order to produce Ag BNCs. Silver nitrate and sodium borohydride were employed as a metal precursor and reducing agent respectively. On the other hand, chitosan and gelatin were added as a polymeric matrix and stabilizer. The antibacterial activity of different sizes of silver nanoparticles was investigated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by the disk diffusion method using Mueller-Hinton Agar. Results The properties of Ag BNCs were studied as a function of the polymer weight ratio in relation to the use of chitosan and gelatin. The morphology of the Ag BNCs films and the distribution of the Ag NPs were also characterized. The diameters of the Ag NPs were measured and their size is less than 20 nm. The antibacterial trait of silver/chitosan/gelatin bionanocomposites was investigated. The silver ions released from the Ag BNCs and their antibacterial activities were scrutinized. The antibacterial activities of the Ag BNC films were examined against Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and P. aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (S. aureus and M. luteus) by diffusion method using Muller-Hinton agar. Conclusions The antibacterial activity of Ag NPs with size less than 20 nm was demonstrated and showed positive results against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The Ag NPs stabilized well in the polymers matrix. PMID:22967920

  19. Novel green nano composites films fabricated by indigenously synthesized graphene oxide and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Younus H; Islam, Atif; Sarwar, Afsheen; Gull, Nafisa; Khan, Shahzad M; Munawar, Muhammad A; Zia, Saba; Sabir, Aneela; Shafiq, Muhammad; Jamil, Tahir

    2016-08-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was indigenously synthesized from graphite using standard Hummers method. Chitosan-graphene oxide green composite films were fabricated by mixing aqueous solution of chitosan and GO using dilute acetic acid as a solvent for chitosan. Chitosan of different viscosity and calculated molecular weight was used keeping amount of GO constant in each composite film. The structural properties, thermal stability and mechanical properties of the composite films were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile test. FTIR studies revealed the successful synthesis of GO from graphite powder and it was confirmed that homogenous blending of chitosan and GO was promising due to oxygenated functional groups on the surface of GO. XRD indicated effective conversion of graphite to GO as its strong peak observed at 11.06° as compared to pristine graphite which appeared at 26°. Moreover, mechanical analysis confirmed the effect of molecular weight on the mechanical properties of chitosan-GO composites showing that higher molecular weight chitosan composite (GOCC-1000) showed best strength (higher than 3GPa) compared to other composite films. Thermal stability of GOCC-1000 was enhanced for which residual content increased up to 56% as compared to the thermal stability of GOCC-200 whose residue was restricted to only 24%. The morphological analysis of the composites sheets by SEM was smooth having dense structure and showed excellent interaction, miscibility, compatibility and dispersion of GO with chitosan. The prepared composite films find their applications as biomaterials in different biomedical fields.

  20. In-vitro anticancer activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Suk Ju; Yang, In Jun; Tettey, Clement O; Kim, Ki Mo; Shin, Heung Mook

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is a growing area of research because of their potential applications in nanomedicine. In the present study we synthesized silver nanoparticles (silver NPs) from AgNO3 using aqueous extract of Lonicera hypoglauca flower as reducing and capping agents. The synthesized silver NPs were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM-ED, TEM and SAED. Silver NPs were found to be significantly toxic to MCF-7 cells via the induction of apoptosis whereas sparing normal immune system (RAW 264.7) cells.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility of ``green'' synthesized silver nanoparticles using tea polyphenols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulton, Michael C.; Braydich-Stolle, Laura K.; NadagoudaPresent Address: Pegasus Technical Services, 46 E. Hollister Street, Cincinnati, 45219, Ohio, Usa., Mallikarjuna N.; Kunzelman, Samantha; Hussain, Saber M.; Varma, Rajender S.

    2010-05-01

    Since ancient times, people have taken advantage of the antimicrobial effects of colloidal silver particles. Aside from the medical prospects, silver nanoparticles are found in a wide range of commercially available consumer products ranging from cosmetics to household cleansers. Current synthetic methods for creating silver nanoparticles typically call for potentially hazardous chemicals, extreme heat, and produce environmentally dangerous byproducts. Therefore, it is essential that novel ``green'' synthesis of nanoparticles becomes a reality, and it is imperative to fully analyze the potential toxic effects of these nanoparticles. In this study, we have shown that by reducing silver nitrate in solutions of tea extract or epicatechin of varying concentrations, spherical silver nanoparticles were formed that had controllable size distributions depending on the concentration of tea extract or epicatechin in the samples. Our ultra-resolution microscopy demonstrated that the nanoparticles were in fact interacting with the keratinocytes. Furthermore, evaluation of mitochondrial function (MTS) to assess cell viability and membrane integrity (LDH) in human keratinocytes showed that the silver nanoparticles were nontoxic. These results demonstrated that these nanoparicles are potentially biocompatible and warrant further evaluation in other biological systems.

  2. Structure and magnetic properties of iron nanoparticles synthesized by chemical vapor condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. H.; Jang, T. S.; Lee, D. W.; Kim, B. K.

    2004-06-01

    Iron nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical vapor condensation (CVC) without the aid of LN2 chiller. The powder synthesized at 400 °C was a mixture of amorphous and crystalline -Fe. Fully crystallized iron particles were then obtained at and above 600 °C. When the reactor temperature was 1000 °C, however, nonmagnetic -Fe was stabilized together with -Fe. The synthesized particles, mostly possessing the core-shell type structure, were all nearly spherical, but the average particle size rapidly increased as the temperature increased. The surface layer that enclosed the iron core and became thicker in smaller particles was Fe3O4 or Fe3O4-related amorphous. Except for the one synthesized at 1000 °C, the iron nanoparticles were not fully saturated. The iron nanoparticles (20 nm) synthesized at 600 °C exhibited iHc 1.0 kOe and Ms 170 emu/g.

  3. Biological activities of green silver nanoparticles synthesized with Acorous calamus rhizome extract.

    PubMed

    Nakkala, Jayachandra Reddy; Mata, Rani; Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Sadras, Sudha Rani

    2014-10-06

    Nanomedicine utilize biocompatible nanomaterials for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This study reports the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous rhizome extract of Acorus calamus (ACRE) and evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial as well as anticancer effects of synthesized A. calamus silver nanoparticles (ACAgNPs). The formation of ACAgNPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy and their average size was found to be 31.83 nm by DLS particle size analyzer. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) revealed spherical shape of ACAgNPs and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) data showed the presence of metallic silver. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated the presence of phenol/alcohol, aromatic amine and carbonyl groups in ACRE that were involved in reduction and capping of nanoparticles. ACRE and ACAgNPs exhibited substantial free radical quenching ability in various in vitro antioxidant assays performed in this study. ACAgNPs also displayed appreciable antibacterial activity against three different pathogenic bacteria and the growth kinetic study with Escherichia coli designated the inhibition of bacterial growth at the log phase. The cytotoxic effect of ACAgNPs was assessed by MTT assay in HeLa and A549 cells. The IC50 value of ACAgNPs respectively after 24 and 48 h was found to be 92.48 and 69.44 μg/ml in HeLa cells and in A549 cells it was 53.2 and 32.1 μg/ml. Apoptotic cell death in ACAgNPs treated cells was indicated by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) and annexinV-Cy3 staining techniques. Staining with propidium iodide (PI) and 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, dihydrochloride (DAPI) also confirmed nuclear changes such as condensation and fragmentation. Further, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay showed distribution of ACAgNPs treated cells in the late apoptotic stage. These findings emphasize that such biocompatible green nanoparticles with multifaceted biological

  4. Covalent bond or noncovalent bond: a supramolecular strategy for the construction of chemically synthesized vaccines.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue; Sun, Zhan-Yi; Huang, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Pu-Guang; Chen, Yong-Xiang; Zhao, Yu-Fen; Li, Yan-Mei

    2014-10-13

    A novel noncovalent strategy to construct chemically synthesized vaccines has been designed to trigger a robust immune response and to dramatically improve the efficiency of vaccine preparation. Glycosylated MUC1 tripartite vaccines were constructed through host-guest interactions with cucurbit[8]uril. These vaccines elicited high levels of IgG antibodies that were recognized by transformed cells and induced the secretion of cytokines. The antisera also mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity. This noncovalent strategy with good suitability, scalability, and feasibility can be applied as a universal strategy for the construction of chemically synthesized vaccines.

  5. "Miswak" Based Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles: Evaluation and Comparison of Their Microbicidal Activities with the Chemical Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Mohammed Rafi; Albalawi, Ghadeer H; Khan, Shams Tabrez; Khan, Merajuddin; Adil, Syed Farooq; Kuniyil, Mufsir; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z; Khan, Mujeeb

    2016-11-06

    Microbicidal potential of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) can be drastically improved by improving their solubility or wettability in the aqueous medium. In the present study, we report the synthesis of both green and chemical synthesis of Ag-NPs, and evaluate the effect of the dispersion qualities of as-prepared Ag-NPs from both methods on their antimicrobial activities. The green synthesis of Ag-NPs is carried out by using an aqueous solution of readily available Salvadora persica L. root extract (RE) as a bioreductant. The formation of highly crystalline Ag-NPs was established by various analytical and microscopic techniques. The rich phenolic contents of S. persica L. RE (Miswak) not only promoted the reduction and formation of NPs but they also facilitated the stabilization of the Ag-NPs, which was established by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. Furthermore, the influence of the volume of the RE on the size and the dispersion qualities of the NPs was also evaluated. It was revealed that with increasing the volume of RE the size of the NPs was deteriorated, whereas at lower concentrations of RE smaller size and less aggregated NPs were obtained. During this study, the antimicrobial activities of both chemically and green synthesized Ag-NPs, along with the aqueous RE of S. persica L., were evaluated against various microorganisms. It was observed that the green synthesized Ag-NPs exhibit comparable or slightly higher antibacterial activities than the chemically obtained Ag-NPs.

  6. A study on the effect of chemically synthesized magnetite nanoparticles on earthworm: Eudrilus eugeniae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samrot, Antony V.; Justin, C.; Padmanaban, S.; Burman, Ujjala

    2016-12-01

    Most look into the benefits of the nanoparticles, but keeping aside the benefits; this study focuses on the impacts of nanoparticles on living systems. Improper disposal of nanoparticles into the environment is a subject of pollution or nano-pollution which in turn affects the flora and fauna in the ecosystem, particularly soil ecosystem. Thus, this study was done to understand the impacts of chemically synthesized magnetite nanoparticles on earthworm—Eudrilus eugeniae, a soil-dependent organism which acquires food and nutrition from decaying matters. The chemically synthesized magnetite nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Earthworms were allowed to interact with different concentrations of synthesized nanoparticles and the effect of the nanoparticles was analysed by studying the phenotypic changes followed by histology and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry analyses.

  7. A study on the effect of chemically synthesized magnetite nanoparticles on earthworm: Eudrilus eugeniae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samrot, Antony V.; Justin, C.; Padmanaban, S.; Burman, Ujjala

    2017-02-01

    Most look into the benefits of the nanoparticles, but keeping aside the benefits; this study focuses on the impacts of nanoparticles on living systems. Improper disposal of nanoparticles into the environment is a subject of pollution or nano-pollution which in turn affects the flora and fauna in the ecosystem, particularly soil ecosystem. Thus, this study was done to understand the impacts of chemically synthesized magnetite nanoparticles on earthworm— Eudrilus eugeniae, a soil-dependent organism which acquires food and nutrition from decaying matters. The chemically synthesized magnetite nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Earthworms were allowed to interact with different concentrations of synthesized nanoparticles and the effect of the nanoparticles was analysed by studying the phenotypic changes followed by histology and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry analyses.

  8. Evaluation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) sol-gel coatings, modified with green synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles for combating microfouling.

    PubMed

    Krupa, A Nithya Deva; Vimala, R

    2016-04-01

    Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) is gaining importance as an eco-friendly alternative to conventional methods due to its enormous applications. The present work reports the synthesis of ZnO-NPs using the endosperm of Cocos nucifera (coconut water) and the bio-molecules responsible for nanoparticle formation have been identified. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Zeta potential measurement. The results obtained reveal that the synthesized nanoparticles are moderately stable with the size ranging from 20 to 80 nm. The bactericidal effect of the nanoparticles was proved by well diffusion assay and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against marine biofilm forming bacteria. Further the green synthesized ZnO-NPs were doped with TEOS sol-gels (TESGs) in order to assess their antimicrofouling capability. Different volumes of liquid sol-gels were coated on to 96-well microtitre plate and cured under various conditions. The optimum curing conditions were found to be temperature 60 °C, time 72 h and volume 200 μl. Antiadhesion test of the undoped (SG) and ZnO-NP doped TEOS sol-gel (ZNSG) coatings were evaluated using marine biofilm forming bacteria. ZNSG coatings exhibited highest biofilm inhibition (89.2%) represented by lowest OD value against Pseudomonasotitidis strain NV1.

  9. Characterization, antioxidant and cytotoxicity evaluation of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Cleistanthus collinus extract as surface modifier

    SciTech Connect

    Kanipandian, Nagarajan; Ramesh, Ramar; Subramanian, Periyasamy

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The figure is the TEM image of green synthesized silver nanoparticles from Cleistanthus collinus. In this investigation we have used the poisonous plant as a reducing and capping agent. This is a first time data to synthesis the metal nanoparticles using poisonous plant. - Highlights: • A hitherto unreported venomous plant mediated AgNPs synthesis. • The particle size is observed in the range of 20–40 nm. • Surface morphology of the well-dispersed silver nanoparticles is studied using SEM and TEM. • Crystalline nature of AgNPs is confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. • Antioxidant activities of green synthesized AgNPs are tested in vitro. - Abstract: We report, here a simple green method for the preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the plant extract of Cleistanthus collinus as potential phyto reducer. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV–vis spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The obtained results confirmed that the AgNPs were crystalline in nature and the morphological studies reveal the spherical shape of AgNPs with size ranging from 20 to 40 nm. The in vitro antioxidant activity of AgNPs showed a significant effect on scavenging of free radicals. The cytotoxicity study exhibited a dose-dependent effect against human lung cancer cells (A549) and normal cells (HBL-100), the inhibitory concentration (IC{sub 50}) were found to be 30 μg/mL and 60 μg/mL respectively. The in vivo histopathology of mouse organs proved that AgNPs does not possess toxic effect and can be extensively applied in biomedical sciences.

  10. Biological activity of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles depends on the applied natural extracts: a comprehensive study

    PubMed Central

    Rónavári, Andrea; Kovács, Dávid; Igaz, Nóra; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Boros, Imre Miklós; Kónya, Zoltán; Pfeiffer, Ilona; Kiricsi, Mónika

    2017-01-01

    Due to obvious disadvantages of the classical chemical methods, green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has attracted tremendous attention in recent years. Numerous environmentally benign synthesis methods have been developed yielding nanoparticles via low-cost, eco-friendly, and simple approaches. In this study, our aim was to determine the suitability of coffee and green tea extracts in green synthesis of silver nanoparticles as well as to compare the performance of the obtained materials in different biological systems. We successfully produced silver nanoparticles (C-AgNP and GT-AgNP) using coffee and green tea extracts; moreover, based on our comprehensive screening, we delineated major differences in the biological activity of C-AgNPs and GT-AgNPs. Our results indicate that although GT-AgNPs exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against all the examined microbial pathogens, these particles were also highly toxic to mammalian cells, which limits their potential applications. On the contrary, C-AgNPs manifested substantial inhibitory action on the tested microbes but were nontoxic to human and mouse cells, indicating an outstanding capacity to discriminate between potential pathogens and mammalian cells. These results clearly show that the various green materials used for stabilization and for reduction of metal ions have a defining role in determining and fine-tuning the biological activity of the obtained nanoparticles. PMID:28184158

  11. Biological activity of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles depends on the applied natural extracts: a comprehensive study.

    PubMed

    Rónavári, Andrea; Kovács, Dávid; Igaz, Nóra; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Boros, Imre Miklós; Kónya, Zoltán; Pfeiffer, Ilona; Kiricsi, Mónika

    2017-01-01

    Due to obvious disadvantages of the classical chemical methods, green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has attracted tremendous attention in recent years. Numerous environmentally benign synthesis methods have been developed yielding nanoparticles via low-cost, eco-friendly, and simple approaches. In this study, our aim was to determine the suitability of coffee and green tea extracts in green synthesis of silver nanoparticles as well as to compare the performance of the obtained materials in different biological systems. We successfully produced silver nanoparticles (C-AgNP and GT-AgNP) using coffee and green tea extracts; moreover, based on our comprehensive screening, we delineated major differences in the biological activity of C-AgNPs and GT-AgNPs. Our results indicate that although GT-AgNPs exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against all the examined microbial pathogens, these particles were also highly toxic to mammalian cells, which limits their potential applications. On the contrary, C-AgNPs manifested substantial inhibitory action on the tested microbes but were nontoxic to human and mouse cells, indicating an outstanding capacity to discriminate between potential pathogens and mammalian cells. These results clearly show that the various green materials used for stabilization and for reduction of metal ions have a defining role in determining and fine-tuning the biological activity of the obtained nanoparticles.

  12. PbO networks composed of single crystalline nanosheets synthesized by a facile chemical precipitation method

    SciTech Connect

    Samberg, Joshua P.; Kajbafvala, Amir; Koolivand, Amir

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Synthesis of PbO networks through a simple chemical precipitation route. • The synthesis method is rapid and low-cost. • Each network is composed of single crystalline PbO nanosheets. • A possible growth mechanism is proposed for synthesized PbO networks. - Abstract: For the field of energy storage, nanostructured lead oxide (PbO) shows immense potential for increased specific energy and deep discharge for lead acid battery technologies. In this work, PbO networks composed of single crystalline nanosheets were synthesized utilizing a simple, low cost and rapid chemical precipitation method. The PbO networks were prepared in a single reaction vessel from starting reagents of lead acetate dehydrate, ammonium hydroxide and deionized water. Lead acetate dehydrate was chosen as a reagent, as opposed to lead nitrate, to eliminate the possibility of nitrate contamination of the final product. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis were used to characterize the synthesized PbO networks. The reproducible method described herein synthesized pure β-PbO (massicot) powders, with no byproducts. A possible formation mechanism for these PbO networks is proposed. The growth is found to proceed predominately in the 〈1 1 1〉 and 〈2 0 0〉 directions while being limited in the 〈0 1 1〉 direction.

  13. Green, Enzymatic Syntheses of Divanillin and Diapocynin for the Organic, Biochemistry, or Advanced General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishimura, Rachel T.; Giammanco, Chiara H.; Vosburg, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Environmentally benign chemistry is an increasingly important topic both in the classroom and the laboratory. In this experiment, students synthesize divanillin from vanillin or diapocynin from apocynin, using horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide in water. The dimerized products form rapidly at ambient temperature and are isolated by…

  14. Chemoselective Reactions of Citral: Green Syntheses of Natural Perfumes for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Anna D.; Ham, Eun Y.; Vosburg, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Chemoselectivity is a central concept in organic synthesis and may be readily appreciated in the context of the fragrant, polyfunctional natural product citral. We describe three single-step reactions students may perform on citral to synthesize other natural perfumes: citronellal, geraniol, nerol, or epoxycitral. Each of the reactions uses a…

  15. Removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution using mesoporous silica synthesized from 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekka, Basanti; Nayak, Soumitra Ranjan; Dash, Priyabrat; Patel, Raj Kishore

    2016-04-01

    In this research, mesoporous silica was synthesized via a modified sol-gel route using 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and was employed to remove malachite green (MG) dye from aqueous solution. Subsequently, this material was characterized and identified by different techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), N2 adsorption-desorption method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermosgravimetric analysis (TGA). Unique properties such as high surface area and pore diameter, in addition to highly reactive atoms and presence of various functional groups make the mesoporous silica possible for efficient removal of malachite green (MG). In batch experimental set-up, optimum conditions for quantitative removal of MG by mesoporous silica was attained by varying different variables such as adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, contact time, and pH. Optimum values were set as pH of 8.0, 0.5 g of adsorbent at contact time of 120 min. The adsorption of MG follows the pseudo-second-order rate equation. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Freundlich model at all amount of adsorbent, while maximum adsorption capacity was 5.981 mg g-1 for 0.5 g mesoporous silica synthesized in IL.

  16. Biological and catalytic applications of green synthesized fluorescent N-doped carbon dots using Hylocereus undatus.

    PubMed

    Arul, Velusamy; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Lee, Yong Rok; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan

    2017-03-01

    In this work, a simple hydrothermal route for the synthesis of fluorescent nitrogen doped carbon dots (N-CDs) is reported. The Hylocereus undatus (H. undatus) extract and aqueous ammonia are used as carbon and nitrogen source, respectively. The optical properties of synthesized N-CDs are analyzed using UV-Visible (UV-Vis) and fluorescence spectroscopy. The surface morphology, elemental composition, crystallinity and functional groups present in the N-CDs are examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, respectively. The synthesized N-CDs emit strong blue fluorescence at 400nm under the excitation of 320nm. Further, the excitation dependent emission properties are also observed from the fluorescence of synthesized N-CDs. The HR-TEM results reveal that synthesized N-CDs are in spherical shape with average diameter of 2.5nm. The XRD pattern exhibits, the graphitic nature of synthesized N-CDs. The doping of nitrogen is confirmed from the EDS and FT-IR studies. The cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of N-CDs are evaluated through MTT assay on L-929 (Lymphoblastoid-929) and MCF-7 (Michigan Cancer Foundation-7) cells. The results indicate that the fluorescent N-CDs show less cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility on both L-929 and MCF-7 cells. Moreover, the N-CDs show excellent catalytic activity towards the reduction of methylene blue by sodium borohydride.

  17. Green synthesized gold nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide for sensitive determination of chloramphenicol in milk, powdered milk, honey and eye drops.

    PubMed

    Karthik, R; Govindasamy, Mani; Chen, Shen-Ming; Mani, Veerappan; Lou, Bih-Show; Devasenathipathy, Rajkumar; Hou, Yu-Shen; Elangovan, A

    2016-08-01

    A simple and rapid green synthesis using Bischofia javanica Blume leaves as reducing agent was developed for the preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). AuNPs decorated graphene oxide (AuNPs/GO) was prepared and employed for the sensitive amperometric determination of chloramphenicol. The green biosynthesis requires less than 40s to reduce gold salts to AuNPs. The formations of AuNPs and AuNPs/GO were evaluated by scanning electron and atomic force microscopies, UV-Visible and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction studies, and electrochemical methods. AuNPs/GO composite film modified electrode was fabricated and shown excellent electrocatalytic ability towards chloramphenicol. Under optimal conditions, the amperometric sensing platform has delivered wide linear range of 1.5-2.95μM, low detection limit of 0.25μM and high sensitivity of 3.81μAμM(-1)cm(-2). The developed sensor exhibited good repeatability and reproducibility, anti-interference ability and long-term storage stability. Practical feasibility of the sensor has been demonstrated in food samples (milk, powdered milk and honey) and pharmaceutical sample (eye drops). The green synthesized AuNPs/GO composite has great potential for analysis of food samples in food safety measures.

  18. Antimicrobial efficacy of green synthesized drug blended silver nanoparticles against dental caries and periodontal disease causing microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, R; Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Chen, Shen-Ming; Chelladurai, K; Padmavathy, S; Saravanan, M; Prakash, P; Ajmal Ali, M; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A

    2015-11-01

    Development of biologically inspired green synthesis of silver nanoparticles is evolving into an important branch of nano-biotechnology. In the present investigation, we report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) employing the leaf extract of Justicia glauca. Water-soluble organics present in the leaf extract are mainly responsible for the reduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution to AgNPs. The AgNPs are 10-20nm in dimensions as determined by TEM images. The antimicrobial activities of green synthesized AgNPs and drug blended AgNPs have been evaluated against the dental caries and periodontal disease causing microorganisms such as Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The AgNPs and drug blended AgNPs show a significant antibacterial and antifungal activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of AgNPs determined against the selected dental caries and periodontal disease causing microorganisms are noticeable between the range of 25-75μg/mL.

  19. Photoscopic characterization of green synthesized silver nanoparticles from Trichosanthes tricuspidata and its antibacterial potential.

    PubMed

    Yuvarajan, Ragunathan; Natarajan, Devarajan; Ragavendran, Chinnasamy; Jayavel, Ramasamy

    2015-08-01

    The present study focused on the finding of reducing agents for the formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from the plant, Trichosanthes tricuspidata. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized using UV-Visible spectroscopy, particle size analyzer (PSA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses. The UV-Visible spectrum resulted a sharp peak (at 430nm) represents the strong plasmon resonance of silver. The average size distributions of AgNPs were found to be 78.49nm, through (PSA), and the silver ion with its crystalline nature was confirmed using intensity (2θ) peak value of 38.22°, 44.66°, 64.61°, and 77.49°. The SEM micrograph revealed that the synthesized AgNPs have a spherical morphology with the size ranges from 20 to 28nm. AFM showed the presence of polydispersed AgNPs with its size (20 to 60nm in height). The gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) study analyzed the responsible compounds present in the methanolic extracts for the bio-reduction of AgNPs and their antibacterial effect was studied. AgNPs exhibited preponderant activity than the methanolic extracts on clinical pathogens. Thus, the synthesized AgNPs might act as an effective antibacterial agent. Further studies are required to isolate the specific compound responsible for the reduction capability and its their inhibitory mechanisms for target bacterial strains.

  20. Spectroscopic investigations, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activity of green synthesized gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokina, S.; Suresh, R.; Giribabu, K.; Stephen, A.; Lakshmi Sundaram, R.; Narayanan, V.

    2014-08-01

    The gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized by using naturally available Punica Granatum fruit extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. The biosynthesized AuNPs was characterized by using UV-Vis, fluorescence, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 585 nm confirmed the reduction of auric chloride to AuNPs. The crystalline nature of the biosynthesized AuNPs was confirmed from the HRTEM images, XRD and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern. The HRTEM images showed the mixture of triangular and spherical-like AuNPs having size between 5 and 20 nm. The weight loss of the AuNPs was measured by TGA as a function of temperature under a controlled atmosphere. The biomolecules are responsible for the reduction of AuCl4- ions and the formation of stable AuNPs which was confirmed by FTIR measurement. The synthesized AuNPs showed an excellent antibacterial activity against Candida albicans (ATCC 90028), Aspergillus flavus (ATCC 10124), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25175), Salmonella typhi (ATCC 14028) and Vibrio cholerae (ATCC 14033). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AuNPs was recorded against various microorganisms. Further, the synthesized AuNPs shows an excellent cytotoxic result against HeLa cancer cell lines at different concentrations.

  1. Spectroscopic investigations, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activity of green synthesized gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lokina, S; Suresh, R; Giribabu, K; Stephen, A; Lakshmi Sundaram, R; Narayanan, V

    2014-08-14

    The gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized by using naturally available Punica Granatum fruit extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. The biosynthesized AuNPs was characterized by using UV-Vis, fluorescence, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 585nm confirmed the reduction of auric chloride to AuNPs. The crystalline nature of the biosynthesized AuNPs was confirmed from the HRTEM images, XRD and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern. The HRTEM images showed the mixture of triangular and spherical-like AuNPs having size between 5 and 20nm. The weight loss of the AuNPs was measured by TGA as a function of temperature under a controlled atmosphere. The biomolecules are responsible for the reduction of AuCl4(-) ions and the formation of stable AuNPs which was confirmed by FTIR measurement. The synthesized AuNPs showed an excellent antibacterial activity against Candida albicans (ATCC 90028), Aspergillus flavus (ATCC 10124), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25175), Salmonella typhi (ATCC 14028) and Vibrio cholerae (ATCC 14033). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AuNPs was recorded against various microorganisms. Further, the synthesized AuNPs shows an excellent cytotoxic result against HeLa cancer cell lines at different concentrations.

  2. The Effect of Green Synthesized CuO Nanoparticles on Callogenesis and Regeneration of Oryza sativa L.

    PubMed Central

    Anwaar, Sadaf; Maqbool, Qaisar; Jabeen, Nyla; Nazar, Mudassar; Abbas, Fazal; Nawaz, Bushra; Hussain, Talib; Hussain, Syed Z.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated the effect of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) on callogenesis and regeneration of Oryza sativa L (Super Basmati, Basmati 2000, Basmati 370, and Basmati 385). In this regard, CuO-NPs have been bio-synthesized via Azadirachta indica leaf extract. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis depicts average particle size of 40 ± 5 nm with highly homogenous and spherical morphology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have been employed to confirm the phase purity of the synthesized NPs. It is found that CuO-NPs exhibit very promising results against callus induction. It is attributed to the fact that green synthesized CuO-NPs at optimum dosage possess very supportive effects on plant growth parameters. In contrast to callogenesis, differential regeneration pattern has been observed against all of the examined O. sativa L. indigenous verities. Overall observation concludes that CuO, being one of the essential plant nutrients, has greatly tailored the nutritive properties at nano-scale. PMID:27630655

  3. Characterization of Nano-Hydroxyapatite Synthesized from Sea Shells Through Wet Chemical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, S.; Prabu, S. Balasivanandha

    2012-10-01

    Nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) was synthesized by a wet chemical reaction using powdered sea shells (CaO) as starting material which was converted to calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and subsequently reacted with phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Initially raw sea shells (CaCO3) were thermally converted to amorphous calcium oxide by heat treatment. Two sets of experiments were done; in the first experiment, HA powder was dried in an electric furnace and in the second experiment, the reactants were irradiated in a domestic microwave oven followed by microwave drying. In each set of experiments, the concentrations of the reactants were decreased gradually. HA was synthesized by slow addition of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) in to calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) maintaining the pH of the solution at 10 to avoid the formation of calcium deficient apatites. In both the experiments, Ca:P ratio of 1.67 was maintained for the reagents. The synthesized samples showed X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns corresponding to hydroxyapatite. The wet chemical process with furnace drying resulted in HA particles of size 7-34 nm, whereas microwave irradiated process yielded HA particles of size 34-102 nm as evidenced from XRD analyses. The above experimental work done by wet chemical synthesis to produce HA powder from sea shells is a simple processing method at room temperature. Microwave irradiation leads to uniform crystallite sizes as evident from this study, at differing concentrations of the reactants and is a comparatively easy method to synthesize HA. The high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM)/transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses revealed the characteristic rod-shaped nanoparticles of HA for the present study.

  4. Chemical Exfoliation of Layered Superconductors: An Avenue to Synthesize Boron-rich Quasi Two Dimensional Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Saroj Kumar; Liza James, Asha; Jasuja, Kabeer

    2015-03-01

    Zero-dimensional and one-dimensional boron based nanostructures have presented excellent avenues in the past for utilizing the fascinating science of boron at the atomic level. The research on synthesizing two-dimensional (2-D) boron-based nanostructures is currently in its incipient stages. In this talk, we demonstrate two chemical approaches that yield quasi 2-D boron-rich nanostructures by enabling an exfoliation of a layered boron-based superconductor. While one approach employs the simple tool of ultrasonication in an aqueous phase, the other approach utilizes a chelation mediated strategy based on coordination of metal ions and organic ligands. Both these synthetic routes are shown to result in a processable colloidal dispersion of nanosheets. This talk will present details of the two exfoliation approaches and a comprehensive study of the morphological, chemical and optical properties of the dispersed nanosheets. We will demonstrate that the exfoliated nanosheets undergo an in-situ chemical modification with ionizable functional groups derived from solvent that enable electrostatic stabilization. We will further shown that this functionalization modifies the band structure of the nanosheets which gives rise to photoluminescence and result in physico-chemical properties distinct from the parent superconductor. This ability to synthesize quasi 2-D boron rich nanostructures significantly adds to the current state of literature on born-based quasi-planar nanostructures.

  5. Studies on magnetic properties of chemically synthesized crystalline calcium ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debnath, A.; Bera, A.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.; Saha, B.

    2016-05-01

    Spinel-type ferrites have taken a very important role for modern electronic industry. Most of these ferrites exhibit low-loss dielectric properties, high resistivity, low eddy current and also high temperature ferromagnetism. Calcium ferrite is one such important metal oxide which is environmentally safe, chemically stable, low cost and greatly abundant. This outstanding material of calcium ferrite is synthesized by a simple chemical precipitation method using NaOH as the precipitating agent. Ferric chloride anhydrous (FeCl3) and Calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl2.2H2O) were used as iron and calcium sources respectively. The samples were heated at 200°C for 8h to obtain homogeneous powder of Calcium ferrite. The powders were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Transmission electrical microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) measurements. The polycrystalline nature of the sample was confirmed by X-ray diffraction study. The magnetic properties of the sample were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements. Magnetization curve of the prepared sample depicts that as synthesized calcium ferrite nanoparticles have saturation magnetic moment of 1.74 emu/g and the coercivity of 35.08 Oe with superparamagnetic behavior. The synthesized calcium ferrite nanoparticles with such magnetic properties will be a candidate material for different applications in electronics and exploring its functionality in the field of recently developing semiconductor device physics and spintronics.

  6. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2007 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2007 award winner, Headwaters Technology Innovation, developed a metal nanocatalyst to synthesize hydrogen peroxide directly from hydrogen and oxygen, eliminating hazardous chemicals.

  7. Green Chemical Treatments for Heating and Cooling Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    of condenser wa- ter treatment with a key ingredient being polyaspartate (PASP). Polyaspar- tic acid was the 1996 Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge...cooling water biocide tetrakis (hy- droxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate (THPS). THPS won the Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award in 1997. The...Legionella pneumophila bacterium, which causes Legion- naire’s Disease. 2.3 Steam Line Treatment The third and final product in the Green Chemistry project

  8. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2005 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2005 award winner, Archer Daniels Midland, developed Archer RC, a nonvolatile, biobased, reactive coalescent that replaces volatile organic coalescents in architectural latex paints.

  9. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2010 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2010 award winner, Clarke, developed Natular, a plaster matrix that encapsulates the pesticide spinosad, slowly releasing it into water and effectively controlling mosquito larvae.

  10. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2014 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2014 award winner, The Solberg Company, replaced fluorinated surfactants in its firefighting foam concentrates with a blend of non-fluorinated surfactants and sugars.

  11. Antibacterial, anti-biofilm and anticancer potentials of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using benzoin gum (Styrax benzoin) extract.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Singh, Hina; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2016-12-01

    This study described a simple and green approach for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) employing benzoin gum water extract as a reducing and capping agent and their applications. The AgNPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction pattern, field emission transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The AgNPs showed promising antimicrobial activity against various pathogens (Gram-negative, Gram-positive and fungus) and possessed high free radical scavenging activity (104.5 ± 7.21 % at 1 mg/ml). In addition, the AgNPs exhibited strong cytotoxicity towards human cervical cancer and human lung cancer cells as compared to the normal mouse macrophage cells. Moreover, the AgNPs possessed anti-biofilm activity against Escherichia coli, and compatibility to human keratinocyte HaCaT cells, which suggests the use of dressing with the AgNPs in chronic wound treatment. Therefore, AgNPs synthesized by benzoin gum extract are comparatively green and may have broad spectrum potential application in biomedicine.

  12. Tailoring of optical properties of fluorescein using green synthesized gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    John, Jisha; Thomas, Lincy; George, Nibu A; Kurian, Achamma; George, Sajan D

    2015-06-28

    Dye-nanoparticle mixtures hold great promise in biological as well as photonics applications due to their capability to tailor the emission behavior of dye by tuning the nanoparticles parameters. However, as compared to the well-defined dye-nanoparticle distance, studies lack the understanding of homogenous mixtures of dye and nanoparticles. In this work, we investigate the influence of shape and concentration of gold nanoparticles prepared via green synthesis on the optical properties of fluorescein dye in a dye-nanoparticle mixture. We have investigated the radiative path of deexcitation using steady state fluorescence and the non-radiative path is probed using a laser based dual-beam thermal lens technique. The energy transfer efficiency as well as dye-nanoparticle distance is studied using both techniques. Furthermore, we have explored the influence of nanoparticles parameters on the fluorescence quantum yield of fluorescein using the thermal lens technique. The studies indicate that spherical nanoparticles are efficient quenchers while star shaped nanoparticles can probe larger dye-NP distances. The tailoring of dye properties by tuning nanoparticle parameters can be utilized in diverse areas including bioimaging, solar cells, and sensors.

  13. Antimicrobial fabrication of cotton fabric and leather using green-synthesized nanosilver.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Cho, Min; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Park, Jung-Hee; Bae, Sunyoung; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2014-06-15

    This study aims to investigate the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by Erigeron annuus (L.) pers flower extract as reducing and capping agent, and evaluation of their antibacterial activities for the first time. The obtained product was confirmed by UV-Vis spectrum, high resolution-transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. The optimum AgNPs production was achieved at pH 7, metal silver (Ag(+) ion) concentration of 2.0mM, flower extract concentration 4%, and time 335 min. In addition, the antibacterial activity of cotton fabrics and tanned leather loaded with AgNPs, commercial AgNPs, flower extract, Ag(+) ion and blend of flower extract with AgNPs were evaluated against Gram-positive odor causing bacteria Brevibacterium linens and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The results showed maximum zone of inhibition (ZOI) by the cotton fabrics embedded with blend of flower extract and AgNPs against B. linens. The structure and morphology of cotton fabric and leather samples embedded with AgNPs, Ag(+) ion and blend of flower extract with AgNPs were examined under field emission scanning electron microscope.

  14. Reflectance and minority carrier lifetime of silicon nanoholes synthesized by chemical etching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Daisheng; Jia, Rui; Chen, Chen; Ding, Wuchang; Jin, Zhi; Liu, Xinyu; Ye, Tianchun

    2014-05-01

    Silicon nanoholes (Si NHs) were synthesized by a simple metal-assisted chemical etching method. With different pre-etching time of Ag particles, Si NHs with different morphology and Si nanowires (NWs) were prepared. After tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) etching, the NH sample with pre-etching Ag particles for 20 min show average reflectance below 5% which is comparable to the reflectance of the NW sample. The minority carrier lifetime of this NH sample is 58.2 μs due to their low surface recombination, while the lifetime of the NWs is 38.0 μs under the same iodine-ethanol passivation.

  15. Amorphous hollow carbon spheres synthesized using radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, G. M.; Xu, Q.; Tian, H. W.; Wang, X.; Zheng, W. T.

    2008-10-01

    We report a method to synthesize amorphous hollow carbon spheres, with diameters ranging from 100 to 800 nm, which are dispersed among bent graphitized carbon nanotubes using radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition in mixed CH4/H2 gases. The products are characterized by techniques including scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that MgO and Ni nanoparticles together with hydrogen play important roles in the formation of the spheres. A possible formation mechanism for the carbon composites has been proposed.

  16. Investigation of quantum confinement behavior of zinc sulphide quantum dots synthesized via various chemical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jose, Meera Sakthivel, T. Chandran, Hrisheekesh T. Nivea, R. Gunasekaran, V.

    2014-10-15

    In this work, undoped and Ag-doped ZnS quantum dots were synthesized using various chemical methods. The products were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy and Photoluminescence spectroscopy. Our results revealed that the size of the as-prepared samples range from 1–6 nm in diameter and have a cubic zinc-blende structure. Also, we observed the emission of different wavelength of light from different sized quantum dots of the same material due to quantum confinement effect. The results will be presented in detail and ZnS can be a potential candidate for optical device development and applications.

  17. 3D SERS imaging based on chemically-synthesized highly-symmetric nanoporous silver microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Yukihiro; Vantasin, Sanpon; Ji, Wei; Tanaka, Yoshito; Kitahama, Yasutaka; Wongrawee, Kanet; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2016-09-01

    This study presents the synthesis, SERS properties in three dimensions, and an application of 3D symmetric nanoporous silver microparticles. The particles are synthesized by purely chemical process: controlled precipitation of AgCl to acquire highly symmetric AgCl microparticle, followed by in-place to convert AgCl into nanoporous silver. The particles display highly predictable SERS enhancement pattern in three dimensions, which resembles particle shape and retains symmetry. The highly regular enhancement pattern allows an application in the study of inhomogeneity in two-layer polymer system, by improving spatial resolution in Z axis.

  18. Genomic charting of ribosomally synthesized natural product chemical space facilitates targeted mining

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Chad W.; Edgar, Robyn E.; Dejong, Chris A.; Merwin, Nishanth J.; Rees, Philip N.; Magarvey, Nathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial natural products are an evolved resource of bioactive small molecules, which form the foundation of many modern therapeutic regimes. Ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs) represent a class of natural products which have attracted extensive interest for their diverse chemical structures and potent biological activities. Genome sequencing has revealed that the vast majority of genetically encoded natural products remain unknown. Many bioinformatic resources have therefore been developed to predict the chemical structures of natural products, particularly nonribosomal peptides and polyketides, from sequence data. However, the diversity and complexity of RiPPs have challenged systematic investigation of RiPP diversity, and consequently the vast majority of genetically encoded RiPPs remain chemical “dark matter.” Here, we introduce an algorithm to catalog RiPP biosynthetic gene clusters and chart genetically encoded RiPP chemical space. A global analysis of 65,421 prokaryotic genomes revealed 30,261 RiPP clusters, encoding 2,231 unique products. We further leverage the structure predictions generated by our algorithm to facilitate the genome-guided discovery of a molecule from a rare family of RiPPs. Our results provide the systematic investigation of RiPP genetic and chemical space, revealing the widespread distribution of RiPP biosynthesis throughout the prokaryotic tree of life, and provide a platform for the targeted discovery of RiPPs based on genome sequencing. PMID:27698135

  19. Genomic charting of ribosomally synthesized natural product chemical space facilitates targeted mining.

    PubMed

    Skinnider, Michael A; Johnston, Chad W; Edgar, Robyn E; Dejong, Chris A; Merwin, Nishanth J; Rees, Philip N; Magarvey, Nathan A

    2016-10-18

    Microbial natural products are an evolved resource of bioactive small molecules, which form the foundation of many modern therapeutic regimes. Ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs) represent a class of natural products which have attracted extensive interest for their diverse chemical structures and potent biological activities. Genome sequencing has revealed that the vast majority of genetically encoded natural products remain unknown. Many bioinformatic resources have therefore been developed to predict the chemical structures of natural products, particularly nonribosomal peptides and polyketides, from sequence data. However, the diversity and complexity of RiPPs have challenged systematic investigation of RiPP diversity, and consequently the vast majority of genetically encoded RiPPs remain chemical "dark matter." Here, we introduce an algorithm to catalog RiPP biosynthetic gene clusters and chart genetically encoded RiPP chemical space. A global analysis of 65,421 prokaryotic genomes revealed 30,261 RiPP clusters, encoding 2,231 unique products. We further leverage the structure predictions generated by our algorithm to facilitate the genome-guided discovery of a molecule from a rare family of RiPPs. Our results provide the systematic investigation of RiPP genetic and chemical space, revealing the widespread distribution of RiPP biosynthesis throughout the prokaryotic tree of life, and provide a platform for the targeted discovery of RiPPs based on genome sequencing.

  20. Structural and optical properties of KNN nanocubes synthesized by a green route using gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorrami, Gh. H.; Kompany, A.; Zak, A. Khorsand

    2015-01-01

    Sodium potassium niobate nanoparticles [(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3, KNN], KNN-NPs, were synthesized using a modified sol-gel method. Structural and optical properties of the prepared samples were investigated by thermogravometric analyzer (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The XRD patterns showed that the formation of the orthorhombic KNN-NPs starts at 500°C calcination temperature. Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the crystalline symmetry and the structural deformation of the prepared KNN-NPs. TEM images showed that the morphology of the prepared particles is cubic, with the average size of about 50 nm. From diffused reflectance spectroscopy along with using Kubelka-Munk method, the energy bandgaps were determined to be indirect with the values of 3.13 eV and 3.19 eV for the samples calcined at 500°C and 600°C, respectively.

  1. Efficacy of larvicidal activity of green synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Mangifera indica extract against blood-feeding parasites.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Chung, Ill-Min; Anbarasan, Karunanithi; Karthikeyan, Viswanathan

    2015-02-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are considered to be among the best photocatalytic materials due to their long-term thermodynamic stability, strong oxidizing power, and relative non-toxicity. Nano-preparations with TiO2 NPs are currently under investigation as novel treatments for acne vulgaris, recurrent condyloma acuminata, atopic dermatitis, hyperpigmented skin lesions, and other non-dermatologic diseases. The present study was to investigate the acaricidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized TiO2 NPs utilizing leaf aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) against hematophagous parasites. The anti-parasitic activity of TiO2 NPs against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acari: Ixodidae), fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) were assessed. The green synthesized TiO2 NPs were analyzed by UV-Vis, FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), AFM, SEM, and TEM. The XRD analysis of synthesized TiO2 NPs revealed the dominant peak at 2θ value of 27.81 which matched the 110 crystallographic plane of the rutile structure indicating the crystal structure. The FTIR spectra exhibited a prominent peak at 3,448 cm(-1) and showed OH stretching due to the alcoholic group, and the OH group may act as a capping agent. The SEM images of TiO2 NPs displayed spherical, oval in shape, individual, and some in aggregates. Characterization of the synthesized TiO2 NPs using AFM offered three-dimensional visualization and uneven surface morphology. The TEM micrograph showed agglomerates, round and slight elongation with an average size of 30 ± 5 nm. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized TiO2 NPs against the larvae of R. microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, A. subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus with LC50 value of 28.56, 33.17, 23.81, 5.84, and 4.34 mg/L, respectively. In the present study, a novel

  2. Electronic Properties of Large-scale Graphene Chemical Vapor Synthesized on Nickel and on Sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Helin; Zhang, Liyuan; Chen, Yong; Yu, Qingkai; Li, Hao

    2009-03-01

    We have studied the electronic transport properties of large area few-layer graphene/graphitic films grown by two different chemical vapor based methods. The first type of samples (metal-transfer graphene) is synthesized by carbon segregation from Ni, then transferred to SiO2/Si substrates. The second type of samples is synthesized by direct chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on sapphire. We measured these samples under variable temperatures (from 2K to 300 K) and transverse magnet fields (from 0 to 7 T). For both types of samples, we found a negative magnetoresistance at low field, and carrier mobilities on the order of several hundreds of cm^2/V-s. For metal-transfer graphene in particular, we were able to measure a moderate field effect response, using the highly doped Si substrate as back gate. The observed magnetoresistance shows characteristic features of weak localization, from which we extract various carrier scattering lengths in the metal-transfer graphene samples. Comparison with those measured in mechanically exfoliated graphene suggests possibly different carrier scattering mechanisms for graphene materials prepared with different methods.

  3. A new green chemistry method based on plant extracts to synthesize gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes Castillo, Milka Odemariz

    Extraordinary chemical and physical properties exhibited by nanomaterials, as compared to their bulk counterparts, have made the area of nanotechnology a growing realm in the past three decades. It is the nanoscale size (from 1 to 100 nm) and the morphologies of nanomaterials that provide several properties and applications not possible for the same material in the bulk. Magnetic and optical properties, as well as surface reactivity are highly dependent on the size and morphology of the nanomaterial. Diverse nanomaterials are being widely used in molecular diagnostics as well as in medicine, electronic and optical devices. Among the most studied nanomaterials, gold nanoparticles are of special interest due to their multifunctional capabilities. For instance, spherical gold nanoparticles measuring 15-20 nm in diameter have been studied due to their insulin binding properties. Also, thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles between 5 and 30 nm are used in the detection of DNA. Thus, harnessing the shape and size of gold nanoparticles plays an important role in science and technology. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles via the reduction of gold salts, using citrate or other reducing agents, has been widely studied. In recent years, algae, fungi, bacteria, and living plants have been used to reduce trivalent gold (Au3+) to its zero oxidation state (Au 0) forming gold nanoparticles of different sizes and shapes. In addition, plant biomasses have also been studied for their gold-reducing power and nanoparticle formation. Although there is information about the synthesis of the gold nanoparticles by biologically based materials; to our knowledge, the study of the use of alfalfa extracts has not been reported. This innovation represents a significant improvement; that is an environmentally friendly method that does not use toxic chemicals. Also, the problem of extracting the formed gold nanoparticles from biomaterials is addressed in this research but still remains to be

  4. A 'Fine' chemical industry for life science products: green solutions to chemical challenges.

    PubMed

    Bruggink, A; Straathof, A J J; van der Wielen, L A M

    2003-01-01

    Modern biotechnology, in combination with chemistry and process technology, is crucial for the development of new clean and cost effective manufacturing concepts for fine-chemical, food specialty and pharmaceutical products. The impact of biocatalysis on the fine-chemicals industry is presented, where reduction of process development time, the number of reaction steps and the amount of waste generated per kg of end product are the main targets. Integration of biosynthesis and organic chemistry is seen as a key development. The advances in bioseparation technology need to keep pace with the rate of development of novel bio- or chemocatalytic process routes with revised demands on process technology. The need for novel integrated reactors is also presented. The necessary acceleration of process development and reduction of the time-to-market seem well possible, particularly by integrating high-speed experimental techniques and predictive modelling tools. This is crucial for the development of a more sustainable fine-chemicals industry. The evolution of novel 'green' production routes for semi-synthetic antibiotics (SSAs) that are replacing existing chemical processes serves as a recent and relevant case study of this ongoing integration of disciplines. We will also show some challenges in this specific field.

  5. A comparative study on biologically and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles induced Heat Shock Proteins on fresh water fish Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Girilal, M; Krishnakumar, V; Poornima, Paramasivan; Mohammed Fayaz, A; Kalaichelvan, P T

    2015-11-01

    The wide applicability of silver nanoparticles in medicine and pharmaceutical industries leads to its over exploitation and thus contaminating our environment. Majority of these nanoscale dimension particles finally accumulates in fresh water and marine ecosystem. As the nanoparticles behave entirely different from its corresponding bulk material, a better understanding of their environmental impacts in aquatic ecosystems is inevitable. The study was focused on a comparative stress physiology analysis of chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles and biogenic silver nanoparticles. Half maximal inhibitory concentration of biologically synthesized and chemically synthesized nanoparticles was found out (30μg/mL and 20μg/mL respectively). The Heat Shock Protein (HSP70) secretion was analysed in the fresh water fish Oreochromis niloticus after exposing to different concentrations of biologically and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles along with the silver in its ionic form. The intense immune-histochemical staining of fish tissues (muscle, kidney and liver) analyzed proportionately reflected the stress created. The colour intensity was directly proportional to the stress created or the stress protein released. High level of HSP70 expression was observed in all of the fish tissues exposed to silver ions and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles, when compared to that of biologically synthesized. The results revealed the significance of comparatively safe and less toxic biogenic nanoparticles compared to the chemically synthesized.

  6. Evaluation of antibacterial activities of silver nanoparticles green-synthesized using pineapple leaf (Ananas comosus).

    PubMed

    Emeka, Elemike Elias; Ojiefoh, Oseghale Charles; Aleruchi, Chuku; Hassan, Labulo Ayomide; Christiana, Owoseni Mojisola; Rebecca, Mfon; Dare, Enock Olugbenga; Temitope, Adesuji Elijah

    2014-02-01

    Pineapple leaf was used in this study for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles based on the search for sustainable synthetic means. Indeed, this offered an economical and sustainable synthetic route relative to expensive and toxic chemical methods. The leaf extract was used and the corresponding nanoparticles obtained were subjected to UV-vis analysis at different times. The UV-vis was used to monitor the silver nanoparticle formation through sampling at time intervals. The formation of silver nanoparticles was apparently displayed within 2 min with evidence of surface plasmon bands (SPB) between 440 and 460 nm. The crystals was equally characterized using FTIR, X-ray diffraction methods and TEM. The different results obtained suggested the appearance of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) as determined by the process parameters with a particle size of 12.4 nm. The sample was further screened against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli using Gentamicin as control. From the results, there is evidence of inhibition towards bacteria growth. It can now be inferred from the studies that biosynthesis of nanoparticles could be a gateway to our numerous health issues.

  7. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1999 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1999 award winner, Dow AgroSciences, developed spinosad, a highly selective, low-toxicity, nonpersistant insecticide made by a soil microorganism. It controls many chewing insect pests.

  8. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1998 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1998 award winner, Rohm and Haas, developed CONFIRM, a highly selective, reduced risk insecticide that disrupts the molting process of caterpillar pests in turf and a variety of crops.

  9. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2006 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2006 award winner, S.C. Johnson & Son, developed Greenlist, a rating system for environmental and health effects of ingredients. SC Johnson uses it to reformulate many of its products.

  10. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2011 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2011 award winner, Sherwin-Williams, developed water-based acrylic alkyd paints with VOCs that can be made from recycled soda bottle (PET), acrylics, and soybean oil.

  11. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2009 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2009 award winners, Procter & Gamble Co. (P&G) and Cook Composites and Polymers Co. (CCP), developed Chempol MPS resins and Sefose sucrose esters to enable high-performance low-VOC alkyd paints.

  12. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2000 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2000 award winner, Dow AgroSciences, developed Sentricon to eliminate termites with bait applied only where termites are active; it replaces widespread applications of pesticide to soil.

  13. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1996 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1996 award winner, Rohm and Haas, developed Sea-Nine, a marine antifoulant to control plants and animals on ship hulls. Sea-Nine replaces persistent, toxic organotin antifoulants.

  14. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2003 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2003 award winner, Shaw Industries, developed EcoWorx carpet tiles with a backing that uses less toxic materials. The carpet tile fiber and backing are readily separated for recycling.

  15. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2008 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2008 award winner, Dow AgroSciences, used an artificial neural network to discover spinetoram, an improved spinosad biopesticide to replace organophosphates for key pests of fruit trees.

  16. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2013 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2013 award winner, Cargill, Inc., developed a vegetable-oil-based transformer fluid that is much less flammable, provides superior performance, is less toxic, and has a substantially lower carbon footprint.

  17. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2012 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2012 award winner, Buckman International, developed Maximyze enzymes that modify the cellulose in wood fibers to increase binding between fibers in paper and improve paper strength.

  18. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2001 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2001 award winner, PPG Industries, developed cationic electrodeposition coatings with yttrium that resist corrosion in automobiles. Yttrium is a safe replacement for lead in this use.

  19. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2004 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2004 award winner, Engelhard Corporation, developed a wide range of environmentally friendly Rightfit azo pigments that contain calcium, strontium, or barium instead of heavy metals.

  20. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1997 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1997 award winner, Albright & Wilson Americas, discovered that tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate, THPS, is an effective, safer biocide for use in industrial water systems.

  1. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2007 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2007 award winner, Cargill, developed biobased polyols for polyurethane applications, including flexible foams. Cargill makes BiOH polyols from vegetable oils, not petroleum products.

  2. Photocatalytic decomposition behavior and reaction pathways of organic compounds using Cu nanoparticles synthesized via a green route.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2016-10-05

    The present article depicts a green, facile and environmentally friendly biosynthetic methodology for the fabrication of Cu nanoparticles (Cu NPs) using an aqueous extract of Anas platyrhynchos egg shells. This method is free from the use of any external reducing agents, stabilizing agents, solvents and templates. The Cu NPs were characterized by UV-Vis, TEM, SAED, FTIR, XRD and SEM-EDX. The synthesized Cu NPs were predominantly spherical in nature with an average size of 5-18 nm. The EDX pattern revealed the presence of elemental copper in the Cu NPs. The prepared NPs were used for the remediation of three carcinogenic dyes, namely, Rose Bengal (RB), Methylene Blue (MB) and Methyl Violet 6B (MV6B) from aqueous solution. Approximately, 98.2, 93 and 96% of RB, MB and MV6B dye were degraded within 165, 135 and 150 min, respectively, using the synthesized Cu NPs. To acquire an improved understanding of the mechanistic details of the degradation products, the intermediates were identified using LC-MS. It is assumed that fragmentation of the oxy group takes place for RB, while for MB and MV6B, N-demethylation and N-demethylenation of the substituent on the amine group takes place. It is believed that finally, the conjugated chromophoric structure undergoes cleavage to form the mineralization products. The probable mechanisms for the degradation of the dyes have been presented. The high efficiency of NPs as photocatalysts has opened a promising application for the removal of hazardous dyes from industrial effluents.

  3. Biological properties of carbon powders synthesized using chemical vapour deposition and detonation methods.

    PubMed

    Batory, M; Batory, D; Grabarczyk, J; Kaczorowski, W; Kupcewicz, B; Mitura, K; Nasti, T H; Yusuf, N; Niedzielski, P

    2012-12-01

    Carbon powders can be synthesized using variety of CVD and detonation methods. Several interesting properties of carbon powder particles make them a very attractive material examined in many laboratories all over the world. However there is a lack of information discussing investigation of carbon powders directed to its application in pharmaceutical-cosmetic industry and medicine. Earlier investigation results proved that diamond powders present properties fighting free radicals. Presented work discusses the influence of carbon powder particles manufactured using MW/RF PACVD, RF PACVD and detonation methods onto hydro-lipid skin coat. Before the biological examinations physicochemical properties of carbon powders were determined. Grain size, shape and chemical composition of carbon powders were determined using the scanning electron microscopy. Surface functional groups were characterized by IR Fourier-transform spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Structure and phase composition were investigated by means of the Raman spectroscopy. Results of allergy tests performed on laboratory mice proved that carbon powder particles synthesized using different methods do not cause allergy. In the following stage, the group of 20 patients applied the formula including carbon powder on their face skin. The influence of carbon powder onto hydro-lipid skin coat was determined by measurement of such parameters as: pH reaction, skin temperature, lipid fotometry and level of hydration. Additionally, macro pictures of places where the cream had been applied were registered. As the result of the investigation it was found that powders synthesized using various methods present different physicochemical properties which may individually affect the face skin parameters. The noticeable improvement of hydro-lipid skin coat kilter was observed.

  4. Physico-chemical studies of amorphous carbon nanotubes synthesized at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Kim Han; Ahmad, Roslina; Leo, Bey Fen; Yew, Ming Chian; Ang, Bee Chin; Johan, Mohd Rafie

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ► Amorphous carbon nanotubes are successfully produced via a simple method at low temperature. ► Nanotubes in straight morphologies with open ends. ► Acid treatment increases the extent of amorphous for nanotubes. ► Amorphous nanotubes exhibit phenomena of π plasmon absorbance and possess higher bandgap. -- Abstract: This work provides better understanding on the nature of amorphous carbon nanotubes, which are synthesized via a simple chemical route. Amorphous carbon nanotubes (α-CNTs) are successfully synthesized by heating a mixture of ferrocene and ammonium chloride at temperature as low as 200 °C and are treated with hydrochloric acid. Transmission and field emission scanning electron microscopy techniques are performed to examine the morphology and dimension of the samples. X-ray diffraction tests confirm the amorphous structure of the nanotubes. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman studies indicate that the treated α-CNTs consist of many defective walls and are more amorphous compared with the untreated α-CNTs. Ultraviolet–visible absorption studies reveal that the untreated and treated α-CNTs exhibit plasmon absorbance with high bandgaps of 4 eV and 4.35 eV, respectively.

  5. Carbon impurities on graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition on platinum

    SciTech Connect

    Ping, Jinglei; Fuhrer, Michael S.

    2014-07-28

    We report nanocrystalline carbon impurities coexisting with graphene synthesized via chemical vapor deposition on platinum. For certain growth conditions, we observe micron-size island-like impurity layers which can be mistaken for second graphene layers in optical microscopy or scanning electron microscopy. The island orientation depends on the crystalline orientation of the Pt, as shown by electron backscatter diffraction, indicating growth of carbon at the platinum surface below graphene. Dark-field transmission electron microscopy indicates that in addition to uniform single-crystal graphene, our sample is decorated with nanocrystalline carbon impurities with a spatially inhomogeneous distribution. The impurity concentration can be reduced significantly by lowering the growth temperature. Raman spectra show a large D peak, however, electrical characterization shows high mobility (∼8000 cm{sup 2}/Vs), indicating a limitation for Raman spectroscopy in characterizing the electronic quality of graphene.

  6. Spectacular enhancement of thermoelectric phenomena in chemically synthesized graphene nanoribbons with substitution atoms.

    PubMed

    Zberecki, K; Swirkowicz, R; Wierzbicki, M; Barnaś, J

    2016-07-21

    We analyze theoretically the transport and thermoelectric properties of graphene nanoribbons of a specific geometry, which have been synthesized recently from polymers [Cai, et al., Nature, 2011, 466, 470]. When such nanoribbons are modified at one of the two edges by Al or N substitutions, they acquire a ferromagnetic moment localized at the modified edge. We present numerical results on the electronic structure and thermoelectric properties (including also spin thermoelectricity) of the modified nanoribbons. The results show that such nanoribbons can display large thermoelectric efficiency in certain regions of chemical potential, where the corresponding electric and spin figures of merit achieve unusually large values. The enhancement of thermoelectric efficiency follows from a reduced phonon heat conductance of the nanoribbons and from their peculiar electronic band structure. Thus, such nanoribbons are promising for practical applications in nanoelectronic and spintronic devices.

  7. A 3D AgCl hierarchical superstructure synthesized by a wet chemical oxidation method.

    PubMed

    Lou, Zaizhu; Huang, Baibiao; Ma, Xiangchao; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Qin, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zeyan; Dai, Ying; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2012-12-07

    A novel 3D AgCl hierarchical superstructure, with fast growth along the 〈111〉 directions of cubic seeds, is synthesized by using a wet chemical oxidation method. The morphological structures and the growth process are investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The crystal structures are analyzed by their crystallographic orientations. The surface energy of AgCl facets {100}, {110}, and {111} with absorbance of Cl(-) ions is studied by density functional theory calculations. Based on the experimental and computational results, a plausible mechanism is proposed to illustrate the formation of the 3D AgCl hierarchical superstructures. With more active sites, the photocatalytic activity of the 3D AgCl hierarchical superstructures is better than those of concave and cubic ones in oxygen evolution under irradiation by visible light.

  8. Vertical graphene nanosheets synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition and the field emission properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xin; Qin, Shengchun; Bai, Shuai; Yue, Hongwei; Li, Yali; Chen, Qiang; Li, Junshuai; He, Deyan

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we explored synthesis of vertical graphene nanosheets (VGNs) by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Through optimizing the experimental condition, growth of well aligned VGNs with uniform morphologies on nickel-coated stainless steel (SS) was realized for the first time by thermal CVD. In the meantime, influence of growth parameters on the VGN morphology was understood based on the balancing between the concentration and kinetic energy of carbon-containing radicals. Structural characterizations demonstrate that the achieved VGNs are normally composed of several graphene layers and less corrugated compared to the ones synthesized by other approaches, e.g. plasma enhanced (PE) CVD. The field emission measurement indicates that the VGNs exhibit relatively stable field emission and a field enhancement factor of about 1470, which is comparable to the values of VGNs prepared by PECVD can be achieved.

  9. Chemical routes to synthesize lithium cobalt oxide powders for rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gallet, D.; Waghray, A.; Kumta, P.N.

    1996-12-31

    Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO{sub 2}) is known to be a good cathode material for high voltage (4V) rechargeable Li-ion batteries. New chemical routes based on aqueous solution chemistry have been developed to synthesize molecularly mixed precursors that transform to form LiCoO{sub 2} at temperatures as low as 400{degrees}C. The resultant oxide powders are nanocrystalline ({approx} 20-40 nm) and exhibit unique morphologies and microstructures depending on the molecular environment of the ions in solution. Cathodes fabricated from the oxide powders and tested in {open_quote}hockey-puck{close_quote} test cells exhibited specific capacities of about 135 mAh/g with a reversible range close to 0.5 Li ions. Results of the phase evolution and microstructural analysis are discussed in relation to the electrochemical performance of the cathodes.

  10. Experimental investigation of optical and magneto optical effects of chemically synthesized cobalt nanocolloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parakkal, Fasalurahman; Babukutty, Blessy; Azad Vettiyadan, Basiluddeen; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Nair, Swapna S.

    2016-04-01

    Surfactant coated (oleic acid) cobalt nanocolloids are synthesized using the chemical reduction technique. The colloidal cobalt particles are characterized by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and a superconducting quantum interference device. Structural characterization of the samples confirms the formation of cobalt in fcc form. The magnetic field induced optical anisotropy is probed through Faraday rotation for both concentrated and diluted colloids. The magneto optical signals for different concentrations are analysed and it is observed that the behaviour can be fitted for a Langevin curve for diluted suspensions, while the deviation is higher for concentrated suspensions. Optical absorption spectra show quantum confinement of nanoparticles leading to a blue shift in the electronic energy band gap. The band gap varied from 2 eV to 4 eV showing semiconductor like behaviour.

  11. Biobased chemicals: the convergence of green chemistry with industrial biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Philp, Jim C; Ritchie, Rachael J; Allan, Jacqueline E M

    2013-04-01

    Policy issues around biobased chemicals are similar to those for biobased plastics. However, there are significant differences that arise from differences in production volumes and the more specific applications of most chemicals. The drivers for biobased chemicals production are similar to those for biobased plastics, particularly the environmental drivers. However, in Europe, biobased chemical production is further driven by the need to improve the competitiveness of the chemicals industry.

  12. Aggregation Behavior of Chemically Synthesized, Full-Length Huntingtin Exon1

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Repeat length disease thresholds vary among the 10 expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat diseases, from about 20 to about 50 glutamine residues. The unique amino acid sequences flanking the polyQ segment are thought to contribute to these repeat length thresholds. The specific portions of the flanking sequences that modulate polyQ properties are not always clear, however. This ambiguity may be important in Huntington’s disease (HD), for example, where in vitro studies of aggregation mechanisms have led to distinctly different mechanistic models. Most in vitro studies of the aggregation of the huntingtin (HTT) exon1 fragment implicated in the HD mechanism have been conducted on inexact molecules that are imprecise either on the N-terminus (recombinantly produced peptides) or on the C-terminus (chemically synthesized peptides). In this paper, we investigate the aggregation properties of chemically synthesized HTT exon1 peptides that are full-length and complete, containing both normal and expanded polyQ repeat lengths, and compare the results directly to previously investigated molecules containing truncated C-termini. The results on the full-length peptides are consistent with a two-step aggregation mechanism originally developed based on studies of the C-terminally truncated analogues. Thus, we observe relatively rapid formation of spherical oligomers containing from 100 to 600 HTT exon1 molecules and intermediate formation of short protofibril-like structures containing from 500 to 2600 molecules. In contrast to this relatively rapid assembly, mature HTT exon1 amyloid requires about one month to dissociate in vitro, which is similar to the time required for neuronal HTT exon1 aggregates to disappear in vivo after HTT production is discontinued. PMID:24921664

  13. Effects of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles on lung cancer cells in vitro and grown as xenograft tumors in vivo

    PubMed Central

    He, Yan; Du, Zhiyun; Ma, Shijing; Liu, Yue; Li, Dongli; Huang, Huarong; Jiang, Sen; Cheng, Shupeng; Wu, Wenjing; Zhang, Kun; Zheng, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have now been recognized as promising therapeutic molecules and are extending their use in cancer diagnosis and therapy. This study demonstrates for the first time the antitumor activity of green-synthesized AgNPs against lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. Cytotoxicity effect was explored on human lung cancer H1299 cells in vitro by MTT and trypan blue assays. Apoptosis was measured by morphological assessment, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcriptional activity was determined by a luciferase reporter gene assay. The expressions of phosphorylated stat3, bcl-2, survivin, and caspase-3 were examined by Western blot analysis. AgNPs showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity and stimulation of apoptosis in H1299 cells. The effects on H1299 cells correlated well with the inhibition of NF-κB activity, a decrease in bcl-2, and an increase in caspase-3 and survivin expression. AgNPs significantly suppressed the H1299 tumor growth in a xenograft severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse model. The results demonstrate the anticancer activities of AgNPs, suggesting that they may act as potential beneficial molecules in lung cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy, especially for early-stage intervention. PMID:27217750

  14. Green-synthesized gold nanoparticles decorated graphene sheets for label-free electrochemical impedance DNA hybridization biosensing.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuwei; Hua, Shucheng; Li, Fenghua; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Bai, Xiaoxue; Li, Dan; Niu, Li

    2011-07-15

    Sensitive electrochemical impedance assay of DNA hybridization by using a novel graphene sheets platform was achieved. The graphene sheets were firstly functionalized with 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid (PTCA). PTCA molecules separated graphene sheets efficiently and introduced more negatively-charged -COOH sites, both of which were beneficial to the decoration of graphene with gold nanoparticles. Then amine-terminated ionic liquid (NH₂-IL) was applied to the reduction of HAuCl₄ to gold nanoparticles. The green-synthesized gold nanoparticles, with the mean diameter of 3 nm, dispersed uniformly on graphene sheets and its outer layer was positively charged imidazole termini. Due to the presence of large graphene sheets and NH₂-IL protected gold nanoparticles, DNA probes could be immobilized via electrostatic interaction and adsorption effect. Electrochemical impedance value increased after DNA probes immobilization and hybridization, which was adopted as the signal for label-free DNA hybridization detection. Unlike previously anchoring DNA to gold nanoparticles, this label-free method was simple and noninvasive. The conserved sequence of the pol gene of human immunodeficiency virus 1 was satisfactorily detected via this strategy.

  15. [Studies on photo-electron-chemical catalytic degradation of the malachite green].

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-yu; Diao, Zeng-hui; Song, Lin; Wang, Xin-le; Zhang, Yuan-ming

    2010-07-01

    A novel two-compartment photo-electro-chemical catalytic reactor was designed. The TiO2/Ti thin film electrode thermally formed was used as photo-anode, and graphite as cathode and a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) as the reference electrode in the reactor. The anode compartment and cathode compartment were connected with the ionic exchange membrane in this reactor. Effects of initial pH, initial concentration of malachite green and connective modes between the anode compartment and cathode compartment on the decolorization efficiency of malachite green were investigated. The degradation dynamics of malachite green was studied. Based on the change of UV-visible light spectrum, the degradation process of malachite green was discussed. The experimental results showed that, during the time of 120 min, the decolouring ratio of the malachite green was 97.7% when initial concentration of malachite green is 30 mg x L(-1) and initial pH is 3.0. The catalytic degradation of malachite green was a pseudo-first order reaction. In the degradation process of malachite green the azo bond cleavage and the conjugated system of malachite green were attacked by hydroxyl radical. Simultaneity, the aromatic ring was oxidized. Finally, malachite green was degraded into other small molecular compounds.

  16. Characterization of ZnS thin films synthesized through a non-toxic precursors chemical bath

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez, C.A.; Sandoval-Paz, M.G.; Cabello, G.; Flores, M.; Fernández, H.; Carrasco, C.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • High quality ZnS thin films have been deposited by chemical bath deposition technique from a non-toxic precursor’s solution. • Nanocrystalline ZnS thin films with large band gap energy were synthesized without using ammonia. • Evidence that the growing of the thin films is carried out by means of hydroxide mechanism was found. • The properties of these ZnS thin films are similar and in some cases better than the corresponding ones produced using toxic precursors such as ammonia. - Abstract: In solar cells, ZnS window layer deposited by chemical bath technique can reach the highest conversion efficiency; however, precursors used in the process normally are materials highly volatile, toxic and harmful to the environment and health (typically ammonia and hydrazine). In this work the characterization of ZnS thin films deposited by chemical bath in a non-toxic alkaline solution is reported. The effect of deposition technique (growth in several times) on the properties of the ZnS thin film was studied. The films exhibited a high percentage of optical transmission (greater than 80%); as the deposition time increased a decreasing in the band gap values from 3.83 eV to 3.71 eV was observed. From chemical analysis, the presence of ZnS and Zn(OH){sub 2} was identified and X-ray diffraction patterns exhibited a clear peak corresponding to ZnS hexagonal phase (1 0 3) plane, which was confirmed by electron diffraction patterns. From morphological studies, compact samples with well-defined particles, low roughness, homogeneous and pinhole-free in the surface were observed. From obtained results, it is evident that deposits of ZnS–CBD using a non-toxic solution are suitable as window layer for TFSC.

  17. Environmental Chemistry and Chemical Ecology of "Green Tide" Seaweed Blooms.

    PubMed

    Van Alstyne, Kathryn L; Nelson, Timothy A; Ridgway, Richard L

    2015-09-01

    Green tides are large growths or accumulations of green seaweeds that have been increasing in magnitude and frequency around the world. Because green tides consist of vast biomasses of algae in a limited area and are often seasonal or episodic, they go through periods of rapid growth in which they take up large amounts of nutrients and dissolved gases and generate bioactive natural products that may be stored in the plants, released into the environment, or broken down during decomposition. As a result of the use and production of inorganic and organic compounds, the algae in these blooms can have detrimental impacts on other organisms. Here, we review some of the effects that green tides have on the chemistry of seawater and the effects of the natural products that they produce. As blooms are developing and expanding, algae in green tides take up inorganic nutrients, such as nitrate and ortho-phosphate, which can limit their availability to other photosynthetic organisms. Their uptake of dissolved inorganic carbon for use in photosynthesis can cause localized spikes in the pH of seawater during the day with concomitant drops in the pH at night when the algae are respiring. Many of the algae that form green-tide blooms produce allelopathic compounds, which are metabolites that affect other species. The best documented allelopathic compounds include dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), dopamine, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their breakdown products. DMSP and dopamine are involved in defenses against herbivores. Dopamine and ROS are released into seawater where they can be allelopathic or toxic to other organisms. Thus, these macroalgal blooms can have harmful effects on nearby organisms by altering concentrations of nutrients and dissolved gas in seawater and by producing and releasing allelopathic or toxic compounds.

  18. Excellent photocatalytic performance under visible-light irradiation of ZnS/rGO nanocomposites synthesized by a green method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimi, Hassan Rayat; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Elahi, Seyed Mohammad; Mahmoudian, Mohammad Reza; Jamali-Sheini, Farid; Yousefi, Ramin

    2016-11-01

    ZnS/graphene nanocomposites with different graphene concentrations (5, 10 and 15 wt.%) were synthesized using L-cysteine as surfactant and graphene oxide (GO) powders as graphene source. Excellent performance for nanocomposites to remove methylene blue (MB) dye and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) under visible-light illumination was revealed. TEM images showed that ZnS NPs were decorated on GO sheets and the GO caused a significant decrease in the ZnS diameter size. XRD patterns, XPS and FTIR spectroscopy results indicated that GO sheets changed into reduced graphene oxide (rGO) during the synthesis process. Photocurrent measurements under a visiblelight source indicated a good chemical reaction between ZnS NPs and rGO sheets.

  19. Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesized Atomically Thin Molybdenum Disulfide with Optoelectronic-Grade Crystalline Quality.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Ismail; Liu, Fangze; Vargas, Anthony; Winchester, Andrew; Man, Michael K L; Upmanyu, Moneesh; Dani, Keshav M; Gupta, Gautam; Talapatra, Saikat; Mohite, Aditya D; Kar, Swastik

    2015-09-22

    The ability to synthesize high-quality samples over large areas and at low cost is one of the biggest challenges during the developmental stage of any novel material. While chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods provide a promising low-cost route for CMOS compatible, large-scale growth of materials, it often falls short of the high-quality demands in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. We present large-scale CVD synthesis of single- and few-layered MoS2 using direct vapor-phase sulfurization of MoO2, which enables us to obtain extremely high-quality single-crystal monolayer MoS2 samples with field-effect mobility exceeding 30 cm(2)/(V s) in monolayers. These samples can be readily synthesized on a variety of substrates, and demonstrate a high-degree of optoelectronic uniformity in Raman and photoluminescence mapping over entire crystals with areas exceeding hundreds of square micrometers. Because of their high crystalline quality, Raman spectroscopy on these samples reveal a range of multiphonon processes through peaks with equal or better clarity compared to past reports on mechanically exfoliated samples. This enables us to investigate the layer thickness and substrate dependence of the extremely weak phonon processes at 285 and 487 cm(-1) in 2D-MoS2. The ultrahigh, optoelectronic-grade crystalline quality of these samples could be further established through photocurrent spectroscopy, which clearly reveal excitonic states at room temperature, a feat that has been previously demonstrated only on samples which were fabricated by micro-mechanical exfoliation and then artificially suspended across trenches. Our method reflects a big step in the development of atomically thin, 2D-MoS2 for scalable, high-quality optoelectronics.

  20. Observation of high coercive fields in chemically synthesized coated Fe-Pt nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalavi, Shankar B.; Panda, Rabi N.

    2017-04-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe-Pt alloys have been synthesized via chemical reduction route using various capping agents; such as: oleic acid/oleylamine (route-1) and oleic acid/CTAB (route-2). We could able to synthesize Fe50Pt and Fe54Pt alloys via route 1 and 2, respectively. As-prepared Fe-Pt alloys crystallize in disordered fcc phase with crystallite sizes of 2.3 nm and 6 nm for route-1 and route-2, respectively. Disordered Fe-Pt alloys were transformed to ordered fct phase after annealing at 600 °C. SEM studies confirm the spherical shape morphologies of annealed Fe-Pt nanoparticles with SEM particle sizes of 24.4 nm and 21.2 nm for route-1 and route-2, respectively. TEM study confirms the presence of 4.6 nm particles for annealed Fe50Pt alloys with several agglomerating clusters of bigger size and appropriately agrees well with the XRD study. Room temperature magnetization studies of as-prepared Fe-Pt alloys (fcc) show ferromagnetism with negligible coercivities. Average magnetic moments per particle for as-prepared Fe-Pt alloys were estimated to be 753 μB and 814 μB, for route 1 and 2, respectively. Ordered fct Fe-Pt alloys show high values of coercivities of 10,000 Oe and 10,792 Oe for route-1 and route-2, respectively. Observed magnetic properties of the fct Fe-Pt alloys nps were interpreted with the basis of order parameters, size, surface, and composition effects.

  1. DECON GREEN (Trademark) Development and Chemical Biological Agent Efficacy Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    deleterious effect on the reaction of VX. At the same time, trial oxidations using molybdate were successfully carried out in microemulsions consisting of...non- ionic surfactant possessing legendary grease-cutting ability, (2) it has a high flashpoint (>110 ’C/>230 ’F), and (3) it quickly dissolves HD. Thus...Consumer Products Containing Identical or Similar DECON GREEN TM Ingredients (Continued) Non- ionic Surfactants Sodium Carbonatea aHandling and safety

  2. Induction of Apoptosis by Green Synthesized Gold Nanoparticles Through Activation of Caspase-3 and 9 in Human Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baharara, Javad; Ramezani, Tayebe; Divsalar, Adeleh; Mousavi, Marzieh; Seyedarabi, Arefeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gold Nanoparticles (GNPs) are used in imaging and molecular diagnostic applications. As the development of a novel approach in the green synthesis of metal nanoparticles is of great importance and a necessity, a simple and safe method for the synthesis of GNPs using plant extracts of Zataria multiflora leaves was applied in this study and the results on GNPs’ anticancer activity against HeLa cells were reported. Methods: The GNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, TEM, DLS and Zeta-potential measurements. In addition, the cellular up-take of nanoparticles was investigated using Dark Field Microscopy (DFM). Induction of apoptosis by high dose of GNPs in HeLa cells was assessed by MTT assay, Acridin orange, DAPI staining, Annexin V/PI double-labeling flow cytometry and caspase activity assay. Results: UV-visible spectroscopy results showed a surface plasmon resonance band for GNPs at 530 nm. FTIR results demonstrated an interaction between plant extract and nanoparticles. TEM images revealed different shapes for GNPs and DLS results indicated that the GNPs range in size from 10 to 42 nm. The Zeta potential values of the synthesized GNPs were between 30 to 50 Mev, indicating the formation of stable particles. As evidenced by MTT assay, GNPs inhibit proliferation of HeLa cells in dose-dependent GNPs and cytotoxicity of GNPs in Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell (BMSCs) was lower than cancerous cells. At nontoxic concentrations, the cellular up-take of the nanoparticles took place. Acridin orange and DAPI staining showed morphological changes in the cell’s nucleus due to apoptosis. Finally, caspase activity assay demonstrated HeLa cell’s apoptosis through caspase activation. Conclusion: The results showed that GNPs have the ability to induce apoptosis in HeLa cells. PMID:27141266

  3. Amelioration of excision wounds by topical application of green synthesized, formulated silver and gold nanoparticles in albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Kumari, P Lakshmi; Das, Raunak Kumar; Sivakumar, A; Patil, Sagar Hindurao; Andhalkar, Vaibhav Vilas

    2016-05-01

    Wound healing, a complex biological process, has attained a lot of attention as dermatologists are primarily interested in stimulated wound closure without formation of scar or a faint scar. The recent upsurgence of nanotechnology has provided novel therapeutic materials in the form of silver and gold nanoparticles which accelerate the wound healing process. The effect of formulated nanoparticles using Coleus forskohlii root extract (green synthesized) has been tried out for ameliorating full thickness excision wounds in albino Wistar male rats. The evaluation of in vivo activity of nanoparticles in wound healing was carried out on open wounds made by excision on the dorsal sides of albino Wistar rats under anesthesia, and the healing of the wounds was assessed. Histological aspects of the healing process were studied by a HE (Hematoxylin and Eosin) staining method to assess various degrees of re-epithelialization and the linear alignment of the granulation tissue whereas Van Gieson's histochemical staining was performed to observe collagen fibers. The healing action shown by the formulated nanoparticles was remarkable during the early stages of wound healing, which resulted in the substantial reduction of the whole healing period. Topical application of formulated gold nanoparticles was found to be more effective in suppressing inflammation and stimulating re-epithelialization compared to silver nanoparticles during the healing process. The results throw light on the amelioration of excision wounds using nanoparticles which could be a novel therapeutic way of improving wound healing in clinical practice. The mechanism of advanced healing action of both types of nanoparticles could be due to their antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  4. Physico-Chemical Structural and Electrical Studies of Cu-Zn Ferrites Synthesized by Novel Chemical Route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohar, K. S.; Patange, S. M.; Mane, D. R.; Shirsath, Sagar E.; Shinde, N. D.; Kulkarni, Nilesh

    The physico-chemical, structural and electrical properties of zinc substituted copper ferrites having the general formula Cu1-xZnxFe2O4 (x=0.0 to x=0.8) have been studied as a function of zinc ion concentration. The sample was prepared by co-precipitation method from corresponding metal sulphates. X-ray diffraction patterns were used to confirm the structure of synthesized samples. The calculated and theoretical values of average lattice constant, tetrahedral bond, tetrahedral edge and unshared octahedral edge were found to increase, while the shared octahedral edge and octahedral bond decrease as the Zn ion concentration increases. The dielectric constant (ε‧) and dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) were measured at a constant frequency 1 kHz as a function of temperature. The dielectric constant and loss tangent were found to increase with rise in temperature. The conduction mechanism in these ferrites is discussed on the basis of electron exchange between Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions. The temperature dependent dc resistivity was carried out in the temperature range 300 to 800 K. The plots of log ρ versus 103/T are linear showing two regions, corresponding to ferrimagnetic and paramagnetic regions.

  5. Turn-off fluorescence sensor for the detection of ferric ion in water using green synthesized N-doped carbon dots and its bio-imaging.

    PubMed

    Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Atchudan, Raji; Shim, Jae-Jin; Kalimuthu, Senthilkumar; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports turn-off fluorescence sensor for Fe(3+) ion in water using fluorescent N-doped carbon dots as a probe. A simple and efficient hydrothermal carbonization of Prunus avium fruit extract for the synthesis of fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) is described. This green approach proceeds quickly and provides good quality N-CDs. The mean size of synthesized N-CDs was approximately 7nm calculated from the high-resolution transmission electron microscopic images. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the presence of -OH, -NH2, -COOH, and -CO functional groups over the surface of CDs. The N-CDs showed excellent fluorescent properties, and emitted blue fluorescence at 411nm upon excitation at 310nm. The calculated quantum yield of the synthesized N-CDs is 13% against quinine sulfate as a reference fluorophore. The synthesized N-CDs were used as a fluorescent probe towards the selective and sensitive detection of biologically important Fe(3+) ions in water by fluorescence spectroscopy and for bio-imaging of MDA-MB-231 cells. The limit of detection (LOD) and the Stern-Volmer quenching constant for the synthesized N-CDs were 0.96μM and 2.0958×10(3)M of Fe(3+) ions. The green synthesized N-CDs are efficiently used as a promising candidate for the detection of Fe(3+) ions and bio-imaging.

  6. Size- and Shape-Dependent Antibacterial Studies of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Wet Chemical Routes

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Muhammad Akram; Kanwal, Zakia; Rauf, Anum; Sabri, Anjum Nasim; Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of different shapes and sizes were prepared by solution-based chemical reduction routes. Silver nitrate was used as a precursor, tri-sodium citrate (TSC) and sodium borohydride as reducing agents, while polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was used as a stabilizing agent. The morphology, size, and structural properties of obtained nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Spherical AgNPs, as depicted by SEM, were found to have diameters in the range of 15 to 90 nm while lengths of the edges of the triangular particles were about 150 nm. The characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks of different spherical silver colloids occurring in the wavelength range of 397 to 504 nm, whereas triangular particles showed two peaks, first at 392 nm and second at 789 nm as measured by UV-VIS. The XRD spectra of the prepared samples indicated the face-centered cubic crystalline structure of metallic AgNPs. The in vitro antibacterial properties of all synthesized AgNPs against two types of Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli were examined by Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility method. It was noticed that the smallest-sized spherical AgNPs demonstrated a better antibacterial activity against both bacterial strains as compared to the triangular and larger spherical shaped AgNPs. PMID:28335201

  7. Screening ubiquitin specific protease activities using chemically synthesized ubiquitin and ubiquitinated peptides.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, Marine; Fould, Benjamin; Jullian, Magali; Kreiter, Aude; Maurras, Amélie; Nosjean, Olivier; Coursindel, Thibault; Puget, Karine; Ferry, Gilles; Boutin, Jean A

    2017-02-15

    Ubiquitin, a 76 amino acid protein, is a key component that contributes to cellular protein homeostasis. The specificity of this modification is due to a series of enzymes: ligases, attaching the ubiquitin to a lysine, and deubiquitinases, which remove it. More than a hundred of such proteins are implicated in the regulation of protein turnover. Their specificities are only partially understood. We chemically synthesized ubiquitin, attached it to lysines belonging to the protein sequences known to be ubiquitinated. We chose the model protein "murine double minute 2" (mdm2), a ubiquitin ligase, itself ubiquitinated and deubiquitinated. We folded the ubiquitinated peptides and checked their tridimensional conformation. We assessed the use of these substrates with a series of fifteen deubiquitinases to show the potentiality of such an enzymological technique. By manipulating the sequence of the peptide on which ubiquitin is attached, we were able to detect differences in the enzyme/substrate recognition, and to determine that these differences are deubiquitinase-dependent. This approach could be used to understand the substrate/protein relationship between the protagonists of this reaction. The methodology could be customized for a given substrate and used to advance our understanding of the key amino acids responsible for the deubiquitinase specificities.

  8. Study on antibacterial activity of chemically synthesized PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boomi, Pandi; Prabu, Halliah Gurumallesh; Manisankar, Paramasivam; Ravikumar, Sundaram

    2014-05-01

    Pristine polyaniline (PANI), PANI-Ag, PANI-Au and PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization method using aniline as monomer, ammonium persulphate as oxidant and metal (Ag, Au and Ag-Au) colloids. UV-Vis analysis exhibited surface Plasmon resonances of Ag, Au, Ag-Au nanoparticles. FT-IR spectra revealed the shift in peak position of N-H stretching. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the presence of Ag, Au and Au-Ag nanoparticles. HR-TEM images show nanosizes of Ag, Au, Ag-Au and the incorporation of such nanoparticles into the PANI matrix. Pristine PANI, PANI-Ag, PANI-Au and PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposites were tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method. PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite exhibited higher antibacterial activity against both gram-positive [Streptococcus sp. (MTCC 890), Staphylococcus sp. (MTCC 96)] and gram-negative bacteria [Escherichia coli (MTCC 1671) and Klebsiella sp. (MTCC 7407)] when compared with PANI-Ag nanocomposite, PANI-Au nanocomposite and pristine PANI. The novelty of this study is the polymer-bimetal synthesis and its antibacterial potential.

  9. Stable biopassive insulation synthesized by initiated chemical vapor deposition of poly(1,3,5-trivinyltrimethylcyclotrisiloxane).

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, W S; Murthy, S K; Edell, D J; Gleason, K K

    2007-08-01

    The permanent implantation of electronic probes capable of recording neural activity patterns requires long-term electrical insulation of these devices by biopassive coatings. In this work, the material properties and neural cell compatibility of a novel polymeric material, poly(trivinyltrimethylcyclotrisiloxane) (poly(V3D3)), are demonstrated to be suitable for application as permanently bioimplanted electrically insulating films. The poly(V3D3) polymeric films are synthesized by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD), allowing for conformal and flexible encapsulation of fine wires. The poly(V3D3) also exhibits high adhesive strength to silicon substrates, a common material of manufacture for neural probes. The poly(V3D3) films were found to be insoluble in both polar and nonpolar solvents, consistent with their highly cross-linked structure. The films are pinhole-free and extremely smooth, having a root-mean-square (rms) roughness of 0.4 nm. The material possesses a bulk resistivity of 4 x 1015 Ohm-cm exceeding that of Parylene-C, the material currently used to insulate neurally implanted devices. The iCVD poly(V3D3) films are hydrolytically stable and are demonstrated to maintain their electrical properties under physiological soak conditions, and constant electrical bias, for more than 2 years. In addition, biocompatibility studies with PC12 neurons demonstrate that this material is noncytotoxic and does not influence cell proliferation.

  10. Li 3V 2(PO 4) 3 cathode material synthesized by chemical reduction and lithiation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun-Chao; Li, Xin-Hai; Wang, Zhi-Xing; Guo, Hua-Jun; Hu, Qi-Yang; Peng, Wen-Jie

    The monoclinic-type Li 3V 2(PO 4) 3 cathode material was synthesized via calcining amorphous Li 3V 2(PO 4) 3 obtained by chemical reduction and lithiation of V 2O 5 using oxalic acid as reducer and lithium carbonate as lithium source in alcohol solution. The amorphous Li 3V 2(PO 4) 3 precursor was characterized by using TG-DSC and XPS. The results showed that the V 5+ was reduced to V 3+ by oxalic acid at ambient temperature and pressure. The prepared Li 3V 2(PO 4) 3 was characterized by XRD and SEM. The results indicated the Li 3V 2(PO 4) 3 powder had good crystallinity and mesoporous morphology with an average diameter of about 30 nm. The pure Li 3V 2(PO 4) 3 exhibits a stable discharge capacity of 130.08 mAh g -1 at 0.1 C (14 mA g -1).

  11. Characterization and Evaluation of Property of Columbite-MgNb2O6 Synthesized by Chemical Route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Kakali; Mukherjee, Siddhartha

    2016-10-01

    A simple chemical route is used to successfully synthesized magnesium niobate (MgNb2O6: MN) nano ceramic material at various processing temperatures. The initial phase formation characterization has been studied by thermal analysis for pure MN formation using TG-DT analysis. The synthesized powder materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The formation of MN phase of powder samples is determined from the XRD. Average lattice constants of MN ceramic sample are measured from XRD data. The formation of MN phase of synthesized samples is also identified by Raman spectra. The chemistry is measured by EDX analysis. The photoluminescence spectra shows a broad blue emission band centered at 426 nm and the band gap energy is 2.19 eV as measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy using Tauc equation. The photoluminescence and optical property of synthesized MN ceramic material are studied at room temperature.

  12. Ag nanoparticle-ZnO nanowire hybrid nanostructures as enhanced and robust antimicrobial textiles via a green chemical approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhou; Tang, Haoying; Yuan, Weiwei; Song, Wei; Niu, Yongshan; Yan, Ling; Yu, Min; Dai, Ming; Feng, Siyu; Wang, Menghang; Liu, Tengjiao; Jiang, Peng; Fan, Yubo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-04-11

    A new approach for fabrication of a long-term and recoverable antimicrobial nanostructure/textile hybrid without increasing the antimicrobial resistance is demonstrated. Using in situ synthesized Ag nanoparticles (NPs) anchored on ZnO nanowires (NWs) grown on textiles by a 'dip-in and light-irradiation' green chemical method, we obtained ZnONW@AgNP nanocomposites with small-size and uniform Ag NPs, which have shown superior performance for antibacterial applications. These new Ag/ZnO/textile antimicrobial composites can be used for wound dressings and medical textiles for topical and prophylactic antibacterial treatments, point-of-use water treatment to improve the cleanliness of water and antimicrobial air filters to prevent bioaerosols accumulating in ventilation, heating, and air-conditioning systems.

  13. Ag nanoparticle-ZnO nanowire hybrid nanostructures as enhanced and robust antimicrobial textiles via a green chemical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhou; Tang, Haoying; Yuan, Weiwei; Song, Wei; Niu, Yongshan; Yan, Ling; Yu, Min; Dai, Ming; Feng, Siyu; Wang, Menghang; Liu, Tengjiao; Jiang, Peng; Fan, Yubo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-04-01

    A new approach for fabrication of a long-term and recoverable antimicrobial nanostructure/textile hybrid without increasing the antimicrobial resistance is demonstrated. Using in situ synthesized Ag nanoparticles (NPs) anchored on ZnO nanowires (NWs) grown on textiles by a ‘dip-in and light-irradiation’ green chemical method, we obtained ZnONW@AgNP nanocomposites with small-size and uniform Ag NPs, which have shown superior performance for antibacterial applications. These new Ag/ZnO/textile antimicrobial composites can be used for wound dressings and medical textiles for topical and prophylactic antibacterial treatments, point-of-use water treatment to improve the cleanliness of water and antimicrobial air filters to prevent bioaerosols accumulating in ventilation, heating, and air-conditioning systems.

  14. Effects of natural and chemically synthesized furanones on quorum sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Daniel; Grossmann, Gilles; Séquin, Urs; Brandl, Helmut; Bachofen, Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    Background Cell to cell signaling systems in Gram-negative bacteria rely on small diffusible molecules such as the N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL). These compounds are involved in the production of antibiotics, exoenzymes, virulence factors and biofilm formation. They belong to the class of furanone derivatives which are frequently found in nature as pheromones, flavor compounds or secondary metabolites. To obtain more information on the relation between molecular structure and quorum sensing, we tested a variety of natural and chemically synthesized furanones for their ability to interfere with the quorum sensing mechanism using a quantitative bioassay with Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 for antagonistic and agonistic action. We were looking at the following questions: 1. Do these compounds affect growth? 2) Do these compounds activate the quorum sensing system of C. violaceum CV026? 3) Do these compounds inhibit violacein formation induced by the addition of the natural inducer N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (HHL)? 4) Do these compounds enhance violacein formation in presence of HHL? Results The naturally produced N-acylhomoserine lactones showed a strong non-linear concentration dependent influence on violacein production in C. violaceum with a maximum at 3.7*10-8 M with HHL. Apart from the N-acylhomoserine lactones only one furanone (emoxyfurane) was found to simulate N-acylhomoserine lactone activity and induce violacein formation. The most effective substances acting negatively both on growth and quorum sensing were analogs and intermediates in synthesis of the butenolides from Streptomyces antibioticus. Conclusion As the regulation of many bacterial processes is governed by quorum sensing systems, the finding of natural and synthetic furanones acting as agonists or antagonists suggests an interesting tool to control and handle detrimental AHL induced effects. Some effects are due to general toxicity; others are explained by a competitive interaction for Lux

  15. Green Jobs: Definition and Method of Appraisal of Chemical and Biological Risks.

    PubMed

    Cheneval, Erwan; Busque, Marc-Antoine; Ostiguy, Claude; Lavoie, Jacques; Bourbonnais, Robert; Labrèche, France; Bakhiyi, Bouchra; Zayed, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    In the wake of sustainable development, green jobs are developing rapidly, changing the work environment. However a green job is not automatically a safe job. The aim of the study was to define green jobs, and to establish a preliminary risk assessment of chemical substances and biological agents for workers in Quebec. An operational definition was developed, along with criteria and sustainable development principles to discriminate green jobs from regular jobs. The potential toxicity or hazard associated with their chemical and biological exposures was assessed, and the workers' exposure appraised using an expert assessment method. A control banding approach was then used to assess risks for workers in selected green jobs. A double entry model allowed us to set priorities in terms of chemical or biological risk. Among jobs that present the highest risk potential, several are related to waste management. The developed method is flexible and could be adapted to better appraise the risks that workers are facing or to propose control measures.

  16. Green Jobs: Definition and Method of Appraisal of Chemical and Biological Risks

    PubMed Central

    Cheneval, Erwan; Busque, Marc-Antoine; Ostiguy, Claude; Lavoie, Jacques; Bourbonnais, Robert; Labrèche, France; Bakhiyi, Bouchra; Zayed, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of sustainable development, green jobs are developing rapidly, changing the work environment. However a green job is not automatically a safe job. The aim of the study was to define green jobs, and to establish a preliminary risk assessment of chemical substances and biological agents for workers in Quebec. An operational definition was developed, along with criteria and sustainable development principles to discriminate green jobs from regular jobs. The potential toxicity or hazard associated with their chemical and biological exposures was assessed, and the workers’ exposure appraised using an expert assessment method. A control banding approach was then used to assess risks for workers in selected green jobs. A double entry model allowed us to set priorities in terms of chemical or biological risk. Among jobs that present the highest risk potential, several are related to waste management. The developed method is flexible and could be adapted to better appraise the risks that workers are facing or to propose control measures. PMID:26718400

  17. The science of green chemistry and its role in chemicals policy and educational reform.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Amy S; Warner, John C

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the science of green chemistry has continued to evolve and has been adopted in research labs in industry and academia. At the same time, new innovations in chemicals policy have widened opportunities for legislative action to protect human health and the environment. This article addresses the mechanisms by which the science of green chemistry and chemicals policy can work together to help attain a more sustainable future. It also speaks to the pitfalls of inappropriately merging these two, and explores how such a merger could inhibit the creation of sustainable technologies. Green chemistry's role in educational reform is discussed as a means for training students who are prepared to create truly sustainable technologies.

  18. Chemical cleaning re-invented: clean, lean and green.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Margaret; Vangeel, Michel

    2014-01-01

    A project undertaken in the Central Cleaning Department of Janssen, a Johnson and Johnson pharmaceutical company, demonstrates how ergonomics, environmental and industrial hygiene risks and quality concerns can be tackled simultaneously. The way equipment was cleaned was re-designed by an in-house cross-functional team to ensure a 'clean, lean and green' process. Initiatives included a new layout of the area, and new work processes and equipment to facilitate cleaning and handling items. This resulted in significant improvements: all ergonomics high risk tasks were reduced to moderate or low risk; hearing protection was no longer required; respirator requirement reduced by 67%; solvent use reduced by 73%; productivity improved, with 55% fewer operator hours required; and quality improved 40-fold. The return on investment was estimated at 3.125 years based on an investment of over €1.5 million (2008 prices). This win-win intervention allowed ergonomics, environmental, industrial hygiene, productivity and quality concerns all to be addressed.

  19. Development of Enabling Chemical Technologies for Power from Green Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-18

    Photovoltaics: A Photoinduced Charge Transfer Investigation, Journal American Chemical Society, ( 2009): . doi: Jiun-Tai Chen, Dian Chen, Thomas P . Russell...Joseph, Michael James Maroney, R. Brian Dyer. Direct evidence of active site reduction and photo-driven catalysis in sensitized hydrogenase...2011 09/22/2011 6.00 7.00 5.00 Le Li, Caroline Miesch, P . K. Sudeep, Anna C. Balazs, Todd Emrick, Thomas P . Russell, Ryan C. Hayward. Kinetically

  20. Chemical syntheses of inhibitory substrates of the RNA-RNA ligation reaction catalyzed by the hairpin ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Massey, Archna P; Sigurdsson, Snorri Th

    2004-01-01

    The chemical syntheses of RNA oligomers containing modifications on the 5'-carbon of the 5'-terminal nucleoside for crystallographic and mechanistic studies of the hairpin ribozyme are reported. Phosphoramidites 4 and 8 were prepared and used in solid phase syntheses of RNA oligomers containing the sequence 5'-N'UCCUCUCC, where N' indicates either 5'-chloro-5'-deoxyguanosine or 5'-amino-5'-deoxyguanosine, respectively. A ribozyme ligation assay with the 5'-chloro- and 5'-amino-modified RNA oligomers demonstrated their inhibition of the hairpin-catalyzed RNA-RNA ligation reaction.

  1. Green chemical synthesis of silver nanomaterials with maltodextrin.

    SciTech Connect

    Tallant, David Robert; Lu, Ping; Lambert, Timothy N.; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2010-11-01

    Silver nanomaterials have significant application resulting from their optical properties related to surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, high electrical conductivity, and anti-microbial impact. A 'green chemistry' synthetic approach for silver nanomaterials minimizes the environmental impact of silver synthesis, as well as lowers the toxicity of the reactive agents. Biopolymers have long been used for stabilization of silver nanomaterials during synthesis, and include gum Arabic, heparin, and common starch. Maltodextrin is a processed derivative of starch with lower molecular weight and an increase in the number of reactive reducing aldehyde groups, and serves as a suitable single reactant for the formation of metallic silver. Silver nanomaterials can be formed under either a thermal route at neutral pH in water or by reaction at room temperature under more alkaline conditions. Deposited silver materials are formed on substrates from near neutral pH solutions at low temperatures near 50 C. Experimental conditions based on material concentrations, pH and reaction time are investigated for development of deposited films. Deposit morphology and optical properties are characterized using SEM and UV-vis techniques. Silver nanoparticles are generated under alkaline conditions by a dissolution-reduction method from precipitated silver (II) oxide. Synthesis conditions were explored for the rapid development of stable silver nanoparticle dispersions. UV-vis absorption spectra, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to characterize the nanoparticle formation kinetics and the influence of reaction conditions. The adsorbed content of the maltodextrin was characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  2. Mosquito larvicidal and antimicrobial activity of synthesized nano-crystalline silver particles using leaves and green berry extract of Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae: Solanales).

    PubMed

    Rawani, Anjali; Ghosh, Anupam; Chandra, Goutam

    2013-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) that are synthesized by using aqueous extracts of Solanum nigrum L., is a simple, non-toxic and ecofriendly green material. The present study is based on assessments of the larvicidal and antimicrobial activities of the synthesized AgNPs from fresh leaves, dry leaves and green berries of S. nigrum against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi and four human pathogenic and five fish pathogenic bacteria respectively. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized with UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The nanoparticles are spherical to polyhedral in shape with size of 50-100nm (average size of 56.6nm). In larvicidal bioassay with synthesized AgNPs, highest mortality are observed at 10ppm against An. stephensi with LC50 values of 1.33, 1.59, 1.56ppm and LC90 values of 3.97, 7.31, 4.76ppm for dry leaves, fresh leaves and berries respectively. Antibacterial activity test reveals better results against fish pathogenic bacteria than human pathogenic bacteria. Non target organism like Toxorhynchites larvae (mosquito predator), Diplonychus annulatum (predatory water-bug) and Chironomus circumdatus larvae (chironomid) are also exposed to respective lethal concentrations (to mosquito larvae) of dry nanoparticles and no abnormality in the non target organisms are recorded. These results suggest that the synthesized AgNPs of S. nigrum have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly compound for the control of the mosquito larvae and harmful bacteria.

  3. Bioactives from fruit processing wastes: Green approaches to valuable chemicals.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Jhumur; Singh, Ramkrishna; Vijayaraghavan, R; MacFarlane, Douglas; Patti, Antonio F; Arora, Amit

    2017-06-15

    Fruit processing industries contribute more than 0.5billion tonnes of waste worldwide. The global availability of this feedstock and its untapped potential has encouraged researchers to perform detailed studies on value-addition potential of fruit processing waste (FPW). Compared to general food or other biomass derived waste, FPW are found to be selective and concentrated in nature. The peels, pomace and seed fractions of FPW could potentially be a good feedstock for recovery of bioactive compounds such as pectin, lipids, flavonoids, dietary fibres etc. A novel bio-refinery approach would aim to produce a wider range of valuable chemicals from FPW. The wastes from majority of the extraction processes may further be used as renewable sources for production of biofuels. The literature on value addition to fruit derived waste is diverse. This paper presents a review of fruit waste derived bioactives. The financial challenges encountered in existing methods are also discussed.

  4. Photo-catalytic activity of Zn1-xMnxS nanocrystals synthesized by wet chemical technique

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Polyvinyl pyrrolidone capped Zn1-xMnxS (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) nanocrystals have been synthesized using wet chemical co-precipitation method. Crystallographic and morphological characterization of the synthesized materials have been done using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. Crystallographic studies show the zinc blende crystals having average crystallite size approx. 3 nm, which is almost similar to the average particle size calculated from electron micrographs. Atomic absorption spectrometer has been used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of synthesized nanomaterials. Photo-catalytic activity has been studied using methylene blue dye as a test contaminant. Energy resolved luminescence spectra have been recorded for the detailed description of radiative and non-radiative recombination mechanisms. Photo-catalytic activity dependence on dopant concentration and luminescence quantum yield has been studied in detail. PMID:21711502

  5. Active biopolymers in green non-conventional media: a sustainable tool for developing clean chemical processes.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Pedro; Bernal, Juana M; Nieto, Susana; Gomez, Celia; Garcia-Verdugo, Eduardo; Luis, Santiago V

    2015-12-21

    The greenness of chemical processes turns around two main axes: the selectivity of catalytic transformations, and the separation of pure products. The transfer of the exquisite catalytic efficiency shown by enzymes in nature to chemical processes is an important challenge. By using appropriate reaction systems, the combination of biopolymers with supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and ionic liquids (ILs) resulted in synergetic and outstanding platforms for developing (multi)catalytic green chemical processes, even under flow conditions. The stabilization of biocatalysts, together with the design of straightforward approaches for separation of pure products including the full recovery and reuse of enzymes/ILs systems, are essential elements for developing clean chemical processes. By understanding structure-function relationships of biopolymers in ILs, as well as for ILs themselves (e.g. sponge-like ionic liquids, SLILs; supported ionic liquids-like phases, SILLPs, etc.), several integral green chemical processes of (bio)catalytic transformation and pure product separation are pointed out (e.g. the biocatalytic production of biodiesel in SLILs, etc.). Other developments based on DNA/ILs systems, as pathfinder studies for further technological applications in the near future, are also considered.

  6. Mosquitocidal and antibacterial activity of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles from Aloe vera extracts: towards an effective tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?

    PubMed

    Dinesh, Devakumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Nicoletti, Marcello; Jiang, Wei; Benelli, Giovanni; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Suresh, Udaiyan

    2015-04-01

    Mosquitoes represent an important threat for lives of millions of people worldwide, acting as vectors for devastating pathogens, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue, and West Nile. In addition, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. Here, we investigated the mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Aloe vera leaf extract and silver nanoparticles synthesized using A. vera extract. Mosquitocidal properties were assessed in laboratory against larvae (I-IV instar) and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against An. stephensi also in field conditions. Antibacterial properties of nanoparticles were evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In laboratory conditions, the A. vera extract was toxic against An. stephensi larvae and pupae, even at low dosages. LC50 were 48.79 ppm (I instar), 59.09 ppm (II instar), 70.88 ppm (III instar), 83.58 ppm (IV instar), and 152.55 ppm (pupae). Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were highly toxic against An. stephensi. LC50 were 3.825 ppm (I instar), 4.119 ppm (II instar), 4.982 ppm (III instar), 5.711 ppm (IV instar), and 6.113 ppm (pupae). In field conditions, the application of A. vera-synthesized silver nanoparticles (10 × LC50) leads to An. stephensi larval reduction of 74.5, 86.6, and 97.7%, after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Nanoparticles also showed antibacterial properties, and the maximum concentration tested (150 mg/L) evoked an inhibition zone wider than 80 mm in all tested bacterium species. This study adds knowledge about the use of green synthesis of nanoparticles in

  7. 'Green'-synthesized near-infrared PbS quantum dots with silica-PEG dual-layer coating: ultrastable and biocompatible optical probes for in vivo animal imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Qian, J; Cai, F; He, S; Han, S; Mu, Y

    2012-06-22

    In this paper, PbS semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) with near-infrared (NIR) photoluminescence were synthesized in oleic acid and paraffin liquid mixture by using an easily handled and 'green' approach. Surface functionalization of the QDs was accomplished with a silica and polyethylene glycol (PEG) phospholipid dual-layer coating and the excellent chemical stability of the nanoparticles is demonstrated. We then successfully applied the ultrastable PbS QDs to in vivo sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping of mice. Histological analyses were also carried out to ensure that the intravenously injected nanoparticles did not produce any toxicity to the organism of mice. These experimental results suggested that our ultrastable NIR PbS QDs can serve as biocompatible and efficient probes for in vivo optical bioimaging and has great potentials for disease diagnosis and clinical therapies in the future.

  8. A top-down strategy to synthesize wurtzite Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals by green chemistry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yiwen; Hu, Zhengqiao; Zhang, Junjun; Wang, Li; Wu, Chunyan; Xu, Jun

    2016-07-28

    Green synthesis of metastable wurtzite Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals through a top-down synthetic strategy is presented. Formation mechanisms associated with Kirkendall and etching effects are illustrated in detail. The nanocrystals exhibit remarkable photoluminescence properties at room temperature.

  9. Chemically synthesized boron carbon oxynitride as a new cold cathode material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Diptonil; Maity, Supratim; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2015-11-01

    Synthesis of boron carbon oxynitride (BCNO) nanosheets at different temperature from amorphous to crystalline regime has been reported. The synthesis was done by a simple molten salt process using sodium borohydride and urea as precursors. Transmission electron microscopic study confirms the formation of sheet-like structure of the as-synthesized material. The performances of the as-synthesized BCNO nanosheets as cold cathode materials have been studied for the first time in the high vacuum electron field emission set up. It has been seen that the material gives considerable field emission current with turn on field as low as 2.95 V/μm with good stability and thus a new cold cathode material can be postulated.

  10. Biologically green synthesized silver nanoparticles as a facile and rapid label-free colorimetric probe for determination of Cu2 + in water samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basiri, Sedigheh; Mehdinia, Ali; Jabbari, Ali

    2017-01-01

    A highly sensitive and cost-effective colorimetric sensing platform for the selective trace analysis of Cu2 + ions was developed based on the accelerated etching of Riboflavin stabilized silver nanoparticles (R/AgNPs). The R/AgNPs were prepared from the Cucumis melo juice by a green chemistry approach. The bio-synthesized AgNPs were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy and showed an intense absorption band at 404 nm that were further confirmed by FTIR and EDS analysis. Simultaneous presence of Cu2 + and thiosulfate decreased the absorption intensity of green synthesized AgNPs which resulted in sensitive and selective determination of Cu2 +. The selectivity of R/AgNPs detection system for Cu2 + was excellent. Furthermore, the method offered a wide linear detection range from 5 nM to 100 nM with a detection limit of 1.12 nM. Surprisingly, it was a quick approach and the decolorization of the R/AgNPs solutions occurred only within 5 min. Our results clearly indicate these R/AgNPs could be used as an efficient probe for the colorimetric sensing of Cu2 + in environmental water samples.

  11. Influence of Sn on the magnetic ordering of Ni-Sn alloy synthesized using chemical reduction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanapal, K.; Narayanan, V.; Stephen, A.

    2016-05-01

    The Ni-Sn alloy was synthesized using borohydride assisted chemical reduction method. The composition of the synthesized alloy was determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy which revealed that the observed composition of Sn is high when compared to the initial composition. The ultrafine particles are clearly observed from field emission scanning electron microscope for all the sample. The X-ray diffraction measurement confirmed that the as-synthesized samples are of amorphous like nature while the samples annealed at 773 K showed crystalline nature. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed metallic bond stretching in the alloy samples. The crystallization and phase transition temperature was observed from differential scanning calorimetry. The shift in the crystallization temperature of Ni with increasing percentage of Sn was observed. The vibrating sample magnetometer was employed to understand the magnetic behavior of the Ni-Sn alloy. As-synthesized alloy samples showed paramagnetic nature while the annealed ones exhibit the soft ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic nature. The saturation magnetization value and magnetic ordering in the Ni-Sn alloys depend on the percentage of Sn present in the alloy.

  12. Greener Syntheses and Chemical Transformations: Sustainable Alternative Methods and Applications of Nano-Catalysts. (Florence, Italy)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation summarizes our sustainable chemical synthesis activity involving benign alternatives, such as the use of supported reagents, and greener reaction medium in aqueous or solvent-free conditions. The synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, coupling reactions, and a vari...

  13. Greener Syntheses and Chemical Transformations Using SustainableAlternative Methods and Nano-Catalysts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation summarizes our sustainable chemical synthesis activity involving benign alternatives, namely greener reaction medium in aqueous or solventfree conditions and using alternative activation via microwave or photocatalytic activation. Eco-friendly synthesis of nanoma...

  14. Greener Syntheses and Chemical Transformations: Sustainable Alternative Methods and Applications of Nano-Catalysts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation summarizes our sustainable chemical synthesis activity involving benign alternatives, such as the use of supported reagents, and greener reaction medium in aqueous or solvent-free conditions.1 The synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, coupling reactions, and a var...

  15. a Novel Method to Synthesize N-DOPED CNTs Arrays via Chemical Modifying Porous Alumina Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengyong; He, Lei

    2014-01-01

    N-doped carbon nanotubes (CNTs) arrays were fabricated via simply chemical modifying porous alumina membrane (PAM) with dopamine. The diameter of N-doped CNTs is about 60-70 nm. The N/C atomic ratio is calculated to be 0.05 and the main functionality is pyridone/pyrrole N. This chemical modifying method can be used to fabricate mass of N-doped CNTs arrays in one step with single raw material.

  16. Acaricidal, pediculocidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles using wet chemical route against blood feeding parasites.

    PubMed

    Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Marimuthu, Sampath; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Velayutham, Kanayairam

    2011-08-01

    The present study was based on assessments of the anti-parasitic activities to determine the efficacies of synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) prepared by wet chemical method using zinc nitrate and sodium hydroxide as precursors and soluble starch as stabilizing agent against the larvae of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Canestrini (Acari: Ixodidae); head louse Pediculus humanus capitis, De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae); larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus, Grassi; and filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, Say (Diptera: Culicidae). R. microplus larvae were exposed to filter paper envelopes impregnated with different ZnO NP concentrations. Direct contact method was conducted to determine the potential of pediculocidal activity. Parasite larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of synthesized ZnO NPs for 24 h. The results suggested that the mortality effects of synthesized ZnO NPs were 43% at 1 h, 64% at 3 h, 78% at 6 h, and 100% after 12 h against R. microplus activity. In pediculocidal activity, the results showed that the optimal times for measuring mortality effects of synthesized ZnO NPs were 38% at 10 min, 71% at 30 min, 83% at 1 h, and 100% after 6 h against P. humanus capitis. One hundred percent lice mortality was observed at 10 mg/L treated for 6 h. The mortality was confirmed after 24 h of observation period. The larval mortality effects of synthesized ZnO NPs were 37%, 72%, 100% and 43%, 78% and 100% at 6, 12, and 24 h against A. subpictus and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. It is apparent that the small size and corresponding large specific surface area of small nanometer-scale ZnO particles impose several effects that govern its parasitic action, which are size dependent. ZnO NPs were synthesized by wet chemical process, and it was characterized with the UV showing peak at 361 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra clearly shows that the diffraction peaks in the pattern indexed as the zinc oxide with

  17. Microscale size triangular gold prisms synthesized using Bengal gram beans (Cicer arietinum L.) extract and HAuCl4x3H20: a green biogenic approach.

    PubMed

    Ghule, Kalyani; Ghule, Anil Vithal; Liu, Jen-Yu; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2006-12-01

    Single step and completely green room temperature biosynthesis of microscale size triangular gold prisms (approximately 25 nm thick) using remnant water collected from soaked Bengal gram beans (Cicer arietinum L.) is reported for the first time. Extracellular transport of protein and biomolecules from protein rich gram beans mediate the reduction of aqueous Au3+ ions and direct the growth of triangular prisms. The growth of triangular gold prisms is monitored by UV-vis spectrometer and supported by complementary characterizations using UV-vis/NIR, TEM, EDS, light microscope, XRD, XPS, ATR-FTIR, and ESI-MS. Plausible mechanism for the formation of microscale size triangular gold prisms is discussed. Effect of varying compositions of gram bean extract and aqueous Au3+ solution governing the morphology of the resultant gold particles is also investigated. Procuring the reducing, growth directing, and stabilizing molecules from the remnant water (extract), which normally would have been a kitchen waste, and water as a universal solvent makes it a completely green process displaying both environmental and economic advantages. Furthermore, this biosynthesis approach is simple, green, and an eco-friendly alternative to chemical synthesis of triangular gold prisms with rates comparable to chemical methods.

  18. A one-step green route to synthesize copper nanocrystals and their applications in catalysis and surface enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pinhua; Sui, Yongming; Wang, Chao; Wang, Yingnan; Cui, Guangliang; Wang, Chunzhong; Liu, Bingbing; Zou, Bo

    2014-04-01

    A nontoxic, simple, inexpensive, and reproducible strategy, which meets the standard of green chemistry, is introduced for the synthesis of copper nanocrystals (Cu NCs) with olive oil as both reducing agent and capping agent. By changing the reaction parameters, the shape, size and surface structure of the Cu NCs can be well controlled. The obtained Cu nanocubes show excellent catalytic properties for the catalytic reduction of dyes and CO oxidation. Moreover, the prepared Cu nanocubes as substrates exhibit surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity for 4-mercaptopyridine (4-Mpy). Therefore, this facile route provides a useful platform for the fabrication of Cu NCs which have the potential to replace noble metals for certain applications.A nontoxic, simple, inexpensive, and reproducible strategy, which meets the standard of green chemistry, is introduced for the synthesis of copper nanocrystals (Cu NCs) with olive oil as both reducing agent and capping agent. By changing the reaction parameters, the shape, size and surface structure of the Cu NCs can be well controlled. The obtained Cu nanocubes show excellent catalytic properties for the catalytic reduction of dyes and CO oxidation. Moreover, the prepared Cu nanocubes as substrates exhibit surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity for 4-mercaptopyridine (4-Mpy). Therefore, this facile route provides a useful platform for the fabrication of Cu NCs which have the potential to replace noble metals for certain applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00412d

  19. A facile and effective strategy to synthesize orthorhombic Sr2Al6O11:Eu2+,Dy3+ with blue-green persistent luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Juan; Jiang, Ziqiu; Zhang, Wenyan; Hao, Lingyun; Ni, Yaru; Lu, Chunhua; Xu, Zhongzi

    2017-01-01

    Sr2Al6O11:Eu2+,Dy3+ is known as a high efficient material for generating persistent luminescence. Due to its low structural stability, it is a challenge to prepare such orthorhombic material in large scale. In this work, a facile and effective strategy was designed for the preparation of Sr2Al6O11:Eu2+,Dy3+ with high purity by combining the advantages of solid state reaction and chemical vapor deposition method. The prepared Sr2Al6O11:Eu2+,Dy3+ could effectively store the UV light energy and emit blue-green luminescence for 240 min by slow liberation of photo-excited electrons. Its blue-green afterglow was composed of two luminescent emissions which released from the Eu centers located in different crystal fields.

  20. ON THE OXYGEN AND NITROGEN CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE 'GREEN PEA' GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Amorin, Ricardo O.; Perez-Montero, Enrique; Vilchez, J. M. E-mail: epm@iaa.e

    2010-06-01

    We have investigated the oxygen and nitrogen chemical abundances in extremely compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs) with redshifts between {approx}0.11 and 0.35, popularly referred to as 'green peas'. Direct and strong-line methods sensitive to the N/O ratio applied to their Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra reveal that these systems are genuine metal-poor galaxies, with mean oxygen abundances {approx}20% solar. At a given metallicity these galaxies display systematically large N/O ratios compared to normal galaxies, which can explain the strong difference between our metallicities measurements and previous ones. While their N/O ratios follow the relation with stellar mass of local SFGs in the SDSS, we find that the mass-metallicity relation of the 'green peas' is offset {approx_gt}0.3 dex to lower metallicities. We argue that recent interaction-induced inflow of gas, possibly coupled with a selective metal-rich gas loss, driven by supernova winds, may explain our findings and the known galaxy properties, namely high specific star formation rates, extreme compactness, and disturbed optical morphologies. The 'green pea' galaxy properties seem to be uncommon in the nearby universe, suggesting a short and extreme stage of their evolution. Therefore, these galaxies may allow us to study in great detail many processes, such as starburst activity and chemical enrichment, under physical conditions approaching those in galaxies at higher redshifts.

  1. Wet chemical method for synthesizing 3D graphene/gold nanocomposite: catalytic reduction of methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jiliang; Yang, Xujie; Xu, Xingyou

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a simple and environmentally-friendly approach was reported to synthesize a novel 3D composite of graphene/gold nanoparticles (3DG/Au NPs) in one step. A 3D interlaced framework of graphene, which exhibited hierarchically porous structures, generated directly through the distinct driving force during the hydrothermal growth. Meanwhile, Au NPs with high dispersity, which displayed tunable morphologies, were immobilized on the framework, where the as-prepared graphene was employed as the endogenous reducing agent. Compared with AuNPs, the obtained 3DG/Au NPs exhibited remarkably convenient recyclability and high activity for the reduction of methylene blue which is a kind of organic dye.

  2. Optical and electrical properties of undoped and boron doped zinc oxide synthesized by chemical route

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, Snigdha; Basu, Moumita; Roy, Asim

    2015-08-28

    We have synthesized and studied the boron doped ZnO nanostructure thin films. The crystallinity of undoped and boron (B) doped ZnO (BZO) has been studied from XRD results. Using the Debye-Scherrer Formula, the grain size has been evaluated, which was found to decrease with increased doping concentration. The optical and electrical properties of (1, 3, 5 wt%) B-doped ZnO (BZO) has been investigated with reference to the undoped counterpart. The UV-VIS spectroscopic analysis revealed that the transmittance for undoped ZnO is maximum and it decreases with doping up to 3% but increases for 5% BZO. The dark as well as photo current–voltage (I–V) characteristics have been investigated in details and the changes occurred in the I-V characteristics with doping concentration as well as under illumination are also quite significant.

  3. Development of a Green Soft Chemical Method for the Synthesis of Cathode Materials Utilized in Lithium-ion Energy Storage Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicker, Scott Ambrose

    solid-state reaction undergoes a multi-step process. The average activation energy calculated was used to optimize the metal-ion-to-fuel ratio of the solution combustion synthetic method. The green chemical method developed in this dissertation was determine to be a viable option for a cost effective and scalable green chemical engineering process to synthesize cathode materials.

  4. A study of laser-induced blue emission with nanosecond decay of silicon nanoparticles synthesized by a chemical etching method.

    PubMed

    Bagabas, Abdulaziz A; Gondal, Mohammed A; Dastageer, Mohammed A; Al-Muhanna, Abdulrahman A; Alanazi, Thaar H; Ababtain, Moath A

    2009-09-02

    Silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs), exhibiting a strong visible photoluminescence (PL), have found many applications in optoelectronics devices, biomedical tags and flash memories. Chemical etching is a well-known method for synthesizing orange-luminescent, hydride-capped silicon nanoparticles (H/Si NPs). However, a blueshift in emission wavelength occurs when reducing the particle size to exciton Bohr radius or less. In this paper, we attempted to synthesize and characterize H/Si NPs that emit lower wavelengths at room temperature. We proved that our method succeeded in synthesizing H/Si NPs with emission in the blue region. The wavelength-resolved and time-resolved studies of the PL were executed for H/Si NPs in methanol (MeOH), pyridine (py) and furan, using the 355 nm pulsed radiation from a Nd:YAG laser. In addition, excitation wavelength-dependent and PL studies were executed using the spectrofluorometer with a xenon (Xe) broad band light source. We noticed solvent-dependent PL spectra with sharp peaks near 420 nm and a short lifetime less than 100 ns. The morphology and particle size were investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). Particles as small as one nanometer were observed in MeOH and py suspensions while two-nanometer particles were observed in the furan suspension.

  5. Site-specific photoconjugation of antibodies using chemically synthesized IgG-binding domains.

    PubMed

    Perols, Anna; Karlström, Amelie Eriksson

    2014-03-19

    Site-specific labeling of antibodies can be performed using the immunoglobulin-binding Z domain, derived from staphylococcal protein A (SpA), which has a well-characterized binding site in the Fc region of antibodies. By introducing a photoactivable probe in the Z domain, a covalent bond can be formed between the Z domain and the antibody by irradiation with UV light. The aim of this study was to improve the conjugation yield for labeling of different subclasses of IgG having different sequence composition, using a photoactivated Z domain variant. Four different variants of the Z domain (Z5BPA, Z5BBA, Z32BPA, and Z32BBA) were synthesized to investigate the influence of the position of the photoactivable probe and the presence of a flexible linker between the probe and the protein. For two of the variants, the photoreactive benzophenone group was introduced as part of an amino acid side chain by incorporation of the unnatural amino acid benzoylphenylalanine (BPA) during peptide synthesis. For the other two variants, the photoreactive benzophenone group was attached via a flexible linker by coupling of benzoylbenzoic acid (BBA) to the ε-amino group of a selectively deprotected lysine residue. Photoconjugation experiments using human IgG1, mouse IgG1, and mouse IgG2A demonstrated efficient conjugation for all antibodies. It was shown that differences in linker length had a large impact on the conjugation efficiency for labeling of mouse IgG1, whereas the positioning of the photoactivable probe in the sequence of the protein had a larger effect for mouse IgG2A. Conjugation to human IgG1 was only to a minor extent affected by position or linker length. For each subclass of antibody, the best variant tested using a standard conjugation protocol resulted in conjugation efficiencies of 41-66%, which corresponds to on average approximately one Z domain attached to each antibody. As a combination of the two best performing variants, Z5BBA and Z32BPA, a Z domain variant with

  6. ZnS nanocrystals and nanoflowers synthesized by a green chemistry approach: rare excitonic photoluminescence achieved by the tunable molar ratio of precursors.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ningru; Dai, Quanqin; Wang, Yingnan; Ning, Jiajia; Liu, Bingbing; Zou, Guangtian; Zou, Bo

    2012-04-15

    In the present work, we demonstrated a simple and green synthesis route for shape-controlled ZnS nanocrystals, where only environmentally benign chemicals, namely sulfur, zinc oxide and olive oil, were employed. By controlling the experimental conditions, we were able to tune the band edge and trap state photoluminescences of ZnS nanocrystals and obtain pure excitonic photoluminescence that was rarely observed in literature. The trap state emission was derived from sulfur vacancies and would be eliminated when an excess of sulfur was used during the synthesis. Additionally, the morphology of ZnS nanocrystals could be tuned to appear like flowers, where the formation mechanism was systematically discussed.

  7. Photo-catalytic activity of Plasmonic Ag@AgCl nanoparticles (synthesized via a green route) for the effective degradation of Victoria Blue B from aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Devi, Th Babita; Begum, Shamima; Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2016-07-01

    This study reports a green process for the fabrication of Ag@AgCl (silver@silver chloride) nanoparticles by using Aquilaria agallocha (AA) leaves juice without using any external reagents. The effect of various reaction parameters, such as reaction temperature, reaction time and concentration of Aquilaria agallocha leaves juice in the formation of nanoparticles have also been investigated. From the FTIR spectra of leaves juice and phytochemicals test, it was found that flavonoids present in the leaves are responsible for the reduction of Ag(+) ions to Ag(0) species and leads to the formation of Ag@AgCl NPs. The synthesized Ag@AgCl NPs were utilized for the removal of toxic and hazardous dyes, such as Victoria Blue B from aqueous phase. Approximately, 99.46% degradation of Victoria Blue B dye were observed with Ag@AgCl NPs. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of the Ag@AgCl nanoparticles was unchanged after 5cycles of operation.

  8. A mixed flow reactor method to synthesize amorphous calcium carbonate under controlled chemical conditions.

    PubMed

    Blue, Christina R; Rimstidt, J Donald; Dove, Patricia M

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a new procedure to synthesize amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) from well-characterized solutions that maintain a constant supersaturation. The method uses a mixed flow reactor to prepare ACC in significant quantities with consistent compositions. The experimental design utilizes a high-precision solution pump that enables the reactant solution to continuously flow through the reactor under constant mixing and allows the precipitation of ACC to reach steady state. As a proof of concept, we produced ACC with controlled Mg contents by regulating the Mg/Ca ratio of the input solution and the carbonate concentration and pH. Our findings show that the Mg/Ca ratio of the reactant solution is the primary control for the Mg content in ACC, as shown in previous studies, but ACC composition is further regulated by the carbonate concentration and pH of the reactant solution. The method offers promise for quantitative studies of ACC composition and properties and for investigating the role of this phase as a reactive precursor to biogenic minerals.

  9. Bolaamphiphiles as carriers for siRNA delivery: From chemical syntheses to practical applications.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Kshitij; Afonin, Kirill A; Viard, Mathias; Herrero, Virginia; Kasprzak, Wojciech; Kagiampakis, Ioannis; Kim, Taejin; Koyfman, Alexey Y; Puri, Anu; Stepler, Marissa; Sappe, Alison; KewalRamani, Vineet N; Grinberg, Sarina; Linder, Charles; Heldman, Eliahu; Blumenthal, Robert; Shapiro, Bruce A

    2015-09-10

    In this study we have investigated a new class of cationic lipids--"bolaamphiphiles" or "bolas"--for their ability to efficiently deliver small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to cancer cells. The bolas of this study consist of a hydrophobic chain with one or more positively charged head groups at each end. Recently, we reported that micelles of the bolas GLH-19 and GLH-20 (derived from vernonia oil) efficiently deliver siRNAs, while having relatively low toxicities in vitro and in vivo. Our previous studies validated that; bolaamphiphiles can be designed to vary the magnitude of siRNA shielding, its delivery, and its subsequent release. To further understand the structural features of bolas critical for siRNAs delivery, new structurally related bolas (GLH-58 and GLH-60) were designed and synthesized from jojoba oil. Both bolas have similar hydrophobic domains and contain either one, in GLH-58, or two, in GLH-60 positively charged head groups at each end of the hydrophobic core. We have computationally predicted and experimentally validated that GLH-58 formed more stable nano sized micelles than GLH-60 and performed significantly better in comparison to GLH-60 for siRNA delivery. GLH-58/siRNA complexes demonstrated better efficiency in silencing the expression of the GFP gene in human breast cancer cells at concentrations of 5μg/mL, well below the toxic dose. Moreover, delivery of multiple different siRNAs targeting the HIV genome demonstrated further inhibition of virus production.

  10. Role of nanocrystallinity on the chemical ordering of CoxPt100-x nanocrystals synthesized by wet chemistry

    DOE PAGES

    Cordeiro, Marco; Kameche, Farid; Ngo, Anh -Tu; ...

    2015-03-17

    CoxPt100–x nanoalloys have been synthesized by two different chemical processes either at high or at low temperature. Their physical properties and the order/disorder phase transition induced by annealing have been investigated depending on the route of synthesis. It is demonstrated that the chemical synthesis at high temperature allows stabilization of the fcc structure of the native nanoalloys while the soft chemical approach yields mainly poly or non crystalline structure. As a result the approach of the order/disorder phase transition is strongly modified as observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) studies performed during in situ annealing of the different nanoalloys.more » The control of the nanocrystallinity leads to significant decrease in the chemical ordering temperature as the ordered structure is observed at temperatures as low as 420 °C. Furthermore, this in turn preserves the individual nanocrystals and prevents their coalescence usually observed during the annealing necessary for the transition to an ordered phase.« less

  11. Role of the nanocrystallinity on the chemical ordering of Co(x)Pt(100-x) nanocrystals synthesized by wet chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kameche, Farid; Ngo, Anh-Tu; Salzemann, Caroline; Cordeiro, Marco; Sutter, Eli; Petit, Christophe

    2015-11-14

    Co(x)Pt(100-x) nanoalloys have been synthesized by two different chemical processes either at high or at low temperature. Their physical properties and the order/disorder phase transition induced by annealing have been investigated depending on the route of synthesis. It is demonstrated that the chemical synthesis at high temperature allows stabilization of the fcc structure of the native nanoalloys while the soft chemical approach yields mainly poly or non crystalline structure. As a result the approach of the order/disorder phase transition is strongly modified as observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) studies performed during in situ annealing of the different nanoalloys. The control of the nanocrystallinity leads to significant decrease in the chemical ordering temperature as the ordered structure is observed at temperatures as low as 420 °C. This in turn preserves the individual nanocrystals and prevents their coalescence usually observed during the annealing necessary for the transition to an ordered phase.

  12. Nonlinear optical characterization of ZnS thin film synthesized by chemical spray pyrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    G, Sreeja V.; V, Sabitha P.; Anila, E. I.; R, Reshmi; John, Manu Punnan; Radhakrishnan, P.

    2014-10-01

    ZnS thin film was prepared by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis (CSP) method. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction method and Z scan technique. XRD pattern showed that ZnS thin film has hexagonal structure with an average size of about 5.6nm. The nonlinear optical properties of ZnS thin film was studied by open aperture Z-Scan technique using Q-switched Nd-Yag Laser at 532nm. The Z-scan plot showed that the investigated ZnS thin film has saturable absorption behavior. The nonlinear absorption coefficient and saturation intensity were also estimated.

  13. Nonlinear optical characterization of ZnS thin film synthesized by chemical spray pyrolysis method

    SciTech Connect

    G, Sreeja V; Anila, E. I. R, Reshmi John, Manu Punnan; V, Sabitha P; Radhakrishnan, P.

    2014-10-15

    ZnS thin film was prepared by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis (CSP) method. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction method and Z scan technique. XRD pattern showed that ZnS thin film has hexagonal structure with an average size of about 5.6nm. The nonlinear optical properties of ZnS thin film was studied by open aperture Z-Scan technique using Q-switched Nd-Yag Laser at 532nm. The Z-scan plot showed that the investigated ZnS thin film has saturable absorption behavior. The nonlinear absorption coefficient and saturation intensity were also estimated.

  14. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles as a novel control tool against dengue virus (DEN-2) and its primary vector Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Sujitha, Vasu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Paulpandi, Manickam; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Suresh, Udaiyan; Roni, Mathath; Nicoletti, Marcello; Higuchi, Akon; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Barnard, Donald R; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral infection mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, its transmission has strongly increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depends on effective vector control measures. In this study, we proposed the green-synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) as a novel and effective tool against the dengue serotype DEN-2 and its major vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were synthesized using the Moringa oleifera seed extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical methods including UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and sorted for size categories. AgNP showed in vitro antiviral activity against DEN-2 infecting vero cells. Viral titer was 7 log10 TCID50/ml in control (AgNP-free), while it dropped to 3.2 log10 TCID50/ml after a single treatment with 20 μl/ml of AgNP. After 6 h, DEN-2 yield was 5.8 log10 PFU/ml in the control, while it was 1.4 log10 PFU/ml post-treatment with AgNP (20 μl/ml). AgNP were highly effective against the dengue vector A. aegypti, with LC50 values ranging from 10.24 ppm (I instar larvae) to 21.17 ppm (pupae). Overall, this research highlighted the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue and its primary vector A. aegypti. Further research on structure-activity relationships of AgNP against other dengue serotypes is urgently required.

  15. Propagation lengths and group velocities of plasmons in chemically synthesized gold and silver nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wild, Barbara; Cao, Lina; Sun, Yugang; Khanal, Bishnu P; Zubarev, Eugene R; Gray, Stephen K; Scherer, Norbert F; Pelton, Matthew

    2012-01-24

    Recent advances in chemical synthesis have made it possible to produce gold and silver nanowires that are free of large-scale crystalline defects and surface roughness. Surface plasmons can propagate along the wires, allowing them to serve as optical waveguides with cross sections much smaller than the optical wavelength. Gold nanowires provide improved chemical stability as compared to silver nanowires, but at the cost of higher losses for the propagating plasmons. In order to characterize this trade-off, we measured the propagation length and group velocity of plasmons in both gold and silver nanowires. Propagation lengths are measured by fluorescence imaging of the plasmonic near fields. Group velocities are deduced from the spacing of fringes in the spectrum of coherent light transmitted by the wires. In contrast to previous work, we interpret these fringes as arising from a far-field interference effect. The measured propagation characteristics agree with numerical simulations, indicating that propagation in these wires is dominated by the material properties of the metals, with additional losses due to scattering from roughness or grain boundaries providing at most a minor contribution. The propagation lengths and group velocities can also be described by a simple analytical model that considers only the lowest-order waveguide mode in a solid metal cylinder, showing that this single mode dominates in real nanowires. Comparison between experiments and theory indicates that widely used tabulated values for dielectric functions provide a good description of plasmons in gold nanowires but significantly overestimate plasmon losses in silver nanowires.

  16. Green in-situ synthesized silver nanoparticles embedded in bacterial cellulose nanopaper as a bionanocomposite plasmonic sensor.

    PubMed

    Pourreza, Nahid; Golmohammadi, Hamed; Naghdi, Tina; Yousefi, Hossein

    2015-12-15

    Herein, we introduce a new strategy for green, in-situ generation of silver nanoparticles using flexible and transparent bacterial cellulose nanopapers. In this method, adsorbed silver ions on bacterial cellulose nanopaper are reduced by the hydroxyl groups of cellulose nanofibers, acting as the reducing agent producing a bionanocomposite "embedded silver nanoparticles in transparent nanopaper" (ESNPs). The fabricated ESNPs were investigated and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The important parameters affecting the ESNPs were optimized during the fabrication of specimens. The resulting ESNPs were used as a novel and sensitive probe for the optical sensing of cyanide ion (CN(-)) and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) in water samples with satisfactory results. The change in surface plasmon resonance absorption intensity of ESNPs was linearly proportional to the concentration in the range of 0.2-2.5 µg mL(-1) and 2-110 µg mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.012 µg mL(-1) and 1.37 µg mL(-1) for CN(-) and MBT, respectively.

  17. Activation of chemicals into mutagens by green plants: a preliminary discussion.

    PubMed Central

    Plewa, M J

    1978-01-01

    This paper is a review of recent studies that demonstrate the activation of chemicals (especially pesticides into mutagens by green plants. Such activation of pesticides may be hazardous to the public health because of their widespread use in agriculture and the current lack of information that exists about such processes. The mutagenic properties of the s-triazine herbicides (atrazine, simazine, and cyanazine) as exhibited in various assay systems are discussed. In vivo, in vitro, and in situ plant assays are presented, and the maize wx locus assay is discussed. PMID:367774

  18. Is Chemically Synthesized Graphene ‘Really’ a Unique Substrate for SERS and Fluorescence Quenching?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sil, Sanchita; Kuhar, Nikki; Acharya, Somnath; Umapathy, Siva

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate observation of Raman signals of different analytes adsorbed on carbonaceous materials, such as, chemically reduced graphene, graphene oxide (GO), multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), graphite and activated carbon. The analytes selected for the study were Rhodamine 6G (R6G) (in resonant conditions), Rhodamine B (RB), Nile blue (NBA), Crystal Violet (CV) and acetaminophen (paracetamol). All the analytes except paracetamol absorb and fluoresce in the visible region. In this article we provide experimental evidence of the fact that observation of Raman signals of analytes on such carbonaceous materials are more due to resonance effect, suppression of fluorescence and efficient adsorption and that this property in not unique to graphene or nanotubes but prevalent for various type of carbon materials.

  19. Enhanced photoluminescence from ordered arrays of cadmium sulfide nanotubes synthesized using nanoscale chemical reactors.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Arthur

    2014-06-01

    We report enhanced room temperature photoluminescence from ordered arrays of few micrometers long cadmium sulfide nanotubes fabricated using 'nanoscale chemical reactors' of porous alumina by a unique two-chamber synthesis without using any surfactants. Photoluminescence from these nanotubes is -20 times larger than that of nanocrystalline cadmium sulfide particles prepared by bulk mixing of the same reactants. However, we rule out any quantum size effect as a source of enhanced photoluminescence from these intentionally un-passivated nanotubes. We identify sulfur deficiency in these nanotubes and directional orientation of these ordered nanotube arrays as the main reason for its superior photoluminescence as compared to agglomerated nanocrystallites of CdS prepared by bulk mixing.

  20. Characterization of tin (II) sulphide thin film synthesized by successive chemical solution deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, A.; Mitra, P.

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, tin (II) sulphide ( SnS) thin films were grown on glass substrate by successive chemical solution deposition method using ammonium sulphide as anionic precursor solutions. Characterization techniques of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray were utilized to study the microstructure of the films. Energy-dispersive x-ray confirmed formation of nearly stoichiometric film with slight excess of tin under optimized deposition conditions. Particle size estimated from Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data using MAUD software was 41 nm which compared well with field emission scanning electron microscopy measurements. The value of the energy gap of 1.51 eV was found to be near the optimum needs for photovoltaic solar energy conversion (1.5 eV) with high absorption in the visible region. An enhancement in energy gap was observed for tin-enriched films.

  1. Evaluating the "greenness" of chemical processes and products in the pharmaceutical industry--a green metrics primer.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-González, Concepción; Constable, David J C; Ponder, Celia S

    2012-02-21

    This tutorial review presents an overview of the main metrics that have been used to test and compare the 'greenness' of processes and products, primarily in the pharmaceutical industry. The green metrics cover areas of resources, materials, processing, cleaning, life cycle assessment, renewability, amongst others. Application examples of these metrics are also presented to illustrate key points and concepts.

  2. Eu(3+)-doped gadolinium oxide nanoparticles synthesized by chemical coprecipitation predicted by thermodynamic modeling.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung Pyo; Kang, Seung Hee; Kim, Do Kyung; Kang, Bo Sun

    2014-11-01

    Thermodynamic modeling of the Gd(3+)-Eu(3+)-O(2-)-CO3(2-)-Cl- system has been adopted as a rational approach to establish routes to the better synthesis conditions for pure phase Eu(3+)-doped Gd2O3 nanoparticles. Quantitative analyses of the different reaction equilibria involved in the coprecipitation of Gd2(CO3)3 and Eu2(CO3)3 x 3H2O from aqueous solutions have been used to determine the optimum synthesis conditions. The characterization and photoluminescence spectra of Gd2O3 nanoparticles doped with Eu3+ activator ions at the concentrations of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mol% synthesized by urea-based homogeneous coprecipitation are presented. The surface of the as-prepared mixture of Gd2(CO3)3 and Eu2(CO3)3 x 3H2O particles are coated with silica to avoid the agglomeration followed by annealing the carbonate precursors at 800 degrees C for 3 hours. Subsequently, the silica shell is removed with an alkali solution resulting in well-crystallized Eu(3+)-doped Gd2O3 nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that all the diffraction peaks are well indexed to the cubic Gd2O3 with high crystallinity. The photoluminescence spectra exhibit a characteristic f-f transition band that corresponds to Eu3+. The sharp red emission at 616 nm corresponds to the transition identified as 5D0 __7F2. Both the emission intensity at 616 nm and asymmetry factor of [I(5D0 --> 7F2)/I(5D0 --> 7F1)] exhibit clearly Eu(3+)-doping concentration-dependent luminescence behaviors. The rather fast decay time is closely correlated to the proper occupation of the Eu3+ activator ions in the C2 sites of the Gd2O3 cage, resulting in strong dependence on small changes of the total electric density and defect density. Thus, the best concentration of Eu3+ activator ions for the maximum brightness are the 3 mol% Eu(3+)-doped Gd2O3 at 5D0 --> 7F2 because it shows the longest decay time and more luminescent intensity than the other doping concentrations.

  3. Aristolochia indica green-synthesized silver nanoparticles: A sustainable control tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Labeeba, Mohammed Aamina; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Wang, Lan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites transmitted to people and animals through the bites of infected mosquitoes. We biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using Aristolochia indica extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM, EDX and XRD. In laboratory, LC50 of A. indica extract against Anopheles stephensi ranged from 262.66 (larvae I) to 565.02 ppm (pupae). LC50 of AgNP against A. stephensi ranged from 3.94 (larvae I) to 15.65 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of A. indica extract and AgNP (10 × LC50) leads to 100% larval reduction after 72 h. In laboratory, 24-h predation efficiency of Diplonychus indicus against A. stephensi larvae was 33% (larvae II) and 57% (larvae III). In AgNP-contaminated environment (1 ppm), it was 45.5% (larvae II) and 71.75% (larvae III). Overall, A. indica-synthesized AgNP may be considered as newer and safer control tools against Anopheles vectors.

  4. The green synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the biological activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Leptadenia reticulata leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumara Swamy, M.; Sudipta, K. M.; Jayanta, K.; Balasubramanya, S.

    2015-01-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag Nps) was carried out using methanol leaves extract of L. reticulata. Ag Nps were characterized based on the observations of UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. These Ag Nps were tested for antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method against different pathogenic microorganisms and antioxidant activity was performed using DPPH assay. Further, the in vitro cytotoxic effects of Ag Nps were screened against HCT15 cancer cell line and viability of tumor cells was confirmed using MTT ((3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole)) assay. The nuclear condensation was studied using the propidium iodide-staining method. The color change from green to dark brown and the absorbance peak at about 420 nm indicated the formation of nanoparticles. XRD pattern showed characteristic peaks indexed to the crystalline planes (111), (200) and (220) of face-centered cubic silver. The nanoparticles were of spherical shape with varying sizes ranging from 50 to 70 nm. Biosynthesized Ag Nps showed potent antibacterial activity and effective radical scavenging activity. MTT assay revealed a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability. Microscopic observations showed distinct cellular morphological changes indicating unhealthy cells, whereas the control appeared normal. Increase in the number of propidium iodide positive cells were observed in maximum concentration. Methanolic leaf extract of L. reticulata acts as an excellent capping agent for the formation of silver nanoparticles and demonstrates immense biological activities. Hence, these Ag NPs can be used as antibacterial, antioxidant as well as cytotoxic agent in treating many medical complications.

  5. Characterization of green synthesized nano-formulation (ZnO-A. vera) and their antibacterial activity against pathogens.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yiguang; Yao, Jun; Russel, Mohammad; Chen, Ke; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2015-03-01

    The application of nanotechnology in medicine has recently been a breakthrough in therapeutic drugs formulation. This paper presents the structural and optical characterization of a new green nano-formulation (ZnO-Aloe vera) with considerable antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria. Its particle structure, size and morphology were characterized by XRD, TEM and SEM. And optical absorption spectra and photoluminescence were measured synchronously. Their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was also investigated using thermokinetic profiling and agar well diffusion method. The nano-formulation is spherical shape and hexagonal with a particle size ranging from 25 to 65 nm as well as an increased crystallite size of 49 nm. For antibacterial activity, the maximum inhibition zones of ZnO and ZnO+A. vera are 18.33 and 26.45 mm for E. coli, 22.11 and 28.12 mm for S. aureus (p<0.05). Considering Pmax, Qt and k, ZnO+A. vera nano-formulation has a significant (p < 0.05) antibacterial effect against S. aureus almost at all concentration and against E. coli at 15 and 25mg/L. ZnO+A. vera nano-formulation is much more toxic against S. aureus than E. coli, with an IC50 of 13.12 mg/L and 21.31 mg/L, respectively. The overall results reveal that the ZnO-A. vera nano-formulation has good surface energy, crystallinity, transmission, and enriched antibacterial activities. Their antibacterial properties are possibly relevant to particle size, microstructural ionization, the crystal formation and the Gram property of pathogens. This ZnO-A. vera nano-formulation could be utilized effectively as a spectral and significant antibacterial agent for pathogens in future medical and environmental concerns.

  6. Chain Assemblies from Nanoparticles Synthesized by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition: The Computational View.

    PubMed

    Mishin, Maxim V; Zamotin, Kirill Y; Protopopova, Vera S; Alexandrov, Sergey E

    2015-12-01

    This article refers to the computational study of nanoparticle self-organization on the solid-state substrate surface with consideration of the experimental results, when nanoparticles were synthesised during atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (AP-PECVD). The experimental study of silicon dioxide nanoparticle synthesis by AP-PECVD demonstrated that all deposit volume consists of tangled chains of nanoparticles. In certain cases, micron-sized fractals are formed from tangled chains due to deposit rearrangement. This work is focused on the study of tangled chain formation only. In order to reveal their formation mechanism, a physico-mathematical model was developed. The suggested model was based on the motion equation solution for charged and neutral nanoparticles in the potential fields with the use of the empirical interaction potentials. In addition, the computational simulation was carried out based on the suggested model. As a result, the influence of such experimental parameters as deposition duration, particle charge, gas flow velocity, and angle of gas flow was found. It was demonstrated that electrical charges carried by nanoparticles from the discharge area are not responsible for the formation of tangled chains from nanoparticles, whereas nanoparticle kinetic energy plays a crucial role in deposit morphology and density. The computational results were consistent with experimental results.

  7. Advances of Ag, Cu, and Ag-Cu alloy nanoparticles synthesized via chemical reduction route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Kim Seah; Cheong, Kuan Yew

    2013-04-01

    Silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) nanoparticles have shown great potential in variety applications due to their excellent electrical and thermal properties resulting high demand in the market. Decreasing in size to nanometer scale has shown distinct improvement in these inherent properties due to larger surface-to-volume ratio. Ag and Cu nanoparticles are also shown higher surface reactivity, and therefore being used to improve interfacial and catalytic process. Their melting points have also dramatically decreased compared with bulk and thus can be processed at relatively low temperature. Besides, regularly alloying Ag into Cu to create Ag-Cu alloy nanoparticles could be used to improve fast oxidizing property of Cu nanoparticles. There are varieties methods have been reported on the synthesis of Ag, Cu, and Ag-Cu alloy nanoparticles. This review aims to cover chemical reduction means for synthesis of those nanoparticles. Advances of this technique utilizing different reagents namely metal salt precursors, reducing agents, and stabilizers, as well as their effects on respective nanoparticles have been systematically reviewed. Other parameters such as pH and temperature that have been considered as an important factor influencing the quality of those nanoparticles have also been reviewed thoroughly.

  8. Nanostructured zinc oxide films synthesized by successive chemical solution deposition for gas sensor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lupan, O. Chow, L.; Shishiyanu, S.; Monaico, E.; Shishiyanu, T.; Sontea, V.; Roldan Cuenya, B.; Naitabdi, A.; Park, S.; Schulte, A.

    2009-01-08

    Nanostructured ZnO thin films have been deposited using a successive chemical solution deposition method. The structural, morphological, electrical and sensing properties of the films were studied for different concentrations of Al-dopant and were analyzed as a function of rapid photothermal processing temperatures. The films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Electrical and gas sensitivity measurements were conducted as well. The average grain size is 240 and 224 A for undoped ZnO and Al-doped ZnO films, respectively. We demonstrate that rapid photothermal processing is an efficient method for improving the quality of nanostructured ZnO films. Nanostructured ZnO films doped with Al showed a higher sensitivity to carbon dioxide than undoped ZnO films. The correlations between material compositions, microstructures of the films and the properties of the gas sensors are discussed.

  9. Magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles embedded in silica matrix (KIT-6) synthesized via novel chemical route

    SciTech Connect

    Dalavi, Shankar B.; Panda, Rabi N.; Raja, M. Manivel

    2015-06-24

    Thermally stable Ni nanoparticles have been embedded in mesoporous silica matrix (KIT-6) via novel chemical reduction method by using superhydride as reducing agent. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study confirms that pure and embedded Ni nanoparticles crystallize in face centered cubic (fcc) structure. Crystallite sizes of pure Ni, 4 wt% and 8 wt% Ni in silica were estimated to be 6.0 nm, 10.4 nm and 10.5 nm, respectively. Morphology and dispersion of Ni in silica matrix were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Magnetic study shows enhancement of magnetic moments of Ni nanoparticles embedded in silica matrix compared with that of pure Ni. The result has been interpreted on the basis of size reduction and magnetic exchange effects. Saturation magnetization values for pure Ni, 4 wt% and 8 wt% Ni in silica were found to be 15.77 emu/g, 5.08 emu/g and 2.00 emu/g whereas coercivity values were 33.72 Oe, 92.47 Oe and 64.70 Oe, respectively. We anticipate that the observed magnetic properties may find application as soft magnetic materials.

  10. Magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles embedded in silica matrix (KIT-6) synthesized via novel chemical route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalavi, Shankar B.; Raja, M. Manivel; Panda, Rabi. N.

    2015-06-01

    Thermally stable Ni nanoparticles have been embedded in mesoporous silica matrix (KIT-6) via novel chemical reduction method by using superhydride as reducing agent. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study confirms that pure and embedded Ni nanoparticles crystallize in face centered cubic (fcc) structure. Crystallite sizes of pure Ni, 4 wt% and 8 wt% Ni in silica were estimated to be 6.0 nm, 10.4 nm and 10.5 nm, respectively. Morphology and dispersion of Ni in silica matrix were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Magnetic study shows enhancement of magnetic moments of Ni nanoparticles embedded in silica matrix compared with that of pure Ni. The result has been interpreted on the basis of size reduction and magnetic exchange effects. Saturation magnetization values for pure Ni, 4 wt% and 8 wt% Ni in silica were found to be 15.77 emu/g, 5.08 emu/g and 2.00 emu/g whereas coercivity values were 33.72 Oe, 92.47 Oe and 64.70 Oe, respectively. We anticipate that the observed magnetic properties may find application as soft magnetic materials.

  11. It may be possible to construct a Chemical Synthesizing Computer based on Capillary Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriske, Richard

    2013-03-01

    This author had previously proposed that Capillary Action has a Quantum Mechanical Model. This model can be easily constructed by noting that when a photon of the heat wavelength evaporates one molecule of water at the top of a capillary column, a ``hole'' is transmitted from the top of the column to the roots and into the water reservoir sustaining the capillary tube. This ``hole'' is a true hole (a true particle) in that it is transmitted as a quantized unit through the capillary tube. The mathematics of this process are the same as used in Quantum Field Theory, with the capillary acting as a perfect spring (like the spring used on a ``stack'' of dishes). When the external field using a force to pull the water molecule off the stack, an equal and opposite spring force (which is quantized), is transmitted down the column to the reservoir. When the water is not pure, this author proposes that each of the elements in the unpure water act linearly, each with its own quantized spring constant that does not interact with the other quantized spring constants, so it is possible to pull a single electron off the top of the water stack, yet the water in the stack is undisturbed (the reservoir is disturbed). Likewise it is possible to pull a sugar molecule off and balance chemical equations.

  12. Resistive Switching of Individual, Chemically Synthesized TiO2 Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Dirk Oliver; Hoffmann-Eifert, Susanne; Zhang, Hehe; La Torre, Camilla; Besmehn, Astrid; Noyong, Michael; Waser, Rainer; Simon, Ulrich

    2015-12-22

    Resistively switching devices are considered promising for next-generation nonvolatile random-access memories. Today, such memories are fabricated by means of "top-down approaches" applying thin films sandwiched between nanoscaled electrodes. In contrast, this work presents a "bottom-up approach" disclosing for the first time the resistive switching (RS) of individual TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). The NPs, which have sizes of 80 and 350 nm, respectively, are obtained by wet chemical synthesis and thermally treated under oxidizing or vacuum conditions for crystallization, respectively. These NPs are deposited on a Pt/Ir bottom electrode and individual NPs are electrically characterized by means of a nanomanipulator system in situ, in a scanning electron microscope. While amorphous NPs and calcined NPs reveal no switching hysteresis, a very interesting behavior is found for the vacuum-annealed, crystalline TiO(2-x) NPs. These NPs reveal forming-free RS behavior, dominantly complementary switching (CS) and, to a small degree, bipolar switching (BS) characteristics. In contrast, similarly vacuum-annealed TiO2 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition show standard BS behavior under the same conditions. The interesting CS behavior of the TiO(2-x) NPs is attributed to the formation of a core-shell-like structure by re-oxidation of the reduced NPs as a unique feature.

  13. A novel green chemical route for synthesis of silver nanoparticles using camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Sarika Srinivas Kalyan; Sahoo, Prasanta Kumar; Vimala, Johnson; Premkumar, Manda; Ram, Shanker; Durai, Loganathan

    2010-12-01

    The thrust to develop environmental friendly procedures for production of Nanoparticles arises from the very fact that current nanotechnology research uses a lot of chemicals, which are potential threat to both environment and public health. Tea (Camellia Sinensis) with its rich source of polyphenolic compounds has been exploited for the reduction and capping of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), making it a complete green chemical route. The reduction of Ag+ to Ag0 was observed by the color change from pale yellow to dark yellow. The reaction was followed with the help of UV-Visible spectrometer. Crystal structure was obtained by carrying out X-ray diffraction studies and it showed face centered cubic (fcc) structure. The particle size and morphology were obtained from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies. An average particle size of 25 nm silver particles could be obtained using this method and the TEM and SAXS data corroborate with each other.

  14. Chemical durability of metallic copper nanoparticles in silica thin films synthesized by sol gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan, O.

    2008-12-01

    In this study, chemical durability of metallic copper nanoparticles dispersed in sol-gel silica thin films was investigated by exposing the films to air after a reduction process. At first, heat treatment in air for 1 h produced silica films containing crystalline cupric oxide nanoparticles agglomerated on the film surface. Subsequently, reduction of the oxidized films in a reducing environment of N2-H2 for another 1 h at temperatures of 400, 500 and 600 °C resulted in the formation of crystalline metallic Cu nanoparticles diffused in the silica matrix. The time evolution of the surface plasmon resonance absorption peak of the reduced Cu nanoparticles was studied after the reduction processes at different temperatures. By fitting the optical absorption spectra with the Mie model, the conversion of Cu into CuO in the silica films exposed to air was examined as a function of the elapsing time. It was found that increasing the reducing temperature resulted in greater diffusion of the reduced Cu nanoparticles into the substrate, and also, in a decrease in the water content of the silica film. Diffusion of the nanoparticles decreased the number of particles exposed to air, and further, the decrease in the water content densified the silica film surrounding the diffused nanoparticles. While after the reduction process of the films at 400 °C, the presence of water in the film and considerable copper on the surface resulted in conversion of 94% of the reduced Cu into CuO in just 24 h, by reducing the film at the high temperature of 600 °C, no water and small copper concentration could be detected on the silica film so that only 8% of the Cu nanoparticles converted to CuO in as much as 12 months.

  15. Interaction of environmental moisture with powdered green tea formulations: effect on catechin chemical stability.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, J; Ferruzzi, M G; Taylor, L S; Mauer, L J

    2008-06-11

    Green tea and tea catechins must be stable in finished products to deliver health benefits; however, they may be adversely affected by tea processing/storage conditions and the presence of other components. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of storage relative humidity (RH) and addition of other ingredients on catechin stability in simulated dry beverage mixtures. Samples of green tea powder alone and mixed with sucrose, citric acid, and/or ascorbic acid were prepared and stored in desiccators at 22 degrees C and 0-85% RH for up to 3 months. Epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin gallate were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Formulation and the interaction of formulation and RH significantly promoted catechin degradation ( P < 0.0001). The chemical degradation of total and individual catechins in green tea powder formulations was significantly increased ( P < 0.0001) by exposure to increasing RH, and the degradation was exacerbated at > or = 58% RH by the presence of powdered citric acid and at > or = 75% RH by the presence of ascorbic acid. Catechins degraded the most in formulations containing both acids. Although catechin chemical stability was maintained at < or = 43% RH in all samples stored at 22 degrees C for 3 months, caking was observed in samples at these relative humidities. These results are the first to demonstrate that addition of other dry components to tea powders may affect catechin stability in finished dry blends and highlight the importance of considering the complex interplay between a multicomponent system and its environment for developing stable products.

  16. Effects of Green Banana Flour on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream.

    PubMed

    Yangılar, Filiz

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, possible effects of the addition of banana flour at different mass fractions (1 and 2%) are investigated on physical (overrun, viscosity), chemical (dry matter, fat and ash content, acidity, pH, water and oil holding capacity and colour), mineral content (Ca, K, Na, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni) and sensory properties of ice cream. Fibre--rich banana pieces were found to contain 66.8 g per 100 g of total dietary fibre, 58.6 g per 100 g of which were insoluble dietary fibre, while 8.2 g per 100 g were soluble dietary fibre. It can be concluded from these results that banana is a valuable dietary fibre source which can be used in food production. Flour obtained from green banana pulp and peel was found to have significant (p<0.05) effect on the chemical composition of ice creams. Sulphur content increased while calcium content decreased in ice cream depending on banana flour content. Sensory results indicated that ice cream sample containing 2% of green banana pulp flour received the highest score from panellists.

  17. Effects of Green Banana Flour on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary In the present study, possible effects of the addition of banana flour at different mass fractions (1 and 2%) are investigated on physical (overrun, viscosity), chemical (dry matter, fat and ash content, acidity, pH, water and oil holding capacity and colour), mineral content (Ca, K, Na, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni) and sensory properties of ice cream. Fibre--rich banana pieces were found to contain 66.8 g per 100 g of total dietary fibre, 58.6 g per 100 g of which were insoluble dietary fibre, while 8.2 g per 100 g were soluble dietary fibre. It can be concluded from these results that banana is a valuable dietary fibre source which can be used in food production. Flour obtained from green banana pulp and peel was found to have significant (p<0.05) effect on the chemical composition of ice creams. Sulphur content increased while calcium content decreased in ice cream depending on banana flour content. Sensory results indicated that ice cream sample containing 2% of green banana pulp flour received the highest score from panellists. PMID:27904363

  18. Toward a New U.S. Chemicals Policy: Rebuilding the Foundation to Advance New Science, Green Chemistry, and Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael P.; Schwarzman, Megan R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We describe fundamental weaknesses in U.S. chemicals policy, present principles of chemicals policy reform, and articulate interdisciplinary research questions that should be addressed. With global chemical production projected to double over the next 24 years, federal policies that shape the priorities of the U.S. chemical enterprise will be a cornerstone of sustainability. To date, these policies have largely failed to adequately protect public health or the environment or motivate investment in or scientific exploration of cleaner chemical technologies, known collectively as green chemistry. On this trajectory, the United States will face growing health, environmental, and economic problems related to chemical exposures and pollution. Conclusions Existing policies have produced a U.S. chemicals market in which the safety of chemicals for human health and the environment is undervalued relative to chemical function, price, and performance. This market barrier to green chemistry is primarily a consequence of weaknesses in the Toxic Substances Control Act. These weaknesses have produced a chemical data gap, because producers are not required to investigate and disclose sufficient information on chemicals’ hazard traits to government, businesses that use chemicals, or the public; a safety gap, because government lacks the legal tools it needs to efficiently identify, prioritize, and take action to mitigate the potential health and environmental effects of hazardous chemicals; and a technology gap, because industry and government have invested only marginally in green chemistry research, development, and education. Policy reforms that close the three gaps—creating transparency and accountability in the market—are crucial for improving public and environmental health and reducing the barriers to green chemistry. The European Union’s REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) regulation has opened an opportunity for

  19. Physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of steviolbioside synthesized from stevioside and its application in fruit drinks and food.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Sherine N; Massoud, Mona I; Abd El-Razek, Amal M; El-Faham, Ayman

    2017-01-01

    Steviolbioside (Sb) was synthesized from stevioside and characterized by infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR) spectroscopy. The purity melting point, solubility, acute toxicity, heat stability and sensory properties of Sb were evaluated. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of low calorie fruit drinks and shortened cake prepared by replacing sugar with Sb were evaluated. Sb was stable in neutral or acidic aqueous solutions maintained at 100 °C for 2 h. The sweetness intensity rate of Sb was found to be about 44 and 18.51 times sweeter than 0.5% and 10% sucrose solution, respectively. Sb solutions had sweet taste without bitterness compared to stevioside. No significant differences between the organoleptic properties of cakes prepared using sugar and those prepared replacing sugar with 50% Sb were observed. All drinks replacing sugar with Sb at 66% level had the highest overall acceptability scores comparable to those prepared using sugar alone.

  20. Observation of nonlinear absorption and visible photoluminescence emission in chemically synthesized Cu2+ doped ZnS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kole, A. K.; Kumbhakar, P.; Chatterjee, U.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear optical properties of chemically synthesized ZnS and Cu2+ doped ZnS nanoparticles of average sizes ˜2.5 nm are reported by using open aperture z-scan technique with the Nd:YAG laser second harmonic radiation at 532 nm. Tunable photoluminescence emissions in the visible region due to the increase in concentration of Cu2+ doping in ZnS are observed at room temperature. By analyzing the experimental z-scan data, it is found that three photon absorptions (3PA) are taking place in all the samples. The extracted values of 3PA coefficients of the samples are ˜109 times higher than that of bulk ZnS.

  1. Experimental study of fractal clusters formation from nanoparticles synthesized by atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, Maxim V.; Protopopova, Vera S.; Alexandrov, Sergey E.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the experimental results from the fractal structures formation from nanoparticles of silicone dioxide deposited on the silicon substrate surface. Nanoparticles are synthesized by atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition with the use of capacitively coupled radio frequency (13.56 MHz) discharge sustained in helium atmosphere. Tetraethoxysilane is chosen as the test precursor. Correlation between the morphology of obtained deposits and the process parameters is found. The capability of nanoparticles movement along the deposit surface in local near-surface electric field is demonstrated. The empirical model that satisfactorily explained the mechanism of fractal clusters formation from nanoparticles on the substrate surface is developed. The model indicates that the dynamics of deposit morphology variations is determined by two competing processes: electrical charge transfer by nanoparticles to the deposit surface and electrical charge running off over the surface under conditions of changeable conductivity of the deposit surface.

  2. Polyvinyl polypyrrolidone attenuates genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles synthesized via green route, tested in Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay.

    PubMed

    Panda, Kamal K; Achary, V Mohan M; Phaomie, Ganngam; Sahu, Hrushi K; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Panda, Brahma B

    2016-08-01

    The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized extracellularly from silver nitrate (AgNO3) using kernel extract from ripe mango Mengifera indica L. under four different reaction conditions of the synthesis media such as the (i) absence of the reducing agent, trisodium citrate (AgNPI), (ii) presence of the reducing agent (AgNPII), (iii) presence of the cleansing agent, polyvinyl polypyrrolidone, PVPP (AgNPIII), and (iv) presence of the capping agent, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, PVP (AgNPIV). The synthesis of the AgNPs was monitored by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The AgNPs were characterised by the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Functional groups on the AgNPs were established by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The AgNPs (AgNPI, AgNPII, AgNPIII and AgNPIV) were spherical in shape with the diameters and size distribution-widths of 14.0±5.4, 19.2±6.6, 18.8±6.6 and 44.6±13.2nm, respectively. Genotoxicity of the AgNPs at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100mgL(-1) was determined by the Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay and several endpoint assays including the generation of reactive oxygen species and cell death, lipid peroxidation, mitotic index, chromosome aberrations (CA), micronucleus formation (MN), and DNA damage as determined by the Comet assay. The dose-dependent induction of genotoxicity of the silver ion (Ag(+)) and AgNPs was in the order Ag(+)>AgNPII>AgNPI>AgNPIV>AgNPIII that corresponded with their relative potencies of induction of DNA damage and oxidative stress. Furthermore, the findings underscored the CA and MN endpoint-based genotoxicity assay which demonstrated the genotoxicity of AgNPs at concentrations (≤10mgL(-1)) lower than that (≥10mgL(-1)) tested in the Comet assay. This study demonstrated the protective action of PVPP against the genotoxicity of AgNPIII which was independent of the size of the AgNPs in the L. sativus L. root bioassay

  3. Accelerating the degradation of green plant waste with chemical decomposition agents.

    PubMed

    Kejun, Sun; Juntao, Zhang; Ying, Chen; Zongwen, Liao; Lin, Ruan; Cong, Liu

    2011-10-01

    Degradation of green plant waste is often difficult, and excess maturity times are typically required. In this study, we used lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose assays; scanning electron microscopy; infrared spectrum analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis to investigate the effects of chemical decomposition agents on the lignocellulose content of green plant waste, its structure and major functional groups and the mechanism of accelerated degradation. Our results showed that adding chemical decomposition agents to Ficus microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust reduced the contents of lignin by 0.53%-11.48% and the contents of cellulose by 2.86%-7.71%, and increased the contents of hemicellulose by 2.92%-33.63% after 24 h. With increasing quantities of alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, the lignin content decreased. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, lignocellulose tube wall thickness increased significantlyIncreases of 29.41%, 3.53% and 34.71% were observed after treatment with NaOH, alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, respectively. Infrared spectroscopy showed that CO and aromatic skeleton stretching absorption peaks were weakened and the C-H vibrational absorption peak from out-of-plane in positions 2 and 6 (S units) (890-900 cm(-1)) was strengthened after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, indicating a reduction in lignin content. Several absorption peaks [i.e., C-H deformations (asymmetry in methyl groups, -CH(3)- and -CH(2)-) (1450-1460 cm(-1)); Aliphatic C-H stretching in methyl and phenol OH (1370-1380 cm(-1)); CO stretching (cellulose and hemicellulose) (1040-1060 cm(-1))] that indicate the presence of a chemical bond between lignin and cellulose was reduced, indicating that the chemical bond between lignin and cellulose had been partially broken. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that Na

  4. Comparison of structural and luminescence properties of Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanopowders synthesized by co-precipitation and green combustion routes

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekhar, M.; Nagabhushana, H.; Sudheerkumar, K.H.; Dhananjaya, N.; Sharma, S.C.; Kavyashree, D.; Shivakumara, C.; Nagabhushana, B.M.

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanopowders were prepared by co-precipitation and eco-friendly green combustion route using plant latex. • Both the products show excellent chromaticity coordinates in the white region, which were quite useful for white LED’s. • Thermoluminescence response of the Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} product prepared by green synthesis was higher when compared to co-precipitation route. • Structural parameters of Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} were estimated using Rietveld refinement. • The development of nanosize materials using eco-friendly resources was an attractive non-hazardous chemical route. - Abstract: Dysprosium oxide (Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanopowders were prepared by co-precipitation (CP) and eco-friendly green combustion (GC) routes. SEM micrographs prepared by CP route show smooth rods with various lengths and diameters while, GC route show porous, agglomerated particles. The results were further confirmed by TEM. Thermoluminescence (TL) responses of the nanopowder prepared by both the routes were studied using γ-rays. A well resolved glow peak at 353 °C along with less intense peak at 183 °C was observed in GC route while, in CP a single glow peak at 364 °C was observed. The kinetic parameters were estimated using Chen’s glow peak route. Photoluminescence (PL) of Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} shows peaks at 481, 577, 666 and 756 nm which were attributed to Dy{sup 3+} transitions of {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}⟶{sup 6}H{sub 15/2}, {sup 6}H{sub 13/2}, {sup 6}H{sub 11/2} and {sup 6}H{sub 9/2}, respectively. Color co-ordinate values were located in the white region as a result the product may be useful for the fabrication of WLED’S.

  5. Effects of ball-milling on lithium insertion into multi-walled carbon nanotubes synthesized by thermal chemical vapour deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, JiYong; Kim, DongYung; Kwon, HyukSang

    The effects of ball-milling on Li insertion into multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are presented. The MWNTs are synthesized on supported catalysts by thermal chemical vapour deposition, purified, and mechanically ball-milled by the high energy ball-milling. The purified MWNTs and the ball-milled MWNTs were electrochemically inserted with Li. Structural and chemical modifications in the ball-milled MWNTs change the insertion-extraction properties of Li ions into/from the ball-milled MWNTs. The reversible capacity (C rev) increases with increasing ball-milling time, namely, from 351 mAh g -1 (Li 0.9C 6) for the purified MWNTs to 641 mAh g -1 (Li 1.7C 6) for the ball-milled MWNTs. The undesirable irreversible capacity (C irr) decreases continuously with increase in the ball-milling time, namely, from 1012 mAh g -1 (Li 2.7C 6) for the purified MWNTs to 518 mAh g -1 (Li 1.4C 6) for the ball-milled MWNTs. The decrease in C irr of the ball-milled samples results in an increase in the coulombic efficiency from 25% for the purified samples to 50% for the ball-milled samples. In addition, the ball-milled samples maintain a more stable capacity than the purified samples during charge-discharge cycling.

  6. Testing Insecticidal Activity of Novel Chemically Synthesized siRNA against Plutella xylostella under Laboratory and Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Liang; Chen, Yong; Hu, Zhen; Hu, Meiying

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the last 60 years, synthetic chemical pesticides have served as a main tactic in the field of crop protection, but their availability is now declining as a result of the development of insect resistance. Therefore, alternative pest management agents are needed. However, the demonstration of RNAi gene silencing in insects and its successful usage in disrupting the expression of vital genes opened a door to the development of a variety of novel, environmentally sound approaches for insect pest management. Methodology/Principal Findings Six small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were chemically synthesized and modified according to the cDNA sequence of P. xylostella acetylcholine esterase genes AChE1 and AChE2. All of them were formulated and used in insecticide activity screening against P. xylostella. Bioassay data suggested that Si-ace1_003 and Si-ace2_001 at a concentration of 3 µg cm−2 displayed the best insecticidal activity with 73.7% and 89.0%, mortality, respectively. Additional bioassays were used to obtain the acute lethal concentrations of LC50 and LC90 for Si-ace2_001, which were 53.66 µg/ml and 759.71 µg/ml, respectively. Quantitative Real-time PCR was used to confirm silencing and detected that the transcript levels of P. xylostella AChE2 (PxAChE2) were reduced by 5.7-fold compared to the control group. Consequently, AChE activity was also reduced by 1.7-fold. Finally, effects of the siRNAs on treated plants of Brassica oleracea and Brassica alboglabra were investigated with different siRNA doses. Our results showed that Si-ace2_001 had no negative effects on plant morphology, color and growth of vein under our experimental conditions. Conclusions The most important finding of this study is the discovery that chemically synthesized and modified siRNA corresponding to P. xylostella AChE genes cause significant mortality of the insect both under laboratory and field conditions, which provides a novel strategy to control P. xylostella and to

  7. Protective effects of green tea on antioxidative biomarkers in chemical laboratory workers.

    PubMed

    Tavakol, Heidary Shayesteh; Akram, Ranjbar; Azam, Sayadi; Nahid, Zadkhosh

    2015-09-01

    Chemical materials are environmental contaminants, are extensively used in laboratories, and may cause various forms of health hazards in laboratory workers. Therefore, this toxicity most likely is a result of the oxidative metabolism of chemical to reactive products. As green tea (GT) possesses antioxidant effects, the objective of this study was to examine any amelioration oxidative stress in chemical laboratory workers drinking one cup (3 g/300 ml water) of freshly prepared tea once daily. Baseline characteristics including age, sex, smoking, fruit consumption, and duration of exposure were recorded via questionnaire to the subjects. Saliva level oxidative stress parameters such as total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were estimated before and after consumption of GT in these workers. Treatment of subjects with GT induced a significant reduction in saliva GPx activity (406.61 ± 22.07 vs. 238.96 ± 16.26 U/l p = 0.001) and induction in TAC (0.46 ± 0.029 μmol/ml vs. 0.56 ± 0.031, p = 0.016). No statistically significant alteration was found for saliva SOD (0.080 ± 0.0019 vs. 0.079 ± 0.0014, p > 0.05) and CAT (20.36 ± 0.69 vs. 19.78 ± 0.71, p > 0.05) after 28 days treatment by GT. These results demonstrate that drinking GT during chemical exposure can reduce several parameters indicative of oxidative stress. In conclusion, using GT as a dietary supplement can be a rational protocol to control source of hazards in chemical laboratory workers.

  8. Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds

    PubMed Central

    Glamočlija, Jasmina; Soković, Marina; Tešević, Vele; Linde, Giani Andrea; Colauto, Nelson Barros

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil of Lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. The objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of L. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Essential oil was extracted by Clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-MS analysis, and the structure of the main compounds confirmed by 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Microdilution assays evaluated the essential oil minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Commercial fungicides Ketoconazole and Bifonazole were used as control. Essential oil yield is of 0.15% and the major components are neral (33.32%) and geranial (50.94%). The L. alba essential oil has MIC of 0.300–1.250 mg/mL and MFC of 0.600–1.250 mg/mL. Ketoconazole and Bifonazole show MIC ranging from 0.025–0.500 to 0.100–0.200 mg/mL, and MFC ranging from 0.250–0.100 to 0.200–0.250 mg/mL, respectively. L. alba essential oil is classified as citral type and the results indicate that it is a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides. PMID:24031788

  9. Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds.

    PubMed

    Glamočlija, Jasmina; Soković, Marina; Tešević, Vele; Linde, Giani Andrea; Colauto, Nelson Barros

    2011-10-01

    The essential oil of Lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. The objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of L. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Essential oil was extracted by Clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-MS analysis, and the structure of the main compounds confirmed by (1)H and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. Microdilution assays evaluated the essential oil minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Commercial fungicides Ketoconazole and Bifonazole were used as control. Essential oil yield is of 0.15% and the major components are neral (33.32%) and geranial (50.94%). The L. alba essential oil has MIC of 0.300-1.250 mg/mL and MFC of 0.600-1.250 mg/mL. Ketoconazole and Bifonazole show MIC ranging from 0.025-0.500 to 0.100-0.200 mg/mL, and MFC ranging from 0.250-0.100 to 0.200-0.250 mg/mL, respectively. L. alba essential oil is classified as citral type and the results indicate that it is a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides.

  10. Study of structural and optical properties of chemically synthesized nanostructured cadmium zinc sulphide films for band gap tunability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochahari, P. K.; Sarma, K. C.

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured cadmium zinc sulphide films have been deposited onto cleaned glass substrates by chemical bath deposition method at room temperature using polyvinyl alcohol as capping agent. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the formation of cubic-phase cadmium zinc sulphide films. Crystallite size obtained from the calculation of Scherrer's formula and Williamson-Hall plot as well as size-strain plot is found to decrease with the increase in zinc concentration. The films have very high dislocation density of the order of 1016 m-2, whereas the strain is of the order of 10-3. Scanning electron microscopic image reveals that the particles are agglomerated to form nanoclusters and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis confirms that films are composed of cadmium, zinc and sulphur. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic image reveals that the shape of the particles is nearly spherical, uniformly distributed. Selected-area electron diffraction pattern supports the formation of cubic phase of the film. Optical absorption peaks of the films shift towards lower wavelength side and their optical band gap increases with the increase in zinc concentration. The increase in zinc concentration enhances the photoluminescence emission intensity, whose emission is in the green region of visible spectrum.

  11. A green chemical approach for synthesis of shape anisotropic gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyan Kamal, S. S.; Vimala, J.; Sahoo, P. K.; Ghosal, P.; Ram, S.; Durai, L.

    2014-06-01

    A complete green chemical reaction between aurochloric acid and tea polyphenols resulted in the reduction of Au3+ → Au0. The reaction was carried out in a Teflon-coated bomb digestion vessel at 200 °C. It was observed that with increasing the reaction time from 1 to 5 h, the shape of the nanoparticles changed from spherical- to rod-like structures. The reaction was followed with the help of UV-vis spectrometer, which showed a single absorption peak at 548 nm for 1-h reaction product and two peaks for a 5-h reaction product at 533 and 745 nm corresponding to the transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon resonance bands. Microstructures obtained from transmission electron microscope revealed that the samples obtained after 1-h reaction are predominantly spherical in shape with an average size of 15 nm. Whereas samples obtained after 5 h of reaction exhibited rod-like structures with an average size of 45 nm.

  12. Sol-gel synthesized Sr4Al14O25:Eu2+/Dy3+ blue-green phosphorous as oxygen sensing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Ilkyaz; Ertekin, Kadriye; Demirci, Selim; Gultekin, Serdar; Celik, Erdal

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we utilized newly synthesized Sr4Al14O25:Eu2+/Dy3+ blue-green phosphors along with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for fabrication of oxygen sensitive materials. To the best of our knowledge oxygen sensing mechanism of the offered design is totally different from the previously published works. One-component silicone: poly (1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne), two component phenyl bearing silicone, plasticized polymethylmethacrylate, and ethylcellulose (EC) were tested as matrix materials. Electrospun fibers, porous and smooth thin films were produced by electrospinning or knife coating technique. Oxygen induced luminescence of the phosphors at 544 nm was followed as the analytical signal. Utilization of silver nanoparticles in silicone along with phosphors resulted with a 7.14 fold enhancement in the signal intensity and significant spectral response towards oxygen competing with the signals of the oxygen sensors utilizing metalloporphyrins or ruthenium complexes. We observed high sensitivity and stability, increased surface area and an enhancement in all sensor dynamics. Linearity of the calibration plots was superior for the pO2 range of 0.0-20.0% with respect to the previously reported ones. When stored at the ambient air of the laboratory there was no significant drift in signal intensity after 12 months. Our sensitivity and stability tests are still in progress.

  13. Characterization of annealed Eu3+-doped ZnO flower-like morphology synthesized by chemical bath deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koao, L. F.; Dejene, B. F.; Swart, H. C.; Motloung, S. V.; Motaung, T. E.

    2016-10-01

    Undoped and europium ion (Eu3+) doped ZnO nanostructures were synthesized via the chemical bath deposition method and annealed afterwards in air at 700 °C. The X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite structure for all samples. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the nanopowder samples were assembled in flower-like shapes for undoped and hexagonal-shaped for Eu3+-doped ZnO. Elemental energy dispersive (EDS) analysis mapping conducted on the samples revealed homogeneous distribution of Zn, O, and Eu ions. The Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) diffusion reflectance spectroscopy showed a decrease in the band gap with an increasing Eu3+ concentration. The photoluminescence (PL) results showed that by exciting Eu3+ (4 mol%) doped ZnO with different excitation wavelength the highest luminescence intensity was observed at an excitation wavelength of 395 nm but no emissions were observed from Eu3+. By exciting further with 465 nm the Eu3+ emissions were observed and emission from undoped ZnO was found for the first time.

  14. Improved magnetic and electrical properties of Cu doped Fe-Ni invar alloys synthesized by chemical reduction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Sajjad; Ziya, Amer Bashir; Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem; Ibrahim, Ather; Atiq, Shabbar; Ahmad, Naseeb; Shakeel, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Azhar

    2016-12-01

    Fe-Ni-Cu invar alloys of various compositions (Fe65Ni35-xCux, x=0, 0.2, 0.6, 1, 1.4 and 1.8) were synthesized via chemical reduction route. These alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) techniques. The XRD analysis revealed the formation of face centered cubic (fcc) structure. The lattice parameter and the crystallite size of the investigated alloys were calculated and the line broadening indicated the nano-crystallites size of alloy powder. The particle size was estimated from SEM and it decreases by the incorporation of Cu and found to be in the range of 24-40 nm. The addition of Cu in these alloys appreciably enhances the saturation magnetization and it increases from 99 to 123 emu/g. Electrical conductivity has been improved with Cu addition. The thermal conductivity was calculated using the Wiedemann-Franz law.

  15. Annealed Ce3+-doped ZnO flower-like morphology synthesized by chemical bath deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koao, Lehlohonolo F.; Dejene, Francis B.; Tsega, Moges; Swart, Hendrik C.

    2016-01-01

    We have successfully synthesized ZnO:xmol% Ce3+ (0≤x≤10 mol%) doped nanopowders via the chemical bath deposition method (CBD) technique at low temperature (80 °C) and annealed in air at 700 °C. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed that all the undoped and Ce-doped ZnO nanopowders have a hexagonal wurtzite polycrystalline structure with an average crystallite size of about 46 nm. Weak diffraction peaks related mainly to cerium oxide were also detected at higher concentrations of Ce3+ (x=5-10 mol%). The scanning electron microscopy study revealed that the nanopowder samples were assembled in flower-shaped undoped ZnO and pyramid-shaped Ce3+-doped ZnO nanostructures. The UV-vis spectra showed that the absorption edges shifted slightly to the longer wavelengths with the increase in the Ce3+ ions concentration. Moreover, the photoluminescence (PL) results showed a relative weak visible emission for the Ce3+-doped ZnO nanoparticles compared to the undoped ZnO. The effects of Ce3+-doping on the structure and PL of ZnO nanopowders are discussed in detail.

  16. Preparation, Characterization, and Size Control of Chemically Synthesized CdS Nanoparticles Capped with Poly(ethylene glycol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seoudi, R.; Allehyani, S. H. A.; Said, D. A.; Lashin, A. R.; Abouelsayed, A.

    2015-10-01

    We prepared cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles of a specific size via chemical precipitation at room temperature and characterized them using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, x-ray powder diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) measurements. The results showed that the samples were grown with a cubic phase; the particle size could be changed from 2 nm to 4 nm by varying the molar ratios of the precursors (cadmium chloride and sodium sulfide) in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as an effective capping agent. The optical bandgap of the synthesized nanoparticles was calculated and ranged from 2.73 eV to 2.92 eV depending on the particle size. A large blue-shift from the bulk bandgap (2.42 eV) was observed owing to the quantum size effect. Surface passivation and adsorption of PEG on the CdS nanoparticles was explained on the basis of FTIR measurements; two bands were observed at 476 cm-1 and 622 cm-1, corresponding to cadmium and sulfide stretching vibrations. We conclude that particle size can be controlled by varying the molar ratios of the precursors. Owing to the PEG encapsulation, the as-prepared samples were extremely stable over time.

  17. Metal oxide nanostructures synthesized on flexible and solid substrates and used for catalysts, UV detectors, and chemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willander, Magnus; Sadollahkhani, Azar; Echresh, Ahmad; Nur, Omer

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the visibility of the low temperature chemical synthesis for developing device quality material grown on flexible and solid substrates. Both colorimetric sensors and UV photodetectors will be presented. The colorimetric sensors developed on paper were demonstrated for heavy metal detection, in particular for detecting copper ions in aqueous solutions. The demonstrated colorimetric copper ion sensors developed here are based on ZnO@ZnS core-shell nanoparticles (CSNPs). These sensors demonstrated an excellent low detection limit of less than 1 ppm of copper ions. Further the colorimetric sensors operate efficiently in a wide pH range between 4 and 11, and even in turbulent water. The CSNPs were additionally used as efficient photocatalytic degradation element and were found to be more efficient than pure ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). Also p-NiO/n-ZnO thin film/nanorods pn junctions were synthesized by a two-step synthesis process and were found to act as efficient UV photodetectors. Additionally we show the effect of the morphology of different CuO nanostructures on the efficiency of photo catalytic degradation of Congo red organic dye.

  18. Chemically synthesized CdSe quantum dots inhibit growth of human lung carcinoma cells via ROS generation

    PubMed Central

    Jigyasu, Aditya Kumar; Siddiqui, Sahabjada; Lohani, Mohatashim; Khan, Irfan Ali; Arshad, Md

    2016-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs), semiconducting materials have potential applications in the field of electronic and biomedical applications including cancer therapy. In present study, cadmium selenide (CdSe) QDs were synthesized by chemical method. Octadecene was used as non-coordinating solvent which facilitated the formation of colloidal solutions of nanoparticles. CdSe QDs were characterized by UV-vis spectrometer and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The size measured by TEM was varied between 2-5 nm depending upon temperature. The cytotoxic activity of QDs was monitored by MTT assay, nuclear condensation, ROS activity and DNA fragmentation assay on human lung epithelial A549 cell line. Cells were treated with different concentrations of varying size of CdSe QDs for 24 h. CdSe QDs induced significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent cytotoxicity and this was comparable to the sizes of particles. Smaller particles were more cytotoxic to the large particles. Fluorescence microscopic analysis revealed that QDs induced oxidative stress generating significant ROS level and consequently, induced nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation. Study suggested the cytotoxicity of CdSe QDs via ROS generation and DNA fragmentation depending upon particles size. PMID:27047318

  19. Multiple sublethal chemicals negatively affect tadpoles of the green frog, Rana clamitans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, Michelle D.; Bridges, Christine M.; Fairchild, James F.; Little, Edward E.

    2005-01-01

    Many habitats may be exposed to multiple chemical contaminants, particularly in agricultural areas where fertilizer and pesticide use are common; however, the singular and interactive effects of contaminants are not well understood. The objective of our study was to examine how realistic, sublethal environmental levels of ammonium nitrate fertilizer (0, 10, 20 mg/L and ammonium chloride control) and the common insecticide carbaryl (0 or 2.5 mg/L) individually and interactively affect the development, size, and survival of green frog (Rana clamitans) tadpoles. We reared tadpoles for 95 d in outdoor 1,000-L polyethylene ponds. We found that the combination of carbaryl and nitrate had a negative effect on development and mass of tadpoles compared to the positive effect that either contaminant had alone. Presence of carbaryl was generally associated with short-term increases in algal resources, including ponds exposed to both carbaryl and nitrate. However, with exposure to nitrate and carbaryl, tadpole mass and development were not positively affected as with one chemical stressor alone. The combination of these sublethal contaminants may reduce the ability of amphibians to benefit from food-rich environments or have metabolic costs. Our study demonstrates the importance of considering multiple stressors when evaluating population-level responses.

  20. Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Yellow, Green, Brown, and Red Brazilian Propolis.

    PubMed

    Machado, Christiane Schineider; Mokochinski, João Benhur; de Lira, Tatiana Onofre; de Oliveira, Fátima de Cassia Evangelista; Cardoso, Magda Vieira; Ferreira, Roseane Guimarães; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Pessoa, Cláudia; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Monteiro, Marta Chagas; de Campos, Mônica Soares; Torres, Yohandra Reyes

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of a sample of yellow propolis from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (EEP-Y MS), were investigated for the first time and compared with green, brown, and red types of Brazilian propolis and with a sample of yellow propolis from Cuba. Overall, EEP-Y MS had different qualitative chemical profiles, as well as different cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities when compared to the other types of propolis assessed in this study and it is a different chemotype of Brazilian propolis. Absence of phenolic compounds and the presence of mixtures of aliphatic compounds in yellow propolis were determined by analysing (1)H-NMR spectra and fifteen terpenes were identified by GC-MS. EEP-Y MS showed cytotoxic activity against human tumour strain OVCAR-8 but was not active against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. Our results confirm the difficulty of establishing a uniform quality standard for propolis from diverse geographical origins. The most appropriate pharmacological applications of yellow types of propolis must be further investigated.

  1. Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Yellow, Green, Brown, and Red Brazilian Propolis

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Christiane Schineider; Mokochinski, João Benhur; de Lira, Tatiana Onofre; de Oliveira, Fátima de Cassia Evangelista; Cardoso, Magda Vieira; Ferreira, Roseane Guimarães; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Pessoa, Cláudia; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Monteiro, Marta Chagas; de Campos, Mônica Soares

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of a sample of yellow propolis from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (EEP-Y MS), were investigated for the first time and compared with green, brown, and red types of Brazilian propolis and with a sample of yellow propolis from Cuba. Overall, EEP-Y MS had different qualitative chemical profiles, as well as different cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities when compared to the other types of propolis assessed in this study and it is a different chemotype of Brazilian propolis. Absence of phenolic compounds and the presence of mixtures of aliphatic compounds in yellow propolis were determined by analysing 1H-NMR spectra and fifteen terpenes were identified by GC-MS. EEP-Y MS showed cytotoxic activity against human tumour strain OVCAR-8 but was not active against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. Our results confirm the difficulty of establishing a uniform quality standard for propolis from diverse geographical origins. The most appropriate pharmacological applications of yellow types of propolis must be further investigated. PMID:27525023

  2. Chemical characterization of orange juice from trees infected with citrus greening (Huanglongbing).

    PubMed

    Dagulo, Lilibeth; Danyluk, Michelle D; Spann, Timothy M; Valim, M Filomena; Goodrich-Schneider, Renée; Sims, Charles; Rouseff, Russell

    2010-03-01

    The effects due to Candidatus Liberibacter infection, commonly called citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB), on volatile and nonvolatile components of orange juices, OJ, were examined using GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HLB symptomatic, asymptomatic, and control "Hamlin" and "Valencia" oranges were harvested from December to May during the 2007 to 2008 harvest season. Brix/acid levels in control and asymptomatic juices were similar but symptomatic juices were as much as 62% lower than control juices. No bitter flavanone neohesperidosides were detected and polymethoxyflavone concentrations were well below bitter taste thresholds. Limonin concentrations were significantly higher (91% to 425%) in symptomatic juice compared to control but still below juice bitterness taste thresholds. Juice terpenes, such as gamma-terpinene and alpha-terpinolene, were as much as 1320% and 62% higher in symptomatic juice than control. Average ethyl butanoate concentrations were 45% lower and average linalool was 356% higher in symptomatic Valencia OJ compared to control. Symptomatic Valencia OJ had on average only 40% the total esters, 48% the total aldehydes, and 33% as much total sesquiterpenes as control juice. Total volatiles between control and symptomatic juices were similar due to elevated levels of alcohols and terpenes in symptomatic juice. There were no consistent differences between asymptomatic and control juices. The chemical composition of juice from HLB/greening symptomatic fruit appears to mimic that of juice from less mature fruit. The reported off-flavor associated with symptomatic juices probably stem from lower concentrations of sugars, higher concentrations of acid as all known citrus bitter compounds were either below taste thresholds or absent.

  3. CHEMICAL AND MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FRENCH GREEN CLAYS USED FOR HEALING

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lynda B.; Haydel, Shelley E.; Giese, Rossman F.; Eberl, Dennis D.

    2008-01-01

    The worldwide emergence of infectious diseases, together with the increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, elevate the need to properly detect, prevent, and effectively treat these infections. The overuse and misuse of common antibiotics in recent decades stimulates the need to identify new inhibitory agents. Therefore, natural products like clays, that display antibacterial properties, are of particular interest. The absorptive properties of clay minerals are well documented for healing skin and gastrointestinal ailments. However, the antibacterial properties of clays have received less scientific attention. French green clays have recently been shown to heal Buruli ulcer, a necrotic or ‘flesh-eating’ infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Assessing the antibacterial properties of these clays could provide an inexpensive treatment for Buruli ulcer and other skin infections. Antimicrobial testing of the two clays on a broad-spectrum of bacterial pathogens showed that one clay promotes bacterial growth (possibly provoking a response from the natural immune system), while another kills bacteria or significantly inhibits bacterial growth. This paper compares the mineralogy and chemical composition of the two French green clays used in the treatment of Buruli ulcer. Mineralogically, the two clays are dominated by 1Md illite and Fe-smectite. Comparing the chemistry of the clay minerals and exchangeable ions, we conclude that the chemistry of the clay, and the surface properties that affect pH and oxidation state, control the chemistry of the water used to moisten the clay poultices and contribute the critical antibacterial agent(s) that ultimately debilitate the bacteria. PMID:19079803

  4. Chemical and mineralogical characteristics of French green clays used for healing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, L.B.; Haydel, S.E.; Giese, R.F.; Eberl, D.D.

    2008-01-01

    The worldwide emergence of infectious diseases, together with the increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, elevate the need to properly detect, prevent, and effectively treat these infections. The overuse and misuse of common antibiotics in recent decades stimulates the need to identify new inhibitory agents. Therefore, natural products like clays, that display antibacterial properties, are of particular interest. The absorptive properties of clay minerals are well documented for healing skin and gastrointestinal ailments. However, the antibacterial properties of clays have received less scientific attention. French green clays have recently been shown to heal Buruli ulcer, a necrotic or 'flesh-eating' infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Assessing the antibacterial properties of these clays could provide an inexpensive treatment for Buruli ulcer and other skin infections. Antimicrobial testing of the two clays on a broad-spectrum of bacterial pathogens showed that one clay promotes bacterial growth (possibly provoking a response from the natural immune system), while another kills bacteria or significantly inhibits bacterial growth. This paper compares the mineralogy and chemical composition of the two French green clays used in the treatment of Buruli ulcer. Mineralogically, the two clays are dominated by 1Md illite and Fe-smectite. Comparing the chemistry of the clay minerals and exchangeable ions, we conclude that the chemistry of the clay, and the surface properties that affect pH and oxidation state, control the chemistry of the water used to moisten the clay poultices and contribute the critical antibacterial agent(s) that ultimately debilitate the bacteria. Copyright ?? 2008, The Clay Minerals Society.

  5. Photocarrier Transport and Carrier Recombination Efficiency in Vertically Aligned Si Nanowire Arrays Synthesized Via Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muldera, Joselito; Cabello, Neil Irvin; Ragasa, Joseph Christopher; Mabilangan, Arvin; Herminia Balgos, Ma.; Jaculbia, Rafael; Somintac, Armando; Estacio, Elmer; Salvador, Arnel

    2013-08-01

    The carrier dynamics and recombination characteristics of vertically aligned silicon nanowires are investigated using terahertz emission and photoluminescence spectroscopy, respectively. It is observed that the presence of pores on the walls in two-step-synthesized silicon nanowires greatly affects the carrier dynamics, compared with nanowires synthesized using a one-step process. These pores become efficient carrier recombination sites wherein carriers are collected upon photoexcitation. Additionally, pores effectively diminish the surface electric field thereby inhibiting the terahertz emission. Finally, nanowire-length-dependent terahertz emission is observed only for the one-step-synthesized nanowires whereas the two-step-synthesized nanowire samples exhibited length dependence of their photoluminescence intensity.

  6. A comparison of fate and toxicity of selenite, biogenically, and chemically synthesized selenium nanoparticles to zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mal, Joyabrata; Veneman, Wouter J; Nancharaiah, Y V; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Vijver, Martina G; Lens, Piet N L

    2017-02-01

    Microbial reduction of selenium (Se) oxyanions to elemental Se is a promising technology for bioremediation and treatment of Se wastewaters. But a fraction of biogenic nano-Selenium (nano-Se(b)) formed in bioreactors remains suspended in the treated waters, thus entering the aquatic environment. The present study investigated the toxicity of nano-Se(b) formed by anaerobic granular sludge biofilms on zebrafish embryos in comparison with selenite and chemogenic nano-Se (nano-Se(c)). The nano-Se(b) formed by granular sludge biofilms showed a LC50 value of 1.77 mg/L, which was 3.2-fold less toxic to zebrafish embryos than selenite (LC50 = 0.55 mg/L) and 10-fold less toxic than bovine serum albumin stabilized nano-Se(c) (LC50 = 0.16 mg/L). Smaller (nano-Se(cs); particle diameter range: 25-80 nm) and larger (nano-Se(cl); particle diameter range: 50-250 nm) sized chemically synthesized nano-Se(c) particles showed comparable toxicity on zebrafish embryos. The lower toxicity of nano-Se(b) in comparison with nano-Se(c) was analyzed in terms of the stabilizing organic layer. The results confirmed that the organic layer extracted from the nano-Se(b) consisted of components of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) matrix, which govern the physiochemical stability and surface properties like ζ-potential of nano-Se(b). Based on the data, it is contented that the presence of humic acid like substances of EPS on the surface of nano-Se(b) plays a major role in lowering the bioavailability (uptake) and toxicity of nano-Se(b) by decreasing the interactions between nanoparticles and embryos.

  7. Effect of contact angle hysteresis on the removal of the sporelings of the green alga Ulva from the fouling-release coatings synthesized from polyolefin polymers.

    PubMed

    Ucar, Ikrime O; Cansoy, C Elif; Erbil, H Yildirim; Pettitt, Michala E; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A

    2010-09-01

    Wettability is one of the surface characteristics that is controlled by the chemical composition and roughness of a surface. A number of investigations have explored the relationship between water contact angle and surface free energy of polymeric coatings with the settlement (attachment) and adhesion strength of various marine organisms. However, the relationship between the contact angle hysteresis and fouling-release property is generally overlooked. In the present work, coatings were prepared by using commercial hydrophobic homopolymer and copolymer polyolefins, which have nearly the same surface free energy. The effects of contact angle hysteresis, wetting hysteresis, and surface free energy on the fouling-release properties for sporelings of the green alga Ulva from substrates were then examined quantitatively under a defined shear stress in a water channel. The ease of removal of sporelings under shear stress from the polymer surfaces was in the order of PP>HDPE>PPPE>EVA-12 and strongly and positively correlated with contact angle and wetting hysteresis; i.e., the higher the hysteresis, the greater the removal.

  8. A novel pyrophosphate BaCr2(P2O7)2 as green pigment with high NIR solar reflectance and durable chemical stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Zhengxu; Zhang, Wanqi; Huang, Yanlin; Wei, Donglei; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2014-08-01

    A novel pyrophosphate BaCr2(P2O7)2 was synthesized by the conventional solid-state reaction. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra were applied to characterize the powders. The refractive indexes and nature of the VB and CB were determined. The structure, color properties and application were investigated. The results reveal that the anomalist bodies with smooth surfaces were obtained at 1200 °C with a mean size of 3 μm. A high reflectance peak at 535 nm was observed in the visible region, which is associated with the brilliant and deep green color of this pigment. With all the acids, alkali and deionized water treatment, the polycrystalline pigment BaCr2(P2O7)2 was found to be durable in chemical stability. The significantly high NIR solar reflectance of BaCr2(P2O7)2 is 90.0%, a higher cooling ability, so it has been selected to be tested as cool green pigment in ceramics. Moreover, this novel pyrophosphate pigment has great potential as cool pigment for surface coating applications.

  9. Device for recovering sodium chemicals from green liquor and flue gases

    SciTech Connect

    Rimpi, P. K.

    1980-02-05

    A device is disclosed for recovering chemicals from flue gases and green liquor obtained from burning the waste liquor of sodium-based pulping processes. The device comprises a precarbonation reactor, a H/sub 2/S-stripping column, a carbonation reactor, a washing tower for flue gases and a cooling tower for washed flue gases. The carbonation reactor, the cooling tower and the washing tower are arranged on top of each other in the same column which is provided with trays so that means for feeding flue gases from the washing tower into the cooling tower and further into the carbonation reactor are openings made in the trays to allow the washed flue gases to rise from the washing tower into the cooling tower above it and further into the carbonation reactor above the cooling tower. A common blower means is provided for feeding flue gases into the washing tower for blowing flue gases through the washing tower, the cooling tower, the carbonation reactor and the precarbonation reactor and means for discharging a solution containing sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate from the stripping column being connected with means for feeding this solution directly into the carbonation reactor and the washing tower.

  10. Chemical nature of the light emitter of the Aequorea green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Niwa, H; Inouye, S; Hirano, T; Matsuno, T; Kojima, S; Kubota, M; Ohashi, M; Tsuji, F I

    1996-11-26

    The jellyfish Aequorea victoria possesses in the margin of its umbrella a green fluorescent protein (GFP, 27 kDa) that serves as the ultimate light emitter in the bioluminescence reaction of the animal. The protein is made up of 238 amino acid residues in a single polypeptide chain and produces a greenish fluorescence (lambda max = 508 nm) when irradiated with long ultraviolet light. The fluorescence is due to the presence of a chromophore consisting of an imidazolone ring, formed by a post-translational modification of the tripeptide -Ser65-Tyr66-Gly67-. GFP has been used extensively as a reporter protein for monitoring gene expression in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, but relatively little is known about the chemical mechanism by which fluorescence is produced. To obtain a better understanding of this problem, we studied a peptide fragment of GFP bearing the chromophore and a synthetic model compound of the chromophore. The results indicate that the GFP chromophore consists of an imidazolone ring structure and that the light emitter is the singlet excited state of the phenolate anion of the chromophore. Further, the light emission is highly dependent on the microenvironment around the chromophore and that inhibition of isomerization of the exo-methylene double bond of the chromophore accounts for its efficient light emission.

  11. A non-targeted approach to chemical discrimination between green tea dietary supplements and green tea leaves by HPLC/MS.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei; Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M

    2011-01-01

    Green tea-based dietary supplements (GTDSs) have gained popularity in the U.S. market in recent years. This study evaluated the phytochemical composition difference of GTDS in comparison with green tea leaves using an HPLC/MS fingerprinting technique coupled with chemometric analysis. Five components that are most responsible for class separation among samples were identified as (-) epicatechin gallate, strictinin, trigalloylglucose, quercetin-3-O-glucosyl-rhamnosylglucoside, and kaempferol-3-O-galactosyl-rhamnosylglucoside, according to the accurate mass measurements and MS/MS data. The similarity coefficients between the GTDSs in solid form with green tea were 0.55 to 0.91, while for the GTDSs in liquid form they were 0.12 to 0.89, which suggested that chemical composition variance across the GTDSs was significant. Flavonol aglycone concentrations were higher in GTDSs than in tea leaves, indicating the degradation of flavonol glycosides or the oxidation of catechin during the manufacturing and storage processes. In some GTDS samples, compounds were identified that were on the label. The results demonstrate the urgency of QC for GTDS products.

  12. A Non-targeted Approach to Chemical Discrimination Between Green Tea Dietary Supplements and Green Tea Leaves by HPLC/MS

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei; Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Green tea-based dietary supplements (GTDSs) have gained popularity in the U.S. market in recent years. This study evaluated the phytochemical composition difference of GTDS in comparison with green tea leaves using an HPLC/MS fingerprinting technique coupled with chemometric analysis. Five components that are most responsible for class separation among samples were identified as (−) epicatechin gallate, strictinin, trigalloylglucose, quercetin-3-O-glucosylrhamnosylglucoside, and kaempferol-3-O-galactosyl-rhamnosylglucoside, according to the accurate mass measurements and MS/MS data. The similarity coefficients between the GTDSs in solid form with green tea were 0.55 to 0.91, while for the GTDSs in liquid form they were 0.12 to 0.89, which suggested that chemical composition variance across the GTDSs was significant. Flavonol aglycone concentrations were higher in GTDSs than in tea leaves, indicating the degradation of flavonol glycosides or the oxidation of catechin during the manufacturing and storage processes. In some GTDS samples, compounds were identified that were on the label. The results demonstrate the urgency of QC for GTDS products. PMID:21563682

  13. Dietary supplementation of green synthesized manganese-oxide nanoparticles and its effect on growth performance, muscle composition and digestive enzyme activities of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Asaikkutti, Annamalai; Bhavan, Periyakali Saravana; Vimala, Karuppaiya; Karthik, Madhayan; Cheruparambath, Praseeja

    2016-05-01

    The green synthesized Mn3O4 nanoparticles (manganese-oxide nanoparticles) using Ananas comosus (L.) peel extract was characterized by various techniques. HR-SEM photograph showed that manganese-oxide nanoparticles (Mn-oxide NPs) were spherical in shape, with an average size of 40-50 nm. The Zeta potential revealed the surface charge of Mn-oxide NPs to be negative. Further, the Mn-oxide NPs were dietary supplemented for freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The experimental basal diets were supplemented with Mn-oxide NPs at the rates of 0 (control), 3.0, 6.0, 9.0, 12, 15 and 18 mg/kg dry feed weight. The as-supplemented Mn-oxide NPs were fed in M. rosenbergii for a period of 90 days. The experimental study demonstrated that prawns fed with diet supplemented with 3-18 mg Mn-oxide NPs/kg shows enhanced (P<0.05) growth performance, including final weight and weight gain (WG). Significant differences (P<0.05) in feed conversion ratio (FCR) were observed in prawn fed with different diets. Additionally, prawns fed with 3.0-18 mg/kg Mn-oxide NPs supplemented diets achieved significant (P<0.05) improvement in growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and muscle biochemical compositions, while, the prawns fed with 16 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs showed enhanced performance. Prawns fed on diet supplemented with 16 mg/kg Mn-oxide NPs showed significantly (P<0.05) higher total protein level. The antioxidants enzymatic activity (SOD and CAT) metabolic enzymes status in muscle and hepatopancreas showed no significant (P>0.05) alterations in prawns fed with 3.0-18 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs supplemented diets. Consequently, the present work proposed that 16 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs could be supplemented for flexible enhanced survival, growth and production of M. rosenbergii. Therefore, the data of the present study recommend the addition of 16 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs diet to developed prawn growth and antioxidant defense system.

  14. Chemical concentrations and instantaneous loads, Green River to the Lower Duwamish Waterway near Seattle, Washington, 2013–15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Black, Robert W.; Vanderpool-Kimura, Ann M.; Foreman, James R.; Peterson, Norman T.; Senter, Craig A.; Sissel, Stephen K.

    2015-12-23

    Median chemical concentrations in suspended-sediment samples were greater than median chemical concentrations in fine bed sediment (less than 62.5 µm) samples, which were greater than median chemical concentrations in paired bulk bed sediment (less than 2 mm) samples. Suspended-sediment concentration, sediment particle-size distribution, and general water-quality parameters were measured concurrent with the chemistry sampling. From this discrete data, combined with the continuous streamflow record, estimates of instantaneous sediment and chemical loads from the Green River to the Lower Duwamish Waterway were calculated. For most compounds, loads were higher during storms than during baseline conditions because of high streamflow and high chemical concentrations. The highest loads occurred during dam releases (periods when stored runoff from a prior storm is released from the Howard Hanson Dam into the upper Green River) because of the high river streamflow and high suspended-sediment concentration, even when chemical concentrations were lower than concentrations measured during storm events. 

  15. CHEMICAL INTERACTIONS OF ARSENATE, ARSENITE, PHOSPHATE, AND SILICATE WITH IRON (II,III) HYDROXYCARBONATE GREEN RUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Granular zerovalent iron has been proposed to be used as a medium in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to remove arsenic from contaminated groundwater. Iron(II, III) hydroxycarbonate green rust (carbonate green rust, or CGR) is a major corrosion product of zerovalent iron under ...

  16. CHEMICAL INTERACTIONS OF ARSENATE, ARSENITE, PHOSPHATE, AND SILICATE WITH IRON (II, III) HYDROXYCARBONATE GREEN RUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Granular zerovalent iron has been proposed to be used as a medium in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to remove arsenic from contaminated groundwater. Iron(II, III) hydroxycarbonate green rust (carbonate green rust, or CGR) is a major corrosion product of zerovalent iron under ...

  17. A molecular line study towards massive extended green object clumps in the southern sky: chemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Naiping; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2015-08-01

    We present a molecular line study towards 31 extended green object (EGO) clumps in the southern sky using data from MALT90 (Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz). According to previous multiwavelength observations, we divide our sample into two groups: massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and H II regions. The most detected lines are N2H+ (J = 1 - 0), HCO+ (J = 1 - 0), HNC (J = 1 - 0), HCN (J = 1 - 0), HC3N (J = 10 - 9), H13CO+ (J = 1 - 0), C2H (N = 1 - 0) and SiO (J = 2 - 1), indicating that most EGOs are indeed associated with dense clumps and recent outflow activities. The velocity widths of the N2H+ (J = 1 - 0), H13CO+ (J = 1 - 0), C2H (N = 1 - 0) and HC3N (J = 10 - 9) lines are comparable to each other in MYSOs. However, in H II regions the velocity widths of the N2H+ (J = 1 - 0) and C2H (N = 1 - 0) lines tend to be narrower than those of H13CO+ (J = 1 - 0) and HC3N (J = 10 - 9). Our results seem to support that N2H+ and C2H emissions mainly come from the gas inside quiescent clumps. In addition, we also find that the [N2H+]/[H13CO+] and [C2H]/[H13CO+] relative abundance ratios decrease from MYSOs to H II regions. These results suggest depletion of N2H+ and C2H in the late stages of massive-star formation, probably caused by the formation of H II regions inside. N2H+ and C2H might be used as chemical clocks for massive-star formation by comparing with other molecules such as H13CO+ and HC3N.

  18. Effects of size-controlled TiO2 nanopowders synthesized by chemical vapor condensation process on conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo-Byoung; Lee, Jai-Sung

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the microstructural effects of the synthesized TiO2 nanopowders such as particle size, specific surface area, pore size and pore distributions for the application of an anode material of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), size-controlled and well-dispersed TiO2 nanopowders were synthesized by chemical vapor condensation (CVC) process in the range of 800-1000 degreesC under a pressure of 50 mbar. The average particle size of synthesized TiO2 nanopowders was increased with increasing temperature from 13 nm for 800 degreesC, 15 nm for 900 degreesC and 26 nm. The specific surface area of synthesized nanoparticles were measured as 119.1 m2/g for 800 degreesC, 104.7 m2/g for 900 degreesC and 59.5 m2/g for 1000 degreesC, respectively. The conversion efficiency values (eta%) of DSSC with the synthesized TiO2 nanopowders at 800 degreesC, 900 degreesC, and 1000 degreesC were 2.59%, 5.96% and 3.66%, respectively. The highest conversion efficiency obtained in the 900 degreesC (5.96%) sample is thought to be attributable to homogeneous particle size and pore distributions, large specific surface area, and high transmittance in regions of dye absorption wavelength.

  19. Low temperature chemically synthesized rutile TiO2 photoanodes with high electron lifetime for organic dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ambade, Swapnil B; Ambade, Rohan B; Mane, Rajaram S; Lee, Go-Woon; Shaikh, ShoyebMohamad F; Patil, Supriya A; Joo, Oh-Shim; Han, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Soo-Hyoung

    2013-04-11

    Electron lifetime in mesoporous nanostructured rutile TiO2 photoanodes, synthesized via a simple, cost-effective, low temperature (50-55 °C) wet chemical process, annealed at 350 °C for 1 h and not employing any sprayed TiO2 compact layer, was successfully tailored with 0.2 mM TiCl4 surface treatment that resulted in light to electric power conversion efficiency up to 4.4%.

  20. "Green" synthesized and coated nanaosilver alters the membrance permeability of barrier (intestinal, brain, endothelial) cells and stimulates oxidative stress pathways in neurons.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanosilver's (nanoAg) use in medical applications and consumer products is increasing. Because of this, its "green" synthesis and surface modification with beneficial coatings are desirable. Given nanoAg's potential exposure routes (e.g., dermal, intestin...

  1. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2016 Designing Greener Chemicals and Specific Environmental Benefit: Climate Change Awards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2016 award winner, Newlight Technologies, developed a net carbon negative plastic made from methane-based GHG. It is cheaper than petroleum-based plastic; used to make cell phone cases, furniture, and other products.

  2. Synergy Effects in the Chemical Synthesis and Extensions of Multicomponent Reactions (MCRs)-The Low Energy Way to Ultra-Short Syntheses of Tailor-Made Molecules.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Heiner

    2017-02-25

    Several novel methods, catalysts and reagents have been developed to improve organic synthesis. Synergistic effects between reactions, reagents and catalysts can lead to minor heats of reaction and occur as an inherent result of multicomponent reactions (MCRs) and their extensions. They enable syntheses to be performed at a low energy level and the number of synthesis steps to be drastically reduced in comparison with 'classical' two-component reactions, fulfilling the rules of Green Chemistry. The very high potential for variability, diversity and complexity of MCRs additionally generates an extremely diverse range of products, thus bringing us closer to the aim of being able to produce tailor-made and extremely low-cost materials, drugs and compound libraries.

  3. Influence of catalytic gold and silver metal nanoparticles on structural, optical, and vibrational properties of silicon nanowires synthesized by metal-assisted chemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawood, M. K.; Tripathy, S.; Dolmanan, S. B.; Ng, T. H.; Tan, H.; Lam, J.

    2012-10-01

    We report on the structural and vibrational characterization of silicon (Si) nanowire arrays synthesized by metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) of Si deposited with metal nanoparticles. Gold (Au) and silver (Ag) metal nanoparticles were synthesized by glancing angle deposition, and MACE was performed in a mixture of H2O2 and HF solution. We studied the structural differences between Au and Ag-etched Si nanowires. The morphology of the synthesized nanowires was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The optical and vibrational properties of the Si nanostructures were studied by photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy using three different excitation sources (UV, visible, and near-infrared) and are correlated to their microstructures. The structural differences between Au-etched and Ag-etched nanowires are due to the higher degree of hole injection by the Au nanoparticle and diffusion into the Si nanowires, causing enhanced Si etching by HF on the nanowire surface. Au-etched nanowires were observed to be mesoporous throughout the nanowire while Ag-etched nanowires consisted of a thin porous layer around the crystalline core. In addition, the surface-enhanced resonant Raman scattering observed is attributed to the presence of the sunken metal nanoparticles. Such Si nanostructures may be useful for a wide range of applications such as photovoltaic and biological and chemical sensing.

  4. Chemical fingerprint analysis for quality control and identification of Ziyang green tea by HPLC.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoye; Li, Jianke; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Run; Zhang, Lin; Kong, Xianghong

    2015-03-15

    A simple and reliable HPLC fingerprint method was developed and validated for the quality control and identification of Ziyang green tea. Ten batches of Ziyang green tea collected from different plantations in Shaanxi Ziyang of China were used to establish the fingerprint. The feasibility and advantages of the used HPLC fingerprint were verified for its similarity evaluation by systematically comparing chromatograms with professional analytical software recommended by State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) of China. The similarities of the fingerprints of 10 batches of tea samples were all more than 0.981. Additionally, simultaneous quantification of 10 major bioactive ingredients in the tea samples was conducted to interpret the consistency of the quality test. The results indicated that the HPLC fingerprint as a characteristic distinguishing method combining similarity evaluation and quantification analysis can be successfully used to assess the quality and to identify the authenticity of Ziyang green tea.

  5. Improved removal of malachite green from aqueous solution using chemically modified cellulose by anhydride.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanmei; Min, Yinghao; Qiao, Han; Huang, Qi; Wang, Enze; Ma, Tongsen

    2015-03-01

    Cellulose modified with maleic (M) and phthalic (P) anhydride, to be named CMA and CPA, were tested as feasible adsorbents for the removal of malachite green from aqueous solution. At the same time, the uptake ability of natural cellulose was also studied for comparison. The structure of material was characterized by FT-IR and XRD. The effects of solution pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature were investigated in detail by batch adsorption experiments. The kinetic and isotherm studies suggested that the adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity on CMA and CPA were 370 mg g(-1) and 111 mg g(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the thermodynamics studies indicated the spontaneous nature of adsorption of malachite green on adsorbents. All the studied results showed that the modified cellulose could be used as effective adsorption material for the removal of malachite green from aqueous solutions.

  6. Microscale Syntheses, Reactions, and 1H NMR Spectroscopic Investigations of Square Planar Macrocyclic Tetraamido-N Cu(III) Complexes Relevant to Green Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uffelman, Erich S.; Doherty, Jonathan R.; Schulze, Carl; Burke, Amy L.; Bonnema, Kristen R.; Watson, Tanya T.; Lee, Daniel W., III

    2004-01-01

    Microscale fusions, description, and spectroscopic analysis of the reactivity of a square planar Cu(III) complex significant to green chemistry, are presented. The experiment also includes nine focal points on which pre-lab and post-lab questions are based, and the final exams reflect the students' comprehension of these and other features of…

  7. Chemical solution route to synthesize claw-like ZnO nanorod array and its optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ling-wei; Hu, Chun-hong; Tian, Hua; Zhang, Yu-xia; Jing, Ai-hua

    2014-03-01

    By using a low-cost and facile hydrothermal method, a peculiar claw-like ZnO nanorod array is successfully synthesized. The hydrothermal growth is done in an aqueous solution with equimolar zinc acetate (ZAc, Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O) and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA, C6H12N4). The obtained ZnO nanorod array is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicate that the nanorods are high-quality monocrystals. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum is performed to investigate the optical properties of this product.

  8. Characteristics of bioemulsifier V2-7 synthesized in culture media added of hydrocarbons: chemical composition, emulsifying activity and rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Checa, F; Toledo, F L; El Mabrouki, K; Quesada, E; Calvo, C

    2007-11-01

    The bioemulsifier V2-7 is an exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesized by strain F2-7 of Halomonas eurihalina and it has the property of emulsifying a wide range of hydrocarbons i.e. n-tetradecane, n-hexadecane, n-octane, xylene mineral light and heavy oils, petrol and crude oil. Characteristics of exopolysaccharide V2-7 produced in media supplemented with various hydrocarbons (n-tetradecane, n-hexadecane, n-octane, xylene, mineral light oil, mineral heavy oil, petrol or crude oil) were studied. Yield production varied from 0.54 to 1.45 g L(-1) according to the hydrocarbon added, in the same way chemical composition, viscosity and emulsifying activity of EPS varied with the culture conditions. Respect to chemical composition, percentage of uronic acids found in exopolymers produced in hydrocarbon media was always higher than that described for V2-7 EPS (1.32%) obtained with glucose. This large amount of uronic acid present could be useful in biodetoxification and waste water treatment. On the other hand, the highest amount of biopolymer was synthesized with mineral light oil, while the most active emulsifiers were those obtained from media added with petrol and n-octane. Furthermore, all EPS were capable of emulsifying crude oil more efficiently than the three chemical surfactants tested as control (Tween 20, Tween 80 and Triton X-100). The capacity of strain F2-7 to grow and produce bioemulsifier in presence of oil hydrocarbons together with the high emulsifying activity and low viscosity power of the biopolymers synthesized in hydrocarbons media could be considered highly beneficial for application of both bioemulsifier and producing strain in bioremediation of oil pollutants.

  9. Assessing the Greenness of Chemical Reactions in the Laboratory Using Updated Holistic Graphic Metrics Based on the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, M. Gabriela T. C.; Yunes, Santiago F.; Machado, Adelio A. S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Two graphic holistic metrics for assessing the greenness of synthesis, the "green star" and the "green circle", have been presented previously. These metrics assess the greenness by the degree of accomplishment of each of the 12 principles of green chemistry that apply to the case under evaluation. The criteria for assessment…

  10. Effect of the chemical composition of green manure crops on humus formation in a Soddy-Podzolic soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripolskaja, L.; Romanovskaja, D.; Slepetiene, A.; Razukas, A.; Sidlauskas, G.

    2014-04-01

    The effects of different types of green manure ( Trifolium pratense L., Dactylis glomerata L., and Secale cereale L.) and the time of its input into the soil (autumn and spring) on the contents of humus and labile humus substances in a soddy-podzolic soil and the relationship between the formation of humus and the chemical composition of the applied biomass were studied. Green manure had a positive effect on the accumulation of humus in the soil. When the plants were plowed into the soil in the fall, the amount of humus formed in the soil in the first year was 0.1% higher in comparison with the spring application of green manure. The most active synthesis of new humus substances took place upon the following properties of the plant biomass: C: N = 15-25, the cellulose content of 20-28%, and the lignin content of 14-17%. The highest amount of labile humus substances was formed during the decomposition of the biomass with the C: N ratio above 20, the cellulose content of 19-20%, and the lignin content of 14-16%.

  11. Physico-mechanical and physico-chemical properties of synthesized cement based on plasma- and wet technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazonova, Natalya; Skripnikova, Nelli

    2016-01-01

    In this work we studied the influence of plasma-chemical technology of cement clinker synthesis under conditions of high-concentrated heat streams on the properties of cement on fixing such factors as raw-material type (chemical and mineralogical composition), fraction composition, homogenization and module characters of the raw-material mixture. In this connection the sludge of the cement plant in town Angarsk, based on which the cement clinker synthesis using the wet- and plasma-chemical technologies was performed, was used in the studies. The results of chemical X-ray-phase analysis, petrography of cement clinkers, differential scanning colorimetry of hardened cement paste are represented in this work. The analysis of building-technical properties of inorganic viscous substances was performed. It was found that in using the identical raw-material mixture the cement produced with temperature higher by 1650 °C than the traditional one may indicate the higher activity. The hardened cement paste compressive strength at the age of 28 days was higher than the strength of the reference samples by 40.8-41.4 %.

  12. Biosynthesis, characterization and antimicrobial studies of green synthesized silver nanoparticles from fruit extract of Syzygium alternifolium (Wt.) Walp. an endemic, endangered medicinal tree taxon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yugandhar, P.; Savithramma, N.

    2016-02-01

    In nanotechnology, the plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles has terrific application in biomedicine due to its novel properties and its eco-friendly nature. The present study deals with the biosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (SNPs) from aqueous fruit extract of S. alternifolium an endemic medicinal plant to Eastern Ghats. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized by UV-VIS spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, AFM, SEM with EDAX and TEM. Colour change from brown to grey indicates the formation of nanoparticles and UV-VIS surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy observed at 442 nm further confirms the synthesized nanoparticles are SNPs. FTIR studies reveal that the phenols and primary amines of proteins are main responsible for reduction, stabilization and capping agents towards these SNPs. The XRD data show crystalline nature of nanoparticles and EDAX measurements reveal the (12.74 %) percentage presence of Ag metal. AFM, SEM and TEM microscopic analyses revealed that the size of synthesized SNPs ranging from 5 to 68 nm has spherical shape and they are in polydispersed condition. Further, the antimicrobial studies of synthesized SNPs show high toxicity towards different bacterial and fungal isolates. This is the first report on fruit mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles from S. alternifolium.

  13. Chemical modification of silica gel with synthesized new Schiff base derivatives and sorption studies of cobalt (II) and nickel (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursunlu, Ahmed Nuri; Guler, Ersin; Dumrul, Hakan; Kocyigit, Ozcan; Gubbuk, Ilkay Hilal

    2009-08-01

    In this study, three Schiff base ligands and their complexes were synthesized and characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), elemental analysis and magnetic susceptibility apparatuses. Silica gel was respectively modified with Schiff base derivatives, (E)-2-[(2-chloroethylimino)methyl]phenol, (E)-4-[(2-chloroethylimino)methyl]phenol and N, N'-[1,4-phenilendi(E)methylidene]bis(2-chloroethanamine), after silanization of silica gel by (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTS) by using a suitable method. Characterization of the surface modification was also performed with IR, TGA and elemental analysis. The immobilized surfaces were used for Co(II) and Ni(II) sorption from aqueous solutions and values of sorption were detected by atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS).

  14. Mechanical and Chemical Characterization of a TiC/C System Synthesized Using a Focus Plasma Arc

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodian, Reza; Hamdi, M.; Hassan, M. A; Akbari, Abolghasem

    2015-01-01

    Titanium carbide-graphite (TiC/C) composite was successfully synthesized from Ti and C starting elemental powders using self-propagating high-temperature synthesis technique in an ultra-high plasma inert medium in a single stage. The TiC was exposed to a high-temperature inert medium to allow recrystallization. The product was then characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rietveld refinement, nanoindentation, and micro-hardness to determine the product’s properties. The recorded micro-hardness of the product was 3660 HV, which is a 14% enhancement and makes is comparable to TiC materials. PMID:26111217

  15. Gallotannins and Tannic Acid: First Chemical Syntheses and In Vitro Inhibitory Activity on Alzheimer's Amyloid β-Peptide Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Sylla, Tahiri; Pouységu, Laurent; Da Costa, Grégory; Deffieux, Denis; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Quideau, Stéphane

    2015-07-06

    The screening of natural products in the search for new lead compounds against Alzheimer's disease has unveiled several plant polyphenols that are capable of inhibiting the formation of toxic β-amyloid fibrils. Gallic acid based gallotannins are among these polyphenols, but their antifibrillogenic activity has thus far been examined using "tannic acid", a commercial mixture of gallotannins and other galloylated glucopyranoses. The first total syntheses of two true gallotannins, a hexagalloylglucopyranose and a decagalloylated compound whose structure is commonly used to depict "tannic acid", are now described. These depsidic gallotannins and simpler galloylated glucose derivatives all inhibit amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) aggregation in vitro, and monogalloylated α-glucogallin and a natural β-hexagalloylglucose are shown to be the strongest inhibitors.

  16. Validation of green-solvent extraction combined with chromatographic chemical fingerprint to evaluate quality of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Teo, Chin Chye; Tan, Swee Ngin; Yong, Jean Wan Hong; Hew, Choy Sin; Ong, Eng Shi

    2009-02-01

    An approach that combined green-solvent methods of extraction with chromatographic chemical fingerprint and pattern recognition tools such as principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the quality of medicinal plants. Pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) were used and their extraction efficiencies to extract two bioactive compounds, namely stevioside (SV) and rebaudioside A (RA), from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (SB) under different cultivation conditions were compared. The proposed methods showed that SV and RA could be extracted from SB using pure water under optimized conditions. The extraction efficiency of the methods was observed to be higher or comparable to heating under reflux with water. The method precision (RSD, n = 6) was found to vary from 1.91 to 2.86% for the two different methods on different days. Compared to PHWE, MAE has higher extraction efficiency with shorter extraction time. MAE was also found to extract more chemical constituents and provide distinctive chemical fingerprints for quality control purposes. Thus, a combination of MAE with chromatographic chemical fingerprints and PCA provided a simple and rapid approach for the comparison and classification of medicinal plants from different growth conditions. Hence, the current work highlighted the importance of extraction method in chemical fingerprinting for the classification of medicinal plants from different cultivation conditions with the aid of pattern recognition tools used.

  17. Chemical, green and organic manure effects on chemical properties on a savannah oxisol and on corn under conventional tillage and no-tillage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannigel, Anny R.; Alves, Marlene C.; Valério Filho, Walter V.

    2015-04-01

    Modern agriculture, in general, has always been based on the concept that natural resources are endless; however, this concept is changing. Concern for the environment is increasingly becoming part of farming practices, either by the awareness of society, or because the high cost of fertilizers or even the exhaustion of soils. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of the green manure and mineral fertilizer and/or organic manure and, on the chemical properties of an Oxisol, on "Savannah" (cerrado) area in Mato Grosso do Sul-Brazil, cultivated with corn (Zea mays L.) on the following management conditions: no-tillage and conventional tillage, on area previously under pasture (Brachiaria decumbens). The experimental design was a randomized blocks and the tested treatments were: control (without organic manure or chemical fertilizer); chemical fertilizer, as recommended for the culture and based on the chemical soil analysis; organic manure (cow manure); organic manure + half of the mineral fertilizer recommended rate; and the green manure Crotalaria juncea and Pennisetum americanum. The chemical analyses were the soil chemical analysis to the intent of soil fertility. Corn yield was evaluated. The collect of soil samples were realized in depths of 0.00-0.05 m and 0.05-0.10 m and 0.10-0.20 m. The organic manure and the organic manure + half of the mineral recommended rate increased P, Ca, Mg, K and Organic Matter in the first depth (0.00 - 0.05 m). These treatments also increased K and Mg at the second depth analyzed (0.05 - 0.10 m) and K in the depth from 0.10 - 0.20 m. Under conventional tillage management presents better crop results with an average grain yield of 3649 kg ha-1 versus 2374 kg ha-1 obtained under no-tillage. The use of chemical fertilizer, organic manure + half of the mineral recommended rate, Crotalaria juncea, organic manure and Pennisetum americanum increased corn yield by 84, 79, 58, 44 and 41 %, respectively.

  18. Structural, chemical and optical evaluation of Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by an aqueous solution method

    SciTech Connect

    Iribarren, A.; Hernández-Rodríguez, E.; Maqueira, L.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles obtained by chemical synthesis. • Substitutional or interstitial Cu into ZnO lead specific structural, chemical, and optical changes. • Incorporation efficiency of Cu atoms in ZnO as a function of the Cu concentration in the precursor dissolution. - Abstract: In this work a study of ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles obtained by chemical synthesis in aqueous media was carried out. Structural analysis gave the dominant presence of wurtzite ZnO phase forming a solid solution Zn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}O. For high Cu doping CuO phase is also present. For low Cu concentration the lattice shrinks due to Cu atoms substitute Zn atoms. For high Cu concentration the lattice enlarges due to predominance of interstitial Cu. From elemental analysis we determined and analyzed the incorporation efficiency of Cu atoms in Zn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}O as a function of the Cu concentration in the precursor dissolution. Combining structural and chemical results we described the Cu/Zn precursor concentrations r{sub w} in which the solid solution of Cu in ZnO is predominant. In the region located at r{sub w} ≈ 0.2–0.3 it is no longer valid. For Cu/Zn precursor concentration r{sub w} > 0.3 interstitial Cu dominates, and some amount of copper oxide appears. As the Cu concentration increases, the effective size of nanoparticles decreases. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements of the Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles were carried out and analyzed.

  19. A versatile microreactor platform featuring a chemical-resistant microvalve array for addressable multiplex syntheses and assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Zhishan; Xia, Yongmei; Srivannavit, Onnop; Rouillard, Jean-Marie; Zhou, Xiaochuan; Gao, Xiaolian; Gulari, Erdogan

    2006-08-01

    A versatile microreactor platform featuring a novel chemical-resistant microvalve array has been developed using combined silicon/polymer micromachining and a special polymer membrane transfer process. The basic valve unit in the array has a typical 'transistor' structure and a PDMS/parylene double-layer valve membrane. A robust multiplexing algorithm is also proposed for individual addressing of a large array using a minimal number of signal inputs. The in-channel microvalve is leakproof upon pneumatic actuation. In open status it introduces small impedance to the fluidic flow, and allows a significantly larger dynamic range of flow rates (~ml min-1) compared with most of the microvalves reported. Equivalent electronic circuits were established by modeling the microvalves as PMOS transistors and the fluidic channels as simple resistors to provide theoretical prediction of the device fluidic behavior. The presented microvalve/reactor array showed excellent chemical compatibility in the tests with several typical aggressive chemicals including those seriously degrading PDMS-based microfluidic devices. Combined with the multiplexing strategy, this versatile array platform can find a variety of lab-on-a-chip applications such as addressable multiplex biochemical synthesis/assays, and is particularly suitable for those requiring tough chemicals, large flow rates and/or high-throughput parallel processing. As an example, the device performance was examined through the addressed synthesis of 30-mer DNA oligonucleotides followed by sequence validation using on-chip hybridization. The results showed leakage-free valve array addressing and proper synthesis in target reactors, as well as uniform flow distribution and excellent regional reaction selectivity.

  20. Chemical structure of the hexapeptide chromophore of the Aequorea green-fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Cody, C W; Prasher, D C; Westler, W M; Prendergast, F G; Ward, W W

    1993-02-09

    The green-fluorescent proteins (GFP) are a unique class of proteins involved in bioluminescence of many cnidaria. The GFPs serve as energy-transfer acceptors, receiving energy from either a luciferase-oxyluciferin complex or a Ca(2+)-activated photoprotein, depending on the organism. Upon mechanical stimulation of the organism, GFP emits green light spectrally identical to its fluorescence emission. These highly fluorescent proteins are unique due to the nature of the covalently attached chromophore, which is composed of modified amino acid residues within the polypeptide. This report describes the characterization of the Aequorea victoria GFP chromophore which is released as a hexapeptide upon digestion of the protein with papain. The chromophore is formed upon cyclization of the residues Ser-dehydroTyr-Gly within the polypeptide. The chromophore structure proposed here differs from that described by Shimomura [(1979) FEBS Lett. 104, 220] in a number of ways.

  1. Green Luminescent Copper Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, Y.; Annapurna, S.; Bhikshamaiah, G.; Singh, A. K.

    2016-09-01

    Copper nanoparticles are synthesized by a green chemical reduction method using Gum Kondagogu extract as stabilizer. The as-prepared powder samples are characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS), UV-Visible Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The as-prepared copper nanoparticles are found to be FCC crystalline and nearly monodispersed with particles size 19 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) measurement showed strong green visible emission and PL intensity was found enhanced with the presence of natural extract on copper nanoparticle surface. The increase in the PL intensity was mainly due to copper nanoparticles. Photoluminescence spectra of copper nanoparticles show an emission peak at 430 nm when illuminated at 325 nm.

  2. Raman Spectroscopy Using a Green HeNe Laser: A Chemical Physics Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, S. N.; Berger, B. K.; Dolson, D. A.; Engel, D. M.; Henderson, J. L.

    1999-10-01

    Although the green HeNe laser has been commercially available for about twenty years, it has been ignored in the development of laser experiments in college physics and physical chemistry laboratory courses. The green HeNe laser (543.365 nm) combines the wavelength advantage of the Ar+ and Nd:YAG lasers while retaining the cost advantage and ease of operation that has made the red HeNe a favorite in teaching laboratories. Raman spectroscopy is rarely explored in teaching laboratories, largely because of the belief that expensive equipment is required and that signals will be too low. Here we present the Raman spectra of several neat organic liquids and of aqueous ions that were obtained using a 2 mW green HeNe laser as the excitation source. The spectra are generally of high quality and dispel the myth of poor signal levels. Simple plastic film polarizers have performed adequately in obtaining polarized spectra. Suggestions for laboratory activities are presented.

  3. Direct atomic-level observation and chemical analysis of ZnSe synthesized by in situ high-throughput reactive fiber drawing.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chong; Jia, Xiaoting; Wei, Lei; Stolyarov, Alexander M; Shapira, Ofer; Joannopoulos, John D; Fink, Yoel

    2013-03-13

    We demonstrate a high-throughput method for synthesizing zinc selenide (ZnSe) in situ during fiber drawing. Central to this method is a thermally activated chemical reaction occurring across multiple interfaces between alternately layered elemental zinc- (Zn-) and selenium- (Se-) rich films embedded in a preform and drawn into meters of fiber at a temperature well below the melting temperature of either Zn or ZnSe. By depositing 50 nm thick layers of Zn interleaved between 1 μm thick Se layers, a controlled breakup of the Zn sheet is achieved, thereby enabling a complete and controlled chemical reaction. The thermodynamics and kinetics of this synthesis process are studied using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry, and the in-fiber compound is analyzed by a multiplicity of materials characterization tools, including transmission electron microscopy, Raman microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, all resulting in unambiguous identification of ZnSe as the compound produced from the reactive fiber draw. Furthermore, we characterize the in-fiber ZnSe/Se97S3 heterojunction to demonstrate the prospect of ZnSe-based fiber optoelectronic devices. The ability to synthesize new compounds during fiber drawing at nanometer scale precision and to characterize them at the atomic-level extends the architecture and materials selection compatible with multimaterial fiber drawing, thus paving the way toward more complex and sophisticated functionality.

  4. Rapid adsorption of toxic Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution using multiwall carbon nanotubes synthesized by microwave chemical vapor deposition technique.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, Nabisab Mujawar; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Abdullah, Ezzat Chan; Jayakumar, Natesan Subramanian

    2016-07-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized using a tubular microwave chemical vapor deposition technique, using acetylene and hydrogen as the precursor gases and ferrocene as catalyst. The novel MWCNT samples were tested for their performance in terms of Pb(II) binding. The synthesized MWCNT samples were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis, and the adsorption of Pb(II) was studied as a function of pH, initial Pb(II) concentration, MWCNT dosage, agitation speed, and adsorption time, and process parameters were optimized. The adsorption data followed both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. On the basis of the Langmuir model, Qmax was calculated to be 104.2mg/g for the microwave-synthesized MWCNTs. In order to investigate the dynamic behavior of MWCNTs as an adsorbent, the kinetic data were modeled using pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order equations. Different thermodynamic parameters, viz., ∆H(0), ∆S(0) and ∆G(0) were evaluated and it was found that the adsorption was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The statistical analysis revealed that the optimum conditions for the highest removal (99.9%) of Pb(II) are at pH5, MWCNT dosage 0.1g, agitation speed 160r/min and time of 22.5min with the initial concentration of 10mg/L. Our results proved that microwave-synthesized MWCNTs can be used as an effective Pb(II) adsorbent due to their high adsorption capacity as well as the short adsorption time needed to achieve equilibrium.

  5. An Investigation of the Cytotoxicity and Caspase-Mediated Apoptotic Effect of Green Synthesized Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Using Eclipta prostrata on Human Liver Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ill-Min; Abdul Rahuman, Abdul; Marimuthu, Sampath; Vishnu Kirthi, Arivarasan; Anbarasan, Karunanithi; Rajakumar, Govindasamy

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and sustained focus is on the discovery and development of newer and better tolerated anticancer drugs, especially from plants. In the present study, a simple, eco-friendly, and inexpensive approach was followed for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using the aqueous leaf extract of Eclipta prostrata. The synthesized ZnO NPs were characterized by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and Selected area (electron) diffraction (SAED). The HRTEM images confirmed the presence of triangle, radial, hexagonal, rod, and rectangle, shaped with an average size of 29 ± 1.3 nm. The functional groups for synthesized ZnO NPs were 3852 cm−1 for H-H weak peak, 3138 cm−1 for aromatic C-H extend, and 1648 cm−1 for Aromatic ring stretch. The 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT), caspase and DNA fragmentation assays were carried out using various concentrations of ZnO NPs ranging from 1 to 100 mg/mL. The synthesized ZnO NPs showed dose dependent cytopathic effects in the Hep-G2 cell line. At 100 mg/mL concentration, the synthesized ZnO NPs exhibited significant cytotoxic effects and the apoptotic features were confirmed through caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation assays. PMID:28347066

  6. Optical, electrical and magnetic properties of nanostructured Mn3O4 synthesized through a facile chemical route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Vipin C.; Biju, V.

    2015-02-01

    Nanostructured Mn3O4 sample with an average crystallite size of ∼15 nm is synthesized via the reduction of potassium permanganate using hydrazine. The average particle size obtained from the Transmission Electron Microscopy analysis is in good agreement with the average crystallite size estimated from X-ray diffraction analysis. The presence of Mn4+ ions at the octahedral sites is inferred from the results of Raman, UV-visible absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyzes. DC electrical conductivity of the sample in the temperature range 313-423 K, is about five orders of magnitude larger than that reported for single crystalline Mn3O4 sample. The dominant conduction mechanism is identified to be of the polaronic hopping of holes between cations in the octahedral sites. The zero field cooled and field cooled magnetization of the sample is studied in the range 20-300 K. The Curie temperature for the sample is about 45 K, below which the sample is ferrimagnetic. A blocking temperature of 35 K is observed in the field cooled curve. It is observed that the sample shows hysteresis at temperatures below the Curie temperature with no saturation, even at an applied field (20 kOe). The presence of an ordered core and disordered surface of spin arrangements is observed from the magnetization studies. Above the Curie temperature, the sample shows linear dependence of magnetization on applied field with no hysteresis characteristic of paramagnetic phase.

  7. Role of nanocrystallinity on the chemical ordering of CoxPt100-x nanocrystals synthesized by wet chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Cordeiro, Marco; Kameche, Farid; Ngo, Anh -Tu; Salzemann, Caroline; Sutter, Eli; Petit, Christophe

    2015-03-17

    CoxPt100–x nanoalloys have been synthesized by two different chemical processes either at high or at low temperature. Their physical properties and the order/disorder phase transition induced by annealing have been investigated depending on the route of synthesis. It is demonstrated that the chemical synthesis at high temperature allows stabilization of the fcc structure of the native nanoalloys while the soft chemical approach yields mainly poly or non crystalline structure. As a result the approach of the order/disorder phase transition is strongly modified as observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) studies performed during in situ annealing of the different nanoalloys. The control of the nanocrystallinity leads to significant decrease in the chemical ordering temperature as the ordered structure is observed at temperatures as low as 420 °C. Furthermore, this in turn preserves the individual nanocrystals and prevents their coalescence usually observed during the annealing necessary for the transition to an ordered phase.

  8. High Color-Purity Green, Orange, and Red Light-Emitting Didoes Based on Chemically Functionalized Graphene Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Woosung; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Ji-Hee; Lee, Taehyung; Do, Sungan; Park, Yoonsang; Jeong, Mun Seok; Lee, Tae-Woo; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Chemically derived graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to date have showed very broad emission linewidth due to many kinds of chemical bondings with different energy levels, which significantly degrades the color purity and color tunability. Here, we show that use of aniline derivatives to chemically functionalize GQDs generates new extrinsic energy levels that lead to photoluminescence of very narrow linewidths. We use transient absorption and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopies to study the electronic structures and related electronic transitions of our GQDs, which reveals that their underlying carrier dynamics is strongly related to the chemical properties of aniline derivatives. Using these functionalized GQDs as lumophores, we fabricate light-emitting didoes (LEDs) that exhibit green, orange, and red electroluminescence that has high color purity. The maximum current efficiency of 3.47 cd A‑1 and external quantum efficiency of 1.28% are recorded with our LEDs; these are the highest values ever reported for LEDs based on carbon-nanoparticle phosphors. This functionalization of GQDs with aniline derivatives represents a new method to fabricate LEDs that produce natural color.

  9. High Color-Purity Green, Orange, and Red Light-Emitting Didoes Based on Chemically Functionalized Graphene Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Woosung; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Ji-Hee; Lee, Taehyung; Do, Sungan; Park, Yoonsang; Jeong, Mun Seok; Lee, Tae-Woo; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Chemically derived graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to date have showed very broad emission linewidth due to many kinds of chemical bondings with different energy levels, which significantly degrades the color purity and color tunability. Here, we show that use of aniline derivatives to chemically functionalize GQDs generates new extrinsic energy levels that lead to photoluminescence of very narrow linewidths. We use transient absorption and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopies to study the electronic structures and related electronic transitions of our GQDs, which reveals that their underlying carrier dynamics is strongly related to the chemical properties of aniline derivatives. Using these functionalized GQDs as lumophores, we fabricate light-emitting didoes (LEDs) that exhibit green, orange, and red electroluminescence that has high color purity. The maximum current efficiency of 3.47 cd A−1 and external quantum efficiency of 1.28% are recorded with our LEDs; these are the highest values ever reported for LEDs based on carbon-nanoparticle phosphors. This functionalization of GQDs with aniline derivatives represents a new method to fabricate LEDs that produce natural color. PMID:27048887

  10. Whole ceramic-like microreactors from inorganic polymers for high temperature or/and high pressure chemical syntheses.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wurong; Perumal, Jayakumar; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hao; Sharma, Siddharth; Kim, Dong-Pyo

    2014-02-21

    Two types of whole ceramic-like microreactors were fabricated from inorganic polymers, polysilsesquioxane (POSS) and polyvinylsilazane (PVSZ), that were embedded with either perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) tube or polystyrene (PS) film templates, and subsequently the templates were removed by physical removal (PFA tube) or thermal decomposition (PS). A POSS derived ceramic-like microreactor with a 10 cm long serpentine channel was obtained by an additional "selective blocking of microchannel" step and subsequent annealing at 300 °C for 1 h, while a PVSZ derived ceramic-like microreactor with a 14 cm long channel was yielded by a co-firing process of the PVSZ-PS composite at 500 °C for 2 h that led to complete decomposition of the film template leaving a microchannel behind. The obtained whole ceramic-like microfluidic devices revealed excellent chemical and thermal stabilities in various solvents, and they were able to demonstrate unique chemical performance at high temperature or/and high pressure conditions such as Michaelis-Arbuzov rearrangement at 150-170 °C, Wolff-Kishner reduction at 200 °C, synthesis of super-paramagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles at 320 °C and isomerisation of allyloxybenzene to 2-allylphenol (250 °C and 400 psi). These economic ceramic-like microreactors fabricated by a facile non-lithographic method displayed excellent utility under challenging conditions that is superior to any plastic microreactors and comparable to glass and metal microreactors with high cost.

  11. Effect of drying temperatures on structural performance and photocatalytic activity of BiOCl synthesized by a soft chemical method

    SciTech Connect

    Guang, Lu; Hui, Wang; Xuejun, Zou

    2016-07-15

    A group of BiOCl photocatalysts with different drying temperatures were prepared by a soft chemical method. The effects of drying temperatures on the crystalline phase, morphology, surface area and optical property of as-prepared samples were investigated in detail by XRD, SEM, N{sub 2} absorption–desorption and DRS. Moreover, their photocatalytic activities on the degradation of rhodamine B were evaluated under visible light irradiation. It was found that the sample dried at 120 °C had the best photocatalytic activity, which was mainly attributed to the highest exposing proportion of {001} facets correspond to BiOCl, largest BET and minimum bandgap. The degradation mechanism was explored that superoxide radicals were mainly contributed to the degradation of chromophore, however, holes and hydroxyl were mainly contributed to the photo degradation. Moreover, holes and hydroxyl dominated the degradation of RhB. - Graphical abstract: Holes, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals can attribute to the degradation process but take different degradation pathways. Superoxide radicals mainly contribute to the degradation of chromophore, however, holes and hydroxyl mainly contribute to the photo degradation. Display Omitted - Highlights: • BiOCl nanosheets were prepared by a soft chemical method. • Effect of drying temperatures on as-prepared BiOCl samples was studied. • The highest removal efficiency of RhB was obtained over the sample dried at 120 °C.

  12. Tuning the size of aluminum oxide nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation in water using physical and chemical approaches.

    PubMed

    Al-Mamun, Sharif Abdullah; Nakajima, Reiko; Ishigaki, Takamasa

    2013-02-15

    Colloidal solution of nano-sized spherical Al(2)O(3) particles were produced by nanosecond laser ablation upon irradiation on a corundum target in a distilled water environment. The effects of target inclination along the direction of laser irradiation and defocusing of the laser beam have been investigated in this study. The effect of the pH of the aqueous solution has also been studied. Synthesized particles were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate particle shape and size distributions. Ablated nanoparticles (NPs) were spherical in shape, with the average particle size ranging from 8 to 18 nm in different operating conditions. Target inclination resulted in a decrease in the average particle size. Laser defocusing at the same power and thus with reduced fluence caused a decrease in the average size and standard deviation (SD), whereas defocusing that maintained the same fluence caused the reverse effect. Phase identification of NPs performed with high resolution TEM lattice images and fast Fourier transform indicated both a metastable γ-Al(2)O(3) phase and a stable α-Al(2)O(3) phase. X-ray diffraction analysis was also performed, which showed peaks of both α-Al(2)O(3) and γ-Al(2)O(3) with the presence of α- and γ-AlO(OH) polymorphs in acidic and alkaline solution, respectively. Surface conditions of the ablated particles representing the acidic and alkaline conditions were found to have a significant influence on both the size and crystallographic phase, which indicates it may be possible to induce size and phase transitions by changing the surface chemistry.

  13. Effect of drying temperatures on structural performance and photocatalytic activity of BiOCl synthesized by a soft chemical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guang, Lu; Hui, Wang; Xuejun, Zou

    2016-07-01

    A group of BiOCl photocatalysts with different drying temperatures were prepared by a soft chemical method. The effects of drying temperatures on the crystalline phase, morphology, surface area and optical property of as-prepared samples were investigated in detail by XRD, SEM, N2 absorption-desorption and DRS. Moreover, their photocatalytic activities on the degradation of rhodamine B were evaluated under visible light irradiation. It was found that the sample dried at 120 °C had the best photocatalytic activity, which was mainly attributed to the highest exposing proportion of {001} facets correspond to BiOCl, largest BET and minimum bandgap. The degradation mechanism was explored that superoxide radicals were mainly contributed to the degradation of chromophore, however, holes and hydroxyl were mainly contributed to the photo degradation. Moreover, holes and hydroxyl dominated the degradation of RhB.

  14. Tin selenide synthesized by a chemical route: the effect of the annealing conditions in the obtained phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardes-Silva, Ana Cláudia; Mesquita, A. F.; de Moura Neto, E.; Porto, A. O.; de Lima, G. M.; Ardisson, J. D.; Lameiras, F. S.

    2005-09-01

    The effects of different annealing conditions over the tin selenide obtained from a chemical route are presented in this work. The tin selenide was annealed at 300 and 600 °C under hydrogen, nitrogen and argon atmospheres. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction and 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy. In the 'as synthetized' material a considerably amount of tin oxide (57%) was detected by Mössbauer spectroscopy. After thermal annealing the amount of these oxides varied according to the temperature and atmosphere used. At 600 °C/hydrogen the smallest amount of tin oxide was obtained (20%). These oxides were formed during the synthetic procedure through the hydrolysis of tin chloride used as reagent.

  15. Chemical analysis of a polysaccharide of unripe (green) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Chandra, Krishnendu; Ghosh, Kaushik; Ojha, Arnab K; Islam, Syed S

    2009-11-02

    A polysaccharide (PS-I) isolated from the aqueous extract of the unripe (green) tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) consists of D-galactose, D-methyl galacturonate, D-arabinose, L-arabinose, and L-rhamnose. Structural investigation of the polysaccharide was carried out using total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation study, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC). On the basis of above-mentioned experiments the structure of the repeating unit of the polysaccharide (PS-I) was established as: [structure: see text].

  16. Enhancement of electrical properties due to Cr3+ substitution in Co-ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by two chemical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervaiz, Erum; Gul, I. H.

    2012-11-01

    Nanocrystalline cobalt ferrites with nominal composition CoCrxFe2-xO4 ranging from x=0.0 to 0.5 with step increment of 0.25 were prepared by sol-gel auto combustion and chemical co-precipitation techniques. A comparative study of structural, electrical and magnetic properties of these ferrites has been measured using different characterization techniques. Structural and micro-structural studies were measured using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Crystallite sizes of the series are within the range of 12-29±2 nm. Lattice parameters decrease by increasing Cr3+ concentration. FTIR confirms the presence of two lattice absorption bands. DC electrical resistivity increases to a value of ˜1010 Ω-cm with increase in Cr3+ concentration, but the most significant increase is in samples prepared by sol-gel combustion. Dielectric properties have been measured as a function of frequency at room temperature. Dielectric loss decreases to 0.1037 and 0.0108 at 5 MHz for chemical co-precipitation and sol-gel combustion, respectively. Impedance measurements further helped in analyzing the electrical properties and to separate the grain and grain boundary resistance effects using a complex impedance analysis. Magnetic parameters were studied using a vibrating sample magnetometer in the applied field of 10 kOe. The saturation magnetization decreased from 63 to 10.8 emu/gm with increase in Cr3+ concentration.

  17. CO2 recycling: a key strategy to introduce green energy in the chemical production chain.

    PubMed

    Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    The introduction of renewable energy in the chemical production chain is a key strategic factor both to realize a sustainable, resource-efficient, low-carbon economy and society and to drive innovation and competiveness in the chemical production. This Concept discusses this concept in terms of motivations, perspectives, and impact as well as technical barriers to achieve this goal. It is shown how an important element to realize this scenario is to foster the paths converting carbon dioxide (CO2) into feedstock for the chemical/process industry, which is one of the most efficient methods to rapidly introduce renewable energy into the chemical production chain. Some of the possible options to proceed in this direction are discussed, with focus on the technical barriers and enabling factors such as catalysis. The tight interconnection between CO2 management and the use of renewable energy is evidenced.

  18. Development of a new colorimetric assay for detection of bisphenol-A in aqueous media using green synthesized silver chloride nanoparticles: experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Khalililaghab, Shiva; Momeni, Safieh; Farrokhnia, Maryam; Nabipour, Iraj; Karimi, Sadegh

    2017-02-08

    In the present study, a cost-effective, green and simple synthesis method was applied for preparation of stable silver chloride nanoparticles (AgCl-NPs). The method was done by forming AgCl-NPs from Ag(+) ions using aqueous extract of brown algae (Sargassum boveanum) obtained from the Persian Gulf Sea. This extract served as capping agent during the formation of AgCl-NPs. Creation of AgCl-NPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, while the morphology and size analyses were characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. After optimization of some experimental conditions, particularly pH, a simple and facile system was developed for the naked-eye detection of bisphenol-A. Moreover, a theoretical study of AgCl interaction with bisphenol-A was performed at the density functional level of theory in both gas and solvent phases. Theoretical results showed that electrostatic and van der Waal interactions play important roles in complexation of bisphenol-A with AgCl-NPs, which can lead to aggregation of the as-prepared AgCl-NPs and results in color change from specific yellow to dark purple, where a new aggregation band induced at 542 nm appears. The absorbance at 542 nm was found to be linearly dependent on the bisphenol-A concentration in the range of 1 × 10(-6)-1 × 10(-4) M, with limit of detection of 45 nM. In conclusion, obtained results from the present study can open up an innovative application of the green synthesis of AgCl-NPs using brown algae extract as colorimetric sensors.

  19. Glass-Like Thermal Conductivity of (010)-Textured Lanthanum-Doped Strontium Niobate Synthesized with Wet Chemical Deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Foley, Brian M.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan J.; Campion, Michael J.; ...

    2014-11-08

    We have measured the cross-plane thermal conductivity (κ) of (010)-textured, undoped, and lanthanum-doped strontium niobate (Sr2-xLaxNb2O7-δ) thin films via time-domain thermoreflectance. Then the thin films were deposited on (001)-oriented SrTiO3 substrates via the highly-scalable technique of chemical solution deposition. We find that both film thickness and lanthanum doping have little effect on κ, suggesting that there is a more dominant phonon scattering mechanism present in the system; namely the weak interlayer-bonding along the b-axis in the Sr2Nb2O7 parent structure. We also compare our experimental results with two variations of the minimum-limit model for κ and discuss the nature of transportmore » in material systems with weakly-bonded layers. The low cross-plane κ of these scalably-fabricated films is comparable to that of similarly layered niobate structures grown epitaxially.« less

  20. Glass-Like Thermal Conductivity of (010)-Textured Lanthanum-Doped Strontium Niobate Synthesized with Wet Chemical Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Brian M.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan J.; Campion, Michael J.; Medlin, Douglas L.; Clem, Paul G.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2014-11-08

    We have measured the cross-plane thermal conductivity (κ) of (010)-textured, undoped, and lanthanum-doped strontium niobate (Sr2-xLaxNb2O7-δ) thin films via time-domain thermoreflectance. Then the thin films were deposited on (001)-oriented SrTiO3 substrates via the highly-scalable technique of chemical solution deposition. We find that both film thickness and lanthanum doping have little effect on κ, suggesting that there is a more dominant phonon scattering mechanism present in the system; namely the weak interlayer-bonding along the b-axis in the Sr2Nb2O7 parent structure. We also compare our experimental results with two variations of the minimum-limit model for κ and discuss the nature of transport in material systems with weakly-bonded layers. The low cross-plane κ of these scalably-fabricated films is comparable to that of similarly layered niobate structures grown epitaxially.

  1. A new perspective on structural and morphological properties of carbon nanotubes synthesized by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salar Elahi, A.; Agah, K. Mikaili; Ghoranneviss, M.

    CNTs were produced on a silicon wafer by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) using acetylene as a carbon source, cobalt as a catalyst and ammonia as a reactive gas. The DC-sputtering system was used to prepare cobalt thin films on Si substrates. A series of experiments was carried out to investigate the effects of reaction temperature and deposition time on the synthesis of the nanotubes. The deposition time was selected as 15 and 25 min for all growth temperatures. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) measurements were used to investigate the elemental composition of the Co nanocatalyst deposited on Si substrates. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to characterize the surface topography of the Co nanocatalyst deposited on Si substrates. The as-grown CNTs were characterized under Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) to study the morphological properties of CNTs. Also, the grown CNTs have been investigated by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that increasing the temperature leads to increasing the diameter of CNTs.

  2. In vitro and in vivo replication of a chemically synthesized consensus genome of hepatitis B virus genotype B.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Xia, Jianbo; Sun, Binghu; Dai, Yu; Li, Xu; Schlaak, Joerg F; Lu, Mengji

    2015-03-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes vary in their geographical distribution and virological features. Previous investigations have shown that HBV genotype B is a predominant HBV genotype in China. Studies on HBV concerning different isolates frequently meet the question about the HBV reference strain and its representativeness. Although HBV consensus sequences can be generated easily by sequence alignment, they may not exist in nature or could not usually be isolated from patient samples. Thus, the construction of a consensus HBV genome has been proposed. In this study, an HBV genotype B consensus sequence was established by comparing 42 full-length HBV genotype B sequences and the genome was generated by chemical synthesis. This consensus genome was fully replication competent by in vitro transfection into hepatoma cells. The plasmid pHBV1.3B carrying a 1.3× full-length HBV consensus genome was hydrodynamically injected into Balb/c mice. HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg, anti-HBe, and anti-HBc detection indicated expression and replication of this HBV genome in mice, similar to other HBV isolates. This approach represents a strategy to design and create consensus HBV genomes for future studies.

  3. Effects of Ni content on nanocrystalline Fe-Co-Ni ternary alloys synthesized by a chemical reduction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chokprasombat, Komkrich; Pinitsoontorn, Supree; Maensiri, Santi

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic properties of Fe-Co-Ni ternary alloys could be altered by changing of the particle size, elemental compositions, and crystalline structures. In this work, Fe50Co50-xNix nanoparticles (x=10, 20, 40, and 50) were prepared by the novel chemical reduction process. Hydrazine monohydrate was used as a reducing agent under the concentrated basic condition with the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone). We found that the nanoparticles were composed of Fe, Co and Ni with compositions according to the molar ratio of the metal sources. Interestingly, the particles were well-crystalline at the as-prepared state without post-annealing at high temperature. Increasing Ni content resulted in phase transformation from body centered cubic (bcc) to face centered cubic (fcc). For the fcc phase, the average particle size decreased when increased the Ni content; the Fe50Ni50 nanoparticles had the smallest average size with the narrowest size distribution. In additions, the particles exhibited ferromagnetic properties at room temperature with the coercivities higher than 300 Oe, and the saturation magnetiation decreased with increasing Ni content. These results suggest that the structural and magnetic properties of Fe-Co-Ni alloys could be adjusted by varying the Ni content.

  4. A green chemical approach to the synthesis of photoluminescent ZnO hollow spheres with enhanced photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Patrinoiu, Greta; Tudose, Madalina; Calderon-Moreno, Jose Maria; Birjega, Ruxandra; Budrugeac, Petru; Ene, Ramona; Carp, Oana

    2012-02-15

    ZnO hollow spheres have been synthesized by a simple and environmentally friendly template assisted route. Starch-derived carbonaceous spheres were used as template, impregnated with Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O to obtain zinc-containing precursor spheres and thermally treatment at 600 Degree-Sign C, yielding hollow ZnO spherical shells. The precursor spheres and hollow shells were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis and room-temperature photoluminescence measurements. The hollow spherical shells with diameters of {approx}150 nm and wall thickness of {approx}20 nm, are polycrystalline, with a mean crystallite size of 22 nm, exhibiting interesting emission features, with a wide multi-peak band covering blue and green regions of the visible spectrum. The photocatalytic activities (under UV and visible light irradiations) of the ZnO spherical shells evaluated for the phenol degradation reaction in aqueous solutions are outstanding, a total phenol conversion being registered in the case of UV irradiation experiments. - Graphical abstract: The photocatalytic reaction initiated by the photoexcitation of the semiconductor (ZnO), leads to the formation of electron-hole, while part of the electron-hole pairs recombine, some holes combine with water to form {center_dot}OH radicals and some electrons convert oxygen to super oxide radical ({center_dot}O{sub 2}{sup -}). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Green synthesis of ZnO hollow spheres. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Starch-derived carbonaceous spheres as spherical hard template. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO hollow spheres with notable visible photoluminescence properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO hollow spheres with photocatalytical activity in degradation/mineralization of phenol.

  5. A non-targeted approach to chemical discrimination between green tea extract-based dietary supplements and green tea leaves by LC/MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green tea extract-based dietary supplements (GTDS) have gained in popularity in the U.S. market in recent years. This study evaluated the phytochemical composition of several GTDS in comparison to the composition of green tea leaves using a LC-MS fingerprinting technique coupled with chemometric an...

  6. Characterisation of chemical composition and energy content of green waste and municipal solid waste from Greater Brisbane, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hla, San Shwe; Roberts, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The development and deployment of thermochemical waste-to-energy systems requires an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of waste streams. Despite Australia's growing interest in gasification of waste streams, no data are available on their thermochemical properties. This work presents, for the first time, a characterisation of green waste and municipal solid waste in terms of chemistry and energy content. The study took place in Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland. The municipal solid waste was hand-sorted and classified into ten groups, including non-combustibles. The chemical properties of the combustible portion of municipal solid waste were measured directly and compared with calculations made based on their weight ratios in the overall municipal solid waste. The results obtained from both methods were in good agreement. The moisture content of green waste ranged from 29% to 46%. This variability - and the tendency for soil material to contaminate the samples - was the main contributor to the variation of samples' energy content, which ranged between 7.8 and 10.7MJ/kg. The total moisture content of food wastes and garden wastes was as high as 70% and 60%, respectively, while the total moisture content of non-packaging plastics was as low as 2.2%. The overall energy content (lower heating value on a wet basis, LHVwb) of the municipal solid waste was 7.9MJ/kg, which is well above the World Bank-recommended value for utilisation in thermochemical conversion processes.

  7. Chemical and structural evaluation of activated carbon prepared from jute sticks for Brilliant Green dye removal from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Asadullah, Mohammad; Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Kabir, Mohammad Shajahan; Mostofa, Mohammad Golam; Miyazawa, Tomohisa

    2010-02-15

    Activated carbons have been prepared from jute sticks by chemical activation using ZnCl(2) and physical activation using steam for the removal of Brilliant Green dye from aqueous solution. The activated carbons and charcoal prepared from jute sticks were characterized by evaluating the surface chemistry, structural features and surface morphology. The maximum BET surface area was obtained to be 2304 m(2)/g for chemical activated carbon (ACC) while it is 730 and 80 m(2)/g for steam activated carbon (ACS) and charcoal, respectively. The FT-IR spectra exhibited that the pyrolysis and steam activation of jute sticks resulted in the release of aliphatic and O-containing functional groups by thermal effect. However, the release of functional groups is the effect of chemical reaction in the ZnCl(2) activation process. A honeycomb-type carbon structure in ACC was formed as observed on SEM images. Although charcoal and ACC were prepared at 500 degrees C the ACC exhibited much lower Raman sensitivity due to the formation of condensed aromatic ring systems. Due to high surface area and high porous structure with abundance of functional groups, the ACC adsorbed dye molecules with much higher efficiency than those of ACS and charcoal.

  8. Embedding and Chemical Reactivation of Green Fluorescent Protein in the Whole Mouse Brain for Optical Micro-Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gang, Yadong; Zhou, Hongfu; Jia, Yao; Liu, Ling; Liu, Xiuli; Rao, Gong; Li, Longhui; Wang, Xiaojun; Lv, Xiaohua; Xiong, Hanqing; Yang, Zhongqin; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2017-01-01

    Resin embedding has been widely applied to fixing biological tissues for sectioning and imaging, but has long been regarded as incompatible with green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled sample because it reduces fluorescence. Recently, it has been reported that resin-embedded GFP-labeled brain tissue can be imaged with high resolution. In this protocol, we describe an optimized protocol for resin embedding and chemical reactivation of fluorescent protein labeled mouse brain, we have used mice as experiment model, but the protocol should be applied to other species. This method involves whole brain embedding and chemical reactivation of the fluorescent signal in resin-embedded tissue. The whole brain embedding process takes a total of 7 days. The duration of chemical reactivation is ~2 min for penetrating 4 μm below the surface in the resin-embedded brain. This protocol provides an efficient way to prepare fluorescent protein labeled sample for high-resolution optical imaging. This kind of sample was demonstrated to be imaged by various optical micro-imaging methods. Fine structures labeled with GFP across a whole brain can be detected. PMID:28352214

  9. Data compilation for assessing sediment and toxic chemical loads from the Green River to the lower Duwamish Waterway, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Black, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Between February and June 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey collected representative samples of whole water, suspended sediment, and (or) bed sediment from a single strategically located site on the Duwamish River, Washington, during seven periods of different flow conditions. Samples were analyzed by Washington-State-accredited laboratories for a large suite of compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other semivolatile compounds, polychlorinated biphenyl Aroclors and the 209 congeners, metals, dioxins/furans, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, butyltins, hexavalent chromium, and total organic carbon. Chemical concentrations associated with bulk bed sediment (<2 mm) and fine bed sediment (<62.5 μm) fractions were compared to chemical concentrations associated with suspended sediment. Bulk bed sediment concentrations generally were lower than fine bed sediment and suspended-sediment concentrations. Concurrent with the chemistry sampling, additional parameters were measured, including instantaneous river discharge, suspended-sediment concentration, sediment particle-size distribution, and general water-quality parameters. From these data, estimates of instantaneous sediment and chemical loads from the Green River to the Lower Duwamish Waterway were calculated.

  10. Embedding and Chemical Reactivation of Green Fluorescent Protein in the Whole Mouse Brain for Optical Micro-Imaging.

    PubMed

    Gang, Yadong; Zhou, Hongfu; Jia, Yao; Liu, Ling; Liu, Xiuli; Rao, Gong; Li, Longhui; Wang, Xiaojun; Lv, Xiaohua; Xiong, Hanqing; Yang, Zhongqin; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2017-01-01

    Resin embedding has been widely applied to fixing biological tissues for sectioning and imaging, but has long been regarded as incompatible with green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled sample because it reduces fluorescence. Recently, it has been reported that resin-embedded GFP-labeled brain tissue can be imaged with high resolution. In this protocol, we describe an optimized protocol for resin embedding and chemical reactivation of fluorescent protein labeled mouse brain, we have used mice as experiment model, but the protocol should be applied to other species. This method involves whole brain embedding and chemical reactivation of the fluorescent signal in resin-embedded tissue. The whole brain embedding process takes a total of 7 days. The duration of chemical reactivation is ~2 min for penetrating 4 μm below the surface in the resin-embedded brain. This protocol provides an efficient way to prepare fluorescent protein labeled sample for high-resolution optical imaging. This kind of sample was demonstrated to be imaged by various optical micro-imaging methods. Fine structures labeled with GFP across a whole brain can be detected.

  11. Chemically synthesized peptide libraries as a new source of BBB shuttles. Use of mass spectrometry for peptide identification.

    PubMed

    Guixer, B; Arroyo, X; Belda, I; Sabidó, E; Teixidó, M; Giralt, E

    2016-09-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a biological barrier that protects the brain from neurotoxic agents and regulates the influx and efflux of molecules required for its correct function. This stringent regulation hampers the passage of brain parenchyma-targeting drugs across the BBB. BBB shuttles have been proposed as a way to overcome this hurdle because these peptides can not only cross the BBB but also carry molecules which would otherwise be unable to cross the barrier unaided. Here we developed a new high-throughput screening methodology to identify new peptide BBB shuttles in a broadly unexplored chemical space. By introducing d-amino acids, this approach screens only protease-resistant peptides. This methodology combines combinatorial chemistry for peptide library synthesis, in vitro models mimicking the BBB for library evaluation and state-of-the-art mass spectrometry techniques to identify those peptides able to cross the in vitro assays. BBB shuttle synthesis was performed by the mix-and-split technique to generate a library based on the following: Ac-d-Arg-XXXXX-NH2 , where X were: d-Ala (a), d-Arg (r), d-Ile (i), d-Glu (e), d-Ser (s), d-Trp (w) or d-Pro (p). The assays used comprised the in vitro cell-based BBB assay (mimicking both active and passive transport) and the PAMPA (mimicking only passive diffusion). The identification of candidates was determined using a two-step mass spectrometry approach combining LTQ-Orbitrap and Q-trap mass spectrometers. Identified sequences were postulated to cross the BBB models. We hypothesized that some sequences cross the BBB through passive diffusion mechanisms and others through other mechanisms, including paracellular flux and active transport. These results provide a new set of BBB shuttle peptide families. Furthermore, the methodology described is proposed as a consistent approach to search for protease-resistant therapeutic peptides. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in acidic media using newly synthesized heterocyclic organic molecules: Correlation between inhibition efficiency and chemical structure

    SciTech Connect

    Ouici, H. B. Guendouzi, A.; Benali, O.

    2015-03-30

    The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 5% HCl solutions by some new synthesized organic compounds namely 3-(2-methoxyphenyl) 5-mercapto-1. 2. 4-triazole (2-MMT), 3-(3-methoxyphenyl) 5-mercapto-1. 2. 4-triazole (3-MMT) and 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl) 5-mercapto-1. 2. 4-triazole (2-HMT) was investigated using weight loss and potentiostatic polarization techniques. These measurements reveal that the inhibition efficiency obtained by these compounds increased by increasing their concentration. The inhibition efficiency follows the order 2-MMT >3-MMT >2-HMT. Polarization studies show that these compounds are of the mixed type but dominantly act as a cathodic inhibitors for mild steel in 5% HCl solutions. These inhibitors function through adsorption following Langmuir isotherm. Activation energy and Gibbs free energy for adsorption of inhibitors are calculated. Molecular modeling has been conducted to correlate the corrosion inhibition properties with the calculated quantum chemical parameters.

  13. Physical and chemical effects of direct aqueous advanced oxidation processing on green sand foundry mold materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clobes, Jason Kenneth

    Iron foundries using the common green sand molding process have increasingly been incorporating aqueous advanced oxidation (AO) systems to reduce the consumption of sand system bentonite clay and coal raw materials by and to decrease their volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. These AO systems typically use a combination of sonication, ozone aeration, and hydrogen peroxide to treat and recycle slurries of sand system baghouse dust, which is rich in clay and coal. While the overall effects of AO on raw material consumption and organic emissions are known, the mechanisms behind these effects are not well understood. This research examined the effects of bench-scale direct aqueous AO processing on green sand mold materials at the micro level. Bench-scale AO processing, including acoustic sonication, ozone/oxygen aeration, and hydrogen peroxide dramatically decreased the particle sizes of both western bentonite and foundry sand system baghouse dust. Bench-scale AO processing was shown to effectively separate the clay material from the larger silica and coal particles and to extensively break up the larger clay agglomerates. The acoustic sonication component of AO processing was the key contributor to enhanced clay recovery. Acoustic sonication alone was slightly more effective than combined component AO in reducing the particle sizes of the baghouse dust and in the recovery of clay yields in the supernatant during sedimentation experiments. Sedimentation separation results correlated well with the increase in small particle concentrations due to AO processing. Clay suspension viscosity decreased with AO processing due to enhanced dispersion of the particles. X-ray diffraction of freeze-dried baghouse dust indicated that AO processing does not rehydrate calcined montmorillonite and does not increase the level of interlayer water hydration in the dry clays. Zeta potential measurements indicated that AO processing also does not produce any large changes in the

  14. Electrical characteristics and rectification performance of wet chemically synthesized vertically aligned n-ZnO nanowire/p-Si heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayen, R. N.; Bhattacharyya, S. R.

    2016-03-01

    Vertically well-aligned n-ZnO nanowire (NW) thin films were deposited onto p-Si substrates by a two-step wet chemical technique to form a p-n heterojunction diode. The morphological and structural characteristics of the ZnO NW performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed well-aligned h-ZnO NW with a wurtzite structure. A direct optical band gap of 3.30 eV was calculated from the transmittance trace obtained using a UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer. The electrical characteristics of the heterojunction diode were studied by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement at room temperature, and current-voltage-temperature (I-V-T) measurements performed in the 300-400 K range. The C-V measurements yield a carrier concentration of 1.3  ×  1016 c.c.-1 for the ZnO NW thin film. The ideality factor (n) was found to decrease, while the barrier height (φ b0) increased with the increase in temperature, when calculated using a thermionic emission model from the non-linear I-V-T plots. The series resistance (R s) calculated by the Cheung-Cheung method decreased with the increase in temperature. The mean barrier height (0.718 eV) and modified Richardson constant (28.4 A cm-2 K-2) calculated using a Gaussian distribution of barrier heights (considering barrier height inhomogeneity) were closer to the theoretical value than those calculated from the linear approximation of the ln(I s/T 2) versus 1000/T plot. The variation of the density of interface states with interface state energy was also studied. The n-ZnO NW/p-Si heterojunction diode performed very good half wave rectification in the frequency range 50 Hz-10 kHz, when a sinusoidal ac voltage of amplitude 4.5 V was applied across it.

  15. Chemical composition and structural phase changes of Pd sample and properties of novel synthesized structure at dense deuterium gas under irradiation by γ-quanta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didyk, A. Yu.; Wiśniewski, R.

    2012-12-01

    Studies have been carried out into the element composition of Pd and brass with associated materials and synthesized novel structure, placed in dense deuterium gas in a deuterium high-pressure chamber (DHPC) under the pressure 3 kbar and irradiated with γ-quanta of energy up to 8.8 MeV. Using the methods of scanning electron microscopy, microelement chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction, it was determined that in the absence in the chamber volume and walls of all HPC-forming materials the synthesized structure is largely composed of alumosilicates and Al and Si oxides with high content of Ti compounds as rutile TiO2. Pd1.5D2. Considerable anomalies in the chemical composition were found both in the surface and at large depth in a Pd specimen. The entire Pd surface turned into a structure comprised of Pd clusters, Cu and Zn compounds, with a notable content of Mg, Al, S, Si, K, Ca, Ti and Fe compounds. Results of evaluative calculations, including computation of the Q-value, are presented for nuclear reactions produced in a saturated with deuterium Pd specimen and dense deuterium gas under the action of γ-quanta, neutrons and protons of energies up to E n + E p ≈ E γ - E D MeV generated by deuteron fission. The obtained results can be explained by "collective effects" as chain reactions caused by deuteron fission induced by protons ( E p > 3.39 MeV) and neutrons ( E n > 2.25 MeV), as well as by thermonuclear synthesis of deuterium atoms elastically scattered by protons of energies up to E P < E γ - E D MeV.

  16. Phospholipid:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Is a Multifunctional Enzyme Involved in Membrane Lipid Turnover and Degradation While Synthesizing Triacylglycerol in the Unicellular Green Microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kangsup; Han, Danxiang; Li, Yantao; Sommerfeld, Milton; Hu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Many unicellular microalgae produce large amounts (∼20 to 50% of cell dry weight) of triacylglycerols (TAGs) under stress (e.g., nutrient starvation and high light), but the synthesis and physiological role of TAG are poorly understood. We present detailed genetic, biochemical, functional, and physiological analyses of phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which catalyzes TAG synthesis via two pathways: transacylation of diacylglycerol (DAG) with acyl groups from phospholipids and galactolipids and DAG:DAG transacylation. We demonstrate that PDAT also possesses acyl hydrolase activities using TAG, phospholipids, galactolipids, and cholesteryl esters as substrates. Artificial microRNA silencing of PDAT in C. reinhardtii alters the membrane lipid composition, reducing the maximum specific growth rate. The data suggest that PDAT-mediated membrane lipid turnover and TAG synthesis is essential for vigorous growth under favorable culture conditions and for membrane lipid degradation with concomitant production of TAG for survival under stress. The strong lipase activity of PDAT with broad substrate specificity suggests that this enzyme could be a potential biocatalyst for industrial lipid hydrolysis and conversion, particularly for biofuel production. PMID:23012436

  17. Phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase is a multifunctional enzyme involved in membrane lipid turnover and degradation while synthesizing triacylglycerol in the unicellular green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kangsup; Han, Danxiang; Li, Yantao; Sommerfeld, Milton; Hu, Qiang

    2012-09-01

    Many unicellular microalgae produce large amounts (∼20 to 50% of cell dry weight) of triacylglycerols (TAGs) under stress (e.g., nutrient starvation and high light), but the synthesis and physiological role of TAG are poorly understood. We present detailed genetic, biochemical, functional, and physiological analyses of phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which catalyzes TAG synthesis via two pathways: transacylation of diacylglycerol (DAG) with acyl groups from phospholipids and galactolipids and DAG:DAG transacylation. We demonstrate that PDAT also possesses acyl hydrolase activities using TAG, phospholipids, galactolipids, and cholesteryl esters as substrates. Artificial microRNA silencing of PDAT in C. reinhardtii alters the membrane lipid composition, reducing the maximum specific growth rate. The data suggest that PDAT-mediated membrane lipid turnover and TAG synthesis is essential for vigorous growth under favorable culture conditions and for membrane lipid degradation with concomitant production of TAG for survival under stress. The strong lipase activity of PDAT with broad substrate specificity suggests that this enzyme could be a potential biocatalyst for industrial lipid hydrolysis and conversion, particularly for biofuel production.

  18. A green chemical approach to the synthesis of photoluminescent ZnO hollow spheres with enhanced photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrinoiu, Greta; Tudose, Madalina; Calderón-Moreno, Jose Maria; Birjega, Ruxandra; Budrugeac, Petru; Ene, Ramona; Carp, Oana

    2012-02-01

    ZnO hollow spheres have been synthesized by a simple and environmentally friendly template assisted route. Starch-derived carbonaceous spheres were used as template, impregnated with Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O to obtain zinc-containing precursor spheres and thermally treatment at 600 °C, yielding hollow ZnO spherical shells. The precursor spheres and hollow shells were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis and room-temperature photoluminescence measurements. The hollow spherical shells with diameters of ∼150 nm and wall thickness of ∼20 nm, are polycrystalline, with a mean crystallite size of 22 nm, exhibiting interesting emission features, with a wide multi-peak band covering blue and green regions of the visible spectrum. The photocatalytic activities (under UV and visible light irradiations) of the ZnO spherical shells evaluated for the phenol degradation reaction in aqueous solutions are outstanding, a total phenol conversion being registered in the case of UV irradiation experiments.

  19. Cellulosic ethanol production from green solvent-pretreated rice straw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) are recently developed “green solvents” consisted of bio-based ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents mainly from plant based metabolites. NADES are biodegradable, non-toxic and environment-friendly. Conventional chemically synthesized ionic liquids have be...

  20. Microstructural Analysis and the Multicolor UV/Violet/Blue/Green/Yellow PL Observed from the Synthesized ZnO Nano-leaves and Nano-rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Validžić, Ivana Lj.; Mitrić, Miodrag; Ahrenkiel, S. Phillip; Čomor, Mirjana I.

    2015-08-01

    We report the synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-leaves and nano-rods under high and extremely high alkaline experimental conditions, via a simple and low-temperature method. By performing transmission electron microscopy it is found that the nano-leaves and nano-rods grow along the (001) direction. Anisotropic, i.e., hkl-dependent line-shape broadening is observed in ZnO powder diffraction patterns. Rietveld analysis using Fullprof with model for handling the anisotropic size-like broadening is performed on these diffraction patterns. The refinement showed that ZnO powders belong to the hexagonal ZnS structure type with space group P63mc, and confirmed that the nano-leaves and nano-rods are oriented along the (001) direction. Results of visualization in 3D of the average crystallite shape obtained from refinement of spherical harmonics coefficients showed elongated shapes in the both samples, exhibiting a slight twisting for nano-leaves. Diffuse reflectance measurements reveal that the optical band-gap energies found for the ZnO nano-leaves and nano-rods is somewhat smaller than a wide-direct band gap of 3.37 eV. We argued that well defined and strong photoluminescence (PL) bands in the visible part that belong to the defects may influence the observed displacement of a ultraviolet (UV) near-band-edge emission, and which is related with obtained slightly lower band-gap energies than the established band gap of bulk ZnO. We discuss processes behind the multicolor UV/violet/blue/green/yellow emission band in PL spectra.

  1. Surface plasmon enhanced near-UV emission in monodispersed ZnO:Ag core-shell type nanoparticles synthesized by a wet chemical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadhav, J.; Biswas, S.

    2016-03-01

    Monodispersed core-shell type ZnO:Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by a wet chemical method and their salient properties were reported. The synthesis technique explores a facile route following a chemical reaction between aqueous solutions of poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA), sucrose and Zn2+ salt. The Zn2+-PVA-sucrose polymer precursor powders so obtained after the reaction was further explored for the synthesis of ZnO:Ag nanoparticles. The key part of the process lies in the use of polymer encapsulated ZnO nanoparticles as templates to obtain the ZnO core-Ag shell type nanostructures. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the derived ZnO:Ag core-shell nanoparticles were evaluated with X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Microstructural analysis revealed monodispersed platelet shaped ZnO nanoparticles with a thin layer of Ag coating on the surface. The surface modified ZnO nanoparticles show colossal enhancement in their near-UV emission characteristics, primarily due to the efficient excitation of surface plasmons and excellent semiconductor-metal interfacing in the ZnO:Ag nanoparticles.

  2. Biosorptive removal of malachite green from aqueous solution using chemically modified brown marine alga Sargassum swartzii.

    PubMed

    Jerold, M; Sivasubramanian, V

    2017-02-01

    Sargassum swartzii, marine macro brown alga, showed a high malachite green (MG) biosorption capacity in batch mode of operation. The analytical evidence from Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed the involvement of amine group in the biosorption of MG and electrostatic interaction type of mechanism was proposed to occur between the amine group of dye and the cationic MG dye solution. Scanning electron micrograph shows the morphological features and the attachment of dye onto the biosorbent. pH edge experiment shows that biosorption capacity was maximum at pH 10. The effect of biosorbent concentration, pH, temperature, adsorption time was studied for the biosorption of MG using S. swartzii. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models were used to describe the isotherm data, of which Langmuir model described the isotherm data with high coefficient of determination R(2) = 0.999. The maximum dye uptake of 111.1 mg/g was reported at pH 10 based on Langmuir model. Kinetics and temperature profiles were evaluated and reported. Desorption study was carried out with 0.1 M HCl. Efforts were also made to continuously treat MG bearing wastewater using up-flow packed column. Investigations proved that S. swartzii is an excellent biosorbent for the sequestration of MG in aqueous media.

  3. Novel sulfated xylogalactoarabinans from green seaweed Cladophora falklandica: Chemical structure and action on the fibrin network.

    PubMed

    Arata, Paula X; Quintana, Irene; Raffo, María Paula; Ciancia, Marina

    2016-12-10

    The water-soluble sulfated xylogalactoarabinans from green seaweed Cladophora falklandica are constituted by a backbone of 4-linked β-l-arabinopyranose units partially sulfated mainly on C3 and also on C2. Besides, partial glycosylation mostly on C2 with single stubs of β-d-xylopyranose, or single stubs of β-d-galactofuranose or short chains comprising (1→5)- and/or (1→6)-linkages, was also found. These compounds showed anticoagulant activity, although much lower than that of heparin. The effect of a purified fraction (F1) on the fibrin network was studied in detail. It modifies the kinetics of fibrin formation, suggesting an impaired polymerization process. Scanning electron microscopy showed a laxer conformation, with larger interstitial pores than the control. Accordingly, this network was lysed more easily. These fibrin properties would reduce the time of permanence of the clot in the blood vessel, inducing a lesser thrombogenic state. One of the possible mechanisms of its anticoagulant effect is direct thrombin inhibition.

  4. Electronic tongue response to chemicals in orange juice that change concentration in relation to harvest maturity and citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an earlier study, the electronic tongue system (etongue) was used to differentiate between orange juice made from healthy fruit and from fruit affected by the citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease. This study investigated the reaction of an etongue system to the main chemicals in orange ...

  5. Do aphid carcasses on the backs of larvae of green lacewing work as chemical mimicry against aphid-tending ants?

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masayuki; Choh, Yasuyuki; Nakamuta, Kiyoshi; Nomura, Masashi

    2014-06-01

    Ants attack and exclude natural enemies of aphids in ant-aphid mutualisms. However, larvae of the green lacewing, Mallada desjardinsi, prey on the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora, without exclusion by aphid-tending ants. Lacewing larvae are protected from ants by carrying aphid carcasses on their backs. Here, we tested whether cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) of aphid carcasses affected the aggressiveness of aphid-tending ants. Aphid carcasses were washed with n-hexane to remove lipids. Lacewing larvae with washed aphid carcasses were attacked by aphid-tending ants more frequently than those with untreated aphid carcasses. We measured the aggressiveness of aphid-tending ants to lacewing larvae that were either carrying a piece of cotton wool (a dummy aphid carcass) treated with CHCs from aphids or lacewing larvae, or carrying aphid carcasses. The rates of attack by ants on lacewing larvae carrying CHCs of aphids or aphid carcasses were lower than that of attack on lacewing larvae with conspecific CHCs. Chemical analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry showed similarity of CHCs between aphids and aphid carcasses. These results suggest that aphid carcasses on the backs of lacewing larvae function via chemical camouflage to limit attacks by aphid-tending ants.

  6. Biorefinery of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca to produce animal feed, chemicals and biofuels.

    PubMed

    Bikker, Paul; van Krimpen, Marinus M; van Wikselaar, Piet; Houweling-Tan, Bwee; Scaccia, Nazareno; van Hal, Jaap W; Huijgen, Wouter J J; Cone, John W; López-Contreras, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    The growing world population demands an increase in animal protein production. Seaweed may be a valuable source of protein for animal feed. However, a biorefinery approach aimed at cascading valorisation of both protein and non-protein seaweed constituents is required to realise an economically feasible value chain. In this study, such a biorefinery approach is presented for the green seaweed Ulva lactuca containing 225 g protein (N × 4.6) kg(-1) dry matter (DM). The sugars in the biomass were solubilised by hot water treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and centrifugation resulting in a sugar-rich hydrolysate (38.8 g L(-1) sugars) containing glucose, rhamnose and xylose, and a protein-enriched (343 g kg(-1) in DM) extracted fraction. This extracted fraction was characterised for use in animal feed, as compared to U. lactuca biomass. Based on the content of essential amino acids and the in vitro N (85 %) and organic matter (90 %) digestibility, the extracted fraction seems a promising protein source in diets for monogastric animals with improved characteristics as compared to the intact U. lactuca. The gas production test indicated a moderate rumen fermentation of U. lactuca and the extracted fraction, about similar to that of alfalfa. Reduction of the high content of minerals and trace elements may be required to allow a high inclusion level of U. lactuca products in animal diets. The hydrolysate was used successfully for the production of acetone, butanol, ethanol and 1,2-propanediol by clostridial fermentation, and the rhamnose fermentation pattern was studied.

  7. Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of green banana (Musa acuminata x balbisiana Colla cv. Awak) flour.

    PubMed

    Haslinda, W H; Cheng, L H; Chong, L C; Noor Aziah, A A

    2009-01-01

    Flour was prepared from peeled and unpeeled banana Awak ABB. Samples prepared were subjected to analysis for determination of chemical composition, mineral, dietary fibre, starch and total phenolics content, antioxidant activity and pasting properties. In general, flour prepared from unpeeled banana was found to show enhanced nutrition values with higher contents of mineral, dietary fibre and total phenolics. Hence, flour fortified with peel showed relatively higher antioxidant activity. On the other hand, better pasting properties were shown when banana flour was blended with peel. It was found that a relatively lower pasting temperature, peak viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback were evident in a sample blended with peel.

  8. Chemical and in situ characterization of macromolecular components of the cell walls from the green seaweed Codium fragile.

    PubMed

    Estevez, José Manuel; Fernández, Paula Virginia; Kasulin, Luciana; Dupree, Paul; Ciancia, Marina

    2009-03-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the carbohydrate-containing macromolecules from the coencocytic green seaweed Codium fragile and their arrangement in the cell wall was carried out. Cell walls in this seaweed are highly complex structures composed of 31% (w/w) of linear (1-->4)-beta-D-mannans, 9% (w/w) of pyruvylated arabinogalactan sulfates (pAGS), and low amounts of hydroxyproline rich-glycoprotein epitopes (HRGP). In situ chemical imaging by synchrotron radiation Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) microspectroscopy and by immunolabeling using antibodies against specific cell wall carbohydrate epitopes revealed that beta-d-mannans and pAGS are placed in the middle part of the cell wall, whereas HRGP epitopes (arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) and extensins) are located on the wall boundaries, especially in the utricle apical zone. pAGS are sulfated at C-2 and/or C-4 of the 3-linked beta-L-arabinopyranose units and at C-4 and/or C-6 of the 3-linked beta-D-galactopyranose residues. In addition, high levels of ketals of pyruvic acid were found mainly at 3,4- of some terminal beta-D-Galp units forming a five-membered ring. Ramification was found at some C-6 of the 3-linked beta-D-Galp units. In agreement with the immunolabeled AGP epitopes, a nonsulfated branched furanosidic arabinan with 5-linked alpha-L-Araf, 3,5-linked alpha-L-Araf, and terminal alpha-L-Araf units and a nonsulfated galactan structure composed of 3-(3,6)-linked beta-D-Galp residues, both typical of type-II AG glycans were found, suggesting that AGP structures are present at low levels in the cell walls of this seaweed. Based on this study, it is starting to emerge that Codium has developed unique cell wall architecture, when compared, not only with that of vascular plants, but also with other related green seaweeds and algae.

  9. Synthesizing speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siltanen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    Samuli Siltanen explains how solving an "inverse problem" will improve the quality of life of people who can't speak and have to use voice synthesizers - particularly women and children, whose only current option is to sound like an adult male.

  10. Waveform synthesizer

    DOEpatents

    Franks, Larry A.; Nelson, Melvin A.

    1981-01-01

    A method of producing optical and electrical pulses of desired shape. An optical pulse of arbitrary but defined shape illuminates one end of an array of optical fiber waveguides of differing lengths to time differentiate the input pulse. The optical outputs at the other end of the array are combined to form a synthesized pulse of desired shape.

  11. Chemical modification of jute fibers for the production of green-composites.

    PubMed

    Corrales, F; Vilaseca, F; Llop, M; Gironès, J; Méndez, J A; Mutjè, P

    2007-06-18

    Natural fiber reinforced composites is an emerging area in polymer science. Fibers derived from annual plants are considered a potential substitute for non-renewable synthetic fibers like glass and carbon fibers. The hydrophilic nature of natural fibers affects negatively its adhesion to hydrophobic polymeric matrices. To improve the compatibility between both components a surface modification has been proposed. The aim of the study is the chemical modification of jute fibers using a fatty acid derivate (oleoyl chloride) to confer hydrophobicity and resistance to biofibers. This reaction was applied in swelling and non-swelling solvents, pyridine and dichloromethane, respectively. The formation of ester groups, resulting from the reaction of oleoyl chloride with hydroxyl group of cellulose were studied by elemental analysis (EA) and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The characterization methods applied has proved the chemical interaction between the cellulosic material and the coupling agent. The extent of the reactions evaluated by elemental analysis was calculated using two ratios. Finally electron microscopy was applied to evaluate the surface changes of cellulose fibers after modification process.

  12. Green chemicals from pulp production black liquor by partial wet oxidation.

    PubMed

    Muddassar, Hassan Raja; Melin, Kristian; de Villalba Kokkonen, Daniela; Riera, Gerard Viader; Golam, Sarwar; Koskinen, Jukka

    2015-11-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, more sustainable sources of energy, fuel and chemicals are needed. Biomass side streams such as black liquor, which is a by-product of pulp production, has the potential to be used for this purpose. The aim of the study was the production of carboxylic acids, such as lactic acid, formic acid and acetic acid, from kraft and non-wood black liquor. The processes studied were partial wet oxidation (PWO) and catalytic partial wet oxidation (CPWO). The results show that the yield of carboxylic acid is higher when treated by PWO than the results from CPWO at temperatures of 170 °C and 230 °C. The results shows that the PWO process can increase the yield of carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids in black liquor, reduce lignin content and decrease pH, which makes further separation of the acids more favourable. The hydroxy acids are valuable raw materials for biopolymers, and acetic acid and formic acid are commonly used chemicals conventionally produced from fossil feedstock.

  13. Chemical Constituents and Antimicrobial Activity of Indian Green Leafy Vegetable Cardiospermum halicacabum.

    PubMed

    Jeyadevi, R; Sivasudha, T; Ilavarasi, A; Thajuddin, N

    2013-06-01

    The present study was carried out to analyze chemical constituents and antibacterial activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum (ECH). The FT-IR spectrum confirmed the presence of alcohols, phenols, alkanes, alkynes, aliphatic ester and flavonoids in ECH. The GC-MS analysis revealed that ECH contained about twenty four compounds. The major chemical compounds identified were cyclohexane-1, 4, 5-triol-3-one-1-carboxylic acid, benzene acetic acid, caryophyllene, phytol and neophytadiene. The ECH was screened for its antibacterial activity against different bacterial strains and anti fungal activity against Candida albicans by agar well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. ECH exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity. All the tested bacterial strains showed MIC values ranging from 80 to 125 μg of extract/ml and C. albicans showed 190 μg of extract/ml as a MIC. The maximum activity ECH was observed against human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus followed by Escherichia coli and the fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila. ECH exhibited moderate activity against some of the tested multidrug resistant strains.

  14. Chemically induced reduction: A viable process for synthesizing {gamma}-TiAl based intermetallic matrix composite powders containing nanocrystalline TiC

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.Y.; Chang, K.; Kumta, P.N.

    2000-02-01

    A chemically induced reduction process has been developed for synthesizing intermetallic matrix composites (IMCs) consisting of titanium aluminide and titanium carbide. The process involves the reduction of metal chlorides (TiCl{sub 4} and AlCl{sub 3}) with metallic lithium in polar organic solvents such as acetonitrile (MeCN) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) to form a colloidal precursor. The as-prepared precursors have been either directly heat treated in ultra-high-purity argon (UHP-Ar) or pretreated in hydrogen (H{sub 2}) followed by further heat treatment in UHP-Ar. The powders have been characterized primarily using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results of the structural analyses conducted on the heat-treated precursors derived using MeCN as a solvent indicate the formation of either single-phase titanium carbide (TiC) or a composite mixture of {gamma}-TiAl and nanocrystalline TiC, depending on the heat-treatment conditions. The formation of TiC is related to the strong interaction between TiCl{sub 4} and the polar organic solvents resulting in the formation of adducts which contain primary Ti-C linkages. Pretreatment of the precursors derived using MeCN as a solvent in H{sub 2} promotes the removal of carbon and results in the formation of the composite mixture of {gamma}-TiAl and TiC after subsequent Ar treatment at 1200 C. At this stage, washing the pretreated powders in water helps to minimize and even eliminate any impurity phases to a large extent, leaving behind phase-pure composites containing {gamma}-TiAl and TiC after the final Ar treatment. However, extended pretreatment in H{sub 2} appears to be ineffective toward removal of additional carbon and leads to formation of hydride-phase impurities. On the other hand, the reductive reaction conducted using THF as a solvent results in minimizing the amount of carbon while inducing the formation of {gamma}-TiAl during direct Ar treatment

  15. Effect of fluorescent pseudomonades and Trichoderma sp. and their combination with two chemicals on Penicillium digitatum caused agent of citrus green mold.

    PubMed

    Zamani, M; Tehrani, A Sharifi; Ahmadzadeh, M; Abadi, A Alizadeh Ali

    2006-01-01

    Citrus green mold (Penicillium digitatum) causes economic losses. Chemical fungicides such as imazalil provide the primary means for controlling green mold decay of citrus fruits. Continuous use of fungicides has faced two major obstacles- increasing public concern regarding contamination of perishables with fungicidal residues, and proliferation of resistance in the pathogen populations. The aim of this research was to determine if the attacks of green mold on orange could be reduced by usage of biocontrol agent alone or in combination with low dosage of imazalil or sodium bicarbonate. Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate PN, P. fluorescens isolate PS and Trichoderma virens isolate TE were evaluated as potential biological agents for control of green mold of oranges caused by P. digitatum. Increasing concentration of SB decreased spore germination of P. digitatum. In laboratory tests, a cell suspension (10(8) cells per ml.) of bacterial strains reduced the incidence of green mold. On fruits surface biocontrol activity of antagonistic isolates was significantly increased when combined with low dosage of imazalil (500ppm) or sodium carbonate (5%). Effect of Trichoderma virens on controlling P. digitatum was better than others with or without these chemicals.

  16. Fast and efficient adsorption of methylene green 5 on activated carbon prepared from new chemical activation method.

    PubMed

    Tran, Hai Nguyen; You, Sheng-Jie; Chao, Huan-Ping

    2017-03-01

    Activated carbon (AC) was synthesized from golden shower (GS) through a new chemical activation process. The three-stage process comprised (1) hydrothermal carbonization of GS to produce hydrochar, (2) pyrolysis of hydrochar to produce biochar, and (3) subsequent chemical activation of biochar with K2CO3 to obtain GSHBAC. The traditional synthesis processes (i.e., one-stage and two-stage) were also examined for comparison. In the one-stage process, GS that was impregnated with K2CO3 was directly pyrolyzed (GSAC), and the two-stage process consisted of (1) pyrolytic or hydrothermal carbonization to produce biochar or hydrochar and (2) subsequent chemical activation was defined as GSBAC and GSHAC, respectively. The synthesized ACs were characterized by scanning electron microscope, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, point zero charge, and Boehm titration. The adsorption results demonstrated that the MG5 adsorption process was not remarkably affected by neither the solution pH (2.0-10) nor ionic strength (0-0.5 M NaCl). Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption equilibrium was quickly established, with a low activation energy required for adsorption (Ea; 3.30-27.8 kJ/mol), and the ACs removed 50-73% of the MG5 concentration from solution within 01 min. Desorption studies confirmed the adsorption was irreversible. Thermodynamic experiments suggested that the MG5 adsorption was spontaneous (-ΔG°) and endothermic (+ΔH°), and increased the randomness (+ΔS°) in the system. Although the specific surface areas of the ACs followed the order GSAC (1,413) > GSHAC (1,238) > GSHBAC (903) > GSBAC (812 m(2)/g), the maximum adsorption capacities determined from the Langmuir model (Q(o)max) at 30 °C exhibited the following order: GSHBAC (531) > GSAC (344) > GSHAC (332) > GSBAC (253 mg/g). Oxygenation of the ACs' surface through a hydrothermal process with acrylic acid resulted in a decrease in MG5

  17. Energy Efficient Catalytic Activation of Hydrogen peroxide for Green Chemical Processes: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Terrence J.; Horwitz, Colin

    2004-11-12

    A new, highly energy efficient approach for using catalytic oxidation chemistry in multiple fields of technology has been pursued. The new catalysts, called TAML® activators, catalyze the reactions of hydrogen peroxide and other oxidants for the exceptionally rapid decontamination of noninfectious simulants (B. atrophaeus) of anthrax spores, for the energy efficient decontamination of thiophosphate pesticides, for the facile, low temperature removal of color and organochlorines from pulp and paper mill effluent, for the bleaching of dyes from textile mill effluents, and for the removal of recalcitrant dibenzothiophene compounds from diesel and gasoline fuels. Highlights include the following: 1) A 7-log kill of Bacillus atrophaeus spores has been achieved unambiguously in water under ambient conditions within 15 minutes. 2) The rapid total degradation under ambient conditions of four thiophosphate pesticides and phosphonate degradation intermediates has been achieved on treatment with TAML/peroxide, opening up potential applications of the decontamination system for phosphonate structured chemical warfare agents, for inexpensive, easy to perform degradation of stored and aged pesticide stocks (especially in Africa and Asia), for remediation of polluted sites and water bodies, and for the destruction of chemical warfare agent stockpiles. 3) A mill trial conducted in a Pennsylvanian bleached kraft pulp mill has established that TAML catalyst injected into an alkaline peroxide bleach tower can significantly lower color from the effluent stream promising a new, more cost effective, energy-saving approach for color remediation adding further evidence of the value and diverse engineering capacity of the approach to other field trials conducted on effluent streams as they exit the bleach plant. 4) Dibenzothiophenes (DBTs), including 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene, the most recalcitrant sulfur compounds in diesel and gasoline, can be completely removed from model gasoline

  18. Alkaline deoxygenated graphene oxide for supercapacitor applications: An effective green alternative for chemically reduced graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Sanjaya D.; Mariano, Ruperto G.; Nijem, Nour; Chabal, Yves; Ferraris, John P.; Balkus, Kenneth J.

    2012-10-01

    Graphene is a promising electrode material for energy storage applications. The most successful method for preparing graphene from graphite involves the oxidation of graphite to graphene oxide (GO) and reduction back to graphene. Even though different chemical and thermal methods have been developed to reduce GO to graphene, the use of less toxic materials to generate graphene still remains a challenge. In this study we developed a facile one-pot synthesis of deoxygenated graphene (hGO) via alkaline hydrothermal process, which exhibits similar properties to the graphene obtained via hydrazine reduction (i.e. the same degree of deoxygenation found in hydrazine reduced GO). Moreover, the hGO formed freestanding, binder-free paper electrodes for supercapacitors. Coin cell type (CR2032) symmetric supercapacitors were assembled using the hGO electrodes. Electrochemical characterization of hGO was carried out using lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and ethylmethylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (EMITFSI) electrolytes. The results for the hGO electrodes were compared with the hydrazine reduced GO (rGO) electrode. The hGO electrode exhibits a energy density of 20 W h kg-1 and 50 W h kg-1 in LiTFSI and EMITFSI respectively, while delivering a maximum power density of 11 kW kg-1 and 14.7 kW kg-1 in LiTFSI and EMITFSI, respectively.

  19. Ultraviolet photoconductive devices with an n-GaN nanorod-graphene hybrid structure synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    PubMed Central

    Kang, San; Mandal, Arjun; Chu, Jae Hwan; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Lee, Cheul-Ro

    2015-01-01

    The superior photoconductive behavior of a simple, cost-effective n-GaN nanorod (NR)-graphene hybrid device structure is demonstrated for the first time. The proposed hybrid structure was synthesized on a Si (111) substrate using the high-quality graphene transfer method and the relatively low-temperature metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process with a high V/III ratio to protect the graphene layer from thermal damage during the growth of n-GaN nanorods. Defect-free n-GaN NRs were grown on a highly ordered graphene monolayer on Si without forming any metal-catalyst or droplet seeds. The prominent existence of the undamaged monolayer graphene even after the growth of highly dense n-GaN NRs, as determined using Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), facilitated the excellent transport of the generated charge carriers through the photoconductive channel. The highly matched n-GaN NR-graphene hybrid structure exhibited enhancement in the photocurrent along with increased sensitivity and photoresponsivity, which were attributed to the extremely low carrier trap density in the photoconductive channel. PMID:26028318

  20. Genotoxicity of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) to the green mussel (Perna viridis).

    PubMed

    Liu, Changhui; Chang, Victor W C; Gin, Karina Y H; Nguyen, Viet Tung

    2014-07-15

    Concerns regarding perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have grown significantly in recent years. However, regulations and guidelines regarding the emission and treatment of PFCs are still missing in most parts of the world, mostly due to the lack of PFC toxicity data. In the current study, the genotoxic effects of four common PFCs, named perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluoroocanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) were investigated on marine mussels. The effects of exposure time and concentration on the toxic behavior of the compounds were also examined. Genotoxicity of PFCs was assessed in biomarker assays, showing that exposure to the target compounds could damage the organism's genetic material to varying extents, including DNA strand breaks and fragmentation, chromosomal breaks and apoptosis. The adverse effects increased with both exposure concentration and time and were related with the organism burden of PFCs. The integrated biomarker response analysis demonstrated that PFOS exhibited a higher genotoxicity than the other tested compounds. The EC50 values and confidence intervals based on integrative genotoxicity were 33 (29-37), 594 (341-1036), 195 (144-265) and 78 (73-84) μg/L for PFOS, PFOA, PFNA and PFDA respectively, classifying PFOS as a highly genotoxic compound. Although primary DNA damage was shown to be recoverable after exposure ceased, permanent genetic damage caused by elevated PFC concentrations was not restored. This is the first ecotoxicity study of PFCs that focuses on the genotoxic effects of the compounds, clearly indicating the genotoxicity of the tested PFCs and demonstrating that functional groups have a major impact on the compounds' genotoxic behavior.

  1. Development of Green Solvent Modified Zeolite (GSMZ) for the Removal of Chemical Contaminants and Pathogens from Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Stapleton, E. R.; Xu, S.

    2012-12-01

    Sorption represents an important strategy in the remediation of groundwater contamination. As a naturally-occurring mineral with large cation exchange capacity, zeolite is negatively charged and has been widely used as an inexpensive and effective sorbent for the removal of positively charged contaminants such as heavy metals from water. The negative charges of zeolite, however, make it generally ineffective in the sorption of anionic contaminants such as chromate and arsenate as well as many pathogens. In this research, we used the imidazolium group of chemicals, which are considered as "green solvents" and differ from the surfactants used in previous studies, to modify zeolite. Both batch and column experiments were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of GSMZ in the removal of representative anionic pollutant (i.e., Cr) and bacterium (i.e., Eschericha coli) under various water chemistry conditions. Our experimental results showed that the adsorption of Cr on GSMZ was fast (equilibrium was reached within ~5 min) and the capacity of GSMZ to remove chromate (>1000 mg/kg) was ~100% higher than surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ). GSMZ was also found to be very effective in the removal of E. coli. As pH was found to have minimal effects on the adsorption of chromium on GSMZ, higher ionic strength could lower the adsorption capacity of chromium by GSMZ.

  2. Enhancing adsorption capacity of toxic malachite green dye through chemically modified breadnut peel: equilibrium, thermodynamics, kinetics and regeneration studies.

    PubMed

    Chieng, Hei Ing; Lim, Linda B L; Priyantha, Namal

    2015-01-01

    Breadnut skin, in both its unmodified (KS) and base-modified (BM-KS) forms, was investigated for its potential use as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of toxic dye, malachite green (MG). Characterization of the adsorbents was carried out using scanning electron microscope, X-ray fluorescence and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Batch adsorption experiments, carried out under optimized conditions, for the adsorption of MG were fitted using five isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Temkin and Sips) and six error functions to determine the best-fit model. The adsorption capacity was greatly enhanced when breadnut skin was chemically modified with NaOH, leading to an adsorption capacity of 353.0 mg g(-1), that was far superior to most reported adsorbents for the removal of MG. Thermodynamics studies indicated that the adsorption of MG was spontaneous on KS and BM-KS, and the reactions were endothermic and exothermic, respectively. Kinetics studies showed that both followed the pseudo-second order. Regeneration experiments on BM-KS indicated that its adsorption capacity was still maintained at>90% even after five cycles. It can be concluded that NaOH-modified breadfruit skin has great potential to be utilized in real-life application as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of MG in wastewater treatment.

  3. Sonochemical green synthesis of Ag/graphene nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Acar Bozkurt, Pınar

    2017-03-01

    Recently, the popularity for green chemistry and chemical process have increased. The approach must comprehensively be considered for these principles in the design of a synthesis method, chemical analysis, or chemical process. Utilization of nontoxic chemicals, environment friendly solvents, and renewable materials are some of the important issues in green synthesis methods. The importance of green synthesis arises in the production of Ag/graphene nanocomposites, due to their future potential applications in nanomedicine and materials engineering. Herein, a simple approach to synthesizing Ag/graphene nanocomposite using sodium citrate as the reducing agent by sonochemical method has been reported. The synthesized Ag/graphene nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The results showed that graphene oxide was successfully reduced to graphene and silver ions to silver nanoparticles with sodium citrate. Spherical Ag nanoparticles with a mean particle size of approximately 20nm on graphene sheets were synthesized sonochemically. The use of sodium citrate as an environment-friendly reducing agent provided green attributes whereas the use of sonochemical processes as the synthesis method provided economic attributes to this study. The results obtained demonstrate this method to be applicable to the synthesis of other metals on graphene sheets and may possibly find various forthcoming medicinal, industrial and technological applications.

  4. Recent Advances in the Synthesis and Stabilization of Nickel and Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles: A Green Adeptness

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Aneela

    2016-01-01

    Green protocols for the synthesis of nanoparticles have been attracting a lot of attention because they are eco-friendly, rapid, and cost-effective. Nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized by green routes and characterized for impact of green chemistry on the properties and biological effects of nanoparticles in the last five years. Green synthesis, properties, and applications of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles have been reported in the literature. This review summarizes the synthesis of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles using different biological systems. This review also provides comparative overview of influence of chemical synthesis and green synthesis on structural properties of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles and their biological behavior. It concludes that green methods for synthesis of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles are better than chemical synthetic methods. PMID:27413375

  5. Synthesizing Chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, Jonathan; Corron, Ned; Hayes, Scott; Pethel, Shawn

    2007-03-01

    Chaos is usually attributed only to nonlinear systems. Yet it was recently shown that chaotic waveforms can be synthesized by linear superposition of randomly polarized basis functions. The basis function contains a growing oscillation that terminates in a large pulse. We show that this function is easily realized when viewed backward in time as a pulse followed by ringing decay. Consequently, a linear filter driven by random pulses outputs a waveform that, when viewed backward in time, exhibits essential qualities of chaos, i.e. determinism and a positive Lyapunov exponent. This phenomenon suggests that chaos may be connected to physical theories whose framework is not that of a deterministic dynamical system. We demonstrate that synthesizing chaos requires a balance between the topological entropy of the random source and the dissipation in the filter. Surprisingly, using different encodings of the random source, the same filter can produce both Lorenz-like and R"ossler-like waveforms. The different encodings can be viewed as grammar restrictions on a more general encoding that produces a chaotic superset encompassing the Lorenz and R"ossler paradigms of nonlinear dynamics. Thus, the language of deterministic chaos provides a useful description for a class of signals not generated by a deterministic system.

  6. Template based synthesis of gold nanotubes using biologically synthesized gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ballabh, R; Nara, S

    2015-12-01

    Reliable experimental protocols using green technologies to synthesize metallic nanostructures widen their applications, both biological as well as biomedical. Here, we describe a method for synthesizing gold nanotubes using biologically synthesized gold nanoparticles in a template based approach. E. coli DH5α was used as bionanofactory to synthesize gold nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were then deposited on sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) nanowires which were employed as sacrificial template for gold nanotube (Au-NT) formation. The gold nanoparticles, sodium sulphate nanowires and gold nanotubes were appropriately characterized using transmission electron microscopy. The TEM results showed that the average diameter of gold nanotubes was 72 nm and length up to 4-7 μm. The method discussed herein is better than other reported conventional chemical synthesis approaches as it uses biologically synthesized gold nanoparticles, and does not employ any harsh conditions/solvents for template removal which makes it a clean and ecofriendly method.

  7. Evaluation of antioxidant and anticancer activity of copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized using medicinally important plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Rehana, Dilaveez; Mahendiran, D; Kumar, R Senthil; Rahiman, A Kalilur

    2017-03-10

    Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were synthesized by green chemistry approach using different plant extracts obtained from the leaves of Azadirachta indica, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Murraya koenigii, Moringa oleifera and Tamarindus indica. In order to compare their efficiency, the same copper oxide nanoparticles was also synthesized by chemical method. Phytochemical screening of the leaf extracts showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolic compounds, saponins, tannins, proteins and amino acids. FT IR spectra confirmed the possible biomolecules responsible for the formation of copper oxide nanoparticles. The surface plasmon resonance absorption band at 220-235nm in the UV-vis spectra also supports the formation of copper oxide nanoparticles. XRD patterns revealed the monoclinic phase of the synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles. The average size, shape and the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles were determined by SEM, TEM and SAED analysis. EDX analysis confirmed the presence of elements in the synthesized nanoparticles. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by three different free radical scavenging assays. The cytotoxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles was evaluated against four cancer cell lines such as human breast (MCF-7), cervical (HeLa), epithelioma (Hep-2) and lung (A549), and one normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) cell line. The morphological changes were evaluated using Hoechst 33258 staining assay. Copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized by green method exhibited high antioxidant and cytotoxicity than that synthesized by chemical method.

  8. Chemical Composition and Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Brazilian Green Propolis on Activated J774A.1 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kucharska, Alicja Z.; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Czuba, Zenon P.; Król, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Brazilian green propolis (EEP-B) on LPS + IFN-γ or PMA stimulated J774A.1 macrophages. The identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in green propolis extract were performed using HPLC-DAD and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS methods. The cell viability was evaluated by MTT and LDH assays. The radical scavenging ability was determined using DPPH• and ABTS•+. ROS and RNS generation was analyzed by chemiluminescence. NO concentration was detected by the Griess reaction. The release of various cytokines by activated J774A.1 cells was measured in the culture supernatants using a multiplex bead array system based on xMAP technology. Artepillin C, kaempferide, and their derivatives were the main phenolics found in green propolis. At the tested concentrations, the EEP-B did not decrease the cell viability and did not cause the cytotoxicity. EEP-B exerted strong antioxidant activity and significantly inhibited the production of ROS, RNS, NO, cytokine IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12p40, IL-13, TNF-α, G-CSF, GM-CSF, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES in stimulated J774A.1 macrophages. Our findings provide new insights for understanding the anti-inflammatory mechanism of action of Brazilian green propolis extract and support its application in complementary and alternative medicine. PMID:23840273

  9. One-step green synthetic approach for the preparation of multicolor emitting copper nanoclusters and their applications in chemical species sensing and bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Bhamore, Jigna R; Jha, Sanjay; Mungara, Anil Kumar; Singhal, Rakesh Kumar; Sonkeshariya, Dhanshri; Kailasa, Suresh Kumar

    2016-06-15

    One-step green microwave synthetic approach was developed for the synthesis of copper nanoclusters (Cu NCs) and used as a fluorescent probe for the sensitive detection of thiram and paraquat in water and food samples. Unexpectedly, the prepared Cu NCs exhibited strong orange fluorescence and showed emission peak at 600 nm, respectively. Under optimized conditions, the quenching of Cu NCs emission peak at 600 nm was linearly proportional to thiram and paraquat concentrations in the ranges from 0.5 to 1000 µM, and from 0.2 to 1000 µM, with detection limits of 70 nM and 49 nM, respectively. In addition, bioimaging studies against Bacillus subtilis through confocal fluorescence microscopy indicated that Cu NCs showed strong blue and green fluorescence signals, good permeability and minimum toxicity against the various bacteria species, which demonstrates their potential feasibility for chemical species sensing and bioimaging applications.

  10. Large-Size 2D β-Cu2 S Nanosheets with Giant Phase Transition Temperature Lowering (120 K) Synthesized by a Novel Method of Super-Cooling Chemical-Vapor-Deposition.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Huang, Le; Zhao, Guangyao; Wei, Zhongming; Dong, Huanli; Hu, Wenping; Wang, Lin-Wang; Li, Jingbo

    2016-10-01

    2D triangular β-Cu2 S nanosheets with large size and high quality are synthesized by a novel method of super-cooling chemical-vapor-deposition. The phase transition of this 2D material from β-Cu2 S to γ-Cu2 S occurs at 258 K (-15 °C), and such transition temperature is 120 K lower than that of its bulk counterpart (about 378 K).

  11. Exploring green catalysts for production of biofuels and value added chemicals for renewable and sustainable energy future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budhi, Sridhar

    Porous silica have attracted significant attention in the past few decades due to their unique textural properties. They were extensively investigated for applications in catalysis, separation, environmental remediation and drug delivery. We have investigated the porous metal incorporated silica in the synthetic as well as catalytic perspectives. The synthesis of metal incorporated mesoporous silica via co-condensation such as SBA-15, KIT-5 are still challenging as it involves acidic synthetic route. Synthesis in high acidity conditions affects the incorporation of metal in silica due to high dissolution of metal precursors and breaking of metal oxygen and silica bond. The research presented here demonstrates an efficient way to incorporate metals by addition of diammonium hydrogen phosphate along with metal precursor during the synthesis. The incorporation efficiency has increased 2-3 times with this approach. Catalytic studies were performed to support our hypothesis. Such synthesized molybdenum incorporated mesoporous silica were investigated as catalyst for fast pyrolysis. When molydenum incorporated in silica was used as catalyst for fast pyrolysis of pine, it selectively produced furans (furan, methylfuran and dimethylfuran). Furans are considered value-added chemicals and can be used as a blendstock for diesel/jet grade fuel. The catalyst was very stable to harsh pyrolysis conditions and had a longer life before deactivation when compared with traditional zeolites. Further, this catalyst did not produce aromatic hydrocarbons in significant yields unlike zeolites. The origin of the furans was determined to be biopolymer cellulose and the selectivity for furans are attributed to low catalyst acidity. The effect of silica to alumina ratio (SAR) of beta-zeolite was investigated ranging to elucidate the relationship between the of number of acid sites on product speciation and catalyst deactivation on catalysts supplied by Johnson Matthey. The catalyst with low

  12. Headspace components that discriminate between thermal and high pressure high temperature treated green vegetables: identification and linkage to possible process-induced chemical changes.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Biniam T; Grauwet, Tara; Tabilo-Munizaga, Gipsy; Palmers, Stijn; Vervoort, Liesbeth; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2013-12-01

    For the first time in literature, this study compares the process-induced chemical reactions in three industrially relevant green vegetables: broccoli, green pepper and spinach treated with thermal and high pressure high temperature (HPHT) processing. Aiming for a fair comparison, the processing conditions were selected based on the principle of equivalence. A comprehensive integration of MS-based metabolic fingerprinting techniques, advanced data preprocessing and statistical data analysis has been implemented as untargeted/unbiased multiresponse screening tool to uncover changes in the volatile fraction. For all vegetables, thermal processing, compared to HPHT, seems to enhance Maillard and Strecker degradation reaction, triggering the formation of furanic compounds and Strecker aldehydes. In most cases, high pressure seems to accelerate (an)aerobic thermal degradation of unsaturated fatty acids leading to the formation of aliphatic aldehydes and ketones. In addition, both thermal and HPHT processing accelerated the formation of sulfur-containing compounds. This work demonstrated that the approach is effective in identifying and comparing different process-induced chemical changes, adding depth to our perspective in terms of studying a highly complex chemical changes occurring during food processing.

  13. Strong nonlinear photonic responses from microbiologically synthesized tellurium nanocomposites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, K.-S.; Wang, Jingyuan; Dias, S.; Dewald, J.; Alley, N.J.; Baesman, S.M.; Oremland, R.S.; Blau, W.J.; Curran, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    A new class of nanomaterials, namely microbiologically-formed nanorods composed of elemental tellurium [Te(0)] that forms unusual nanocomposites when combined with poly(m-phenylenevinylene-co-2,5-dioctoxy-phenylenevinylene) (PmPV) is described. These bio-nanocomposites exhibit excellent broadband optical limiting at 532 and 1064 nm. Nonlinear scattering, originating from the laser induced solvent bubbles and microplasmas, is responsible for this nonlinear behavior. The use of bacterially-formed Te(0) when combined with an organic chemical host (e.g., PmPV) is a new green method of nanoparticle syntheses. This opens the possibilities of using unique, biologically synthesized materials to advance future nanoelectronic and nanophotonic applications. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Roller milling fractionation of green gram (Vigna radiata): optimization of milling conditions and chemical characterization of millstreams.

    PubMed

    Sakhare, Suresh D; Inamdar, Aashitosh A; Gaikwad, Shwetha B; D, Indrani; G, Vekateswara Rao

    2014-12-01

    In the view of recent growing interest in utilization of grain fractions as food ingredient, present investigation was carried out to evaluate the roller milling potential of green gram. The effect of conditioning moistures on green gram roller milling were studied. The results showed decrease in flour yield from 85.56 to 58.74 % with increase in conditioning moisture from 10 to 16 %. Higher yield of flour was observed from the first (C1), second (C2) and third (C3) reduction passages; whereas, the first (B1), second (B2) and third (B3) break passages produced less flour. The distribution of protein, dietary fiber, ash and fat in different flour streams and by-products from roller milled fractions of green gram showed wide variation. The protein content increased with increasing numbers of breaks and reductions in the flour streams. The highest protein content of 30.16 % was found in bran duster flour and lowest (11.32 %) in fine seed coat. The protein content of break streams was found lower than reduction streams. The dietary fiber content of coarse seed coat was highest (71.17 %) followed by the fine seed coat (57.22 %). The microstructure studies of milled fractions of green gram showed more deformed and damaged starch granules in reduction flour streams than break flour streams.

  15. Benign by design: catalyst-free in-water, on-water green chemical methodologies in organic synthesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of organic synthesis under sustainable conditions is a primary goal of practicing green chemists who want to prevent pollution and design safer pathways. Although, it is challenging to avoid the use of catalysts, or solvents in all the organic reactions but progre...

  16. A Collection of Chemical, Mineralogical, and Stable Isotopic Compositional Data for Green River Oil Shale from Depositional Center Cores in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.

    2009-01-01

    For over half a century, the U.S. Geological Survey and collaborators have conducted stratigraphic and geochemical studies on the Eocene Green River Formation, which is known to contain large oil shale resources. Many of the studies were undertaken in the 1970s during the last oil shale boom. One such study analyzed the chemistry, mineralogy, and stable isotopy of the Green River Formation in the three major depositional basins: Piceance basin, Colo.; Uinta basin, Utah; and the Green River basin, Wyo. One depositional-center core from each basin was sampled and analyzed for major, minor, and trace chemistry; mineral composition and sulfide-mineral morphology; sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon forms; and stable isotopic composition (delta34S, delta15N, delta13C, and delta18O). Many of these data were published and used to support interpretative papers (see references herein). Some bulk-chemical and carbonate-isotopic data were never published and may be useful to studies that are currently exploring topics such as future oil shale development and the climate, geography, and weathering in the Eocene Epoch. These unpublished data, together with most of the U.S. Geological Survey data already published on these samples, are tabulated in this report.

  17. Chemical, physical and microbial properties and microbial diversity in manufactured soils produced from co-composting green waste and biosolids.

    PubMed

    Belyaeva, O N; Haynes, R J; Sturm, E C

    2012-12-01

    The effects of adding biosolids to a green waste feedstock (100% green waste, 25% v/v biosolids or 50% biosolids) on the properties of composted products were investigated. Following initial composting, 20% soil or 20% fly ash/river sand mix was added to the composts as would be carried out commercially to produce manufactured soil. Temperatures during composting reached 50 °C, or above, for 23 days when biosolids were included as a composting feedstock but temperatures barely reached 40 °C when green waste alone was composted. Addition of biosolids to the feedstock increased total N, EC, extractable NH(4), NO(3) and P but lowered pH, macroporosity, water holding capacity, microbial biomass C and basal respiration in composts. Additions of soil or ash/sand to the composts greatly increased the available water holding capacity of the materials. Principal component analysis (PCA) of PCR-DGGE 16S rDNA amplicons separated bacterial communities according to addition of soil to the compost. For fungal ITS-RNA amplicons, PCA separated communities based on the addition of biosolids. Bacterial species richness and Shannon's diversity index were greatest for composts where soil had been added but for fungal communities these parameters were greatest in the treatments where 50% biosolids had been included. These results were interpreted in relation to soil having an inoculation effect and biosolids having an acidifying effect thereby favouring a fungal community.

  18. Chemical composition, at consuming ripeness level of tomatoes irradiated at mature green and greenish yellow stages of maturity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Wandawi, H. K.; Abdul-Rahman, M. H.; Al-Shaickley, K. A.

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L.,var.Monte carlo) have been Y-irradiated (100-400Krad) and left to ripen to consuming ripeness. The results revealed that in fruits irradiated with 100,200 and 300 krad at mature-green, 48 hour after harvesting and at greenish yellow stages of maturity, 24 hours after harvesting, the levels of ascorbic acid were accounted to 62, 51, 27% and 84, 59, 34% of control samples respectively. In fruits irradiated with 200 krad at mature-green stage and 48 hours after harvesting and in fruits irradiated with 400 krad at greenish yellow stage and 48 hours after harvesting, the levels of lycopene were 279 and 246% of that of control samples; while the lowest levels of lycopene were in fruits irradiated with 400 krad and at mature-green and greenish yellow stages and 48 hours after harvesting where lycopene accounted to 11 and 24% respectively when compared to control samples . on the other hand, radiation had no significant effect on PH, titrable acidity and °Brix of tomatoes.

  19. Chemical characterization of heteropolysaccharides from green and black teas (Camellia sinensis) and their anti-ulcer effect.

    PubMed

    Scoparo, Camila T; Souza, Lauro M; Dartora, Nessana; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Santana-Filho, Arquimedes P; Werner, Maria Fernanda P; Borato, Débora G; Baggio, Cristiane H; Iacomini, Marcello

    2016-05-01

    In order to obtain polysaccharides from green and black teas (Camellia sinensis), commercial leaves were submitted to infusion and then to alkaline extraction. The extracts were fractionated by freeze-thawing process, giving insoluble and soluble fractions. Complex arabinogalactan protein from the soluble fractions of both teas (GTPS and BTPS) were determined by methylation analysis and (1)H/(13)C-HSQC spectroscopy, showing a main chain of (1→3)-β-Galp, substituted at O-6 by (1→6)-linked β-Galp with side chains of α-Araf and terminal units of α-Araf, α-Fucp and α-Rhap. A highly branched heteroxylan from the insoluble fractions (GTPI and BTPI) showed in methylation analysis and (1)H/(13)C-HSQC spectroscopy the main chain of (1→4)-β-Xylp, substituted in O-3 by α-Araf, β-Galp and α-Glcp units. Evaluating their gastroprotective activity, the fractions containing the soluble heteropolysaccharides from green (GTPS) and black teas (BTPS) reduced the gastric lesions induced by ethanol. Furthermore, the fraction of insoluble heteropolysaccharides of green (GTPI) and black (BTPI) teas also protected the gastric mucosa. In addition, the maintenance of gastric mucus and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels was involved in the polysaccharides gastroprotection.

  20. Green Chemistry and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  1. Inhibition Effects of a Synthesized Novel 4-Aminoantipyrine Derivative on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Solution together with Quantum Chemical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Junaedi, Sutiana; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.; Kadihum, Abdulhadi; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    1,5-Dimethyl-4-((2-methylbenzylidene)amino)-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H)-one (DMPO) was synthesized to be evaluated as a corrosion inhibitor. The corrosion inhibitory effects of DMPO on mild steel in 1.0 M HCl were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM). The results showed that DMPO inhibited mild steel corrosion in acid solution and indicated that the inhibition efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration. Changes in the impedance parameters suggested an adsorption of DMPO onto the mild steel surface, leading to the formation of protective films. The novel synthesized corrosion inhibitor was characterized using UV-Vis, FT-IR and NMR spectral analyses. Electronic properties such as highest occupied molecular orbital energy, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (EHOMO and ELUMO, respectively) and dipole moment (μ) were calculated and discussed. The results showed that the corrosion inhibition efficiency increased with an increase in the EHOMO values but with a decrease in the ELUMO value. PMID:23736696

  2. Inhibition effects of a synthesized novel 4-aminoantipyrine derivative on the corrosion of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution together with quantum chemical studies.

    PubMed

    Junaedi, Sutiana; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A; Kadihum, Abdulhadi; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2013-06-04

    1,5-Dimethyl-4-((2-methylbenzylidene)amino)-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H)-one (DMPO) was synthesized to be evaluated as a corrosion inhibitor. The corrosion inhibitory effects of DMPO on mild steel in 1.0 M HCl were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM). The results showed that DMPO inhibited mild steel corrosion in acid solution and indicated that the inhibition efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration. Changes in the impedance parameters suggested an adsorption of DMPO onto the mild steel surface, leading to the formation of protective films. The novel synthesized corrosion inhibitor was characterized using UV-Vis, FT-IR and NMR spectral analyses. Electronic properties such as highest occupied molecular orbital energy, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (EHOMO and ELUMO, respectively) and dipole moment (μ) were calculated and discussed. The results showed that the corrosion inhibition efficiency increased with an increase in the EHOMO values but with a decrease in the ELUMO value.

  3. Reprint of "Crystal structure of chemically synthesized HIV-1 protease and a ketomethylene isostere inhibitor based on the p2/NC cleavage site" [Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 18 (2008) 4554-4557].

    PubMed

    Torbeev, Vladimir Yu; Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Terechko, Valentina A; Kent, Stephen B H

    2008-11-15

    Here we report the X-ray structures of chemically synthesized HIV-1 protease and the inactive [D25N]HIV-1 protease complexed with the ketomethylene isostere inhibitor Ac-Thr-Ile-Nlepsi[CO-CH(2)]Nle-Gln-Arg.amide at 1.4 and 1.8A resolution, respectively. In complex with the active enzyme, the keto-group was found to be converted into the hydrated gem-diol, while the structure of the complex with the inactive D25N enzyme revealed an intact keto-group. These data support the general acid-general base mechanism for HIV-1 protease catalysis.

  4. Facile synthetic method for pristine graphene quantum dots and graphene oxide quantum dots: origin of blue and green luminescence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Jang, Min-Ho; Ha, Hyun Dong; Kim, Je-Hyung; Cho, Yong-Hoon; Seo, Tae Seok

    2013-07-19

    Pristine graphene quantum dots and graphene oxide quantum dots are synthesized by chemical exfoliation from the graphite nanoparticles with high uniformity in terms of shape (circle), size (less than 4 nm), and thickness (monolayer). The origin of the blue and green photoluminescence of GQDs and GOQDs is attributed to intrinsic and extrinsic energy states, respectively.

  5. CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATIONS USING NON-TRADITIONAL APPROACHES: MICROWAVE-ASSISTED GREENER SYNTHESES IN AQUEOUS MEDIA OR UNDER SOLVENT-FREE CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave (MW) irradiation in conjunction with water as reaction media has proven to be a 'greener' chemical approach for expeditious N-alkylation reactions of amines and hydrazines wherein the reactions under mildly basic conditions afford tertiary amines and double N<...

  6. Influence of bulking agents on physical, chemical, and microbiological properties during the two-stage composting of green waste.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2016-02-01

    A recyclable organic bulking agent (BA) that can be screened and was developed to optimize green waste (GW) composting. This study investigated the use of wood chips (WC) (at 0%, 15%, and 25%) and/or composted green waste (CGW) (at 0%, 25%, and 35%) as the BAs in the two-stage composting of GW. The combined addition of WC and CGW improved the conditions of composting process and the quality of compost product in terms of composting temperature, porosity, water retention, particle-size distribution, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), nitrogen losses, humification indices, microbial numbers, enzyme activities, macro- and micro-nutrient contents, and toxicity to germinating seeds. The compost matured in only 22days with the optimized two-stage composting method rather than in the 90-270days typically required for traditional composting. The optimal two-stage composting process and the best quality of compost product were obtained with the combined addition of 15% WC and 35% CGW.

  7. Magnetic properties of CoFe2O4 and ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by novel chemical route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharat, S. P.; Darvade, T. C.; Gaikwad, S. K.; Baraskar, B. G.; Kakade, S. G.; Kambale, R. C.; Kolekar, Y. D.

    2016-05-01

    CoFe2O4 and ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by modified and cost effective sol-gel autocombustion method. X-ray diffraction study confirms the spinel phase formation of face centered cubic lattice with space group Fd3m and without any impurity. Magnetic measurements demonstrate that the CoFe2O4 shows saturation magnetization of 2.73 µB/f.u. where as ZnFe2O4 shows paramagnetic behavior. Magnetic behavior of CoFe2O4 and ZnFe2O4 is confirmed from Mössbauer studies. Effect of sintering on structural, magnetic and cation occupancy of substituted cobalt ferrite is discussed in this paper.

  8. Quasi-intrinsic colossal permittivity in Nb and In co-doped rutile TiO2 nanoceramics synthesized through a oxalate chemical-solution route combined with spark plasma sintering.

    PubMed

    Han, HyukSu; Dufour, Pascal; Mhin, Sungwook; Ryu, Jeong Ho; Tenailleau, Christophe; Guillemet-Fritsch, Sophie

    2015-07-14

    Nb and In co-doped rutile TiO2 nanoceramics (n-NITO) were successfully synthesized through a chemical-solution route combined with a low temperature spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The particle morphology and the microstructure of n-NITO compounds were nanometric in size. Various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric (TG)/differential thermal analysis (DTA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy were used for the structural and compositional characterization of the synthesized compound. The results indicated that the as-synthesized n-NITO oxalate as well as sintered ceramic have a co-doped single phase of titanyl oxalate and rutile TiO2, respectively. Broadband impedance spectroscopy revealed that novel colossal permittivity (CP) was achieved in n-NITO ceramics exhibiting excellent temperature-frequency stable CP (up to 10(4)) as well as low dielectric loss (∼5%). Most importantly, detailed impedance data analyses of n-NITO compared to microcrystalline NITO (μ-NITO) demonstrated that the origin of CP in NITO bulk nanoceramics might be related with the pinned electrons in defect clusters and not to extrinsic interfacial effects.

  9. Oxidative stress indicators and chemical contaminants in East Pacific green turtles (Chelonia mydas) inhabiting two foraging coastal lagoons in the Baja California peninsula.

    PubMed

    Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Rodríguez, Paola A Tenorio; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lia C; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2011-08-01

    In order to determine the potential effects of contaminants in juveniles of East Pacific green turtle, Chelonia mydas, captured alive, circulating trace metal and organochlorine pesticide concentrations were correlated with body condition, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels. Turtles were sampled in Punta Abreojos (PAO) and Bahía Magdalena (BMA). Turtles from PAO showed higher silicon and cadmium concentrations, but lower α-hexachlorocyclohexane, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene and aldrin concentrations than individuals from BMA. In BMA cadmium concentration decreased as the standard carapace length of the turtles increased. In PAO concentrations of α-hexachlorocyclohexane, heptachlor and hexachlorobenzene were positively correlated with the weight of the individuals. Lipid peroxidation levels were positively correlated with cadmium concentrations. In turtles captured in PAO, enzymatic antioxidant activities correlated mostly with pesticide concentrations, while in individuals from BMA enzyme activities were correlated with trace element concentrations. Correlations between antioxidant enzyme activities and concentration of xenobiotics suggest physiological sensitivity of East Pacific green turtles to chemicals. Regional differences found could be influenced by habitat conditions such as currents, upwellings (PAO) and agricultural activities (BMA). We suggest that, combined, circulating contaminant concentrations, lipid peroxidation levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in sea turtles could be used as biomarkers of the habitat conditions.

  10. Fabrication of solar cells based on Cu2ZnSnS4 prepared from Cu2SnS3 synthesized using a novel chemical procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, John M.; Becerra, Raúl A.; Ramírez, Asdrubal A.; Gordillo, Gerardo

    2016-11-01

    Solar cells based on kesterite-type Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films were fabricated using a chemical route to prepare the CZTS films, consisting in sequential deposition of Cu2SnS3 (CTS) and ZnS thin films followed by annealing at 550 °C in nitrogen atmosphere. The CTS compound was prepared in a one-step process using a novel chemical procedure consisting of simultaneous precipitation of Cu2S and SnS2 performed by diffusion membranes assisted CBD (chemical bath deposition) technique. Diffusion membranes were used to optimize the kinetic growth through a moderate control of release of metal ions into the work solution. As the conditions for the formation in one step of the Cu2SnS3 compound have not yet been reported in literature, special emphasis was put on finding the parameters that allow growing the Cu2SnS3 thin films by simultaneous precipitation of Cu2S and SnS2. For that, we propose a methodology that includes numerical solution of the equilibrium equations that were established through a study of the chemical equilibrium of the system SnCl2, Na3C6H5O7·2H2O, CuCl2 and Na2S2O3·5H2O. The formation of thin films of CTS and CZTS free of secondary phases grown with a stoichiometry close to that corresponding to the Cu2SnS3 and Cu2ZnSnS4 phases, was verified through measurements of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Solar cell with an efficiency of 4.2%, short circuit current of 16.2 mA/cm2 and open-circuit voltage of 0.49 V was obtained.

  11. Chemical quality and temperature of water in Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Wyoming and Utah, and the effect of the reservoir on the Green River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolke, E.L.; Waddell, Kidd M.

    1975-01-01

    The major tributaries to Flaming Gorge Reservoir contribute an average of about 97 percent of the total streamflow and 82 percent of the total load of dissolved solids. The Green River is the largest tributary, and for the 1957-72 water years it contributed 81 percent of the total streamflow and 70 percent of the total load of dissolved solids. The principal constituents in the tributary streamflow are calcium and sulfate during periods of lowest flow and calcium and bicarbonate during periods of highest flow. Flaming Gorge Dam was closed in November 1962, and the most significant load changes of chemical constituents due to the net effect of inflow, outflow, leaching, and chemical precipitation in the reservoir have been load changes of sulfate and bicarbonate. The average increase of dissolved load of sulfate in the reservoir for the 1969-72 water years was 110,000 tons (99,790 t) per year, which was 40,000 tons (36,287 t) per year less than for the 1963-66 water years. The average decrease of dissolved load of bicarbonate in the reservoir for 1969-72 was 40,000 tons (36,287 t) per year, which was the same as the decrease for 1963-66. Anaerobic conditions were observed in the deep, uncirculated part of the reservoir near the dam during the 1971 and 1972 water years, and anaerobic or near-anaerobic conditions were observed near the confluence of the Blacks Fork and Green River during the summers of 1971 and 1972. The water in Flaming Gorge Reservoir is in three distinct layers, and the upper two layers (the epilimnion and the metalimnion) mixed twice during each of the 1971-72 water years. The two circulation periods were in the spring and fall. The water in the deepest layer (the hypolimnion) did not mix with the waters of the upper zones because the density difference was too great and because the deep, narrow shape of the basin probably inhibits mixing. The depletion of flow in the Green River downstream from Flaming Gorge Dam between closure of the dam and the

  12. Shape tailored green synthesis and catalytic properties of gold nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Anish; MeenaKumari, M.; Philip, Daizy

    2014-01-01

    The use of environmentally benign procedures is highly desirable for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Here we report a simple, versatile, economic, ecofriendly and reproducible green method for the size-tunable synthesis of stable and crystalline gold nanoparticles of varied shape using aqueous extract of Garcinia Combogia fruit. The predominant anisotropic nature in the morphology of synthesized particles at lower quantities of extract gradually shifted to spherical particles with larger quantity of extract and increase of temperature. The onset of reduction, the time-evolution of the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) and the catalytic activity are studied using UV-Visible spectroscopy. The Selected Area Diffraction (SAED) pattern, the lattice fringes in the High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopic (HRTEM) image and the X-ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern clearly show the pure crystalline nature of the synthesized gold nanoparticles. The role of carboxyl group present in Garcinia Combogia fruit extract in the reduction of chloroaurate ions is established using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra. The size dependent catalytic activity of the green synthesized gold nanoparticles on the reduction of 4-Nitrophenol to 4-Aminophenol using sodium borohydride is studied and reported for the first time. The first order kinetics is fitted and rate constants are calculated. Catalytically active green synthesized gold nanoparticles with controllable size and shape presents an advanced step in future biomedical and chemical applications.

  13. Shape tailored green synthesis and catalytic properties of gold nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Anish; MeenaKumari, M; Philip, Daizy

    2014-01-24

    The use of environmentally benign procedures is highly desirable for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Here we report a simple, versatile, economic, ecofriendly and reproducible green method for the size-tunable synthesis of stable and crystalline gold nanoparticles of varied shape using aqueous extract of Garcinia Combogia fruit. The predominant anisotropic nature in the morphology of synthesized particles at lower quantities of extract gradually shifted to spherical particles with larger quantity of extract and increase of temperature. The onset of reduction, the time-evolution of the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) and the catalytic activity are studied using UV-Visible spectroscopy. The Selected Area Diffraction (SAED) pattern, the lattice fringes in the High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopic (HRTEM) image and the X-ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern clearly show the pure crystalline nature of the synthesized gold nanoparticles. The role of carboxyl group present in Garcinia Combogia fruit extract in the reduction of chloroaurate ions is established using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra. The size dependent catalytic activity of the green synthesized gold nanoparticles on the reduction of 4-Nitrophenol to 4-Aminophenol using sodium borohydride is studied and reported for the first time. The first order kinetics is fitted and rate constants are calculated. Catalytically active green synthesized gold nanoparticles with controllable size and shape presents an advanced step in future biomedical and chemical applications.

  14. Green chemistry metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic chemists have always had an objective to achieve reliable and high-yielding routes to the syntheses of targeted molecules. The importance of minimal waste generation has emphasized the use of green chemistry principles and sustainable development. These directions lead ...

  15. Simple, green, and clean removal of a poly(methyl methacrylate) film on chemical vapor deposited graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.-H.; Jung, W.; Cho, D.; Seo, J.-T.; Moon, Y.; Woo, S. H.; Lee, C.; Park, C.-Y.; Ahn, J. R.

    2013-10-01

    The clean removal of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film on graphene has been an essential part of the process of transferring chemical vapor deposited graphene to a specific substrate, influencing the quality of the transferred graphene. Here we demonstrate that the clean removal of PMMA can be achieved by a single heat-treatment process without the chemical treatment that was adopted in other methods of PMMA removal. The cleanness of the transferred graphene was confirmed by four-point probe measurements, synchrotron radiation x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, optical images, and Raman spectroscopy.

  16. A Mössbauer and X-ray diffraction study of annites synthesized at different oxygen fugacities and crystal chemical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redhammer, G. J.; Beran, A.; Dachs, E.; Amthauer, G.

    1993-12-01

    A refined set of Mössbauer parameters (isomer shifts, quadrupole splittings, Fe2+/Fe3+ ratios) and lattice parameters were obtained from annites synthesized hydrothermally at pressures between 3 and 5 kbars, temperatures ranging from 250 to 780° C and oxygen fugacities controlled by solid state buffers (NNO, QMF, IM, IQF). Mössbauer spectra showed Fe2+ and Fe3+ on both the M1 and the M2 site. A linear relationship between Fe3+ content and oxygen fugacity was observed. Towards low Fe3+ values this linear relationship ends at ≈10% of total iron showing that the Fe3+ content cannot be reduced further even if more reducing conditions are used. This indicates that in annite at least 10% Fe2+ are substituted by Fe3+ in order to match the larger octahedral layer to the smaller tetrahedral layer. IR spectra indicate that formation of octahedral vacancies plays an important role for charge balance through the substitution 3 Fe2+ → 2 Fe3+ + ▪(oct).

  17. Piezoelectric and opto-electrical properties of silver-doped ZnO nanorods synthesized by low temperature aqueous chemical method

    SciTech Connect

    Nour, E. S. Echresh, A.; Willander, M.; Nur, O.; Liu, Xianjie; Broitman, E.

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, we have synthesized Zn{sub 1−x}Ag{sub x}O (x = 0, 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09) nanorods (NRs) via the hydrothermal method at low temperature on silicon substrate. The characterization and comparison between the different Zn{sub 1−x}Ag{sub x}O samples, indicated that an increasing Ag concentration from x = 0 to a maximum of x = 0.09; All samples show a preferred orientation of (002) direction with no observable change of morphology. As the quantity of the Ag dopant was changed, the transmittances, as well as the optical band gap were decreased. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data clearly indicate the presence of Ag in ZnO crystal lattice. A nanoindentation-based technique was used to measure the effective piezo-response of different concentrations of Ag for both direct and converse effects. The value of the piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33}) as well as the piezo potential generated from the ZnO NRs and Zn{sub 1−x}Ag{sub x}O NRs was found to decrease with the increase of Ag fraction. The finding in this investigation reveals that Ag doped ZnO is not suitable for piezoelectric energy harvesting devices.

  18. Piezoelectric and opto-electrical properties of silver-doped ZnO nanorods synthesized by low temperature aqueous chemical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nour, E. S.; Echresh, A.; Liu, Xianjie; Broitman, E.; Willander, M.; Nur, O.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we have synthesized Zn1-xAgxO (x = 0, 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09) nanorods (NRs) via the hydrothermal method at low temperature on silicon substrate. The characterization and comparison between the different Zn1-xAgxO samples, indicated that an increasing Ag concentration from x = 0 to a maximum of x = 0.09; All samples show a preferred orientation of (002) direction with no observable change of morphology. As the quantity of the Ag dopant was changed, the transmittances, as well as the optical band gap were decreased. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data clearly indicate the presence of Ag in ZnO crystal lattice. A nanoindentation-based technique was used to measure the effective piezo-response of different concentrations of Ag for both direct and converse effects. The value of the piezoelectric coefficient (d33) as well as the piezo potential generated from the ZnO NRs and Zn1-xAgxO NRs was found to decrease with the increase of Ag fraction. The finding in this investigation reveals that Ag doped ZnO is not suitable for piezoelectric energy harvesting devices.

  19. VQS (vapor-quasiliquid-solid, vapor-quasisolid-solid) mechanism lays down general platform for the syntheses of graphene by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor Mohammad, S.

    2016-12-01

    Graphene is a relatively new material. The current state-of-the-art of the graphene synthesis has been reviewed. Existing mechanism for the graphene synthesis has been examined. The flaws of this mechanism have been described. Attempts have been made to present a new mechanism called the vapor-quasiliquid (quasisolid)-solid mechanism. For this, various physicochemical processes contributing to graphene synthesis have been considered. These processes include the substrate surface morphology, substrate surface energy, carbon solubility in the substrate surface, temperature, and pressure. Surface disturbance and surface amorphicity of the substrate, together with Knudsen diffusion of the carbon species through this surface, are the key elements of the proposed mechanism. This mechanism appears to have a common platform and a number of ground rules. It describes, for the first time, essentially all possible graphene syntheses, including the synthesis of single-layer, bilayer, few-layer, and multilayer graphene films on all possible substrates, such as metal foils, evaporated metal films, semiconductors, ceramics, and dielectrics. It addresses important features of graphene synthesis as well, namely, the role of permeability, substrate surface orientation, edge effects, etc. The results based on the proposed mechanism are in good agreements with the available experiments.

  20. Potentially mutagenic impurities: analysis of structural classes and carcinogenic potencies of chemical intermediates in pharmaceutical syntheses supports alternative methods to the default TTC for calculating safe levels of impurities.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Sheila M; Vijayaraj Reddy, M; McGettigan, Katherine; Gealy, Robert; Bercu, Joel

    2013-08-01

    Potentially mutagenic impurities in new pharmaceuticals are controlled to levels with negligible risk, the TTC (threshold of toxicological concern, 1.5 μg/day for a lifetime). The TTC was based on the more potent rodent carcinogens, excluding the highly potent "cohort of concern" (COC; for mutagenic carcinogens these are N-nitroso, Aflatoxin-like, and azoxy structures). We compared molecules with DEREK "structural alerts" for mutagenicity used in drug syntheses with the mutagenic carcinogens in the Gold Carcinogenicity Potency Database. Data from 108 diverse synthetic routes from 13 companies confirm that many "alerting" or mutagenic chemicals are in structural classes with lower carcinogenic potency than those used to derive the TTC. Acceptable daily intakes can be established that are higher than the default TTC for many structural classes (e.g., mono-functional alkyl halides and certain aromatic amines). Examples of ADIs for lifetime and shorter-term exposure are given for chemicals of various potencies. The percentage of chemicals with DEREK alerts that proved mutagenic in the Ames test ranged from 36% to 83%, depending on structural class, demonstrating that such SAR analysis to "flag" potential mutagens is conservative. We also note that aromatic azoxy compounds need not be classed as COC, which was based on alkyl azoxy chemicals.

  1. Genotoxicological monitoring of 175 subjects living in the green belts, inner town or near chemical industrial estates in Greater Budapest agglomeration, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Major, J; Jakab, M G; Tompa, A

    1998-01-13

    We studied the effects of chronic low dose exposure to environmental pollutants on the peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of subjects living in the green belts and the inner town, and/or working in the surrounding of industrial estates of Greater Budapest agglomeration, Hungary. The effects of some biological (gender, age, hematocrit and white blood cell counts), lifestyle (smoking, drinking habits and residential areas), and seasonal confounding factors were also considered. PBLs of 175 Hungarian donors of Budapest agglomeration, i.e. 45 subjects living in the green belts without significant genotoxic exposure (C1), 43 donors living in the inner town (C2), and 87 individuals living and/or working near chemical industrial estates (C3), were analysed for structural and numeric chromosome aberrations (CA), sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE), cell proliferation indices (lectine stimulation, LI; and proliferation rate index, PRI), and UV-light-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS). Each subject was interviewed personally and also investigated clinically. The three populations were matched for age, smoking and drinking habits. We excluded all donors with acute infectious and/or chronic non-infectious diseases, and/or with exposure to any known chemical hazard. For C1s, the base line CA and SCE frequencies were 0.25% and 6.41 per mitosis, respectively; in C2, these frequencies were 0.48% and 6.07 per mitosis, respectively, and in C3, these data were 1.60% and 5.71 per mitosis, respectively. A significant increase of CA due to chromosome type acentric fragments was demonstrated in the donors living in the inner town (C2), compared to those living in the green belts (C1). In C3s, significant (p < 0.05) elevations were found in the frequencies of gaps, aberrant cells, total aberrations (excluding gaps), chromatid and chromosome type aberrations, and in UDS, compared to C1s. Results indicate an increased genotoxicologic risk in donors living and/or working in industrial

  2. Green synthesis of iron nanoparticles by various tea extracts: comparative study of the reactivity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lanlan; Weng, Xiulan; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2014-09-15

    Iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) are often synthesized using sodium borohydride with aggregation, which is a high cost process and environmentally toxic. To address these issues, Fe NPs were synthesized using green methods based on tea extracts, including green, oolong and black teas. The best method for degrading malachite green (MG) was Fe NPs synthesized by green tea extracts because it contains a high concentration of caffeine/polyphenols which act as both reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of Fe NPs. These characteristics were confirmed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-visible (UV-vis) and specific surface area (BET). To understand the formation of Fe NPs using various tea extracts, the synthesized Fe NPs were characterized by SEM, X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). What emerged were different sizes and concentrations of Fe NPs being synthesized by tea extracts, leading to various degradations of MG. Furthermore, kinetics for the degradation of MG using these Fe NPs fitted well to the pseudo first-order reaction kinetics model with more than 20 kJ/mol activation energy, suggesting a chemically diffusion-controlled reaction. The degradation mechanism using these Fe NPs included adsorption of MG to Fe NPs, oxidation of iron, and cleaving the bond that was connected to the benzene ring.

  3. Green synthesis of iron nanoparticles by various tea extracts: Comparative study of the reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lanlan; Weng, Xiulan; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2014-09-01

    Iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) are often synthesized using sodium borohydride with aggregation, which is a high cost process and environmentally toxic. To address these issues, Fe NPs were synthesized using green methods based on tea extracts, including green, oolong and black teas. The best method for degrading malachite green (MG) was Fe NPs synthesized by green tea extracts because it contains a high concentration of caffeine/polyphenols which act as both reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of Fe NPs. These characteristics were confirmed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-visible (UV-vis) and specific surface area (BET). To understand the formation of Fe NPs using various tea extracts, the synthesized Fe NPs were characterized by SEM, X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). What emerged were different sizes and concentrations of Fe NPs being synthesized by tea extracts, leading to various degradations of MG. Furthermore, kinetics for the degradation of MG using these Fe NPs fitted well to the pseudo first-order reaction kinetics model with more than 20 kJ/mol activation energy, suggesting a chemically diffusion-controlled reaction. The degradation mechanism using these Fe NPs included adsorption of MG to Fe NPs, oxidation of iron, and cleaving the bond that was connected to the benzene ring.

  4. Monitoring toxicity of industrial wastewater and specific chemicals to a green alga, nitrifying bacteria and an aquatic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Eilersen, A M; Arvin, E; Henze, M

    2004-01-01

    Treatment plants may be exposed to a whole range of toxic organic and inorganic compounds that may inhibit the removal of organic matter and nitrogen. In order to secure maximum treatment efficiency, the plant manager has to monitor the toxicity of the influent sewage. With regard to the receiving water the manager also has to make sure that toxicity in the influent is significantly reduced during treatment. Because a whole range of chemicals may be present, chemical analysis may be insufficient and expensive as a control instrument. Instead, direct toxicity measurements are preferable to capture the complexity of the wastewater. The monitoring methods have to be relevant and sensitive for the processes in the treatment plant, i.e. removal of organic matter and nutrients. The methods also have to be simple and inexpensive. The paper reports on recent results from the application of nitrification, algae and Biotox tests, and summarises the experience with monitoring of toxicity. Although the sensitivity of the tests varies with respect to individual chemicals or group of chemicals, the application of a combination of the tests gives a high likelihood of detecting toxic impacts on treatment plants and receiving waters.

  5. Chemically synthesized glycosides of hydroxylated flavylium ions as suitable models of anthocyanins: binding to iron ions and human serum albumin, antioxidant activity in model gastric conditions.

    PubMed

    Al Bittar, Sheiraz; Mora, Nathalie; Loonis, Michèle; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-12-11

    Polyhydroxylated flavylium ions, such as 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavylium chloride (P1) and its more water-soluble 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (P2), are readily accessible by chemical synthesis and suitable models of natural anthocyanins in terms of color and species distribution in aqueous solution. Owing to their catechol B-ring, they rapidly bind FeIII, weakly interact with FeII and promote its autoxidation to FeIII. Both pigments inhibit heme-induced lipid peroxidation in mildly acidic conditions (a model of postprandial oxidative stress in the stomach), the colorless (chalcone) forms being more potent than the colored forms. Finally, P1 and P2 are moderate ligands of human serum albumin (HSA), their likely carrier in the blood circulation, with chalcones having a higher affinity for HSA than the corresponding colored forms.

  6. Calculation of the second term of the exact Green's function of the diffusion equation for diffusion-controlled chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, Ianik

    2016-01-01

    The exact Green's function of the diffusion equation (GFDE) is often considered to be the gold standard for the simulation of partially diffusion-controlled reactions. As the GFDE with angular dependency is quite complex, the radial GFDE is more often used. Indeed, the exact GFDE is expressed as a Legendre expansion, the coefficients of which are given in terms of an integral comprising Bessel functions. This integral does not seem to have been evaluated analytically in existing literature. While the integral can be evaluated numerically, the Bessel functions make the integral oscillate and convergence is difficult to obtain. Therefore it would be of great interest to evaluate the integral analytically. The first term was evaluated previously, and was found to be equal to the radial GFDE. In this work, the second term of this expansion was evaluated. As this work has shown that the first two terms of the Legendre polynomial expansion can be calculated analytically, it raises the question of the possibility that an analytical solution exists for the other terms.

  7. Chemical Composition and Behavioral Effects of Five Plant Essential Oils on the Green Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Kasmi, Abir; Hammami, Majdi; Raoelison, Emmanuel G; Abderrabba, Manef; Bouajila, Jalloul; Ducamp, Christine

    2017-01-25

    Essential oils (EOs) from Schinus molle, Helichrysum gymnocephalum, Cedrelopsis grevei and Melaleuca viridiflora, four aromatic and medicinal plants, are commonly used in folk medicine. EOs were characterized by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and quantified by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID); then evaluated for their behavioral effects on adults of the green pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) using a Perspex four-armed olfactometer in order to test the compatibility of their use as phytoinsecticides to control this insect pest. Our results showed that the Eos from leaves of S. molle, M. viridiflora and C. grevei did not change aphids' behavior. However, S. molle fruits EO seemed to be attractive while H. gymnocephalum leaves EO exhibited repellency towards aphids at a dose of 10 μl. The major compounds in S. molle fruits EO were 6-epi-shyobunol (16.22%) and d-limonene (15.35%). While, in H. gymnocephalum leaves EO, 1.8 cineole was the main compound (47.4%). The difference in aphids' responses to these two EOs could be attributed to the differences in their compositions. Our findings suggest that these two EOs have potential applications for the integrated pest management (IPM) of A. pisum (Harris). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Reutilization of green liquor chemicals for pretreatment of whole rice waste biomass and its application to 2,3-butanediol production.

    PubMed

    Saratale, Ganesh D; Jung, Moo-Young; Oh, Min-Kyu

    2016-04-01

    The performance of green liquor pretreatment using Na2CO3 and Na2SO3 and its optimization for whole rice waste biomass (RWB) was investigated. Incubation of Na2CO3-Na2SO3 at a 1:1 ratio (chemical charge 10%) for 12% RWB at 100°C for 6h resulted in maximum delignification (58.2%) with significant glucan yield (88%) and total sugar recovery (545mg/g of RWB) after enzymatic hydrolysis. Recovery and reusability of the resulting chemical spent wash were evaluated to treat RWB along with its compatibility for enzymatic digestibility. Significant hydrolysis and lignin removal were observed for up to three cycles; however, further reuse of Na2CO3 and Na2SO3 lowered their performance. Significant 2,3-butanediol (BDO) was produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae KMK-05 with the RWB enzymatic hydrolysate from each pretreatment cycle. BDO yield achieved using RWB-derived sugars was similar to those using laboratory-grade sugars. This pretreatment strategy constitutes an ecofriendly, cost-effective, and practical method for utilizing lignocellulosic biomass.

  9. Structural and magnetic studies of the nickel doped CoFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by the chemical co-precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashok; Yadav, Nisha; Rana, Dinesh S.; Kumar, Parmod; Arora, Manju; Pant, R. P.

    2015-11-01

    The physical properties of nickel doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles NixCo1-xFe2O4 (x=0.5, 0.75, 0.9) derived by the chemical co-precipitation route are characterized by XRD, FTIR, TEM, EPR, search coil and ac susceptibility techniques to develop stable kerosene based ferrofluid. XRD patterns and TEM images confirm the single phase formation of NixCo1-xFe2O4 nanoparticles whose crystallite size increases and lattice parameters decreases with the increase in Ni content. EPR resonance signal peak-to-peak line width and resonance field value decreases with the increase in Ni concentration in these samples. The broad nature of resonance signal is attributed to the ferromagnetic nature of the as-prepared nanoparticles and the increase in super exchange interaction among Ni2+-O-Co2+ facilitate the shifting of resonance value to lower field. The hysteresis loops of these nickel doped cobalt ferrite analogs exhibits highly magnetic nature of these nanoparticles at ambient temperature whose saturation magnetization, coerecivity and remanence magnetization decreases linearly with the increase in Ni-concentration in cobalt ferrite. The magnetic susceptibility with temperature curve shows increasing trend of blocking temperature with rise in nickel ion concentration.

  10. Evolution of structural and optical properties of rutile TiO2 thin films synthesized at room temperature by chemical bath deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayabadi, A. H.; Waman, V. S.; Kamble, M. M.; Ghosh, S. S.; Gabhale, B. B.; Rondiya, S. R.; Rokade, A. V.; Khadtare, S. S.; Sathe, V. G.; Pathan, H. M.; Gosavi, S. W.; Jadkar, S. R.

    2014-02-01

    Nanocrystalline thin films of TiO2 were prepared on glass substrates from an aqueous solution of TiCl3 and NH4OH at room temperature using the simple and cost-effective chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The influence of deposition time on structural, morphological and optical properties was systematically investigated. TiO2 transition from a mixed anatase-rutile phase to a pure rutile phase was revealed by low-angle XRD and Raman spectroscopy. Rutile phase formation was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that the multigrain structure of as-deposited TiO2 thin films was completely converted into semi-spherical nanoparticles. Optical studies showed that rutile thin films had a high absorption coefficient and a direct bandgap. The optical bandgap decreased slightly (3.29-3.07 eV) with increasing deposition time. The ease of deposition of rutile thin films at low temperature is useful for the fabrication of extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, and gas sensors.

  11. Toxicity, accumulation, and trophic transfer of chemically and biologically synthesized nano zero valent iron in a two species freshwater food chain.

    PubMed

    Bhuvaneshwari, M; Kumar, Deepak; Roy, Rajdeep; Chakraborty, Susiddharthak; Parashar, Abhinav; Mukherjee, Anita; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2017-02-01

    The impact of bio-remediation agent nZVI on environment is still inadequately understood, especially on aquatic food web. The study presented here has therefore considered both chemical (CS) and biological (BS) synthetic origins of nZVI and their effects on both algae and daphnia. The study is unique in its attempt to explore the possibility of trophic transfer from algae to its immediate higher niche (daphnia as the model). An equal weightage of the effects of both CS and BS nZVI on algae and daphnia has been explored here; hence it allows us to compare the capping of nZVI on toxicity. To examine the causes of observed lethality- ROS generation, effects on the activity of oxidative enzymes, membrane damage and biouptake of nZVI was analysed. The overall outcome of CS and BS nZVI on lethality was significantly different in algae and daphnia, where daphnia demonstrated relatively higher sensitivity against CS nZVI. Algae demonstrated considerable differences in CS and BS nZVI toxicity only at higher concentration. This study did not show a probable biomagnification and trophic transfer from algae to daphnia under the experimental conditions even at the highest exposure concentration. The study instigates the importance of trophic transfer to understand the possible biomagnification of nZVI among organisms of different trophic levels and eventually the consequences on environment.

  12. Green light emission from terbium doped silicon rich silicon oxide films obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Podhorodecki, A; Zatryb, G; Misiewicz, J; Wojcik, J; Wilson, P R J; Mascher, P

    2012-11-30

    The effect of silicon concentration and annealing temperature on terbium luminescence was investigated for thin silicon rich silicon oxide films. The structures were deposited by means of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The structural properties of these films were investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering. The optical properties were investigated by means of photoluminescence and photoluminescence decay spectroscopy. It was found that both the silicon concentration in the film and the annealing temperature have a strong impact on the terbium emission intensity. In this paper, we present a detailed discussion of these issues and determine the optimal silicon concentration and annealing temperature.

  13. Green light emission from terbium doped silicon rich silicon oxide films obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podhorodecki, A.; Zatryb, G.; Misiewicz, J.; Wojcik, J.; Wilson, P. R. J.; Mascher, P.

    2012-11-01

    The effect of silicon concentration and annealing temperature on terbium luminescence was investigated for thin silicon rich silicon oxide films. The structures were deposited by means of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The structural properties of these films were investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering. The optical properties were investigated by means of photoluminescence and photoluminescence decay spectroscopy. It was found that both the silicon concentration in the film and the annealing temperature have a strong impact on the terbium emission intensity. In this paper, we present a detailed discussion of these issues and determine the optimal silicon concentration and annealing temperature.

  14. The selective conversion of glutamic acid in amino acid mixtures using glutamate decarboxylase--a means of separating amino acids for synthesizing biobased chemicals.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yinglai; Scott, Elinor L; Sanders, Johan P M

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids (AAs) derived from hydrolysis of protein rest streams are interesting feedstocks for the chemical industry due to their functionality. However, separation of AAs is required before they can be used for further applications. Electrodialysis may be applied to separate AAs, but its efficiency is limited when separating AAs with similar isoelectric points. To aid the separation, specific conversion of an AA to a useful product with different charge behavior to the remaining compounds is desired. Here the separation of L-aspartic acid (Asp) and L-glutamic acid (Glu) was studied. L-Glutamate α-decarboxylase (GAD, Type I, EC 4.1.1.15) was applied to specifically convert Glu into γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABA has a different charge behavior from Asp therefore allowing a potential separation by electrodialysis. Competitive inhibition and reduced operational stability caused by Asp could be eliminated by maintaining a sufficiently high concentration of Glu. Immobilization of GAD does not reduce the enzyme's initial activity. However, the operational stability was slightly reduced. An initial study on the reaction operating in a continuous mode was performed using a column reactor packed with immobilized GAD. As the reaction mixture was only passed once through the reactor, the conversion of Glu was lower than expected. To complete the conversion of Glu, the stream containing Asp and unreacted Glu might be recirculated back to the reactor after GABA has been removed. Overall, the reaction by GAD is specific to Glu and can be applied to aid the electrodialysis separation of Asp and Glu.

  15. ORGANIC SYNTHESES USING MICROWAVES AND SUPPORTED REAGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predominantly exploiting the inexpensive unmodified household microwave (MW) ovens although the use of dedicated MW equipment...

  16. Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  17. Comparative study of NiFe{sub 2−x}Al{sub x}O{sub 4} ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by chemical co-precipitation and sol–gel combustion techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Gul, I.H.; Pervaiz, Erum

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: AFM images of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite nanoparticles at room temperature synthesized by sol–gel technique. Highlights: ► Particle size reduces to less than 30 nm. ► DC electrical resistivity increases with substitution of Cr{sup 3+}. ► Dielectric constant decreases. -- Abstract: A series of aluminum substituted Ni-ferrite nanoparticles have been synthesized by chemical co-precipitation and sol–gel techniques. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), DC electrical resistivity and dielectric properties. Analysis of the X-ray diffraction pattern of all the samples confirmed the formation of spinel structure. The crystallite sizes remain within the range 25–41 ± 3 nm. FTIR measurements show two fundamental absorption bands, assigned to the vibration of tetrahedral and octahedral sites. DC electrical resistivity increases from 6.60 × 10{sup 7} to 6.9 × 10{sup 10} Ω cm as the Al{sup 3+} concentration increases from 0.00 to 0.50. The dielectric constant and loss tangent decreases with increasing Al{sup 3+} concentration from 22 to 14, 0.354 to 0.27 respectively at 5 MHz for all the samples. Impedance measurements as a function of frequency (1 kHz–5 MHz) at room temperature further helped in analyzing the electrical properties of the prepared samples.

  18. The effects of different polymerization agents on structural and optical properties of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 nanopowders synthesized by a facile green route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorrami, Gh. H.; Kompany, A.; Zak, A. Khorsand

    2014-11-01

    (K0.5N0.5)NbO3 lead-free nanopowders were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method in different media: gelatin, starch and chitosan, as polymerization and stabilizer agents. The proper temperature needed for calcinating the prepared gel was obtained using thermogravometric analysis (TGA). Structural and optical properties of the prepared powders were investigated and compared using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-Vis diffused reflectance spectroscopy. The XRD patterns of the synthesized samples confirmed the formation of the orthorhombic structure at 600°C calcination temperature with no remarkable extra peaks. TEM images showed that the morphologies of the particles prepared in the three different media are cubic with the average size of about 69, 34 and 49 nm for gelatin, starch and chitosan, respectively. The value of the energy band gap of the samples was calculated by diffused reflectance spectroscopy, using Kubelka-Munk method. Our results showed that the type of the polymerization agent is important in preparing KNN nanoparticles and affects the structural and optical properties of the synthesized samples.

  19. Chemical composition, plant secondary metabolites, and minerals of green and black teas and the effect of different tea-to-water ratios during their extraction on the composition of their spent leaves as potential additives for ruminants.

    PubMed

    Ramdani, Diky; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Seal, Chris J

    2013-05-22

    This study characterized the chemical composition of green and black teas as well as their spent tea leaves (STL) following boiling in water with different tea-to-water ratios. The green and black tea leaves had statistically similar (g/kg dry matter (DM), unless stated otherwise) DM (937 vs 942 g/kg sample), crude protein (240 vs 242), and ash (61.8 vs 61.4), but green tea had significantly higher (g/kg DM) total phenols (231 vs 151), total tannins (204 vs 133), condensed tannins (176 vs 101), and total saponins (276 vs 86.1) and lower neutral detergent fiber (254 vs 323) and acid detergent fiber (211 vs 309) than the black tea leaves. There was no significant difference between the green and black tea leaves for most mineral components except Mn, which was significantly higher in green tea leaves, and Na and Cu, which were significantly higher in black tea leaves. A higher tea-to-water ratio during extraction significantly reduced the loss of soluble compounds into water and hence yielded more nutrient-rich STL. On the basis of these analyses it appears that the green and black tea leaves alongside their STL have the potential for use as sources of protein, fiber, secondary metabolites, and minerals in ruminant diets. The presence of high levels of plant secondary metabolites in either tea leaves or their STL suggests that they may have potential for use as natural additives in ruminant diets.

  20. Chemical structure and anticoagulant activity of highly pyruvylated sulfated galactans from tropical green seaweeds of the order Bryopsidales.

    PubMed

    Arata, Paula X; Quintana, Irene; Canelón, Dilsia J; Vera, Beatriz E; Compagnone, Reinaldo S; Ciancia, Marina

    2015-05-20

    Sulfated and pyruvylated galactans were isolated from three tropical species of the Bryopsidales, Penicillus capitatus, Udotea flabellum, and Halimeda opuntia. They represent the only important sulfated polysaccharides present in the cell walls of these highly calcified seaweeds of the suborder Halimedineae. Their structural features were studied by chemical analyses and NMR spectroscopy. Their backbone comprises 3-, 6-, and 3,6-linkages, constituted by major amounts of 3-linked 4,6-O-(1'-carboxy)ethylidene-d-galactopyranose units in part sulfated on C-2. Sulfation on C-2 was not found in galactans from other seaweeds of this order. In addition, a complex sulfation pattern, comprising also 4-, 6-, and 4,6-disulfated galactose units was found. A fraction from P. capitatus, F1, showed a moderate anticoagulant activity, evaluated by general coagulation tests and also kinetics of fibrin formation was assayed. Besides, preliminary results suggest that one of the possible mechanisms involved is direct thrombin inhibition.

  1. Chemical composition of red, brown and green macroalgae from Buarcos bay in Central West Coast of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Dina; Freitas, Ana C; Pereira, Leonel; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Vasconcelos, Marta W; Roriz, Mariana; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Gomes, Ana M P; Duarte, Armando C

    2015-09-15

    Six representative edible seaweeds from the Central West Portuguese Coast, including the less studied Osmundea pinnatifida, were harvested from Buarcos bay, Portugal and their chemical characterization determined. Protein content, total sugar and fat contents ranged between 14.4% and 23.8%, 32.4% and 49.3% and 0.6-3.6%. Highest total phenolic content was observed in Codium tomentosum followed by Sargassum muticum and O. pinnatifida. Fatty acid (FA) composition covered the branched chain C13ai to C22:5 n3 with variable content in n6 and n3 FA; low n6:n3 ratios were observed in O. pinnatifida, Grateloupia turuturu and C. tomentosum. Some seaweed species may be seen as good sources of Ca, K, Mg and Fe, corroborating their good nutritional value. According to FTIR-ATR spectra, G. turuturu was associated with carrageenan seaweed producers whereas Gracilaria gracilis and O. pinnatifida were mostly agar producers. In the brown algae, S. muticum and Saccorhiza polyschides, alginates and fucoidans were the main polysaccharides found.

  2. Green Engineering Textbook and Training Modules

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Engineering textbook, Green Engineering: Environmentally Conscious Design of Chemical Processes, is a college senior-to-graduate-level engineering textbook. The primary authors are Dr. David Allen and Dr. David Shonnard.

  3. Antibiofilm efficacy of green synthesized graphene oxide-silver nanocomposite using Lagerstroemia speciosa floral extract: A comparative study on inhibition of gram-positive and gram-negative biofilms.

    PubMed

    Kulshrestha, Shatavari; Qayyum, Shariq; Khan, Asad U

    2017-02-01

    Biofilm architecture provides bacteria with enhanced antibiotic resistance, thus raising the need to search for alternative therapies that can inhibit the bacterial colonization. In the present study, we synthesized graphene oxide-silver nanocomposite (GO-Ag) by non-toxic and eco-friendly route using a floral extract of Legistromia speciosa (L.) Pers. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of plant extract revealed the presence of compounds which can simultaneously act as reducing and capping agents. The sub-inhibitory concentrations of synthesized GO-Ag reduced the biofilm formation in both gram-negative (E. cloacae) and gram-positive (S. mutans) bacterial models. Growth curve assay, membrane integrity assay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) revealed different mechanisms of biofilm inhibition in E. cloacae and S. mutans. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) results suggested GO-Ag is acting on S. mutans biofilm formation cascade. Biofilm inhibitory concentrations GO-Ag were also found to be non-toxic against HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney cell line). The whole study highlights the therapeutic potential of GO-Ag to restrain the onset of biofilm formation in bacteria.

  4. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Extraction and Ethanolic Extraction of Brown, Green and Red Propolis Derived from Different Geographic Regions in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Silva, Rejane Pina Dantas; Barreto, Gabriele de Abreu; Costa, Samantha Serra; Silva, Danielle Figuerêdo da; Brandão, Hugo Neves; Rocha, José Luiz Carneiro da; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Henriques, João Antônio Pegas; Umsza-Guez, Marcelo Andres; Padilha, Francine Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The variations in the chemical composition, and consequently, on the biological activity of the propolis, are associated with its type and geographic origin. Considering this fact, this study evaluated propolis extracts obtained by supercritical extraction (SCO2) and ethanolic extraction (EtOH), in eight samples of different types of propolis (red, green and brown), collected from different regions in Brazil. The content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS), Artepillin C, p-coumaric acid and antimicrobial activity against two bacteria were determined for all extracts. For the EtOH extracts, the anti-proliferative activity regarding the cell lines of B16F10, were also evaluated. Amongst the samples evaluated, the red propolis from the Brazilian Northeast (states of Sergipe and Alagoas) showed the higher biological potential, as well as the larger content of antioxidant compounds. The best results were shown for the extracts obtained through the conventional extraction method (EtOH). However, the highest concentrations of Artepillin C and p-coumaric acid were identified in the extracts from SCO2, indicating a higher selectivity for the extraction of these compounds. It was verified that the composition and biological activity of the Brazilian propolis vary significantly, depending on the type of sample and geographical area of collection.

  5. Influence of ball milling and annealing conditions on the properties of L10 FePt nanoparticles fabricated by a new green chemical synthesis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, X. C.; Capobianchi, A.; Gallagher, R.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.

    2014-05-01

    In this work, a new green chemical strategy for the synthesis of L10 FePt alloy nanoparticles is reported. The precursor is a polycrystalline molecular complex (Fe(H2O)6PtCl6), in which Fe and Pt atoms are arranged on alternating planes and milled with NaCl to form nanocrystals. Then the mixture was annealed under reducing atmosphere (5% H2 and 95% Ar) at temperatures varying from 350 °C to 500 °C for 2 h with a heating rate of 5 °C/min. After the reduction, the mixture was washed with water to remove the NaCl and L10 FePt nanoparticles were obtained. The X-Ray Diffraction pattern showed the presence of the characteristic peaks of the fct phase of FePt nanoparticles. Influence of precursor/NaCl ratio and ball milling time on particle size was investigated. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that smaller precursor/NaCl ratio (10 mg/20 g) and longer milling time (15 h) lead to smaller particle size and narrower size distribution. Milling time does not influence the coercivity much but the decrease of the amount of precursor leads to a decrease of coercivity from 10.8 kOe to 4.8 kOe.

  6. Statistical summary of the chemical quality of surface water in the Powder River coal basin, the Hanna coal field, and the Green River coal region, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    A summary of the chemical quality of surface water in the three principal coal-producing areas of Wyoming was intensified by the U.S. Geologic Survey during 1975-81, in response to interest spurred by a dramatic increase in surface mining of the areas. This statistical summary consists of descriptive statistics and regression analyses of data from 72 stations on streams in the Powder River coal basin, the Hanna coal field, and the Green River coal region of Wyoming. The mean dissolved-solids concentrations in streams ranged from 15 to 4,800 mg/L. Samples collected near mountainous areas or in the upstream reaches of perennial streams in the plains had the smallest concentrations of dissolved solids, and the predominant ions were calcium and bicarbonate. Samples from ephemeral, intermittent, and the downstream reaches of perennial streams in the plains contained relatively large dissolved-solids concentrations, and the predominant ions usually were sodium and sulfate. Regression models showed that the concentrations of dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, alkalinity, sulfate, and chloride correlated well with specific-conductance values in many of the streams. (USGS)

  7. Influence of ball milling and annealing conditions on the properties of L1{sub 0} FePt nanoparticles fabricated by a new green chemical synthesis method

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, X. C.; Capobianchi, A.; Gallagher, R.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.

    2014-05-07

    In this work, a new green chemical strategy for the synthesis of L1{sub 0} FePt alloy nanoparticles is reported. The precursor is a polycrystalline molecular complex (Fe(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}PtCl{sub 6}), in which Fe and Pt atoms are arranged on alternating planes and milled with NaCl to form nanocrystals. Then the mixture was annealed under reducing atmosphere (5% H{sub 2} and 95% Ar) at temperatures varying from 350 °C to 500 °C for 2 h with a heating rate of 5 °C/min. After the reduction, the mixture was washed with water to remove the NaCl and L1{sub 0} FePt nanoparticles were obtained. The X-Ray Diffraction pattern showed the presence of the characteristic peaks of the fct phase of FePt nanoparticles. Influence of precursor/NaCl ratio and ball milling time on particle size was investigated. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that smaller precursor/NaCl ratio (10 mg/20 g) and longer milling time (15 h) lead to smaller particle size and narrower size distribution. Milling time does not influence the coercivity much but the decrease of the amount of precursor leads to a decrease of coercivity from 10.8 kOe to 4.8 kOe.

  8. Rigorous Ab Initio Quantum Embedding for Quantum Chemistry Using Green's Function Theory: Screened Interaction, Nonlocal Self-Energy Relaxation, Orbital Basis, and Chemical Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Lan, Tran; Kananenka, Alexei A; Zgid, Dominika

    2016-10-11

    We present a detailed discussion of the self-energy embedding theory (SEET), which is a quantum embedding scheme allowing us to describe a chosen subsystem very accurately while keeping the description of the environment at a lower level. We apply SEET to molecular examples where our chosen subsystem is made out of a set of strongly correlated orbitals while the weakly correlated orbitals constitute an environment. Consequently, a highly accurate method is used to calculate the self-energy for the system, while a lower-level method is employed to find the self-energy for the environment. Such a self-energy separation is very general, and to make the SEET procedure applicable to multiple systems, a detailed and practical procedure for the evaluation of the system and environment self-energy is necessary. We list all of the intricacies for one of the possible procedures while focusing our discussion on many practical implementation aspects such as the choice of best orbital basis, impurity solver, and many steps necessary to reach chemical accuracy. Finally, on a set of carefully chosen molecular examples, we demonstrate that SEET, which is a controlled, systematically improvable Green's function method, can be as accurate as established wave function quantum chemistry methods.

  9. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Extraction and Ethanolic Extraction of Brown, Green and Red Propolis Derived from Different Geographic Regions in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Silva, Rejane Pina Dantas; Barreto, Gabriele de Abreu; Costa, Samantha Serra; da Silva, Danielle Figuerêdo; Brandão, Hugo Neves; da Rocha, José Luiz Carneiro; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Henriques, João Antônio Pegas; Umsza-Guez, Marcelo Andres; Padilha, Francine Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The variations in the chemical composition, and consequently, on the biological activity of the propolis, are associated with its type and geographic origin. Considering this fact, this study evaluated propolis extracts obtained by supercritical extraction (SCO2) and ethanolic extraction (EtOH), in eight samples of different types of propolis (red, green and brown), collected from different regions in Brazil. The content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS), Artepillin C, p-coumaric acid and antimicrobial activity against two bacteria were determined for all extracts. For the EtOH extracts, the anti-proliferative activity regarding the cell lines of B16F10, were also evaluated. Amongst the samples evaluated, the red propolis from the Brazilian Northeast (states of Sergipe and Alagoas) showed the higher biological potential, as well as the larger content of antioxidant compounds. The best results were shown for the extracts obtained through the conventional extraction method (EtOH). However, the highest concentrations of Artepillin C and p-coumaric acid were identified in the extracts from SCO2, indicating a higher selectivity for the extraction of these compounds. It was verified that the composition and biological activity of the Brazilian propolis vary significantly, depending on the type of sample and geographical area of collection. PMID:26745799

  10. Electronic Tongue Response to Chemicals in Orange Juice that Change Concentration in Relation to Harvest Maturity and Citrus Greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) Disease

    PubMed Central

    Raithore, Smita; Bai, Jinhe; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; Irey, Mike; Baldwin, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    In an earlier study, an electronic tongue system (e-tongue) has been used to differentiate between orange juice made from healthy fruit and from fruit affected by the citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease. This study investigated the reaction of an e-tongue system to the main chemicals in orange juice that impact flavor and health benefits and are also impacted by HLB. Orange juice was spiked with sucrose (0.2–5.0 g/100 mL), citric acid (0.1%–3.0% g/100 mL) and potassium chloride (0.1–3.0 g/100 mL) as well as the secondary metabolites nomilin (1–30 µg/mL), limonin (1–30 µg/mL), limonin glucoside (30–200 µg/mL), hesperidin (30–400 µg/mL) and hesperetin (30–400 µg/mL). Performance of Alpha MOS sensor sets #1 (pharmaceutical) and #5 (food) were compared for the same samples, with sensor set #1 generally giving better separation than sensor set #5 for sucrose, sensor set #5 giving better separation for nomilin and limonin, both sets being efficient at separating citric acid, potassium chloride, hesperitin and limonin glucoside, and neither set discriminating hesperidin efficiently. Orange juice made from fruit over the harvest season and from fruit harvested from healthy or HLB-affected trees were separated by harvest maturity, disease state and disease severity. PMID:26633411

  11. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Marć, Mariusz; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-06-12

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  12. EPA Calls for the 21st Presidential Green Chemistry Award Nominations/Program promotes environmental and economic benefits of using novel green technologies in chemical design, manufacture, and use

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced its request for nominations for its 2016 Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards for companies or institutions that have developed a process or product that better pr

  13. High-value utilization of egg shell to synthesize Silver and Gold-Silver core shell nanoparticles and their application for the degradation of hazardous dyes from aqueous phase-A green approach.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2015-09-01

    The common household material, egg shell of Anas platyrhynchos is utilized for the synthesis of Silver and Gold-Silver core shell nanoparticles using greener, environment friendly and economic way. The egg shell extracts were acting as a stabilizing and reducing agents. This method avoids the use of external reducing and stabilizing agents, templates and solvents. The effects of various reaction parameters, such as reaction temperature, concentration in the formation of nanoparticles have also been investigated. The compositional abundance of gelatin may be envisaged for the effective reductive as well as stabilizing potency. The mechanisms for the formation of NPs have also been presented. The synthesized Ag NPs formed were predominantly spherical in nature with an average size of particles in the range of 6-26 nm. While, Au-Ag core shell nanoparticles formed were spherical and oval shaped, within a narrow size spectrum of 9-18 nm. Both the Ag NPs Au-and Ag core shell nanoparticles showed characteristic Bragg's reflection planes of fcc structure and surface plasmon resonance at 430 nm and 365 nm, respectively. The NPs were utilized for the removal of toxic and hazardous dyes, such as Rose Bengal, Methyl Violet 6 B and Methylene Blue from aqueous phase. Approximately 98.2%, 98.4% and 97% degradations of Rose Bengal, Methyl Violet 6 B, and Methylene Blue were observed with Ag NPs, while the percentage degradation of these dyes was 97.3%, 97.6% and 96% with Au-Ag NPs, respectively. Therefore, the present study has opened up an innovative way for synthesizing Ag NPs and Au-Ag bimetallic nanostructures of different morphologies and sizes involving the utilization of egg shell extract. The high efficiency of the NPs as photocatalysts has opened a promising application for the removal of hazardous dyes from the industrial effluents.

  14. GREENER CHEMICAL SYNTHESES USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greener solvent-free protocols involve microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants catalyzed by the surfaces of recyclable mineral supports such as alumina, silica and clay which are applicable to a wide range of cleavage, condensation, cyclization, oxidation and reduction reaction...

  15. Structural, optical investigations of graphene from graphene oxide using green method

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Dinesh; Shukla, Shobha; Saxena, Sumit

    2015-06-24

    Graphene nano sheets (GNS) are synthesized from Graphene Oxide (GO) using commercial sugar as a reducing agent. A green and facile approach is followed to synthesize chemically converted GNS using exfoliated GO as precursor. The merit of this method is that both the reducing agents themselves and the oxidized products are environmentally friendly. The prepared materials are characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy, High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The results of XRD, UV-vis analysis provide a clear indication of removal of oxygen-containing groups from GO and the formation of GNS.

  16. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Calibrations Performed on Oven-Dried Green Forages for the Prediction of Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Preserved Forage for Ruminants.

    PubMed

    Andueza, Donato; Picard, Fabienne; Martin-Rosset, William; Aufrère, Jocelyne

    2016-08-01

    Predicting forage feed value is a vital part of estimating ruminant performances. Most near-infrared (NIR) reflectance calibration models have been developed on oven-dried green forages, but preserved forages such as hays or silages are a significant part of real-world farm practice. Fresh and preserved forages give largely similar fodder, but drying or ensiling processes could modify preserved forage spectra which would make the oven-dried green forage model unsuitable to use on preserved forage samples. The aim of this study was to monitor the performance of oven-dried green forage calibration models on a set of hay and silage to predict their nutritive value. Local and global approaches were tested and 1025 green permanent grassland forages, 46 types of hay, and 27 types of silage were used. The samples were scanned by NIR spectroscopy and analyzed for nitrogen, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and pepsin-cellulase dry matter digestibility (PCDMD). Local and global calibrations were developed on 975 oven-dried green forage spectra and tested on 50 samples of oven-dried green forages, 46 samples of hay, and 27 samples of silage. For oven-dried green forage and hay validation sets, Mahalanobis distance (H) between these samples and the calibration population center was lower than 3. No significant standard error of prediction differences was obtained when calibration models were applied to oven-dried green forage and hay validation sets. For silage, the H-distance was higher than 3, meaning that calibration models built from oven-dried green forages cannot be applied to silage samples. We conclude that local calibration outperforms global strategy on predicting the PCDMD of oven-dried green forages and hay.

  17. A New Green Chemical Synthesis Strategy for Synthesis of L10 FePt Nanoparticles from Layered Precursor Fe(H2O)6PtCl6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjipanayis, George; Hu, Xiaocao; Capobianchi, Aldo; Gallagher, Ryan

    2014-03-01

    In this work, a new green chemical strategy for the synthesis of L10 FePt nanoparticles is reported. The starting material is a polycrystalline molecular complex (Fe(H2O)6PtCl6) , in which Fe and Pt atoms are arranged on alternating planes. The starting compound was milled with crystalline NaCl and then annealed under forming gas (5 % H2 and 95 % Ar) at 450 °C for 2h. Finally, the mixture was washed with water to remove the NaCl and L10 FePt nanoparticles were obtained. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that this method is able to produce L10 nanoparticles with different average size varying from 13.9 nm to 5.4 nm depending on the (Fe(H2O)6PtCl6) /NaCl ratio. With smaller (Fe(H2O)6PtCl6) /NaCl ratio(10mg/20g) and longer milling time(15h), FePt nanoparticles had a smaller size and narrower size distribution. The X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern showed the presence of the characteristic peaks of the fct phase. The hysteresis loop, measured both at room temperature and 50 K, shows a high coercivity of 7.6 kOe and 11.2 kOe, respectively as expected for the high anisotropy L10 phase. Larger precursor/NaCl ratio and shorter ball milling time led to larger coercivity.

  18. Temporal Chemical Variations during the Eruption Cycle at Crystal Geyser in Green River, Utah: Inverse Modeling of Fluid Sourcing and Implications to the Geyser Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Z. T.; Han, W. S.; Kampman, N.; Grundl, T.; Han, K.

    2014-12-01

    The most well-known example of a CO2-driven geyser is Crystal geyser in Green River, Utah. In situ monitoring of pressure and temperature and analysis of the elemental and isotopic composition of the emanating fluids has provided useful proxies for determining the geysering cycle, the source of water/CO2 and furthermore the physical constraints at depth which ultimately control the surficial expressions. Crystal geyser is the first geyser in the world which has been shown to go through repeated systematic chemical variations during its eruption cycle. The eruption cycle at Crystal geyser is comprised of 4 parts which follow the order of: minor eruption period (mEP), major eruption period (MEP), aftershock eruptions (Ae) and recharge period (R). Minor eruption periods are characterized by increasing specific conductivity (19.3 to 21.2 mS/cm), Na and Cl concentrations during the first half which plateau until the MEP. The beginning of the MEP denotes a sharp drop in temperature (17.4 to 16.8 ºC) Na, Cl, specific conductivity (21.2 to 18 mS/cm), and increasing concentrations of Fe, Sr, Ca, Mg and Mn. Downhole fluid sampling of the Entrada Sandstone and Navajo Sandstone provided 1 and 4 samples from the aquifers, respectively. The Entrada Sandstone in comparison to the deeper Navajo Sandstone has elevated concentrations of Sr and Fe and has lower concentrations of Na and Cl. Inverse modeling using the chemical characteristics of the Entrada Sandstone, Navajo Sandstone and brine was executed to determine the fractional inputs which comprise Crystal geyser's fluid. Variances in the fractional contribution are dependent on the depth of the sample chosen to be representative of the Navajo Sandstone because the concentration of Na and Cl, among other elements, changes over depth. During the mEP the Navajo Sandstone, Entrada Sandstone and brine supply 50-55%, 44-48% and 1-3% of the total fluid, respectively. During the MEP the Navajo Sandstone, Entrada Sandstone and brine

  19. Multiple reporter gene assays for the assessment and estimation of chemical toxicity.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Junko; Iwahashi, Hitoshi

    2004-01-01

    To detect chemical toxicity, we are making new bioassay systems that use promoters selected from yeast DNA microarray experiments. We performed multiple reporter gene assays using the promoters of these genes; the promoter regions were inserted upstream of green fluorescence protein (GFP). In this report, six genes (HSP26, MET17, YLL057C, FIT2, CUP1 and OYE3) were selected and assays were carried out for 55 chemicals. The promoters of these genes showed different responses to chemicals within 4 h. This result indicates that this technique enables us to predict the toxicity of chemicals in the environment and to understand toxicities of newly synthesized chemicals.

  20. News: Green Chemistry & Technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of 21 articles focused on different features of green chemistry in a recent issue of Chemical Reviews. Topics extended over a wide range to include the design of sustainable synthetic processes to biocatalysis. A selection of perspectives follows as part of this colu

  1. Green chemistry: principles and practice.

    PubMed

    Anastas, Paul; Eghbali, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Green Chemistry is a relatively new emerging field that strives to work at the molecular level to achieve sustainability. The field has received widespread interest in the past decade due to its ability to harness chemical innovation to meet environmental and economic goals simultaneously. Green Chemistry has a framework of a cohesive set of Twelve Principles, which have been systematically surveyed in this critical review. This article covers the concepts of design and the scientific philosophy of Green Chemistry with a set of illustrative examples. Future trends in Green Chemistry are discussed with the challenge of using the Principles as a cohesive design system (93 references).

  2. MICROWAVE-ACCELERATED CARBON-NITROGEN BOND FORMATION: A GREEN CHEMICAL APPROACH FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF AMINES AND HETEROCYCLES IN AQUEOUS MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concept of "green chemistry" is widely adopted to meet the fundamental scientific challenges of protecting the human health and environment while simultaneously achieving commercial viability. One of the thrust areas for achieving this target is to explore alternative reactio...

  3. Algenol in Fort Myers, Fla. Among Winners of the 20th Annual Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards/Innovative technologies tackle climate change, water, and chemical issues

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Algenol in Fort Myers, Florida is among the winners to be recognized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for landmark green chemistry technologies developed by industrial pioneers and leading scientists that turn climate risk

  4. Syntheses of Novel Nitrogen and Phosphorus Heterocycles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    Chemicals and Materials Research Department, Ultrasystems, Inc. under Contract F49620-82-C-0021, "Syntheses of Novel Nitrogen and Phosphorus Hetero- * cycles ...ADl-NISS9 449 SYNTHESES OF NOVEL NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS HETEROCYCLES In (U) ULTRRSYSTENS INC IRVINE CR K L PRCIOREK ET RL. 26 RPR 85 SN-209?-F RFOSR...MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BURE&U OF STAOACS-963-A SR-I"I" s, -Ŕ 500 4 SYNTHESES OF NOVEL NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS HETEROCYCLES Contract No

  5. An Approach towards Teaching Green Chemistry Fundamentals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Arnum, Susan D.

    2005-01-01

    A useful metrics system for the assessment of the environmental impact of chemical processes is utilized to illustrate several of the principles of green chemistry. The use of this metrics system in conjunction with laboratory experiments in green chemistry would provide for reinforcement in both the theory and practice of green chemistry.

  6. A multi-residue method for pesticides analysis in green coffee beans using gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in selective ion monitoring mode.

    PubMed

    Pizzutti, Ionara R; de Kok, Andre; Dickow Cardoso, Carmem; Reichert, Bárbara; de Kroon, Marijke; Wind, Wouter; Weber Righi, Laís; Caiel da Silva, Rosselei

    2012-08-17

    In this study, a new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method, using the very selective negative chemical ionization (NCI) mode, was developed and applied in combination with a modified acetonitrile-based extraction method (QuEChERS) for the analysis of a large number of pesticide residues (51 pesticides, including isomers and degradation products) in green coffee beans. A previously developed integrated sample homogenization and extraction method for both pesticides and mycotoxins analysis was used. An homogeneous slurry of green milled coffee beans and water (ratio 1:4, w/w) was prepared and extracted with acetonitrile/acetic acid (1%), followed by magnesium sulfate addition for phase separation. Aliquots from this extract could be used directly for LC-MS/MS analysis of mycotoxins and LC-amenable pesticides. For GC-MS analysis, a further clean-up was necessary. C18- and PSA-bonded silica were tested as dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) sorbents, separate and as a mixture, and the best results were obtained using C18-bonded silica. For the optimal sensitivity and selectivity, GC-MS detection in the NCI-selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode had to be used to allow the fast analysis of the difficult coffee bean matrix. The validation was performed by analyzing recovery samples at three different spike concentrations, 10, 20 and 50 μg kg(-1), with 6 replicates (n=6) at each concentration. Linearity (r(2)) of calibration curves, estimated instrument and method limits of detection and limits of quantification (LOD(i), LOD(m), LOQ(i) and LOQ(m), respectively), accuracy (as recovery %), precision (as RSD%) and matrix effects (%) were determined for each individual pesticide. From the 51 analytes (42 parent pesticides, 4 isomers and 5 degradation products) determined by GC-MS (NCI-SIM), approximately 76% showed average recoveries between 70-120% and 75% and RSD ≤ 20% at the lowest spike concentration of 10 μg kg(-1), the target method LOQ. For the

  7. Multiplexed chirp waveform synthesizer

    DOEpatents

    Dudley, Peter A.; Tise, Bert L.

    2003-09-02

    A synthesizer for generating a desired chirp signal has M parallel channels, where M is an integer greater than 1, each channel including a chirp waveform synthesizer generating at an output a portion of a digital representation of the desired chirp signal; and a multiplexer for multiplexing the M outputs to create a digital representation of the desired chirp signal. Preferably, each channel receives input information that is a function of information representing the desired chirp signal.

  8. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1997 Academic Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1997 award winner, Professor Joseph M. DeSimone, developed surfactants that allow carbon dioxide to be a solvent for chemical manufacturing, replacing hazardous chemical solvents.

  9. Green Chemistry: Progress and Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Sarah A.

    2016-10-01

    Green chemistry can advance both the health of the environment and the primary objectives of the chemical enterprise: to understand the behavior of chemical substances and to use that knowledge to make useful substances. We expect chemical research and manufacturing to be done in a manner that preserves the health and safety of workers; green chemistry extends that expectation to encompass the health and safety of the planet. While green chemistry may currently be treated as an independent branch of research, it should, like safety, eventually become integral to all chemistry activities. While enormous progress has been made in shifting from "brown" to green chemistry, much more effort is needed to effect a sustainable economy. Implementation of new, greener paradigms in chemistry is slow because of lack of knowledge, ends-justify-the-means thinking, systems inertia, and lack of financial or policy incentives.

  10. Advances in Green Organic Sonochemistry.

    PubMed

    Draye, Micheline; Kardos, Nathalie

    2016-10-01

    Over the past 15 years, sustainable chemistry has emerged as a new paradigm in the development of chemistry. In the field of organic synthesis, green chemistry rhymes with relevant choice of starting materials, atom economy, methodologies that minimize the number of chemical steps, appropriate use of benign solvents and reagents, efficient strategies for product isolation and purification and energy minimization. In that context, unconventional methods, and especially ultrasound, can be a fine addition towards achieving these green requirements. Undoubtedly, sonochemistry is considered as being one of the most promising green chemical methods (Cravotto et al. Catal Commun 63: 2-9, 2015). This review is devoted to the most striking results obtained in green organic sonochemistry between 2006 and 2016. Furthermore, among catalytic transformations, oxidation reactions are the most polluting reactions in the chemical industry; thus, we have focused a part of our review on the very promising catalytic activity of ultrasound for oxidative purposes.

  11. Biogenic synthesized nanoparticles and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Abhijeet; Sharma, Madan Mohan

    2016-05-01

    In the present scenario, there are growing concerns over the potential impacts of bioengineered nanoparticles in the health sector. However, our understanding of how bioengineered nanoparticles may affect organisms within natural ecosystems, lags far behind our rapidly increasing ability to engineer novel nanoparticles. To date, research on the biological impacts of bioengineered nanoparticles has primarily consisted of controlled lab studies of model organisms with single species in culture media. Here, we described a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from 1 mM AgNO3 via a green synthesis process using leaf extract as reducing as well as capping agent. Nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis which revealed the size of nanoparticles of 30-40 nm size. Further the nanoparticles synthesized by green route are found highly toxic against pathogenic bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi viz. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas syringae and Sclerotiniasclerotiorum. The most important outcome of this work will be the development of value-added products and protection of human health from pathogens viz., bacteria, virus, fungi etc.

  12. PULSE SYNTHESIZING GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Kerns, Q.A.

    1963-08-01

    >An electronlc circuit for synthesizing electrical current pulses having very fast rise times includes several sinewave generators tuned to progressively higher harmonic frequencies with signal amplitudes and phases selectable according to the Fourier series of the waveform that is to be synthesized. Phase control is provided by periodically triggering the generators at precisely controlled times. The outputs of the generators are combined in a coaxial transmission line. Any frequency-dependent delays that occur in the transmission line can be readily compensated for so that the desired signal wave shape is obtained at the output of the line. (AEC)

  13. Study of mechanism of enhanced antibacterial activity by green synthesis of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Upendra Kumar; Kumar, Vinod; Bera, Tanmay; Saxena, Preeti S; Nath, Gopal; Srivastava, Sunil K; Giri, Rajiv; Srivastava, Anchal

    2011-10-14

    The extensive use of silver nanoparticles needs a synthesis process that is greener without compromising their properties. The present study describes a novel green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extract. In order to compare with the conventionally synthesized ones, we also prepared Ag-NPs by chemical reduction. Their optical and morphological characteristics were thoroughly investigated and tested for their antibacterial properties on Escherichia coli. The green synthesized silver nanoparticles showed better antibacterial properties than their chemical counterparts even though there was not much difference between their morphologies. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis of the used extract and as-synthesized silver nanoparticles suggests the possible reduction of Ag(+) by the water-soluble ingredients of the guava leaf like tannins, eugenol and flavonoids. The possible reaction mechanism for the reduction of Ag(+) has been proposed and discussed. The time-dependent electron micrographs and the simulation studies indicated that a physical interaction between the silver nanoparticles and the bacterial cell membrane may be responsible for this effect. Based on the findings, it seems very reasonable to believe that this greener way of synthesizing silver nanoparticles is not just an environmentally viable technique but it also opens up scope to improve their antibacterial properties.

  14. Study of mechanism of enhanced antibacterial activity by green synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parashar, Upendra Kumar; Kumar, Vinod; Bera, Tanmay; Saxena, Preeti S.; Nath, Gopal; Srivastava, Sunil K.; Giri, Rajiv; Srivastava, Anchal

    2011-10-01

    The extensive use of silver nanoparticles needs a synthesis process that is greener without compromising their properties. The present study describes a novel green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extract. In order to compare with the conventionally synthesized ones, we also prepared Ag-NPs by chemical reduction. Their optical and morphological characteristics were thoroughly investigated and tested for their antibacterial properties on Escherichia coli. The green synthesized silver nanoparticles showed better antibacterial properties than their chemical counterparts even though there was not much difference between their morphologies. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis of the used extract and as-synthesized silver nanoparticles suggests the possible reduction of Ag + by the water-soluble ingredients of the guava leaf like tannins, eugenol and flavonoids. The possible reaction mechanism for the reduction of Ag + has been proposed and discussed. The time-dependent electron micrographs and the simulation studies indicated that a physical interaction between the silver nanoparticles and the bacterial cell membrane may be responsible for this effect. Based on the findings, it seems very reasonable to believe that this greener way of synthesizing silver nanoparticles is not just an environmentally viable technique but it also opens up scope to improve their antibacterial properties.

  15. The Journal Synthesizing Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, Zev

    The journal synthesizing activity is intended to combine aspects of the formal essay with that of a diary. Activities associated with lecture topics are written up as short journal entries of approximately five typewritten pages and are turned in during the weekly class session at which the related topic is being discussed. The journal project…

  16. Wisdom, Intelligence & Creativity Synthesized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    How is it that smart administrators who want to do a good job often find themselves in situations that degenerate into confrontation and, ultimately, termination? In this article, the author discusses why in terms of a model of leadership--which he refers to it as WICS, an acronym for wisdom, intelligence and creativity synthesized. He describes…

  17. Synthesized night vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haixian

    2000-06-01

    A Synthesized Night Vision Goggle that will be described int his paper is a new type of night vision goggle with multiple functions. It consists of three parts: main observing system, picture--superimposed system (or Cathode Ray Tube system) and Charge-Coupled Device system.

  18. Potential theranostics application of bio-synthesized silver nanoparticles (4-in-1 system).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sudip; Chowdhury, Debabrata; Kotcherlakota, Rajesh; Patra, Sujata; B, Vinothkumar; Bhadra, Manika Pal; Sreedhar, Bojja; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we have designed a simple and efficient green chemistry approach for the synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles (b-AgNPs) that is formed by the reduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution using Olax scandens leaf extract. The colloidal b-AgNPs, characterized by various physico-chemical techniques exhibit multifunctional biological activities (4-in-1 system). Firstly, bio-synthesized silver nanoparticles (b-AgNPs) shows enhanced antibacterial activity compared to chemically synthesize silver nanoparticles (c-AgNPs). Secondly, b-AgNPs show anti-cancer activities to different cancer cells (A549: human lung cancer cell lines, B16: mouse melanoma cell line & MCF7: human breast cancer cells) (anti-cancer). Thirdly, these nanoparticles are biocompatible to rat cardiomyoblast normal cell line (H9C2), human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) which indicates the future application of b-AgNPs as drug delivery vehicle. Finally, the bio-synthesized AgNPs show bright red fluorescence inside the cells that could be utilized to detect the localization of drug molecules inside the cancer cells (a diagnostic approach). All results together demonstrate the multifunctional biological activities of bio-synthesized AgNPs (4-in-1 system) that could be applied as (i) anti-bacterial & (ii) anti-cancer agent, (iii) drug delivery vehicle, and (iv) imaging facilitator. To the best of our knowledge, there is not a single report of biosynthesized AgNPs that demonstrates the versatile applications (4-in-1 system) towards various biomedical applications. Additionally, a plausible mechanistic approach has been explored for the synthesis of b-AgNPs and its anti-bacterial as well as anti-cancer activity. We strongly believe that bio-synthesized AgNPs will open a new direction towards various biomedical applications in near future.

  19. Potential Theranostics Application of Bio-Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles (4-in-1 System)

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sudip; Chowdhury, Debabrata; Kotcherlakota, Rajesh; Patra, Sujata; B, Vinothkumar; Bhadra, Manika Pal; Sreedhar, Bojja; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we have designed a simple and efficient green chemistry approach for the synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles (b-AgNPs) that is formed by the reduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution using Olax scandens leaf extract. The colloidal b-AgNPs, characterized by various physico-chemical techniques exhibit multifunctional biological activities (4-in-1 system). Firstly, bio-synthesized silver nanoparticles (b-AgNPs) shows enhanced antibacterial activity compared to chemically synthesize silver nanoparticles (c-AgNPs). Secondly, b-AgNPs show anti-cancer activities to different cancer cells (A549: human lung cancer cell lines, B16: mouse melanoma cell line & MCF7: human breast cancer cells) (anti-cancer). Thirdly, these nanoparticles are biocompatible to rat cardiomyoblast normal cell line (H9C2), human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) which indicates the future application of b-AgNPs as drug delivery vehicle. Finally, the bio-synthesized AgNPs show bright red fluorescence inside the cells that could be utilized to detect the localization of drug molecules inside the cancer cells (a diagnostic approach). All results together demonstrate the multifunctional biological activities of bio-synthesized AgNPs (4-in-1 system) that could be applied as (i) anti-bacterial & (ii) anti-cancer agent, (iii) drug delivery vehicle, and (iv) imaging facilitator. To the best of our knowledge, there is not a single report of biosynthesized AgNPs that demonstrates the versatile applications (4-in-1 system) towards various biomedical applications. Additionally, a plausible mechanistic approach has been explored for the synthesis of b-AgNPs and its anti-bacterial as well as anti-cancer activity. We strongly believe that bio-synthesized AgNPs will open a new direction towards various biomedical applications in near future. PMID:24505239

  20. Green Chemistry with Microwave Energy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green chemistry utilizes a set of 12 principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture, and applications of chemical products (1). This newer chemical approach protects the environment by inventing safer and eco-friendl...

  1. Green chemistry, biofuels, and biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Clark, James H; Luque, Rafael; Matharu, Avtar S

    2012-01-01

    In the current climate of several interrelated impending global crises, namely, climate change, chemicals, energy, and oil, the impact of green chemistry with respect to chemicals and biofuels generated from within a holistic concept of a biorefinery is discussed. Green chemistry provides unique opportunities for innovation via product substitution, new feedstock generation, catalysis in aqueous media, utilization of microwaves, and scope for alternative or natural solvents. The potential of utilizing waste as a new resource and the development of integrated facilities producing multiple products from biomass is discussed under the guise of biorefineries. Biofuels are discussed in depth, as they not only provide fuel (energy) but are also a source of feedstock chemicals. In the future, the commercial success of biofuels commensurate with consumer demand will depend on the availability of new green (bio)chemical technologies capable of converting waste biomass to fuel in a context of a biorefinery.

  2. Energy storage materials synthesized from ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Gebresilassie Eshetu, Gebrekidan; Armand, Michel; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-12-01

    The advent of ionic liquids (ILs) as eco-friendly and promising reaction media has opened new frontiers in the field of electrochemical energy storage. Beyond their use as electrolyte components in batteries and supercapacitors, ILs have unique properties that make them suitable as functional advanced materials, media for materials production, and components for preparing highly engineered functional products. Aiming at offering an in-depth review on the newly emerging IL-based green synthesis processes of energy storage materials, this Review provides an overview of the role of ILs in the synthesis of materials for batteries, supercapacitors, and green electrode processing. It is expected that this Review will assess the status quo of the research field and thereby stimulate new thoughts and ideas on the emerging challenges and opportunities of IL-based syntheses of energy materials.

  3. Plant mediated green synthesis: modified approaches.

    PubMed

    Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur

    2013-11-07

    Plant mediated green synthesis of different metallic nanoparticles has emerged as one of the options for implementation of green chemistry principles, and successfully made an important contribution towards green nanotechnology. However, beyond the synthesis and application aspects, the science of green synthesis has carried some wrong perceptions in an unforeseen fashion. In this review, some of the key issues related to the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles employing plants as reducing/capping agents have been addressed. Random selection of plants and its overall impact on the different aspects of green synthesis have been discussed. Emphasis is given to the setting of some standard selection criteria to be adopted for selecting a plant for use in green synthesis. How selection of a plant can positively or negatively influence both procedure and products of a green synthesis process is the prime concern of this article. In addition to selection, the key issue of biocompatibility associated with green synthesized metallic nanoparticles has been considered. Both selection of plant and biocompatibility were reconsidered for their minute details in terms of synthesis, analysis and data interpretation in the green synthesis approach. The key factors capable of fine tuning the core meaning of "green" in the synthesis of any metallic nanoparticles were taken into consideration. This article is an effort towards keeping the core meaning of green synthesis.

  4. A review on plants extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications: A green expertise

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Shakeel; Ahmad, Mudasir; Swami, Babu Lal; Ikram, Saiqa

    2015-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles are being utilized in every phase of science along with engineering including medical fields and are still charming the scientists to explore new dimensions for their respective worth which is generally attributed to their corresponding small sizes. The up-and-coming researches have proven their antimicrobial significance. Among several noble metal nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles have attained a special focus. Conventionally silver nanoparticles are synthesized by chemical method using chemicals as reducing agents which later on become accountable for various biological risks due to their general toxicity; engendering the serious concern to develop environment friendly processes. Thus, to solve the objective; biological approaches are coming up to fill the void; for instance green syntheses using biological molecules derived from plant sources in the form of extracts exhibiting superiority over chemical and/or biological methods. These plant based biological molecules undergo highly controlled assembly for making them suitable for the metal nanoparticle syntheses. The present review explores the huge plant diversity to be utilized towards rapid and single step protocol preparatory method with green principles over the conventional ones and describes the antimicrobial activities of silver nanoparticles. PMID:26843966

  5. Green Engineering

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  6. Green Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  7. Green Giant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Details the design of the Bahen Centre for Information Technology at the University of Toronto, particularly its emphasis on "green," or sustainable, design. Includes floor plans and photographs. (EV)

  8. Code Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, John

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the integrated approach to green design in the new Computer Science Building at Toronto's York University. The building design fulfills the university's demand to combine an energy efficient design with sustainability. Floor and site plans are included. (GR)

  9. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  10. Characterization and Biocompatibility of Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are currently ~1,000 commercially available products which contain some form of silver nanotechnology, ranging from topological creams and cosmetics, to anti-microbial socks and household cleansers. Previous studies have indicated that silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have a ...

  11. Molecular Syntheses of Extended Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paley, Daniel W.

    Bottom-up molecular synthesis is a route to chemically and crystallographically uniform polymers and solid-state materials. Through the use of molecular precursors, we gain atomic-level control of functionality and fine-tuning of the collective properties of materials. This dissertation presents two studies that demonstrate this approach. Ring-opening alkyne metathesis polymerization is a possible approach to monodisperse conjugated polymers, but its applications have been limited by difficult syntheses and high air sensitivity of known organometallic ROAMP initiators. We designed a dimeric, air-stable molybdenum alkylidyne with a tris(phenolate) supporting ligand. The precatalyst is activated by addition of methanol and polymerizes cyclooctynes with excellent chemical selectivity and functional group tolerance. The Nuckolls and Roy groups have introduced a new family of solid-state compounds synthesized from cobalt chalcogenide clusters Co6Q 8(PR3)6 and fullerenes. The first examples of these materials crystallized in superatom lattices with the symmetry of simple inorganic solids CdI2 (P-3m1) and NaCl (Fm-3m). This dissertation reveals that further members of the family feature extraordinary diversity of structure, including a pseudo-trigonal array of fulleride dimers in [Co 6Te8(PEt3)6]2[C140 ][C70]2 and a heterolayered van der Waals cocrystal [Co6Se8(PEt2phen)6][C 60]5. In addition to these unusual crystal structures, this dissertation presents a method for assigning redox states from crystallographic data in Co6Q8 clusters. Finally, a detailed guide to the collection and solution of single-crystal X-ray data is presented. The guide is intended for independent study by new crystallographers.

  12. Green synthesis, spectroscopic investigation and photocatalytic activity of lead nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Elango, Ganesh; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana

    2015-03-15

    Most of researcher focused their research towards synthesize of nanoparticles by the method of applied chemical method which was one of the costliest method. We have focused cheapest and simplest method for the synthesizing of lead nanoparticles (Pb-NPs) using cocos nucifera L extract. The methanolic extract of cocos nucifera L was efficiently used as a reducing agent for synthesizing Pb-NPs. On treatment of lead acetate with cocos nucifera coir extracts, stable Pb-NPs were formed. The synthesized Pb-NPs were further confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Energy Dispersive (EDAX) analysis. The secondary metabolites present in methanolic extract which can mainly act as a reducing and capping agents for the formation of Pb-NPs were identified by GC-MS. Anti-microbial activity for Pb-NPs against four pathogenic strain's such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escheria coli, Staphylococcus epidermis and Bacillus subtilis. Result states that Pb-NPs size was 47 nm and also shows good activity against S. aureus. Further we report on photocatalytic absorption of malachite green dye processed in short UV wavelength at 254 nm. UV spectral analysis showed peak absorbance at 613 nm with special reference to the excitation of surfaces plasmon vibration by Pb-NPs.

  13. Green synthesis, spectroscopic investigation and photocatalytic activity of lead nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elango, Ganesh; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana

    2015-03-01

    Most of researcher focused their research towards synthesize of nanoparticles by the method of applied chemical method which was one of the costliest method. We have focused cheapest and simplest method for the synthesizing of lead nanoparticles (Pb-NPs) using cocos nucifera L extract. The methanolic extract of cocos nucifera L was efficiently used as a reducing agent for synthesizing Pb-NPs. On treatment of lead acetate with cocos nucifera coir extracts, stable Pb-NPs were formed. The synthesized Pb-NPs were further confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Energy Dispersive (EDAX) analysis. The secondary metabolites present in methanolic extract which can mainly act as a reducing and capping agents for the formation of Pb-NPs were identified by GC-MS. Anti-microbial activity for Pb-NPs against four pathogenic strain's such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escheria coli, Staphylococcus epidermis and Bacillus subtilis. Result states that Pb-NPs size was 47 nm and also shows good activity against S. aureus. Further we report on photocatalytic absorption of malachite green dye processed in short UV wavelength at 254 nm. UV spectral analysis showed peak absorbance at 613 nm with special reference to the excitation of surfaces plasmon vibration by Pb-NPs.

  14. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1998 Academic Award (Trost)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1998 award winner Professor Barry M. Trost, developed the concept of atom economy: chemical reactions that do not waste atoms. This is a fundamental cornerstone of green chemistry.

  15. Explaining Synthesized Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanBaalen, Jeffrey; Robinson, Peter; Lowry, Michael; Pressburger, Thomas; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Motivated by NASA's need for high-assurance software, NASA Ames' Amphion project has developed a generic program generation system based on deductive synthesis. Amphion has a number of advantages, such as the ability to develop a new synthesis system simply by writing a declarative domain theory. However, as a practical matter, the validation of the domain theory for such a system is problematic because the link between generated programs and the domain theory is complex. As a result, when generated programs do not behave as expected, it is difficult to isolate the cause, whether it be an incorrect problem specification or an error in the domain theory. This paper describes a tool we are developing that provides formal traceability between specifications and generated code for deductive synthesis systems. It is based on extensive instrumentation of the refutation-based theorem prover used to synthesize programs. It takes augmented proof structures and abstracts them to provide explanations of the relation between a specification, a domain theory, and synthesized code. In generating these explanations, the tool exploits the structure of Amphion domain theories, so the end user is not confronted with the intricacies of raw proof traces. This tool is crucial for the validation of domain theories as well as being important in everyday use of the code synthesis system. It plays an important role in validation because when generated programs exhibit incorrect behavior, it provides the links that can be traced to identify errors in specifications or domain theory. It plays an important role in the everyday use of the synthesis system by explaining to users what parts of a specification or of the domain theory contribute to what pieces of a generated program. Comments are inserted into the synthesized code that document these explanations.

  16. Green chemistry at work

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, J.

    1994-12-31

    The 1.7 billion pounds of benzene produced each year in the US provide one measure of its utility. At the same time, there are a number of environmental reasons for avoiding the use of benzene in chemical manufacture. Perhaps most compelling: benzene is a potent carcinogen. Scrutiny of many of the chemicals derived from benzene reveals that each molecule contains at least one oxygen atom while benzene completely lacks oxygen atoms. Introduction of oxygen to make up for this lack can require processes that are environmentally problematic. One of the steps used to introduce oxygen atoms during manufacture of adipic acid, a component of Nylon 66, is responsible for 10% of the annual global increase in atmospheric nitrous oxide. This by-product is a causative agent of atmospheric ozone depletion and has been implicated in global warming. With support from EPA and the National Science Foundation, alternative manufacturing processes are being explored. By these new methods, chemicals usually created from benzene are made instead from nontoxic glucose, a component of table sugar. Unlike benzene, glucose is obtained from such renewable resources as plant starch and cellulose. ``Green`` manufacturing routes ideally should lead to chemicals that are economically competitive with chemicals produced by traditional methods. For two chemicals of roughly comparable cost, the consumer or producer can then be realistically expected to choose in favor of the chemical produced by a ``green`` process. Projections indicate that catechol and hydroquinone can be biocatalytically produced from glucose at a cost competitive with current market prices. Synthesis of chemicals from glucose using biocatalysis offers the premise of achieving fundamental environmental improvement while increasing the demand for agricultural products. In the final analysis, what is good for the environment can also be good for American agriculture.

  17. Green Power Partnership Videos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Green Power Partnership develops videos on a regular basis that explore a variety of topics including, Green Power partnership, green power purchasing, Renewable energy certificates, among others.

  18. SYNTH: A spectrum synthesizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, W. K.; McKinnon, A. D.; Miley, H. S.; Panisko, M. E.; Savard, R. M.

    1993-10-01

    A computer code has been written at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to synthesize the results of typical gamma ray spectroscopy experiments. The code, dubbed SYNTH, allows a user to specify physical characteristics of a gamma ray source, the quantity of the nuclides producing the radiation, the source-to-detector distance and the presence of absorbers, the type and size of the detector, and the electronic set up used to gather the data. In the process of specifying the parameters needed to synthesize a spectrum, several interesting intermediate results are produced, including a photopeak transmission function versus energy, a detector efficiency curve, and a weighted list of gamma and x rays produced from a set of nuclides. All of these intermediate results are available for graphical inspection and for printing. SYNTH runs on personal computers. It is menu driven and can be customized to user specifications. SYNTH contains robust support for coaxial germanium detectors and some support for sodium iodide detectors. SYNTH is not a finished product. A number of additional developments are planned. However, the existing code has been compared carefully to spectra obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) certified standards with very favorable results. Examples of the use of SYNTH and several spectral results are presented.

  19. Programmable electronic synthesized capacitance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A predetermined and variable synthesized capacitance which may be incorporated into the resonant portion of an electronic oscillator for the purpose of tuning the oscillator comprises a programmable operational amplifier circuit. The operational amplifier circuit has its output connected to its inverting input, in a follower configuration, by a network which is low impedance at the operational frequency of the circuit. The output of the operational amplifier is also connected to the noninverting input by a capacitor. The noninverting input appears as a synthesized capacitance which may be varied with a variation in gain-bandwidth product of the operational amplifier circuit. The gain-bandwidth product may, in turn, be varied with a variation in input set current with a digital to analog converter whose output is varied with a command word. The output impedance of the circuit may also be varied by the output set current. This circuit may provide very small ranges in oscillator frequency with relatively large control voltages unaffected by noise.

  20. Green pioneers.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  1. Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  2. Green Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    More and more people are viewing the world through green-tinted glasses, and those ideas about making school and university facilities more environmentally friendly suddenly are appearing to be prudent and responsible. Among the groups that have been advocating for environmentally friendly school design for years are the Collaborative for High…

  3. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts.

  4. Buying Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  5. Green Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    In the world of higher education, even the most ambitious sustainability plans often begin with tiny steps taken by individual departments. Michael Crowley, a program manager for Environmental Health & Engineering (EH&E) and former assistant director of the Harvard (Massachusetts) Green Campus Initiative, explains that going for small wins through…

  6. Organic syntheses employing supercritical carbon dioxide as a reaction solvent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barstow, Leon E. (Inventor); Ward, Glen D. (Inventor); Bier, Milan (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Chemical reactions are readily carried out using supercritical carbon dioxide as the reaction medium. Supercritical carbon dioxide is of special value as a reaction medium in reactions for synthesizing polypeptides, for sequencing polypeptides, or for amino acid analysis.

  7. Organic syntheses employing supercritical carbon dioxide as a reaction solvent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barstow, Leon E. (Inventor); Ward, Glen D. (Inventor); Bier, Milan (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Chemical reactions are readily carried out using supercritical carbon dioxide as the reaction medium. Supercritical carbon dioxide is of special value as a reaction medium in reactions for synthesizing polypeptides, for sequencing polypeptides, or for amino acid analysis.

  8. Protective effects of green tea polyphenols administered by oral intubation against chemical carcinogen-induced forestomach and pulmonary neoplasia in A/J mice.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, S K; Agarwal, R; Mukhtar, H

    1993-09-30

    Our studies and others have shown the cancer chemopreventive effects of chronic administration of green tea in several animal tumor models. In this study, the administration of a polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea (GTP) by oral intubation at a dose of 5 mg in 0.2 ml water 30 min prior to challenge with carcinogen, afforded significant protection against both diethylnitrosamine (DEN)- and benzo(a)pyrene (BP)-induced forestomach and lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice. The protective effects were evident by a decrease in numbers of tumors/mouse in GTP-fed groups compared to non GTP-fed controls. In the forestomach tumorigenesis protocol, GTP afforded 71 and 66% protection against, respectively DEN- and BP-induced tumor multiplicity. In the case of lung tumorigenesis protocol, however, the protective effects of GTP were 41 and 39%, respectively. Histological examination of forestomach tumors showed significantly lesser number of squamous cell carcinoma formation in GTP-fed groups of mice compared to carcinogen alone-treated controls. When pulmonary tumors were examined histologically, no adenocarcinomas were observed in GTP-fed groups compared to 15% mice with adenocarcinomas in DEN and BP alone-treated controls. The results of this study suggest that limited doses of GTP administration by gavage 30 min prior to carcinogen challenge may afford protection against carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis in internal body organs.

  9. Physical and chemical properties of Nam Prig Noom, a Thai green-chili paste, following ultra-high pressure and thermal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee; Srisajjalertwaja, Siriwan; Chaikham, Pittaya; Hirun, Sathira

    2013-03-01

    A study of processing green-chili pastes (Nam Prig Noom) by pressurization (100-600 MPa/30-50°C/20 min), pasteurization (90°C/3-5 min) or sterilization (121°C/4 min), subsequently, their physical, biochemical and microbiological qualities as well as the sensory acceptance were assessed. It was found that pressure at low levels (100-300 MPa) could improve activities of enzyme peroxidase (POD), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and lypoxygenase (LOX) in the chili paste by more than 100%, while pressures above 500 or 300 MPa combined with heat would significantly inactivate these enzyme activities. Both color parameters and enzyme activities illustrated that though some enzymatic browning occurred with the pressurized products indicated by b* (yellowish) parameter, the magnitude of these browning was still milder than those thermally treated products indicated by-a* (greenness) and L (lightness) parameters, presumably as a consequence of the Maillard reaction. Moreover, the sensory scores were found in accordance with color parameters, firmness and capsaicin contents.

  10. Synthesizing Novel Anthraquinone Natural Product-Like Compounds to Investigate Protein-Ligand Interactions in Both an in Vitro and in Vivo Assay: An Integrated Research-Based Third-Year Chemical Biology Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Nancy; McNulty, James; McLeod, David; McFadden, Meghan; Balachandran, Naresh

    2012-01-01

    A new undergraduate program in chemical biology was launched in 2008 to provide a unique learning experience for those students interested in this interdisciplinary science. An innovative undergraduate chemical biology laboratory course at the third-year level was developed as a key component of the curriculum. The laboratory course introduces…

  11. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Andean blackberry fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Brajesh; Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis; Debut, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    Green synthesis of nanoparticles using various plant materials opens a new scope for the phytochemist and discourages the use of toxic chemicals. In this article, we report an eco-friendly and low-cost method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Andean blackberry fruit extracts as both a reducing and capping agent. The green synthesized AgNPs were characterized by various analytical instruments like UV-visible, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The formation of AgNPs was analyzed by UV-vis spectroscopy at λmax = 435 nm. TEM analysis of AgNPs showed the formation of a crystalline, spherical shape and 12-50 nm size, whereas XRD peaks at 38.04°, 44.06°, 64.34° and 77.17° confirmed the crystalline nature of AgNPs. FTIR analysis was done to identify the functional groups responsible for the synthesis of the AgNPs. Furthermore, it was found that the AgNPs showed good antioxidant efficacy (>78%, 0.1 mM) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. The process of synthesis is environmentally compatible and the synthesized AgNPs could be a promising candidate for many biomedical applications.

  12. Method for synthesizing HMX

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Raymond R.; Coon, Clifford L.; Harrar, Jackson E.; Pearson, Richard K.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for electrochemically synthesizing N.sub.2 O.sub.5 cludes oxidizing a solution of N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /HNO.sub.3 at an anode, while maintaining a controlled potential between the N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /HNO.sub.3 solution and the anode. A potential of about 1.35 to 2.0 V vs. SCE is preferred, while a potential of about 1.80 V vs. SCE is most preferred. Thereafter, the N.sub.2 O.sub.5 is reacted with either 1.5-diacetyl-3,7-dinitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (DADN) or 1,3,5,7-tetraacetyl-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (TAT) to form cyclotetramethylenetetraamine (HMX).

  13. Synthesized light transients.

    PubMed

    Wirth, A; Hassan, M Th; Grguras, I; Gagnon, J; Moulet, A; Luu, T T; Pabst, S; Santra, R; Alahmed, Z A; Azzeer, A M; Yakovlev, V S; Pervak, V; Krausz, F; Goulielmakis, E

    2011-10-14

    Manipulation of electron dynamics calls for electromagnetic forces that can be confined to and controlled over sub-femtosecond time intervals. Tailored transients of light fields can provide these forces. We report on the generation of subcycle field transients spanning the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet frequency regimes with a 1.5-octave three-channel optical field synthesizer and their attosecond sampling. To demonstrate applicability, we field-ionized krypton atoms within a single wave crest and launched a valence-shell electron wavepacket with a well-defined initial phase. Half-cycle field excitation and attosecond probing revealed fine details of atomic-scale electron motion, such as the instantaneous rate of tunneling, the initial charge distribution of a valence-shell wavepacket, the attosecond dynamic shift (instantaneous ac Stark shift) of its energy levels, and its few-femtosecond coherent oscillations.

  14. The development of new molecular tools containing a chemically synthesized carbohydrate ligand for the elucidation of carbohydrate roles via photoaffinity labeling: carbohydrate-protein interactions are affected by the structures of the glycosidic bonds and the reducing-end sugar.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Isao; Sadakane, Yutaka; Hada, Noriyasu; Higuchi, Mari; Atsumi, Toshiyuki; Kakiuchi, Nobuko

    2014-08-01

    Photoaffinity labeling technology is a highly efficient method for cloning carbohydrate-binding proteins. When the carbohydrate probes are synthesized according to conventional methods, however, the reducing terminus of the sugar is opened to provide an acyclic structure. Our continued efforts to solve this problem led to the development of new molecular tools with an oligosaccharide structure that contains a phenyldiazirine group for the elucidation of carbohydrate-protein interactions. We investigated whether carbohydrate-lectin interactions are affected by differences in the glycosidic formation and synthesized three types of molecular tools containing Galp-GlcpNAc disaccharide ligands and a photoreactive group (1, 2, 3). Photoaffinity labeling validated the recognition of the new ligand by different glycosidic bonds. Photoaffinity labeling also demonstrated that both the reducing end sugar and non-reducing end sugar recognized the Erythrina cristagalli agglutinin.

  15. Optical and photocatalytic properties of Corymbia citriodora leaf extract synthesized ZnS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinfeng; Hu, Binjie; Zhi, Jinhu

    2016-05-01

    ZnS nanoparticles were biosynthesized via a green and simple method using Corymbia citriodora leaf extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. The biosynthesized ZnS nanoparticles were in the size range of 45 nm with a surface plasmon resonance band at 325 nm. XRD analysis revealed that the nanoparticles were in the sphalerite phase. Quantum confinement effects of biosynthesized ZnS nanoparticles were observed using photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the ZnS nanoparticles has been investigated by degradation methylene blue under UV light irradiation. Due to the smaller size and excellent dispersicity, the biosynthesized ZnS nanoparticles showed a superior photocatalytic performance compared with that of chemical synthesize ZnS nanoparticles.

  16. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles: A green approach.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shakeel; Annu; Ikram, Saiqa; Yudha S, Salprima

    2016-08-01

    Nanotechnology is an immensely developing field due to its extensive range of applications in different areas of technology and science. Different types of methods are employed for synthesis of nanoparticles due to their wide applications. The conventional chemical methods have certain limitations with them either in the form of chemical contaminations during their syntheses procedures or in later applications and use of higher energy. During the last decade research have been focussed on developing simple, clean, non-toxic, cost effective and eco-friendly protocols for synthesis of nanoparticles. In order to get this objective, biosynthesis methods have been developed in order to fill this gap. The biosynthesis of nanoparticles is simple, single step, eco-friendly and a green approach. The biochemical processes in biological agents reduce the dissolved metal ions into nano metals. The various biological agents like plant tissues, fungi, bacteria, etc. are used for biosynthesis for metal nanoparticles. In this review article, we summarised recent literature on biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles which have revolutionised technique of synthesis for their applications in different fields. Due to biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles, it has find its applications in biomedical applications. The protocol and mechanism of biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles along with various applications have also been discussed.

  17. Deep eutectic solvents: syntheses, properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghua; De Oliveira Vigier, Karine; Royer, Sébastien; Jérôme, François

    2012-11-07

    Within the framework of green chemistry, solvents occupy a strategic place. To be qualified as a green medium, these solvents have to meet different criteria such as availability, non-toxicity, biodegradability, recyclability, flammability, and low price among others. Up to now, the number of available green solvents are rather limited. Here we wish to discuss a new family of ionic fluids, so-called Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES), that are now rapidly emerging in the current literature. A DES is a fluid generally composed of two or three cheap and safe components that are capable of self-association, often through hydrogen bond interactions, to form a eutectic mixture with a melting point lower than that of each individual component. DESs are generally liquid at temperatures lower than 100 °C. These DESs exhibit similar physico-chemical properties to the traditionally used ionic liquids, while being much cheaper and environmentally friendlier. Owing to these remarkable advantages, DESs are now of growing interest in many fields of research. In this review, we report the major contributions of DESs in catalysis, organic synthesis, dissolution and extraction processes, electrochemistry and material chemistry. All works discussed in this review aim at demonstrating that DESs not only allow the design of eco-efficient processes but also open a straightforward access to new chemicals and materials.

  18. Silicon Carbide Nanotube Synthesized

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lienhard, Michael A.; Larkin, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have generated a great deal of scientific and commercial interest because of the countless envisioned applications that stem from their extraordinary materials properties. Included among these properties are high mechanical strength (tensile and modulus), high thermal conductivity, and electrical properties that make different forms of single-walled CNTs either conducting or semiconducting, and therefore, suitable for making ultraminiature, high-performance CNT-based electronics, sensors, and actuators. Among the limitations for CNTs is their inability to survive in high-temperature, harsh-environment applications. Silicon carbon nanotubes (SiCNTs) are being developed for their superior material properties under such conditions. For example, SiC is stable in regards to oxidation in air to temperatures exceeding 1000 C, whereas carbon-based materials are limited to 600 C. The high-temperature stability of SiCNTs is envisioned to enable high-temperature, harsh-environment nanofiber- and nanotube-reinforced ceramics. In addition, single-crystal SiC-based semiconductors are being developed for hightemperature, high-power electronics, and by analogy to CNTs with silicon semiconductors, SiCNTs with single-crystal SiC-based semiconductors may allow high-temperature harsh-environment nanoelectronics, nanosensors, and nanoactuators to be realized. Another challenge in CNT development is the difficulty of chemically modifying the tube walls, which are composed of chemically stable graphene sheets. The chemical substitution of the CNTs walls will be necessary for nanotube self-assembly and biological- and chemical-sensing applications. SiCNTs are expected to have a different multiple-bilayer wall structure, allowing the surface Si atoms to be functionalized readily with molecules that will allow SiCNTs to undergo self-assembly and be compatible with a variety of materials (for biotechnology applications and high-performance fiber-reinforced ceramics).

  19. Changes in physical, chemical, and microbiological properties during the two-stage co-composting of green waste with spent mushroom compost and biochar.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2014-11-01

    This research determined whether the two-stage co-composting can be used to convert green waste (GW) into a useful compost. The GW was co-composted with spent mushroom compost (SMC) (at 0%, 35%, and 55%) and biochar (BC) (at 0%, 20%, and 30%). The combined addition of SMC and BC greatly increased the nutrient contents of the compost product and also improved the compost quality in terms of composting temperature, particle-size distribution, free air space, cation exchange capacity, nitrogen transformation, organic matter degradation, humification, element contents, abundance of aerobic heterotrophs, dehydrogenase activity, and toxicity to germinating seeds. The addition of 35% SMC and 20% BC to GW (dry weight % of initial GW) and the two-stage co-composting technology resulted in the production of the highest quality compost product in only 24 days rather than the 90-270 days required with traditional composting.

  20. Upon Further Review: A Commodity Chemist on Green Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, William F.

    2016-09-01

    Green chemistry is most often thought of in the context of specialty or pharmaceutical chemicals where many synthetic chemistry approaches are in play. However, principles similar to those of green chemistry and engineering were employed over the years in reducing cost and increasing volume of chemicals that became commodities. This paper considers some of those principles, their impact, and some perspectives on the potential and limits associated with green chemistry for commodity chemicals.

  1. Doclet To Synthesize UML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.

    2005-01-01

    The RoseDoclet computer program extends the capability of Java doclet software to automatically synthesize Unified Modeling Language (UML) content from Java language source code. [Doclets are Java-language programs that use the doclet application programming interface (API) to specify the content and format of the output of Javadoc. Javadoc is a program, originally designed to generate API documentation from Java source code, now also useful as an extensible engine for processing Java source code.] RoseDoclet takes advantage of Javadoc comments and tags already in the source code to produce a UML model of that code. RoseDoclet applies the doclet API to create a doclet passed to Javadoc. The Javadoc engine applies the doclet to the source code, emitting the output format specified by the doclet. RoseDoclet emits a Rose model file and populates it with fully documented packages, classes, methods, variables, and class diagrams identified in the source code. The way in which UML models are generated can be controlled by use of new Javadoc comment tags that RoseDoclet provides. The advantage of using RoseDoclet is that Javadoc documentation becomes leveraged for two purposes: documenting the as-built API and keeping the design documentation up to date.

  2. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2011 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2011 award winner, Genomatica, is developing and commercializing sustainable basic and intermediate chemicals made from renewable feedstocks including sugars, biomass, and syngas.

  3. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1998 Academic Award (Draths and Frost)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1998 award winners, Dr. Karen M. Draths and Professor John W. Frost, used benign, genetically engineered microbes and sugars (instead of benzene) to synthesize adipic acid and catechol.

  4. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1998 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1998 award winner, Argonne National Laboratory, developed an efficient, membrane-based process to synthesize lactate esters from sugars. These esters can replace toxic solvents.

  5. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2012 Academic Award (Waymouth and Hedrick)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2012 award winners, Professor Robert M. Waymouth and Dr. James L. Hedrick, developed a broad class of highly active, environmentally benign, metal-free catalysts for synthesizing plastics.

  6. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2006 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2006 award winner, Merck, discovered the asymmetric catalytic hydrogenation of unprotected enamines to make beta-amino acids. Merck applied this to synthesize sitagliptin (Januvia).

  7. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2002 Academic Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2002 award winner, Professor Eric J. Beckman, developed fluorine-free detergents that help supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) dissolve many chemicals, so it can be a solvent for industrial processes.

  8. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2001 Academic Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2001 award winner, Professor Chao-Jun Li, uses metal catalysts in water to carry out chemical reactions that used to need both an oxygen-free atmosphere and hazardous organic solvents.

  9. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1996 Academic Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1996 award winner, Professor Mark Holtzapple, developed methods to convert waste biomass (e.g., sewage sludge, agricultural wastes), into animal feed, industrial chemicals, or fuels.

  10. Biologically synthesized fluorescent CdS NPs encapsulated by PHB.

    PubMed

    Pandian, Sureshbabu Ram Kumar; Deepak, Venkataraman; Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2011-04-07

    Here an attempt was made to biologically synthesize fluorescent cadmium sulfide nanoparticles and to immobilize the synthesized nanoparticles in PHB nanoparticles. The present study uses Brevibacterium casei SRKP2 as a potential producer for the green synthesis of CdS nanoparticles. Biologically synthesized nanoparticles were characterized and confirmed using electron microscopy and XRD. The size distribution of the nanoparticles was found to be 10-30 nm followed by which the consequence of time, growth of the organism, pH, concentration of CdCl(2) and Na(2)S on the synthesis of nanoparticles were checked. Enhanced synthesis and fluorescence emission of CdS nanoparticles were achieved at pH 9. The synthesized CdS NPs were immobilized with PHB and were characterized. The fluorescent intensity of the CdS nanoparticles remained unaffected even after immobilization within PHB nanoparticles.

  11. Effect of Ni doping on structural and optical properties of Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O nanopowder synthesized via low cost sono-chemical method

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Budhendra; Kaushal, Ajay; Bdikin, Igor; Venkata Saravanan, K.; Ferreira, J.M.F.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Pure and Ni doped ZnO nanopowders were synthesized by low cost sonochemical method. • The optical properties of Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O nanopowders can be tuned by varying Ni content. • The results reveal the solubility limit of Ni into ZnO matrix as below 8%. - Abstract: Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O nanopowders with different Ni contents of x = 0.0, 0.04 and 0.08 were synthesized via cost effective sonochemical reaction method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern reveals pure wurtzite phase of prepared nanostructures with no additional impurity peaks. The morphology and dimensions of nanoparticles were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). A sharp and strong peak for first order optical mode for wurtzite zinc oxide (ZnO) structure was observed at ∼438 cm{sup −1} in Raman spectra. The calculated optical band gap (E{sub g}) from UV–vis transmission data was found to decrease with increase in Ni content. The observed red shift in E{sub g} with increasing Ni content in ZnO nanopowders were in agreement with band gap behaviours found in their photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The synthesised ZnO nanopowders with controlled band gap on Ni doping reveals their potential for use in various electronic and optical device applications. The results were discussed in detail.

  12. Synthesizing Diamond from Liquid Feedstock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tzeng, Yonhua

    2005-01-01

    A relatively economical method of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been developed for synthesizing diamond crystals and films. Unlike prior CVD methods for synthesizing diamond, this method does not require precisely proportioned flows of compressed gas feedstocks or the use of electrical discharges to decompose the feedstocks to obtain free radicals needed for deposition chemical reactions. Instead, the feedstocks used in this method are mixtures of common organic liquids that can be prepared in advance, and decomposition of feedstock vapors is effected simply by heating. The feedstock used in this method is a solution comprising between 90 and 99 weight percent of methanol and the balance of one or more other oxyhydrocarbons that could include ethanol, isopropanol, and/or acetone. This mixture of compounds is chosen so that dissociation of molecules results in the desired proportions of carbon-containing radicals (principally, CH3) and of OH, H, and O radicals. Undesirably, the CVD temperature and pressure conditions thermodynamically favor the growth of graphite over the growth of diamond. The H radicals are desirable because they help to stabilize the growing surface of diamond by shifting the thermodynamic balance toward favoring the growth of diamond. The OH and O radicals are desirable because they preferentially etch graphite and other non-diamond carbon, thereby helping to ensure the net deposition of pure diamond. The non-methanol compounds are included in the solution because (1) methanol contains equal numbers of C and O atoms; (2) an excess of C over O is needed to obtain net deposition of diamond; and (3) the non-methanol molecules contain multiple carbon atoms for each oxygen atom and thus supply the needed excess carbon A typical apparatus used in this method includes a reservoir containing the feedstock liquid and a partially evacuated stainless-steel reaction chamber. The reservoir is connected to the chamber via tubing and a needle valve or

  13. A novel green one-step synthesis of silver nanoparticles using chitosan: catalytic activity and antimicrobial studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesham, Maragoni; Ayodhya, Dasari; Madhusudhan, Alle; Veera Babu, Nagati; Veerabhadram, Guttena

    2014-01-01

    Stable silver nanoparticles were synthesized using chitosan acting as both reducing and stabilizing agent without using any toxic chemicals. This reaction was carried out in an autoclave at a pressure of 15 psi and 120 °C temperature by varying the time. The influence of different parameters such as time, change of concentration of silver nitrate and concentration of chitosan on the formation of silver nanoparticles were studied. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results of catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol by sodium borohydride in the presence of green synthesized silver nanoparticles were presented. The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles was tested against Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus and was found to be possessing inhibiting property.

  14. Impact of reaction parameters on the chemical profile of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine synthesized via reductive amination: target analysis based on GC-qMS compared to non-targeted analysis based on GC×GC-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Schäffer, M; Dieckmann, S; Pütz, M; Kohles, T; Pyell, U; Zimmermann, R

    2013-12-10

    The most common clandestine manufacturing procedure for the ecstasy derivative 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), is the reductive amination of piperonylmethylketone (PMK) via platinum(IV) oxide/hydrogen. Deviations of the reaction conditions during the synthesis may result in different chemical profiles of the products. The chemical analysis of these profiles is an important objective for forensic drug intelligence. In this work we studied the impact of a systematic variation of the hydrogenation time, the reaction temperature and the precursor batch on the resulting organic chemical profiles of the MDMA bases and MDMA hydrochlorides. Target analysis was based on a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method which was harmonized during the European project CHAMP.(2) In addition, samples were analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) and subjected to non-targeted data analysis for a comprehensive analysis of the complete profiles. The reaction temperature, followed by the used precursor batch, revealed the highest impact on the chemical profile. The effect on individual impurity compounds is discussed in detail. With respect to the interpretation of the data, the profiles were compared to the profiles of MDMA samples obtained by reductive amination using sodium borohydride ("cold method") and aluminium/mercury amalgam as alternative reducing agents. Non-targeted analysis revealed that the discrimination according to the synthetic route and the batch of precursor used for the synthesis strongly depends on the selected target compounds.

  15. Choosing the Greenest Synthesis: A Multivariate Metric Green Chemistry Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Sean M.; Andraos, John; Jessop, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to correctly identify the greenest of several syntheses is a particularly useful asset for young chemists in the growing green economy. The famous univariate metrics atom economy and environmental factor provide insufficient information to allow for a proper selection of a green process. Multivariate metrics, such as those used in…

  16. Photo-electrochemical studies of chemically deposited nanocrystalline meso-porous n-type TiO2 thin films for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using simple synthesized azo dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezema, C. G.; Nwanya, A. C.; Ezema, B. E.; Patil, B. H.; Bulakhe, R. N.; Ukoha, P. O.; Lokhande, C. D.; Maaza, Malik; Ezema, Fabian I.

    2016-04-01

    Nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method onto fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrate at room temperature (300 K). Titanium trichloride and sodium hydroxide were used as cationic and anionic sources, respectively. The as-deposited and annealed films were characterized for structural, morphological, optical, electrical and wettability properties. The photoelectrochemical study of TiO2 sensitized with a laboratory synthesized organic dye (azo) was evaluated in the polyiodide electrolyte at 40 mW cm-2 light illumination intensity. The photovoltaic characteristics show a fill factor of 0.24 and solar conversion efficiency value of 0.032 % for a TiO2 thickness of 0.96 µm as compared to efficiency of 0.014 % for rose Bengal of the same thickness.

  17. Electrochemical characterization of monoclinic and orthorhombic Li3CrF6 as positive electrodes in lithium-ion batteries synthesized by a sol-gel process with environmentally benign chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieser, Georg; Winkler, Volker; Geßwein, Holger; de Biasi, Lea; Glatthaar, Sven; Hoffmann, M. J.; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Binder, Joachim R.

    2015-10-01

    Lithium transition metal fluorides (Li3MF6; M = Fe, V) with cryolite structure are investigated as positive electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. A novel sol-gel process with trifluoroacetic acid as fluorine source was used to synthesize monoclinic and orthorhombic Li3CrF6. A ball milling process with Li3CrF6, binder, and conductive agent was applied to form a Li3CrF6 composite, which was electrochemically characterized against lithium metal for the first time. The electrochemical properties of two different modifications are quite similar, with a reversible specific capacity of 111 mAhg-1 for monoclinic Li3CrF6 and 106 mAhg-1 for orthorhombic Li3CrF6 (1 eq. Li ≙ 143 mAhg-1). The electrochemically active redox couple CrIII/CrII was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  18. Cyanoborohydride-based ionic liquids as green aerospace bipropellant fuels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghua; Yin, Ping; Zhang, Jiaheng; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2014-06-02

    In propellant systems, the most common bipropellants are composed of two chemicals, a fuel (or reducer) and an oxidizer. Currently, the choices for propellant fuels rely mainly on hydrazine and its methylated derivatives, even though they are extremely toxic, highly volatile, sensitive to adiabatic compression (risk of detonation), and, therefore, difficult to handle. With this background, the search for alternative green propellant fuels has been an urgent goal of space science. In this study, a new family of cyanoborohydride-based ionic liquids (ILs) with properties and performances comparable to hydrazine derivatives were designed and synthesized. These new ILs as bipropellant fuels, have some unique advantages including negligible vapor pressure, ultra-short ignition delay (ID) time, and reduced synthetic and storage costs, thereby showing great application potential as environmentally friendly fuels in bipropellant formulations.

  19. Effect of accelerator in green synthesis of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Darroudi, Majid; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Shameli, Kamyar

    2010-10-12

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were successfully synthesized in the natural polymeric matrix. Silver nitrate, gelatin, glucose, and sodium hydroxide have been used as silver precursor, stabilizer, reducing agent, and accelerator reagent, respectively. This study investigated the role of NaOH as the accelerator. The resultant products have been confirmed to be Ag-NPs using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The colloidal sols of Ag-NPs obtained at different volumes of NaOH show strong and different surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks, which can be explained from the TEM images of Ag-NPs and their particle size distribution. Compared with other synthetic methods, this work is green, rapid, and simple to use. The newly prepared Ag-NPs may have many potential applications in chemical and biological industries.

  20. Green synthesis and catalytic function of tungsten oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Zheng, Yi Fan; Yin, Hao Yong; Song, Xu Chun

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, a green chemical synthetic route was developed to synthesize WO3 nanoparticles with an average size of 70 nm. The products were characterized in detail by multiform techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photoluminescence of the obtained WO3 nanoparticles was also investigated. The effects of the hydrothermal temperature on the crystalline phase and morphology of the products have been studied systematically. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by photocatalytic decolorization of methylene blue (MB) aqueous solution. The electrocatalytic activity was characterized using voltammetric techniques. The results showed that the obtained WO3 nanoparticles have an excellent photocatalytic and electrocatalytic performance for the MB.