Science.gov

Sample records for green manures

  1. Suppression of Meloidogyne chitwoodi with Sudangrass Cultivars as Green Manure

    PubMed Central

    Mojtahedi, H.; Santo, G. S.; Ingham, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    Meloidogyne chitwoodi race 1 reproduced on Piper sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), 332 (sudangrass hybrid), and P855F and P877F (sorghum-sudangrass hybrids), but failed to reproduce efficiently on Trudan 8, Trudex 9 (sudangrass hybrids), and Sordan 79, SS-222, and Bravo II (sorghum-sudangrass hybrids). Meloidogyne chitwoodi race 2 behaved similarly and reproduced more efficiently on Piper, P855F, and P877F than on Trudan 8, Trudex 9, or Sordan 79. The mean reproductive factor for M. chitwoodi races on the poorer hosts ranged from <0.1 to 0.9 under greenhouse and field conditions. Meloidogyne hapla failed to reproduce on any of the cultivars tested. In the laboratory, leaves of each cultivar chopped and incorporated as green manure reduced the M. chitwoodi population in infested soil more than unamended or wheat green manure treatments. Trudan 8, although limited to the zone of incorporation, protected this zone from colonization of upward migrating second stage juveniles (J2) for up to 6 weeks. Leaves of Trudan 8 but not roots were effective against M. chitwoodi, and J2 appeared to be more sensitive than egg masses. Trudan 8 and Sordan 79 as green manure reduced M. chitwoodi in bucket microplots under field conditions. PMID:19279773

  2. Effects of green manures on growth, yield and quality of green okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Har Lium Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Benjawan, Chutichudet; Chutichudet, P; Kaewsit, S

    2007-04-01

    This green manure experiment with the use of okra crop as indicator plant was carried out at Mahasarakham University Experimental Farm, Mahasarakham province, Northeast Thailand during May to September 2005 to investigate four types of green manure legume crops on growth, yield and quality of edible fresh pods of okra crop when grown on Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults). The four types of green manure plants include Jack bean, Cowpea, Green gram, and Giant sensitive plant. The experiment consisted of five treatments, i.e., T1 (Control), T2 (Jack bean), T3 (Cowpea), T4 (Green gram) and T5 (Giant sensitive plant). The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four replications. The results showed that Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults) contained some considerable mean values of organic matter (1.64-1.66%) but soil available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium were relatively low, particularly potassium. Green manures of the four legume plants slightly improved soil property of the Roi-Et soil series (tested at the end of the experimental period). The most effective green manure on stem diameter, bushy diameter, leaf numbers plant(-1) and leaf area of the fifth leaf of the okra plants, in most cases, was found with Jack bean and Cowpea ranked the second. However, in most cases, Cowpea gave a similar effect as that of Green gram and Giant sensitive plant. Pod length and weight pod(-1), pod diameter and edible fresh pod yields (5941.86 kg ha(-1)) were highest with Jack bean green manure treatment (T2), whilst the rest, in most cases, were similar. Green manure treatments gave highly significant effect on total soluble solids of pods over the control treatment, whilst total acidity, fibre and pectin contents were unaffected by green manure treatments. Green manure of Jack bean was the best legume crop for green manure to be used in improving soil fertility, particularly for Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults).

  3. Green farming systems for the Southeast USA using manure-to-energy conversion platforms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock operations in the Southeastern USA are faced with implementing holistic solutions to address effective manure treatment through efficient energy management and safeguarding of supporting natural resources. By integrating waste-to-energy conversion platforms, future green farming systems ca...

  4. Effects of green manure cover crops on Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Li, Nian-Jhen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Tang, Li-Cheng; Chi, Hsin

    2014-06-01

    Spodoptera litura (F.) is an important pest of numerous agro-economic crops, including green manure cover crops. In Taiwan, sesbania (Sesbanin roxburghii Merr.), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), and rapeseed (Brassicae campestris L. variety chinensis) are the most popular green manure crops; sesbania and sunn hemp are commonly planted in warm seasons, whereas rapeseed is grown in the winter. In this study, life-table data for S. litura reared on these three green manures were collected to evaluate their roles as refuges of this pest. The net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, and finite rate of increase of S. litura were the highest when reared on sesbania (1428.1 offspring, 0.2327 d(-1), 1.2621 d(-1)), followed by sunn hemp (778.4 offspring, 0.2070 d(-1), 1.2300 d(-1)) and rapeseed (737.6 offspring, 0.2040 d(-1), 1.2263 d(-1)). The high growth rates on these green manure crops show that they can serve as potential breeding sites for S. litura. Population projection demonstrated the rapid growth of S. litura on sesbania, sunn hemp, and rapeseed as well. Because most growers have traditionally ignored pest management in green manure fields, the mass emergence of S. litura in these fields may cause unexpected infestations in nearby vegetable, corn, and peanut crops. This study shows that the use of green manures as sources of nutrients should be critically reassessed and an area-wide pest management program should be instituted by taking the population of S. litura in green manure fields into consideration.

  5. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs.

  6. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs. PMID:24999738

  7. Effects of green manure cover crops on Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Li, Nian-Jhen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Tang, Li-Cheng; Chi, Hsin

    2014-06-01

    Spodoptera litura (F.) is an important pest of numerous agro-economic crops, including green manure cover crops. In Taiwan, sesbania (Sesbanin roxburghii Merr.), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), and rapeseed (Brassicae campestris L. variety chinensis) are the most popular green manure crops; sesbania and sunn hemp are commonly planted in warm seasons, whereas rapeseed is grown in the winter. In this study, life-table data for S. litura reared on these three green manures were collected to evaluate their roles as refuges of this pest. The net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, and finite rate of increase of S. litura were the highest when reared on sesbania (1428.1 offspring, 0.2327 d(-1), 1.2621 d(-1)), followed by sunn hemp (778.4 offspring, 0.2070 d(-1), 1.2300 d(-1)) and rapeseed (737.6 offspring, 0.2040 d(-1), 1.2263 d(-1)). The high growth rates on these green manure crops show that they can serve as potential breeding sites for S. litura. Population projection demonstrated the rapid growth of S. litura on sesbania, sunn hemp, and rapeseed as well. Because most growers have traditionally ignored pest management in green manure fields, the mass emergence of S. litura in these fields may cause unexpected infestations in nearby vegetable, corn, and peanut crops. This study shows that the use of green manures as sources of nutrients should be critically reassessed and an area-wide pest management program should be instituted by taking the population of S. litura in green manure fields into consideration. PMID:25026645

  8. [Effects of nitrogen application and winter green manure on soil active organic carbon and the soil carbon pool management index].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin-Juan; Huang, Guo-Qin; Lan, Yan; Chen, Hong-Jun; Wang, Shu-Bin

    2014-10-01

    Based on a cropping system of "winter green manure-double rice", the 4 x 4 two-factor test was used to study the effects of different nitrogen (N) application levels and winter green manure application on soil active organic carbon (AOC) and the C pool management index. The aim was to explore the ecological effects of winter green manure on soil improvement and determine the appropriate application levels of N fertilizer and winter green manure for improved rice yield. Results were as follows: 1) Compared with the control, the SOC and AOC contents increased by 22.2% and 26.7%, respectively, under the green manure only treatment, but the SOC contents decreased by 0.6%-3.4% under the single N fertilizer treatment. Compared with the control, the soil C pool management index increased by 24.55 and 15.17 under the green manure only and green manure plus N fertilizer treatments, respectively, and reduced by 2.59 under the single N fertilizer treatment. Compared with no fertilization, the average microbial biomass carbon (MBC) increased by 54.0%, 95.2% and 14.3% under the green manure, green manure plus N fertilizer and single N fertilizer treatments, respectively. 2) The soil AOC content was significantly positively correlated with the C pool management index (P < 0.01), and had a significant correlation with dis- solved organic C and MBC (P < 0.05). Rice yield was significantly positively correlated with AOC contents and the C pool management index, and the correlation coefficient was significantly greater than that with the total organic C. These results suggested that application of winter green manure at proper rates with inorganic fertilizer could increase SOC contents and the soil C pool management index, improve soil quality and fertility.

  9. Mechanism of disease suppression of Fusarium wilt of watermelon by cover crop green manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fall planted Vicia villosa cover crop incorporated in spring as a green manure can suppress Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON)] of watermelon in Maryland and Delaware. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the mechanism of this suppression was general or specific, and ...

  10. [Further reduction of nitrogen fertilizer application in paddy field under green manuring of Taihu Area, China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong; Yan, Ting-mei; Qiao, Jun; Yang, Lin-zhang; Tang, Fang; Song, Yun-fei

    2015-06-01

    This study focused on the nitrogen loss via runoff, change of nitrogen in different forms in surface water in paddy field, and grain yield, through further reduction of nitrogen fertilizer application rate under green manuring without basal dressing. Results showed that with 150 kg · hm(-2) inorganic N fertilizer input after return of green manure to soil, no basal dressing could not only sharply reduce N concentration in surface water and decrease 17.2% of N loss, but also increase 2.8% of grain yield in comparison with basal dressing. It was a worthwhile farming method that inorganic nitrogen fertilizer was not used for basal dressing but for topdressing after return of green ma- nure to soil in Taihu Area. However, the grain yield would decrease if the rate of topdressing nitro- gen was excessively reduced or increased. After all, it was feasible to realize harmonization of grain yield and environmental benefits in Taihu Area, with 133 kg · hm(-2) inorganic N fertilizer input after return of green manure to soil as well as no application of basal dressing, which could greatly reduce N fertilizer input and N loss as well as ensure rice yield.

  11. [Further reduction of nitrogen fertilizer application in paddy field under green manuring of Taihu Area, China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong; Yan, Ting-mei; Qiao, Jun; Yang, Lin-zhang; Tang, Fang; Song, Yun-fei

    2015-06-01

    This study focused on the nitrogen loss via runoff, change of nitrogen in different forms in surface water in paddy field, and grain yield, through further reduction of nitrogen fertilizer application rate under green manuring without basal dressing. Results showed that with 150 kg · hm(-2) inorganic N fertilizer input after return of green manure to soil, no basal dressing could not only sharply reduce N concentration in surface water and decrease 17.2% of N loss, but also increase 2.8% of grain yield in comparison with basal dressing. It was a worthwhile farming method that inorganic nitrogen fertilizer was not used for basal dressing but for topdressing after return of green ma- nure to soil in Taihu Area. However, the grain yield would decrease if the rate of topdressing nitro- gen was excessively reduced or increased. After all, it was feasible to realize harmonization of grain yield and environmental benefits in Taihu Area, with 133 kg · hm(-2) inorganic N fertilizer input after return of green manure to soil as well as no application of basal dressing, which could greatly reduce N fertilizer input and N loss as well as ensure rice yield. PMID:26572018

  12. [Effects of Green Manure Intercropping and Straw Mulching on Winter Rape Rhizosphere Soil Organic Carbon and Soil Respiration].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Quan; Wang, Long-chang; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Sai; Du, Juan; Zhao, Lin-lu

    2016-03-15

    Under the background of global warming, the farmland soil respiration has become the main way of agricultural carbon emissions. And green manure has great potential to curb greenhouse gas emissions and achieve energy conservation and emissions reduction. However, in purple soil region of Southwest, China, soil respiration under green manure remains unclear, especially in the winter and intercropping. Through the green manure ( Chinese milk vetch) intercropping with rape, therefore, we compared the effects of rape rhizosphere under straw mulching. The soil organic carbon and soil respiration were examined. The results showed, compared with straw mulching, root separation was the major influencing factors of soil organic carbon on rape rhizosphere. Soil organic carbon was significantly decreased by root interaction. In addition, straw mulching promoted while green manure intercropping inhibited the soil respiration. Soil respiration presented the general characteristics of fall-rise-fall due to the strong influence of rape growth period. Therefore, it showed a cubic curve relationship with soil temperature.

  13. The green manure value of seven clover species grown as annual crops on low and high fertility temperate soils.

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Shirley M.; King, Jane R.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; O'Donovan, John T.

    2009-05-01

    Annual and perennial clover species may differ in green manure value. Seven clover (Trifolium) species were grown as annual crops on low fertility (Breton) and high fertility 15 (Edmonton) soils in Alberta

  14. [Effects of Green Manure Intercropping and Straw Mulching on Winter Rape Rhizosphere Soil Organic Carbon and Soil Respiration].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Quan; Wang, Long-chang; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Sai; Du, Juan; Zhao, Lin-lu

    2016-03-15

    Under the background of global warming, the farmland soil respiration has become the main way of agricultural carbon emissions. And green manure has great potential to curb greenhouse gas emissions and achieve energy conservation and emissions reduction. However, in purple soil region of Southwest, China, soil respiration under green manure remains unclear, especially in the winter and intercropping. Through the green manure ( Chinese milk vetch) intercropping with rape, therefore, we compared the effects of rape rhizosphere under straw mulching. The soil organic carbon and soil respiration were examined. The results showed, compared with straw mulching, root separation was the major influencing factors of soil organic carbon on rape rhizosphere. Soil organic carbon was significantly decreased by root interaction. In addition, straw mulching promoted while green manure intercropping inhibited the soil respiration. Soil respiration presented the general characteristics of fall-rise-fall due to the strong influence of rape growth period. Therefore, it showed a cubic curve relationship with soil temperature. PMID:27337908

  15. Application of wastewater from paper and food seasoning industries with green manure to increase soil organic carbon: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Ching; Arun, A B; Rekha, P D; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2008-09-01

    This laboratory scale experiment was designed to study the suitability of organic wastes from paper and food seasoning industries to improve the soil organic carbon for rice cultivation. Lignin-rich wastewater from paper industry and nitrogen-rich effluent from a food industry at suitably lower concentrations were used at two levels of green manure to enhance the soil organic carbon fraction over time. Both the groups of soils with or without Sesbania were incubated under submerged condition at 25 degrees C for 15 days. Wastewaters from paper industry (WP), food industry (WS), and a combination of WP+WS were added separately to both the treatment groups in flasks. After 103 days of incubation, from all the three treatments and control, total organic carbon and alkali-soluble organic carbon fractions were analyzed. Results indicated that in all the three treatments containing green manure amended with industrial wastewaters, the organic carbon content increased significantly. The alkali-soluble organic carbon fraction was increased by 59% in the soil amended with green manure containing WS and by 31% in the treatment without green manure compared to control. The paper mill waste water namely, WP, increased the organic carbon only in the soil containing green manure by 63%. The combined treatment of WP+WS with green manure increased alkali-soluble organic carbon fraction by 90% compared to control, while in the treatment without green manure, the organic carbon increase was 71%. Overall, the combined treatment WP+WS with green manure could increase the alkali-soluble organic carbon fraction more than all other treatments. Hence, wastewater rich in organics from paper and food industries can be efficiently used to temporarily increase the soil organic carbon content.

  16. Application of rye green manure in wheat rotation system alters soil water content and chemical characteristics under dryland condition in Maragheh.

    PubMed

    Mosavi, S B; Jafarzadeh, A A; Nishabouri, M R; Ostan, Sh; Feiziasl, V

    2009-01-15

    This study was carried out with or without rye green manure along with 4 nitrogen fertilization treatments (0, 26, 103 and 337 (kg N ha(-1)) in 3 rotation system (green manure-wheat). Results showed that, although treatment effects on dryland wheat grain yield was not significant, but maximum grain yield (2484 kg ha(-1)) was obtained from application of rye green manure along with 26 kg N ha(-1); which is 22% more than check (without rye green manure) treatment. Green manure application with or without nitrogen increased EC (dS m(-1)), but decreased OC, P (av.), Cu (av.), Mn (av.), Zn (av.) and sand in the soil. In contrast to green manure, application of nitrogen along with green manure increased saturation and clay. In the stage of stem appearance, soil moisture content decreased 8% in green-manure application but with nitrogen application the moisture increased 6% compared with check in 0-20 cm depth. It can be concluded that, green manure application is useful along with nitrogen fertilizer application in long term. This treatment could increase soil moisture content, which leads to higher wheat grain yield in dryland areas. In addition, green manure application could change some soil characteristics such as soil TNV%, which decreases availability of some essential nutrients for dryland wheat.

  17. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, S.; Hansen, S.; Azzaroli Bleken, M.; Dörsch, P.

    2012-07-01

    Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM). Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and return as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had small but significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non-fertilised cereal reference during the year of green manure (GM) production in 2009. Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1) throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010, all plots were ploughed (with and without GM) and sown with barley, resulting in generally higher N2O emissions than during the previous year. Application of biogas residue (60 kg NH4+-N + 50 kg organic N ha-1) before sowing did not increase emissions neither when applied to previous ley plots nor when applied to previously unfertilised cereal plots. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009) had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, GM ley (mulched or harvested) increased N2O emissions relative to a cereal reference with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1). Based on measurements covering the growing season 2010, organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the cereal reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilisation (47 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain).

  18. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, S.; Hansen, S.; Azzaroli Bleken, M.; Dörsch, P.

    2012-02-01

    Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM). Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and replacement as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had small but significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non-fertilized cereal reference during the year of green manure (GM) production in 2009. Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1) throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010 all plots were ploughed (with and without GM) and sown with barley, resulting in generally higher N2O emissions than during the previous year. Application of biogas residue (110 kg N ha-1) before sowing did not increase emissions neither when applied to previous ley plots nor when applied to previously unfertilized cereal plots. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009) had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, GM ley (mulched or harvested) increased N2O emissions relative to a cereal reference with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1). Organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the cereal reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilization in 2010 (47 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain).

  19. Evaluation of Millet and Rapeseed as Rotation or Green Manure Crops to Control Nematodes in Orchard Replant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four annual crops, including Canadian forage pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) hybrid 101, velvetbean (Mucuna spp. ), rapeseed (Brassica napus) cv. Dwarf Essex, and buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.), were evaluated as rotation or green manure crops for suppression of dagger (Xiphinema americanum) and lesio...

  20. Chicken manure enhanced yield and quality of field-grown kale and collard greens.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Turley, Eric T; Hill, Regina R; Snyder, John C

    2014-01-01

    Organic matter and nutrients in municipal sewage sludge (SS) and chicken manure (CM) could be recycled and used for land farming to enhance fertility and physical properties of soils. Three soil management practices were used at Kentucky State University Research Farm, Franklin County, to study the impact of soil amendments on kale (Brassica oleracea cv. Winterbar) and collard (Brassica oleracea cv. Top Bunch) yields and quality. The three soil management practices were: (i) SS mixed with native soil at 15 t acre(-1), (ii) CM mixed with native soil at 15 t acre(-1), and (iii) no-mulch (NM) native soil for comparison purposes. At harvest, collard and kale green plants were graded according to USDA standards. Plants grown in CM and SS amended soil produced the greatest number of U.S. No. 1 grade of collard and kale greens compared to NM native soil. Across all treatments, concentrations of ascorbic acid and phenols were generally greater in kale than in collards. Overall, CM and SS enhanced total phenols and ascorbic acid contents of kale and collard compared to NM native soil. We investigated the chemical and physical properties of each of the three soil treatments that might explain variability among treatments and the impact of soil amendments on yield, phenols, and ascorbic acid contents of kale and collard green grown under this practice.

  1. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, S.; Hansen, S.; Bleken, M.; Dörsch, P.

    2012-04-01

    Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM). Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and replacement as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non fertilized cereal reference during the GM year (2009). Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+ 0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1) throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010, all plots were ploughed (with and without GM) resulting in generally higher N2O emissions during barley production. Addition of biogas residue (80 kg N ha-1) in 2010 to previously non mulched GM and unfertilized cereal plots (2009) had no significant effect on cumulative N2O emissions relative to a treatment receiving the same amount of N in form of mulched aboveground GM. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009) had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, organic amendments (previously mulched or harvested GM, biorest) increased N2O emissions relative to a reference treatment with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1). Organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilization in 2010 (47 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain).

  2. Biofumigation for control of pale potato cyst nematodes: activity of brassica leaf extracts and green manures on Globodera pallida in vitro and in soil.

    PubMed

    Lord, James S; Lazzeri, Luca; Atkinson, Howard J; Urwin, Peter E

    2011-07-27

    The effects of brassica green manures on Globodera pallida were assessed in vitro and in soil microcosms. Twelve of 22 brassica accessions significantly inhibited the motility of G. pallida infective juveniles in vitro. Green manures of selected brassicas were then incorporated into soil containing encysted eggs of G. pallida. Their effect on egg viability was estimated by quantifying nematode actin 1 mRNA by RT-qPCR. The leaf glucosinolate profiles of the plants were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Three Brassica juncea lines (Nemfix, Fumus, and ISCI99) containing high concentrations of 2-propenyl glucosinolate were the most effective, causing over 95% mortality of encysted eggs of G. pallida in polyethylene-covered soil. The toxic effects of green manures were greater in polyethylene-covered than in open soil. Toxicity in soil correlated with the concentration of isothiocyanate-producing glucosinolate but not total glucosinolate in green manures.

  3. Effect of green manure in soil quality and nitrogen transfer to cherry tomato in the no tillage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson; Rossi, Fabricio; Dias, Fabio; Trivelin, Paulo; Tavares, Silvio; Muraoka, Takashi; Ambrosano, Glaucia; Salgado, Gabriela; Otsuk, Ivani

    2016-04-01

    The use of alternative fertilizers may reduce costs and promote sustainability to the family-based agro ecological production system. The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of the green manure to the quality of the soil and the transference of the nitrogen to cherry tomatoes using the N-15 abundance method (FAPESP 11/05648-3). The experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, APTA/SAA, SP, Brazil. The IAC collection accesses 21 of cherry tomatoes were used. Each Plot consisted of six plants spaced 0.5 m and 0.9 m between rows, using a randomized-blocks design with eight treatments and five repetitions. The treatments consisted of green manure crops intercropped or not with cherry tomato, namely: jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), velvet bean (Mucuna deeringiana), mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek), white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Besides two witnesses, one with and another without corn straw. Five leaves with petiole of each plant part from the first ripe fruit and a bunch of fruits per plant are harvested. Samples of leaf and fruit were weighed and dried in a forced air oven and its dry weight measured. A subsample was ground in a Wiley mill and brought to the mass spectrometer (ANCA GSL) on the Stable Isotopes Laboratory of CENA/USP for δN-15 analysis. It measured the percentage of the transference of N from the green manure to the tomato; the tomato plants grown in monocropping were considered a control. It was found that 27 % of the N present in the fruit and 23% of the N present in the leaves came from the green manure. These results show that dur¬ing the development of the fruit of the tomato there is a greater translocation and consequently, a higher use of the N from the green manure in the fruits than in the leaves. This production system can reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers. The presence of a green manure in non-intercropped treatments caused some soil

  4. USE OF GREEN MANURE CROPS AND SUGAR BEET VARIETIES TO CONTROL HETERODERA BETAE.

    PubMed

    Raaijmakers, E

    2014-01-01

    Although it is less studied than the white beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii), the yellow beet cyst nematode (H. betae) has been found in many countries in Europe. For example in The Netherlands, France and Spain. H. betae causes yield losses on sandy soils. A high infestation can result in loss of complete plants. In The Netherlands, this nematode is especially found in the south eastern and north eastern part, where it occurs on 18% and 5% of the fields, respectively. From a project of the Dutch Sugar beet Research Institute IRS (SUSY) on factors explaining differences in sugar yield, this nematode was one of the most important factors reducing sugar yields on sandy soils. Until 2008, the only way to control H. betae was by reducing the number of host crops in the crop rotation. Host crops are crops belonging to the families of Cruciferae, Chenopodiaceae, Polygonaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Leguminosea. In order to find more control measures, research was done to investigate the host status of different green manure crops and the resistance and tolerance of different sugar beet varieties to H. betae. White mustard (Sinapis alba) and oil seed radish (Raphanus sativus spp. oleiferus) varieties resistant to H. schachtii were investigated for their resistance against H. betae. A climate room trial and a field trial with white mustard and oil seed radish were conducted in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Results show that H. betae could multiply on susceptible white mustard and susceptible oil seed radish, but not on the H. schachtii resistant varieties. In climate room trials in 2009, 2010 and 2011 and field trials in 2010, 2011 and 2012, the effect of different sugar beet varieties on the multiplication of H. betae and the effect of H. betae on yield at different infestation levels was investigated. Sugar beet varieties with resistance genes to H. schachtii (from Beta procumbens or B. maritima) were selected. Varieties with resistance genes from these sources were

  5. USE OF GREEN MANURE CROPS AND SUGAR BEET VARIETIES TO CONTROL HETERODERA BETAE.

    PubMed

    Raaijmakers, E

    2014-01-01

    Although it is less studied than the white beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii), the yellow beet cyst nematode (H. betae) has been found in many countries in Europe. For example in The Netherlands, France and Spain. H. betae causes yield losses on sandy soils. A high infestation can result in loss of complete plants. In The Netherlands, this nematode is especially found in the south eastern and north eastern part, where it occurs on 18% and 5% of the fields, respectively. From a project of the Dutch Sugar beet Research Institute IRS (SUSY) on factors explaining differences in sugar yield, this nematode was one of the most important factors reducing sugar yields on sandy soils. Until 2008, the only way to control H. betae was by reducing the number of host crops in the crop rotation. Host crops are crops belonging to the families of Cruciferae, Chenopodiaceae, Polygonaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Leguminosea. In order to find more control measures, research was done to investigate the host status of different green manure crops and the resistance and tolerance of different sugar beet varieties to H. betae. White mustard (Sinapis alba) and oil seed radish (Raphanus sativus spp. oleiferus) varieties resistant to H. schachtii were investigated for their resistance against H. betae. A climate room trial and a field trial with white mustard and oil seed radish were conducted in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Results show that H. betae could multiply on susceptible white mustard and susceptible oil seed radish, but not on the H. schachtii resistant varieties. In climate room trials in 2009, 2010 and 2011 and field trials in 2010, 2011 and 2012, the effect of different sugar beet varieties on the multiplication of H. betae and the effect of H. betae on yield at different infestation levels was investigated. Sugar beet varieties with resistance genes to H. schachtii (from Beta procumbens or B. maritima) were selected. Varieties with resistance genes from these sources were

  6. Effect of the chemical composition of green manure crops on humus formation in a Soddy-Podzolic soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripolskaja, L.; Romanovskaja, D.; Slepetiene, A.; Razukas, A.; Sidlauskas, G.

    2014-04-01

    The effects of different types of green manure ( Trifolium pratense L., Dactylis glomerata L., and Secale cereale L.) and the time of its input into the soil (autumn and spring) on the contents of humus and labile humus substances in a soddy-podzolic soil and the relationship between the formation of humus and the chemical composition of the applied biomass were studied. Green manure had a positive effect on the accumulation of humus in the soil. When the plants were plowed into the soil in the fall, the amount of humus formed in the soil in the first year was 0.1% higher in comparison with the spring application of green manure. The most active synthesis of new humus substances took place upon the following properties of the plant biomass: C: N = 15-25, the cellulose content of 20-28%, and the lignin content of 14-17%. The highest amount of labile humus substances was formed during the decomposition of the biomass with the C: N ratio above 20, the cellulose content of 19-20%, and the lignin content of 14-16%.

  7. Remediation of degraded arable steppe soils in Moldova using vetch as green manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesmeier, M.; Lungu, M.; Hübner, R.; Cerbari, V.

    2015-01-01

    In the Republic of Moldova, non-sustainable arable farming led to severe degradation and erosion of fertile steppe soils (Chernozems). As a result, the Chernozems lost about 40% of their initial amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC). Aim of this study was to remediate degraded arable soils and promote carbon sequestration by implementation of cover cropping and green manuring in Moldova. Thereby, the suitability of the legume hairy vetch (Vicia sativa) as cover crop under the dry, continental climate of Moldova was examined. At two experimental sites, the effect of cover cropping on chemical and physical soil properties as well as on yields of subsequent main crops was determined. The results showed a significant increase of SOC after incorporation of hairy vetch due to a high above- and belowground biomass production that was related with a high input of carbon and nitrogen. A calculation of SOC stocks based on equivalent soil masses revealed a sequestration of around 3 t C ha-1 yr-1 as a result of hairy vetch cover cropping. The buildup of SOC was associated with an improvement of the soil structure as indicated by a distinct decrease of bulk density and a relative increase of macroaggregates at the expense of microaggregates and clods. As a result, yields of subsequent main crops increased by around 20%. Our results indicated that hairy vetch is a promising cover crop to remediate degraded steppe soils, control soil erosion and sequestrate substantial amounts of atmospheric C in arable soils of Moldova.

  8. [Effects of rotations and different green manure utilizations on crop yield and soil fertility].

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhi-yuan; Wang, Zheng; Li, Jing; Yu, Chang-wei; Cao, Qun-hu; Cao, Wei-dong; Gao, Ya-jun

    2015-08-01

    A 4-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of three rotation systems and three corresponding leguminous green manure (LGM) application methods on wheat yield and soil properties. The rotation patterns were summer fallow--winter wheat (SW), LGM-- winter wheat (LW) and LGM--spring maize--winter wheat (LMW). The three LGM application methods of LW included: early mulch, early incorporation and late incorporation while the three LGM application methods of LMW were: stalk mulch, stalk incorporation and stalk move-away. The results indicated that for LW, LGM consumed more soil water, thus the wheat yield was not stable. The nitrate storage in 0-200 cm soil after wheat harvest was significantly higher than that of the others, indicating an increasing risk of nitrate leaching. Early mulch under LW had the highest soil organic carbon (SOC) content and storage of SOC (SSOC) in 0-20 cm soil. For LMW, wheat yield was comparatively stable among years, because of higher water storage before wheat seeding, and the nitrate storage in 0-200 cm soil after wheat harvest was significantly lower than LW, which decreased the risk of nitrate leaching. Stalk mulch had higher SOC content in 0-20 cm soil after wheat harvest compared with move-away. In addition, compared with the soil when the experiment started, stalk much also increased SSOC in 0-20 cm soil. In conclusion, LMW with stalk mulch could increase soil water storage, stabilize crop yield, improve soil fertility and decrease 0-200 cm soil nitrate storage. This system could be treated as a good alternative for areas with similar climate. PMID:26685595

  9. Remediation of degraded arable steppe soils in Moldova using vetch as green manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesmeier, M.; Lungu, M.; Hübner, R.; Cerbari, V.

    2015-05-01

    In the Republic of Moldova, non-sustainable arable farming led to severe degradation and erosion of fertile steppe soils (Chernozems). As a result, the Chernozems lost about 40% of their initial amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC). The aim of this study was to remediate degraded arable soils and promote carbon sequestration by implementation of cover cropping and green manuring in Moldova. Thereby, the suitability of the legume hairy vetch (Vicia sativa) as cover crop under the dry continental climate of Moldova was examined. At two experimental sites, the effect of cover cropping on chemical and physical soil properties as well as on yields of subsequent main crops was determined. The results showed a significant increase of SOC after incorporation of hairy vetch mainly due to increases of aggregate-occluded and mineral-associated OC. This was related to a high above- and belowground biomass production of hairy vetch associated with a high input of carbon and nitrogen into arable soils. A calculation of SOC stocks based on equivalent soil masses revealed a sequestration of around 3 t C ha-1yr-1 as a result of hairy vetch cover cropping. The buildup of SOC was associated with an improvement of the soil structure as indicated by a distinct decrease of bulk density and a relative increase of macroaggregates at the expense of microaggregates and clods. As a result, yields of subsequent main crops increased by around 20%. Our results indicated that hairy vetch is a promising cover crop to remediate degraded steppe soils, control soil erosion and sequester substantial amounts of atmospheric C in arable soils of Moldova.

  10. [Effects of rotations and different green manure utilizations on crop yield and soil fertility].

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhi-yuan; Wang, Zheng; Li, Jing; Yu, Chang-wei; Cao, Qun-hu; Cao, Wei-dong; Gao, Ya-jun

    2015-08-01

    A 4-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of three rotation systems and three corresponding leguminous green manure (LGM) application methods on wheat yield and soil properties. The rotation patterns were summer fallow--winter wheat (SW), LGM-- winter wheat (LW) and LGM--spring maize--winter wheat (LMW). The three LGM application methods of LW included: early mulch, early incorporation and late incorporation while the three LGM application methods of LMW were: stalk mulch, stalk incorporation and stalk move-away. The results indicated that for LW, LGM consumed more soil water, thus the wheat yield was not stable. The nitrate storage in 0-200 cm soil after wheat harvest was significantly higher than that of the others, indicating an increasing risk of nitrate leaching. Early mulch under LW had the highest soil organic carbon (SOC) content and storage of SOC (SSOC) in 0-20 cm soil. For LMW, wheat yield was comparatively stable among years, because of higher water storage before wheat seeding, and the nitrate storage in 0-200 cm soil after wheat harvest was significantly lower than LW, which decreased the risk of nitrate leaching. Stalk mulch had higher SOC content in 0-20 cm soil after wheat harvest compared with move-away. In addition, compared with the soil when the experiment started, stalk much also increased SSOC in 0-20 cm soil. In conclusion, LMW with stalk mulch could increase soil water storage, stabilize crop yield, improve soil fertility and decrease 0-200 cm soil nitrate storage. This system could be treated as a good alternative for areas with similar climate.

  11. Effect of green manure in soil quality and nitrogen transfer to cherry tomato in the no tillage system on corn straw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson; Rossi, Fabricio; Dias, Fabio; Trivelin, Paulo; Muraoka, Takashi; Tavares, Silvio; Ambrosano, Glaucia

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of green manure in on soil quality and nitrogen transfer to cherry tomatoes using the N-15 abundance method. The experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, APTA/SAA, SP, Brazil. The IAC collection accesses 21 of cherry tomatoes were used. Each Plot consisted of six plants spaced 0.5 m and 0.9 m between rows, conducted in a randomized block with eight treatments and five repetitions. The treatments were as green manures intercropping or not on cherry tomato, namely: jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), dwarf mucuna (Mucuna deeringiana), mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek ), white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Besides two witnesses, one without corn straw and another with corn straw. Five leaves with petiole of each plant part during the first ripe fruit and a bunch of fruits per plant are harvested. Samples of leaf and fruit were weighed and dried in an oven of forced air and its dry weight measured. A subsample was ground in a knife mill type Willy and brought to the mass spectrometer (ANCA GSL) on the Stable Isotopes Laboratory of CENA/USP for the analysis of δN-15. It measured the percentage of transfer of N green manure for tomato, the tomato plants grown as monocropped were considered a control and came to the result that 27 % N found in the fruit came from the green manure and the aerial part this figure was 23%. These results show that dur¬ing the fruit set of tomato can occur greater translocation and consequent higher utilization of N from green manure than in the aerial part. This production system can reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers. The presence of a green manure in treatments not intercropped caused some soil alterations that could be detected in samples collected in the harvesting season. There was an increase in organic matter, Ca, Mg and Zn availability, and consequently in base saturation and pH. The presence

  12. Chemical, green and organic manure effects on chemical properties on a savannah oxisol and on corn under conventional tillage and no-tillage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannigel, Anny R.; Alves, Marlene C.; Valério Filho, Walter V.

    2015-04-01

    Modern agriculture, in general, has always been based on the concept that natural resources are endless; however, this concept is changing. Concern for the environment is increasingly becoming part of farming practices, either by the awareness of society, or because the high cost of fertilizers or even the exhaustion of soils. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of the green manure and mineral fertilizer and/or organic manure and, on the chemical properties of an Oxisol, on "Savannah" (cerrado) area in Mato Grosso do Sul-Brazil, cultivated with corn (Zea mays L.) on the following management conditions: no-tillage and conventional tillage, on area previously under pasture (Brachiaria decumbens). The experimental design was a randomized blocks and the tested treatments were: control (without organic manure or chemical fertilizer); chemical fertilizer, as recommended for the culture and based on the chemical soil analysis; organic manure (cow manure); organic manure + half of the mineral fertilizer recommended rate; and the green manure Crotalaria juncea and Pennisetum americanum. The chemical analyses were the soil chemical analysis to the intent of soil fertility. Corn yield was evaluated. The collect of soil samples were realized in depths of 0.00-0.05 m and 0.05-0.10 m and 0.10-0.20 m. The organic manure and the organic manure + half of the mineral recommended rate increased P, Ca, Mg, K and Organic Matter in the first depth (0.00 - 0.05 m). These treatments also increased K and Mg at the second depth analyzed (0.05 - 0.10 m) and K in the depth from 0.10 - 0.20 m. Under conventional tillage management presents better crop results with an average grain yield of 3649 kg ha-1 versus 2374 kg ha-1 obtained under no-tillage. The use of chemical fertilizer, organic manure + half of the mineral recommended rate, Crotalaria juncea, organic manure and Pennisetum americanum increased corn yield by 84, 79, 58, 44 and 41 %, respectively.

  13. Green manure plants for remediation of soils polluted by metals and metalloids: ecotoxicity and human bioavailability assessment.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Y; Lévêque, T; Xiong, T; Schreck, E; Austruy, A; Shahid, M; Dumat, C

    2013-10-01

    Borage, white mustard and phacelia, green manure plants currently used in agriculture to improve soil properties were cultivated for 10 wk on various polluted soils with metal(loid) concentrations representative of urban brownfields or polluted kitchen gardens. Metal(loid) bioavailability and ecotoxicity were measured in relation to soil characteristics before and after treatment. All the plants efficiently grow on the various polluted soils. But borage and mustard only are able to modify the soil characteristics and metal(loid) impact: soil respiration increased while ecotoxicity, bioaccessible lead and total metal(loid) quantities in soils can be decreased respectively by phytostabilization and phytoextraction mechanisms. These two plants could therefore be used for urban polluted soil refunctionalization. However, plant efficiency to improve soil quality strongly depends on soil characteristics. PMID:23968553

  14. Green manure plants for remediation of soils polluted by metals and metalloids: ecotoxicity and human bioavailability assessment.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Y; Lévêque, T; Xiong, T; Schreck, E; Austruy, A; Shahid, M; Dumat, C

    2013-10-01

    Borage, white mustard and phacelia, green manure plants currently used in agriculture to improve soil properties were cultivated for 10 wk on various polluted soils with metal(loid) concentrations representative of urban brownfields or polluted kitchen gardens. Metal(loid) bioavailability and ecotoxicity were measured in relation to soil characteristics before and after treatment. All the plants efficiently grow on the various polluted soils. But borage and mustard only are able to modify the soil characteristics and metal(loid) impact: soil respiration increased while ecotoxicity, bioaccessible lead and total metal(loid) quantities in soils can be decreased respectively by phytostabilization and phytoextraction mechanisms. These two plants could therefore be used for urban polluted soil refunctionalization. However, plant efficiency to improve soil quality strongly depends on soil characteristics.

  15. Long-term rice and green manure rotation alters the endophytic bacterial communities of the rice root.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Xia; Gao, Ju-Sheng; Cao, Yan-Hua; Ma, Xiao-Tong; He, Ji-Zheng

    2013-11-01

    This study focuses on the effects of long-term rice rotated with milk vetch being as green manure on the composition of bacteria in rice roots. The endophytic bacterial communities in rice roots of the rice-rice-milk vetch (R-R-MV) and the rice-rice-winter fallow (R-R-WF) crop rotations with a 28-year research history were investigated using combined culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. It was found that the endophytic bacterial population in rice roots with the green manure was significantly higher than that of without it. There were 169 and 77 strains of endophytic bacteria that were isolated from rice roots of the R-R-MV and the R-R-WF, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene analysis shows that the 77 R-R-WF bacteria belong to 15 species of 14 genera while the other 169 R-R-MV bacteria belong to 21 species of 19 genera, in which Herbaspirillum and Cedecea were two mutually dominant populations and Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, and Pantoea accounted for large proportions of the endophytic bacteria in rice roots through R-R-MV rotation. The analysis of 16S rDNA clone libraries showed that the Shannon-Weaver diversity index of endophytic bacteria in R-R-MV approximates that in R-R-WF rotation, whereas the richness indexes of Chao 1 and ACE in R-R-MV rotation system were significantly higher than those in R-R-WF rotation. The diversity of endophytic bacteria was richer in R-R-MV. Both the culture-dependent and the culture-independent method revealed significant effect of long-term different tillage systems on the microbial community. PMID:24046075

  16. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    Nowadays is widely well know that the potato is an important vegetable crop at Brazíl. It is grown on about 173.000 ha, with total yield of 2.6 million tons year-1. The average yield is 15 t ha-1. This level is very low because degeneration of crop is rapid under high temperature and high viruses pressure. Therefore seed potato propagation and production is principal on consumption potato production. This is why we found it necessary to develop it. The latossolo vermelho soil-farmyard manure- burnt rice straw-fertilizer 4N:14P:8K greenhouse pot trial was set up at the National Vegetable Crops Research Center, Brasília-DF, Brazíl in 1990. The methods of the experiments were soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw, soil x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer and soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer on randomized block design in total 29 combination of treatments in 5, 5 and 3 repetitions with in a total parcel of 116. According to chemical analysis of the a., soil, b., farmyard manure and c., burnt rice straw the agrochemistry parameters were as follows (estimated datas): a., latossolo vermelho soil: CaCO3 0.3-0.7%, humo 0.9-1.0%, pH (H2O) 5.3, pH (KCl) 4.5, AL- P2O5 3.2-3.5 mg kg-1, AL- K2O 180 mg kg-1, Mg (KCl) 70 mg kg-1, EDTA-Zn 0.5-0.8 mg kg-1, EDTA-Cu 0.5-0.6 mg kg-1, b., farmyard manure: N 1.8 g kg-1, P2O5 2.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.0 g kg-1, c., burnt rice straw: N 0.8 g kg-1, P2O5 7.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.5 g kg-1. The experimental datas were estimated by analysis of variance, ANOVA and MANOVA. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. Mixture of 80% latossolo vermelho, 10% burnt rice straw and 10% farmyard manure were shown best performance on seed potato productivity. The piece of tubers with a 0-20 mm (consumption seeds) was increased by 77%. 2. Total seed potato number was reached maximum at 10.8 g pot-1 4N:14P:8K fertilizer regarding to average of treatments with a 33%. 3. Dry biomassa production plant-1 was decreased by high dose of 4N:14P:8K

  17. Soil Water Balance and Water Use Efficiency of Dryland Wheat in Different Precipitation Years in Response to Green Manure Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dabin; Yao, Pengwei; Na, Zhao; Cao, Weidong; Zhang, Suiqi; Li, Yangyang; Gao, Yajun

    2016-05-01

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) monoculture is conventionally cultivated followed by two to three months of summer fallow in the Loess Plateau. To develop a sustainable cropping system, we conducted a six-year field experiment to investigate the effect of leguminous green manure (LGM) instead of bare fallow on the yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of winter wheat and the soil water balance (SWB) in different precipitation years in a semi-arid region of northwest China. Results confirmed that planting LGM crop consumes soil water in the fallow season can bring varied effects to the subsequent wheat. The effect is positive or neutral when the annual precipitation is adequate, so that there is no significant reduction in the soil water supplied to wheat. If this is not the case, the effect is negative. On average, the LGM crop increased wheat yield and WUE by 13% and 28%, respectively, and had considerable potential for maintaining the SWB (0–200 cm) compared with fallow management. In conclusion, cultivation of the LGM crop is a better option than fallow to improve the productivity and WUE of the next crop and maintain the soil water balance in the normal and wet years in the Loess Plateau.

  18. Soil Water Balance and Water Use Efficiency of Dryland Wheat in Different Precipitation Years in Response to Green Manure Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dabin; Yao, Pengwei; Na, Zhao; Cao, Weidong; Zhang, Suiqi; Li, Yangyang; Gao, Yajun

    2016-01-01

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) monoculture is conventionally cultivated followed by two to three months of summer fallow in the Loess Plateau. To develop a sustainable cropping system, we conducted a six-year field experiment to investigate the effect of leguminous green manure (LGM) instead of bare fallow on the yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of winter wheat and the soil water balance (SWB) in different precipitation years in a semi-arid region of northwest China. Results confirmed that planting LGM crop consumes soil water in the fallow season can bring varied effects to the subsequent wheat. The effect is positive or neutral when the annual precipitation is adequate, so that there is no significant reduction in the soil water supplied to wheat. If this is not the case, the effect is negative. On average, the LGM crop increased wheat yield and WUE by 13% and 28%, respectively, and had considerable potential for maintaining the SWB (0-200 cm) compared with fallow management. In conclusion, cultivation of the LGM crop is a better option than fallow to improve the productivity and WUE of the next crop and maintain the soil water balance in the normal and wet years in the Loess Plateau. PMID:27225842

  19. Soil Water Balance and Water Use Efficiency of Dryland Wheat in Different Precipitation Years in Response to Green Manure Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dabin; Yao, Pengwei; Na, Zhao; Cao, Weidong; Zhang, Suiqi; Li, Yangyang; Gao, Yajun

    2016-01-01

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) monoculture is conventionally cultivated followed by two to three months of summer fallow in the Loess Plateau. To develop a sustainable cropping system, we conducted a six-year field experiment to investigate the effect of leguminous green manure (LGM) instead of bare fallow on the yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of winter wheat and the soil water balance (SWB) in different precipitation years in a semi-arid region of northwest China. Results confirmed that planting LGM crop consumes soil water in the fallow season can bring varied effects to the subsequent wheat. The effect is positive or neutral when the annual precipitation is adequate, so that there is no significant reduction in the soil water supplied to wheat. If this is not the case, the effect is negative. On average, the LGM crop increased wheat yield and WUE by 13% and 28%, respectively, and had considerable potential for maintaining the SWB (0–200 cm) compared with fallow management. In conclusion, cultivation of the LGM crop is a better option than fallow to improve the productivity and WUE of the next crop and maintain the soil water balance in the normal and wet years in the Loess Plateau. PMID:27225842

  20. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    Nowadays is widely well know that the potato is an important vegetable crop at Brazíl. It is grown on about 173.000 ha, with total yield of 2.6 million tons year-1. The average yield is 15 t ha-1. This level is very low because degeneration of crop is rapid under high temperature and high viruses pressure. Therefore seed potato propagation and production is principal on consumption potato production. This is why we found it necessary to develop it. The latossolo vermelho soil-farmyard manure- burnt rice straw-fertilizer 4N:14P:8K greenhouse pot trial was set up at the National Vegetable Crops Research Center, Brasília-DF, Brazíl in 1990. The methods of the experiments were soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw, soil x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer and soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer on randomized block design in total 29 combination of treatments in 5, 5 and 3 repetitions with in a total parcel of 116. According to chemical analysis of the a., soil, b., farmyard manure and c., burnt rice straw the agrochemistry parameters were as follows (estimated datas): a., latossolo vermelho soil: CaCO3 0.3-0.7%, humo 0.9-1.0%, pH (H2O) 5.3, pH (KCl) 4.5, AL- P2O5 3.2-3.5 mg kg-1, AL- K2O 180 mg kg-1, Mg (KCl) 70 mg kg-1, EDTA-Zn 0.5-0.8 mg kg-1, EDTA-Cu 0.5-0.6 mg kg-1, b., farmyard manure: N 1.8 g kg-1, P2O5 2.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.0 g kg-1, c., burnt rice straw: N 0.8 g kg-1, P2O5 7.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.5 g kg-1. The experimental datas were estimated by analysis of variance, ANOVA and MANOVA. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. Mixture of 80% latossolo vermelho, 10% burnt rice straw and 10% farmyard manure were shown best performance on seed potato productivity. The piece of tubers with a 0-20 mm (consumption seeds) was increased by 77%. 2. Total seed potato number was reached maximum at 10.8 g pot-1 4N:14P:8K fertilizer regarding to average of treatments with a 33%. 3. Dry biomassa production plant-1 was decreased by high dose of 4N:14P:8K

  1. Effect of interactions on the nutrient status of a tropical soil treated with green manures and inorganic phosphate fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Bah, Abdul R; Rahman, Zaharah A; Hussin, Aminuddin

    2004-06-01

    Integrated nutrient management systems using plant residues and inorganic P fertilizers have high potential for increasing crop production and ensuring sustainability in the tropics, but their adoption requires in-depth understanding of nutrient dynamics in such systems. This was examined in a highly weathered tropical soil treated with green manures (GMs) and P fertilizers in two experiments conducted in the laboratory and glasshouse. The treatments were factorial combinations of the GMs (Calopogonium caeruleum, Gliricidia sepium, and Imperata cylindrica) and P fertilizers (phosphate rocks [PRs] from North Carolina, China, and Algeria, and triple superphosphate) replicated thrice. Olsen P, mineral N, pH, and exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg were monitored in a laboratory incubation study for 16 months. The change in soil P fractions and available P was also determined at the end of the study. Phosphorus available from the amendments was quantified at monthly intervals for 5 months by 33P-32P double isotopic labeling in the glasshouse using Setaria sphacelata as test crop. The GMs were labeled with 33P to determine their contribution to P taken up by Setaria, while that from the P fertilizers was indirectly measured by labeling the soil with 32P. The P fertilizers hardly changed Olsen P and exchangeable cations during 16 months of incubation. The legume GMs and legume GM+P did not change Olsen P, lowered exchangeable Ca, and increased exchangeable K about threefold (4.5 cmol[+]kg(-1) soil) in the first 4 months, even as large amounts of NH4-N accumulated (approximately 1000 mg kg soil(-1)) and soil pH increased to more than 6.5. Afterwards, Olsen P and exchangeable Ca and Mg increased (threefold) as NH4+-N and soil pH declined. The legume GMs also augmented reversibly sorbed P in Al-P and Fe-P fractions resulting in high residual effect in the soil, while fertilizer-P was irreversibly retained. The GMs increased PR-P utilization by 40 to over 80%, mobilized soil P, and

  2. Growth and nitrogen fixation of legumes at increased salinity under field conditions: implications for the use of green manures in saline environments

    PubMed Central

    Bruning, Bas; van Logtestijn, Richard; Broekman, Rob; de Vos, Arjen; González, Andrés Parra; Rozema, Jelte

    2015-01-01

    The use of legumes as green manure can potentially increase crop productivity in saline environments and thus contribute to the sustainability of agricultural systems. Here, we present results from a field experiment conducted in the Netherlands that addressed the efficiency of nitrogen (N) fixation by a legume at varying salinities. We grew Melilotus officinalis in an agricultural field using drip irrigation with water salinity varying in electrical conductivity between 1.7 and 20 dS m−1. In the experiment, nearly 100 % of total plant N in M. officinalis was derived from symbiotic fixation at all but the highest salinity level (20 dS m−1). Our results indicated that this species derived substantial amounts of N via symbiotic fixation, the N becoming available in the soil (and thus available to crops) when cultivated legumes senesce and decompose. Based on the growth performance of M. officinalis and its ability to fix N at moderate soil salinity in our field experiments, we identified this species as a promising source for green manure in saline agriculture in temperate regions. PMID:25661201

  3. Quantification of the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation to tropical green manure crops and the residual benefit to a subsequent maize crop using 15N-isotope techniques.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M G; Villatoro, M A; Urquiaga, S; Alves, B J; Boddey, R M

    2001-10-01

    In this study the contribution of biological N2 fixation (BNF) to leguminous green manures was quantified in the field at different sites with different 15N methodologies. In the first experiment, conducted on a Terra Roxa soil in Cuba, the BNF contribution to three legumes (Crotalaria juncea, Mucuna aterrima and Canavalia ensiformis) was quantified by applying 15N-labelled ammonium sulphate to the soil. The second experiment was planted in a very low fertility sandy soil near Rio de Janeiro, and the 15N natural abundance technique was applied to quantify BNF in C. juncea, M. niveum and soybean. In both studies the advantages of using several non-N2-fixing reference plants was apparent and despite the much greater accumulation of the C. juncea in the experiment performed on the fertile soil of Cuba, the above ground contributions of BNF at both sites were similar (40-80 kg N x ha(-1)) and greater than for the other legumes. In a further experiment the possible contribution of root-derived N to the soil/plant system of two of the legumes was quantified using a 15N-leaf-labelling technique performed in pots. The results of this study suggested that total below-ground N could constitute as much as 39 to 49% of the total N accumulated by the legume crops. PMID:11566383

  4. Geographic information system based manure application plan.

    PubMed

    Basnet, Badri B; Apan, Armando A; Raine, Steven R

    2002-02-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) based manure application plan has been developed for the site-specific application of animal waste to agricultural fields in the Westbrook sub-catchment of the Murray-Darling Basin, south-east Queensland, Australia. Sites suitable for animal waste application were identified using a GIS based weighted linear combination (WLC) model. The degree of land suitability for animal waste application was determined using a range of social, economic, environmental, and agricultural factors. As eutrophication and toxic blue-green algae blooms are a known problem in the catchment, the manure application rates were limited to the rate of crop phosphorus removal. Maximum manure application rate was calculated spatially by taking the crop nutrient (P2O5) requirement and the manure nutrient (P2O5) content into account. The environmental suitability of the fields receiving animal waste was considered in prescribing the final application rate of solid and liquid manures generated by local animal production facilities. The degree of site suitability of the agricultural fields was also used to suggest manure management practices to minimise the socio-environmental risks and increase the nutrient use efficiency of the applied manure. The amount of ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) that would be added to the soil by satisfying the P2O5 requirement using manure sources was also calculated and an applied NH4-N map was created. This map could be used to assist farmers identify additional nitrogen requirements after manure application. PMID:11995243

  5. Effects of soil amendments at a heavy loading rate associated with cover crops as green manures on the leaching of nutrients and heavy metals from a calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Ren; Li, Yun-Cong; Klassen, Waldemar

    2003-11-01

    The potential risk of groundwater contamination by the excessive leaching of N, P and heavy metals from soils amended at heavy loading rates of biosolids, coal ash, N-viro soil (1:1 mixture of coal ash and biosolids), yard waste compost and co-compost (3:7 mixture of biosolids to yard wastes), and by soil incorporation of green manures of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) and sorghum sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanense) was studied by collecting and analyzing leachates from pots of Krome very gravelly loam soil subjected to these treatments. The control consisted of Krome soil without any amendment. The loading rate was 205 g pot(-1) for each amendment (equivalent to 50 t ha(-1) of the dry weight), and the amounts of the cover crops incorporated into the soil in the pot were those that had been grown in it. A subtropical vegetable crop, okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.), was grown after the soil amendments or cover crops had been incorporated into the soil. The results showed that the concentration of NO3-N in leachate from biosolids was significantly higher than in leachate from other treatments. The levels of heavy metals found in the leachates from all amended soils were so low, as to suggest these amendments may be used without risk of leaching dangerous amounts of these toxic elements. Nevertheless the level of heavy metals in leachate from coal ash amended soil was substantially greater than in leachates from the other treatments. The leguminous cover crop, sunn hemp, returned into the soil, increased the leachate NO3-N and inorganic P concentration significantly compared with the non-legume, sorghum sudangrass. The results suggest that at heavy loading rates of soil amendments, leaching of NO3- could be a significant concern by application of biosolids. Leaching of inorganic P can be increased significantly by both co-compost and biosolids, but decreased by coal ash and N-viro soil by virtue of improved adsorption. The leguminous cover crop

  6. Effects of soil amendments at a heavy loading rate associated with cover crops as green manures on the leaching of nutrients and heavy metals from a calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Ren; Li, Yun-Cong; Klassen, Waldemar

    2003-11-01

    The potential risk of groundwater contamination by the excessive leaching of N, P and heavy metals from soils amended at heavy loading rates of biosolids, coal ash, N-viro soil (1:1 mixture of coal ash and biosolids), yard waste compost and co-compost (3:7 mixture of biosolids to yard wastes), and by soil incorporation of green manures of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) and sorghum sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanense) was studied by collecting and analyzing leachates from pots of Krome very gravelly loam soil subjected to these treatments. The control consisted of Krome soil without any amendment. The loading rate was 205 g pot(-1) for each amendment (equivalent to 50 t ha(-1) of the dry weight), and the amounts of the cover crops incorporated into the soil in the pot were those that had been grown in it. A subtropical vegetable crop, okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.), was grown after the soil amendments or cover crops had been incorporated into the soil. The results showed that the concentration of NO3-N in leachate from biosolids was significantly higher than in leachate from other treatments. The levels of heavy metals found in the leachates from all amended soils were so low, as to suggest these amendments may be used without risk of leaching dangerous amounts of these toxic elements. Nevertheless the level of heavy metals in leachate from coal ash amended soil was substantially greater than in leachates from the other treatments. The leguminous cover crop, sunn hemp, returned into the soil, increased the leachate NO3-N and inorganic P concentration significantly compared with the non-legume, sorghum sudangrass. The results suggest that at heavy loading rates of soil amendments, leaching of NO3- could be a significant concern by application of biosolids. Leaching of inorganic P can be increased significantly by both co-compost and biosolids, but decreased by coal ash and N-viro soil by virtue of improved adsorption. The leguminous cover crop

  7. Manure on alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many managers of crop-livestock operations could, or need to, utilize alfalfa fields in their manure management plans. The advantages to manure application on alfalfa need to be considered in the context of some potential concerns – plant damage from manure or wheel traffic, pathogen transmission in...

  8. Use of legume manures as nitrogen sources for corn production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent volatility in supplies and prices of natural gas and synthetic N fertilizer suggests a need to develop and refine alternative strategies for supplying N to corn. In this study, conducted in northeastern Iowa, we examined the use of red clover and alfalfa green manures as means of supplying N ...

  9. Dairy manure biochar as a phosphorus fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy manure biochars, along with other manure biochars, contain sufficient concentrations of plant available nutrients, particularly phosphorous. For greenhouse studies using ryegrass, cotton, and soybean, manure biochars performed similar to commercial phosphorous fertilizers when applied at appro...

  10. Kinetics of Methane Production from Swine Manure and Buffalo Manure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chen; Cao, Weixing; Liu, Ronghou

    2015-10-01

    The degradation kinetics of swine and buffalo manure for methane production was investigated. Six kinetic models were employed to describe the corresponding experimental data. These models were evaluated by two statistical measurements, which were root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The results showed that the logistic and Fitzhugh models could predict the experimental data very well for the digestion of swine and buffalo manure, respectively. The predicted methane yield potential for swine and buffalo manure was 487.9 and 340.4 mL CH4/g volatile solid (VS), respectively, which was close to experimental values, when the digestion temperature was 36 ± 1 °C in the biochemical methane potential assays. Besides, the rate constant revealed that swine manure had a much faster methane production rate than buffalo manure.

  11. Survival of Salmonella enterica in Dried Turkey Manure and Persistence on Spinach Leaves.

    PubMed

    Oni, Ruth A; Sharma, Manan; Buchanan, Robert L

    2015-10-01

    Concerns about the microbiological safety of fresh produce have attracted attention in the past three decades due to multiple foodborne outbreaks. Animal manure contaminated with enteric pathogens has been identified as an important preharvest pathogen source. This study investigated the survival of Salmonella enterica in dust particles of dehydrated turkey manure and how association with manure dust may enhance the survival of salmonellae on leafy greens in the field. The survival of a cocktail of multiple Salmonella serotypes in the dried fecal material of various particle sizes (125 to 500 μm) was examined at varying moisture contents (5, 10, and 15%). Survival times of the pathogen were inversely related to moisture content and particle size of manure dust, with viable Salmonella still detectable for up to 291 days in the smallest particle size (125 μm) with 5% moisture. Association with manure dust particles increased the survival of Salmonella when subjected to UV light both under laboratory conditions and on the surface of spinach leaves in a greenhouse setting. The results of this study suggest that aerosolized manure particles could be a potential vehicle for Salmonella dispersal to leafy greens if the microorganism is present in the dry manure.

  12. Immobilization of tetracyclines in manure and manure-amended soils using aluminum-based drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Rakshit, Sudipta; Elzinga, Evert J; Datta, Rupali

    2016-02-01

    Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are emerging contaminants of concern in the environment, mainly due to the potential for development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and effect on microbiota that could interfere with crucial ecosystem functions such as nutrient cycling and decomposition. High levels of VAs such as tetracyclines (TCs) have been reported in agricultural soils amended with manure, which also has the potential to cause surface and groundwater contamination. Several recent studies have focused on developing methods to immobilize VAs such as composting with straw, hardwood chips, commercial biochar, aeration, mixing, heat treatment, etc. The major shortcomings of these methods include high cost and limited effectiveness. In the current study, we assessed the effectiveness of aluminum-based drinking water treatment residuals (Al-WTR) as a "green" sorbent to immobilize TCs in manure and manure-applied soils with varying physicochemical properties by laboratory incubation study. Results show that Al-WTR is very effective in immobilizing tetracycline (TTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC). The presence of phosphate resulted in significant (p < 0.01) decrease in TTC/OTC sorption by Al-WTR, but the presence of sulfate did not. attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy indicate that TTC and OTC likely forming surface complexes via inner-sphere-type bonds in soils, manure, and manure-applied soils amended with Al-WTR.

  13. An Overview of the Control of Bacterial Pathogens in Cattle Manure

    PubMed Central

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Mamphweli, Sampson N.; Meyer, Edson L.; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2016-01-01

    Cattle manure harbors microbial constituents that make it a potential source of pollution in the environment and infections in humans. Knowledge of, and microbial assessment of, manure is crucial in a bid to prevent public health and environmental hazards through the development of better management practices and policies that should govern manure handling. Physical, chemical and biological methods to reduce pathogen population in manure do exist, but are faced with challenges such as cost, odor pollution, green house gas emission, etc. Consequently, anaerobic digestion of animal manure is currently one of the most widely used treatment method that can help to salvage the above-mentioned adverse effects and in addition, produces biogas that can serve as an alternative/complementary source of energy. However, this method has to be monitored closely as it could be fraught with challenges during operation, caused by the inherent characteristics of the manure. In addition, to further reduce bacterial pathogens to a significant level, anaerobic digestion can be combined with other methods such as thermal, aerobic and physical methods. In this paper, we review the bacterial composition of cattle manure as well as methods engaged in the control of pathogenic microbes present in manure and recommendations that need to be respected and implemented in order to prevent microbial contamination of the environment, animals and humans. PMID:27571092

  14. An Overview of the Control of Bacterial Pathogens in Cattle Manure.

    PubMed

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael; Okoh, Anthony I

    2016-08-25

    Cattle manure harbors microbial constituents that make it a potential source of pollution in the environment and infections in humans. Knowledge of, and microbial assessment of, manure is crucial in a bid to prevent public health and environmental hazards through the development of better management practices and policies that should govern manure handling. Physical, chemical and biological methods to reduce pathogen population in manure do exist, but are faced with challenges such as cost, odor pollution, green house gas emission, etc. Consequently, anaerobic digestion of animal manure is currently one of the most widely used treatment method that can help to salvage the above-mentioned adverse effects and in addition, produces biogas that can serve as an alternative/complementary source of energy. However, this method has to be monitored closely as it could be fraught with challenges during operation, caused by the inherent characteristics of the manure. In addition, to further reduce bacterial pathogens to a significant level, anaerobic digestion can be combined with other methods such as thermal, aerobic and physical methods. In this paper, we review the bacterial composition of cattle manure as well as methods engaged in the control of pathogenic microbes present in manure and recommendations that need to be respected and implemented in order to prevent microbial contamination of the environment, animals and humans.

  15. An Overview of the Control of Bacterial Pathogens in Cattle Manure.

    PubMed

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael; Okoh, Anthony I

    2016-01-01

    Cattle manure harbors microbial constituents that make it a potential source of pollution in the environment and infections in humans. Knowledge of, and microbial assessment of, manure is crucial in a bid to prevent public health and environmental hazards through the development of better management practices and policies that should govern manure handling. Physical, chemical and biological methods to reduce pathogen population in manure do exist, but are faced with challenges such as cost, odor pollution, green house gas emission, etc. Consequently, anaerobic digestion of animal manure is currently one of the most widely used treatment method that can help to salvage the above-mentioned adverse effects and in addition, produces biogas that can serve as an alternative/complementary source of energy. However, this method has to be monitored closely as it could be fraught with challenges during operation, caused by the inherent characteristics of the manure. In addition, to further reduce bacterial pathogens to a significant level, anaerobic digestion can be combined with other methods such as thermal, aerobic and physical methods. In this paper, we review the bacterial composition of cattle manure as well as methods engaged in the control of pathogenic microbes present in manure and recommendations that need to be respected and implemented in order to prevent microbial contamination of the environment, animals and humans. PMID:27571092

  16. Trace elements in feed, manure, and manured soils.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, S C; Sanipelli, B

    2012-01-01

    Modern animal feeds often include nutritional mineral supplements, especially elements such as Cu, P, Se, and Zn. Other sources of trace elements also occur in livestock systems, such as pharmaceutical use of As and Zn to control gut flora, Bi in dairy for mastitis control, and Cu as hoof dips. Additionally, potential exists for inadvertent inclusion of trace elements in feeds or manures. There is concern about long-term accumulation of trace elements in manured soil that may even exceed guideline "safe" concentrations. This project measured ∼60 elements in 124 manure samples from broiler, layer, turkey, swine grower, swine nursery, sow, dairy, and beef operations. The corresponding feeds were also analyzed. In general, concentrations in manure were two- to fivefold higher than those in feed: the manure/feed concentration ratios were relatively consistent for all the animal-essential elements and were numerically similar for many of the non-nutrient elements. To confirm the potential for accumulation in soil, total trace element concentrations were measured in the profiles of 10 manured and 10 adjacent unmanured soils. Concentrations of several elements were found to be elevated in the manured soils, with Zn (and P) the most common. One soil from a dairy standing yard had concentrations of B that exceeded soil health guideline concentrations. Given that the Cu/P and Zn/P ratios found in manure were greater than typically reported in harvested crop materials, these elements will accumulate in soil even if manure application rates are managed to prevent accumulation of P in soil.

  17. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae reduce Escherichia coli in dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiaolin; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Brady, Jeff A; Sanford, Michelle R; Yu, Ziniu

    2008-12-01

    Escherichia coli labeled with a green fluorescent protein was inoculated into sterile dairy manure at 7.0 log cfu/g. Approximately 125 black soldier fly larvae were placed in manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli. Manure inoculated with E. coli but without black soldier fly larvae served as the control. For the first experiment, larvae were introduced into 50, 75, 100, or 125 g sterilized dairy manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli and stored 72 h at 27 degrees C. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in all treatments. However, varying the amount of manure provided the black soldier fly larvae significantly affected their weight gain and their ability to reduce E. coli populations present. For the second experiment, larvae were introduced into 50 g manure inoculated with E. coli and stored for 72 h at 23, 27, 31, or 35 degrees C. Minimal bacterial growth was recorded in the control held at 35 degrees C and was excluded from the analysis. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in manure held at remaining temperatures. Accordingly, temperature significantly influenced the ability of black soldier fly larvae to develop and reduce E. coli counts with greatest suppression occurring at 27 degrees C.

  18. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae reduce Escherichia coli in dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiaolin; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Brady, Jeff A; Sanford, Michelle R; Yu, Ziniu

    2008-12-01

    Escherichia coli labeled with a green fluorescent protein was inoculated into sterile dairy manure at 7.0 log cfu/g. Approximately 125 black soldier fly larvae were placed in manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli. Manure inoculated with E. coli but without black soldier fly larvae served as the control. For the first experiment, larvae were introduced into 50, 75, 100, or 125 g sterilized dairy manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli and stored 72 h at 27 degrees C. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in all treatments. However, varying the amount of manure provided the black soldier fly larvae significantly affected their weight gain and their ability to reduce E. coli populations present. For the second experiment, larvae were introduced into 50 g manure inoculated with E. coli and stored for 72 h at 23, 27, 31, or 35 degrees C. Minimal bacterial growth was recorded in the control held at 35 degrees C and was excluded from the analysis. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in manure held at remaining temperatures. Accordingly, temperature significantly influenced the ability of black soldier fly larvae to develop and reduce E. coli counts with greatest suppression occurring at 27 degrees C. PMID:19161696

  19. Northern New England's Dairy Manure digesters

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, F.E.; Bennett, S.

    1985-01-01

    Dairy Manure digesters are complimentary to systematized manure handling providing unique opportunities for by-product use and pollution control. Separated solids used for bedding are a valued by-product in addition to cash income from electric power sold.

  20. Dairy manure biochar as a phosphorus fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Future manure management practices will need to remove large amounts of organic waste as well as harness energy to generate value-added products. Manures can be processed using thermochemical conversion technologies to generate a solid product called biochar. Dairy manure biochars contain sufficient...

  1. Harvesting feedlot manure for fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeten, J.M.; Higgins, A.; Spindler, D.; Undersander, D.J.; Egg, R.P.; Reddell, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Field investigations were conducted to determine the variation of manure quality as a function of depth in the manure pack, the quantity of feedlot manure that can be harvested with elevating scrapers and wheel loader, and the yield of reasonable high-quality feedlot manure for biogas plant feedstock. Feedlot manure quality (ash, heat of combustion, and S content) varied with vertical location in the manure pack. Loose surface manure had the highest quality for these purposes. Heat of combustion was closely related with ash and moisture contents, it averaged 8302 Btu per pound on a dry ash-free basis for all samples. The majority of the manure pack could be collected with an elevating scraper to yield a feedstock with 30% ash and a heat of combustion of 8800 Btu per pound on a dry ash-free basis. Feedlot manure collected by the elevating scraper is much higher in quality for essentially all uses than the 1-2 inch, thick manure/soil interfacial layer. The quantity and quality of feedlot manure that can be collected from feedlots in the vicinity of a proposed biogas production plant in southeastern Colorado are reported.

  2. Anaerobic acidogenesis of dairy manure

    SciTech Connect

    Krones, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine if high rate acidogenic fermentation of dairy manure was possible, Whole dairy manure was ground and diluted to 4% total solids and fed to a 10 L anaerobic chemostat operating at 35C and with hydraulic retention times varying between 6 and 50 hours. Several physical and organic parameters of the influent and effluent were measured and compared. The results indicated that the manure was too refractory for high rate liquefaction and hydrolysis. A second experiment was conducted using the same techniques and substrate but varying the substrate pH between 5 and 7. The objectives were to further investigate the pH sensitivity of the acidogenic process and to determine if, by introducing a substrate with a low pH, acidogenesis might proceed more efficiently. The primary result of decreasing the pH was a smaller proportion of methane and an increased proportion of hydrogen in the gas. Liquefaction and hydrolysis continued to be rate limiting and appeared to be a major impediment to two phase anaerobic treatment of dairy manure.

  3. Practical survey on antibiotic-resistant bacterial communities in livestock manure and manure-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingxiang; Wang, Ruifei; Ren, Siwei; Szoboszlay, Marton; Moe, Luke A

    2016-01-01

    Through livestock manure fertilization, antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes are transferred to agricultural soils, resulting in a high prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the soil. It is not clear, however, whether a correlation exists between resistant bacterial populations in manure and manure-amended soil. In this work, we demonstrate that the prevalence of cephalexin-, amoxicillin-, kanamycin- and gentamicin-resistant bacteria as well as bacteria simultaneously resistant to all four antibiotics was much higher in manure-amended soils than in manure-free soil. 454-pyrosequencing indicated that the ARB and multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB) in swine or chicken manure and manure-amended soil were mainly distributed among Sphingobacterium, Myroides, Enterococcus, Comamonas and unclassified Flavobacteriaceae. The genus Sphingobacterium was highly prevalent among ARB from swine manure and manure-amended soil, and was also the most dominant genus among MARB from chicken manure and manure-amended soil. Other dominant genera among ARB or MARB populations in manure samples, including Myroides, Enterococcus and Comamonas, could not be detected or were detected at very low relative abundance in manure-amended soil. The present study suggests the possibility of transfer of ARBs from livestock manures to soils and persistence of ARB in these environments. PMID:26513264

  4. Methane capture from livestock manure.

    PubMed

    Tauseef, S M; Premalatha, M; Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S A

    2013-03-15

    It has been estimated that livestock manure contributes about 240 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent of methane to the atmosphere and represents one of the biggest anthropogenic sources of methane. Considering that methane is the second biggest contributor to global warming after carbon dioxide, it is imperative that ways and means are developed to capture as much of the anthropogenic methane as possible. There is a major associated advantage of methane capture: its use as a source of energy which is comparable in 'cleanness' to natural gas. The present review dwells upon the traditional ways of methane capture used in India, China, and other developing countries for providing energy to the rural poor. It then reviews the present status of methane capture from livestock manure in developed countries and touches upon the prevalent trends.

  5. Cattle Manure Enhances Methanogens Diversity and Methane Emissions Compared to Swine Manure under Rice Paddy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Pramanik, Prabhat; Bodelier, Paul L E; Kim, Pil Joo

    2014-01-01

    Livestock manures are broadly used in agriculture to improve soil quality. However, manure application can increase the availability of organic carbon, thereby facilitating methane (CH4) production. Cattle and swine manures are expected to have different CH4 emission characteristics in rice paddy soil due to the inherent differences in composition as a result of contrasting diets and digestive physiology between the two livestock types. To compare the effect of ruminant and non-ruminant animal manure applications on CH4 emissions and methanogenic archaeal diversity during rice cultivation (June to September, 2009), fresh cattle and swine manures were applied into experimental pots at 0, 20 and 40 Mg fresh weight (FW) ha-1 in a greenhouse. Applications of manures significantly enhanced total CH4 emissions as compared to chemical fertilization, with cattle manure leading to higher emissions than swine manure. Total organic C contents in cattle (466 g kg-1) and swine (460 g kg-1) manures were of comparable results. Soil organic C (SOC) contents were also similar between the two manure treatments, but dissolved organic C (DOC) was significantly higher in cattle than swine manure. The mcrA gene copy numbers were significantly higher in cattle than swine manure. Diverse groups of methanogens which belong to Methanomicrobiaceae were detected only in cattle-manured but not in swine-manured soil. Methanogens were transferred from cattle manure to rice paddy soils through fresh excrement. In conclusion, cattle manure application can significantly increase CH4 emissions in rice paddy soil during cultivation, and its pretreatment to suppress methanogenic activity without decreasing rice productivity should be considered. PMID:25494364

  6. Cattle Manure Enhances Methanogens Diversity and Methane Emissions Compared to Swine Manure under Rice Paddy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Pramanik, Prabhat; Bodelier, Paul L. E.; Kim, Pil Joo

    2014-01-01

    Livestock manures are broadly used in agriculture to improve soil quality. However, manure application can increase the availability of organic carbon, thereby facilitating methane (CH4) production. Cattle and swine manures are expected to have different CH4 emission characteristics in rice paddy soil due to the inherent differences in composition as a result of contrasting diets and digestive physiology between the two livestock types. To compare the effect of ruminant and non-ruminant animal manure applications on CH4 emissions and methanogenic archaeal diversity during rice cultivation (June to September, 2009), fresh cattle and swine manures were applied into experimental pots at 0, 20 and 40 Mg fresh weight (FW) ha−1 in a greenhouse. Applications of manures significantly enhanced total CH4 emissions as compared to chemical fertilization, with cattle manure leading to higher emissions than swine manure. Total organic C contents in cattle (466 g kg−1) and swine (460 g kg−1) manures were of comparable results. Soil organic C (SOC) contents were also similar between the two manure treatments, but dissolved organic C (DOC) was significantly higher in cattle than swine manure. The mcrA gene copy numbers were significantly higher in cattle than swine manure. Diverse groups of methanogens which belong to Methanomicrobiaceae were detected only in cattle-manured but not in swine-manured soil. Methanogens were transferred from cattle manure to rice paddy soils through fresh excrement. In conclusion, cattle manure application can significantly increase CH4 emissions in rice paddy soil during cultivation, and its pretreatment to suppress methanogenic activity without decreasing rice productivity should be considered. PMID:25494364

  7. Does manure management affect the latent greenhouse gas emitting potential of livestock manures?

    PubMed

    Pratt, Chris; Redding, Matthew; Hill, Jaye; Jensen, Paul D

    2015-12-01

    With livestock manures being increasingly sought as alternatives to costly synthetic fertilisers, it is imperative that we understand and manage their associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here we provide the first dedicated assessment into how the GHG emitting potential of various manures responds to the different stages of the manure management continuum (e.g., from feed pen surface vs stockpiled). The research is important from the perspective of manure application to agricultural soils. Manures studied included: manure from beef feedpen surfaces and stockpiles; poultry broiler litter (8-week batch); fresh and composted egg layer litter; and fresh and composted piggery litter. Gases assessed were methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), the two principal agricultural GHGs. We employed proven protocols to determine the manures' ultimate CH4 producing potential. We also devised a novel incubation experiment to elucidate their N2O emitting potential; a measure for which no established methods exist. We found lower CH4 potentials in manures from later stages in their management sequence compared with earlier stages, but only by a factor of 0.65×. Moreover, for the beef manures this decrease was not significant (P<0.05). Nitrous oxide emission potential was significantly positively (P<0.05) correlated with C/N ratios yet showed no obvious relationship with manure management stage. Indeed, N2O emissions from the composted egg manure were considerably (13×) and significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of the fresh egg manure. Our study demonstrates that manures from all stages of the manure management continuum potentially entail significant GHG risk when applied to arable landscapes. Efforts to harness manure resources need to account for this.

  8. Low-temperature anaerobic digestion of swine manure in a plug-flow reactor.

    PubMed

    Massé, Daniel I; Gilbert, Yan; Saady, N M C; Liu, Charle

    2013-01-01

    A low-temperature (25 degrees C) anaerobic eight-compartment (PF01 to PF08) cascade reactor simulating a plug-flow reactor (PFR) treating pig manure was monitored for a year. The bioreactor was fed at an average loading rate of 2.4 +/- 0.2 g of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) per litre of reactor per day for a theoretical hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 67 +/- 7 d. An average of 79% of TCOD was removed from pig manure (converted into biogas and in sediments), whereas specific methane yields ranging from 397 to 482 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS (148.6 to 171.4 NL CH4 kg(-1) TCOD) were obtained. After 150 d, fluctuating performances of the process were observed, associated with solids accumulation in the upstream compartments, preventing the complete anaerobic digestion of swine manure in the compartments PF01 to PF04. Low-temperature anaerobic PFR represents an interesting alternative for the treatment of pig manure and recovery of green energy. Further investigations regarding a modified design, with better accumulating solids management, are needed to optimize the performance of this low-temperature PFR treating pig manure.

  9. Bioaerosol Deposition to Food Crops near Manure Application: Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Jahne, Michael A; Rogers, Shane W; Holsen, Thomas M; Grimberg, Stefan J; Ramler, Ivan P; Kim, Seungo

    2016-03-01

    Production of both livestock and food crops are central priorities of agriculture; however, food safety concerns arise where these practices intersect. In this study, we investigated the public health risks associated with potential bioaerosol deposition to crops grown in the vicinity of manure application sites. A field sampling campaign at dairy manure application sites supported the emission, transport, and deposition modeling of bioaerosols emitted from these lands following application activities. Results were coupled with a quantitative microbial risk assessment model to estimate the infection risk due to consumption of leafy green vegetable crops grown at various distances downwind from the application area. Inactivation of pathogens ( spp., spp., and O157:H7) on both the manure-amended field and on crops was considered to determine the maximum loading of pathogens to plants with time following application. Overall median one-time infection risks at the time of maximum loading decreased from 1:1300 at 0 m directly downwind from the field to 1:6700 at 100 m and 1:92,000 at 1000 m; peak risks (95th percentiles) were considerably greater (1:18, 1:89, and 1:1200, respectively). Median risk was below 1:10,000 at >160 m downwind. As such, it is recommended that a 160-m setback distance is provided between manure application and nearby leafy green crop production. Additional distance or delay before harvest will provide further protection of public health.

  10. Ammonia emission during irrigation of dairy manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of liquid manure through irrigation systems has become more common in recent years. Emission of NH3 from surface-applied manure has been well documented, but less is known about emission during the irrigation process itself. We carried out a series of 11 experiments over a two-year perio...

  11. Subsurface manure application to reduce ammonia emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporation into soil is generally recommended to reduce ammonia volatilization and nutrient runoff following land application of manures. A range of subsurface applicators are available for manure incorporation with minimal soil disturbance in reduced tillage systems, but none have been widely a...

  12. Determinants and processes of manure nitrogen availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased animal production to feed a growing human population, concomitant with increasing loss of farm land available for manure application, make it vitally important that practices be developed for optimizing nutrient recycling from manure to crops. To assist in reaching this goal, methods for ...

  13. Dairy manure applications and soil health implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy manure applications can potentially improve soil health by adding organic matter (OM) to the soil. However, intensive dairy manure applications can cause salt accumulations on arid, irrigated soils, impairing soil health, which can reduce crop growth and yield. Soil organic matter, a major c...

  14. Decay Of Bacterial Pathogens, Fecal Indicators, And Real-Time Quantitative PCR Genetic Markers In Manure-Amended Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined persistence and decay of bacterial pathogens, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and emerging real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) genetic markers for rapid detection of fecal pollution in manure-amended agricultural soils. Known concentrations of transformed green...

  15. Effect of feedlot manure collection techniques on ultimate methane yield

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.W.; Hills, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    Beef cattle manure collected from unpaved dirt feedlots has a significantly reduced energy production potential due to low organic content and dirt contamination. In laboratory batch fermentors beef feedlot manure of various ages was digested. The study showed that compared with fresh manure gas production at 100%, aged manure produced between 16 and 73% of the gas per kilogram of volatile solids added. More than one-half of the nitrogen was lost after the manure had aged three months. The resulting economic advantage of fresh manure over aged manure for energy and nitrogen recovery would be from $26 to $61/head/y.

  16. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruiping; Mo, Yanling; Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012-2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality. PMID:27258145

  17. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012–2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality. PMID:27258145

  18. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruiping; Mo, Yanling; Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012-2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality.

  19. Ammonia volatilization from crop residues and frozen green manure crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ruijter, F. J.; Huijsmans, J. F. M.; Rutgers, B.

    2010-09-01

    Agricultural systems can lose substantial amounts of nitrogen (N). To protect the environment, the European Union (EU) has adopted several directives that set goals to limit N losses. National Emission Ceilings (NEC) are prescribed in the NEC directive for nitrogen oxides and ammonia. Crop residues may contribute to ammonia volatilization, but sufficient information on their contribution to the national ammonia volatilization is lacking. Experiments were carried out with the aim to assess the ammonia volatilization of crop residues left on the soil surface or incorporated into the soil under the conditions met in practice in the Netherlands during late autumn and winter. Ammonia emission from residues of broccoli, leek, sugar beet, cut grass, fodder radish (fresh and frozen) and yellow mustard (frozen) was studied during two winter seasons using volatilization chambers. Residues were either placed on top of soil or mixed with soil. Mixing residues with soil gave insignificant ammonia volatilization, whereas volatilization was 5-16 percent of the N content of residues when placed on top of soil. Ammonia volatilization started after at least 4 days. Total ammonia volatilization was related to C/N-ratio and N concentration of the plant material. After 37 days, cumulative ammonia volatilization was negligible from plant material with N concentration below 2 percent, and was 10 percent of the N content of plant material with 4 percent N. These observations can be explained by decomposition of plant material by micro-organisms. After an initial built up of the microbial population, NH 4+ that is not needed for their own growth is released and can easily emit as NH 3 at the soil surface. The results of the experiments were used to estimate the contribution of crop residues to ammonia volatilization in the Netherlands. Crop residues of arable crops and residues of pasture topping may contribute more than 3 million kg NH 3-N to the national ammonia volatilization of the Netherlands, being more than 3 percent of the national emissions in 2005. This contribution should therefore be considered when focusing on the national ceilings for ammonia emissions.

  20. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in chicken manure by larvae of the black soldier fly.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Islam, Mahbub; Sheppard, Craig; Liao, Jean; Doyle, Michael P

    2004-04-01

    Green fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis were inoculated at 10(7) CFU/g into cow, hog, or chicken manure. Ten- or 11-day-old soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens L.) (7 to 10 g) were added to the manure and held at 23, 27, or 32 degrees C for 3 to 6 days. Soldier fly larvae accelerated inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 in chicken manure but had no effect in cow manure and enhanced survival in hog manure. The initial pH values of the hog and chicken manure were 6.0 to 6.2 and 7.4 to 8.2, respectively, and it is surmised that these conditions affected the stability of the larval antimicrobial system. Reductions of E. coli O157:H7 populations in chicken manure by larvae were affected by storage temperature, with greater reductions in samples held for 3 days at 27 or 32 degrees C than at 23 degrees C. Pathogen inactivation in chicken manure by larvae was not affected by the indigenous microflora of chicken manure, because Salmonella Enteritidis populations in larvae-treated samples were approximately 2.5 log lower than control samples without larvae when either autoclaved or nonautoclaved chicken manure was used as the contaminated medium during 3 days of storage. Extending the storage time to 6 days, larvae again accelerated the reduction in Salmonella Enteritidis populations in chicken manure during the first 4 days of storage; however, larvae became contaminated with the pathogen. After 2 days of feeding on contaminated manure, Salmonella Enteritidis populations in larvae averaged 3.3 log CFU/g. Populations decreased to 1.9 log CFU/g after 6 days of exposure to contaminated chicken manure; however, the absence of feeding activity by the maggots in later stages of storage may be responsible for the continued presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in larvae. Transfer of contaminated larvae to fresh chicken manure restored feeding activity but led to cross-contamination of the fresh manure.

  1. Impact of manure phosphorus fractions on phosphorus loss from manured soils after incubation.

    PubMed

    Kumaragamage, D; Flaten, D N; Akinremi, O O; Sawka, C A; Ige, D; Zvomuya, F

    2012-01-01

    The risk of P loss from manured soils is more related to P fractions than total P concentration in manure. This study examined the impact of manure P fractions on P losses from liquid swine manure- (LSM), solid cattle manure- (SCM), and monoammonium phosphate- (MAP) treated soils. Manure or fertilizer was applied at 50 mg P kg soil, mixed, and incubated at 20°C for 6 wk to simulate the interaction between applied P and soil when P is applied well in advance of a high risk period for runoff. Phosphorus fractions in manure were determined using the modified Hedley fractionation scheme. We used simulated rainfall (75 mm h⁻¹ for 1 h) to quantify P losses in runoff from two soils (sand and clay loam). The proportion of total labile P (total P in water+NaHCO fractions) in manure was significantly greater in LSM (70%) than SCM (44%). Mean dissolved reactive P (DRP) load in runoff over 60 min was greatest from MAP-treated soil (18.1 mg tray⁻¹), followed by LSM- (14.0 mg tray⁻¹) and SCM- (11.0 mg tray⁻¹) treated soils, all of which were greater than mean DRP load from the check (5.2 mg tray⁻¹). Total labile P (water+NaHCO) in manure was a more accurate predictor of runoff DRP loads than water extractable P, alone, for these two soils. Therefore, NaHCO extraction of manure P may be a useful tool for managing the risk of manure P runoff losses when manure is applied outside a high risk period for runoff loss.

  2. Rheological properties of dairy cattle manure.

    PubMed

    El-Mashad, Hamed M; van Loon, Wilko K P; Zeeman, Grietje; Bot, Gerard P A

    2005-03-01

    Rheological properties are important for the design and modelling of handling and treating fluids. In the present study, the viscosity of liquid manure (about 10% total solids) was measured at different shear rates (2.38-238 s(-1)). The effect of temperature on the viscosity at different shear rates was also studied. The results showed that manure has non-Newtonian flow properties, because the viscosity strongly depended on the applied shear rate. The results showed also that manure behaves like real plastic materials. The power-law model of the shear stress and the rate of shear showed that the magnitude of the consistency coefficient decreased while increasing the temperature, with high values of the determination coefficient. Moreover, the results showed that the Arrhenius-type model fitted the temperature effect on manure viscosity very well (R2 at least 0.95) with calculated activation energy of 17.0+/-0.3 kJ mol(-1).

  3. Mixing rare earth elements with manures to control phosphorus loss in runoff and track manure fate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concern over the enrichment of agricultural runoff with phosphorus (P) from land applied livestock manures has prompted the development of manure amendments that minimize P solubility. We evaluated the effect of mixing two rare earth chlorides, lanthanum chloride and ytterbium chloride, with poultr...

  4. Effect of feedlot manure collection techniques on ultimate methane yield

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.W.; Hills, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    Beef-cattle manure collected from unpaved dirt feedlots has a significantly decreased energy-production potential due to low organic content and dirt contamination. In laboratory batch fermentors beef-feedlot manure of various ages was digested. Compared with fresh manure-gas production at 100%, aged manure produced 16-73% of the gas/kg of volatile solids added. More than 1/2 of the N was lost after the manure had aged 3 months. Economic benefits of CH/sub 4/ and N recovery from manure of different ages are discussed.

  5. Manure management for greenhouse gas mitigation.

    PubMed

    Petersen, S O; Blanchard, M; Chadwick, D; Del Prado, A; Edouard, N; Mosquera, J; Sommer, S G

    2013-06-01

    Ongoing intensification and specialisation of livestock production lead to increasing volumes of manure to be managed, which are a source of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Net emissions of CH4 and N2O result from a multitude of microbial activities in the manure environment. Their relative importance depends not only on manure composition and local management practices with respect to treatment, storage and field application, but also on ambient climatic conditions. The diversity of livestock production systems, and their associated manure management, is discussed on the basis of four regional cases (Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, China and Europe) with increasing levels of intensification and priorities with respect to nutrient management and environmental regulation. GHG mitigation options for production systems based on solid and liquid manure management are then presented, and potentials for positive and negative interactions between pollutants, and between management practices, are discussed. The diversity of manure properties and environmental conditions necessitate a modelling approach for improving estimates of GHG emissions, and for predicting effects of management changes for GHG mitigation, and requirements for such a model are discussed. Finally, we briefly discuss drivers for, and barriers against, introduction of GHG mitigation measures for livestock production. There is no conflict between efforts to improve food and feed production, and efforts to reduce GHG emissions from manure management. Growth in livestock populations are projected to occur mainly in intensive production systems where, for this and other reasons, the largest potentials for GHG mitigation may be found.

  6. Effect of coal fly ash-amended organic compost as a manure for agricultural crops

    SciTech Connect

    Ghuman, G.S.; Menon, M.P.; James, J.; Chandra, K.; Sajwan, K. )

    1991-04-01

    Coal-fired electric power plants generate large quantities of fly ash as a byproduct. In continuation of previous studies on the utilization of fly ash as an amendment to organic compost for use as a manure for agricultural crops, the authors have now determined the effects of this manure on the yield and uptake of selected elements by several plants including collard green, corn, mustard green, bell pepper, egg plant, and climbing beans. An amended compost containing 30-40% fly ash with a compost:soil ratio of 1:3 was found to be most effective to enhance the yield and nutrient uptake of most of the plants. At 20% fly ash level, no increase in yield of any of the above crops was observed. The uptake of K, Mg, Mn, and P was increased in most plants. Boron which is known to be detrimental to the growth of plants above certain level was also found to be increased in plants nourished with the manure.

  7. Phytase supplemented poultry diets affect soluble phosphorus and nitrogen in manure and manure-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Usha P P; Manoharan, Veeragathipillai; Lisle, Allan; Li, Xiuhua; Bryden, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    Understanding P and N dynamics in manure-amended soil is essential for estimating the environmental impact of manure utilization in land applications. A laboratory incubation study was conducted to assess, (i) the effect of feeding a standard Australian commercial diet, and diets modified with phytase supplementation and reduced nonphytase phosphorus (NPP), on the concentrations of P and N (total and soluble) in the manure derived from layer hens (Gallus domesticus L.), and (ii) the change in water-soluble phoshorus (P(WSP)) and mineral N (NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N) when used as a soil amendment, applied at rates equivalent to 200 kg ha(-1) (200N) and 400 kg ha(-1) (400N). Phytase supplementation increased %P(WSP) by 8 to 12% in the manures, regardless of the levels of NPP in the diets, and in the manure-amended soils by 27 to 30% at the 200N application rate, and up to 54% at the 400N rate. Phytase significantly (P < 0.05) reduced total nitrogen (TN) content (by 12-31%) of the manures but generally produced greater nitrate accumulation in the manure-amended soils. Net nitrification, which commenced 4 wk after incubation, was accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in soil pH (by one pH unit) and a concomitant decline in %P(WSP). The decline in %P(WSP) was primarily attributed to P retention by the soil as it became more acidic. This study suggests that phytase addition not only reduces manure total N content, and increases water-soluble P, but its effects on manure total phosphorus (TP) and 2 mol L(-1) KCl extractable mineral N is influenced by the NPP level in the diet.

  8. Ecotoxicity bioassays on leachates from poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Delgado, M; de Imperial, R Miralles; Alonso, F; Rodríguez, C; Martín, J V

    2013-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of different poultry manure landfill leachates, using a well-known toxicity test system (MS3). The bioassay was made using a battery of toxicity tests including acute toxicity with crustacean (Daphnia magna), algae (Chlorella vulgaris) and the in vitro toxicity test with the fish cell line RTG-2. On D. magna was high mortality for zero time and almost 100 % and 70 %-80 % mortality for sawdust and straw poultry manure respectively. No effects on C. vulgaris, was observed after the leachate exposure. None of the parameters considered: protein, EROD activity, β-gal activity and neutral red, showed differences between control test and the leachate collected from exposure to poultry manure. PMID:23283533

  9. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  10. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  11. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  12. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  13. Effects of chemical amendments to swine manure on runoff quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land-applied swine manure can be an environmental concern when runoff losses of manure constituents occur. The use of chemical amendments to mitigate these losses has been investigated for poultry litter, but materials such as swine manure have received less attention in this context, particularly ...

  14. Influence of manure application method on odor emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface application of manure in reduced tillage systems can serve as a major source of nuisance odors. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate odor emissions associated with various technologies that incorporate manure with minimal soil disturbance. Dairy manure slurry was applied by five meth...

  15. 9 CFR 93.415 - Manure from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.415 Manure from quarantined ruminants. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the...

  16. 9 CFR 93.415 - Manure from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.415 Manure from quarantined ruminants. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the...

  17. 9 CFR 93.415 - Manure from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.415 Manure from quarantined ruminants. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the...

  18. 9 CFR 93.415 - Manure from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.415 Manure from quarantined ruminants. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the...

  19. 9 CFR 93.415 - Manure from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.415 Manure from quarantined ruminants. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the...

  20. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  1. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  2. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  3. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  4. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  5. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  6. Mercury in Animal Manures and Impacts on Environmental Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manure is widely used as a cheap source of fertilizer all over the world, and is also used as animal feed. In industrialized countries, tons of animal manures per hectare each year are applied to agricultural lands as an easy means of disposal. Analysis of these manures shows low Hg concentra...

  7. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible. PMID:27396682

  8. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible.

  9. Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  10. Biodegradation of Pig Manure by the Housefly, Musca domestica: A Viable Ecological Strategy for Pig Manure Management

    PubMed Central

    Čičková, Helena; Pastor, Berta; Kozánek, Milan; Martínez-Sánchez, Anabel; Rojo, Santos; Takáč, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The technology for biodegradation of pig manure by using houseflies in a pilot plant capable of processing 500–700 kg of pig manure per week is described. A single adult cage loaded with 25,000 pupae produced 177.7±32.0 ml of eggs in a 15-day egg-collection period. With an inoculation ratio of 0.4–1.0 ml eggs/kg of manure, the amount of eggs produced by a single cage can suffice for the biodegradation of 178–444 kg of manure. Larval development varied among four different types of pig manure (centrifuged slurry, fresh manure, manure with sawdust, manure without sawdust). Larval survival ranged from 46.9±2.1%, in manure without sawdust, to 76.8±11.9% in centrifuged slurry. Larval development took 6–11 days, depending on the manure type. Processing of 1 kg of wet manure produced 43.9–74.3 g of housefly pupae and the weight of the residue after biodegradation decreased to 0.18–0.65 kg, with marked differences among manure types. Recommendations for the operation of industrial-scale biodegradation facilities are presented and discussed. PMID:22431982

  11. Effect of proximity to a cattle feedlot on Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of leafy greens and evaluation of the potential for airborne transmission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of proximity to a beef cattle feedlot on E. coli O157:H7 contamination of leafy greens was examined. In each of two years, leafy greens were planted to nine plots located 60, 120, and 180 meters from a cattle feedlot (3 plots each distance). Leafy greens, feedlot manure, and bioaerosol ...

  12. Determining Bioactive Phosphorus Fractions in Animal Manure, Soil, and Extracts of Soils and Manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymatic dephosphorylation of compounds such as inositol phosphates and other orthophosphate monoesters, phosphorylated lipids, and phosphodiesters have been used in their characterization in many biological media including organic residuals and soils. In an enzymatic assay, a manure sample, a soi...

  13. Accidents related to manure in eastern Switzerland: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed Central

    Knoblauch, A; Steiner, B; Bachmann, S; Trachsler, G; Burgheer, R; Osterwalder, J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Liquid manure systems and manure pits are major hazards in the agricultural workplace. The incidence of accidents related to manure is unknown. The objective of this study was to survey the liquid manure facilities of farms in eastern Switzerland and find the incidence of accidents related to manure in the region. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study and cross sectional survey of 210 farms in eastern Switzerland. RESULTS: The incidence of accidents related to manure was found to be 10.4/1000 person-years. Most accidents were categorised as minor--that is, had a benign outcome for the people involved or involved animals only. One in 33 of the farms surveyed was the scene of an accident related to manure each year. CONCLUSIONS: The medical literature on accidents related to manure mostly reports accidents with catastrophic outcomes. This study shows that this type of accident is only the tip of the iceberg. Most of the accidents reported in this study belong to a category that has hitherto been un-noticed and unreported. The term "accident related to manure" covers a broad range of events, and those resulting in serious human illness or death represent only a small part of this spectrum. A wide variety of liquid manure systems were found on the farms surveyed. Very few liquid manure facilities conformed to published safety standards. PMID:8882112

  14. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  15. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  16. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  17. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  18. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  19. Subsurface application enhances benefits of manure redistribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable nutrient management requires redistribution of livestock manure from nutrient-excess areas to nutrient-deficit areas. Field experiments were conducted to assess agronomic (i.e., corn yield) and environmental (i.e., ammonia volatilization and surface nutrient losses) effects of different ...

  20. Evaluation of sample preservation methods for poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Pan, J; Fadel, J G; Zhang, R; El-Mashad, H M; Ying, Y; Rumsey, T

    2009-08-01

    When poultry manure is collected but cannot be analyzed immediately, a method for storing the manure is needed to ensure accurate subsequent analyses. This study has 3 objectives: (1) to investigate effects of 4 poultry manure sample preservation methods (refrigeration, freezing, acidification, and freeze-drying) on the compositional characteristics of poultry manure; (2) to determine compositional differences in fresh manure with manure samples at 1, 2, and 3 d of accumulation under bird cages; and (3) to assess the influence of 14-d freezing storage on the composition of manure when later exposed to 25 degrees C for 7 d as compared with fresh manure. All manure samples were collected from a layer house. Analyses performed on the manure samples included total Kjeldahl nitrogen, uric acid nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, and urea nitrogen. In experiment 1, the storage methods most similar to fresh manure, in order of preference, were freezing, freeze-drying, acidification, and refrigeration. Thoroughly mixing manure samples and compressing them to 2 to 3 mm is important for the freezing and freeze-dried samples. In general, refrigeration was found unacceptable for nitrogen analyses. A significant effect (P < 0.0001) of time for refrigeration was found on uric acid nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen. In experiment 2, the total Kjeldahl nitrogen and uric acid nitrogen were significantly lower (P < 0.05) for 1, 2, and 3 d of accumulation compared with fresh manure. Manure after 1, 2, and 3 d of accumulation had similar nitrogen compositions. The results from experiment 3 show that nitrogen components from fresh manure samples and thawed samples from 14 d of freezing are similar at 7 d but high variability of nitrogen compositions during intermediate times from 0 to 7 d prevents the recommendation of freezing manure for use in subsequent experiments and warrants future experimentation. In conclusion, fresh poultry manure can be frozen for accurate subsequent nitrogen

  1. Evaluation of sample preservation methods for poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Pan, J; Fadel, J G; Zhang, R; El-Mashad, H M; Ying, Y; Rumsey, T

    2009-08-01

    When poultry manure is collected but cannot be analyzed immediately, a method for storing the manure is needed to ensure accurate subsequent analyses. This study has 3 objectives: (1) to investigate effects of 4 poultry manure sample preservation methods (refrigeration, freezing, acidification, and freeze-drying) on the compositional characteristics of poultry manure; (2) to determine compositional differences in fresh manure with manure samples at 1, 2, and 3 d of accumulation under bird cages; and (3) to assess the influence of 14-d freezing storage on the composition of manure when later exposed to 25 degrees C for 7 d as compared with fresh manure. All manure samples were collected from a layer house. Analyses performed on the manure samples included total Kjeldahl nitrogen, uric acid nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, and urea nitrogen. In experiment 1, the storage methods most similar to fresh manure, in order of preference, were freezing, freeze-drying, acidification, and refrigeration. Thoroughly mixing manure samples and compressing them to 2 to 3 mm is important for the freezing and freeze-dried samples. In general, refrigeration was found unacceptable for nitrogen analyses. A significant effect (P < 0.0001) of time for refrigeration was found on uric acid nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen. In experiment 2, the total Kjeldahl nitrogen and uric acid nitrogen were significantly lower (P < 0.05) for 1, 2, and 3 d of accumulation compared with fresh manure. Manure after 1, 2, and 3 d of accumulation had similar nitrogen compositions. The results from experiment 3 show that nitrogen components from fresh manure samples and thawed samples from 14 d of freezing are similar at 7 d but high variability of nitrogen compositions during intermediate times from 0 to 7 d prevents the recommendation of freezing manure for use in subsequent experiments and warrants future experimentation. In conclusion, fresh poultry manure can be frozen for accurate subsequent nitrogen

  2. Studies into Using Manure in a Biorefinery Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shulin; Wen, Zhiyou; Liao, Wei; Liu, Chuanbin; Kincaid, R. L.; Harrison, J. H.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Brown, Michael D.; Stevens, Don J.

    2005-03-01

    Animal manure is an underutilized biomass resource containing a large amount of organic carbon that is often wasted in the existing manure disposal practices. A research project funded by the US Department of Energy explored the feasibility of using manure via the sugar platform in a biorefinery. The results showed that fiber, the major component of dry manure, constituted approximately 50%, 40%, and 36% of the dry dairy, swine, and poultry manure materials, respectively. The highest fiber contents were in dairy manure of which more than 75% of the dry matter was in the particles greater than 0.125 mm. Manure can be used for substrate to produce cellulase on site. The hemicellulose component in the manure fiber could be readily converted to sugar through acid hydrolysis. Concentrated acid treatment was most effective in manure cellulose decrystallization. The effectiveness of enzymatic hydrolysis was limited without concentrated acid pretreatment. The high protein content in manure had negative affects on acid hydrolysis. Purification and separation is necessary for further chemical conversion of the sugar to value-added chemicals through hydrogenation.

  3. Phosphorus Speciation in Manure and Manure-Amended Soils Using XANES Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sato,S.; Solomon, D.; Hyland, C.; Ketterings, Q.; Lehmann, J.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies suggested an increase in the proportion of calcium phosphates (CaP) of the total phosphorus (P) pool in soils with a long-term poultry manure application history versus those with no or limited application histories. To understand and predict long-term P accumulation and release dynamics in these highly amended soils, it is important to understand what specific P species are being formed. We assessed forms of CaP formed in poultry manure and originally acidic soil in response to different lengths of mostly poultry manure applications using P K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Phosphorus K-edge XANES spectra of poultry manure showed no evidences of crystalline P minerals but dominance of soluble CaP species and free and weakly bound phosphates (aqueous phosphate and phosphate adsorbed on soil minerals). Phosphate in an unamended neighboring forest soil (pH 4.3) was mainly associated with iron (Fe) compounds such as strengite and Fe-oxides. Soils with a short-term manure history contained both Fe-associated phosphates and soluble CaP species such as dibasic calcium phosphate (DCP) and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP). Long-term manure application resulted in a dominance of CaP forms confirming our earlier results obtained with sequential extractions, and a transformation from soluble to more stable CaP species such as {beta}-tricalcium calcium phosphate (TCP). Even after long-term manure application (>25 yr and total P in soil up to 13 307 mg kg{sup -1}), however, none of the manure-amended soils showed the presence of crystalline CaP. With a reduction or elimination of poultry manure application to naturally acidic soils, the pH of the soil is likely to decrease, thereby increasing the solubility of Ca-bonded inorganic P minerals. Maintaining a high pH is therefore an important strategy to minimize P leaching in these soils.

  4. Volatilization of ammonia from manure as affected by manure additives, temperature and mixing.

    PubMed

    Van der Stelt, B; Temminghoff, E J M; Van Vliet, P C J; Van Riemsdijk, W H

    2007-12-01

    Ammonia (NH(3)) volatilization decreases the N-nutrient value of livestock manure slurries and can lead to soil acidification and eutrophication problems. In this study the effect of three manure additives (Euro Mest-mix (Mx), Effective Micro-organisms (EM), and Agri-mest (Am)) on NH(3) volatilization at three temperatures (4, 20, and 35 degrees C) was investigated. The manufacturers claim that Mx contains absorbing clay minerals and that applying Am and EM to slurry will reduce nitrogen losses, most likely by enhancing the biodegradation of manure slurry. Furthermore, the effect of mixing slurry on NH(3) volatilization has been investigated. Ammonia volatilization increased with increasing temperature and mixing of the slurries. However, at 35 degrees C mixing of manure reduced NH(3) emissions compared to non-mixing, which is related to a reduced crust resistance to gaseous transport at higher temperatures for non-mixing. Moreover, mixing introduces oxygen into the anaerobic slurry environment which will slow down microbial activity. The use of additives did not change manure characteristics (pH, dry matter, N(total), N(mineral), C/N, and C/N(organic)) and did not result in a significant (p<0.05) decrease in NH(3) emissions, except that at 4 degrees C and no mixing a significant decrease of 34% in NH(3) volatilization was observed, when Am and EM together, were applied to slurry. PMID:17215124

  5. Seasonal variation of methane flux from coastal saline rice field with the application of different organic manures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, A.; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh B.; Nayak, D. R.; Mahata, K. R.; Santra, S. C.; Adhya, T. K.

    2013-02-01

    A field experiment was conducted in an irrigated saline rice field of Gadakujang (a fishing hamlet of coastal Odisha, India, ravaged by the super cyclone of 1999 and cyclone BOB02 of 2006), to study the effects of locally available organic and fresh green manure amendment to the saline soil on methane (CH4) emission during wet and dry seasons using the conventional closed chamber flux measurement method. In a first report of this kind, CH4 emission vis-à-vis yield improvement of rice with different locally available organic manure application from coastal saline rice field soil of Odisha, is reported. The study confirms that CH4 flux from the saline soil planted to rice is significantly lower than that of irrigated inland non-saline rice field during both wet and dry seasons. Cumulative seasonal CH4 flux from different treatments of the coastal saline rice field ranged between 119.51 and 263.60 kg ha-1 during the wet season and 15.35-100.88 kg ha-1 during the dry season. Lower CH4 emission during the dry season may be attributed to the increased soil salinity (EC1:2) that went up from 0.76 dS m-1 during the wet season to 3.96 dS m-1 during the dry season. Annual CH4 emission per Mg grain yield was significantly low from plots treated with locally available green manure Morning glory (Ipomoea lacunosa) (17.27) with significantly high rice grain yield. Study indicates that Morning glory may be used as a potential green manure to increase grain yield and reduced CH4 emission from the coastal saline rice ecosystems of the tropics.

  6. Pig manure treatment and purification by filtration.

    PubMed

    Makara, A; Kowalski, Z

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed to develop a new, complex pig manure treatment and filtration process. The final scheme, called the AMAK process, comprised the following successive steps: mineralization with mineral acids, alkalization with lime milk, superphosphate addition, a second alkalization, thermal treatment, and pressure filtration. The proposed method produced a filtrate with 95%, 80%, and 96% reductions in chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen content, and phosphorus content, respectively. An advantage of the proposed method was that it incorporated a crystalline phase into the solid organic part of the manure, which enabled high filtration rates (>1000 kg m(-2) h(-1)) and efficient separation. The process also eliminated odor emissions from the filtrate and sediment. The treated filtrate could be used to irrigate crops or it could be further treated in conventional biological wastewater treatment plants. The sediment could be used for producing mineral-organic fertilizer. The AMAK process is inexpensive, and it requires low investment costs. PMID:26197426

  7. Dairy manure nutrient analysis using quick tests.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Bicudo, J R

    2005-05-01

    Rapid on-farm assessment of manure nutrient content can be achieved with the use of quick tests. These tests can be used to indirectly measure the nutrient content in animal slurries immediately before manure is applied on agricultural fields. The objective of this study was to assess the reliability of hydrometers, electrical conductivity meter and pens, and Agros N meter against standard laboratory methods. Manure samples were collected from 34 dairy farms in the Mammoth Cave area in central Kentucky. Regression equations were developed for combined and individual counties located In the area (Barren, Hart and Monroe). Our results indicated that accuracy in nutrient estimation could be improved if separate linear regressions were developed for farms with similar facilities in a county. Direct hydrometer estimates of total nitrogen were among the most accurate when separate regression equations were developed for each county (R2 = 0.61, 0.93, and 0.74 for Barren, Hart and Monroe county, respectively). Reasonably accurate estimates (R2 > 0.70) were also obtained for total nitrogen and total phosphorus using hydrometers, either by relating specific gravity to nutrient content or to total solids content. Estimation of ammoniacal nitrogen with Agros N meter and electrical conductivity meter/pens correlated well with standard laboratory determinations, especially while using the individual data sets from Hart County (R2 = 0.70 to 0.87). This study indicates that the use of quick test calibration equations developed for a small area or region where farms are similar in terms of manure handling and management, housing, and feed ration are more appropriate than using "universal" equations usually developed with combined data sets. Accuracy is expected to improve if individual farms develop their own calibration curves. Nevertheless, we suggest confidence intervals always be specified for nutrients estimated through quick testing for any specific region, county, or farm.

  8. Dairy manure nutrient analysis using quick tests.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Bicudo, J R

    2005-05-01

    Rapid on-farm assessment of manure nutrient content can be achieved with the use of quick tests. These tests can be used to indirectly measure the nutrient content in animal slurries immediately before manure is applied on agricultural fields. The objective of this study was to assess the reliability of hydrometers, electrical conductivity meter and pens, and Agros N meter against standard laboratory methods. Manure samples were collected from 34 dairy farms in the Mammoth Cave area in central Kentucky. Regression equations were developed for combined and individual counties located In the area (Barren, Hart and Monroe). Our results indicated that accuracy in nutrient estimation could be improved if separate linear regressions were developed for farms with similar facilities in a county. Direct hydrometer estimates of total nitrogen were among the most accurate when separate regression equations were developed for each county (R2 = 0.61, 0.93, and 0.74 for Barren, Hart and Monroe county, respectively). Reasonably accurate estimates (R2 > 0.70) were also obtained for total nitrogen and total phosphorus using hydrometers, either by relating specific gravity to nutrient content or to total solids content. Estimation of ammoniacal nitrogen with Agros N meter and electrical conductivity meter/pens correlated well with standard laboratory determinations, especially while using the individual data sets from Hart County (R2 = 0.70 to 0.87). This study indicates that the use of quick test calibration equations developed for a small area or region where farms are similar in terms of manure handling and management, housing, and feed ration are more appropriate than using "universal" equations usually developed with combined data sets. Accuracy is expected to improve if individual farms develop their own calibration curves. Nevertheless, we suggest confidence intervals always be specified for nutrients estimated through quick testing for any specific region, county, or farm

  9. Ammonia stripping of biologically treated liquid manure.

    PubMed

    Alitalo, Anni; Kyrö, Aleksis; Aura, Erkki

    2012-01-01

    A prerequisite for efficient ammonia removal in air stripping is that the pH of the liquid to be stripped is sufficiently high. Swine manure pH is usually around 7. At pH 7 (at 20°C), only 0.4% of ammonium is in ammonia form, and it is necessary to raise the pH of swine slurry to achieve efficient ammonia removal. Because manure has a very high buffering capacity, large amounts of chemicals are needed to change the slurry pH. The present study showed that efficient air stripping of manure can be achieved with a small amount of chemicals and without strong bases like NaOH. Slurry was subjected to aerobic biological treatment to raise pH before stripping. This facilitated 8 to 32% ammonia removal without chemical treatment. The slurry was further subjected to repeated cycles of stripping with MgO and Ca(OH)(2) additions after the first and second strippings, respectively, to raise slurry pH in between the stripping cycles. After three consecutive stripping cycles, 59 to 86% of the original ammonium had been removed. It was shown that the reduction in buffer capacity of the slurry was due to ammonia and carbonate removal during the stripping cycles.

  10. Physical and thermal characteristics of dairy cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Sutitarnnontr, Pakorn; Hu, Enzhu; Tuller, Markus; Jones, Scott B

    2014-11-01

    Greenhouse and regulated gas emissions from animal waste are naturally mediated by moisture content and temperature. As with soils, emissions from manure could be readily estimated given the physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties are described by models and microbes and nutrients are not limiting factors. The objectives of this study were to measure and model physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of dairy manure to support advanced modeling of gas and water fluxes in addition to solute, colloid, and heat transport. A series of soil science measurement techniques were applied to determine a set of fundamental properties of as-excreted dairy cattle manure. Relationships between manure dielectric permittivity and volumetric water content (θ) were obtained using time-domain reflectometry and capacitance-based dielectric measurements. The measured water retention characteristic for cattle manure was similar to organic peat soil. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function of dairy manure was inferred from inverse numerical fitting of laboratory manure evaporation results. The thermal properties of dairy manure, including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and bulk volumetric heat capacity, were also determined using three penta-needle heat pulse probes. The accuracy of the heat capacity measurements was determined from a comparison of theoretical θ, estimated from the measured thermal properties with that determined by the capacitance-based dielectric measurement. These data represent a novel and unique contribution for advancing prediction and modeling capabilities of gas emissions from cattle manure, although the uncertainties associated with the complexities of shrinkage, surface crust formation, and cracking must also be considered.

  11. Characterization of ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, Kedar

    Emission of gases, odor, and particulate matters from livestock manure is a major concern because of their potential adverse environmental impacts. For example, ammonia in the air has the potential to: negatively affect animal, human health and environment. Mitigation of ammonia emissions from livestock manure to protect animal and human health, and the environment, in general, is thus an important agenda for livestock producers, engineers, and environmental scientists. Proper understanding of the mechanisms or process of its volatilization from manure is the first step towards designing or formulating appropriate emissions mitigation strategies. This research investigated the effects of suspended solids, anaerobic digestion, and ionic strength on the ammonia (NH3) volatilization mechanism from liquid dairy manure. Experiments were conducted to: (i) assess the role of suspended solids characteristics on ammonia volatilization, (ii) evaluate the impacts of anaerobic digestion on the process governing NH 3 volatilization, and (iii) delineate the influences of suspended solids (SS) and ionic strength (IS) on the ammonia volatilization process from dairy manure. Two key parameters (the ammonia dissociation and the overall mass transfer coefficient (KoL)) that govern ammonia volatilization were evaluated to achieve these objectives. The physical and chemical properties of manure were also evaluated to further elucidate the respective processes. The suspended solids ammoniacal nitrogen adsorption properties did not significantly affect either the ammonium dissociation or the K oL; suggesting that the characteristics of manure suspended solids did not play a significant role in ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy manure. The dissociation of ammonium in anaerobically digested (AD) manure was significantly higher than in the undigested (UD) manure. However, KoL was less in AD manure than in UD manure, while an increase in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was observed

  12. Microbial Community and Chemical Characteristics of Swine Manure during Maturation.

    PubMed

    Trabue, Steven L; Kerr, Brian J; Bearson, Bradley L; Hur, Manhoi; Parkin, Timothy; Wurtele, Eve S; Ziemer, Cherrie J

    2016-07-01

    Swine diet formulations have the potential to lower animal emissions, including odor and ammonia (NH). The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of manure storage duration on manure chemical and microbial properties in swine feeding trials. Three groups of 12 pigs were fed a standard corn-soybean meal diet over a 13-wk period. Urine and feces were collected at each feeding and transferred to 12 manure storage tanks. Manure chemical characteristics and headspace gas concentrations were monitored for NH, hydrogen sulfide (HS), volatile fatty acids, phenols, and indoles. Microbial analysis of the stored manure included plate counts, community structure (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), and metabolic function (Biolog). All odorants in manure and headspace gas concentrations were significantly ( < 0.01) correlated for length of storage using quadratic equations, peaking after Week 5 for all headspace gases and most manure chemical characteristics. Microbial community structure and metabolic utilization patterns showed continued change throughout the 13-wk trial. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis species diversity patterns declined significantly ( < 0.01) with time as substrate utilization declined for sugars and certain amino acids, but functionality increased in the utilization of short chain fatty acids as levels of these compounds increased in manure. Studies to assess the effect of swine diet formulations on manure emissions for odor need to be conducted for a minimum of 5 wk. Efforts to determine the impact of diets on greenhouse gas emissions will require longer periods of study (>13 wk). PMID:27380061

  13. Green Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Ho

    Today, the environment has become a main subject in lots of science disciplines and the industrial development due to the global warming. This paper presents the analysis of the tendency of Green Architecture in France on the threes axes: Regulations and Approach for the Sustainable Architecture (Certificate and Standard), Renewable Materials (Green Materials) and Strategies (Equipments) of Sustainable Technology. The definition of 'Green Architecture' will be cited in the introduction and the question of the interdisciplinary for the technological development in 'Green Architecture' will be raised up in the conclusion.

  14. Anaerobic digestion of the liquid fraction of dairy manure

    SciTech Connect

    Haugen, V.; Dahlberg, S.; Lindley, J.A.

    1983-06-01

    The authors tested several solid liquid separation systems suitable for processing dairy manure prior to anaerobic digestion. None of the systems tried have completely satisfied the requirements. Evaluated effects of separation on biogas production. Unseparated dairy manure produced more biogas than the liquid fraction.

  15. The role of carbon dioxide in ammonia emission from manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emission from manure is a significant loss of fixed N from agricultural systems, and contributes to air pollution and ecosystem degradation. Despite the development of numerous mathematical models for predicting ammonia emission, the interactions between carbon dioxide emission, manure pH, a...

  16. Turning schedules influence final composition of composted swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liquid swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) manure is a high-moisture, low-nutrient product that limits economical transport to areas in proximity of its source, possibly contributing to localized high soil nutrient levels. Composting swine manure converts liquid slurries to solids at lower moisture conten...

  17. Winter runoff of surface applied animal manure in Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USEPA-ORD, USEPA Region 5 NPDES program branch, and USDA-ARS are collaborating to improve the scientific foundation for guidance regarding winter application of manure to land when the soil is frozen. Vegetative filter strips, unmanured setbacks, and nutrient-limited manure application are bein...

  18. Ammonia Volatilization Loss from Surface Applied Livestock Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia (NH3) emission from livestock manures used in agriculture reduces N uptake by crops and negatively impacts air quality. This laboratory study was conducted to evaluate NH3 emission from different livestock manures applied to two soils: Candler fins sand (CFS; light-textured soil, pH 6.8 and...

  19. Turning schedules effect nutrient content of composted swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) generate large amounts of manure per area basis. This manure must be removed and disposed of or utilized in an environmentally sound manner. Land application to crop land is the most common method of waste disposal. For much of the year, land applica...

  20. Modeling water movement in beef cattle bedded manure pack

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bedded manure is a valuable fertilizer source because it contains essential macronutrients (nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K)) for crop production. Previous research with beef cattle bedded manure packs demonstrated that water-soluble macronutrients accumulated toward the bottom of the...

  1. Net nitrogen mineralization from past year's manure and fertilizer applications.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure from the semiarid West’s dairy industries is a rich nutrient source, but its use for crops can be problematic because soil N availability from manure may vary substantially depending on the year of application. Experimental plots established in Idaho on a Portneuf silt loam (coarse silty, mi...

  2. Economic analyses of pig manure treatment options in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Tereza; Troy, Shane M; Gilkinson, Stephen; Frost, Peter; Xie, Sihuang; Zhan, Xinmin; Harrington, Caolan; Healy, Mark G; Lawlor, Peadar G

    2012-02-01

    An economic analysis was performed on treatment options for pig manure in Ireland. Costs were based on a 500 sow integrated pig farm producing 10,500 m(3) of manure per year at 4.8% dry matter. The anaerobic digestion of pig manure and grass silage (1:1; volatile solids basis) was unviable under the proposed tariffs, with costs at € 5.2 m(-3) manure. Subsequent solid-liquid separation of the digestate would cost an additional € 12.8 m(-3) manure. The treatment of the separated solid fraction by composting and of the liquid fraction by integrated constructed wetlands, would add € 2.8 and € 4.6 m(-3) manure, respectively to the treatment costs. The cost analysis presented showed that the technologies investigated are currently not cost effective in Ireland. Transport and spreading of raw manure, at € 4.9 m(-3) manure (15 km maximum distance from farm) is the most cost effective option.

  3. Kinetics and energetics of producing animal-manure-based biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrolysis of animal manure produce biochar with multiple beneficial use potentials for improving soil quality and the environment. The kinetics and energetics of pyrolysis in producing manure-based biochar char were reviewed and analyzed. Kinetic analysis of pyrolysis showed that the higher the temp...

  4. REDUCTION OF EMISSIONS FROM IN VITRO SWINE MANURE USING MONENSIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage of swine manure is associated with the generation of malodorous compounds and emissions. These are produced as a result of anaerobic degradation of materials present in manure and include sulfides, methane, organic acids, ammonia, and other volatile compounds. Because odor emission from li...

  5. Gasification of hybrid feedstock using animal manures and hays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of a proprietary integrated gasification-internal combustion system in producing electricity from mixtures of animal manures such as swine solids, chicken litter, and hays. Five to 10 gallons of mixtures of swine manure, chicken litter, and h...

  6. Salinity of animal manure and potential risk of secondary soil salinization through successive manure application.

    PubMed

    Li-Xian, Yao; Guo-Liang, Li; Shi-Hua, Tu; Gavin, Sulewski; Zhao-Huan, He

    2007-09-20

    To enhance animal productivity and maximize economic returns, mineral salts are routinely added to animal feed worldwide. Salinity and ionic composition of animal manure from intensive poultry and livestock farms in Guangdong province were investigated. Field experiments were conducted for six successive crops of Brassica Parachinensis to evaluate the possibility of secondary soil salinization by successive application of chicken manure (CM) and pigeon manure (PM) to a garden soil. The concentration of total soluble salts (TSS), which were mainly composed of sulfate and chloride of potassium and sodium, averaged 49.0, 20.6 and 60.3 g.kg(- 1) in chicken, pig and pigeon manure, respectively. After three crops, successive application of CM and PM increased soil concentrations of TSS, Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), SO(4)(2-), and Cl(-) with application rate, resulting in a rise in soil salinity from low to medium levels and a slight reduction in soil pH. After heavy rains during the last three crops, soil TSS was reduced considerably and pH showed a slight increase. Concentrations of Cl(-) and Mg(2+) increased and Ca(2+) decreased at the end of the experiment, all leading to changes in the ionic composition of soil salinity. Manure with higher ion concentrations appeared to play a more important role in affecting ionic composition of soil salinity. The results further suggest that even in a region with abundant rainfall like Guangzhou, there is still potential risk for secondary soil salinization when high rates of CM and PM are applied.

  7. The effect of cutting, mulching and applications of farmyard manure on nitrogen fixation in a red clover/grass sward.

    PubMed

    Hatch, D J; Goodlass, G; Joynes, A; Shepherd, M A

    2007-12-01

    In organic farming, maximising the amount of nitrogen (N) which is fixed and retained within the soil is of paramount importance for the yield of the following crop. The aim of this study was to establish the extent to which increased soil fertility, farmyard manure (FYM) applications and/or mulching, could adversely affect fixation. At two sites, situated in the South West (SW) and North East (NE) of England, N(2) fixation was estimated in 'organically' managed red clover/grass plots, both with and without green manure (i.e. surface mulched) and/or the addition of FYM. The FYM was incorporated into the seedbeds at both sites in autumn 2002 at the rate of 170 kg total Nha(-1), as either well-composted (SW site), or not actively-composted (NE site) manures. The same FYM application rate was repeated as top-dressings to both sites in autumn 2003. The plots were cut three or four times each year over two growing seasons. In the first harvest year (2003), incorporation of FYM had beneficial effects of increasing dry matter and N yields significantly at the first cut, but there were no significant differences in subsequent cuts. The same pattern was found in the second harvest year (2004) after the top dressings of FYM, suggesting that most of the N in both types of FYM was in recalcitrant forms. Over the two growing seasons, mulching did not affect red clover/grass dry matter or N yields, but did reduce the proportion of N(2) fixed, by up to 60 kg Nha(-1) when compared with plots from which the clover/grass herbage was cut and removed. Thus, the gain in N from FYM or green manure tended to be offset by a similar reduction in N(2) fixation. These results demonstrate the close association between the availability of soil N and the feed-back system which operates on N(2) fixation by red clover.

  8. Methane Recovery from Animal Manures The Current Opportunities Casebook

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.

    1998-09-22

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Pollutants from unmanaged livestock wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing manure may contribute to global climate change. One management system not only helps prevent pollution but can also convert a manure problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially viable conversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This casebook examines some of the current opportunities for recovering methane from anaerobic digestion animal manures.

  9. Long-term operation of manure-microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guodong; Zhao, Qingliang; Jiao, Yan; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2015-03-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is applied to produce electricity using dairy manure as a fuel. Since the way MFC utilizes manure as a fuel and the long-term operation stability of manure-MFC remains unclear, this study examined the evolution of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in anodic chamber and power generation by MFC in a 171days test. The tested MFC can produce electricity over the entire testing period by single feed of manure, with stable power output and total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal rate in the period of day 30-140. The hydrophobic acid (HPO-A) and hydrophilic (HPI) fractions of manure were the principal components of anolyte DOM, with the concentrations of both being reduced over MFC operation. The degradable organic matters were converted to compounds with high aromaticity.

  10. Characterization of enterococci populations in livestock manure using BIOLOG.

    PubMed

    Graves, Alexandria; Weaver, R W; Entry, James

    2009-01-01

    The BIOLOG system was used to generate knowledge of enterococci populations found in fresh and dry manure of livestock (cattle (Bos taurus), horse (Equus caballus), and sheep (Ovis aires)). Six-hundred and forty Enterococcus isolates from the host sources were observed as a combined fresh manure unit and a combined dry manure unit, E. casseliflavus and E. mundtii were predominant in fresh manure (36% and 35%, respectively) as well as in dry manure (51% and 28%, respectively). The other species were found at a frequency of less than 10%. A chi-square test of the two most predominant Enterococcus sp. indicated that there were some significant differences among the frequency of E. casseliflavus and E. mundtii in cattle and sheep, but not horse. Despite these differences, these two species were overwhelmingly predominant among all three livestock sources.

  11. Factors influencing adoption of manure separation technology in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gebrezgabher, Solomie A; Meuwissen, Miranda P M; Kruseman, Gideon; Lakner, Dora; Oude Lansink, Alfons G J M

    2015-03-01

    Manure separation technologies are essential for sustainable livestock operations in areas with high livestock density as these technologies result in better utilization of manure and reduced environmental impact. Technologies for manure separation have been well researched and are ready for use. Their use, however, has been limited to the Netherlands. This paper investigates the role of farm and farmer characteristics and farmers' attitudes toward technology-specific attributes in influencing the likelihood of the adoption of mechanical manure separation technology. The analysis used survey data collected from 111 Dutch dairy farmers in 2009. The results showed that the age and education level of the farmer and farm size are important variables explaining the likelihood of adoption. In addition to farm and farmer characteristics, farmers' attitudes toward the different attributes of manure separation technology significantly affect the likelihood of adoption. The study generates useful information for policy makers, technology developers and distributors in identifying the factors that impact decision-making behaviors of farmers.

  12. Impacts of a Swine Manure Spill on Fluvial Sediments: Evaluation of an alternative Manure Spill Remediation Method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within the last decade the frequency of confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) manure spills and violations have increased, in conjunction with the increase in the number of animal on each farm and production efficiency. Currently, the conventional remediation method for manure spills focus exc...

  13. Applied manure research—looking forward to the benign roles of animal manure in agriculture and the environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By definition, animal manure is discarded animal excreta and bedding materials usually applied to soils as a fertilizer for agricultural production. However, the impact of manure generation and disposal is far more than the role of organic fertilizers, even though the fertilizer function of animal m...

  14. Brazilian beef cattle feedlot manure management: a country survey.

    PubMed

    Costa, C; Goulart, R S; Albertini, T Z; Feigl, B J; Cerri, C E P; Vasconcelos, J T; Bernoux, M; Lanna, D P D; Cerri, C C

    2013-04-01

    No information regarding the management of manure from beef cattle feedlots is available for Brazil. To fill this knowledge gap, a survey of 73 feedlots was conducted in 7 Brazilian states. In this survey, questions were asked regarding animal characteristics, their diets, and manure handling management from generation to disposal. These feedlots finished 831,450 animals in 2010. The predominant breed fed was Nellore, with average feeding periods of 60 to 135 d. Corn was the primary source of grain used in the feedlot diets (76% of surveyed animals) with concentrate inclusion levels ranging from 81 to 90% (38% of surveyed animals). The most representative manure management practice was the removal of manure from pens only at the end of the feeding period. Subsequently, the manure was stored in mounds before being applied to crop and pasture lands. Runoff, mainly from rainwater, was collected in retention ponds and used for agriculture. However, the quantity of runoff was not known. Manure was composted for only 20% of the animals in the survey and was treated in anaerobic digesters for only 1% of the animals. Manure from 59% of the cattle surveyed was used as fertilizer, providing a cost savings over the use of synthetic fertilizers. Overall, chemical analysis of the manure before application to fields was conducted for the manure of 56% of the surveyed animals, but the exact quantity applied (per hectare) was unknown for 48%. Feedlots representing 48% of the surveyed animals noted similar or greater crop and pasture yields when using manure, rather than synthetic fertilizers. In addition, 32% mentioned an increase in soil organic matter. Feedlots representing 88% of the surveyed cattle indicated that information concerning management practices that improve manure use efficiency is lacking. Feedlots representing 93% of the animals in the survey reported having basic information regarding the generation of energy and fertilizer with anaerobic digesters. However

  15. Migration of Caenorhabditis elegans to manure and manure compost and potential for transport of Salmonella newport to fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Stephen J; Anderson, Gary L; Williams, Phillip L; Millner, Patricia D; Beuchat, Larry R

    2006-01-15

    A study was done to determine if a free-living, bacterivorous nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, migrates to bovine manure, turkey manure, composted bovine manure, composted turkey manure, and manure-amended soil inoculated with Salmonella Newport. Movement of the worm to lettuce, strawberries, and carrots was also studied. C. elegans moved most rapidly to turkey manure and strawberries, with 35% and 60% of worms, respectively, associating with samples within 30 min. Survival and reproduction of C. elegans in test materials were not affected by the presence of S. newport. Bovine manure and bovine manure compost inoculated with S. newport (8.6 log10 CFU/g) were separately placed in the bottom of a glass jar and covered with a layer of soil (5 cm) inoculated (50 worms/g) or not inoculated with C. elegans. A piece of lettuce, strawberry, or carrot was placed on top of the soil before jars were sealed and held at 20 degrees C for up to 10 days. In the system using soil inoculated with C. elegans, S. newport initially in bovine manure was detected on the surface of lettuce, strawberry, and carrot samples within 3, 1, and 1 days, respectively. The pathogen was detected on lettuce, strawberry, and carrot within 1, 7, and 1 days, respectively, when initially present in bovine manure compost. With one exception, the pathogen was not detected on the produce over the 10-day incubation period when C. elegans was not present in the soil. Results indicate that C. elegans has the potential for transporting S. newport in soil to the surface of preharvest fruits and vegetables in contact with soil. PMID:16226330

  16. An assessment of nitrogen-based manure application rates on 39 U.S. swine operations.

    PubMed

    Lory, John A; Massey, Raymond E; Zulovich, Joseph M; Hoehne, John A; Schmidt, Amy M; Carlson, Marcia S; Fulhage, Charles D

    2004-01-01

    Water quality concerns and revised regulations are changing how confined animal feeding operations manage manure. Devising acceptable and feasible changes in manure practices requires a full understanding of the forces shaping current manure management decisions. Previous theoretical models have shown that a wide range of factors influence the lowest cost solution for manure management. We used a mechanistic model to characterize the manure management practices on 39 swine operations (20 unagitated lagoon and 19 slurry operations) in five states (Iowa, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania). Information was collected from each operation about animal numbers, feed and water use, manure handling and storage characteristics, field locations, crop rotation, fertilizer need, and equipment inventory and usage. Collected data were used as input and to validate results from a mechanistic model that determined acres required for manure application, manure application rate, time required for manure application, value of manure, and costs of manure management. The 39 farms had a mean of 984 animal units (AU) per operation, 18.2 AU ha(-1) (7.4 AU acre(-1)), and manure application costs of dollar 10.49 AU(-1) yr(-1). Significant factors affecting manure management included operation size, manure handling system, state, and ownership structure. Larger operations had lower manure management costs (r2 = 0.32). Manure value potentially exceeded manure application costs on 58% of slurry and 15% of lagoon operations. But 38% of slurry operations needed to apply manure off the farm whereas all lagoon operations had sufficient land for N-based manure management. Manure management was a higher percentage of gross income on contract operations compared with independents (P < 0.01). This research emphasized the importance of site-specific factors affecting manure management decisions and the economics of U.S. swine operations. PMID:15224950

  17. Code Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, John

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the integrated approach to green design in the new Computer Science Building at Toronto's York University. The building design fulfills the university's demand to combine an energy efficient design with sustainability. Floor and site plans are included. (GR)

  18. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  19. Green Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  20. Green Coffee

    MedlinePlus

    ... orange in combination with caffeine or caffeine-containing herbs can increase blood pressure and heart rate in ... serious heart problems. Avoid this combination.Caffeine-containing herbs and supplementsUsing green coffee along with other caffeine- ...

  1. Phosphorus recovery from pig manure solids prior to land application.

    PubMed

    Szögi, Ariel A; Vanotti, Matias B; Hunt, Patrick G

    2015-07-01

    Land disposal of pig manure is an environmental concern due to an imbalance of the nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) ratio for crop production, leading to excess phosphorus (P) in soils and potential risks of water pollution. A process called "quick wash" was investigated for its feasibility to extract and recover P from pig manure solids. This process consists of selective dissolution of P from solid manure into a liquid extract using mineral or organic acid solutions, and recovery of P from the liquid extract by adding lime and an organic polymer to form a P precipitate. Laboratory tests confirmed the quick wash process selectively removed and recovered up to 90% of the total (TP) from fresh pig manure solids while leaving significant amounts of nitrogen (N) in the washed manure residue. As a result of manure P extraction, the washed solid residue became environmentally safer for land application with a more balanced N:P ratio for crop production. The recovered P can be recycled and used as fertilizer for crop production while minimizing manure P losses into the environment. PMID:25874587

  2. Sulfamethazine uptake by plants from manure-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Dolliver, Holly; Kumar, Kuldip; Gupta, Satish

    2007-01-01

    Animal manure is applied to agricultural land as a means to provide crop nutrients. However, animal manure often contains antibiotics as a result of extensive therapeutic and subtherapeutic use in livestock production. The objective of this study was to evaluate plant uptake of a sulfonamide-class antibiotic, sulfamethazine, in corn (Zea mays L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) grown in a manure-amended soil. The treatments were 0, 50, and 100 microg sulfamethazine mL(-1) manure applied at a rate of 56 000 L ha(-1). Results from the 45-d greenhouse experiment showed that sulfamethazine was taken up by all three crops, with concentrations in plant tissue ranging from 0.1 to 1.2 mg kg(-1) dry weight. Sulfamethazine concentrations in plant tissue increased with corresponding increase of sulfamethazine in manure. Highest plant tissue concentrations were found in corn and lettuce, followed by potato. Total accumulation of sulfamethazine in plant tissue after 45 d of growth was less than 0.1% of the amount applied to soil in manure. These results raise potential human health concerns of consuming low levels of antibiotics from produce grown on manure-amended soils.

  3. Effect of manure on glyphosate and trifluralin mineralization in soil.

    PubMed

    Reimer, M; Farenhorst, A; Gaultier, J

    2005-01-01

    Manure additions to soil may alter soil chemical, physical, and biological characteristics, and thereby change pesticide fate processes in soil. This is the first study to examine the impact of liquid hog manure amendments on glyphosate and trifluralin mineralization in soil. Experiments were conducted in soil microcosms in the laboratory for a total of 332 (glyphosate) and 430 (trifluralin) days. The rate and amount of mineralization of both glyphosate and trifluralin were significantly influenced by the additions of fresh manure to soil in the laboratory and by the history of manure applications in the field. However, the maximum difference in herbicide mineralization between soils that were free of manure application and those amended with manure in the field or in the laboratory was only 6.1% and 7.3% of that initially applied, for trifluralin and glyphosate, respectively. Therefore, we conclude that liquid hog manure application to soil will have no significant effect on the mineralization of glyphosate and trifluralin under field conditions.

  4. Phosphorus recovery from pig manure solids prior to land application.

    PubMed

    Szögi, Ariel A; Vanotti, Matias B; Hunt, Patrick G

    2015-07-01

    Land disposal of pig manure is an environmental concern due to an imbalance of the nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) ratio for crop production, leading to excess phosphorus (P) in soils and potential risks of water pollution. A process called "quick wash" was investigated for its feasibility to extract and recover P from pig manure solids. This process consists of selective dissolution of P from solid manure into a liquid extract using mineral or organic acid solutions, and recovery of P from the liquid extract by adding lime and an organic polymer to form a P precipitate. Laboratory tests confirmed the quick wash process selectively removed and recovered up to 90% of the total (TP) from fresh pig manure solids while leaving significant amounts of nitrogen (N) in the washed manure residue. As a result of manure P extraction, the washed solid residue became environmentally safer for land application with a more balanced N:P ratio for crop production. The recovered P can be recycled and used as fertilizer for crop production while minimizing manure P losses into the environment.

  5. Analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Survival in Ovine or Bovine Manure and Manure Slurry

    PubMed Central

    Kudva, Indira T.; Blanch, Kathryn; Hovde, Carolyn J.

    1998-01-01

    Farm animal manure or manure slurry may disseminate, transmit, or propagate Escherichia coli O157:H7. In this study, the survival and growth of E. coli O157:H7 in ovine or bovine feces under various experimental and environmental conditions were determined. A manure pile collected from experimentally inoculated sheep was incubated outside under fluctuating environmental conditions. E. coli O157:H7 survived in the manure for 21 months, and the concentrations of bacteria recovered ranged from <102 to 106 CFU/g at different times over the course of the experiment. The DNA fingerprints of E. coli O157:H7 isolated at month 1 and month 12 were identical or very similar. A second E. coli O157:H7-positive ovine manure pile, which was periodically aerated by mixing, remained culture positive for 4 months. An E. coli O157:H7-positive bovine manure pile was culture positive for 47 days. In the laboratory, E. coli O157:H7 was inoculated into feces, untreated slurry, or treated slurry and incubated at −20, 4, 23, 37, 45, and 70°C. E. coli O157:H7 survived best in manure incubated without aeration at temperatures below 23°C, but it usually survived for shorter periods of time than it survived in manure held in the environment. The bacterium survived at least 100 days in bovine manure frozen at −20°C or in ovine manure incubated at 4 or 10°C for 100 days, but under all other conditions the length of time that it survived ranged from 24 h to 40 days. In addition, we found that the Shiga toxin type 1 and 2 genes in E. coli O157:H7 had little or no influence on bacterial survival in manure or manure slurry. The long-term survival of E. coli O157:H7 in manure emphasizes the need for appropriate farm waste management to curtail environmental spread of this bacterium. This study also highlights the difficulties in extrapolating laboratory data to on-farm conditions. PMID:9726855

  6. Physical and thermal characteristics of dairy cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Sutitarnnontr, Pakorn; Hu, Enzhu; Tuller, Markus; Jones, Scott B

    2014-11-01

    Greenhouse and regulated gas emissions from animal waste are naturally mediated by moisture content and temperature. As with soils, emissions from manure could be readily estimated given the physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties are described by models and microbes and nutrients are not limiting factors. The objectives of this study were to measure and model physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of dairy manure to support advanced modeling of gas and water fluxes in addition to solute, colloid, and heat transport. A series of soil science measurement techniques were applied to determine a set of fundamental properties of as-excreted dairy cattle manure. Relationships between manure dielectric permittivity and volumetric water content (θ) were obtained using time-domain reflectometry and capacitance-based dielectric measurements. The measured water retention characteristic for cattle manure was similar to organic peat soil. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function of dairy manure was inferred from inverse numerical fitting of laboratory manure evaporation results. The thermal properties of dairy manure, including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and bulk volumetric heat capacity, were also determined using three penta-needle heat pulse probes. The accuracy of the heat capacity measurements was determined from a comparison of theoretical θ, estimated from the measured thermal properties with that determined by the capacitance-based dielectric measurement. These data represent a novel and unique contribution for advancing prediction and modeling capabilities of gas emissions from cattle manure, although the uncertainties associated with the complexities of shrinkage, surface crust formation, and cracking must also be considered. PMID:25602228

  7. Anaerobic digestion of manure and mixture of manure with lipids: biogas reactor performance and microbial community analysis.

    PubMed

    Mladenovska, Z; Dabrowski, S; Ahring, B K

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of cattle manure and a mixture of cattle manure with glycerol trioleate (GTO) was studied in lab-scale, continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) operated at 37 degrees C. The reactor codigesting manure and lipids exhibited a significantly higher specific methane yield and a higher removal of VS than the reactor treating manure. Microbial population analysis done by cultivation--most probable number (MPN) test and specific methanogenic activity (SMA) measurement, revealed higher MPN and increased SMA of methanogenic populations of biomass from the reactor codigesting manure and lipids. Spatial microbial distribution and activity was studied in digested materials fractionated into size of particles > 200 microm, 50-200 microm and 0.45-50 microm. With manure, the main pool of methanogenic activity from propionate, butyrate and hydrogen was associated with the particles > 200 microm, while the activity of acetotrophic methanogens was uniformly distributed in all fractions. When digesting manure and lipids, an enhanced methanogenesis was detected both for particles > 200 microm and the 50-200 microm fraction. The molecular methods--temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE), cloning library and sequencing of 16S rDNA--showed presence of a restricted number of archaeal species in both reactors. The vast majority of clones was phylogenetically most closely related to Methanosarcina siciliae.

  8. Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, A. G.; Chen, Y. R.; Varel, V. H.

    1981-01-01

    The conversion of livestock manure and crop residues into methane and a high protein feed ingredient by thermophilic anaerobic fermentation is summarized. The major biological and operational factors involved in methanogenesis are discussed, and a kinetic model that describes the fermentation process is presented. Substrate biodegradability, fermentation temperature, and influent substrate concentration to have significant effects on CH4 production rate. Assessment of the energy requirements for anaerobic fermentation systems showed that the major energy requirement for a thermophilic system was for maintaining the fermenter temperature. The next major energy consumption was due to the mixing of the influent slurry and fermenter liquor. An approach to optimizing anaerobic fermenter s by selecting design criteria that maximize the net energy production per unit cost is presented.

  9. Combustion of horse manure for heat production.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, J; Pettersson, E

    2009-06-01

    The main objectives of this paper have been to evaluate the use of horse manure and wood-shavings as a fuel for heat production and to provide sets of data on the chemical composition, ash characteristics and ash forming elements of the fuel. Another objective has been to investigate the possibility to use the ash as fertiliser by analysing the heavy metal and nutrient contents. The results showed that the fuel is well suited for combustion for heat production causing low emissions of products of incomplete combustion. The emissions of NO(x) were however high due to the high content of fuel bound nitrogen. Emissions of CO and NO(x) were typically in the range of 30-150 mg/Nm(3) and 280-350 mg/Nm(3) at 10 vol% O(2), respectively. The analysis of the ash showed on sufficiently low concentration of heavy metals to allow recycling.

  10. Pathogens and manure management systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Bicudo, J R; Goyal, S M

    2003-01-01

    There has been an increasing concern about the effects of pathogens that are present in animal manure on humanand animal health. In recent years, outbreaks of food-borne diseases associated with the consumption of animal products havereceived much attention from the media in North America and Europe, leading to increased consumer concerns about the safety of their food supply. The health risks associated with animal operations depend on various factors. The most important ones appear to be related to the animal species being reared and the concentration of pathogenic microorganisms in animal manure. The ability of the pathogens to survive for long periods and through treatment to remain infective in the environment until ingested by human or animal host is an added concern. On the other hand, the role of livestock in most waterborne bacterial outbreaks has often been difficult to clarify since both humans and various wildlife species can shed the same microorganisms and thereby serve as sources of infection. This paper summarizes existing information on the main microbial pathogens present in livestock wastes, and discusses the impact of livestock wastes and agricultural drainage on microbiological quality of water, as well as available management and treatment technologies to minimize the prevalence of pathogens in animal wastes. Despite the fact that most disease outbreaks have been associated with food poisoning by cross-contamination during meat or milk processing and during finished product storage this review shows that a number of best management practices and technical solutions have been developed in the last few years that can be effective tools in minimizing the spread of pathogens from livestock operations in the environment.

  11. Pathogens and manure management systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Bicudo, J R; Goyal, S M

    2003-01-01

    There has been an increasing concern about the effects of pathogens that are present in animal manure on humanand animal health. In recent years, outbreaks of food-borne diseases associated with the consumption of animal products havereceived much attention from the media in North America and Europe, leading to increased consumer concerns about the safety of their food supply. The health risks associated with animal operations depend on various factors. The most important ones appear to be related to the animal species being reared and the concentration of pathogenic microorganisms in animal manure. The ability of the pathogens to survive for long periods and through treatment to remain infective in the environment until ingested by human or animal host is an added concern. On the other hand, the role of livestock in most waterborne bacterial outbreaks has often been difficult to clarify since both humans and various wildlife species can shed the same microorganisms and thereby serve as sources of infection. This paper summarizes existing information on the main microbial pathogens present in livestock wastes, and discusses the impact of livestock wastes and agricultural drainage on microbiological quality of water, as well as available management and treatment technologies to minimize the prevalence of pathogens in animal wastes. Despite the fact that most disease outbreaks have been associated with food poisoning by cross-contamination during meat or milk processing and during finished product storage this review shows that a number of best management practices and technical solutions have been developed in the last few years that can be effective tools in minimizing the spread of pathogens from livestock operations in the environment. PMID:12641259

  12. Evaluation of manure as a feedstock for gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Hamrick, J.T.

    1988-05-01

    A preliminary program on evaluation of feedlot manure as a feed stock for gas turbines has been completed. It was determined that manure can be pulverized and fed into a gas turbine combustion system with the manure burning in much the same manner as a liquid or gaseous fuel. Ash and dirt in the manure did not appear to have a significant effect on combustion and were effectively removed by the cyclone filters. The exhaust gases varied from clear to a blue haze. Severe problems were encountered with slagging of the hot refractory walls of the combustor. Development of a suitable combustor will be required before a commercial size system can be designed. 10 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Disinfection of animal manures, food safety and policy.

    PubMed

    Cliver, Dean O

    2009-11-01

    Manure is a resource, but sometimes also a nuisance. Manure management strategies have traditionally focused on soil nutrients (N, P, K), COD, and more recently biological substances (antibiotics, hormones, etc.), with disinfection being a relative afterthought. Zoonotic pathogens (Salmonella and other bacteria, protozoa, etc.) may be present in manure, but only occasionally cause foodborne disease. In countries where food is relatively safe, requiring heroic manure disinfection measures may be a net detriment to public health. Decisions that a new, elegant disinfection technology can, should, or must be done may result from invoking the "precautionary principle." Additional capital and operating costs must be passed to the consumer. Since such measures are likely to prevent very few human illnesses, policymakers should also consider the effect of increased prices on human nutrition and hunger. In most situations, not eating is more dangerous than eating. PMID:19447609

  14. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.

    1994-12-01

    One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a manure management problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations. Finally, anaerobic digestion has considerable potential beyond agribusiness. Examples of digesters currently employed by other industries are provided.

  15. E-nose identification of Salmonella enterica in poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Kizil, Ü; Genç, L; Genç, T T; Rahman, S; Khaitsa, M L

    2015-04-01

    A DiagNose II electronic nose (e-nose) system was tested to evaluate the performance of such systems in the detection of the Salmonella enterica pathogen in poultry manure. To build a database, poultry manure samples were collected from 7 broiler houses, samples were homogenised, and subdivided into 4 portions. One portion was left as is; the other three portions were artificially infected with S. enterica. An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed and validated using the developed database. In order to test the performance of DiagNose II and the ANN model, 16 manure samples were collected from 6 different broiler houses and tested using these two systems. The results showed that DiagNose II was able to classify manure samples correctly as infected or non-infected based on the ANN model developed with a 94% level of accuracy. PMID:25650129

  16. Field scale manure born animal waste management : GIS application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive beef backgrounding often accumulate manure born soil nutrients, microbes, and pharmaceuticals at different site locations. Unless properly managed, such waste materials can pollute surrounding soil and water sources. Soil sampling from these sites helps determining waste material levels bu...

  17. Valorization of horse manure through catalytic supercritical water gasification.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Sonil; Dalai, Ajay K; Gökalp, Iskender; Kozinski, Janusz A

    2016-06-01

    The organic wastes such as lignocellulosic biomass, municipal solid waste, sewage sludge and livestock manure have attracted attention as alternative sources of energy. Cattle manure, a waste generated in surplus amounts from the feedlot, has always been a chief environmental concern. This study is focused on identifying the candidacy of horse manure as a next generation feedstock for biofuel production through supercritical water gasification. The horse manure was gasified in supercritical water to examine the effects of temperature (400-600°C), biomass-to-water ratio (1:5 and 1:10) and reaction time (15-45min) at a pressure range of 23-25MPa. The horse manure and resulting biochar were characterized through carbon-hydrogen-nitrogen-sulfur (CHNS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of alkali catalysts such as NaOH, Na2CO3 and K2CO3 at variable concentrations (1-2wt%) were investigated to maximize the hydrogen yields. Supercritical water gasification of horse manure with 2wt% Na2CO3 at 600°C and 1:10 biomass-to-water ratio for 45min revealed maximum hydrogen yields (5.31mmol/g), total gas yields (20.8mmol/g) with greater carbon conversion efficiency (43.1%) and enhanced lower heating value of gas products (2920kJ/Nm(3)). The manure-derived biochars generated at temperatures higher than 500°C also demonstrated higher thermal stability (weight loss <34%) and larger carbon content (>70wt%) suggesting their application in enhancing soil fertility and carbon sequestration. The results propose that supercritical water gasification could be a proficient remediation technology for horse manure to generate hydrogen-rich gas products.

  18. Infectivity of PRRS virus in pig manure at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Linhares, Daniel C L; Torremorell, Montserrat; Joo, Han Soo; Morrison, Robert B

    2012-11-01

    PRRSv is an economically important swine pathogen which can be disseminated from infected pig herds via movement of contaminated manure. The process of manure handling and inadequate cleaning of transport vehicles are commonly implicated as sources of PRRSv transmission. Stability of PRRSv in pig manure at different temperatures is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine PRRSv-infectivity half-life in manure and in a cell culture medium at 4, 20, 60 and 80°C. To assure sample consistency across the study, all samples were prepared from common homogenized solutions (MEM and manure) and frozen at -20°C. Samples were thawed, transferred to a water bath set at a specific temperature, inoculated with 100 μl of PRRSv at designated time points and then tested for virus infectivity. Regression models were created to estimate PRRSv half-life based on incubation temperature. There was an exponential decrease in PRRSv infectivity with increasing temperature. At every temperature tested, PRRSv had shorter half-life when incubated in manure compared to MEM. PRRSv half-life in MEM and manure was estimated at 112.6 and 120.5 h at 4°C, 14.6 and 24.5 h at 20°C, 1.6 and 1.7 h at 40°C, 2.9 and 8.5 min at 60°C, and 0.36-0.59 min at 80°C, respectively. Results of this study can be used as basis for developing strategies to inactivate PRRSv present in manure-contaminated environments using heating treatments. For example, these data suggest that submitting transport trailers to temperature of 50°C for 8h would decrease PRRSv from 10(6) TCID(50)/ml to less than 10(1) TCID(50)/ml.

  19. Liming Poultry Manures to Kill Pathogens and Decrease Soluble Phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire,R.; Hesterberg, D.; Gernat, A.; Anderson, K.; Wineland, M.; Grimes, J.

    2006-01-01

    Received for publication September 9, 2005. Stabilizing phosphorus (P) in poultry waste to reduce P losses from manured soils is important to protect surface waters, while pathogens in manures are an emerging issue. This study was conducted to evaluate CaO and Ca(OH){sub 2} for killing manure bacterial populations (pathogens) and stabilizing P in poultry wastes and to investigate the influence on soils following amendment with the treated wastes. Layer manure and broiler litter varying in moisture content were treated with CaO and Ca(OH){sub 2} at rates of 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% by weight. All treated wastes were analyzed for microbial plate counts, pH, and water-soluble phosphorus (WSP), while a few selected layer manures were analyzed by phosphorus X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). A loamy sand and a silt loam were amended with broiler litter and layer manure treated with CaO at rates of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% and soil WSP and pH were measured at times 1, 8, and 29 d. Liming reduced bacterial populations, with greater rates of lime leading to greater reductions; for example 10% CaO applied to 20% solids broiler litter reduced the plate counts from 793 000 to 6500 mL{sup -1}. Liming also reduced the WSP in the manures by over 90% in all cases where at least 10% CaO was added. Liming the manures also reduced WSP in soils immediately following application and raised soil pH. The liming process used successfully reduced plate counts and concerns about P losses in runoff following land application of these limed products due to decreased WSP.

  20. Manure nutrient excretion by Jersey and Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, K F; Wilkerson, V A; Casper, D P; Mertens, D R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate feces, urine, and N excretion by Jersey and Holstein cows. Sixteen multiparous cows (n=8 per breed) were fed 2 experimental rations at calving in a switchback experimental design. Diets were 50% forage and based on corn meal (control) or whole cottonseed. Half the cows in each breed started on the control diet and half started on the whole cottonseed diet. Cows were switched to the other diet at 60 d in milk and switched back to their original diet at 165 d in milk. Pairs of cows were moved into open-circuit respiration chambers on d 49, 154, and 271 of lactation for 7-d measurement periods. While in the chambers, total collection of feed refusals, milk, recovered hair, feces, and urine was conducted. No effect of the interaction of diet and breed was observed for measures of nutrient digestibility and manure excretion. Total daily manure excretion was lower in Jersey cows than in Holstein cows, with reductions generally proportional to changes in feed intake. Jersey cows consumed 29% less feed and excreted 33% less wet feces and 28% less urine than Holstein cows. Intake, fecal, and urinary N were reduced by 29, 33, and 24%, respectively, in Jersey cows compared with Holstein cows. Equations from American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers underpredicted observed values for all manure measures evaluated (urine, manure solids, N, wet manure), and breed bias was observed in equations predicting excretion of urine, N, and wet manure. Although these equations include animal and dietary factors, intercepts of regression of observed values on predicted values differed between Holsteins and Jerseys for those 3 measures. No breed bias was observed in the prediction of manure solids excretion, however, making that equation equally appropriate for Jerseys and Holsteins. The effect of breed on manure and nutrient excretion has significant nutrient management implications.

  1. Valorization of horse manure through catalytic supercritical water gasification.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Sonil; Dalai, Ajay K; Gökalp, Iskender; Kozinski, Janusz A

    2016-06-01

    The organic wastes such as lignocellulosic biomass, municipal solid waste, sewage sludge and livestock manure have attracted attention as alternative sources of energy. Cattle manure, a waste generated in surplus amounts from the feedlot, has always been a chief environmental concern. This study is focused on identifying the candidacy of horse manure as a next generation feedstock for biofuel production through supercritical water gasification. The horse manure was gasified in supercritical water to examine the effects of temperature (400-600°C), biomass-to-water ratio (1:5 and 1:10) and reaction time (15-45min) at a pressure range of 23-25MPa. The horse manure and resulting biochar were characterized through carbon-hydrogen-nitrogen-sulfur (CHNS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of alkali catalysts such as NaOH, Na2CO3 and K2CO3 at variable concentrations (1-2wt%) were investigated to maximize the hydrogen yields. Supercritical water gasification of horse manure with 2wt% Na2CO3 at 600°C and 1:10 biomass-to-water ratio for 45min revealed maximum hydrogen yields (5.31mmol/g), total gas yields (20.8mmol/g) with greater carbon conversion efficiency (43.1%) and enhanced lower heating value of gas products (2920kJ/Nm(3)). The manure-derived biochars generated at temperatures higher than 500°C also demonstrated higher thermal stability (weight loss <34%) and larger carbon content (>70wt%) suggesting their application in enhancing soil fertility and carbon sequestration. The results propose that supercritical water gasification could be a proficient remediation technology for horse manure to generate hydrogen-rich gas products. PMID:27067100

  2. Green foot.

    PubMed

    LeFeber, W P; Golitz, L E

    1984-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa may infect the skin surface, nails, hair follicles, or deeper tissues. We report a 13-year-old male with an asymptomatic green discoloration of the toenails and sole of the right foot. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cultured from the shoe, but not from the discolored skin. We suspect that constant wearing of occlusive, rubber-soled, basketball shoes associated with hyperhidrosis allowed colonization of his shoe with pseudomonas. This case is unique in that colonization resulted in a green color of the foot not associated with infection of the skin.

  3. Microwave treatment and struvite recovery potential of dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Asif; Lo, Kwang Victor; Liao, Ping Huang

    2008-05-01

    Microwave digestion of liquid dairy manure was tested for the release of nutrients, such as orthophosphates, ammonia-nitrogen, magnesium, calcium and potassium, both with and without the aid of an oxidizing agent (hydrogen peroxide). The orthophosphate to total phosphorus ratio of the manure increased from 21% to greater than 80% with 5 minutes of microwave treatment. More than 36% of total chemical oxygen demand (t-COD) of the manure was reduced when microwave digestion was assisted with peroxide addition. In addition, the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) distribution shifted to simpler chain acids (acetic acid in particular) with an increase in operating temperature. In the second part of the study, digested manure with increased soluble phosphate was tested for the recovery of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) at different pH. It was found that up to 90% of orthophosphate can be removed from the solution. Overall, it was concluded that the oxidizing agent-assisted microwave digestion process can be used upstream of anaerobic digestion, following which the anaerobically digested manure can be used for struvite recovery. Thus, this microwave digestion process presents the potential for enhanced efficiencies in both manure digestion and struvite recovery. PMID:18437623

  4. Assessment and characterization of manure in the Southeastern US

    SciTech Connect

    Gerwig, B.K.; Hegg, R.O.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this project is to assess the quantity and characteristics of the livestock and poultry manures in the Southeastern US Livestock and poultry production in the U.S. is evolving to larger operations. This has caused some concern for water and air quality. Some states require certain management practices that might restrict the expansion of the livestock or poultry industry. These management practices may be: specific setback distances of the facility from neighboring property lines, groundwater monitoring, land application practices, odor control, operator training, and annual fees. These stricter regulations are encouraging the industry to look at various methods to dispose of or utilize animal manure. These methods may include energy recovery by methane production or direct combustion. In the 13 Southeastern states there are 81.1 x 10{sup 9} kg (89 million tons) of collectable manure produced per year. The top three producers of manure in the Southeast are North Carolina, Missouri and Arkansas. These three states contribute 49% of the total collectable manure. The hog and broiler industries supply 63% of the total collectable manure.

  5. Odorous VOC emission following land application of swine manure slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, David B.; Gilley, John; Woodbury, Bryan; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Galvin, Geordie; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.; Li, Xu; Snow, Daniel D.

    2013-02-01

    Swine manure is often applied to crop land as a fertilizer source. Odor emissions from land-applied swine manure may pose a nuisance to downwind populations if manure is not applied with sufficient forethought. A research project was conducted to assess the time decay of odorous volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions following land application of swine manure. Three land application methods were compared: surface application, incorporation 24 h after surface application, and injection. Emission rates were measured in field plots using a small wind tunnel and sorbent tubes. VOCs including eight volatile fatty acids, five aromatics, and two sulfur-containing compounds were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In most cases, a first order exponential decay model adequately described the flux versus time relationship for the 24 h period following land application, but the model sometimes overestimated flux in the 6-24 h range. The same model but with the time term squared adequately predicted flux over the entire 24 h period. Three compounds (4-methylphenol, skatole, and 4-ethylphenol) accounted for 93 percent of the summed odor activity value. First order decay constants (k) for these three compounds ranged from 0.157 to 0.996 h-1. When compared to surface application, injection of swine manure resulted in 80-95 percent lower flux for the most odorous aromatic compounds. These results show that VOC flux decreases rapidly following land application of swine manure, declining below levels of detection and near background levels after 4 to 8 h.

  6. Optimizing the Logistics of Anaerobic Digestion of Manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafoori, Emad; Flynn, Peter C.

    Electrical power production from the combustion of biogas from anaerobic digestion (AD) of manure is a means of recovering energy from animal waste. We evaluate the lowest cost method of moving material to and from centralized AD plants serving multiple confined feeding operations. Two areas are modeled, Lethbridge County, Alberta, Canada, an area of concentrated beef cattle feedlots, and Red Deer County, Alberta, a mixed-farming area with hog, dairy, chicken and beef cattle farms, and feedlots. We evaluate two types of AD plant: ones that return digestate to the source confined feeding operation for land spreading (current technology), and ones that process digestate to produce solid fertilizer and a dischargeable water stream (technology under development). We evaluate manure and digestate trucking, trucking of manure with return of digestate by pipelines, and pipelining of manure plus digestate. We compare the overall cost of power from these scenarios to farm or feedlot-based AD units. For a centralized AD plant with digestate return for land spreading the most economical transport option for manure plus digestate is by truck for the mixed-farming area and by pipelines for the concentrated feedlot area. For a centralized AD plant with digestate processing, the most economical transport option is trucking of manure for both cases.

  7. Soil-based treatment of partially treated liquid swine manure.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Xiao, J; El-Din, M Gamal; Buchanan, I D; Bromley, D; Ikehata, K

    2007-01-01

    A soil-column system was tested for the removal of soluble organics and nutrients from partially treated liquid swine manure. The liquid manure was applied to the 900 mm deep (300 mm of local topsoil and 600 mm of local subsoil) soil columns continuously for an eight-week period, and leachate as well as soil samples were analysed. An effective liquid manure application rate of 17 mm d(-1) was determined based on a preliminary liquid manure soil-based treatment experiment. It was found that more than 90% of five-day biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total Kjeldahl and ammonia nitrogen, and total phosphorus could be effectively removed from the liquid manure by the soil system. Nitrogen contents accumulated in the soil matrix mostly within the 0 to 300 mm depth, while no significant increase was observed in sub soils. Soil analyses indicated the occurrence of nitrification and denitrification in the soil columns. Nitrogen balance showed that about 42% of the applied nitrogen was lost from the system during the liquid manure soil-based treatment experiment, suggesting the emission of ammonia and other gaseous nitrogen generated through nitrification and denitrification. The leachate of the soil treatment system was used to irrigate Bermuda grass. No negative effect of leachate was observed on the plant growth.

  8. Nitrogen mineralization potential of three animal manures applied on a sandy clay loam soil.

    PubMed

    Azeez, J O; Van Averbeke, W

    2010-07-01

    Understanding the dynamics of N forms applied as manure is germane for appropriate rate and timing of applications of manure. Manure characterization and laboratory incubation were conducted for 120 days to study the mineralization of poultry, cattle and goat manures. Results showed that manure properties differ. Net immobilization of N was recorded for goat and cattle manures while poultry manure mineralized marginally. The relationship between N release and time is polynomial (cubic). The release phases were: initial rapid N release at 0-30 days; phase of constant release; 40-55 days; decline phase in N release 70-90 days and sharp increase in N release at 120 days. Increasing the N rates of manures above 120 kgNha(-1) will improve their potential as plant nutrient sources. Complementing the manures with inorganic N fertilizers in integrated nutrient management will also improve its quality and effectiveness. PMID:20171089

  9. Decomposition of olive mill waste compost, goat manure and Medicago sativa in Lebanese soils using the litterbag technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atallah, Therese

    2014-05-01

    Organic amendments, green manure and plant residues incorporation are the main sources of nutrients in organic farming, their decomposition rate is crucial for the accumulation and long-term storage of organic matter in soils. In this study the decomposition of compost from olive mill waste (N: 29.3 g kg-1; total dissolved nitrogen or TDN: 3.82 g kg-1), goat manure (N: 31.5 g kg-1; TDN: 0.94 g kg-1), the shoots (N: 33.6 g kg-1; TDN: 17.57 g kg-1) and roots (N: 22.12 g kg-1; TDN: 8.87 g kg-1) of Medicago sativa was followed in three Lebanese soils. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium released were followed over one year, starting in early winter (December-January). The mild sub-humid Mediterranean conditions allowed a rapid mass loss in alfalfa shoots 30 days after incorporation. Manure and compost were more persistent. Between 80 and 90% of TDN were released, after 30 days of in-situ incubation for compost, the release was over 90% for alfalfa shoots. The movement of P was slower, as the compost (6.99 g kg-1 of P) and manure (9.81 g kg-1 of P) lost 33% and 22%, respectively, during 30 days of incubation. After one year, 15 to 35% of P remained in the soils. The manure was the richest in potassium (19.66 g kg-1) followed by the alfalfa shoots (15.56 g kg-1), the compost (8.19 g kg-1) and the roots (5.96 g kg-1). The loss of potassium was important, as over 88% had disappeared over the year. All decomposition curves followed an exponential model. The calculated coefficients of decomposition for total nitrogen (lnfinal - lninitial/days) were significantly higher for alfalfa shoots (0.00547 day-1) and similar for the compost (0.00184 day-1) and the manure (0.00175 day-1). The ANOVA test showed a difference between two of the sites (Site A: 521 g kg-1 of clay and 42 g kg-1 of calcium carbonate; Site S: 260 g kg-1 of clay and 269 g kg-1 of CaCO3) and the third one (Site L: 315 g kg-1 of clay and 591 g kg-1 of CaCO3). The relationships between the soil calcium

  10. Pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics in livestock manure and manure-amended soils in Jiangsu province, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin Y; Hao, Li J; Qiu, Pan Z; Chen, Rong; Xu, Jing; Kong, Xiang J; Shan, Zheng J; Wang, Na

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pollution characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil of livestock farms in Jiangsu province. This investigation employed solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). A total of 53 manure and 50 amended soil samples from 16 livestock farms in Jiangsu province were collected for analysis. In the manure samples, the highest detected frequencies and concentrations were those of tetracyclines (TCs, 54.1 ± 5775.6 μgkg(-1)), followed by fluoroquinolones (FQs, 8.4 ± 435.6 μgkg(-1)), sulphonamides (SAs, 3.2 ± 5.2 μgkg(-1)) and macrolides (MACs, 0.4 ± 110.5 μgkg(-1)). Statistical analysis was used to illuminate the pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics for various animal types and different regions in Jiangsu province. The results showed that the pollution level in cow manure was relatively lower compared with pig and chicken manure due to the relative restriction of medication. Furthermore, contamination was serious in amended soil from chicken farms. The pollution level in manure among different regions was higher to the south and north compared with the centre of the region. The same outcome was found for soil. Antibiotic residues in organic fertilizer were also investigated in this study. We found that although the detected concentration was lower in organic fertilizer than in fresh manure, detection frequencies (10-90%) were high, especially for roxithromycin (90%) in MACs (30-90%). This finding suggests attention should be paid to the pollution levels in organic fertilizer. This study is the first extensive investigation of the occurrence and distribution of many kinds of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil from livestock farms of Jiangsu province. This investigation systematically assesses veterinary antibiotics usage and related emissions in southeast China. PMID:26963628

  11. Pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics in livestock manure and manure-amended soils in Jiangsu province, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin Y; Hao, Li J; Qiu, Pan Z; Chen, Rong; Xu, Jing; Kong, Xiang J; Shan, Zheng J; Wang, Na

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pollution characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil of livestock farms in Jiangsu province. This investigation employed solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). A total of 53 manure and 50 amended soil samples from 16 livestock farms in Jiangsu province were collected for analysis. In the manure samples, the highest detected frequencies and concentrations were those of tetracyclines (TCs, 54.1 ± 5775.6 μgkg(-1)), followed by fluoroquinolones (FQs, 8.4 ± 435.6 μgkg(-1)), sulphonamides (SAs, 3.2 ± 5.2 μgkg(-1)) and macrolides (MACs, 0.4 ± 110.5 μgkg(-1)). Statistical analysis was used to illuminate the pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics for various animal types and different regions in Jiangsu province. The results showed that the pollution level in cow manure was relatively lower compared with pig and chicken manure due to the relative restriction of medication. Furthermore, contamination was serious in amended soil from chicken farms. The pollution level in manure among different regions was higher to the south and north compared with the centre of the region. The same outcome was found for soil. Antibiotic residues in organic fertilizer were also investigated in this study. We found that although the detected concentration was lower in organic fertilizer than in fresh manure, detection frequencies (10-90%) were high, especially for roxithromycin (90%) in MACs (30-90%). This finding suggests attention should be paid to the pollution levels in organic fertilizer. This study is the first extensive investigation of the occurrence and distribution of many kinds of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil from livestock farms of Jiangsu province. This investigation systematically assesses veterinary antibiotics usage and related emissions in southeast China.

  12. Going Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the benefits that schools and universities can gain by adopting environmentally sensitive practices in their design and operations. Includes resources for locating additional information about green schools and a list of 11 features that represent a comprehensive, sustainable school. (GR)

  13. Green Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowski, David, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses "going green" concept in school-building design, its cost-savings benefits through more efficient energy use, and its use by the State University of New York at Buffalo as solution to an energy retrofit program. Examples are provided of how this concept can be used, even for small colleges without large capital budgets, and how it can…

  14. Green Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    In the world of higher education, even the most ambitious sustainability plans often begin with tiny steps taken by individual departments. Michael Crowley, a program manager for Environmental Health & Engineering (EH&E) and former assistant director of the Harvard (Massachusetts) Green Campus Initiative, explains that going for small wins through…

  15. Buying Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  16. Green pioneers.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  17. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts. PMID:19062433

  18. Green pioneers.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output. PMID:23763098

  19. Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  20. Green Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    More and more people are viewing the world through green-tinted glasses, and those ideas about making school and university facilities more environmentally friendly suddenly are appearing to be prudent and responsible. Among the groups that have been advocating for environmentally friendly school design for years are the Collaborative for High…

  1. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts.

  2. Effect of livestock manures on the fitness of house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Akram, Waseem

    2012-09-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the major pests of confined and pastured livestock worldwide. Livestock manures play an important role in the development and spread of M. domestica. In the present study, we investigated the impact of different livestock manures on the fitness and relative growth rate of M. domestica and intrinsic rate of natural increase. We tested the hypotheses by studying life history parameters including developmental time from egg to adult's eclosion, fecundity, longevity, and survival on manures of buffalo, cow, nursing calf, dog, horse, poultry, sheep, and goat, which revealed significant differences that might be associated with fitness costs. The maggots reared on poultry manure developed faster compared to any other host manure. The total developmental time was the shortest on poultry manure and the longest on horse manure. The fecundity by females reared on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures was greater than on any other host manures. Similarly, percent survival of immature stages, pupal weight, eggs viability, adults' eclosion, survival and longevity, intrinsic rate of natural increase, and biotic potential were significantly higher on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures compared to any other livestock manures tested. However, the sex ratio of adult flies remained the same on all types of manures. The low survival on horse, buffalo, cow, sheep, and goat manures suggest unsuitability of these manures, while the higher pupal weight on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures suggest that these may provide better food quality to M. domestica compared with any other host manures. Our results point to the role of livestock manures in increasing local M. domestica populations. Such results could help to design cultural management strategies which may include sanitation, moisture management, and manure removal.

  3. Treatment of dairy manure effluent using freshwater algae: algal productivity and recovery of manure nutrients using pilot-scale algal turf scrubbers.

    PubMed

    Mulbry, Walter; Kondrad, Shannon; Pizarro, Carolina; Kebede-Westhead, Elizabeth

    2008-11-01

    Cultivating algae on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in animal manure effluents presents an alternative to the current practice of land application. The objective of this study was to determine values for productivity, nutrient content, and nutrient recovery using filamentous green algae grown in outdoor raceways at different loading rates of raw and anaerobically digested dairy manure effluent. Algal turf scrubber raceways (30m2 each) were operated in central Maryland for approximately 270 days each year (roughly April 1-December 31) from 2003 to 2006. Algal biomass was harvested every 4-12 days from the raceways after daily additions of manure effluent corresponding to loading rates of 0.3 to 2.5g total N (TN) and 0.08 to 0.42g total P (TP) m(-2)d(-1). Mean algal productivity values increased from approximately 2.5g DW m(-2)d(-1) at the lowest loading rate (0.3g TN m(-2)d(-1)) to 25g DW m(-2)d(-1) at the highest loading rate (2.5g TN m(-2)d(-1)). Mean N and P contents in the dried biomass increased 1.5-2.0-fold with increasing loading rate up to maximums of 7% N and 1% P (dry weight basis). Although variable, algal N and P accounted for roughly 70-90% of input N and P at loading rates below 1g TN, 0.15g TP m(-2)d(-1). N and P recovery rates decreased to 50-80% at higher loading rates. There were no significant differences in algal productivity, algal N and P content, or N and P recovery values from raceways with carbon dioxide supplementation compared to values from raceways without added carbon dioxide. Projected annual operational costs are very high on a per animal basis ($780 per cow). However, within the context of reducing nutrient inputs in sensitive watersheds such as the Chesapeake Bay, projected operational costs of $11 per kgN are well below the costs cited for upgrading existing water treatment plants. PMID:18487042

  4. [Interaction Between Sulfonamide Antibiotics Fates and Chicken Manure Composting].

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Jian-mei; Sun, Wan-chun; Fu, Jian-rong; Chen, Hong-jin; Ma, Jun-wei

    2016-05-15

    Based on aerobic manure composting with or without the addition of a mixture of sulfadimethoxine SM2 and sulfamonomethoxine SMM (1:1, m/m), changes in the physic-chemical properties of manure compost, the microbial community physiological profiles, the antibiotics concentration and the abundances of five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the composting were tracked. The results indicated that the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics led to inhibition on the basal respiration of manure compost during the early composting period, delayed the formation of thermophilic temperature and reduced the conversion of nutrients such as organic matter, ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen. Meanwhile, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics dramatically affected the physiological profile of microbial community in manure in the middle stage of composting. HPLC-MS/MS results showed that both SMM and SM2 in manure were completely degraded within 14 days, while the degradation rate of SMM was faster than that of SM2. For both composting treatments with or without addition of exogenous antibiotics, the relative abundance of sull and sul2 showed an initial decline in the first 14 or 21 days and a slight increase thereafter. The addition of exogenous antibiotics showed insignificant enhancement on increasing the relative abundance of sul1 and IntI1 in manure, but resulted in an apparent increase in sul2 relative abundance. Although the fates of tetQ and tetW during composting were different from that of sulfonamide ARGs, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics into manure increased the relative abundance of tetracycline ARGs. Redundancy analysis indicated that composting temperature correlated negatively with sul1, sul2 and IntI1 relative abundance in manure but had no obvious relationship with tetQ and tetW relative abundance. All the ARGs detected in this work correlated negatively with C/N ratio and the nitrate nitrogen concentration of manure compost but

  5. [Interaction Between Sulfonamide Antibiotics Fates and Chicken Manure Composting].

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Jian-mei; Sun, Wan-chun; Fu, Jian-rong; Chen, Hong-jin; Ma, Jun-wei

    2016-05-15

    Based on aerobic manure composting with or without the addition of a mixture of sulfadimethoxine SM2 and sulfamonomethoxine SMM (1:1, m/m), changes in the physic-chemical properties of manure compost, the microbial community physiological profiles, the antibiotics concentration and the abundances of five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the composting were tracked. The results indicated that the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics led to inhibition on the basal respiration of manure compost during the early composting period, delayed the formation of thermophilic temperature and reduced the conversion of nutrients such as organic matter, ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen. Meanwhile, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics dramatically affected the physiological profile of microbial community in manure in the middle stage of composting. HPLC-MS/MS results showed that both SMM and SM2 in manure were completely degraded within 14 days, while the degradation rate of SMM was faster than that of SM2. For both composting treatments with or without addition of exogenous antibiotics, the relative abundance of sull and sul2 showed an initial decline in the first 14 or 21 days and a slight increase thereafter. The addition of exogenous antibiotics showed insignificant enhancement on increasing the relative abundance of sul1 and IntI1 in manure, but resulted in an apparent increase in sul2 relative abundance. Although the fates of tetQ and tetW during composting were different from that of sulfonamide ARGs, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics into manure increased the relative abundance of tetracycline ARGs. Redundancy analysis indicated that composting temperature correlated negatively with sul1, sul2 and IntI1 relative abundance in manure but had no obvious relationship with tetQ and tetW relative abundance. All the ARGs detected in this work correlated negatively with C/N ratio and the nitrate nitrogen concentration of manure compost but

  6. Development of a novel concept for fate monitoring of biocides in liquid manure and manured soil taking 14C-imazalil as an example.

    PubMed

    Kreuzig, Robert; Hartmann, Constanze; Teigeler, Jennifer; Höltge, Sibylla; Cvetković, Benjamin; Schlag, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    Biocides are frequently applied in animal houses for veterinary hygiene or pest control. Thus, they may reach liquid manure tanks. Biocides that are not transformed during manure storage enter soil by the application of manure as organic fertilizer. Due to this environmentally relevant entry route, biocidal substances and products undergo a regulatory fate monitoring in liquid manure and soil. According to this, a novel concept was developed investigating the biocide imazalil as an example. For this purpose, excrements of test animals individually kept in experimental animal houses under standard nutrition were sampled. After matrix characterization, bovine and pig reference manures of defined dry substance contents were prepared. They were used for long-term transformation tests of (14)C-imazalil under strictly anaerobic conditions typical for manure storage in tanks. During the 177-d incubation period, however, imazalil was not substantially transformed. Furthermore, test manures with 7-d aged (14)C-imazalil residues were applied to study aerobic transformation and sorption in manured soil. Both concentration determining processes in soil were affected by the manure matrices. Comparing disappearance times (DT(50)) and sorption coefficients (K(OC)) after standard application (DT(50): 83 d; K(OC): 4059 L kg(-1)), (14)C-imazalil disappeared more rapidly after test manure application. DT(50) values were 29 or 48 d depending on whether bovine or pig test manure was applied. Mobility was slightly enhanced revealed by K(OC) of 1852 and 1385 L kg(-1), respectively.

  7. Swine manure fermentation for hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Li, Yecong; Wu, Xiao; Miller, Curtis; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2009-11-01

    Biohydrogen fermentation using liquid swine manure as substrate supplemented with glucose was investigated in this project. Experiments were conducted using a semi-continuously-fed fermenter (8L in total volume and 4 L in working volume) with varying pHs from 4.7 through 5.9 under controlled temperature (35+/-1 degrees C). The hydraulic retention time (HRT) tested include 16, 20, and 24h; however, in two pH conditions (5.0 and 5.3), an additional HRT of 12h was also tried. The experimental design combining HRT and pH provided insight on the fermenter performance in terms of hydrogen generation. The results indicated that both HRT and pH had profound influences on fermentative hydrogen productivity. A rising HRT would lead to greater variation in hydrogen concentration in the offgas and the best HRT was found to be 16 h for the fermenter in this study. The best pH value in correspondence to the highest hydrogen generation was revealed to be 5.0 among all the pHs studied. There was no obvious inhibition on hydrogen production by methanogenesis when methane content in the offgas was lower than 2%. Otherwise, an inverse linear relationship between hydrogen and methane content was observed with a correlation coefficient of 0.9699. Therefore, to increase hydrogen content in the offgas, methane production has to be limited to below 2%.

  8. Swine manure fermentation for hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Li, Yecong; Wu, Xiao; Miller, Curtis; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2009-11-01

    Biohydrogen fermentation using liquid swine manure as substrate supplemented with glucose was investigated in this project. Experiments were conducted using a semi-continuously-fed fermenter (8L in total volume and 4 L in working volume) with varying pHs from 4.7 through 5.9 under controlled temperature (35+/-1 degrees C). The hydraulic retention time (HRT) tested include 16, 20, and 24h; however, in two pH conditions (5.0 and 5.3), an additional HRT of 12h was also tried. The experimental design combining HRT and pH provided insight on the fermenter performance in terms of hydrogen generation. The results indicated that both HRT and pH had profound influences on fermentative hydrogen productivity. A rising HRT would lead to greater variation in hydrogen concentration in the offgas and the best HRT was found to be 16 h for the fermenter in this study. The best pH value in correspondence to the highest hydrogen generation was revealed to be 5.0 among all the pHs studied. There was no obvious inhibition on hydrogen production by methanogenesis when methane content in the offgas was lower than 2%. Otherwise, an inverse linear relationship between hydrogen and methane content was observed with a correlation coefficient of 0.9699. Therefore, to increase hydrogen content in the offgas, methane production has to be limited to below 2%. PMID:19157863

  9. Influence of animal manures on the biology of temperate earthworm, Eisenia fetida in tropical semiarid climate.

    PubMed

    Pulikeshi, M B; Amoji, S D; Shagoti, U M; Biradar, V A

    2001-04-01

    For understanding the potential utility in field scale production of vermicompost and vermiprotein economically, Eisenia fetida was cultured to establish the influence of (i) prevailing tropical semiarid (North-East region of Karnataka, India) environmental factors and (ii) different animal manures (cattle, horse and 1:1 mixture of cattle and horse) (on its growth, reproduction and life span. In three forms of diet, growth (mg/d/g live weight of worm) was almost similar, but the biomass in cattle manure (565.7 +/- 15.3) was significantly more than horse manure (494.9 +/- 22.8) and 1:1 mixture (470.3 +/- 22.0). Mean cocoon production (per worm/week) in horse manure (0.16) was significantly (P<0.001) lower than that in cattle manure (1.6) and in 1:1 mixed manure (1.4). Cattle favoured biomass, growth and cocoon production. Horse manure inhibited cocoon production and the conserved energy in this process might have been added to the body weight almost equal to that in cattle manure. In 1:1 mixed manure, the biomass was less due to moderate cocoon production (presumably due to the stimulatory influence of 50% cattle manure) under semifavorable nutrients and environmental conditions. Fecundity of the worms declined with aging, despite favourable nutrients and environmental conditions. Worms survived up to 92, 68 and 66 weeks in cattle manure, 1:1 mixed manure and horse manure respectively. PMID:11500015

  10. Influence of animal manures on the biology of temperate earthworm, Eisenia fetida in tropical semiarid climate.

    PubMed

    Pulikeshi, M B; Amoji, S D; Shagoti, U M; Biradar, V A

    2001-04-01

    For understanding the potential utility in field scale production of vermicompost and vermiprotein economically, Eisenia fetida was cultured to establish the influence of (i) prevailing tropical semiarid (North-East region of Karnataka, India) environmental factors and (ii) different animal manures (cattle, horse and 1:1 mixture of cattle and horse) (on its growth, reproduction and life span. In three forms of diet, growth (mg/d/g live weight of worm) was almost similar, but the biomass in cattle manure (565.7 +/- 15.3) was significantly more than horse manure (494.9 +/- 22.8) and 1:1 mixture (470.3 +/- 22.0). Mean cocoon production (per worm/week) in horse manure (0.16) was significantly (P<0.001) lower than that in cattle manure (1.6) and in 1:1 mixed manure (1.4). Cattle favoured biomass, growth and cocoon production. Horse manure inhibited cocoon production and the conserved energy in this process might have been added to the body weight almost equal to that in cattle manure. In 1:1 mixed manure, the biomass was less due to moderate cocoon production (presumably due to the stimulatory influence of 50% cattle manure) under semifavorable nutrients and environmental conditions. Fecundity of the worms declined with aging, despite favourable nutrients and environmental conditions. Worms survived up to 92, 68 and 66 weeks in cattle manure, 1:1 mixed manure and horse manure respectively.

  11. Manure Refinement Affects Apple Rhizosphere Bacterial Community Structure: A Study in Sandy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Jian; Liu, Songzhong; Wei, Qinping

    2013-01-01

    We used DNA-based pyrosequencing to characterize the bacterial community structure of the sandy soil of an apple orchard with different manure ratios. Five manure percentages (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) were examined. More than 10,000 valid reads were obtained for each replicate. The communities were composed of five dominant groups (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes), of which Proteobacteria content gradually decreased from 41.38% to 37.29% as manure ratio increased from 0% to 25%, respectively. Redundancy analysis showed that 37 classes were highly correlated with manure ratio, 18 of which were positively correlated. Clustering revealed that the rhizosphere samples were grouped into three components: low manure (control, 5%) treatment, medium manure (10%, 15%) treatment and high manure (20%, 25%) treatment. Venn analysis of species types of these three groups revealed that the bacteria community difference was primarily reflected by quantity ratio rather than species variety. Although greater manure content led to higher soil organic matter content, the medium manure improved soil showed the highest urease activity and saccharase activity, while 5% to 20% manure ratio improvement also resulted in higher bacteria diversity than control and 25% manure ratio treatment. Our experimental results suggest that the use of a proper manure ratio results in significantly higher soil enzyme activity and different bacteria community patterns, whereas the use of excessive manure amounts has negative effect on soil quality. PMID:24155909

  12. Manure refinement affects apple rhizosphere bacterial community structure: a study in sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Jian; Liu, Songzhong; Wei, Qinping

    2013-01-01

    We used DNA-based pyrosequencing to characterize the bacterial community structure of the sandy soil of an apple orchard with different manure ratios. Five manure percentages (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) were examined. More than 10,000 valid reads were obtained for each replicate. The communities were composed of five dominant groups (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes), of which Proteobacteria content gradually decreased from 41.38% to 37.29% as manure ratio increased from 0% to 25%, respectively. Redundancy analysis showed that 37 classes were highly correlated with manure ratio, 18 of which were positively correlated. Clustering revealed that the rhizosphere samples were grouped into three components: low manure (control, 5%) treatment, medium manure (10%, 15%) treatment and high manure (20%, 25%) treatment. Venn analysis of species types of these three groups revealed that the bacteria community difference was primarily reflected by quantity ratio rather than species variety. Although greater manure content led to higher soil organic matter content, the medium manure improved soil showed the highest urease activity and saccharase activity, while 5% to 20% manure ratio improvement also resulted in higher bacteria diversity than control and 25% manure ratio treatment. Our experimental results suggest that the use of a proper manure ratio results in significantly higher soil enzyme activity and different bacteria community patterns, whereas the use of excessive manure amounts has negative effect on soil quality.

  13. Green toxicology.

    PubMed

    Maertens, Alexandra; Anastas, Nicholas; Spencer, Pamela J; Stephens, Martin; Goldberg, Alan; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Historically, early identification and characterization of adverse effects of industrial chemicals was difficult because conventional toxicological test methods did not meet R&D needs for rapid, relatively inexpensive methods amenable to small amounts of test material. The pharmaceutical industry now front-loads toxicity testing, using in silico, in vitro, and less demanding animal tests at earlier stages of product development to identify and anticipate undesirable toxicological effects and optimize product development. The Green Chemistry movement embraces similar ideas for development of less toxic products, safer processes, and less waste and exposure. Further, the concept of benign design suggests ways to consider possible toxicities before the actual synthesis and to apply some structure/activity rules (SAR) and in silico methods. This requires not only scientific development but also a change in corporate culture in which synthetic chemists work with toxicologists. An emerging discipline called Green Toxicology (Anastas, 2012) provides a framework for integrating the principles of toxicology into the enterprise of designing safer chemicals, thereby minimizing potential toxicity as early in production as possible. Green Toxicology`s novel utility lies in driving innovation by moving safety considerations to the earliest stage in a chemical`s lifecycle, i.e., to molecular design. In principle, this field is no different than other subdisciplines of toxicology that endeavor to focus on a specific area - for example, clinical, environmental or forensic toxicology. We use the same principles and tools to evaluate an existing substance or to design a new one. The unique emphasis is in using 21st century toxicology tools as a preventative strategy to "design out" undesired human health and environmental effects, thereby increasing the likelihood of launching a successful, sustainable product. Starting with the formation of a steering group and a series of workshops

  14. Process dominance analysis for fate modeling of flubendazole and fenbendazole in liquid manure and manured soil.

    PubMed

    Moenickes, Sylvia; Höltge, Sibylla; Kreuzig, Robert; Richter, Otto

    2011-12-01

    Fate monitoring data on anaerobic transformation of the benzimidazole anthelmintics flubendazole (FLU) and fenbendazole (FEN) in liquid pig manure and aerobic transformation and sorption in soil and manured soil under laboratory conditions were used for corresponding fate modeling. Processes considered were reversible and irreversible sequestration, mineralization, and metabolization, from which a set of up to 50 different models, both nested and concurrent, was assembled. Five selection criteria served for model selection after parameter fitting: the coefficient of determination, modeling efficiency, a likelihood ratio test, an information criterion, and a determinability measure. From the set of models selected, processes were classified as essential or sufficient. This strategy to identify process dominance was corroborated through application to data from analogous experiments for sulfadiazine and a comparison with established fate models for this substance. For both, FLU and FEN, model selection performance was fine, including indication of weak data support where observed. For FLU reversible and irreversible sequestration in a nonextractable fraction was determined. In particular, both the extractable and the nonextractable fraction were equally sufficient sources for irreversible sequestration. For FEN generally reversible formation of the extractable sulfoxide metabolite and reversible sequestration of both the parent and the metabolite were dominant. Similar to FLU, irreversible sequestration in the nonextractable fraction was determined for which both the extractable or the nonextractable fraction were equally sufficient sources. Formation of the sulfone metabolite was determined as irreversible, originating from the first metabolite.

  15. Evaluation of quick tests for phosphorus determination in dairy manures.

    PubMed

    Lugo-Ospina, A; Dao, Thanh H; Van Kessel, J A; Reeves, J B

    2005-05-01

    Nutrients in animal manure are valuable inputs in agronomic crop production. Rapid and timely information about manure nutrient content are needed to minimize the risks of phosphorus (P) over-application and losses of dissolved P (DP) in runoff from fields treated with manure. We evaluated the suitability of a commercial hand-held reflectometer, a hydrometer, and an electrical conductivity (EC) meter for determining DP and total P (TP) in dairy manures. Bulk samples (n = 107) collected from farms across CT, MD, NY, PA, and VA were highly variable in total solids (TS) concentration, ranging from 11 to 213gL(-1), in suspensions' pH (6.3-9.2), and EC (6.2-53.3 dS m(-1)). Manure DP concentrations measured using the RQFlex reflectometer (RQFlex-DP(s)) were related to molybdate-reactive P (MRP(s)) concentrations as follows: RQFlex-DP(s) = 0.471 x MRP(s) + 1102 (r2 = 0.29). Inclusion of pH and squared-pH terms improved the prediction of manure DP from RQFlex results (r2 = 0.66). Excluding five outlier samples that had pH < or = 6.9 the coefficient of determination (r2) for the MRP(s) and RQFlex-DP(s) relationship was 0.83 for 95% of the samples. Manure TS were related to hydrometer specific gravity readings (r2 = 0.53) that were in turn related to TP (r2 = 0.34), but not to either RQFlex-DP or MRP. Relationships between suspensions' EC and DP or TP were non-significant. Therefore, the RQFlex method is the only viable option for on-site quick estimates of DP that can be made more robust when complemented with TS and pH measurements. The DP quick test can provide near real-time information on soluble manure nutrient content across a wide range of handling and storage conditions on dairy farms and quick estimates of potential soluble P losses in runoff following land applications of manure.

  16. Methane Recovery from Animal Manures The Current Opportunities Casebook

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.

    1998-09-01

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Pollutants from unmanaged livestock wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing manure may contribute to global climate change. One management system not only provides pollution prevention but also can convert a manure problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion (AD) of livestock manures is a commercially available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the AD animal manures. U.S. livestock operations currently employ four types of anaerobic digester technology: slurry, plug-flow, complete-mix, and covered lagoon. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, and possible end-use applications for the methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Case studies of operating digesters, with project and maintenance histories and the operators ''lessons learned,'' are included as reality checks. Factors necessary for successful projects, as well as a list of reasons explaining why some AD projects fail, are provided. The role of farm management is key; not only must digesters be well engineered and built with high-quality components, they must also be sited at farms willing to incorporate the uncertainties of a new technology. More than two decades of research has provided much information about how manure can be converted to an energy source; however, the American farmer has not been motivated

  17. Evaluation of quick tests for phosphorus determination in dairy manures.

    PubMed

    Lugo-Ospina, A; Dao, Thanh H; Van Kessel, J A; Reeves, J B

    2005-05-01

    Nutrients in animal manure are valuable inputs in agronomic crop production. Rapid and timely information about manure nutrient content are needed to minimize the risks of phosphorus (P) over-application and losses of dissolved P (DP) in runoff from fields treated with manure. We evaluated the suitability of a commercial hand-held reflectometer, a hydrometer, and an electrical conductivity (EC) meter for determining DP and total P (TP) in dairy manures. Bulk samples (n = 107) collected from farms across CT, MD, NY, PA, and VA were highly variable in total solids (TS) concentration, ranging from 11 to 213gL(-1), in suspensions' pH (6.3-9.2), and EC (6.2-53.3 dS m(-1)). Manure DP concentrations measured using the RQFlex reflectometer (RQFlex-DP(s)) were related to molybdate-reactive P (MRP(s)) concentrations as follows: RQFlex-DP(s) = 0.471 x MRP(s) + 1102 (r2 = 0.29). Inclusion of pH and squared-pH terms improved the prediction of manure DP from RQFlex results (r2 = 0.66). Excluding five outlier samples that had pH < or = 6.9 the coefficient of determination (r2) for the MRP(s) and RQFlex-DP(s) relationship was 0.83 for 95% of the samples. Manure TS were related to hydrometer specific gravity readings (r2 = 0.53) that were in turn related to TP (r2 = 0.34), but not to either RQFlex-DP or MRP. Relationships between suspensions' EC and DP or TP were non-significant. Therefore, the RQFlex method is the only viable option for on-site quick estimates of DP that can be made more robust when complemented with TS and pH measurements. The DP quick test can provide near real-time information on soluble manure nutrient content across a wide range of handling and storage conditions on dairy farms and quick estimates of potential soluble P losses in runoff following land applications of manure. PMID:15701402

  18. Managing manure nutrients through multi-crop forage production.

    PubMed

    Newton, G L; Bernard, J K; Hubbard, R K; Allison, J R; Lowrance, R R; Gascho, G J; Gates, R N; Vellidis, G

    2003-06-01

    Concentrated sources of dairy manure represent significant water pollution potential. The southern United States may be more vulnerable to water quality problems than some other regions because of climate, typical farm size, and cropping practices. Dairy manure can be an effective source of plant nutrients and large quantities of nutrients can be recycled through forage production, especially when multi-cropping systems are utilized. Linking forage production with manure utilization is an environmentally sound approach for addressing both of these problems. Review of two triple-crop systems revealed greater N and P recoveries for a corn silage-bermudagrass hay-rye haylage system, whereas forage yields and quality were greater for a corn silage-corn silage-rye haylage system, when manure was applied at rates to supply N. Nutrient uptake was lower than application during the autumn-winter period, and bermudagrass utilized more of the remaining excess than a second crop of corn silage. Economic comparison of these systems suggests that the added value of the two corn silage crop system was not enough to off-set its increased production cost. Therefore, the system that included bermudagrass demonstrated both environmental and economic advantages. Review of the N and P uptake and calculated crop value of various single, double, and triple crop forage systems indicated that the per hectare economic value as well as the N and P uptakes tended to follow DM yields, and grasses tended to out-perform broadleaf forages. Taken across all systems, systems that included bermudagrass tended to have some of the highest economic values and uptakes of N and P. Manure applied at rates to supply N results in application of excess P, and production will not supply adequate quantities of forage to meet the herd's needs. Systems that lower manure application and supply supplemental N to produce all necessary forage under manure application will likely be less economically attractive due

  19. Determination of antibiotic residues in manure, soil, and surface waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christian, T.; Schneider, R.J.; Farber, H.A.; Skutlarek, D.; Meyer, M.T.; Goldbach, H.E.

    2003-01-01

    In the last years more and more often detections of antimicrobially active compounds ("antibiotics") in surface waters have been reported. As a possible input pathway in most cases municipal sewage has been discussed. But as an input from the realm of agriculture is conceivable as well, in this study it should be investigated if an input can occur via the pathway application of liquid manure on fields with the subsequent mechanisms surface run-off/interflow, leaching, and drift. For this purpose a series of surface waters, soils, and liquid manures from North Rhine-Westphalia (Northwestern Germany) were sampled and analyzed for up to 29 compounds by HPLC-MS/MS. In each of the surface waters antibiotics could be detected. The highest concentrations were found in samples from spring (300 ng/L of erythromycin). Some of the substances detected (e.g., tylosin), as well as characteristics in the landscape suggest an input from agriculture in some particular cases. In the investigation of different liquid manure samples by a fast immunoassay method sulfadimidine could be detected in the range of 1...2 mg/kg. Soil that had been fertilized with this liquid manure showed a content of sulfadimidine extractable by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of 15 ??g/kg dry weight even 7 months after the application. This indicates the high stability of some antibiotics in manure and soil.

  20. Phosphorus reclamation through hydrothermal carbonization of animal manures.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, Steven M; Molde, Joseph S; Timler, Jacobe G; Wood, Brandon M; Mikula, Anthony L; Vozhdayev, Georgiy V; Colosky, Edward C; Spokas, Kurt A; Valentas, Kenneth J

    2014-09-01

    Projected shortages of global phosphate have prompted investigation of methods that could be employed to capture and recycle phosphate, rather than continue to allow the resource to be essentially irreversibly lost through dilution in surface waters. Hydrothermal carbonization of animal manures from large farms was investigated as a scenario for the reclamation of phosphate for agricultural use and mitigation of the negative environmental impact of phosphate pollution. Hydrothermal reaction conditions were identified for poultry, swine, and cattle manures that resulted in hydrochar yields of 50-60% for all three manures, and >90% of the total phosphorus present in these systems was contained in the hydrochars as precipitated phosphate salts. Phosphate recovery was achieved in yields of 80-90% by subsequent acid treatment of the hydrochars, addition of base to acid extracts to achieve a pH of 9, and filtration of principally calcium phosphate. Phosphate recovery was achieved in yields of 81-87% based on starting manures by subsequent acid treatment of the hydrochars, addition of base to acid extracts to achieve a pH of 9, and filtration of principally calcium phosphate. Swine and cattle manures produced hydrochars with combustion energy contents comparable to those of high-end sub-bituminous coals.

  1. Factors influencing adoption of manure separation technology in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gebrezgabher, Solomie A; Meuwissen, Miranda P M; Kruseman, Gideon; Lakner, Dora; Oude Lansink, Alfons G J M

    2015-03-01

    Manure separation technologies are essential for sustainable livestock operations in areas with high livestock density as these technologies result in better utilization of manure and reduced environmental impact. Technologies for manure separation have been well researched and are ready for use. Their use, however, has been limited to the Netherlands. This paper investigates the role of farm and farmer characteristics and farmers' attitudes toward technology-specific attributes in influencing the likelihood of the adoption of mechanical manure separation technology. The analysis used survey data collected from 111 Dutch dairy farmers in 2009. The results showed that the age and education level of the farmer and farm size are important variables explaining the likelihood of adoption. In addition to farm and farmer characteristics, farmers' attitudes toward the different attributes of manure separation technology significantly affect the likelihood of adoption. The study generates useful information for policy makers, technology developers and distributors in identifying the factors that impact decision-making behaviors of farmers. PMID:25460418

  2. Performance of four stabilization bioprocesses of beef cattle feedlot manure.

    PubMed

    Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de Mendonça; Lorin, Higor E Francisconi; Costa, Luiz Antonio de Mendonça; Cestonaro, Taiana; Pereira, Dercio C; Bernardi, Francieli H

    2016-10-01

    The biological stabilization of beef cattle manure is crucial for promoting sanitation in feedlot pens. This study compared the performance of composting, vermicomposting, static windrows, and anaerobic digestion for stabilization of beef cattle feedlot manure based on the degradation of organic matter, nutrient retention, and stability of the final product in each process using uni- and multivariate analysis. The cluster analysis showed that composting and vermicomposting were the most similar processes. The principal component analysis showed that the more oxidative processes (composting and vermicomposting) degraded beef cattle feedlot manure more effectively (up to 45%) than static windrows and anaerobic digestion. Stabilization processes did not affect the amount of phosphorus, whereas potassium losses ranged from 3% (anaerobic digestion) to 30% (static windrow) and differed significantly across processes. Electrical conductivity decreased only in static windrow (30%). A decrease in the C/N ratio were observed in all processes, but the reduction was smaller in static windrow (5%). Larger reductions in C/N ratio were associated with greater increases in the humic to fulvic acid ratio. Composting and vermicomposting processes more effectively degraded beef cattle manure and produced stable organic fertilizers. Anaerobic digestion more effectively retained macronutrients (N and K) and converted organic N to ammonium. The use of static windrows is the least effective bioprocess for the stabilization of beef cattle feedlot manure. PMID:27415410

  3. Influence of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in Luria-Bertani broth, farm-yard manure and slurry.

    PubMed

    Semenov, Alexander V; van Overbeek, Leo; Termorshuizen, Aad J; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

    2011-03-01

    The influence of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on the survival of the enteropathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was investigated in microcosms with broth, cattle manure or slurry. These substrates were inoculated with a green fluorescent protein transformed strain of the enteropathogens at 10(7) cells g(-1) dry weight. Survival data was fitted to the Weibull model. The survival curves in aerobic conditions generally showed a concave curvature, while the curvature was convex in anaerobic conditions. The estimated survival times showed that E. coli O157:H7 survived significantly longer under anaerobic than under aerobic conditions. Survival ranged from approximately. 2 weeks for aerobic manure and slurry to more than six months for anaerobic manure at 16 °C. On average, in 56.3% of the samplings, the number of recovered E. coli O157:H7 cells by anaerobic incubation of Petri plates was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in comparison with aerobic incubation. Survival of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was not different between aerobic and anaerobic storage of LB broth or manure as well as between aerobic and anaerobic incubation of Petri dishes. The importance of changes in microbial community and chemical composition of manure and slurry was distinguished for the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in different oxygen conditions.

  4. [Bioavailability of As, Cu and Zn in two soils as affected by application of chicken manure and pig manure].

    PubMed

    Yao, Li-xian; Li, Guo-liang; Dang, Zhi; He, Zhao-huan; Zhou, Chang-min; Yang, Bao-mei

    2008-09-01

    Animal manures contain higher As, Cu and Zn since organoarsenicals, copper and zinc additives are widely used in modern intensive animal production. A pot experiment in water spinach was conducted to investigate As, Cu and Zn bioavailability in a paddy soil (PS) and a lateritic red soil (LRS) applied with 2% and 4% (mass fraction) chicken manure (CM) and pig manure (PM), respectively. Soils without any fertilizer were included as the checks (CK). The results show that nearly all treatments with manures significantly increase the biomass of the above-ground part of water spinach compared to the CK. The biomass in PS is significantly greater than that in LRS. The As concentrations and uptake rates of water spinach are significantly enhanced by manure application, showing the rule of higher rates > lower rates, PM > CM and in PS> in LRS. Except for the Cu concentrations in PS, manure application significantly increases the Cu, Zn concentrations and uptake rates as well. Soil total As in all treatments slightly reduce, available As and percents of available As over total As (PAs) considerably decrease after the harvest of water spinach, but total Cu, Zn and available Cu, Zn and percents of available Cu and Zn over total Cu and Zn (PCu and PZn) nearly in all manure-amended treatments increase. Soil total As increases by 0.3-3.0 mg x kg(-1), available As by 0.011-0.034 mg x kg(-1), the PAs by 0.033-0.178 percentage points in all treatments with manures, as compared to the CK. Soil total Cu, available Cu and the PCu increases by 3.1-30.4 mg x kg(-1), 5.2-19.4 mg x kg(-1) and 1.2-34.1 percentage points, respectively. Those of Zn increase by--10.6-79.6 mg x kg(-1), 4.0-65.9 mg x kg(-1) and 1.0-64.2 percentage points. We assume that the bioavailability of soil heavy metals be evaluated by the increment of available concentration and percent available concentration over total concentration, higher rate manure application improves the bioavailability of soil As, Cu and Zn than

  5. Recycling of manure nutrients: use of algal biomass from dairy manure treatment as a slow release fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Mulbry, Walter; Westhead, Elizabeth Kebede; Pizarro, Carolina; Sikora, Lawrence

    2005-03-01

    An alternative to land spreading of manure is to grow crops of algae on the N and P present in the manure and convert manure N and P into algal biomass. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fertilizer value of dried algal biomass that had been grown using anaerobically digested dairy manure. Results from a flask study using two soils amended with algal biomass showed that 3% of total algal nitrogen (N) was present as plant available N at day 0. Approximately 33% of algal N was converted to plant available N within 21 days at 25 degrees C in both soils. Levels of Mehlich-3 extractable phosphorus (P) in the two soils rose with increasing levels of algal amendment but were also influenced by existing soil P levels. Results from plant growth experiments showed that 20-day old cucumber and corn seedlings grown in algae-amended potting mix contained 15-20% of applied N, 46-60% of available N, and 38-60% of the applied P. Seedlings grown in algae-amended potting mixes were equivalent to those grown with comparable levels of fertilizer amended potting mixes with respect to seedling dry weight and nutrient content. These results suggest that dried algal biomass produced from treatment of anaerobically digested dairy manure can substitute for commercial fertilizers used for potting systems. PMID:15491826

  6. Nutrient transformations during composting of pig manure with bentonite.

    PubMed

    Li, Ronghua; Wang, Jim J; Zhang, Zengqiang; Shen, Feng; Zhang, Guangjie; Qin, Rui; Li, Xiaolong; Xiao, Ran

    2012-10-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the influence of different amounts of bentonite on nutrients transformation during pig manure composting process. The results showed that bentonite had no significant effects on compost temperature and pH changes. While, EC, moisture, OM, TN and NO(3)(-)-N were notably influenced by BT addition. The adding of BT could facilitate OM degradation, increase TKN content and decrease the C/N ratio. Increasing the proportion of bentonite in pig manure compost to reduce extractable heavy metal content is feasible. However, potherb mustard seed GI decreased with the proportion of added bentonite increasing. The results suggest that a proportion of less than 2.5% bentonite is recommended for addition to pig manure compost, and examining the additive ratio in a comprehensive waste composting project is a worthwhile direction for future research. PMID:22864172

  7. Anaerobic digestion of livestock manures: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.D.

    1995-08-01

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry creates new opportunities for proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products, including a renewable fuel. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, based on estimates of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return are developed from the evaluations. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes}, are provided as a reality check.

  8. Pigs expressing salivary phytase produce low-phosphorus manure.

    PubMed

    Golovan, S P; Meidinger, R G; Ajakaiye, A; Cottrill, M; Wiederkehr, M Z; Barney, D J; Plante, C; Pollard, J W; Fan, M Z; Hayes, M A; Laursen, J; Hjorth, J P; Hacker, R R; Phillips, J P; Forsberg, C W

    2001-08-01

    To address the problem of manure-based environmental pollution in the pork industry, we have developed the phytase transgenic pig. The saliva of these pigs contains the enzyme phytase, which allows the pigs to digest the phosphorus in phytate, the most abundant source of phosphorus in the pig diet. Without this enzyme, phytate phosphorus passes undigested into manure to become the single most important manure pollutant of pork production. We show here that salivary phytase provides essentially complete digestion of dietary phytate phosphorus, relieves the requirement for inorganic phosphate supplements, and reduces fecal phosphorus output by up to 75%. These pigs offer a unique biological approach to the management of phosphorus nutrition and environmental pollution in the pork industry. PMID:11479566

  9. Continuous thermochemical conversion process to produce oil from swine manure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ocfemia, K.; Zhang, Y.; Funk, T.; Christianson, L.; Chen, S.

    2004-01-01

    Thermochemical conversion (TCC) of livestock manure is a novel technology that has shown very promising results in treating waste and producing oil. A batch TCC system that was previously developed successfully converted 70% of swine manure volatile solids to oil and reduced manure chemical oxygen demand by ??? 75%. The necessary retention time to achieve an oil product was largely dependent on the operating temperature. The highest oil production efficiency was 80% of the volatile solids (or 70 wt % of the total solids). The average carbon and hydrogen contents were ??? 72 and 9%, respectively. The heating values for 80% of the oil products ranged from 32,000 to 36,700 kJ/kg. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the AWMA 97th Annual Conference and Exhibition (Indianapolis, IN 6/22-25/2004).

  10. Nutrient availability to corn from dairy manures and fertilizer in a calcareous soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The expansion of the dairy industry in southern Idaho has lead to increased application of manures to meet crop nutrient demands which can alter the uptake pattern of both macro- and micro-nutrients. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of dairy manure, composted dairy manure, ...

  11. Dairy manure application method and timing influence N availability to corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure N credits will vary with application method and time until incorporation; however, minimal information exists regarding N availability from in-season manure application. The objectives of this study were to understand how corn yield and manure N credits are impacted by 1) spring preplant or s...

  12. Bio-Product Recovery from Lignocellulosic Materials Derived from Poultry Manure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champagne, Pascale; Li, Caijian

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the hydrolysis of lignocellulose extracted from poultry manure for the purpose of investigating low-cost feedstocks for ethanol production while providing an alternative solid waste management strategy for agricultural livestock manures. Poultry manure underwent various pretreatments to enhance subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis…

  13. 9 CFR 82.7 - Interstate movement of manure and litter from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... manure and litter at the destination listed on the permit. (b) Compost derived from manure generated by... composted manure or litter from the infected site is removed at the same time; (7) The resulting compost... resulting compost is to be transported has been cleaned and disinfected, since last being used,...

  14. 9 CFR 82.7 - Interstate movement of manure and litter from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... manure and litter at the destination listed on the permit. (b) Compost derived from manure generated by... composted manure or litter from the infected site is removed at the same time; (7) The resulting compost... resulting compost is to be transported has been cleaned and disinfected, since last being used,...

  15. 9 CFR 82.7 - Interstate movement of manure and litter from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... manure and litter at the destination listed on the permit. (b) Compost derived from manure generated by... composted manure or litter from the infected site is removed at the same time; (7) The resulting compost... resulting compost is to be transported has been cleaned and disinfected, since last being used,...

  16. 9 CFR 82.7 - Interstate movement of manure and litter from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... manure and litter at the destination listed on the permit. (b) Compost derived from manure generated by... composted manure or litter from the infected site is removed at the same time; (7) The resulting compost... resulting compost is to be transported has been cleaned and disinfected, since last being used,...

  17. Fate of steroid hormones and endocrine activities in swine manure disposal and treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Combalbert, Sarah; Bellet, Virginie; Dabert, Patrick; Bernet, Nicolas; Balaguer, Patrick; Hernandez-Raquet, Guillermina

    2012-03-01

    Manure may contain high concern endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) such as steroid hormones, naturally produced by pigs, which are present at μgL(-1) levels. Manure may also contain other EDCs such as nonylphenols (NP), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins. Thus, once manure is applied to the land as soil fertilizer these compounds may reach aquifers and consequently living organisms, inducing abnormal endocrine responses. In France, manure is generally stored in anaerobic tanks prior spreading on land; when nitrogen removal is requested, manure is treated by aerobic processes before spreading. However, little is known about the fate of hormones and multiple endocrine-disrupting activities in such manure disposal and treatment systems. Here, we determined the fate of hormones and diverse endocrine activities during manure storage and treatment by combining chemical analysis and in vitro quantification of estrogen (ER), aryl hydrocarbon (AhR), androgen (AR), pregnane-X (PXR) and peroxysome proliferator-activated γ (PPARγ) receptor-mediated activities. Our results show that manure contains large quantities of hormones and activates ER and AhR, two of the nuclear receptors studied. Most of these endocrine activities were found in the solid fraction of manure and appeared to be induced mainly by hormones and other unidentified pollutants. Hormones, ER and AhR activities found in manure were poorly removed during manure storage but were efficiently removed by aerobic treatment of manure.

  18. Phosphorus availability and early corn growth response in soil amended with turkey manure ash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incinerating turkey manure is an alternative option to generate renewable energy and also to eliminate environmental problems associated with manure stockpiling. Incineration produces a turkey manure ash (TMA) with a fertilizer value of 4.3% P and 10% K. We conducted a greenhouse pot-study using a l...

  19. Combustible gas and biochar production from co-pyrolysis of agricultural plastic wastes and animal manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers report that manure-derived biochar has considerable potential both for improving soil quality and reducing water pollution. One of obstacles in obtaining manure biochar is its high energy requirement for pyrolyzing wet and low-energy-density animal manures. The combustible gas produced f...

  20. Comparison of oxytetracycline degradation behavior in pig manure with different antibiotic addition methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Guixiu; Liang, Juanboo; Zou, Yongde; Wen, Xin; Liao, Xindi; Wu, Yinbao

    2015-12-01

    Using manure collected from swine fed with diet containing antibiotics and antibiotic-free swine manure spiked with antibiotics are the two common methods of studying the degradation behavior of veterinary antibiotic in manure in the environment. However, few studies had been conducted to co-compare these two different antibiotic addition methods. This study used oxytetracycline (OTC) as a model antibiotic to study antibiotic degradation behavior in manure under the above two OTC addition methods. In addition, the role of microorganisms present in the manure on degradation behavior was also examined. The results showed that degradation half-life of OTC in manure from swine fed OTC (9.04 days) was significantly shorter than that of the manure directly treated with OTC (9.65 days). Concentration of 4-epi-OTC in manure from swine fed OTC peaked earlier than that in manure spiked with OTC, and the degradation rates of 4-epi-OTC and α-apo-OTC in the manure from swine fed OTC were faster, but the peak concentrations were lower, than those in manure spiked with OTC. Bacterial diversity and relative abundance of Bacillus cereus data demonstrated that sterilization of the manure before experiment significantly decreased OTC degradation rate in both of the addition methods. Results of the present study demonstrated that the presence of the metabolites (especially 4-epi-OTC) and microorganisms had significant influence on OTC degradation.

  1. Effect of storage method on manure as a substrate for filth fly development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous studies have been conducted using manure as a substrate for filth fly development. In these experiments, the manure is sometimes frozen for use at a later date. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of various manure storage methods on subsequent house and stable fly develo...

  2. Effects of biological pit additives on microbial ecology of stored pig manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of biological pit additives on microbial ecology in stored pig manure were investigated using a dynamic manure storage system, which allowed for continual addition of swine feces and urine. After 13 weeks of manure collection and storage, four treatments were added to tanks (900 L capaci...

  3. Dairy Cattle Management Impacts Manure Nitrogen Collection and Cycling Through Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escalating energy and fertilizer N prices, and regulatory limits on ammonia emissions from livestock facilities require methods that reduce manure management costs, enhance the fertilizer value of manure and reduce gaseous ammonia losses. We compared two dairy herd management practices on manure N c...

  4. Dairy Cattle Management Impacts Manure N Collection and Cycling Through Crops in Wisconsin, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escalating energy and fertilizer N prices and regulatory limits on ammonia emissions from livestock facilities require new methods that reduce manure management costs, enhance the fertilizer value of manure and reduce ammonia volatilization. We compared two dairy herd management practices on manure ...

  5. Multi-utilization of swine manure as a bioenergy feedstock: Carbonization and combustion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of animal manure and other organic-based waste products as bioenergy feedstocks is gaining interest for waste-to-bioenergy conversion processes. While thermochemical conversion of animal manure via combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification is becoming a new frontier of manure treatment; there ...

  6. Technologies and logistics for handling, transport and distribution of animal manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organizing and managing the whole manure handling chain from the animal house through transport to the point of use (e.g. in the field) is a challenging task requiring consideration of manure type and operating conditions. Solid and liquid manure must be handled differently, using very different tec...

  7. Fly ash-amended compost as a manure for agricultural crops

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.P.; Sajwan, K.S.; Ghuman, G.S.; James, J.; Chandra, K. )

    1993-11-01

    Homemade organic compost prepared from lawn grass clippings was amended with fine fly ash collected from a coal-fired power plant (SRS 484.D. Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC) to investigate its usefulness as a manure in enhancing nutrient uptake and increasing dry matter yield in selected agricultural crops. Three treatments were compared: five crops (mustard, collard, string beans, bell pepper, and eggplant) were each grown on three kinds of soil: soil alone, soil amended with composted grass clippings, and soil amended with the mixed compost of grass clippings and 20% fly ash. The fly ash-amended compost was found to be effective in enhancing the dry matter yield of collard greens and mustard greens by 378% and 348%, respectively, but string beans, bell pepper, and eggplant did not show any significant increase in dry matter yield. Analysis of the above-ground biomass of these last three plants showed they assimilated high levels of boron, which is phytotoxic; and this may be the reason for their poor growth. Soils treated with fly ash-amended compost often gave higher concentrations than the control for K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, and B in the Brassica crops. 18 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Anaerobic digestion of dairy cattle manure autoheated by aerobic pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Achkari-Begdouri, A.

    1989-01-01

    A novel way to heat anaerobic digesters was investigated. Dairy cattle manure was autoheated by an aerobic pretreatment process and then fed to the anaerobic digester. Important physical properties of the dairy cattle manure were determined. These included bulk density, specific heat, thermal conductivity and the rheological properties; consistency coefficient, behavior index and apparent viscosity. These parameters were used to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficients, and to estimate the heat losses from the aerobic reactor to the outside environment. The total energy balance of the aerobic treatment system was then established. An optimization study of the main parameters influencing the autoheating process showed that the total solids, the air flow rate and the stirring speed for operation of the aerobic pretreatment should be approximately 7%, 70 L/H and 1,400 rpm respectively. Temperatures as high as 65C were reached in 40 hours of aerobic treatment. At the above recommended levels of total solids, the air flow rate and the stirring speed, there was little difference in the energy requirements for heating the influent by aeration and heating the influent by a conventional heating system. In addition to the temperature increase, the aerobic pretreatment assisted in balancing the anaerobic digestion process and increased the methanogenesis of the dairy cattle manure. Despite the 8% decomposition of organic matter that occurred during the aerobic pretreatment process, methane production of the digester started with the aerobically heated manure was significantly higher (at least 20% higher) than of the digester started with conventionally heated manure. The aerobic system successfully autoheated the dairy cattle manure with an energy cost equal to that of conventionally heated influent.

  9. Combined effects of cadmium and composted manure to aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Tapan Kumar; Kaviraj, Anilava

    2002-02-01

    To evaluate the interactive toxicity of cadmium (Cd) and composted manure to aquatic organisms 96 h static bioassays were conducted in the laboratory with fry of common carp (Cyprinus carpio), copepod (Diaptomusforbesi) and oligochaete worm (Branchiura sowerbyi). Five concentrations of composted manure (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 6.7 g/l) were prepared from the aquatic weed, Pistia stratiotes and each of them was combined with several concentrations of Cd to determine 96 h LC-50 values of Cd for the test organisms. Addition of composted manure, irrespective of concentration, significantly reduced the LC-50 value of Cd to the copepod and common carp fry while it increased the LC-50 value of Cd to the worm. Increased susceptibility of the worm to combined treatment of composted manure and small concentrations of Cd could be revealed only from the dose mortality curve. Results of acute toxicity bioassays were different from the results of bioassays conducted with small concentrations of Cd. Worms, exposed to 2.5 mg/l Cd, accumulated more Cd than did the carp fry and copepod. Accumulation of Cd by worms was increased by the addition of 6.7 g/l composted manure while it decreased in the carp fry and copepod. Food consumption rate of common carp fingerling was significantly reduced relative to the control by exposure to 2.5 mg/l Cd. No change in feeding rate was observed when Cd was combined with composted manure (6.7 g/l). PMID:11999773

  10. Optimizing the logistics of anaerobic digestion of manure.

    PubMed

    Ghafoori, Emad; Flynn, Peter C

    2007-04-01

    Electrical power production from the combustion of biogas from anaerobic digestion (AD) of manure is a means of recovering energy from animal waste. We evaluate the lowest cost method of moving material to and from centralized AD plants serving multiple confined feeding operations. Two areas are modeled, Lethbridge County, Alberta, Canada, an area of concentrated beef cattle feedlots, and Red Deer County, Alberta, a mixed-farming area with hog, dairy, chicken and beef cattle farms, and feedlots. We evaluate two types of AD plant: ones that return digestate to the source confined feeding operation for land spreading (current technology), and ones that process digestate to produce solid fertilizer and a dischargeable water stream (technology under development). We evaluate manure and digestate trucking, trucking of manure with return of digestate by pipelines, and pipelining of manure plus digestate. We compare the overall cost of power from these scenarios to farm or feedlot-based AD units. For a centralized AD plant with digestate return for land spreading the most economical transport option for manure plus digestate is by truck for the mixed-farming area and by pipelines for the concentrated feedlot area. For a centralized AD plant with digestate processing, the most economical transport option is trucking of manure for both cases.However, for the concentrated feedlot area, pipeline transport of manure is close in cost to trucking, and the impact of truck congestion would likely lead to selection of pipeline transport. For the mixed-farming area, centralized AD is more economical than for any individual farm or feedlot unit. For the concentrated feedlot area, a centralized AD plant is less economical than a feedlot-based AD unit more than 55,000 head (digestate return) and 300,000 head (digestate processing). The study demonstrates the viability of centralized AD plants vs farm-based units in most farming environments, and that careful analysis of the cost of

  11. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  12. Tillage and manure application effects on mineral nitrogen leaching from seasonally frozen soils.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Satish; Munyankusi, Emmanuel; Moncrief, John; Zvomuya, Francis; Hanewall, Matt

    2004-01-01

    Land application of manure is a common practice in the Upper Midwest of the United States. Recently, there have been concerns regarding the effect of this practice on water quality, especially when manure is applied during winter over frozen soils. A study undertaken on a Rozetta silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Hapludalfs) at Lancaster, WI, evaluated the effects of tillage and timing of manure application on surface and subsurface water quality. The daily scrape and haul liquid dairy manure was applied either in the fall (before snow) or in winter (over snow with frozen soil underneath) to be compared with no manure under two tillage systems (no-till and chisel-plowing). In this paper, we report results on the effects of the above treatments on mineral N leaching. Percolation and mineral N leaching during the nongrowing season were, respectively, 72 and 78% of the annual losses, mainly because of the absence of plant water and N uptake. Percolation was generally higher from no-till compared with chisel-plow but there was no significant effect of tillage on mineral N concentration of the leachate or mineral N losses via leaching. Mineral N leaching was statistically higher from the manure-applied vs. no-manure treatment, but there was no difference between winter-applied manure and no-manure treatments. There were significant tillage by manure interactions with fall manure application followed by chisel-plowing resulting in highest N leaching losses. Averaged over the two years, N leaching rates were 52, 38, and 28 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) from fall-applied, winter-applied, and no-manure treatments, respectively. These results show that there is substantial N leaching from these soils even when no fertilizer or manure is applied. Furthermore, fall-applied manure followed by fall tillage significantly increases N leaching due to enhanced mineralization of both soil and manure organic N.

  13. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xuesong; Wolf, Julie

    2016-01-15

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.8 9 ± 0.64 Tg N yr.(-1) (Mean ± Standard Deviation) and 1.73 ± 0.29 Tg Pyr.(-1) (1 Tg = 10(12)g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930-1969 and 1987-2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs in manure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in the context of global

  14. Green Phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vijay; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Rao, J. L.; Dhoble, S. J.; Kim, S. H.

    2014-11-01

    Manganese-doped LaMgAl11O19 powder has been prepared by an easy combustion method. Powder x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy have been used to characterize the as-prepared phosphor. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of LaMgAl11O19:Mn2+ phosphor exhibits six-line hyperfine structure centered at g ≈ 1.973. The number of spins participating in resonance ( N) and the paramagnetic susceptibility ( χ) for the resonance signal at g ≈ 1.973 have been calculated as a function of temperature. The photoluminescence spectrum exhibits green emission at 516 nm, which is attributed to 4T1 → 6A1 transition of Mn2+ ions. From EPR and luminescence studies, it is observed that Mn2+ ions occupy Mg2+ sites and Mn2+ ions are located at tetrahedral sites in the prepared phosphors.

  15. Transport of microorganisms in the presence and absence of manure suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, S. A.; Tadassa, Y.; Bettahar, M.

    2004-12-01

    Wash water and storm water runoff from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) frequently contain manure and a variety of viral, bacterial, and protozoan parasite pathogens. Column experiments were conducted to elucidate the transport behavior of representative microbes (coliphage, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Giardia cysts) through several aquifer sands in the presence and absence of manure suspensions. Specific factors that were considered include the soil grain size distribution, the presence and absence of manure suspensions, and manure size distribution. Effluent concentration curves and the final spatial distributions of microorganisms and manure particles were measured. Increasing the microbe size and decreasing the median grain size of the sand resulted in low effluent concentrations and increased retention of the microbes, especially in the sand near the column inlet. Similar transport trends were observed for the manure suspensions in these sands. The spatial distributions of retained microbes and manure were generally not consistent with predictions from conventional attachment, detachment, and blocking models; but rather with straining. The transport potential of the microbes was sometimes enhanced in the presence of manure suspensions. This observation, as well transport and retention data for manure suspensions, suggest that manure components filled straining sites and inhibited microbe retention. Differences in the surface charge properties of clean and manure equilibrated microbes (presumably due to adsorption of organic components from the suspension) may also influence transport behavior.

  16. Short-term effects of amoxicillin on bacterial communities in manured soil.

    PubMed

    Binh, Chu Thi Thanh; Heuer, Holger; Gomes, Newton C Marcial; Kotzerke, Anja; Fulle, Melanie; Wilke, Bernd-Michael; Schloter, Michael; Smalla, Kornelia

    2007-12-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria, nutrients and antibiotics that enter the soil by means of manure may enhance the proportion of bacteria displaying antibiotic resistance among soil bacteria and may affect bacterial community structure and function. To investigate the effect of manure and amoxicillin added to manure on soil bacterial communities, microcosm experiments were performed with two soil types and the following treatments: (1) nontreated, (2) manure-treated, (3) treated with manure supplemented with 10 mg amoxicillin kg(-1) soil and (4) treated with manure supplemented with 100 mg amoxicillin kg(-1) soil, with four replicates per treatment. Manure significantly increased the total CFU count and the amoxicillin-resistant CFU count of both soil types. However, only the soil with a history of manure treatment showed a significant increase in the relative number of amoxicillin-resistant bacteria as a result of amoxicillin amendment. The majority of plasmids exogenously isolated from soil originated from soil treated with amoxicillin-supplemented manure. All 16 characterized plasmids carried the bla-TEM gene, and 10 of them belonged to the IncN group. The bla-TEM gene was detected in DNA directly extracted from soil by dot-blot hybridization of PCR amplicons and showed an increased abundance in soil samples treated with manure. Molecular fingerprint analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from soil DNA revealed significant effects of manure and amoxicillin on the bacterial community of both soils. PMID:17991020

  17. Effects of organic dairy manure amendment on soil phosphatase activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic dairy production is increasing in the U.S. due to concerns over environmental, human, and animal health. It is well known that the application of livestock manure to soil can influence enzyme activities involved in nutrient cycling and soil fertility, such as soil phosphatases; however, orga...

  18. Microbial community and chemical characteristics of swine manure during maturation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standardizing diet formulation studies that are designed to lower emission is needed for properly evaluating the impact diets have on emissions. Three groups of 12 pigs (84 kg initial BW) were feed a standard corn-soybean mean diet over a 13 wk period to determine how the length of manure storage af...

  19. Co-pyrolyzing plastic mulch waste with animal manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrolyzing various livestock and agricultural wastes produces power and value-added byproducts. It also substantially reduces ultimate waste volume to be disposed of and improves soil fertility and promotes carbon sequestration via soil application of biochar. Researchers found that manure-derived ...

  20. Effects of acidifying reagents on microwave treatment of dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Asha; Nkansah-Boadu, Frank; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2014-01-01

    Dairy manure, acidified using organic acids (acetic, oxalic, and citric acid) were treated with microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H2O2-AOP). The effect of a mixture of oxalic acid and commonly used mineral acids (sulfuric and hydrochloric acid) on MW/H2O2-AOP was also examined. Substantial amounts of phosphorus were released under MW/H2O2-AOP, regardless of organic acid or mineral acid used. All three organic acids were good acidifying reagents; however, only oxalic acid could remove free calcium ion in the solution, and improve settleability of dairy manure. The MW/H2O2-AOP and calcium removal process could be combined into a single-stage process, which could release phosphate, solubilize solids and remove calcium from dairy manure at the same time. A mixture of oxalic acid and mineral acid produced the maximum volume of clear supernatant and had an ideal molar ratio of calcium to magnesium for effective struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) crystallization process. A single-stage MW/H2O2-AOP would simplify the process and reduce mineral acid consumption compared to a two-stage operation. The results of a pilot scale study demonstrate that MW/H2O2-AOP is effective in treating manure and recovering resource from dairy farms.

  1. Evaluating antibiotic resistance genes in soils with applied manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotics are commonly used in livestock production to promote growth and combat disease. Recent studies have shown the potential for spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) to the environment following application of livestock manures. In this study, concentrations of bacteria with ARG in soi...

  2. BCVA: Can recycled manure make a safe bed for cattle?

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Suzanne

    2014-11-15

    The use of recycled manure solids for cattle bedding was among the subjects considered at the British Cattle Veterinary Association's congress last month. Both cattle and sheep vets gathered in Hinckley, Leicestershire, from October 16 to 18 to discuss a range of clinical and political issues. Suzanne Jarvis reports.

  3. Origins and identities of key manure odor components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Odor is just one of many environmental issues associated with animal manures. Odor arises from a number of different locations in animal production systems, but the chemistry and biochemical origin is similar across sites. A complex mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and inorganic compoun...

  4. Composting swine manure from high rise finishing facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last twenty years there have been considerable increases in the incidence of human infections with bacteria that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. This has precipitated concerns about the use of antibiotics in livestock production. Composting of swine manure has several advantages...

  5. Electromagnetic survey of cornfield with repeated manure applications

    SciTech Connect

    Eigenberg, R.A.; Nienaber, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    Waste management sites are subject to nutrient buildup from storage, treatment, and repeated application of manure. Methods are needed to quickly assess a site of field location to survey nutrient levels and estimate risk potential. Electromagnetic (EM) conductivity methods have been shown to be sensitive to areas of high nutrient levels and offer promise to provide field assessments. In this report, high density electromagnetic field mapping is described as a method to isolate and detect areas of nutrient buildup in a cornfield receiving waste management research treatments. Various manure and compost rates have been applied to this research field for replacement of commercial fertilizer with the treatment assignments remaining identical over a 4-yr period. Electromagnetic conductivity measurements were able to differentiate the N check treatment (commercial application rate) vs manure applied at the recommended P rate, compost applied at the P rate, and compost applied at the N rate. The N check treatment and the manure applied at the N rate treatment resulted in nearly identical mean values for EM readings and were not statistically distinguishable. Analysis of soil cores randomly located within each treatment were compared to EM readings at the same locations. The Pearson correlation coefficients revealed strong correlations for all constituents except NH{sub 4}. Treatment effects were significant for all soil constituents except NH{sub 4} and water content.

  6. Investigation of Methanogen Diversity in Stored Swine Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consolidated storage of swine manure is associated with the microbial production of a variety of odors and emissions, including ammonia, organic acids, alcohols, and hydrogen sulfide. Large quantities of methane are also produced from such facilities. In the United States, methane emissions from l...

  7. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  8. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  9. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  10. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  11. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  12. Fertilizing cotton with recovered P from swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new treatment technology has been developed to recover soluble P from liquid swine manure. Our objective was to compare P availability and leaching distribution in soils using the recovered P from swine wastewater (31% P2O5) compared with triple superphosphate (46% P2O5) and broiler litter (2.6% P...

  13. Phosphorus recovery from pig manure solids prior to land application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land disposal of pig manure is an environmental concern due to an imbalance of the nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) ratio for crop production, leading to excess phosphorus (P) in soils and potential risks of water pollution. A process called “quick wash” was investigated for its feasibility to extract ...

  14. Use of manure to remediate eroded hill top soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soils damaged by the dustbowl years can still be found across the Western Central Great Plains. Most of these soils have lost top soil rich in organic matter. Our objective was to determine best management practices for remediating these soils using beef manure as an organic amendment. In a field ...

  15. Leaching of estrogenic hormones from manure-treated structured soils.

    PubMed

    Kjaer, Jeanne; Olsen, Preben; Bach, Kamilla; Barlebo, Heidi C; Ingerslev, Flemming; Hansen, Martin; Sørensen, Bent Halling

    2007-06-01

    The threat to the aquatic environment posed by root zone leaching of estrogens from manure-treated fields has hitherto been overlooked. The steroid hormones 17beta-estradiol (E2) and its degradation product estrone (E1) are of particular environmental concern as both are abundant in slurryfrom pregnant and cycling pigs and both are potential endocrine disruptors (lowest observable effect level (LOEL) 14 and 3.3 ng/L, respectively). The present one-year study examines the transport of E1 and E2 from manure to tile drainage systems at two field sites on structured, loamy soil. The estrogens leached from the root zone to tile drainage water in concentrations exceeding the LOEL for as long as 3 months after application, with the maximum recorded concentration of E1 and E2 being 68.1 and 2.5 ng/ L, respectively. Transport of estrogens from the soil to the aquatic environment was governed by pronounced macropore flow and consequent rapid movement of the estrogens to the tile drains. These findings suggest that the application of manure to structured soils poses a potential contamination risk to the aquatic environment with estrogen, particularly when manure is applied to areas where the majority of streamwater derives from drainage water.

  16. Aged Manures as Sources of Pathogens in Agricultural Runoff

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overland runoff from fields with applied manure may carry a variety of chemical and microbial contaminants that compromise water quality and increase the human health risk of exposure to pathogenic microorganisms. A series of rainfall simulation experiments were designed and impl...

  17. Phosphorus and nitrogen losses from winter stacking of manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Appropriate management of animal manure including storage is essential for minimizing nutrient losses and guaranteeing good water quality. A field lysimeter study was carried out at the Susquehanna River Basin, northeastern USA to investigate phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) losses in leachate and ru...

  18. Runoff losses from corn silage-manure cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transport of P, N, and sediment via runoff from crop fields, especially where manure has been applied, can contribute to eutrophication and degradation of surface waters. We established a paired-watershed field site in central Wisconsin to evaluate surface runoff losses of nutrients and sediment fro...

  19. Phosphorus reclamation through hydrothermal carbonization of animal manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Projected shortages of global phosphate have prompted investigation of methods that could be employed to capture and recycle phosphate, rather than continue to allow the resource to be essentially irreversibly lost through dilution in surface waters. Hydrothermal carbonization of animal manures from...

  20. Calorific values and combustion chemistry of animal manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Combustion chemistry and calorific value analyses are the fundamental information for evaluating different biomass waste-to-energy conversion operations. Specific chemical exergy of manure and other biomass feedstock will provide a measure for the theoretically maximum attainable energy. The specifi...

  1. Biochar and manure effects on nitrogen nutrition in silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amending soil with biochar may be a means of sequestering atmospheric CO2 and improving soil quality, but few multiyear field studies have examined the impacts of a one-time biochar application in an irrigated, calcareous soil. Four treatments were applied in the fall 2008: dairy manure (18.7 tons/...

  2. Survey of dairy housing and manure management practices in California.

    PubMed

    Meyer, D; Price, P L; Rossow, H A; Silva-del-Rio, N; Karle, B M; Robinson, P H; DePeters, E J; Fadel, J G

    2011-09-01

    In 2007, a descriptive survey was mailed to all dairies in Glenn (G) and Tulare (T) Counties to identify current and future opportunities of manure management practices on California dairies. The purpose was to provide baseline information for development of outreach curriculum and a decision support tool to quantify potential benefits of various N management options on dairy farms. Such baseline information is valuable to staff regulating dairy facilities (e.g., San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District and Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board), dairy trade association representatives, and technology vendors. Response rates for each county were similar at 29.7% (n=19; G) and 26.7% (n=88; T). Mean milking herd size averaged 570 (range 50 to 3,000) cows in G and 1,800 (range 196 to 9,286) cows in T. Survey data are reported by location due to differences between counties in herd size, housing facilities, and climate. Freestalls are common housing facilities (63.2%, G; 38.6%, T) and separated solids and corral scrapings are commonly used as bedding in freestalls (81.8% G and 79.4% T). The most common methods of manure collection were flushing and scraping (18.8%, G; 44.7%, T), only flushing (43.8%, G; 34.1%, T), or only scraping daily or less frequently than daily (37.5%, G; 20.0%, T). Most dairy farms in G (63.2%) and T (70.5%) used some method of separating solids from liquids. However, mechanical separation systems alone were used by 5.3% G and 11.4% T of dairy farms. Storage or treatment ponds were found on 95.9% of dairies. Respondents identified existing manure management practices and did not indicate any new technologies were in use or being considered for manure management. Survey results were used to describe the 2 predominant manure management pathways of manure collection, storage, treatment, and utilization. Survey results will be used to develop and disseminate targeted information on manure treatment technologies, and on

  3. Characterisation of the organic matter pool in manures.

    PubMed

    Moral, R; Moreno-Caselles, J; Perez-Murcia, M D; Perez-Espinosa, A; Rufete, B; Paredes, C

    2005-01-01

    In this research, different types of animal manure were evaluated with respect to organic matter (OM), total organic carbon (C(ot)), total N (N(t)), C(ot)/N(t) ratio, water-soluble organic carbon (C(w)), organic N (N(org)), carbohydrates, C(w)/N(org) ratio, humic acid-like carbon (C(ha)), fulvic acid-like carbon (C(fa)), humification index ((C(ha)/C(ot))x100) (HI) and the C(ha)/C(fa) and NH(4)(+)-N/NO(3)(-)-N ratios. In comparison with the limits set by the Spanish legislation for organic fertilisers, most of the manures had high OM contents, moderate N(org) concentrations (except in the case of the chicken and pig manures where this parameter was high) and C(ot)/N(t) ratios above the value stated in the legislation. The study of the different fractions of organic matter showed that the horse, pig and rabbit manures had the greatest content of C(ot). However, the fraction of easily-biodegradable organic compounds (C(w)) was significantly higher in the horse, goat and chicken manures. The study also showed that, in most cases, the percentage of fulvic acid-like C was greater than that of the humic acid-like C, indicating that the organic matter of these wastes is not completely humified. Values of HI ((C(ha)/C(ot))x100) and C(ha)/C(fa) ratio in the studied manures were not significantly different. Regarding the parameters related to the organic matter stability such as C(w), carbohydrates and the C(ot)/N(t), C(w)/N(org) and NH(4)(+)-N/NO(3)(-)-N ratios, it has been determined that the organic matter of these materials was not completely stabilised. The heterogeneity in OM composition of the studied manures did not allow the formulation of simple equations for evaluation of the composition of these wastes from easily-determined parameters.

  4. Improved Simulation of Edaphic and Manure Phosphorus Loss in SWAT.

    PubMed

    Collick, Amy S; Veith, Tamie L; Fuka, Daniel R; Kleinman, Peter J A; Buda, Anthony R; Weld, Jennifer L; Bryant, Ray B; Vadas, Peter A; White, Mike J; Harmel, R Daren; Easton, Zachary M

    2016-07-01

    Watershed models such as the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Agricultural Policy Environmental EXtender (APEX) are widely used to assess the fate and transport of agricultural nutrient management practices on soluble and particulate phosphorus (P) loss in runoff. Soil P-cycling routines used in SWAT2012 revision 586, however, do not simulate the short-term effects of applying a concentrated source of soluble P, such as manure, to the soil surface where it is most vulnerable to runoff. We added a new set of soil P routines to SWAT2012 revision 586 to simulate surface-applied manure at field and subwatershed scales within Mahantango Creek watershed in south-central Pennsylvania. We corroborated the new P routines and standard P routines in two versions of SWAT (conventional SWAT, and a topographically driven variation called TopoSWAT) for a total of four modeling "treatments". All modeling treatments included 5 yr of measured data under field-specific, historical management information. Short-term "wash off" processes resulting from precipitation immediately following surface application of manures were captured with the new P routine whereas the standard routines resulted in losses regardless of manure application. The new routines improved sensitivity to key factors in nutrient management (i.e., timing, rate, method, and form of P application). Only the new P routines indicated decreases in soluble P losses for dairy manure applications at 1, 5, and 10 d before a storm event. The new P routines also resulted in more variable P losses when applying manure versus commercial fertilizer and represented increases in total P losses, as compared with standard P routines, with rate increases in dairy manure application (56,000 to 84,000 L ha). The new P routines exhibited greater than 50% variation among proportions of organic, particulate, and soluble P corresponding to spreading method. In contrast, proportions of P forms under the standard P routines varied

  5. Phosphorus losses in simulated rainfall runoff from manured soils of Alberta.

    PubMed

    Volf, Callie A; Ontkean, Gerald R; Bennett, D Rodney; Chanasyk, David S; Miller, Jim J

    2007-01-01

    Manure applied to agricultural land at rates that exceed annual crop nutrient requirements can be a source of phosphorus in runoff. Manure incorporation is often recommended to reduce phosphorus losses in runoff. A small plot rainfall simulation study was conducted at three sites in Alberta to evaluate the effects of manure rate and incorporation on phosphorus losses. Treatments consisted of three solid beef cattle manure application rates (50, 100, and 200 kg ha(-1) total phosphorus), an unmanured control, and two incorporation methods (nonincorporated and incorporated with one pass of a double disk). Simulated rain was applied to soils with freshly applied and residual (1 yr after application) manure at 70 mm h(-1) to produce 30 min of runoff. Soil test phosphorus (STP), total phosphorus (TP), and dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) concentrations in runoff increased with manure rate for fresh and residual manure. Initial abstraction and runoff volumes did not change with manure rate. Initial abstraction, runoff volumes, and phosphorus concentrations did not change with manure incorporation at Lacombe and Wilson, but initial abstraction volumes increased and runoff volumes and phosphorus concentrations decreased with incorporation of fresh manure at Beaverlodge. Phosphorus losses in runoff were directly related to phosphorus additions. Extraction coefficients (slopes of the regression lines) for the linear relationships between residual manure STP and phosphorus in runoff were 0.007 to 0.015 for runoff TP and 0.006 to 0.013 for runoff DRP. While incorporation of manure with a double disk had no significant effect on phosphorus losses in runoff from manure-amended soils 1 yr after application, incorporation of manure is still recommended to control nitrogen losses, improve crop nutrient uptake, and potentially reduce odor concerns.

  6. Emission of greenhouse gases from controlled incineration of cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Sun, Xiucui; Taniguchi, Miki; Takaoka, Masaki; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Fujiwara, Taku

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission is a potential limiting factor in livestock farming development. While incineration is one approach to minimize livestock manure, there are concerns about significant levels of nitrogen and organic compounds in manure as potential sources of greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CH4). In this study, the effects of various incineration conditions, such as the furnace temperature and air ratio on N2O and CH4 formation behaviour, of cattle manure (as a representative livestock manure) were investigated in a pilot rotary kiln furnace. The results revealed that N2O emissions decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing air ratio. In addition, CH4 emissions tended to be high above 800 degrees C at a low air ratio. The emission factors for N2O and CH4 under the general conditions (combustion temperature of 800-850 degrees C and air ratio of 1.4) were determined to be 1.9-6.0% g-N2O-N/g-N and 0.0046-0.26% g-CH4/g-burning object, respectively. The emission factor for CH4 differed slightly from the published values between 0.16 and 0.38% g-CH4/g-burning object. However, the emission factor for N2O was much higher than the currently accepted value of 0.7% g-N2O-N/g-N and, therefore, it is necessary to revise the N2O emission factor for the incineration of livestock manure.

  7. Management strategy impacts on ammonia volatilization from swine manure.

    PubMed

    Panetta, Diane M; Powers, Wendy J; Lorimor, Jeffery C

    2005-01-01

    Ammonia emitted from manure can have detrimental effects on health, environmental quality, and fertilizer value. The objective of this study was to measure the potential for reduction in ammonia volatilization from swine (Sus scrofa domestica) manure by temperature control, stirring, addition of nitrogen binder (Mohave yucca, Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies) or urease inhibitor [N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT)], segregation of urine from feces, and pH modification. Swine manure [total solids (TS) = 7.6-11.2%, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) = 3.3-6.2 g/L, ammonium nitrogen NH(+)(4)-N = 1.0-3.3 g/L] was stored for 24, 48, 72, or 96 h in 2-L polyvinyl chloride vessels. The manure was analyzed to determine pre- and post-storage concentrations of TS and volatile solids (VS), TKN, and NH(+)(4)-N. The concentration of accumulated ammonia N in the vessel headspace (HSAN), post-storage, was measured using grab sample tubes. Headspace NH(3) concentrations were reduced 99.3% by segregation of urine from feces (P < 0.0001). Stirring and NBPT (152 microL/L) increased HSAN concentration (119 and 140%, respectively). Headspace NH(3) concentration increased by 2.7 mg/m(3) for every 1 degree C increase in temperature over 35 degrees C. Slurry NH(+)(4)-N concentrations were reduced by segregation (78.3%) and acidification to pH 5.3 (9.4%), and increased with stirring (4.8%) and increasing temperature (0.06 g/L per 1 degree C increase in temperature over 35 degrees C). Temperature control, urine-feces segregation, and acidification of swine manure are strategies with potential to reduce or slow NH(+)(4)-N formation and NH(3) volatilization. PMID:15888898

  8. Phosphorus release from dairy manure, the manure-derived biochar, and their amended soil: effects of phosphorus nature and soil property.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuan; Cao, Xinde; Zhao, Ling; Xu, Xiaoyun; Harris, Willie

    2014-07-01

    Land application of animal manure often risks excessive phosphorus (P) release into the surrounding water. The aim of this study was to convert the dairy manure into biochar, followed by their application into soil, and then to investigate P release from the manure and its derived biochar as well as from the manure- and biochar-amended soil. The results showed that P release was reduced when the manure was converted into biochar due to formation of less-soluble whitlockite [(Ca, Mg)(PO)]. The cumulative P released from biochar over 240 h was 0.26 g kg, a 76% reduction of that from the manure (1.07 g kg). The kinetic release of P from the manure was determined by the fast desorption process and was better fitted to Elovich equation, whereas P release from biochar was initially controlled by the diffusion process and then by slow but steady dissolution of (Ca,Mg)(PO), following the parabolic diffusion and linear models, respectively. When the manure or biochar was incorporated into the soil, P release in the CaCl and simulated acid rain water extraction from biochar-amended soil was consistently lower than that from the manure-amended soil during 210-d incubation. The lower P release in the biochar-amended soil was determined by stable P form (Ca, Mg)(PO) in the biochar itself, but less from the soil property effect. Results indicated that initial high P release from manure can be mitigated by converting the manure into biochar.

  9. Phosphorus release from dairy manure, the manure-derived biochar, and their amended soil: effects of phosphorus nature and soil property.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuan; Cao, Xinde; Zhao, Ling; Xu, Xiaoyun; Harris, Willie

    2014-07-01

    Land application of animal manure often risks excessive phosphorus (P) release into the surrounding water. The aim of this study was to convert the dairy manure into biochar, followed by their application into soil, and then to investigate P release from the manure and its derived biochar as well as from the manure- and biochar-amended soil. The results showed that P release was reduced when the manure was converted into biochar due to formation of less-soluble whitlockite [(Ca, Mg)(PO)]. The cumulative P released from biochar over 240 h was 0.26 g kg, a 76% reduction of that from the manure (1.07 g kg). The kinetic release of P from the manure was determined by the fast desorption process and was better fitted to Elovich equation, whereas P release from biochar was initially controlled by the diffusion process and then by slow but steady dissolution of (Ca,Mg)(PO), following the parabolic diffusion and linear models, respectively. When the manure or biochar was incorporated into the soil, P release in the CaCl and simulated acid rain water extraction from biochar-amended soil was consistently lower than that from the manure-amended soil during 210-d incubation. The lower P release in the biochar-amended soil was determined by stable P form (Ca, Mg)(PO) in the biochar itself, but less from the soil property effect. Results indicated that initial high P release from manure can be mitigated by converting the manure into biochar. PMID:25603098

  10. Global warming potential of manure amended soils under rice-wheat system in the Indo-Gangetic plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, A.; Pathak, H.; Jain, N.; Singh, P. K.; Singh, A. K.

    Use of organic amendments such as farmyard manure (FYM), green manure (GM) and crop residues is important to improve soil health and reduce the dependence on synthetic chemical fertilizer. However, these organic amendments also effect the emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) from soil. Influence of different organic amendments on emissions of GHG from soil and their global warming potential (GWP) was studied in a field experiment in rice-wheat cropping system of Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP). There was 28% increase in CH 4 emissions on addition of 25% N through Sesbania GM along with urea compared to urea alone. Substitution of 100% inorganic N by organic sources lead to a 60% increase in CH 4 emissions. The carbon equivalent emission from rice-wheat systems varied between 3816 and 4886 kg C equivalent ha -1 depending upon fertilizer and organic amendment. GWP of rice-wheat system increased by 28% on full substitution of organic N by chemical N. However, the C efficiency ratios of the GM and crop residue treatments were at par with the recommended inorganic fertilizer treatment. Thus use of organic amendments along with inorganic fertilizer increases the GWP of the rice-wheat system but may improve the soil fertility status without adversely affecting the C efficiency ratio. However, the trade-off between improved yield and soil health versus GHG emissions should be taken into account while promoting the practice of farming with organic residues substitution for mineral fertilizer.

  11. Green nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoff B.

    2011-10-01

    Nanotechnology, in particular nanophotonics, is proving essential to achieving green outcomes of sustainability and renewable energy at the scales needed. Coatings, composites and polymeric structures used in windows, roof and wall coatings, energy storage, insulation and other components in energy efficient buildings will increasingly involve nanostructure, as will solar cells. Nanostructures have the potential to revolutionize thermoelectric power and may one day provide efficient refrigerant free cooling. Nanomaterials enable optimization of optical, opto-electrical and thermal responses to this urgent task. Optical harmonization of material responses to environmental energy flows involves (i) large changes in spectral response over limited wavelength bands (ii) tailoring to environmental dynamics. The latter includes engineering angle of incidence dependencies and switchable (or chromogenic) responses. Nanomaterials can be made at sufficient scale and low enough cost to be both economic and to have a high impact on a short time scale. Issues to be addressed include human safety and property changes induced during manufacture, handling and outdoor use. Unexpected bonuses have arisen in this work, for example the savings and environmental benefits of cool roofs extend beyond the more obvious benefit of reduced heat flows from the roof into the building.

  12. Brassica vegetables as a green manure to control Escherichia coli O157:H12 in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant remnants tilled over in soil after harvest of Brassica crops may possess antimicrobial from exudates secreted in soil following residual incorporation. We investigated the role of broccoli remnants tilled over after harvest for reducing enteric pathogens in soil. The glucosinolate-hydrolyzed c...

  13. Impact of five cover crop green manures and Actinovate on Fusarium Wilt of watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triploid watermelon cultivars are grown on more than 2,023 ha in Maryland and in Delaware. Triploid watermelons have little host resistance to Fusarium wilt of watermelon (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum). The effects of four different fall-planted cover crops that were tilled in the spring as gree...

  14. Green manures in continuous wheat systems affect grain yield and nitrogen content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuous winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell.) is the foundation for most U.S. southern Great Plains (SGP) agriculture. Inorganic nitrogen (N) fertilizers are important to wheat production, but increasing N prices have caused farmers to reconsider growing legumes during summer fallow for ‘...

  15. Struvite recovery from anaerobically digested dairy manure: A review of application potential and hindrances.

    PubMed

    Tao, Wendong; Fattah, Kazi P; Huchzermeier, Matthew P

    2016-03-15

    Anaerobically digested dairy manure is rich in ammonium, orthophosphates, and magnesium, indicating a high potential for struvite recovery. Continuous generation of large amounts of dairy manure plus increasing global interest in anaerobic digestion of dairy manure suggest a huge market for struvite production with anaerobically digested dairy manure. However, the complex chemical composition of digested dairy manure presents hindrances to struvite recovery. This review paper assesses the significance and potential of struvite recovery from anaerobically digested dairy manure, identifies the factors hindering struvite recovery, and discusses the methods to overcome hindrances and the measures to improve phosphorus speciation of dairy manure for struvite formation. This paper proposes using "struvite recovery potential" or Pstruvite based on the least molar activity of struvite component ions in addition to "supersaturation ratio" to identify the potential for struvite recovery. The probable hindrances mainly include high Ca(2+) concentration and molar activity ratios of Ca(2+): Mg(2+) and Ca(2+): PO4(3-), high ionic strength, and high alkalinity. Struvite formation and purity is likely a function of all the interfering variables, rather than just a single factor with digested dairy manure. Potential enhancement measures need to be tested for technical and economic feasibility and applicability to various sources of digested dairy manure. This review paper provides guidance to overcoming the hindrances of digested dairy manure to struvite formation.

  16. Manure sampling procedures and nutrient estimation by the hydrometer method for gestation pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Ndegwa, Pius M; Zhang, Zhijian

    2004-05-01

    Three manure agitation procedures were examined in this study (vertical mixing, horizontal mixing, and no mixing) to determine the efficacy of producing a representative manure sample. The total solids content for manure from gestation pigs was found to be well correlated with the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in the manure, with highly significant correlation coefficients of 0.988 and 0.994, respectively. Linear correlations were observed between the TN and TP contents and the manure specific gravity (correlation coefficients: 0.991 and 0.987, respectively). Therefore, it may be inferred that the nutrients in pig manure can be estimated with reasonable accuracy by measuring the liquid manure specific gravity. A rapid testing method for manure nutrient contents (TN and TP) using a soil hydrometer was also evaluated. The results showed that the estimating error increased from +/-10% to +/-30% with the decrease in TN (from 1000 to 100 ppm) and TP (from 700 to 50 ppm) concentrations in the manure. Data also showed that the hydrometer readings had to be taken within 10 s after mixing to avoid reading drift in specific gravity due to the settling of manure solids.

  17. [Regional differences and development tendency of livestock manure pollution in China].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Huan-Guang; Liao, Shao-Pan; Jing, Yue; Luan, Jiang

    2013-07-01

    The rapid development of livestock production in China has brought livestock manure pollution as a serious environment problem, even threatens China's agriculture sustainable development. On the basis of public statistical data and field research data, this paper analyzed the magnitude of livestock manure excretion and pollution of China and different provinces in 2010, and predicted development tendencies of livestock manure excretion and pollution in 2020 through the Decision Support System for China's Agricultural Sustainable Development (CHINAGRO). The result shows that total livestock manure excretion of China in 2010 is 1 900 million tons, and livestock manure pollution is 227 million tons, while per hectare arable land of livestock manure pollution is 1.86 tons. Provinces in the southeast China, such as Guangdong and Fujian, are areas with high pressure of livestock manure pollution. Model simulation shows that China's total amount of livestock manure pollution will increase to 298 million tons in 2020 without government intervention. The pressure of livestock manure pollution will become higher in most regions of China, especially in east and south regions. The situation in central and western region is better than that in east regions although the pollution pressure will also increase in those areas. Policy intervention such as taxes and subsidies should be adopted to reduce the discharge of livestock manure pollution, and encourage livestock production transfer from eastern areas to the central and western regions.

  18. Manure application technology in reduced tillage and forage systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Rory O; Kleinman, Peter J A; Dell, Curtis J; Beegle, Doug B; Brandt, Robin C; McGrath, Josh M; Ketterings, Quirine M

    2011-01-01

    Managing manure in reduced tillage and forage systems presents challenges, as incorporation by tillage is not compatible. Surface-applied manure that is not quickly incorporated into soil provides inefficient delivery of manure nutrients to crops due to environmental losses through ammonia (NH3) volatilization and nutrient losses in runoff, and serves as a major source of nuisance odors. An array of technologies now exist to facilitate the incorporation of liquid manures into soil with restricted or minor soil disturbance, some of which are new: shallow disk injection; chisel injection; aeration infiltration; pressure injection. Surface banding of manure inforages decreases NH3 emissions relative to surface broadcasting, as the canopy can decrease wind speed over the manure, but greater reductions can be achieved with manure injection. Soilaeration is intended to hasten manure infiltration, but its benefits are not consistent and may be related to factors such as soildrainage characteristics. Work remains to be done on refining its method of use and timing relative to manure application, which may improve its effectiveness. Placing manure under the soil surface efficiency by injection offers much promise to improve N use efficiency through less NH3 volatilization, reduced odors and decreased nutrient losses in runoff, relative to surface application. We identified significant gaps in our knowledge as manyof these technologies are relatively new, and this should help target future research efforts including environmental, agronomic, and economic assessments.

  19. Manure sampling procedures and nutrient estimation by the hydrometer method for gestation pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Ndegwa, Pius M; Zhang, Zhijian

    2004-05-01

    Three manure agitation procedures were examined in this study (vertical mixing, horizontal mixing, and no mixing) to determine the efficacy of producing a representative manure sample. The total solids content for manure from gestation pigs was found to be well correlated with the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in the manure, with highly significant correlation coefficients of 0.988 and 0.994, respectively. Linear correlations were observed between the TN and TP contents and the manure specific gravity (correlation coefficients: 0.991 and 0.987, respectively). Therefore, it may be inferred that the nutrients in pig manure can be estimated with reasonable accuracy by measuring the liquid manure specific gravity. A rapid testing method for manure nutrient contents (TN and TP) using a soil hydrometer was also evaluated. The results showed that the estimating error increased from +/-10% to +/-30% with the decrease in TN (from 1000 to 100 ppm) and TP (from 700 to 50 ppm) concentrations in the manure. Data also showed that the hydrometer readings had to be taken within 10 s after mixing to avoid reading drift in specific gravity due to the settling of manure solids. PMID:14766157

  20. Environmental benefits and economic costs of manure incorporation on dairy waste application fields.

    PubMed

    Osei, E; Gassman, P W; Hauck, L M; Jones, R; Beran, L; Dyke, P T; Goss, D W; Flowers, J D; McFarland, A M S; Saleh, A

    2003-05-01

    Model simulations performed representing dairies in a 93000 ha watershed in north central Texas suggest that manure incorporation results in reduced phosphorus (P) losses at relatively small to moderate cost to producers. Simulated manure incorporation with a tandem disk on fields double-cropped with sorghum/winter wheat resulted in up to 33, 45, and 37% reductions in per hectare sediment-bound, soluble, and total P losses in edge-of-field runoff, relative to simulated surface manure applications. The effects of incorporation were evaluated at three different manure application rates. On aggregate across all three manure application rates, significant declines in P losses were obtained with incorporation except for sediment-bound P losses under the N-based manure application rate scenario. We found that the practice of incorporating manure shortly after it has been broadcast on the soil surface could help reduce P losses in such situations where P-based rates alone prove inadequate. The cost the producer incurs when manure is incorporated is on average about 1% of net returns when manure is applied at the N rate and 2-3% when it is applied at alternative P-based rates. In practice the costs could be lower because producers may substitute the manure incorporation operation for a tandem disk operation performed prior to manure application. As more and more dairy producers switch to the use of sorghum and corn silage in dairy rations and consequent on-farm production of these forages, the practice of manure incorporation may help to reduce phosphorus losses resulting from dairy manure applications to fields with these forage crops. PMID:12767858

  1. Short communication: Environmental mastitis pathogen counts in freestalls bedded with composted and fresh recycled manure solids.

    PubMed

    Cole, K J; Hogan, J S

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare bacterial counts of environmental mastitis pathogens in composted recycled manure solids bedding with those in fresh recycled manure solids. Eighteen Holstein cows were housed in 1 pen with 18 stalls. One row of 9 freestalls included mattresses and was bedded weekly with composted recycled manure solids. The second row of 9 freestalls included mattresses and was bedded weekly with fresh recycled manure solids. The back one-third of stalls toward the alleyway was covered in 25 to 50 mm of bedding. Samples were taken from the back one-third of 4 stalls for both treatments on d 0, 1, 2, and 6 of each week. After 3 wk, bedding treatments were switched between rows, making the total duration 6 wk. Mean total gram-negative bacterial counts were approximately 0.5 log10 cfu/g of dry matter lower in the composted recycled manure solids on d 0 compared with fresh recycled manure solids. Klebsiella species, coliform, and Streptococcus species counts were at least 1.0 log10 cfu/g of dry matter lower in composted compared with fresh recycled manure solids on d 0. Only gram-negative bacterial counts on d 1 were reduced in composted recycled manure solids compared with fresh recycled manure solids. Differences were not observed between treatments in gram-negative bacterial, coliform, Klebsiella species, or Streptococcus species counts on d 2 and 6. Ash content was higher in composted recycled manure solids compared with fresh recycled manure solids on d 0, 1, 2, and 6. Despite the increase in ash after composting, bacterial counts of mastitis pathogens in composted recycled manure solids were comparable with those in fresh recycled manure when used as freestall bedding.

  2. Settling characteristics of nursery pig manure and nutrient estimation by the hydrometer method.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Ndegwa, Pius M; Zhang, Zhijian

    2003-05-01

    The hydrometer method to measure manure specific gravity and subsequently relate it to manure nutrient contents was examined in this study. It was found that this method might be improved in estimation accuracy if only manure from a single growth stage of pigs was used (e.g., nursery pig manure used here). The total solids (TS) content of the test manure was well correlated with the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in the manure, with highly significant correlation coefficients of 0.9944 and 0.9873, respectively. Also observed were good linear correlations between the TN and TP contents and the manure specific gravity (correlation coefficients: 0.9836 and 0.9843, respectively). These correlations were much better than those reported by past researchers, in which lumped data for pigs at different growing stages were used. It may therefore be inferred that developing different linear equations for pigs at different ages should improve the accuracy in manure nutrient estimation using a hydrometer. Also, the error of using the hydrometer method to estimate manure TN and TP was found to increase, from +/- 10% to +/- 50%, with the decrease in TN (from 700 ppm to 100 ppm) and TP (from 130 ppm to 30 ppm) concentrations in the manure. The estimation errors for TN and TP may be larger than 50% if the total solids content is below 0.5%. In addition, the rapid settling of solids has long been considered characteristic of swine manure; however, in this study, the solids settling property appeared to be quite poor for nursery pig manure in that no conspicuous settling occurred after the manure was left statically for 5 hours. This information has not been reported elsewhere in the literature and may need further research to verify.

  3. Toxicity of ozonated animal manure to the house fly, Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Masten, S J; Kim-Yang, H; Walker, E D; Roman, H; Yokoyama, M T

    2001-01-01

    Swine manure slurries were ozonated at a dosage of 1 g/L and tested for their toxicity to the house fly (Musca domestica). The observed toxicity of ozonated swine manure was consistent and independent of origin of the swine manure. A dose (dilution) response curve was performed. A 50% dilution in the ozonated swine manure slurry resulted in 90% reduction in toxicity. Neither the synthetic nor ozonated synthetic swine manure, both of which contained higher concentrations of formaldehyde and three other unidentified carbonyl compounds than the ozonated swine manure, were toxic to the flies. Ozonated swine manure slurry was centrifuged and passed through a 0.45-microm filter. The liquid phase was as toxic as the unfiltered slurry; as such, the toxicant appears to be present in liquid phase. Neither ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, formaldehyde, nor other simple aldehydes appeared to be the toxic agent. The toxic agent appears to be a polar chemical compound and is concentrated in the urine. Several possible compounds have been identified. The toxicity of untreated and ozonated manure slurries from different livestock was compared. Six animal manure slurries (beef and dairy cattle, horse, poultry, sheep, and swine) were ozonated (dosage of 1 g/L) and tested for toxicity to the house fly. Ozonated dairy cattle manure slurry showed 78% mortality after 72 h, whereas ozonated swine manure slurry achieved a 100% mortality rate in 48 h. Neither the unozonated dairy nor swine manure slurries, nor any of the other raw or ozonated manure slurries, were toxic to the flies.

  4. Growth and Productivity Response of Hybrid Rice to Application of Animal Manures, Plant Residues and Phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Amanullah; Khan, Shams-ul-Tamraiz; Iqbal, Asif; Fahad, Shah

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of organic sources (animal manures vs. plant residues at the rate of 10 t ha−1 each) on the productivity of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) production under different levels of phosphorus (0, 30, 60, and 90 kg P ha−1) fertilization. Two separate field experiments were conducted. In experiment (1), impact of three animal manures sources (cattle, sheep, and poultry manures) and P levels were studied along with one control plot (no animal manure and P applied) was investigated. In experiment (2), three plant residues sources (peach leaves, garlic residues, and wheat straw) and P levels were studied along with one control plot (no plant residues and P applied). Both the experiments were carried out on small land farmer field at District Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (Northwest Pakistan) during summer 2015. The results revealed that in both experiments the control plot had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) less productivity than the average of all treated plots with organic sources and P level. The increase in P levels in both experiments (animal manure vs. plant residues) resulted in higher rice productivity (90 > 60 > 30 > 0 kg P ha−1). In the experiment under animal manures, application of poultry manure increased rice productivity as compared with sheep and cattle manures (poultry > sheep > cattle manures). In the experiment under plant residues, application of peach leaves or garlic residues had higher rice productivity than wheat straw (peach leaves = garlic residues > wheat straw). On average, rice grown under animal manures produced about 20% higher grain yield than rice grown under crop residues. We conclude from this study that application of 90 kg P ha−1 along with combined application of animal manures, especially poultry manure increases rice productivity. Also, the use of either garlic residues or peach leaves, never applied before as organic manures, can increase crop productivity and will help

  5. Settling characteristics of nursery pig manure and nutrient estimation by the hydrometer method.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Ndegwa, Pius M; Zhang, Zhijian

    2003-05-01

    The hydrometer method to measure manure specific gravity and subsequently relate it to manure nutrient contents was examined in this study. It was found that this method might be improved in estimation accuracy if only manure from a single growth stage of pigs was used (e.g., nursery pig manure used here). The total solids (TS) content of the test manure was well correlated with the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in the manure, with highly significant correlation coefficients of 0.9944 and 0.9873, respectively. Also observed were good linear correlations between the TN and TP contents and the manure specific gravity (correlation coefficients: 0.9836 and 0.9843, respectively). These correlations were much better than those reported by past researchers, in which lumped data for pigs at different growing stages were used. It may therefore be inferred that developing different linear equations for pigs at different ages should improve the accuracy in manure nutrient estimation using a hydrometer. Also, the error of using the hydrometer method to estimate manure TN and TP was found to increase, from +/- 10% to +/- 50%, with the decrease in TN (from 700 ppm to 100 ppm) and TP (from 130 ppm to 30 ppm) concentrations in the manure. The estimation errors for TN and TP may be larger than 50% if the total solids content is below 0.5%. In addition, the rapid settling of solids has long been considered characteristic of swine manure; however, in this study, the solids settling property appeared to be quite poor for nursery pig manure in that no conspicuous settling occurred after the manure was left statically for 5 hours. This information has not been reported elsewhere in the literature and may need further research to verify. PMID:12716054

  6. Decay of Bacterial Pathogens, Fecal Indicators, and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Genetic Markers in Manure-Amended Soils ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Shane W.; Donnelly, Matthew; Peed, Lindsay; Kelty, Catherine A.; Mondal, Sumona; Zhong, Zirong; Shanks, Orin C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined persistence and decay of bacterial pathogens, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and emerging real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) genetic markers for rapid detection of fecal pollution in manure-amended agricultural soils. Known concentrations of transformed green fluorescent protein-expressing Escherichia coli O157:H7/pZs and red fluorescent protein-expressing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium/pDs were added to laboratory-scale manure-amended soil microcosms with moisture contents of 60% or 80% field capacity and incubated at temperatures of −20°C, 10°C, or 25°C for 120 days. A two-stage first-order decay model was used to determine stage 1 and stage 2 first-order decay rate coefficients and transition times for each organism and qPCR genetic marker in each treatment. Genetic markers for FIB (Enterococcus spp., E. coli, and Bacteroidales) exhibited decay rate coefficients similar to that of E. coli O157:H7/pZs but not of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium/pDs and persisted at detectable levels longer than both pathogens. Concentrations of these two bacterial pathogens, their counterpart qPCR genetic markers (stx1 and ttrRSBCA, respectively), and FIB genetic markers were also correlated (r = 0.528 to 0.745). This suggests that these qPCR genetic markers may be reliable conservative surrogates for monitoring fecal pollution from manure-amended land. Host-associated qPCR genetic markers for microbial source tracking decayed rapidly to nondetectable concentrations, long before FIB, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium/pDs, and E. coli O157:H7/pZs. Although good indicators of point source or recent nonpoint source fecal contamination events, these host-associated qPCR genetic markers may not be reliable indicators of nonpoint source fecal contamination events that occur weeks following manure application on land. PMID:21642395

  7. Crop manuring and intensive land management by Europe's first farmers.

    PubMed

    Bogaard, Amy; Fraser, Rebecca; Heaton, Tim H E; Wallace, Michael; Vaiglova, Petra; Charles, Michael; Jones, Glynis; Evershed, Richard P; Styring, Amy K; Andersen, Niels H; Arbogast, Rose-Marie; Bartosiewicz, László; Gardeisen, Armelle; Kanstrup, Marie; Maier, Ursula; Marinova, Elena; Ninov, Lazar; Schäfer, Marguerita; Stephan, Elisabeth

    2013-07-30

    The spread of farming from western Asia to Europe had profound long-term social and ecological impacts, but identification of the specific nature of Neolithic land management practices and the dietary contribution of early crops has been problematic. Here, we present previously undescribed stable isotope determinations of charred cereals and pulses from 13 Neolithic sites across Europe (dating ca. 5900-2400 cal B.C.), which show that early farmers used livestock manure and water management to enhance crop yields. Intensive manuring inextricably linked plant cultivation and animal herding and contributed to the remarkable resilience of these combined practices across diverse climatic zones. Critically, our findings suggest that commonly applied paleodietary interpretations of human and herbivore δ(15)N values have systematically underestimated the contribution of crop-derived protein to early farmer diets.

  8. Microbiology of nitrogen cycle in animal manure compost

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Koki; Hanajima, Dai; Toyoda, Sakae; Yoshida, Naohiro; Morioka, Riki; Osada, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Summary Composting is the major technology in the treatment of animal manure and is a source of nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas. Although the microbiological processes of both nitrification and denitrification are involved in composting, the key players in these pathways have not been well identified. Recent molecular microbiological methodologies have revealed the presence of dominant Bacillus species in the degradation of organic material or betaproteobacterial ammonia‐oxidizing bacteria on nitrification on the surface, and have also revealed the mechanism of nitrous oxide emission in this complicated process to some extent. Some bacteria, archaea or fungi still would be considered potential key players, and the contribution of some pathways, such as nitrifier denitrification or heterotrophic nitrification, might be involved in composting. This review article discusses these potential microbial players in nitrification–denitrification within the composting pile and highlights the relevant unknowns through recent activities that focus on the nitrogen cycle within the animal manure composting process. PMID:21375720

  9. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kougias, P. G.; Fotidis, I. A.; Zaganas, I. D.; Kotsopoulos, T. A.; Martzopoulos, G. G.

    2013-03-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without zeolite addition. The results appear to be influenced by the addition of zeolite, which reduces ammonia toxicity in anaerobic digestion and by the ammonia-tolerant swine inoculum.

  10. [Effects of organic manure on wheat growth under lead stress].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Sha-sha; Zhang, Yong-qing; Yang, Li-wen; Pei, Hong-bin; Sun, Hong-shuai

    2011-04-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of organic manure on the wheat growth under different levels of lead stress. With increasing lead stress level, whether fertilization or not, the plant height, shoot dry mass, adventitious root number, root total length, root dry mass, root activity, root total and active absorbing area, and root SOD and POD activities decreased, and root MDA content presented an increasing trend. The decrement of the above-mentioned parameters differed with fertilization treatments. Applying organic manure mitigated the impact of lead stress on wheat growth to some extent, delayed the senescence of wheat roots, and promoted root development and growth, ultimately leading to the increase of wheat yield and the decrease of lead content in grain.

  11. Dairy manure resource recovery utilizing two-stage anaerobic digestion - Implications of solids fractionation.

    PubMed

    Stowe, Edmond J; Coats, Erik R; Brinkman, Cynthia K

    2015-12-01

    Dairy manure management is increasingly becoming an environmental challenge. In this regard, manure anaerobic digestion (AD) can be applied to address environmental concerns; however, dairy manure AD remains economically uncompetitive. Ongoing research is focused on enhanced resource recovery from manure, including maximizing AD methane yield through a novel multi-stage AD configuration. Research presented herein centered on the hypothesis that separately digesting fine and coarse solids from fermented dairy manure would improve methane production; the hypothesis was disproven. While maximum methane concentration was realized on fine solids, combined solids AD yielded enhanced VS destruction. The diverse combined-solids substrate enriched for a more heterogeneous bacterial/archaeal consortium that balanced fermentation and methanogenesis to yield maximum product (methane). However, results suggest that targeted AD of the fat-rich fine solids could be a more optimal approach for processing manure; alternate (non-AD) methods could then be applied to extract value from the fibrous fraction.

  12. Numbers of fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli in fresh and dry cattle, horse, and sheep manure.

    PubMed

    Weaver, R W; Entry, J A; Graves, Alexandria

    2005-10-01

    Livestock are known contributors to stream pollution. Numbers of fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli in manure naturally deposited by livestock in the field are needed for activities related to bacterial source tracking and determining maximum daily bacterial loading of streams. We measured populations of fecal streptococci and E. coli in fresh and dry manure from cattle (Bos taurus L.), horses (Equus caballus L.), and sheep (Ovis aires L.) on farms in southern Idaho. Populations of indicator bacteria in dry manure were often as high as that in fresh manure from horse and sheep. There was a 2 log10 drop in the population of fecal coliform numbers in dry cattle manure from cattle in pastures but not from cattle in pens. Bacterial isolates used in source tracking should include isolates from both fresh and dry manure to better represent the bacterial source loading of streams.

  13. Fate of Compost Nutrients as Affected by Co-Composting of Chicken and Swine Manures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunwande, Gbolabo A.; Ogunjimi, Lawrence A. O.; Osunade, James A.

    2014-04-01

    Passive aeration co-composting using four mixtures of chicken manure and swine manure at 1:0, 1:1, 3:7 and 0:1 with sawdust and rice husk was carried out to study the effects of co-composting on the physicochemical properties of the organic materials. The experiment, which lasted 66 days, was carried out in bins equipped with inverted T aeration pipes. The results showed that nutrient losses decreased as the proportion of chicken manure in the mixtures decreased for saw dust and rice husk treatments. This indicates better nutrientst conservation during composting in swine than chicken manure. Manure mixtures with rice husk had higher pile temperatures (> 55°C), total carbon and total nitrogen losses, while manure mixtures with saw dust had higher total phosphorus loss and carbon to nitrogen ratio. Composts with rice husk demonstrated the ability to reach maturity faster by the rate of drop of the carbon to nitrogen ratio.

  14. Characterization of human manure-derived biochar and energy-balance analysis of slow pyrolysis process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Li, Zifu; Zhang, Yaozhong; Feng, Rui; Mahmood, Ibrahim Babatunde

    2014-09-01

    Biochars have received increasing attention in recent years because of their soil improvement potential, contaminant immobilization properties, and ability to function as carbon sinks. This study adopted a pyrolytic process to prepare a series of biochars from dried human manure at varying temperatures. The thermal analysis of human manure and physicochemical properties of the resulting biochars illustrated that human manure can be a favorable feedstock for biochar production. In particular, the porous texture and nutrient-rich properties of biochars produced from human manure and may significantly enhance soil fertility when used as used soil additives. A temperature range of 500-600°C was optimal for human manure biochar production. Significantly, when the moisture content of the feedstock is lower than 57%, the system could not only harvest manure-derived biochar but also have a net energy output, which can be provide heat source for nearby users. PMID:24961565

  15. Characterization of human manure-derived biochar and energy-balance analysis of slow pyrolysis process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Li, Zifu; Zhang, Yaozhong; Feng, Rui; Mahmood, Ibrahim Babatunde

    2014-09-01

    Biochars have received increasing attention in recent years because of their soil improvement potential, contaminant immobilization properties, and ability to function as carbon sinks. This study adopted a pyrolytic process to prepare a series of biochars from dried human manure at varying temperatures. The thermal analysis of human manure and physicochemical properties of the resulting biochars illustrated that human manure can be a favorable feedstock for biochar production. In particular, the porous texture and nutrient-rich properties of biochars produced from human manure and may significantly enhance soil fertility when used as used soil additives. A temperature range of 500-600°C was optimal for human manure biochar production. Significantly, when the moisture content of the feedstock is lower than 57%, the system could not only harvest manure-derived biochar but also have a net energy output, which can be provide heat source for nearby users.

  16. Potential of Biological Processes to Eliminate Antibiotics in Livestock Manure: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Massé, Daniel I; Saady, Noori M Cata; Gilbert, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Degrading antibiotics discharged in the livestock manure in a well-controlled bioprocess contributes to a more sustainable and environment-friendly livestock breeding. Although most antibiotics remain stable during manure storage, anaerobic digestion can degrade and remove them to various extents depending on the concentration and class of antibiotic, bioreactor operating conditions, type of feedstock and inoculum sources. Generally, antibiotics are degraded during composting > anaerobic digestion > manure storage > soil. Manure matrix variation influences extraction, quantification, and degradation of antibiotics, but it has not been well investigated. Fractioning of manure-laden antibiotics into liquid and solid phases and its effects on their anaerobic degradation and the contribution of abiotic (physical and chemical) versus biotic degradation mechanisms need to be quantified for various manures, antibiotics types, reactor designs and temperature of operations. More research is required to determine the kinetics of antibiotics' metabolites degradation during anaerobic digestion. Further investigations are required to assess the degradation of antibiotics during psychrophilic anaerobic digestion.

  17. Sorption of Lincomycin by Manure-Derived Biochars from Water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng-Hua; Chuang, Ya-Hui; Li, Hui; Teppen, Brian J; Boyd, Stephen A; Gonzalez, Javier M; Johnston, Cliff T; Lehmann, Johannes; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The presence of antibiotics in agroecosystems raises concerns about the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and adverse effects to human health. Soil amendment with biochars pyrolized from manures may be a win-win strategy for novel manure management and antibiotics abatement. In this study, lincomycin sorption by manure-derived biochars was examined using batch sorption experiments. Lincomycin sorption was characterized by two-stage kinetics with fast sorption reaching quasi-equilibrium in the first 2 d, followed by slow sorption over 180 d. The fast sorption was primarily attributed to surface adsorption, whereas the long-term slow sorption was controlled by slow diffusion of lincomycin into biochar pore structures. Two-day sorption experiments were performed to explore effects of biochar particle size, solid/water ratio, solution pH, and ionic strength. Lincomycin sorption to biochars was greater at solution pH 6.0 to 7.5 below the dissociation constant of lincomycin (7.6) than at pH 9.9 to 10.4 above its dissociation constant. The enhanced lincomycin sorption at lower pH likely resulted from electrostatic attraction between the positively charged lincomycin and the negatively charged biochar surfaces. This was corroborated by the observation that lincomycin sorption decreased with increasing ionic strength at lower pH (6.7) but remained constant at higher pH (10). The long-term lincomycin sequestration by biochars was largely due to pore diffusion plausibly independent of solution pH and ionic composition. Therefore, manure-derived biochars had lasting lincomycin sequestration capacity, implying that biochar soil amendment could significantly affect the distribution, transport, and bioavailability of lincomycin in agroecosystems.

  18. Modeling Phosphorous Losses from Seasonal Manure Application Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzies, E.; Walter, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Excess nutrient loading, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, to surface waters is a common and significant problem throughout the United States. While pollution remediation efforts are continuously improving, the most effective treatment remains to limit the source. Appropriate timing of fertilizer application to reduce nutrient losses is currently a hotly debated topic in the Northeastern United States; winter spreading of manure is under special scrutiny. We plan to evaluate the loss of phosphorous to surface waters from agricultural systems under varying seasonal fertilization schemes in an effort to determine the impacts of fertilizers applied throughout the year. The Cayuga Lake basin, located in the Finger Lakes region of New York State, is a watershed dominated by agriculture where a wide array of land management strategies can be found. The evaluation will be conducted on the Fall Creek Watershed, a large sub basin in the Cayuga Lake Watershed. The Fall Creek Watershed covers approximately 33,000 ha in central New York State with approximately 50% of this land being used for agriculture. We plan to use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model a number of seasonal fertilization regimes such as summer only spreading and year round spreading (including winter applications), as well as others. We will use the model to quantify the phosphorous load to surface waters from these different fertilization schemes and determine the impacts of manure applied at different times throughout the year. More detailed knowledge about how seasonal fertilization schemes impact phosphorous losses will provide more information to stakeholders concerning the impacts of agriculture on surface water quality. Our results will help farmers and extensionists make more informed decisions about appropriate timing of manure application for reduced phosphorous losses and surface water degradation as well as aid law makers in improving policy surrounding manure application.

  19. Sorption of Lincomycin by Manure-Derived Biochars from Water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng-Hua; Chuang, Ya-Hui; Li, Hui; Teppen, Brian J; Boyd, Stephen A; Gonzalez, Javier M; Johnston, Cliff T; Lehmann, Johannes; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The presence of antibiotics in agroecosystems raises concerns about the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and adverse effects to human health. Soil amendment with biochars pyrolized from manures may be a win-win strategy for novel manure management and antibiotics abatement. In this study, lincomycin sorption by manure-derived biochars was examined using batch sorption experiments. Lincomycin sorption was characterized by two-stage kinetics with fast sorption reaching quasi-equilibrium in the first 2 d, followed by slow sorption over 180 d. The fast sorption was primarily attributed to surface adsorption, whereas the long-term slow sorption was controlled by slow diffusion of lincomycin into biochar pore structures. Two-day sorption experiments were performed to explore effects of biochar particle size, solid/water ratio, solution pH, and ionic strength. Lincomycin sorption to biochars was greater at solution pH 6.0 to 7.5 below the dissociation constant of lincomycin (7.6) than at pH 9.9 to 10.4 above its dissociation constant. The enhanced lincomycin sorption at lower pH likely resulted from electrostatic attraction between the positively charged lincomycin and the negatively charged biochar surfaces. This was corroborated by the observation that lincomycin sorption decreased with increasing ionic strength at lower pH (6.7) but remained constant at higher pH (10). The long-term lincomycin sequestration by biochars was largely due to pore diffusion plausibly independent of solution pH and ionic composition. Therefore, manure-derived biochars had lasting lincomycin sequestration capacity, implying that biochar soil amendment could significantly affect the distribution, transport, and bioavailability of lincomycin in agroecosystems. PMID:27065399

  20. [Anaerobic digestion of animal manure contaminated by tetracyclines].

    PubMed

    Tong, Zi-Lin; Liu, Yuan-Lu; Hu, Zhen-Hu; Yuan, Shou-Jun

    2012-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion of pig manure spiked with tetracycline (TC) and chlortetracycline (CTC) and the degradation of the two antibiotics during the anaerobic digestion at 35 degrees C were investigated. The results indicate that propionate was the main volatile fatty acid produced during the anaerobic digestion followed by acetate. Compared with the CTC addition, TC + CTC addition showed obvious inhibitory effect on the hydrolysis and acidification of easily digestible organic components of pig manure. The cumulative methane production of TC, CTC, TC + CTC and CK2 during anaerobic digestion was 386.4 mL, 406.0 mL, 412.1 mL and 464.6 mL, respectively. Degradation of TC and CTC followed the first-order kinetic equation. The half-life of TC and CTC was 14-18 days and 10 days, respectively. After the treatment of 45-day anaerobic digestion, the degradation efficiency of TC was 88.6%-91.6% with 97.7%-98.2% of CTC. Therefore, anaerobic digestion shows the benefit on the management of animal manures contaminated by tetracyclines. PMID:22624404

  1. Effect of manure vs. fertilizer inputs on productivity of forage crop models.

    PubMed

    Annicchiarico, Giovanni; Caternolo, Giovanni; Rossi, Emanuela; Martiniello, Pasquale

    2011-06-01

    Manure produced by livestock activity is a dangerous product capable of causing serious environmental pollution. Agronomic management practices on the use of manure may transform the target from a waste to a resource product. Experiments performed on comparison of manure with standard chemical fertilizers (CF) were studied under a double cropping per year regime (alfalfa, model I; Italian ryegrass-corn, model II; barley-seed sorghum, model III; and horse-bean-silage sorghum, model IV). The total amount of manure applied in the annual forage crops of the model II, III and IV was 158, 140 and 80 m3 ha(-1), respectively. The manure applied to soil by broadcast and injection procedure provides an amount of nitrogen equal to that supplied by CF. The effect of manure applications on animal feeding production and biochemical soil characteristics was related to the models. The weather condition and manures and CF showed small interaction among treatments. The number of MFU ha(-1) of biomass crop gross product produced in autumn and spring sowing models under manure applications was 11,769, 20,525, 11,342, 21,397 in models I through IV, respectively. The reduction of MFU ha(-1) under CF ranges from 10.7% to 13.2% those of the manure models. The effect of manure on organic carbon and total nitrogen of topsoil, compared to model I, stressed the parameters as CF whose amount was higher in models II and III than model IV. In term of percentage the organic carbon and total nitrogen of model I and treatment with manure was reduced by about 18.5 and 21.9% in model II and model III and 8.8 and 6.3% in model IV, respectively. Manure management may substitute CF without reducing gross production and sustainability of cropping systems, thus allowing the opportunity to recycle the waste product for animal forage feeding. PMID:21776208

  2. Investigation of the inorganic and organic phosphorus forms in animal manure.

    PubMed

    Pagliari, Paulo H; Laboski, Carrie A M

    2012-01-01

    The most viable way to beneficially use animal manure on most farms is land application. Over the past few decades, repeated manure application has shown adverse effects on environmental quality due to phosphorus (P) runoff with rainwater, leading to eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. Improved understanding of manure P chemistry may reduce this risk. In this research, 42 manure samples from seven animal species (beef and dairy cattle, swine, chicken, turkey, dairy goat, horse, and sheep) were sequentially fractionated with water, NaHCO₃, NaOH, and HCl. Inorganic (P(i)), organic (P(o)), enzymatic hydrolyzable (P(e); monoester-, DNA-, and phytate-like P), and nonhydrolyzable P were measured in each fraction. Total dry ash P (P(t)) was measured in all manures. Total fractionated P (P(ft)) and total P(i) (P(it)) showed a strong linear relationship with P(t). However, the ratios between P(ft)/P(t) and P(it)/P(t) varied from 59 to 117% and from 28 to 96%, respectively. Water and NaHCO₃ extracted most of the P(i) in manure from ruminant+horse, whereas in nonruminant species a large fraction of manure P was extracted in the HCl fraction. Manure P(e) summed over all fractions (P(et)) accounted for 41 to 69% of total P(0) and 4 to 29% of P(t). The hydrolyzable pool in the majority of the manures was dominated by phytate- and DNA-like P in water, monoester- and DNA-like P in NaHCO₃, and monoester- and phytate-like P in NaOH and HCl fractions. In conclusion, if one assumes that the P(et) and P(it) from the fractionation can become bioavailable, then from 34 to 100% of P(t) in animal manure would be bioavailable. This suggests the need for frequent monitoring of manure P for better manure management practices.

  3. Response of antibiotics and resistance genes to high-intensity and low-intensity manure management.

    PubMed

    Storteboom, Heather N; Kim, Sung-Chul; Doesken, Kathy C; Carlson, Kenneth H; Davis, Jessica G; Pruden, Amy

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the response of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) to manure management. A pilot field study was conducted using horse manure containing no antibiotics, into which chlortetracycline (CTC), tylosin (TYL), and monensin (MON) were spiked and compared to unspiked controls. Subsequently, a large-scale field study was conducted comparing manure from a dairy with minimal use of antibiotics and a feedlot with regular subtherapeutic use of antibiotics. The manures were subjected to high-intensity management (HIM) (amending, watering, and turning) and low-intensity management (LIM) (no amending, watering, or turning) and were monitored for antibiotic concentrations and levels of tetracycline ARG [tet(W) and tet(O)] using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. All three antibiotics in the pilot study dissipated more rapidly in HIM manure, with half-lives ranging from 4 to 15 d, compared to LIM manure, with half-lives ranging from 8 to 30 d. Levels of tet(W) were significantly higher after 141 d of treatment, but levels of tet(O) were significantly lower in all treatments. In the large-scale study, the feedlot manure had higher initial concentrations than the dairy manure of tetracycline (TC), oxytetracycline (OTC), and CTC as well as tet(W) and tet(O). Tetracycline and OTC dissipated more rapidly in HIM manure, with half-lives ranging from 6 to 15 d, compared to LIM manure, with half-lives ranging from 7 to 31 d. After 6 mo of treatment, tet(W) and tet(O) decreased significantly in feedlot manure, whereas dairy manure required only 4 mo of treatment for similar results.

  4. Effect of manure vs. fertilizer inputs on productivity of forage crop models.

    PubMed

    Annicchiarico, Giovanni; Caternolo, Giovanni; Rossi, Emanuela; Martiniello, Pasquale

    2011-06-01

    Manure produced by livestock activity is a dangerous product capable of causing serious environmental pollution. Agronomic management practices on the use of manure may transform the target from a waste to a resource product. Experiments performed on comparison of manure with standard chemical fertilizers (CF) were studied under a double cropping per year regime (alfalfa, model I; Italian ryegrass-corn, model II; barley-seed sorghum, model III; and horse-bean-silage sorghum, model IV). The total amount of manure applied in the annual forage crops of the model II, III and IV was 158, 140 and 80 m3 ha(-1), respectively. The manure applied to soil by broadcast and injection procedure provides an amount of nitrogen equal to that supplied by CF. The effect of manure applications on animal feeding production and biochemical soil characteristics was related to the models. The weather condition and manures and CF showed small interaction among treatments. The number of MFU ha(-1) of biomass crop gross product produced in autumn and spring sowing models under manure applications was 11,769, 20,525, 11,342, 21,397 in models I through IV, respectively. The reduction of MFU ha(-1) under CF ranges from 10.7% to 13.2% those of the manure models. The effect of manure on organic carbon and total nitrogen of topsoil, compared to model I, stressed the parameters as CF whose amount was higher in models II and III than model IV. In term of percentage the organic carbon and total nitrogen of model I and treatment with manure was reduced by about 18.5 and 21.9% in model II and model III and 8.8 and 6.3% in model IV, respectively. Manure management may substitute CF without reducing gross production and sustainability of cropping systems, thus allowing the opportunity to recycle the waste product for animal forage feeding.

  5. Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Other Zoonotic Pathogens during Simulated Composting, Manure Packing, and Liquid Storage of Dairy Manure

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Sukhbir K.; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Michel, Frederick C.

    2006-01-01

    Livestock manures contain numerous microorganisms which can infect humans and/or animals, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mycobacterium paratuberculosis). The effects of commonly used manure treatments on the persistence of these pathogens have rarely been compared. The objective of this study was to compare the persistence of artificially inoculated M. paratuberculosis, as well as other naturally occurring pathogens, during the treatment of dairy manure under conditions that simulate three commonly used manure management methods: thermophilic composting at 55°C, manure packing at 25°C (or low-temperature composting), and liquid lagoon storage. Straw and sawdust amendments used for composting and packing were also compared. Manure was obtained from a large Ohio free-stall dairy herd and was inoculated with M. paratuberculosis at 106 CFU/g in the final mixes. For compost and pack treatments, this manure was amended with sawdust or straw to provide an optimal moisture content (60%) for composting for 56 days. To simulate liquid storage, water was added to the manure (to simulate liquid flushing and storage) and the slurry was placed in triplicate covered 4-liter Erlenmeyer flasks, incubated under ambient conditions for 175 days. The treatments were sampled on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 for the detection of pathogens. The persistence of M. paratuberculosis was also assessed by a PCR hybridization assay. After 56 days of composting, from 45 to 60% of the carbon in the compost treatments was converted to CO2, while no significant change in carbon content was observed in the liquid slurry. Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Listeria were all detected in the manure and all of the treatments on day 0. After 3 days of composting at 55°C, none of these organisms were detectable. In liquid manure and pack treatments, some of these microorganisms were detectable up to 28 days. M

  6. Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and other zoonotic pathogens during simulated composting, manure packing, and liquid storage of dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Sukhbir K; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Michel, Frederick C

    2006-01-01

    Livestock manures contain numerous microorganisms which can infect humans and/or animals, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mycobacterium paratuberculosis). The effects of commonly used manure treatments on the persistence of these pathogens have rarely been compared. The objective of this study was to compare the persistence of artificially inoculated M. paratuberculosis, as well as other naturally occurring pathogens, during the treatment of dairy manure under conditions that simulate three commonly used manure management methods: thermophilic composting at 55 degrees C, manure packing at 25 degrees C (or low-temperature composting), and liquid lagoon storage. Straw and sawdust amendments used for composting and packing were also compared. Manure was obtained from a large Ohio free-stall dairy herd and was inoculated with M. paratuberculosis at 10(6) CFU/g in the final mixes. For compost and pack treatments, this manure was amended with sawdust or straw to provide an optimal moisture content (60%) for composting for 56 days. To simulate liquid storage, water was added to the manure (to simulate liquid flushing and storage) and the slurry was placed in triplicate covered 4-liter Erlenmeyer flasks, incubated under ambient conditions for 175 days. The treatments were sampled on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 for the detection of pathogens. The persistence of M. paratuberculosis was also assessed by a PCR hybridization assay. After 56 days of composting, from 45 to 60% of the carbon in the compost treatments was converted to CO2, while no significant change in carbon content was observed in the liquid slurry. Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Listeria were all detected in the manure and all of the treatments on day 0. After 3 days of composting at 55 degrees C, none of these organisms were detectable. In liquid manure and pack treatments, some of these microorganisms were

  7. Collection of mammal manure and other Debris by nesting Burrowing Owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, M.D.; Conway, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) routinely collect and scatter dry manure of mammals around their nesting burrows. Recent studies have suggested this behavior attracts insect prey to the nesting burrow. However, some Burrowing Owls do not use manure, but instead, collect and scatter other materials (e.g., grass, moss, paper, plastic) around their nesting burrow in a similar fashion. Use of these materials seemingly contradicts the prey-attraction hypothesis. Using observational and experimental methods, we tested whether Burrowing Owls preferred manure to other materials commonly found at nesting burrows in eastern Washington. We found a wide variety of materials at nests, but grass and manure were the most common materials. The amount of manure present at nests was negatively correlated with the amount of other materials, and with the distance to the nearest source of manure. Burrowing Owls showed no preference between horse manure and grass divots at experimental supply stations that we placed near nesting burrows. They did prefer these two materials to carpet pieces and aluminum foil (both materials that are often found at Burrowing Owl nests). Our results did not support the premise that Burrowing Owls specifically seek out manure when lining their nesting burrows. The unusual behavior of collecting and scattering mammal manure and other debris at Burrowing Owl nests may serve functions other than (or in addition to) prey attraction and alternative hypotheses need further testing before the function of this behavior is certain. ?? 2011 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  8. Spatial and temporal trend of Chinese manure nutrient pollution and assimilation capacity of cropland and grassland.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fanghua; Wei, Xinfeng; Huang, Haobo

    2013-07-01

    Dynamics of livestock and poultry manure nutrient was analyzed at a provincial scale from 2002 to 2008. The nutrient capacity of 18 kinds of croplands and grasslands to assimilate nutrients was assessed in the same temporal-spatial scale. Manure nitrogen (N) had increased from 5.111 to 6.228 million tons (MT), while manure phosphorus (P) increased from 1.382 to 1.607 MT. Manure N and P share similar spatial patterns of yields, but proportion of specialized livestock husbandry and contribution of leading livestock categories (swine, cattle, cow, sheep, layer chicken, broiler chicken) were different. The nutrients generated from dominant seven provinces took more than about half of total manure N in China. After subtracting the chemical fertilizers, there were some manure nutrient capacities in western part of China. Risk analysis of manure nutrient pollution overload in eastern and southern parts of China was serious, which should restrict livestock's developments. Amount of chemical fertilizers applied should be reduced to make room for manure nutrients. For the sake of greenhouse effects, the emission of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (NO x ) emissions in China is serious for the global change, thus merits further statistics and studies. The spatial and temporal pattern of Chinese manure nutrient pollution from livestock and the assimilation capacity of cropland and grassland can provide useful information for policy development on Chinese soil environment and livestock.

  9. Characterization of Aerococcus viridans isolated from milk samples from cows with mastitis and manure samples.

    PubMed

    Saishu, Nobukazu; Morimoto, Kazutaka; Yamasato, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Hiroichi; Murase, Toshiyuki

    2015-09-01

    Thirty-eight Aerococcus viridans isolates were obtained from milk from 478 cows with clinical mastitis in a farm during the periods between November 2011 and February 2012, and between December 2012 and March 2013. Additional isolates were obtained from processed manure (a mixture of composted manure, straw and hydrated lime) and bedding materials. The processed manure was later used to cover the floor of the stalls in barns as bedding materials. The temperatures recorded in the composted and processed manure were not as high as those generally observed during satisfactory composting. To reveal the association of A. viridans in manure-related products with intramammary infection in cows, isolates were characterized by their DNA fragment patterns as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Isolates obtained from milk, processed manure and bedding materials had identical DNA fragment patterns. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined for 29 isolates from milk, processed manure and bedding materials. Of these, 26 (89.7%) were resistant to clindamycin, whereas virtually all the isolates were susceptible to 12 other antimicrobials including cefalosporins that have been used to treat bovine mastitis in Japan. In vitro, three A. viridans isolates from milk and an isolate from processed manure survived for 3 hr in Good's buffer (pH 9) at high temperature (50°C). The results suggest that the processed manure and bedding materials in this farm were possible sources of A. viridans that caused infection in the cows with mastitis. PMID:25843745

  10. Impact of a microbial-mineral biopreparation on microbial community and deodorization of manures.

    PubMed

    Matusiak, Katarzyna; Borowski, Sebastian; Opaliński, Sebastian; Bakuła, Tadeusz; Kołacz, Roman; Gutarowska, Beata

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the number of bacteria in poultry, cattle and swine manure in order to perform hygienization and deodorization using a microbial-mineral biopreparation. The highest number of bacteria was recorded in laying hens manure (5.1×10(10) cfu/g). It was noted that bacteria: coliforms, E. coli, Clostridium, Enterococcus number was reduced (1-2 log) after the biopreparation application. The investigated odorous compound concentrations were reduced with 34-78% efficiency, depending on the type of manure and odorant. All odorous compounds were efficiently reduced only in the case of laying hen manure. PMID:26645325

  11. Characterization of Aerococcus viridans isolated from milk samples from cows with mastitis and manure samples

    PubMed Central

    SAISHU, Nobukazu; MORIMOTO, Kazutaka; YAMASATO, Hiroshi; OZAKI, Hiroichi; MURASE, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-eight Aerococcus viridans isolates were obtained from milk from 478 cows with clinical mastitis in a farm during the periods between November 2011 and February 2012, and between December 2012 and March 2013. Additional isolates were obtained from processed manure (a mixture of composted manure, straw and hydrated lime) and bedding materials. The processed manure was later used to cover the floor of the stalls in barns as bedding materials. The temperatures recorded in the composted and processed manure were not as high as those generally observed during satisfactory composting. To reveal the association of A. viridans in manure-related products with intramammary infection in cows, isolates were characterized by their DNA fragment patterns as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Isolates obtained from milk, processed manure and bedding materials had identical DNA fragment patterns. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined for 29 isolates from milk, processed manure and bedding materials. Of these, 26 (89.7%) were resistant to clindamycin, whereas virtually all the isolates were susceptible to 12 other antimicrobials including cefalosporins that have been used to treat bovine mastitis in Japan. In vitro, three A. viridans isolates from milk and an isolate from processed manure survived for 3 hr in Good’s buffer (pH 9) at high temperature (50°C). The results suggest that the processed manure and bedding materials in this farm were possible sources of A. viridans that caused infection in the cows with mastitis. PMID:25843745

  12. Tertiary recycling of PVC-containing plastic waste by copyrolysis with cattle manure

    SciTech Connect

    Duangchan, Apinya Samart, Chanatip

    2008-11-15

    The corrosion from pyrolysis of PVC in plastic waste was reduced by copyrolysis of PVC with cattle manure. The optimization of pyrolysis conditions between PVC and cattle manure was studied via a statistical method, the Box-Behnken model. The pyrolysis reaction was operated in a tubular reactor. Heating rate, reaction temperature and the PVC:cattle manure ratio were optimized in the range of 1-5 deg. C/min, 250-450 deg. C and the ratio of 1:1-1:5, respectively. The suitable conditions which provided the highest HCl reduction efficiency were the lowest heating rate of 1 deg. C/min, the highest reaction temperature of 450 deg. C, and the PVC:cattle manure ratio of 1:5, with reliability of more than 90%. The copyrolysis of the mixture of PVC-containing plastic and cattle manure was operated at optimized conditions and the synergistic effect was studied on product yields. The presence of manure decreased the oil yield by about 17%. The distillation fractions of oil at various boiling points from both the presence and absence of manure were comparable. The BTX concentration decreased rapidly when manure was present and the chlorinated hydrocarbon was reduced by 45%. However, the octane number of the gasoline fraction was not affected by manure and was in the range of 99-100.

  13. In vitro assessment of thyroidal and estrogenic activities in poultry and broiler manure.

    PubMed

    Valdehita, A; Quesada-García, A; Delgado, M M; Martín, J V; García-González, M C; Fernández-Cruz, M L; Navas, J M

    2014-02-15

    Among the many chemicals found in avian manure, endocrine disruptors (EDs), of natural or anthropogenic origin, are of special environmental concern. Nowadays, an increasing amount of estrogens is being released into the environment via the use of manure to fertilize agricultural land. While most research in this field has focused on estrogenic phenomena, little is known about alterations related to other endocrine systems, such as the thyroidal one. Here we simultaneously assessed the potential estrogenic and thyroidal activity of poultry and broiler litter manure using in vitro approaches based on estrogen receptor (Er) and thyroid receptor (Tr) transactivation assays. In addition, leaching experiments were performed to assess whether the EDs present in the manure pass through a soil column and potentially reach the groundwater. Manure from four broiler and four poultry farms was collected in two sampling campaigns carried out in two seasons (fall and spring). Extracts from broiler and poultry manure exhibited strong thyroidal activity. Only poultry manure showed estrogenic activity, which is consistent with the low levels of estrogens expected in hatchlings. Leakage experiments were performed in columns with two kinds of arable soils: sandy and loamy. No estrogenicity or thyroidal activity was detectable in soils treated with the manure or in the corresponding leachates. These results indicate that substances with estrogenic or thyroidal activity were degraded in the soil under our experimental conditions. However, the long-term effects associated with the constant and intensive application of manure to agricultural land in some regions require further research.

  14. Tertiary recycling of PVC-containing plastic waste by copyrolysis with cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Duangchan, Apinya; Samart, Chanatip

    2008-11-01

    The corrosion from pyrolysis of PVC in plastic waste was reduced by copyrolysis of PVC with cattle manure. The optimization of pyrolysis conditions between PVC and cattle manure was studied via a statistical method, the Box-Behnken model. The pyrolysis reaction was operated in a tubular reactor. Heating rate, reaction temperature and the PVC:cattle manure ratio were optimized in the range of 1-5 degrees C/min, 250-450 degrees C and the ratio of 1:1-1:5, respectively. The suitable conditions which provided the highest HCl reduction efficiency were the lowest heating rate of 1 degrees C/min, the highest reaction temperature of 450 degrees C, and the PVC:cattle manure ratio of 1:5, with reliability of more than 90%. The copyrolysis of the mixture of PVC-containing plastic and cattle manure was operated at optimized conditions and the synergistic effect was studied on product yields. The presence of manure decreased the oil yield by about 17%. The distillation fractions of oil at various boiling points from both the presence and absence of manure were comparable. The BTX concentration decreased rapidly when manure was present and the chlorinated hydrocarbon was reduced by 45%. However, the octane number of the gasoline fraction was not affected by manure and was in the range of 99-100.

  15. Effects of farmyard manure and chemical fertilizers on the nutritional status of the loquat trees.

    PubMed

    Doran, I; Kaya, Z; Caglar, S

    2003-07-01

    The nutritional status of the loquat trees was investigated using cattle manure and commercial fertilizers for three years. The farmyard manure increased N, P, K, Mg, Fe and Zn contents of the leaves. No significant difference was found between the fertilizer types for trunk growth. Yield efficiency was nearly doubled by application of farmyard manure. Fertilizers did not affect the weight and shape of the fruits; however, commercial fertilizers led the lower total acidity in fruits. It was concluded that the loquat trees grown in sandy soils could fulfill their principal nutrient requirements for growth and commercial yield with application of farmyard manure.

  16. Fate of Viable but Non-culturable Listeria monocytogenes in Pig Manure Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Desneux, Jérémy; Biscuit, Audrey; Picard, Sylvie; Pourcher, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The fate of two strains of Listeria monocytogenes and their ability to become viable but non-culturable (VBNC) was investigated in microcosms containing piggery effluents (two raw manures and two biologically treated manures) stored for 2 months at 8 and 20°C. Levels of L. monocytogenes were estimated using the culture method, qPCR, and propidium monoazide treatment combined with qPCR (qPCRPMA). The chemical composition and the microbial community structure of the manures were also analyzed. The strains showed similar decline rates and persisted up to 63 days. At day zero, the percentage of VBNC cells among viable cells was higher in raw manures (81.5–94.8%) than in treated manures (67.8–79.2%). The changes in their proportion over time depended on the temperature and on the type of effluent: the biggest increase was observed in treated manures at 20°C and the smallest increase in raw manures at 8°C. The chemical parameters had no influence on the behavior of the strains, but decrease of the persistence of viable cells was associated with an increase in the microbial richness of the manures. This study demonstrated that storing manure altered the culturability of L. monocytogenes, which rapidly entered the VBNC state, and underlines the importance of including VBNC cells when estimating the persistence of the pathogens in farm effluents. PMID:26973623

  17. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Gang–Jin; Deng, Liang–Wei; Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan–Hui

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production is feasible. • The feedstock TS concentration exerted a significant impact on biogas production. • Influences of ammonia and digestate liquidity were investigated in this study. • The results showed that the feedstock TS of swine manure should not exceed 30%. - Abstract: A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L{sup −1}. Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L{sup −1}. The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yield of 0.649 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25 °C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s{sup −1} when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield.

  18. Solids and nutrient removal from flushed swine manure using polyacrylamides

    SciTech Connect

    Vanotti, M.B.; Hunt, P.G.

    1999-12-01

    Most of the organic nutrients and reduced carbon (C) materials in liquid swine manure are contained in fine suspended particles that are not separated by available mechanical separators. Treatment with polyacrylamide (PAM) polymers prior to mechanical removal or gravity settling has the potential for enhancing solids-liquid separation, thus concentrating nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and organic C. In this work, the authors determined PAM charge and density characteristics most desirable for swine wastewater applications and established the optimum chemical requirement. Treatments were applied to flushed manure from two swine operations in North Carolina. Cationic PAMs significantly increased solids separation while performance of neutral and anionic types was not different from a control. Cationic PAMs with moderate-charge density (20%) were more effective than polymers with higher charge density. Flocs were large and effectively retained with a 1-mm screen. Optimum PAM rate varied with the amount of total suspended solids (TSS) in the liquid manure; 26 and 79 mg PAM/L for samples containing 1.5 and 4.1 g TSS/L, respectively. Corresponding TSS removal efficiencies were 90 to 94%. In contrast, screening without PAM treatment captured only 5 to 14% of the suspended solids. Polymer usage rate was consistent and averaged 2.0{degree} based on weight of dry solids produced. Volatile suspended solids (VSS) were highly correlated with TSS and comprised 79.5% of TSS. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and organic nutrient concentrations in the effluent were also significantly decreased by PAM treatment. The decrease of COD concentration, an important consideration for odor control, was linearly related with removal of suspended solids, at a rate of 2.0 g COD/g TSS and 2.6 g COD/g VSS. Removal efficiency of organic N and P followed approximately a 1:1 relationship with removal efficiency of TSS. Chemical cost to capture 90% of the suspended solids was estimated to be $0.026 per

  19. Abundance of 13C and 15N in emmer, spelt and naked barley grown on differently manured soils: towards a method for identifying past manuring practice.

    PubMed

    Kanstrup, Marie; Thomsen, Ingrid K; Andersen, Astrid J; Bogaard, Amy; Christensen, Bent T

    2011-10-15

    The shortage of plant-available nutrients probably constrained prehistoric cereal cropping but there is very little direct evidence relating to the history of ancient manuring. It has been shown that the long-term addition of animal manure elevates the δ(15)N value of soil and of modern crops grown on the soil. We have examined the δ(15)N and δ(13)C values of soil and of the grain and straw fractions of three ancient cereal types grown in unmanured, PK amended and cattle manured plots of the Askov long-term field experiment. Manure increased biomass yields and the δ(15)N values of soil and of grain and straw fractions of the ancient cereal types; differences in δ(15)N between unmanured and PK treatments were insignificant. The offset in straw and grain δ(15)N due to manure averaged 7.9 and 8.8 ‰, respectively, while the soil offset was 1.9 ‰. The soil and biomass δ(13)C values were not affected by nutrient amendments. Grain weights differed among cereal types but increased in the order: unmanured, PK, and animal manure. The grain and straw total-N concentration was generally not affected by manure addition. Our study suggests that long-term application of manure to permanently cultivated sites would have provided a substantial positive effect on cereals grown in early agriculture and will have left a significant N isotopic imprint on soil, grains and straw. We suggest that the use of animal manure can be identified by the (15)N abundance in remains of ancient cereals (e.g. charred grains) from archaeological sites and by growing test plants on freshly exposed palaeosols.

  20. Simultaneous determination of veterinary antibiotics and hormone in broiler manure, soil and manure compost by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ho, Y B; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-11-01

    A multi-residue analytical method was developed to quantify nine antibiotics and one hormone in soil, broiler manure and manure compost. The developed method was based on ultrasonic extraction with MeOH:ACN:EDTA:McIlvaine buffer, solid phase extraction (SPE) using HLB (3 cc/60 mg) cartridge, followed by instrumental analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with 25 min total run time. It was validated and tested on soil, broiler manure and manure compost samples and showed that the method is able to simultaneously detect and quantify the target analytes with good selectivity and sensitivity. The developed method was linear in a concentration range from its instrumental quantification limit (IQL) to 500 ng/mL, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.999. The overall method performance was good for the majority of the analytes, with recoveries range from 63% to 121% in all the sample matrices. The method quantification limit (MQL) for the 10 target analytes in the soil, broiler manure and manure compost samples were 2-10, 3-16 and 5-15 μg/kg dry weight (DW), respectively. The method has also included tilmicosin, an antibiotic known to be reported in the environment for the first time. The developed method was then applied on broiler manure samples and its relative manure amended agricultural soil samples to identify and quantify veterinary antibiotic and hormone residues in the environment. These analytes were detected in broiler manure and soil samples, with maximum concentrations reaching up to 78516.1 μg/kg DW (doxycycline) and 1331.4 μg/kg DW (flumequine), respectively. The results showed that the method can potentially be adopted for the analysis of veterinary antibiotic and hormone wastes in solid environmental matrices.

  1. Effect of dietary protein concentration on ammonia and greenhouse gas emitting potential of dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N; Dell, C J; Feyereisen, G W; Kaye, J; Beegle, D

    2012-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary crude protein concentration on ammonia (NH(3)) and greenhouse gas (GHG; nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide) emissions from fresh dairy cow manure incubated in a controlled environment (experiment 1) and from manure-amended soil (experiment 2). Manure was prepared from feces and urine collected from lactating Holstein cows fed diets with 16.7% (DM basis; HCP) or 14.8% CP (LCP). High-CP manure had higher N content and proportion of NH(3)- and urea-N in total manure N than LCP manure (DM basis: 4.4 vs. 2.8% and 51.4 vs. 30.5%, respectively). In experiment 1, NH(3) emitting potential (EP) was greater for HCP compared with LCP manure (9.20 vs. 4.88 mg/m(2) per min, respectively). The 122-h cumulative NH(3) emission tended to be decreased 47% (P=0.09) using LCP compared with HCP manure. The EP and cumulative emissions of GHG were not different between HCP and LCP manure. In experiment 2, urine and feces from cows fed LCP or HCP diets were mixed and immediately applied to lysimeters (61×61×61 cm; Hagerstown silt loam; fine, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludalf) at 277 kg of N/ha application rate. The average NH(3) EP (1.53 vs. 1.03 mg/m(2) per min, respectively) and the area under the EP curve were greater for lysimeters amended with HCP than with LCP manure. The largest difference in the NH(3) EP occurred approximately 24 h after manure application (approximately 3.5 times greater for HCP than LCP manure). The 100-h cumulative NH(3) emission was 98% greater for HCP compared with LCP manure (7,415 vs. 3,745 mg/m(2), respectively). The EP of methane was increased and that of carbon dioxide tended to be increased by LCP compared with HCP manure. The cumulative methane emission was not different between treatments, whereas the cumulative carbon dioxide emission was increased with manure from the LCP diet. Nitrous oxide emissions were low in this experiment and did not differ between treatments. In the

  2. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    The CAFE Green Flight Challenge sponsored by Google will be held at the CAFE Foundation Flight Test Center at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. The Green Flight Challeng...

  3. Blue-green algae

    MedlinePlus

    “Blue-green algae” describes a large and diverse group of simple, plant-like organisms found in salt water and some large fresh water lakes. Blue-green algae products are used for many conditions, but so ...

  4. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xuesong; Wolf, Julie

    2016-01-15

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.8 9 ± 0.64 Tg N yr.(-1) (Mean ± Standard Deviation) and 1.73 ± 0.29 Tg Pyr.(-1) (1 Tg = 10(12)g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930-1969 and 1987-2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs in manure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in the context of global

  5. Accumulation and mobility of zinc in soil amended with different levels of pig-manure compost.

    PubMed

    Asada, Kei; Toyota, Koki; Nishimura, Taku; Ikeda, Jun-Ichi; Hori, Kaneaki

    2010-05-01

    Applying manure compost not only results in zinc accumulation in the soil but also causes an increase in zinc mobility and enhances zinc leaching. In this study, the physical and chemical characteristics of zinc, zinc profiles, and zinc balance were investigated to characterise the fate of zinc in fields where the quality and amount of pig manure compost applied have been known for 13 years. Moreover, we determined zinc fractionation in both 0.1 mol L(-1)HCl-soluble (mobile) and -insoluble (immobile) fractions. Adsorption of zinc in the soil was enhanced with increasing total carbon content following the application of pig manure compost. The 159.6 mg ha(-1) year(-1)manure applied plot (triplicate) exceeded the Japanese regulatory level after only 6 years of applying pig manure compost, whereas the 53.2 mg ha(-1) year(-1) manure applied plot (standard) reached the regulatory level after 13 years. The zinc loads in the plots were 17.0 and 5.6 kg ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. However, 5.9 % and 17.2 % of the zinc loaded in the standard and the triplicate pig manure compost applied plots, respectively, were estimated to be lost from the plough layer. Based on the vertical distribution of mobile and immobile zinc content, a higher rate of applied manure compost caused an increase in the mobile zinc fraction to a depth of 40 cm. Although the adsorption capacity of zinc was enhanced following the application of pig manure compost, a greater amount of mobile zinc could move downward through the manure amended soil than through non manure-amended soil.

  6. Optimizing phosphorus characterization in animal manures by solution phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin L

    2004-01-01

    A procedure involving alkaline extraction and solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was developed and optimized for the characterization of P in animal manures (broiler, swine, beef cattle). Inclusion of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in the alkaline extraction solution recovered between 82 and 97% of the total P from the three manures, which represented a significant improvement on recovery in NaOH alone. Low concentrations of paramagnetic ions in all manure extracts meant that relatively long delay times (> 5 s) were required for quantitative analysis by solution 31P NMR spectroscopy. The manures contained inorganic orthophosphate, orthophosphate monoesters, orthophosphate diesters, and inorganic polyphosphates, but results were markedly influenced by the concentration of NaOH in the extractant, which affected both spectral resolution and the apparent P composition of the extracts. For example, extraction of swine manure and broiler litter with 0.5 M NaOH + 50 mM EDTA produced remarkable spectral resolution that allowed accurate quantification of the four signals from phytic acid, the major organic P compound in these manures. In contrast, more dilute NaOH concentrations produced considerable line broadening that obscured individual signals in the orthophosphate monoester region of the spectra. Spectral resolution of cattle manure extracts was relatively unaffected by NaOH concentration. Improvements in spectral resolution of more concentrated NaOH extracts were, however, compromised by the disappearance of phospholipids and inorganic polyphosphates, notably in swine and cattle manure extracts, which indicated either degradation or a change in solubility. The optimum extraction conditions will therefore vary depending on the manure type and the objectives of the study. Phytic acid can be accurately quantified in swine manure and broiler litter by extraction with 0.5 M NaOH + 50 mM EDTA, while a more dilute NaOH concentration should be

  7. What Is Green?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokrandt, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Green is a question with varying answers and sometimes no answer at all. It is a question of location, resources, people, environment, and money. As green really has no end point, a teacher's goal should be to teach students to question and consider green. In this article, the author provides several useful metrics to help technology teachers…

  8. Public Libraries Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Going green is now a national issue, and patrons expect their library to respond in the same way many corporations have. Libraries are going green with logos on their Web sites, programs for the public, and a host of other initiatives. This is the first book to focus strictly on the library's role in going green, helping you with: (1) Collection…

  9. Show Me the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Gone are the days when green campus initiatives were a balm to the soul and a drain on the wallet. Today's environmental initiatives are all about saving lots of green--in every sense of the word. The environmental benefits of green campus projects--whether wind turbines or better insulation--are pretty clear. Unfortunately, in today's…

  10. The Green Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  11. In the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Education officials used to debate whether they could afford to pursue green design and construction. Now the green movement has gained a foothold not just in education, but in society at large, and the prevailing attitude seems to have shifted. Can schools afford "not" to go green? As budgets are slashed repeatedly, education administrators must…

  12. EPA's Green Roof Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  13. Review of the application of near-infrared spectroscopy technology to determine the chemical composition of animal manure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Longjian; Xing, Li; Han, Lujia

    2013-07-01

    Animal manure contains a variety of chemical constituents that are highly valuable to agriculture, including nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and metal micronutrients. Although appropriately applied manure has numerous positive attributes, the excessive application of manure may lead to pollution of the atmosphere, water, or soil. To reconcile precision agriculture and the potential negative environmental influences of animal manure, it is necessary to develop rapid and robust methods to evaluate the chemical composition of animal manure. This paper summarizes recent advances in near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) in predicting moisture, dry matter, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon, and metal content in animal manure. The results indicate the high potential of NIRS as an efficient tool for monitoring the chemical composition of animal manure. Future prospects and needs related to increasing the feasibility of the industrial application of NIRS and improving NIRS prediction precision in determining the chemical composition of animal manure are discussed.

  14. What dairy cows are fed impacts manure chemistry and the environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past 20 years or so there has been increasing evidence and concern that nutrients contained in animal manures can adversely impact water and air quality. Research has demonstrated that the diets fed to dairy cows can be modified to reduce nutrient excretions in manure and environmental impa...

  15. Assessing the impact of manure application method on runoff phosphorus using controlled and natural rainfall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application of manure is a cost-effective method for recycling nutrients from livestock operations. Increasingly, there has been interest in promoting alternative methods of manure application that minimize nonpoint source phosphorus pollution. Watershed and nutrient trading programs rely upon ...

  16. Soil enzyme activities as affected by manure types, rates and tillage practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Significant amounts of manure are produced in the USA; however, information on the changes in ecosystem services related to soil biogeochemical cycling for agroecosystems supported with organic amendments such as manure is limited. A multi-location field study was initiated in Colorado (CO), Kansas ...

  17. Retention of heavy metals in a Typic Kandiudult amended different manure-based biochars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although nutrient-rich manure biochars are expected to be a cost-effective heavy metal stabilizer in both agricultural and contaminated soils, systematic studies are lacking to predict the influence of manure variety and pyrolysis temperature on metal binding potentials. In this study, biochars wer...

  18. Recovery of ammonia from anaerobically digested manure using gas-permeable membranes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) can be recovered from different types of wastewaters. Among these wastewaters, anaerobically digested swine manure (digestate) is one with the highest N content in ammonia form. It is desirable to reduce the high ammonia content in swine manure because it reduces biogas production by in...

  19. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR RECYCLING OF MANURE PHOSPHORUS WITH RAPID AMORPHOUS PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phosphorus (P) recovery from liquid swine manure is an attractive technology when soils in the farm are saturated with P and on-farm land application is not an option. A technology was developed for recovery of soluble P from liquid swine manure as amorphous calcium phosphate (AC...

  20. Effect of solid separation and composting on the energy content of swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manure represents a significant source of renewable bioenergy. In order to utilize current thermochemical energy conversion processes, a dry material (more than 90% total solids) is recommended. Solid-liquid separation can serve as a useful pretreatment of animal manure as a dewatering tool. ...

  1. Effect of sawdust addition on composting of separated raw and anaerobically digested pig manure.

    PubMed

    Troy, Shane M; Nolan, Tereza; Kwapinski, Witold; Leahy, James J; Healy, Mark G; Lawlor, Peadar G

    2012-11-30

    Manures need the addition of carbon-rich bulking agents to conserve N during composting, which increases the cost of the composting process. The recommended proportion of manure/sawdust, based on a carbon (C):nitrogen (N) ratio, is approximately 3:2. Two composting experiments were conducted to determine the impact of varying the proportion of sawdust to either separated raw, or separated anaerobically digested pig manures. To determine stability and maturity of the final compost, oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and germination index (GI) tests were conducted. For both experiments, three treatments were employed: manure-only (Treatment A), manure/sawdust mixed 4:1, fresh weight (Treatment B), and manure/sawdust mixed 3:2, fresh weight (Treatment C). The mixtures were composted in tumblers for 56 days with regular turning. The composting material was tested over the study duration for temperature, pH, water content, organic matter, C:N ratio and bulk density. For both Treatments B and C, the GI indicated low levels of phytotoxicity, and OUR values were lower than the recommended Irish threshold of 13 mmol O(2) kg OM(-1) h(-1), indicating that a high quality compost was produced. The proportion of sawdust to separated manure used can be reduced to make a cost saving, while still producing a stable end-product: 60% less sawdust is required to compost at a manure-to-sawdust ratio of 4:1 compared to the previously recommended ratio of 3:2. PMID:22824375

  2. A Comparison of Traditional Worksheet and Linear Programming Methods for Teaching Manure Application Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, M. A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Compares traditional manure application planning techniques calculated to meet agronomic nutrient needs on a field-by-field basis with plans developed using computer-assisted linear programming optimization methods. Linear programming provided the most economical and environmentally sound manure application strategy. (Contains 15 references.) (MDH)

  3. Frequency of manure application in organic versus annual application of synthetic fertilizer in conventional vegetable production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transporting manure is an input cost that can affect profit. Manure was applied either annually, or biannually, to bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), cv. Jupiter, cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), cv. Earli Pik, and sweet corn (Zea mays var. rugosa Bonaf.), cv. Incredible (se endosperm genotype), grown...

  4. 9 CFR 82.7 - Interstate movement of manure and litter from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... arrival of the manure and litter at the destination listed on the permit. (b) Compost derived from manure... resulting compost must be transported either in a previously unused container or in a container that has...) The vehicle in which the resulting compost is to be transported has been cleaned and...

  5. Fertilizing with Animal Manure Disseminates Antibiotic Resistance Genes to the Farm Environment.

    PubMed

    Ruuskanen, Matti; Muurinen, Johanna; Meierjohan, Axel; Pärnänen, Katariina; Tamminen, Manu; Lyra, Christina; Kronberg, Leif; Virta, Marko

    2016-03-01

    The dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes to the environment is an important factor causing increased prevalence of resistant pathogens. Manure is an important fertilizer, but it contains diverse resistance genes. Therefore, its application to fields may lead to increased abundance of resistance genes in the environment. Farming environments exposed to animal manure have not been studied extensively in countries with comparably low antibiotic use, such as Finland. The effects of manure storage and application to fields on the abundance of resistance genes were studied on two dairy cattle farms and two swine farms in southern Finland. Samples were taken from farms during the 2013 cropping season. Copy numbers of carbapenem (), sulfonamide (), and tetracycline () resistance genes were measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the data were analyzed using linear mixed models. The relative abundance of antibiotic resistance genes increased about fourfold in soil after manure application. Carbapenemase encoding was detected on all of the studied farms, which indicated that the gene is dispersed in the farm environment. The relative abundance of antibiotic resistance genes increased in stored manure compared with fresh manure roughly fivefold. This study shows that antibiotic resistance genes are disseminated on Finnish production animal farms. The spreading of resistance genes in farm-associated environments could possibly be limited by experimenting with new manure handling methods that could reduce the abundance of the genes in manure used for land application. PMID:27065395

  6. Ammonia and greenhouse gas concentrations at surfaces of simulated beef cattle bedded manure packs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bedding is used in livestock operations to facilitate manure management and provide comfort for the animal. The research objective was to determine differences in ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) concentrations from simulated beef cattle bedded manure packs ...

  7. Occurrence of veterinary antibiotics and progesterone in broiler manure and agricultural soil in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yu Bin; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid

    2014-08-01

    Repeated applications of animal manure as fertilizer are normal agricultural practices that may release veterinary antibiotics and hormones into the environment from treated animals. Broiler manure samples and their respective manure-amended agricultural soil samples were collected in selected locations in the states of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Melaka in Malaysia to identify and quantify veterinary antibiotic and hormone residues in the environment. The samples were analyzed using ultrasonic extraction followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The broiler manure samples were found to be contaminated with at least six target analytes, namely, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, flumequine, norfloxacin, trimethoprim and tylosin. These analytes were detected in broiler manure samples with maximum concentrations reaching up to 78,516 μg kg(-1) dry weight (DW) (doxycycline). For manure-amended agricultural soil samples, doxycycline and enrofloxacin residues were detected in every soil sample. The maximum concentration of antibiotic detected in soil was 1331 μg kg(-1) DW (flumequine). The occurrence of antibiotics and hormones in animal manure at high concentration poses a risk of contaminating agricultural soil via fertilization with animal manure. Some physico-chemical parameters such as pH, total organic carbon (TOC) and metal content played a considerable role in the fate of the target veterinary antibiotics and progesterone in the environment. It was suggested that these parameters can affect the adsorption of pharmaceuticals to solid environmental matrices. PMID:24836135

  8. Geographic information systems (GIS) based model of dairy manure transportation and application with environmental quality consideration.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Krishna P; Bhattarai, Keshav; Gauthier, Wayne M; Hall, Larry M

    2009-05-01

    Survey information was used to develop a minimum cost spatial dairy manure transportation model where environmental quality and crop nutrient requirements were treated as constraints. The GIS model incorporated land use types, exact locations of dairy farms and farmlands, road networks, and distances from each dairy farm to receiving farmlands to identify dairy manure transportation routes that minimized costs relative to environmental and other constraints. Our analyses indicated that the characteristics of dairy manure, its bulk and relatively low primary N, P(2)O(5) and K(2)O nutrient levels limit the distribution areas or distances between the farms and the land over which the manure can be economically spread. Physical properties of the land limit the quantities of nutrients that can be applied because of excess nutrient buildup in soil and potential to harm nearby waterbodies and downstream people and places. Longer distances between dairy and farmland favor the use of commercial fertilizers due to the high cost of manure transportation. At $0.08 per ton per km transportation cost, the optimal cut-off distances for dairy manure application is 30km for N and 15km each for P(2)O(5) and K(2)O consistent rules. An analysis of dairy manure application to different crop types suggest that, on average, 1ha of land requires 61 tons of dairy manure to meet the recommended N, P(2)O(5) and K(2)O needs. PMID:19136245

  9. Manure ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle fed condensed tannins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of three levels of condensed tannins fed to 27 beef feed yard steers on ammonia and GHG emissions from manure. Condensed tannins were fed at rates of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 percent on a dry matter basis. Manure and urine were collected from two periods over 6 d...

  10. Manure and inorganic N affect irrigated corn yields and soil properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure could be a substitute for inorganic N fertilizers and for mitigating potential soil deterioration under irrigated corn (Zea mays L.) silage production, but the impact on yields, soil C and N have not been thoroughly studied in the semi-arid western U.S. Five N source treatments [dairy manure...

  11. Soil-Plant Nutrient Interactions on Manure-Enriched Calcareous Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient accumulations on heavily manured soils can trigger soil and plant nutrient interactions. The goal of the study was to determine the current impact of dairy manure applications on nutrient concentrations in soil and tissue for irrigated corn silage crops grown in Southern Idaho. At harvest,...

  12. Carbon offsets from improved swine manure management using aerobic treatment technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerobic treatment of manure is an accepted manure management system under protocols adopted through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Our objectives were to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions from replacement of anaerobic lagoons with aerobic treatme...

  13. Recovery of ammonia from swine manure using gas-permeable membranes: Effect of aeration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gas-permeable membranes can recover ammonia from manure, reducing pollution whilst converting ammonia into ammonium salt fertilizer. The process involves manure pH control to increase ammonium (NH4) recovery rate that is normally carried out using an alkali. In this study a new strategy to avoid the...

  14. Dissociation and ammonia mass transfer from ammonium solution and dairy cattle manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Process-based models are being used to predict ammonia (NH**3) emissions from manure sources, but their accuracy has not been fully evaluated for cattle manure. Laboratory trials were conducted to measure the dissociation and mass transfer coefficient for NH**3 volatilization from media of buffered ...

  15. Corralling versus broadcasting dairy heifer manure: volatilization, leaching, and mineralizable N

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because they lack sufficient manure storage, a majority of dairy farmers in the northern USA spread livestock manure as frequent broadcast applications. Corralling livestock in the fields could achieve desired application rates, while reducing N losses and labor. We conducted two field experiments o...

  16. Pile mixing increases greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from stored dairy manure was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover pilot-scale manure piles. GHG emissions from piles that were mixed four times during the 80 day trial were about 20% higher than unmixed piles. ...

  17. Residual effects of fresh and composted dairy manure applications on potato production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato growers in Idaho and other dairy producing regions often grow potatoes on fields that have had a history of fresh and composted manure applications. Growers remain uncertain of the impacts that previous manure applications will have on tuber yield and quality, as well as diseases, physiologic...

  18. Occurrence of veterinary antibiotics and progesterone in broiler manure and agricultural soil in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yu Bin; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid

    2014-08-01

    Repeated applications of animal manure as fertilizer are normal agricultural practices that may release veterinary antibiotics and hormones into the environment from treated animals. Broiler manure samples and their respective manure-amended agricultural soil samples were collected in selected locations in the states of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Melaka in Malaysia to identify and quantify veterinary antibiotic and hormone residues in the environment. The samples were analyzed using ultrasonic extraction followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The broiler manure samples were found to be contaminated with at least six target analytes, namely, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, flumequine, norfloxacin, trimethoprim and tylosin. These analytes were detected in broiler manure samples with maximum concentrations reaching up to 78,516 μg kg(-1) dry weight (DW) (doxycycline). For manure-amended agricultural soil samples, doxycycline and enrofloxacin residues were detected in every soil sample. The maximum concentration of antibiotic detected in soil was 1331 μg kg(-1) DW (flumequine). The occurrence of antibiotics and hormones in animal manure at high concentration poses a risk of contaminating agricultural soil via fertilization with animal manure. Some physico-chemical parameters such as pH, total organic carbon (TOC) and metal content played a considerable role in the fate of the target veterinary antibiotics and progesterone in the environment. It was suggested that these parameters can affect the adsorption of pharmaceuticals to solid environmental matrices.

  19. Characteristics of pollutant gas releases from swine, dairy, beef, and layer manure, and municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiao-Rong; Saha, Chayan Kumer; Ni, Ji-Qin; Heber, Albert J; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Dunn, James L

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge about characteristics of gas releases from various types of organic wastes can assist in developing gas pollution reduction technologies and establishing environmental regulations. Five different organic wastes, i.e., four types of animal manure (swine, beef, dairy, and layer hen) and municipal wastewater, were studied for their characteristics of ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) releases for 38 or 43 days in reactors under laboratory conditions. Weekly waste additions and continuous reactor headspace ventilation were supplied to simulate waste storage conditions. Results demonstrated that among the five waste types, layer hen manure and municipal wastewater had the highest and lowest NH3 release potentials, respectively. Layer manure had the highest and dairy manure had the lowest CO2 release potentials. Dairy manure and layer manure had the highest and lowest H2S release potentials, respectively. Beef manure and layer manure had the highest and lowest SO2 releases, respectively. The physicochemical characteristics of the different types of wastes, especially the total nitrogen, total ammoniacal nitrogen, dry matter, and pH, had strong influence on the releases of the four gases. Even for the same type of waste, the variation in physicochemical characteristics affected the gas releases remarkably. PMID:25794466

  20. Leachate water quality from soils amended with swine manure based biochars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the face of the rising level of manure production from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), management options are being sought that can provide nutrient recycling for plant growth and improved soil conditions with minimal environmental impacts. Alternatives to direct manure applicatio...

  1. Leachate water quality of soils amended with different swine manure-based amendments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the face of the rising level of manure production from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), management options are being sought that can provide nutrient recycling for plant growth and improved soil conditions with minimal environmental impacts. Alternatives to direct manure applicatio...

  2. Solid-liquid separation of dairy manure with PAM and chitosan polymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic polymers are useful to increase separation of suspended solids and carbon compounds from liquid swine manure, but experiences with dairy manure are limited. In this experiment, two polymers, a synthetic polyacrylamide (PAM) and a natural chitosan were used to increase separation of suspended...

  3. Corn response to long-term applications of cattle manure, swine effluent, and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle (Bos taurus) manure and swine (Sus scrofa) effluent are applied to cropland to recycle nutrients, build soil quality, and increase crop productivity. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effects of land application of cattle manure and swine effluent using the Kansas Nut...

  4. Improving estimates of N and P loads in irrigation water from swine manure lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The implementation of nutrient management plans (NMPs) for confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) requires recording N and P loads from land-applied manure, including nutrients applied in irrigation water from manure treatment lagoons. By regulation, lagoon irrigation water nutrient records in ...

  5. Modeling of carbon and nitrogen gaseous emissions from cattle manure compost windrows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Windrow composting of cattle manure is a significant source of gaseous emissions, which include ammonia (NH3) and the greenhouse gases (GHGs) of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). A manure compost model was developed to simulate carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) processes includ...

  6. Development of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae fed dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Myers, Heidi M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Lambert, Barry D; Kattes, David

    2008-02-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are a common colonizer of animal wastes. However, all published development data for this species are from studies using artificial diets. This study represents the first examining black soldier fly development on animal wastes. Additionally, this study examined the ability of black soldier fly larvae to reduce dry matter and associated nutrients in manure. Black soldier fly larvae were fed four rates of dairy manure to determine their effects on larval and adult life history traits. Feed rate affected larval and adult development. Those fed less ration daily weighed less than those fed a greater ration. Additionally, larvae provided the least amount of dairy manure took longer to develop to the prepupal stage; however, they needed less time to reach the adult stage. Adults resulting from larvae provided 27 g dairy manure/d lived 3-4 d less than those fed 70 g dairy manure. Percentage survivorship to the prepupal or adult stages did not differ across treatments. Larvae fed 27 g dairy manure daily reduced manure dry matter mass by 58%, whereas those fed 70 g daily reduced dry matter 33%. Black soldier fly larvae were able to reduce available P by 61-70% and N by 30-50% across treatments. Based on results from this study, the black soldier fly could be used to reduce wastes and associated nutrients in confined bovine facilities. PMID:18348791

  7. Effect of composting on the fate of steroids in beef cattle manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, the fate of steroid hormones in beef cattle manure composting is evaluated. The fate of 16 steroids and metabolites was evaluated in composted manure from beef cattle administered growth promotants and from beef cattle with no steroid hormone implants. The fate of estrogens (primary...

  8. Development of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae fed dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Myers, Heidi M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Lambert, Barry D; Kattes, David

    2008-02-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are a common colonizer of animal wastes. However, all published development data for this species are from studies using artificial diets. This study represents the first examining black soldier fly development on animal wastes. Additionally, this study examined the ability of black soldier fly larvae to reduce dry matter and associated nutrients in manure. Black soldier fly larvae were fed four rates of dairy manure to determine their effects on larval and adult life history traits. Feed rate affected larval and adult development. Those fed less ration daily weighed less than those fed a greater ration. Additionally, larvae provided the least amount of dairy manure took longer to develop to the prepupal stage; however, they needed less time to reach the adult stage. Adults resulting from larvae provided 27 g dairy manure/d lived 3-4 d less than those fed 70 g dairy manure. Percentage survivorship to the prepupal or adult stages did not differ across treatments. Larvae fed 27 g dairy manure daily reduced manure dry matter mass by 58%, whereas those fed 70 g daily reduced dry matter 33%. Black soldier fly larvae were able to reduce available P by 61-70% and N by 30-50% across treatments. Based on results from this study, the black soldier fly could be used to reduce wastes and associated nutrients in confined bovine facilities.

  9. Manure and inorganic N affect trace gas emissions under semi-arid irrigated corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy manure is often applied to cropped soils as a substitute for inorganic N fertilizers, but the impacts of manure on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes, yields and soil N are uncertain in the semi-arid western U.S. Soil carbon dioxide (CO2-C), methane (CH4-C), and nitrous oxide (N2O-N) emissions ...

  10. Size Distributions of Manure Particles Released Concurrently with E. coli Under Simulated Rainfall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure applied on cropland and animal waste deposited on grazing lands serve as a source of microorganisms, some of which may be pathogenic. These microorganisms are released along with particles of dissolved manure during rainfall events. Relatively little if anything is known about the amounts and...

  11. What we feed dairy cows impacts manure chemistry and the environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the last part of the 20th century, animal manure management became an environmental concern. In response to these concerns, legislation was enacted to control manure management and the emission of undesirable gasses (e.g., ammonia and methane) from animal production systems. The purpose of th...

  12. Effects of manure-application practices on curli production by Escherichia coli transported through soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truhlar, A. M.; Salvucci, A. E.; Siler, J. D.; Richards, B. K.; Geohring, L.; Walter, M. T.; Hay, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    The release of Escherichia coli into the environment from untreated manure can pose a threat to human health. Environmental survival of E. coli has been linked to extracellular fibers called curli. We investigated the effect of manure management (surface application followed by incorporation versus immediate incorporation) on the relative abundance of curli-producing E. coli in subsurface drainage effluent. Samples were collected from three dairy farms. The proportion of curli-producing E. coli in the manure storage facilities was uniform across the farms. However, the abundance of curli-producing E. coli was much greater (P < 0.05) in the tile drains of farms performing surface application of manure than in the tile drain of the farm that incorporated manure. This field result was corroborated by controlled soil column experiments; the abundance of curli-producing E. coli in soil column effluents was greater (P < 0.05) when manure was surface-applied than when it was incorporated. Our findings suggest selection pressures resulting from the different manure application methods affected curli production by E. coli isolates transported through soil. Given the importance of curli production in pathogenesis, this work highlights the effect that manure management strategies may have on pathogenesis-associated phenotypes of bacteria in agricultural subsurface runoff.

  13. Orchardgrass Ley for Improved Manure Management in Wisconsin: I. Forage Yield, Environmental Impact, and Production Costs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spreading dairy manure in climatic zones with a short growing season that are dominated by full season crops such as corn (Zea mays L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a challenge. However, replacing these with a grass ley (GL) does open several windows for manure spreading. The effects of such ...

  14. Microbial Ecology of Stored Swine Manure and Reduction of Emissions Using Condensed Tannins.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management practices from large-scale swine production facilities have resulted in the increased collection and storage of manure for off-season fertilization use. Stored swine manure serves as a habitat for billions of microorganisms and is associated with the generation of odorous compounds and g...

  15. Efficiency of a skid-mounted pyrolysis system for power production from animal manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of a skid-mounted pyrolysis system for power production from animal manures: chicken litter; swine solids; and swine solids blended with rye grass. Eight to 19 liters of dried manures were used as feedstocks for the skid-mounted pyrolysis ste...

  16. Use of a resistance meter to locate manure suitable for energy recovery in beef cattle feedyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mineral constituents, i.e., salts, contained in beef feedlot manure alter inherent soil conductivity. Researchers at USMARC have adapted tools such as electromagnetic soil conductivity meters and mapping/modeling software to identify areas where by manure accumulates on beef cattle feedlots. These t...

  17. The impact of carbohydrate and protein level and sources on swine manure foaming properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study explored the impact of swine diet on the composition, methane production potential, and foaming properties of manure. Samples of swine manure were collected from controlled feeding trials with diets varying in protein and carbohydrate levels and sources. Protein sources consisted of corn ...

  18. Geographic information systems (GIS) based model of dairy manure transportation and application with environmental quality consideration.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Krishna P; Bhattarai, Keshav; Gauthier, Wayne M; Hall, Larry M

    2009-05-01

    Survey information was used to develop a minimum cost spatial dairy manure transportation model where environmental quality and crop nutrient requirements were treated as constraints. The GIS model incorporated land use types, exact locations of dairy farms and farmlands, road networks, and distances from each dairy farm to receiving farmlands to identify dairy manure transportation routes that minimized costs relative to environmental and other constraints. Our analyses indicated that the characteristics of dairy manure, its bulk and relatively low primary N, P(2)O(5) and K(2)O nutrient levels limit the distribution areas or distances between the farms and the land over which the manure can be economically spread. Physical properties of the land limit the quantities of nutrients that can be applied because of excess nutrient buildup in soil and potential to harm nearby waterbodies and downstream people and places. Longer distances between dairy and farmland favor the use of commercial fertilizers due to the high cost of manure transportation. At $0.08 per ton per km transportation cost, the optimal cut-off distances for dairy manure application is 30km for N and 15km each for P(2)O(5) and K(2)O consistent rules. An analysis of dairy manure application to different crop types suggest that, on average, 1ha of land requires 61 tons of dairy manure to meet the recommended N, P(2)O(5) and K(2)O needs.

  19. Phoshatase activities and their effects on phosphorus availability in soils amended with livestock manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of livestock manures can impact factors related to phosphorus (P) cycling and concentrations of plant-available P in soils. Specific manure physicochemical properties differ due to livestock species and management practices, which may result in differences in parameters related to so...

  20. Winter and growing season nitrogen mineralization from fall-applied composted or stockpiled solid dairy manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate characterization of nitrogen (N) mineralization with time from manure and other organic sources is needed to maximize manure N use efficiency, decrease producer costs, and protect groundwater quality. The objective of our two-year field study at Parma, ID, was to quantify in situ N mineral...

  1. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Gang-Jin; Deng, Liang-Wei; Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan-Hui

    2015-04-01

    A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644L · (Ld)(-1) and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g(-)(1)VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L(-1). Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L(-1). The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L ·(Ld)(-1) and biogas yield of 0.649 L g(-1)VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25°C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s(-1) when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield.

  2. Manure-borne estrogens as potential environmental contaminants: a review.

    PubMed

    Hanselman, Travis A; Graetz, Donald A; Wilkie, Ann C

    2003-12-15

    Livestock wastes are potential sources of endocrine disrupting compounds to the environment. Steroidal estrogen hormones such as estradiol, estrone, and estriol are a particular concern because there is evidence that low nanogram per liter concentrations of estrogens in water can adversely affect the reproductive biology of fish and other aquatic vertebrate species. We performed a literature review to assess the current state of science regarding estrogen physicochemical properties, livestock excretion, and the fate of manure-borne estrogens in the environment. Unconjugated steroidal estrogens have low solubility in water (0.8-13.3 mg L(-1)) and are moderately hydrophobic (log Kow 2.6-4.0). Cattle excrete mostly 17alpha-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol, estrone, and respective sulfated and glucuronidated counterparts, whereas swine and poultry excrete mostly 17beta-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and respective sulfated and glucuronidated counterparts. The environmental fate of estrogens is not clearly known. Laboratory-based studies have found that the biological activity of these compounds is greatly reduced or eliminated within several hours to days due to degradation and sorption. On the other hand, field studies have demonstrated that estrogens are sufficiently mobile and persistent to impact surface and groundwater quality. Future research should use standardized methods for the analysis of manure, soil, and water. More information is needed about the types and amounts of estrogens that exist in livestock wastes and the fate of manure-borne estrogens applied to agricultural lands. Field and laboratory studies should work toward revealing the mechanisms of estrogen degradation, sorption, and transport so that the risk of estrogen contamination of waterways can be minimized.

  3. Promoting green engineering through green chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kirchhoff, Mary M

    2003-12-01

    The decisions made by chemists in designing chemical products and processes directly impactthe options available to engineers. The physical and chemical properties of a material, for example, dictate the type of reactor that must be used in a given process. The task of the engineer is simplified when chemists design products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. Green chemistry provides a foundation on which to build green engineering. This paper highlights green chemistry technologies that minimize the need for engineering safeguards in the areas of feedstocks, reagents, solvents, and syntheses. PMID:14700319

  4. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapac, I.G.; Dey, W.S.; Roy, W.R.; Smyth, C.A.; Storment, E.; Sargent, S.L.; Steele, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and ??15N and ??18O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human health. Fecal streptococcus bacteria were detected at least once in groundwater from all monitoring wells at both sites

  5. Characterization of bacteria from a swine manure digester

    SciTech Connect

    Iannotti, E.L.; Fischer, J.R.; Sievers, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    One-hundred thirty bacteria isolated from a swine manure digester were predominately gram-positive anaerobes which were tentatively classified into the following genera: Peptostreptococcus, Eubacterium, Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Peptococcus, Clostridiu, and Streptococcus plus two unidentified groups. The major fermentation products formed by these organisms included acetate, propionate, succinate, lactate, and ethanol, singly or in various combinations. Acetate was the sole end product of several groups. Few of the isolates (14%) reduced the pH below 6.0. The predominate bacteria appear to differ from the predominate organisms isolated from other anaerobic ecosystems.

  6. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures US livestock operations currently employ four types of anaerobic digester technology: Slurry, plug flow, complete mix, and covered lagoon. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, and possible end-use applications for the methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations.

  7. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Krapac, I G; Dey, W S; Roy, W R; Smyth, C A; Storment, E; Sargent, S L; Steele, J D

    2002-01-01

    Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and delta15N and delta15O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human health. Fecal streptococcus bacteria were detected at least once in groundwater from all monitoring wells at both

  8. Gobar gas plant sludge is superior to farm yard manure

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnappa, A.M.; Ranganna, B.; Deshpande, P.B.; Venkatrao, B.V.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an investigation conducted to compare the efficiency of sludge from biogas plants with farm-yard manure are reported. With regard to nutrient content, the sludge is seen to have a higher content of moisture, nitrogen, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/, K/sub 2/O and organic carbon, as well as a higher N/C ratio. Both materials were used to fertilize fields of potato and ragi. The yield for potato fertilized with sludge increased by 6% while that for ragi increased by 17%.

  9. Effects of organic dairy manure of soil phosphatase activity, available soil phosphorus and growth of sorghum-sudangrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic dairy (OD) production is increasing in the Northeastern U.S. due to consumer demand. Some physico-chemical properties of OD manure differ from conventional dairy (CD) manure, which could influence nutrient cycling and soil fertility differently when OD manure is applied to soil. Effects of O...

  10. Recovery of ammonia from swine manure using gas-permeable membranes: Effect of waste strength and pH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen recovery of swine manure was investigated using gas-permeable membranes. The process involved a continuous recirculation of an acidic solution through a tubular gas-permeable membrane submerged in a manure filled vessel. Ammonia contained in manure was concentrated in the acidic solution ...

  11. Changes in heavy metal contents in animal feeds and manures in an intensive animal production region of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Dong, Yuanhua; Yang, Yunya; Toor, Gurpal S; Zhang, Xumei

    2013-12-01

    The 360 feed and manure samples were collected from 150 animal farms in Jiangsu Province, China and analyzed for heavy metals. Concentrations of Zn and Cu in animal feeds were 15.9-2041.8 and undetected-392.1 mg/kg respectively, while Hg, As, Pb, Cd, and Cr in all feeds were below 10 mg/kg. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Cr in animal manures were 8.4-1726, 39.5-11379, and 1.0-1602 mg/kg respectively, while As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were < 10 mg/kg. The concentration of Cu, Zn, As and Cr in animal feed and manure were positively correlated (p < 0.001), but the Cd, Hg, and Pb were not statistically correlated between the feed and the manure. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were highest in pig feed and manure, followed by poultry and dairy feeds and manures. During 1990-2008, Cu, Zn, As, Cr, Cd contents increased by 771%, 410%, 420%, 220%, and 63% in pig manure, 212%, 95%, 200%, 791%, and -63% in dairy manure, and 181%, 197%, 1500%, 261, and 196% in poultry manure. Most of the increases occurred from 2002 to 2008, which reflects the extensive use of feed additives after 2002. In contrast, Pb and Hg in manures continuously decreased from 1990 to 2008. The results suggest that the heavy metal contents in animal manure have been greatly increased over 18 years and the contribution of manures to soil should be considered.

  12. Inhibitory Effects of Condensed Tannins on Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Populations and Hydrogen Sulfide Production from Swine Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Odorous compounds and emissions associated with consolidated storage of swine manure are produced as a result of anaerobic microbial digestion of materials present in the manure. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one such offensive and toxic odorant that can reach hazardous levels during manure storage and...

  13. Influence of Chicken Manure Fertilization on Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Soil and the Endophytic Bacteria of Pakchoi

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qingxiang; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Yuhui; Tian, Tiantian

    2016-01-01

    Animal manure is commonly used as fertilizer for agricultural crops worldwide, even though it is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance from animal intestines to the soil environment. However, it is unclear whether and how there is any impact of manure fertilization on populations and community structure of antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (AREB) in plant tissues. To investigate the effect of manure and organic fertilizer on endophytic bacterial communities, pot experiments were performed with pakchoi grown with the following treatments: (1) non-treated; (2) chicken manure-treated and (3) organic fertilizer-treated. Manure or organic fertilizer significantly increased the abundances of total cultivable endophytic bacteria (TCEB) and AREB in pakchoi, and the effect of chicken manure was greater than that of organic fertilizer. Further, 16S rDNA sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis indicated that chicken manure or organic fertilizer application increased the populations of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB) in soil and multiple antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (MAREB) in pakchoi. The identical multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations detected in chicken manure, manure- or organic fertilizer-amended soil and the vegetable endophytic system were Brevundimonas diminuta, Brachybacterium sp. and Bordetella sp., suggesting that MARB from manure could enter and colonize the vegetable tissues through manure fertilization. The fact that some human pathogens with multiple antibiotic resistance were detected in harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil demonstrated a potential threat to human health. PMID:27376311

  14. Influence of Chicken Manure Fertilization on Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Soil and the Endophytic Bacteria of Pakchoi.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingxiang; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Yuhui; Tian, Tiantian

    2016-01-01

    Animal manure is commonly used as fertilizer for agricultural crops worldwide, even though it is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance from animal intestines to the soil environment. However, it is unclear whether and how there is any impact of manure fertilization on populations and community structure of antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (AREB) in plant tissues. To investigate the effect of manure and organic fertilizer on endophytic bacterial communities, pot experiments were performed with pakchoi grown with the following treatments: (1) non-treated; (2) chicken manure-treated and (3) organic fertilizer-treated. Manure or organic fertilizer significantly increased the abundances of total cultivable endophytic bacteria (TCEB) and AREB in pakchoi, and the effect of chicken manure was greater than that of organic fertilizer. Further, 16S rDNA sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis indicated that chicken manure or organic fertilizer application increased the populations of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB) in soil and multiple antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (MAREB) in pakchoi. The identical multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations detected in chicken manure, manure- or organic fertilizer-amended soil and the vegetable endophytic system were Brevundimonas diminuta, Brachybacterium sp. and Bordetella sp., suggesting that MARB from manure could enter and colonize the vegetable tissues through manure fertilization. The fact that some human pathogens with multiple antibiotic resistance were detected in harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil demonstrated a potential threat to human health.

  15. Development of a quantitative real-time PCR assay for detection and enumeration of methanogenic archaea in stored swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage of swine manure is associated with the microbial production of a variety of odors and emissions which result from anaerobic digestion of materials present in the manure. In the United States, methane emissions from lagoons and manure storage pits are estimated to be over 40 Tg/year, account...

  16. Influence of Chicken Manure Fertilization on Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Soil and the Endophytic Bacteria of Pakchoi.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingxiang; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Yuhui; Tian, Tiantian

    2016-01-01

    Animal manure is commonly used as fertilizer for agricultural crops worldwide, even though it is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance from animal intestines to the soil environment. However, it is unclear whether and how there is any impact of manure fertilization on populations and community structure of antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (AREB) in plant tissues. To investigate the effect of manure and organic fertilizer on endophytic bacterial communities, pot experiments were performed with pakchoi grown with the following treatments: (1) non-treated; (2) chicken manure-treated and (3) organic fertilizer-treated. Manure or organic fertilizer significantly increased the abundances of total cultivable endophytic bacteria (TCEB) and AREB in pakchoi, and the effect of chicken manure was greater than that of organic fertilizer. Further, 16S rDNA sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis indicated that chicken manure or organic fertilizer application increased the populations of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB) in soil and multiple antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (MAREB) in pakchoi. The identical multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations detected in chicken manure, manure- or organic fertilizer-amended soil and the vegetable endophytic system were Brevundimonas diminuta, Brachybacterium sp. and Bordetella sp., suggesting that MARB from manure could enter and colonize the vegetable tissues through manure fertilization. The fact that some human pathogens with multiple antibiotic resistance were detected in harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil demonstrated a potential threat to human health. PMID:27376311

  17. Two new designs for manure solids and liquids sampling from tank, pit, and lagoons at various depths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wide variety of animal manure slurry storage structures and the spatially heterogeneous nature of manure within the storage structure present a difficult challenge to researchers studying the composition and activities within manure storage systems. The objective of this study was to design and...

  18. Influence of biochar addition on the humic substances of composting manures.

    PubMed

    Jindo, Keiji; Sonoki, Tomonori; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Canellas, Luciano; Roig, Asunción; Sanchez-Monedero, Miguel A

    2016-03-01

    Application of biochar (10% v/v) to a manure composting matrix was investigated to evaluate its effect on the chemical composition of humic substances during the composting process. The characteristics of the humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) fractions were analyzed in compost mixtures originating from two different manures (poultry manure (PM) and cow manure (CM)). The C contents of HA and FA from the manure compost/biochar blends (PM+B and CM+B) were higher than those from PM and CM, with an enhanced recalcitrant fraction, as determined by thermogravimetric analysis. Spectroscopic analysis showed that enrichment of aromatic-C and carboxylic-C occurred in the FA fractions of PM+B and CM+B to a greater extent than in PM and CM. Biochar addition into the composting mixture improved the final compost quality, especially for the light humified fraction (FA).

  19. Separation efficiency and particle size distribution in relation to manure type and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Møller, H B; Sommer, S G; Ahring, B K

    2002-11-01

    Mechanical separation of liquid animal manure can be an effective technique for production of a liquid and a nutrient-rich solid fraction. The efficiency of separators depends on the physical and chemical composition of the animal manure. Therefore, the particle size composition was measured for different types of manure before treatment with a decanting centrifuge and a screw press. Storage of pig manure reduces the total dry matter content, and the content of small particles (< 0.0016 mm) is reduced more than the content of large particles. In consequence, the proportion of large particles will increase, while the portion of small particles will decrease. The separation efficiency of the screw press was found to be low, as this separator only retains particles > 1 mm. The decanter centrifuge retained all the particles > 0.02 mm and was therefore much more efficient than the screw press. Separation efficiency was also found to be highly dependent on the type of manure used.

  20. Environmental consequences of processing manure to produce mineral fertilizer and bio-energy.

    PubMed

    De Vries, J W; Groenestein, C M; De Boer, I J M

    2012-07-15

    Liquid animal manure and its management contributes to environmental problems such as, global warming, acidification, and eutrophication. To address these environmental issues and their related costs manure processing technologies were developed. The objective here was to assess the environmental consequences of a new manure processing technology that separates manure into a solid and liquid fraction and de-waters the liquid fraction by means of reverse osmosis. This results in a liquid mineral concentrate used as mineral nitrogen and potassium fertilizer and a solid fraction used for bio-energy production or as phosphorus fertilizer. Five environmental impact categories were quantified using life cycle assessment: climate change (CC), terrestrial acidification (TA), marine eutrophication (ME), particulate matter formation (PMF), and fossil fuel depletion (FFD). For pig as well as dairy cattle manure, we compared a scenario with the processing method and a scenario with additional anaerobic digestion of the solid fraction to a reference situation applying only liquid manure. Comparisons were based on a functional unit of 1 ton liquid manure. System boundaries were set from the manure storage under the animal house to the field application of all end products. Scenarios with only manure processing increased the environmental impact for most impact categories compared to the reference: ME did not change, whereas, TA and PMF increased up to 44% as a result of NH3 and NO(x) emissions from processing and storage of solid fraction. Including digestion reduced CC by 117% for pig manure and 104% for dairy cattle manure, mainly because of substituted electricity and avoided N2O emission from storage of solid fraction. FFD decreased by 59% for pig manure and increased 19% for dairy cattle manure. TA and PMF remained higher compared to the reference. Sensitivity analysis showed that CH4 emission from manure storage, NH3 emission from processing, and the replaced nitrogen

  1. Swine manure vermicomposting via housefly larvae (Musca domestica): the dynamics of biochemical and microbial features.

    PubMed

    Zhang, ZhiJian; Wang, Hang; Zhu, Jun; Suneethi, Sundar; Zheng, JianGuo

    2012-08-01

    Improper handling of animal manure generated from concentrated swine operations greatly deteriorates water ecosystems. In this study, a full-scale vermireactor using housefly larvae (Musca domestica) was designed to investigate the effectiveness and efficiency of swine manure reduction, and to explore the associated biochemical-biological mechanisms. The one-week larvae vermireactor resulted in a total weight reduction rate of 106±17 kg/(m(3) d) and moisture reduction of 80.2%. Microbial activities in manure decreased by 45% after vermicomposting, while the activities of cellulose, proteases, and phosphatases in the vermicompost were significantly 69 times, 48%, and 82% lower than those in raw manure, respectively. The vermicompost was exclusively dominated by Entomoplasma somnilux, Proteobacterium, and Clostridiaceae bacterium where the microbial diversity was decreased from 2.57 in raw manure to 1.77. Correlation coefficients statistic showed that organic C might be a key indicator of the biochemical features and microbial functions of the larvae vermireactor.

  2. Transport of manure-borne bacteria and colloids in a stony soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachepsky, Y.; Shelton, D.; Sadeghi, A.; Stout, W.

    2003-04-01

    Manure is a source of several microorganisms that can potentially contribute to surface and ground water contamination. As manure dissolves, microorganisms are released along with manure colloids. We hypothesized that transport of manure-borne bacteria in soils can be viewed as the colloid-facilitated transport. To test this hypothesis, we simulated rainfall of 7.1 cm h-1 to the surface of 90 cm-long lysimeters filled with the undisturbed stony soil. Bovine manure mixed from potassium bromide solution was placed on the soil surface, rainfall continued for about five hours after manure application, and effluent collected each 10 min was analyzed for turbidity, bromide-ion, and fecal coliform (FC) content. FC and turbidity had similar breakthrough curves with low dispersion. The convective-dispersive equation with linear adsorption/exclusion and the first-order removal/re-growth terms could be used as a model of the FC transport in soil, whereas the mobile-immobile zone model had to be used for the bromide transport. The average velocity of bacteria and manure colloids was about seven times larger than the average pore water velocity. Porosity available for FC and manure particulate transport was close to the water content in the mobile zone as determined from the bromide breakthrough. The regression line of reduced coliform concentrations on reduced turbidity values was not significantly different from the "one-to-one" line. Average values for the release rate constants were not significantly different for FC and manure colloids. Data of this work support the hypothesis that transport of manure-borne microorganisms has to be studied and mitigated as a colloid-facilitated transport.

  3. Manure biochar influence upon soil properties, phosphorus distribution and phosphatase activities: A microcosm incubation study.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yi; Liang, Xinqiang; He, Miaomiao; Liu, Yu; Tian, Guangming; Shi, Jiyan

    2016-01-01

    Using manure-derived-biochar as an alternative phosphorus (P) source has bright future prospects to improve soil P status. A 98-day microcosm incubation experiment was set up for two soils which were amended with manure biochar at proportions of 0, 0.5% and 1.5%. Swine manure samples were air-dried and manure biochar was prepared by pyrolysis at 400 °C for 4 h. As determined by P-31 nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P NMR) spectroscopy, manure biochar mainly increased the contents and fractions of orthophosphate and pyrophosphate in two soils, while decreased those of monoesters (P<0.05). At the end of incubation, 1.5% of manure biochar raised soil pH by 0.5 and 0.6 units, cation exchange capacity by 16.9% and 32.2%, and soil total P by 82.1% and 81.1% for silt loam and clay loam soils, respectively, as compared with those soils without biochar. Simultaneously, 1.5% of manure biochar decreased acid phosphomonoesterase activities by 18.6% and 34.0% for clay loam and silt loam, respectively; while it increased alkaline phosphomonoesterase activities by 28.5% and 95.1% for clay loam and silt loam, respectively. The enhancement of soil P availability after manure biochar addition was firstly due to the orthophosphate and pyrophosphate as the major P species in manure biochar which directly increased contents of soil inorganic P, and also attributed to the decomposition of some organic P like monoesters by enhanced alkaline phosphomonoesterase activities from manure biochar addition.

  4. [Temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-jie; Guo, Cai-xia; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    China's livestock and poultry productions have changed significantly in the last three decades, from mainly traditional and small-scale systems in early 1980s towards more intensive and industrialized ones in recent years, due to the booming economy and the changes in people' diet. There is an urgent need to increase the understanding of the changes in the livestock and poultry productions and the impact of manure recycle on the environment. Here, we reported on a systematic and quantitative analysis on the temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China, using a large database and a coupled food chain nutrient flow model (NUFER) with GIS. In the period of 1978 to 2012, total animal manure production increased from 1.61 x 10⁷ t to 2.75 x 10⁷ t by 171%. The manure N increased from 7.74 x 10⁴ t to 17.32 x 10⁴ t, and the manure P from 1.09x104 t to 3.39x104 t. Besides the huge increase in total animal manure production, the distribution of animal manure was much uneven among regions, with high amounts of manure N and P per unit land in the north, middle and southeastern regions and low values in the north-central and southwestern regions, based on the results of 2012. The uneven distribution of manure was the combined effect of regional specializations in livestock and poultry productions and related policies. Our findings suggested that optimizing the structure of livestock and poultry productions and enhancing interregional collaborations on nutrient management could be two effective measures for reducing pollution and environmental risks, while achieving efficient and sustainable use of manure nutrient in the long term.

  5. Suppression of Phytophthora cinnamomi in Potting Mixes Amended with Uncomposted and Composted Animal Manures.

    PubMed

    Aryantha, I P; Cross, R; Guest, D I

    2000-07-01

    ABSTRACT We examined the effects of fresh and composted animal manures on the development of root rot, dieback, and plant death caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Fresh chicken manure, or chicken manure composted for 5 weeks before incorporation into the potting mix (25%, vol/vol), significantly reduced pathogen survival and the development of symptoms on Lupinus albus seedlings. Chicken manure composted for 2 weeks was less suppressive. Cow, sheep, and horse manure, whether fresh or composted, did not consistently suppress populations of P. cinnamomi or disease symptoms at the rates used (25%, vol/vol). All composts increased organic matter content, total biological activity, and populations of actinomycetes, fluorescent pseudomonads, and fungi. Only chicken manure stimulated endospore-forming bacteria, a factor that was strongly associated with seedling survival. Fallowing the potting mix for an additional 8 weeks after the first harvest increased the survival of lupin seedlings in a second bioassay, with survival rates in chicken manure compost-amended potting mix exceeding 90%. These data suggest that the ability of composted manure to stimulate sustained biological activity, in particular the activity of endospore-forming bacteria, is the key factor in reducing disease symptoms caused by P. cinnamomi. Supporting these results, the survival of rooted cuttings of Thryptomene calycina was significantly higher in sand-peat potting mix following amendment with commercially available chicken manure (15% vol/vol). However, this protection was reduced if the potting mix was steam pasteurized before amendment, indicating that suppression was due to endogenous as well as introduced microbes. Chicken manure compost incorporated at 5% (vol/vol) or more was strongly phytotoxic to young Banksia spinulosa plants and is not suitable as an amendment for phosphorus-sensitive plants. PMID:18944498

  6. [Temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-jie; Guo, Cai-xia; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    China's livestock and poultry productions have changed significantly in the last three decades, from mainly traditional and small-scale systems in early 1980s towards more intensive and industrialized ones in recent years, due to the booming economy and the changes in people' diet. There is an urgent need to increase the understanding of the changes in the livestock and poultry productions and the impact of manure recycle on the environment. Here, we reported on a systematic and quantitative analysis on the temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China, using a large database and a coupled food chain nutrient flow model (NUFER) with GIS. In the period of 1978 to 2012, total animal manure production increased from 1.61 x 10⁷ t to 2.75 x 10⁷ t by 171%. The manure N increased from 7.74 x 10⁴ t to 17.32 x 10⁴ t, and the manure P from 1.09x104 t to 3.39x104 t. Besides the huge increase in total animal manure production, the distribution of animal manure was much uneven among regions, with high amounts of manure N and P per unit land in the north, middle and southeastern regions and low values in the north-central and southwestern regions, based on the results of 2012. The uneven distribution of manure was the combined effect of regional specializations in livestock and poultry productions and related policies. Our findings suggested that optimizing the structure of livestock and poultry productions and enhancing interregional collaborations on nutrient management could be two effective measures for reducing pollution and environmental risks, while achieving efficient and sustainable use of manure nutrient in the long term. PMID:27228611

  7. Assessing the effect of different treatments on decomposition rate of dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Tariq M; Higgins, Stewart S; Ndegwa, Pius M; Frear, Craig S; Stöckle, Claudio O

    2016-11-01

    Confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) contribute to greenhouse gas emission, but the magnitude of these emissions as a function of operation size, infrastructure, and manure management are difficult to assess. Modeling is a viable option to estimate gaseous emission and nutrient flows from CAFOs. These models use a decomposition rate constant for carbon mineralization. However, this constant is usually determined assuming a homogenous mix of manure, ignoring the effects of emerging manure treatments. The aim of this study was to measure and compare the decomposition rate constants of dairy manure in single and three-pool decomposition models, and to develop an empirical model based on chemical composition of manure for prediction of a decomposition rate constant. Decomposition rate constants of manure before and after an anaerobic digester (AD), following coarse fiber separation, and fine solids removal were determined under anaerobic conditions for single and three-pool decomposition models. The decomposition rates of treated manure effluents differed significantly from untreated manure for both single and three-pool decomposition models. In the single-pool decomposition model, AD effluent containing only suspended solids had a relatively high decomposition rate of 0.060 d(-1), while liquid with coarse fiber and fine solids removed had the lowest rate of 0.013 d(-1). In the three-pool decomposition model, fast and slow decomposition rate constants (0.25 d(-1) and 0.016 d(-1) respectively) of untreated AD influent were also significantly different from treated manure fractions. A regression model to predict the decomposition rate of treated dairy manure fitted well (R(2) = 0.83) to observed data.

  8. Animal manure application and soil organic carbon stocks: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Émilie; Angers, Denis A

    2014-02-01

    The impact of animal manure application on soil organic carbon (SOC) stock changes is of interest for both agronomic and environmental purposes. There is a specific need to quantify SOC change for use in national greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventories. We quantified the response of SOC stocks to manure application from a large worldwide pool of individual studies and determined the impact of explanatory factors such as climate, soil properties, land use and manure characteristics. Our study is based on a meta-analysis of 42 research articles totaling 49 sites and 130 observations in the world. A dominant effect of cumulative manure-C input on SOC response was observed as this factor explained at least 53% of the variability in SOC stock differences compared to mineral fertilized or unfertilized reference treatments. However, the effects of other determining factors were not evident from our data set. From the linear regression relating cumulative C inputs and SOC stock difference, a global manure-C retention coefficient of 12% ± 4 (95% Confidence Interval, CI) could be estimated for an average study duration of 18 years. Following an approach comparable to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, we estimated a relative SOC change factor of 1.26 ± 0.14 (95% CI) which was also related to cumulative manure-C input. Our results offer some scope for the refinement of manure retention coefficients used in crop management guidelines and for the improvement of SOC change factors for national GHG inventories by taking into account manure-C input. Finally, this study emphasizes the need to further document the long-term impact of manure characteristics such as animal species, especially pig and poultry, and manure management systems, in particular liquid vs. solid storage.

  9. Assessing the effect of different treatments on decomposition rate of dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Tariq M; Higgins, Stewart S; Ndegwa, Pius M; Frear, Craig S; Stöckle, Claudio O

    2016-11-01

    Confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) contribute to greenhouse gas emission, but the magnitude of these emissions as a function of operation size, infrastructure, and manure management are difficult to assess. Modeling is a viable option to estimate gaseous emission and nutrient flows from CAFOs. These models use a decomposition rate constant for carbon mineralization. However, this constant is usually determined assuming a homogenous mix of manure, ignoring the effects of emerging manure treatments. The aim of this study was to measure and compare the decomposition rate constants of dairy manure in single and three-pool decomposition models, and to develop an empirical model based on chemical composition of manure for prediction of a decomposition rate constant. Decomposition rate constants of manure before and after an anaerobic digester (AD), following coarse fiber separation, and fine solids removal were determined under anaerobic conditions for single and three-pool decomposition models. The decomposition rates of treated manure effluents differed significantly from untreated manure for both single and three-pool decomposition models. In the single-pool decomposition model, AD effluent containing only suspended solids had a relatively high decomposition rate of 0.060 d(-1), while liquid with coarse fiber and fine solids removed had the lowest rate of 0.013 d(-1). In the three-pool decomposition model, fast and slow decomposition rate constants (0.25 d(-1) and 0.016 d(-1) respectively) of untreated AD influent were also significantly different from treated manure fractions. A regression model to predict the decomposition rate of treated dairy manure fitted well (R(2) = 0.83) to observed data. PMID:27479239

  10. [Ammonium Adsorption Characteristics in Aqueous Solution by Dairy Manure Biochar].

    PubMed

    Ma, Feng-feng; Zhao, Bao-wei; Diao, Jing-ru; Zhong, Jin-kui; Li, An-bang

    2015-05-01

    The adsorption characteristics of ammonium from aqueous solution onto biochar derived from dairy manure were investigated as a function of parameters such as solution pH, particle size, adsorbent dosage, temperature and competitive cations. The results indicated that the effects of other cations on the adsorption of ammonium followed the order of preference Na > Ca2+ at identical mass concentrations. It was observed that pH played an important role in the ammonium adsorption and the optimal pH values ranged between 5 and 8. The kinetic data fitted the pseudo-second-order model (R2 = 0.967 3) but showed very poor fits for the pseudo-first-order model (R2 = 0.765 9) and the Elovich model (R2 = 0.724 9). The results from the Intra-particle model also showed that there were two separate stages in sorption process, which were external diffusion and the diffusion of inter-particle. Adsorption isotherms for dairy manure biochar were fitted the Freundlich model (R2 = 0.976 2) more effectively than other models. Thermodynamics parameters such as free energy (ΔGθ), enthalpy (ΔHθ), and entropy (ΔSθ) were also determined, which indicated that the adsorption was a spontaneous and endothermic process. PMID:26314116

  11. Anaerobic phenol degradation by microorganisms of swine manure.

    SciTech Connect

    Boopathy, R.; Environmental Research

    1997-01-01

    Swine manure contains diverse groups of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. An anaerobic bacterial consortium containing sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and acetate-utilizing methanogenic bacteria was isolated from swine manure. This consortium used phenol as its sole source of carbon and converted it to methane and CO{sub 2}. The sulfate-reducing bacterial members of the consortium are the incomplete oxidizers, unable to carry out the terminal oxidation of organic substrates, leaving acetic acid as the end product. The methanogenic bacteria of the consortium converted the acetic acid to methane. When a methanogen inhibitor was used in the culture medium, phenol was converted to acetic acid by the SRB, but the acetic acid did not undergo further metabolism. On the other hand, when the growth of SRB in the consortium was suppressed with a specific SRB inhibitor, namely, molybdenum tetroxide, the phenol was not degraded. Thus, the metabolic activities of both the sulfate-reducing bacteria and the methanogenic bacteria were essential for complete degradation of phenol.

  12. Dry Co-Digestion of Poultry Manure with Agriculture Wastes.

    PubMed

    Abouelenien, Fatma; Namba, Yuzaburo; Nishio, Naomichi; Nakashimada, Yutaka

    2016-03-01

    This study tested the effect on thermophilic and mesophilic digestion of poultry manure (PM) or treated poultry manure (TPM) by the addition of agriculture wastes (AWS) as a co-substrate under dry conditions. PM was co-digested with a mixture of AWS consisting of coconut waste, cassava waste, and coffee grounds. Results were increased methane content in biogas, with decreased ammonia accumulation and volatile acids. The highest performance occurred under mesophilic conditions, with a 63 and 41.3 % increase in methane production from addition of AWS to TPM (562 vs. 344 mL g VS(-1) from control) and PM (406 vs. 287 mL g VS(-1) from control), respectively. Thermophilic conditions showed lower performance than mesophilic conditions. Addition of AWS increased methane production by 150 and 69.6 % from PM (323.4 vs. 129 mL g VS(-1) from control) and TPM (297.6 vs. 175.5 mL g VS(-1) from control), respectively. In all experiments, 100 % acetate produced was degraded to methane. Maximum ammonia accumulation was lowered to 43.7 % by mixing of AWS (range 5.35-8.55 vs. 7.81-12.28 g N kg(-1) bed). The pH was held at 7.3-8.8, a range suitable for methanogenesis. PMID:26560702

  13. Pyrolysis kinetics of algal consortia grown using swine manure wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sharara, Mahmoud A; Holeman, Nathan; Sadaka, Sammy S; Costello, Thomas A

    2014-10-01

    In this study, pyrolysis kinetics of periphytic microalgae consortia grown using swine manure slurry in two seasonal climatic patterns in northwest Arkansas were investigated. Four heating rates (5, 10, 20 and 40 °C min(-1)) were used to determine the pyrolysis kinetics. Differences in proximate, ultimate, and heating value analyses reflected variability in growing substrate conditions, i.e., flocculant use, manure slurry dilution, and differences in diurnal solar radiation and air temperature regimes. Peak decomposition temperature in algal harvests varied with changing the heating rate. Analyzing pyrolysis kinetics using differential and integral isoconversional methods (Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose) showed strong dependency of apparent activation energy on the degree of conversion suggesting parallel reaction scheme. Consequently, the weight loss data in each thermogravimetric test was modeled using independent parallel reactions (IPR). The quality of fit (QOF) for the model ranged between 2.09% and 3.31% indicating a good agreement with the experimental data.

  14. Engineering, economics, and management of a swine manure digester

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J.R.; Iannotti, E.L.; Fulhage, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The microbiology and biochemistry of converting swine manure to methane is discussed. Recommended design parameters for a swine manure digester are: loading rate, 4 g VS l /sup -1/day-/sup 1/; temperature of digesting slurry, 30 to 35/sup 0/C; and detention time, 15 days. The recommended procedure for starting a digester is loading at 2.5 g VS l/sup -1/day/sup -1/ and increasing the loading rate by 0.8 g VS l/sup -1/day/sup -1/ at weekly intervals. A model pork production system was developed in which an anaerobic digester supplies 93% of the thermal energy needs and 100% of the electrical energy requirements of the buildings. An economic analysis of this system indicated that a $21,000 investment in the digester could be amortized in 12 years with a 10% return on investment if electricity costs $0.04/kWh and propane costs $0.15/l.

  15. Composting of swine manure spiked with sulfadiazine, chlortetracycline and ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Zhao, Zhenyong; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2012-12-01

    The fate of chlortetracycline (CTC), sulfadiazine (SDZ) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) during composting of swine manure and their effect on composting process were investigated. Swine manure was spiked with antibiotics, mixed with saw dust (1:1 on DW basis) and composted for 56 d. Antibiotics were spiked to a final concentration of 50 mg/kg CTC+10 mg/kg SDZ+10 mg/kg CIP (High-level) or 5 mg/kg CTC+1 mg/kg SDZ+1 mg/kg CIP (Low-level), and a control without antibiotics. Antibiotics at high concentrations delayed the initial decomposition that also affected the nitrogen mineralization. CTC and SDZ were completely removed from the composting mass within 21 and 3d, respectively; whereas, 17-31% of the spiked CIP remained in the composting mass. Therefore, composting could effectively remove the CTC and SDZ spiked even at high concentrations, but the removal of ciprofloxacin (belonging to fluoroquinolone) needs to be improved, indicating this antibiotic may get into the ecosystem through land application of livestock compost. PMID:22261658

  16. Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, A.G.; Chen, Y.R.; Varel, V.H.

    1981-01-01

    The research to convert livestock manure and crop residues into methane and a high protein feed ingredient by thermophilic anaerobic fermentation are summarized. The major biological and operational factors involved in methanogenesis were discussed, and a kinetic model that describes the fermentation process was presented. Substrate biodegradability, fermentation temperature, and influent substrate concentration were shown to have significant effects on CH/sub 4/ production rate. The kinetic model predicted methane production rates of existing pilot and full-scale fermentation systems to within 15%. The highest methane production rate achieved by the fermenter was 4.7 L CH/sub 4//L fermenter day. This is the highest rate reported in the literature and about 4 times higher than other pilot or full-scale systems fermenting livestock manures. Assessment of the energy requirements for anaerobic fermentation systems showed that the major energy requirement for a thermophilic system was for maintaining the fermenter temperature. The next major energy consumption was due to the mixing of the influent slurry and fermenter liquor. An approach to optimizing anaerobic fermenter designs by selecting design criteria that maximize the net energy production per unit cost was presented. Based on the results, we believe that the economics of anaerobic fermentation is sufficiently favorable for farm-scale demonstration of this technology.

  17. Optimizing the performance of a reactor by reducing the retention time and addition of glycerin for anaerobically digesting manure

    PubMed Central

    Timmerman, Maikel; Schuman, Els; van Eekert, Miriam; van Riel, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure is a widely accepted technology for energy production. However, only a minimal portion of the manure production in the EU is anaerobically digested and occurs predominantly in codigestion plants. There is substantial potential for biogas plants that primarily operate on manure (>90%); however, the methane yields of manure are less compared to coproducts, which is one of the reasons for manure-based biogas plants often being economically non-viable. Therefore, it is essential to begin increasing the efficiency of these biogas plants. This study investigated the effect of decreasing retention time and introducing a moderate amount of glycerin on the biogas production as methods to improve efficiency. An experiment has been conducted with two different manure types in four biogas reactors. The results of the study demonstrated that, first, it was possible to decrease the retention time to 10–15 days; however, the effect on biogas production varied per manure type. Secondly, the biogas production almost triples at a retention time of 15.6 days with an addition of 4% glycerin. The relative production-enhancing effect of glycerin did not vary significantly with both manure types. However, the absolute production-enhancing effect of glycerin differed per manure type since the biogas production per gram VS differed per manure type. Thirdly, the positive effect of the glycerin input declines with shorter retention times. Therefore, the effect of glycerin addition depends on the manure type and retention time. PMID:25401272

  18. Pathogen survival in swine manure environments and transmission of human enteric illness--a review.

    PubMed

    Guan, Tat Yee; Holley, Richard A

    2003-01-01

    The influence of zoonotic pathogens in animal manure on human health and well-being as a direct or indirect cause of human enteric illness is examined. Available international data are considered, but the study is focused on the developing situation in western Canada, where it is certain there will be further rapid growth in livestock numbers, particularly hogs. Major pathogens considered are Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia. Canada is now the leading exporter of pork internationally, but recent increases in production contrast with constant domestic levels of pork consumption and declining levels of foodborne illness caused by pork. Effects of increased levels of manure production are not quantifiable in terms of effects on human health. The presence of major pathogens in manure and movement to human food sources and water are considered on the basis of available data. Survival of the organisms in soil, manure, and water indicate significant variability in resistance to environmental challenge that are characteristic of the organisms themselves. Generally, pathogens survived longer in environmental samples at cool temperatures but differences were seen in liquid and solid manure. Based on actual data plus some data extrapolated from cattle manure environments, holding manure at 25 degrees C for 90 d will render it free from the pathogens considered above. PMID:12708660

  19. Phylogenetic identification of methanogens assimilating acetate-derived carbon in dairy and swine manures.

    PubMed

    Barret, Maialen; Gagnon, Nathalie; Morissette, Bruno; Kalmokoff, Martin L; Topp, Edward; Brooks, Stephen P J; Matias, Fernando; Neufeld, Josh D; Talbot, Guylaine

    2015-02-01

    In order to develop approaches for reducing the carbon footprint of the swine and dairy industries, it is important first to identify the methanogenic communities that drive methane emissions from stored manure. In this study, the metabolically active methanogens in substrate-starved manure samples taken from two dairy and one swine manure storage tanks were identified using [(13)C]-acetate and DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP). Molecular analysis of recovered genomic [(13)C]-DNA revealed that two distinct clusters of unclassified methanogen populations affiliated with the Methanoculleus genus, and the populations affiliated with Methanoculleus chikugoensis assimilated acetate-derived carbon (acetate-C) in swine and dairy starved manure samples, respectively. Furthermore, carbon flow calculations indicated that these populations were the primary contributors to methane emissions during these anoxic SIP incubations. Comparative analysis of mcrA gene abundance (coding for a key enzyme of methanogenesis) for Methanoculleus spp. in fresh feces and a wider range of stored dairy or swine manure samples, by real-time quantitative PCR using newly designed specific primers, demonstrated that the abundance of this genus significantly increased during storage. The findings supported the involvement of these particular methanogen populations as methane emitters from swine and dairy manure storage tanks. The study revealed that the ability to assimilate acetate-C for growth in manure differed within the Methanoculleus genus.

  20. Impact of manure-related DOM on sulfonamide transport in arable soils.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Arenz-Leufen, Martina Gesine; Jacques, Diederik; Lichtner, Peter; Engelhardt, Irina

    2016-09-01

    Field application of livestock manure introduces colloids and veterinary antibiotics, e.g. sulfonamides (SAs), into farmland. The presence of manure colloids may potentially intensify the SAs-pollution to soils and groundwater by colloid-facilitated transport. Transport of three SAs, sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMPD), and sulfamoxole (SMOX), was investigated in saturated soil columns with and without manure colloids from sows and farrows, weaners, and fattening pigs. Experimental results showed that colloid-facilitated transport of SMOX was significant in the presence of manure colloids from fattening pigs with low C/N ratio, high SUVA280nm and protein C, while manure colloids from sows and farrows and weaners had little effect on SMOX transport. In contrast, only retardation was observed for SDZ and SMPD when manure colloids were present. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) of colloids and SAs were replicated well by a newly developed numerical model that considers colloid-filtration theory, competitive kinetic sorption, and co-transport processes. Model results demonstrate that mobile colloids act as carriers for SMOX, while immobile colloids block SMOX from sorbing onto the soil. The low affinity of SMOX to sorb on immobile colloids prevents aggregation and also promotes SMOX's colloid-facilitated transport. Conversely, the high affinity of SDZ and SMPD to sorb on all types of immobile colloids retarded their transport. Thus, manure properties play a fundamental role in increasing the leaching risk of hydrophobic sulfonamides. PMID:27450276

  1. Anaerobic co-digestion of forage radish and dairy manure in complete mix digesters.

    PubMed

    Belle, Ashley J; Lansing, Stephanie; Mulbry, Walter; Weil, Ray R

    2015-02-01

    Pilot-scale digesters (850 L) were used to quantify CH4 and H2S production when using forage radish cover crops as a co-digestion feedstock in dairy manure-based digesters. During two trials, triplicate mixed digesters were operated in batch mode with manure-only or radish+manure (27% and 13% radish by wet weight in Trial 1 and 2, respectively). Co-digestion increased CH4 production by 11% and 39% in Trial 1 and 2, respectively. As H2S production rapidly declined in the radish+manure digesters, CH4 production increased reaching high levels of CH4 (⩾67%) in the biogas. Over time, radish co-digestion lowered the H2S concentration in the biogas (0.20%) beyond that of manure-only digestion (0.34-0.40%), although cumulative H2S production in the radish+manure digesters was higher than manure-only. Extrapolated to a farm-scale (200 cows) continuous mixed digester, co-digesting with radish could generate 3150 m(3) CH4/month, providing a farmer additional revenue up to $3125/month in electricity sales.

  2. Testing of Co-Fermentation of Poultry Manure and Corn Silage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jędrczak, Andrzej; Królik, Dariusz; Sądecka, Zofia; Myszograj, Sylwia; Suchowska-Kisielewicz, Monika; Bojarski, Jacek

    2014-12-01

    The development of the production of poultry meat is connected with an increase in the quantity of the manure. The chemical characteristics predisposes this waste to processing by methane fermentation method. This study investigated the influence of ammonia and volatile fat acids on mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry manure. The aim of the studies was: to determine the degree of biodegradation of the poultry manure as well as manure and corn silage mixed in various proportions in the process of mesophilic fermentation, to evaluate the impact of mineral nitrogen and volatile fat acids on the course of fermentation, and to establish optimum proportions of these types of waste. The tests confirmed the positive effect of co-fermentation of poultry manure with corn silage. The most favourable ratio for mixing the substrates is the equal percentage of their dry matter in the mixture. With such waste mixing proportions, the degree of degradation of organic substances contained in the manure amounted to 61.8% and was higher than in the mono-digestion of manure and corn silage.

  3. [Estimation of livestock manure nitrogen load and pollution risk evaluation of farmland in Daxing District].

    PubMed

    Yan, Bo-jie; Zhao, Chun-jiang; Pan, Yu-chun; Yan, Jing-jie; Guo, Xin

    2010-02-01

    Based on the livestock statistical data, the nutrient content of livestock manure was calculated and the nutrient transformation from livestock manure to farmland was realized by using the method of spatializing livestock manure nutrient. On this basis, this paper calculated nitrogen load of livestock manure combining with the area of farmland and realized the estimation of nitrogen load of livestock manure and potential pollution evaluation in landmass for unit taking Daxing District in Beijing as an example. The result showed that the average, minimum and maximum nitrogen loads of farmland were 214.02 kg/hm2, 10.64 kg/hm2 and 5996.26 kg/hm2 respectively and near half of farmland was threaten by nitrogen load of livestock manure, accounting for 42.14% of the total farmland. These farmland threaten to polluted had the characters of small area and few nutrient demand and mainly located nearby the inhabitant and the scale raising. The coefficients of variation and average of available nitrogen in topsoil and subsoil were 64.3%, 53.65% and 65.93 microg/g, 45.25 microg/g respectively and the enrichment coefficient was 1.46, which explained the existing pollution risk and the influence degree of livestock manure to soil environment pollution.

  4. [Risk assessment of the farmland and water contamination with the livestock manure in Anhui province].

    PubMed

    Song, Da-Ping; Zhuang, Da-Fang; Chen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Basing on the data of livestock in 2001-2009 in Anhui province, the farmland pollution loading and water equal standard pollution loading of livestock manure were calculated utilizing the discharge rate of livestock manure. In addition, the risk assessment was evaluated on the livestock pollution in farmland and water bodies in this province. The industrial production of animal manure of this industry in 2008-2009 in Anhui amounted to 0.67 billion tons, and the averaged farmland loading of livestock manure, N, and P were 16.2 t x hm(-2), 83.8 kg x hm(-2), and 34.5 kg x hm(-2), respectively. The overall averaged risk constant of livestock manure loading in farmland was 0.36 (approximately risk level I). As to the water bodies, the averaged equal standard pollution loading was 7.03. However, significant differences were observed for the farmland and water contamination with livestock manure in different areas of Anhui, suggesting that some areas might receive much higher doses than the averaged amounts. The contamination weakened comparing with that in 2001-2002. But there was a trend of increase for P pollution. According to the information in 2008-2009, the farmland and water bodies in the areas of Hefei, Suzhou, and Bengbu still borne the livestock manure contamination. Results of this work provide some useful information for the water and farmland environmental protection in Huaihe river basin in Anhui province.

  5. Impact of manure-related DOM on sulfonamide transport in arable soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Dan; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Arenz-Leufen, Martina Gesine; Jacques, Diederik; Lichtner, Peter; Engelhardt, Irina

    2016-09-01

    Field application of livestock manure introduces colloids and veterinary antibiotics, e.g. sulfonamides (SAs), into farmland. The presence of manure colloids may potentially intensify the SAs-pollution to soils and groundwater by colloid-facilitated transport. Transport of three SAs, sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMPD), and sulfamoxole (SMOX), was investigated in saturated soil columns with and without manure colloids from sows and farrows, weaners, and fattening pigs. Experimental results showed that colloid-facilitated transport of SMOX was significant in the presence of manure colloids from fattening pigs with low C/N ratio, high SUVA280 nm and protein C, while manure colloids from sows and farrows and weaners had little effect on SMOX transport. In contrast, only retardation was observed for SDZ and SMPD when manure colloids were present. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) of colloids and SAs were replicated well by a newly developed numerical model that considers colloid-filtration theory, competitive kinetic sorption, and co-transport processes. Model results demonstrate that mobile colloids act as carriers for SMOX, while immobile colloids block SMOX from sorbing onto the soil. The low affinity of SMOX to sorb on immobile colloids prevents aggregation and also promotes SMOX's colloid-facilitated transport. Conversely, the high affinity of SDZ and SMPD to sorb on all types of immobile colloids retarded their transport. Thus, manure properties play a fundamental role in increasing the leaching risk of hydrophobic sulfonamides.

  6. Degradation and dissipation of the veterinary ionophore lasalocid in manure and soil.

    PubMed

    Žižek, Suzana; Dobeic, Martin; Pintarič, Štefan; Zidar, Primož; Kobal, Silvestra; Vidrih, Matej

    2015-11-01

    Lasalocid is a veterinary ionophore antibiotic used for prevention and treatment of coccidiosis in poultry. It is excreted from the treated animals mostly in its active form and enters the environment with the use of contaminated manure on agricultural land. To properly assess the risk that lasalocid poses to the environment, it is necessary to know its environmental concentrations as well as the rates of its degradation in manure and dissipation in soil. These values are still largely unknown. A research was undertaken to ascertain the rate of lasalocid degradation in manure under different storage conditions (aging in a pile or composting) and on agricultural soil after using lasalocid-contaminated manure. The results have shown that there is considerable difference in lasalocid degradation between aging manure with no treatment (t1/2=61.8±1.7 d) and composting (t1/2=17.5±0.8 d). Half-lives in soil are much shorter (on average 3.1±0.4 d). On the basis of the measured concentrations of lasalocid in soil after manure application, we can conclude that it can potentially be harmful to soil organisms (PEC/PNEC ratio of 1.18), but only in a worst-case scenario of using the maximum permissible amount of manure and immediately after application. To make certain that no harmful effects occur, composting is recommended.

  7. Bioconversion of dairy manure by black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) for biodiesel and sugar production.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Qiu, Ning; Cai, Hao; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Yu, Ziniu

    2011-06-01

    Modern dairies cause the accumulation of considerable quantity of dairy manure which is a potential hazard to the environment. Dairy manure can also act as a principal larval resource for many insects such as the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens. The black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) are considered as a new biotechnology to convert dairy manure into biodiesel and sugar. BSFL are a common colonizer of large variety of decomposing organic material in temperate and tropical areas. Adults do not need to be fed, except to take water, and acquired enough nutrition during larval development for reproduction. Dairy manure treated by BSFL is an economical way in animal facilities. Grease could be extracted from BSFL by petroleum ether, and then be treated with a two-step method to produce biodiesel. The digested dairy manure was hydrolyzed into sugar. In this study, approximately 1248.6g fresh dairy manure was converted into 273.4 g dry residue by 1200 BSFL in 21 days. Approximately 15.8 g of biodiesel was gained from 70.8 g dry BSFL, and 96.2g sugar was obtained from the digested dairy manure. The residual dry BSFL after grease extraction can be used as protein feedstuff. PMID:21367596

  8. Bioconversion of dairy manure by black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) for biodiesel and sugar production.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Qiu, Ning; Cai, Hao; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Yu, Ziniu

    2011-06-01

    Modern dairies cause the accumulation of considerable quantity of dairy manure which is a potential hazard to the environment. Dairy manure can also act as a principal larval resource for many insects such as the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens. The black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) are considered as a new biotechnology to convert dairy manure into biodiesel and sugar. BSFL are a common colonizer of large variety of decomposing organic material in temperate and tropical areas. Adults do not need to be fed, except to take water, and acquired enough nutrition during larval development for reproduction. Dairy manure treated by BSFL is an economical way in animal facilities. Grease could be extracted from BSFL by petroleum ether, and then be treated with a two-step method to produce biodiesel. The digested dairy manure was hydrolyzed into sugar. In this study, approximately 1248.6g fresh dairy manure was converted into 273.4 g dry residue by 1200 BSFL in 21 days. Approximately 15.8 g of biodiesel was gained from 70.8 g dry BSFL, and 96.2g sugar was obtained from the digested dairy manure. The residual dry BSFL after grease extraction can be used as protein feedstuff.

  9. Transformation of dissolved organic matters in swine, cow and chicken manures during composting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Li, Xiangkun; He, Chao; Chen, Chia-Lung; Bai, Jianwei; Ren, Nanqi; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2014-09-01

    The changes of dissolved organic matters (DOMs) extracted from swine, cow and chicken manures were assessed by Fourier transform infrared, ultraviolet, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), excitation-emission-matrix fluorescence (EEM-FL), Biolog Eco and (1)H NMR during 60-day composting. Pumice was adopted to eliminate the disturbing of common organic bulking agents. The results showed chicken manure had the highest DOC, DTN (dissolved total nitrogen) and lowest DOC/DTN among the three manures; cow manure had the highest volatile solids, lowest DTN, slowest DOMs hydrolysis rate and the fastest bio-stabilization rate. (1)H NMR showed the decrease rates of OC band and saturated carbon chain were distinctly faster than that of olefinic and aromatic structures. The molecular size distribution of DOMs in the three manures was in the range of 1-10 kDa detected by GPC. Microbial carbon utilization capacity decreased in cow manure with composting time, but the contrast was observed in the chicken and swine manures. PMID:24813566

  10. Potential of Biological Processes to Eliminate Antibiotics in Livestock Manure: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Massé, Daniel I.; Cata Saady, Noori M.; Gilbert, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Beside their use to treat infections, antibiotics are used excessively as growth promoting factors in livestock industry. Animals discharge in their feces and urine between 70%–90% of the antibiotic administrated unchanged or in active metabolites. Because livestock manure is re-applied to land as a fertilizer, concerns are growing over spread of antibiotics in water and soil. Development of antibiotic resistant bacteria is a major risk. This paper reviewed the potential of anaerobic digestion to degrade antibiotics in livestock manure. Anaerobic digestion can degrade manure-laden antibiotic to various extents depending on the concentration and class of antibiotic, bioreactor operating conditions, type of feedstock and inoculum sources. Abstract Degrading antibiotics discharged in the livestock manure in a well-controlled bioprocess contributes to a more sustainable and environment-friendly livestock breeding. Although most antibiotics remain stable during manure storage, anaerobic digestion can degrade and remove them to various extents depending on the concentration and class of antibiotic, bioreactor operating conditions, type of feedstock and inoculum sources. Generally, antibiotics are degraded during composting > anaerobic digestion > manure storage > soil. Manure matrix variation influences extraction, quantification, and degradation of antibiotics, but it has not been well investigated. Fractioning of manure-laden antibiotics into liquid and solid phases and its effects on their anaerobic degradation and the contribution of abiotic (physical and chemical) versus biotic degradation mechanisms need to be quantified for various manures, antibiotics types, reactor designs and temperature of operations. More research is required to determine the kinetics of antibiotics’ metabolites degradation during anaerobic digestion. Further investigations are required to assess the degradation of antibiotics during psychrophilic anaerobic digestion. PMID

  11. Environmental assay on the effect of poultry manure application on soil organisms in agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Delgado, M; Rodríguez, C; Martín, J V; Miralles de Imperial, R; Alonso, F

    2012-02-01

    This paper reports the effects produced on the organisms of the soil (plants, invertebrates and microorganisms), after the application of two types of poultry manure (sawdust and straw bed) on an agricultural land. The test was made using a terrestrial microcosm, Multi-Species Soil System (MS3) developed in INIA. There was no difference in the germination for any of the three species of plants considered in the study. The biomass was increased in the wheat (Triticum aestivum) coming from ground treated with both kinds of poultry manure. Oilseed rape (Brasica rapa) was not affected and regarding vetch (Vicia sativa) only straw poultry manure showed significant difference. For length only Vicia sativa was affected showing a reduction when straw was exposed to poultry manure. When the effect on invertebrates was studied, we observed a reduction in the number of worms during the test, especially from the ground control (13.7%), higher than in the ground with sawdust poultry manure (6.7%), whereas in the ground with straw poultry manure, there was no reduction. The biomass was affected and at the end of the test it was observed that while the reduction of worms in the ground control was about 48%, the number of those that were in the ground with sawdust poultry manure or straw poultry manure decreased by 41% and 22% respectively. Finally, the effects on microorganisms showed that the enzymatic activities: dehydrogenase (DH) and phosphatase and basal respiration rate increased at the beginning of the test, and the differences were statistically significant compared with the values of the control group. During the test, all these parameters decreased (except DH activities) but they were always higher than in the ground control. This is why it is possible to deduce that the contribution of poultry manure caused an improvement in the conditions of fertilization and also for the soil.

  12. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk.

    PubMed

    Manbeck, Harvey B; Hofstetter, Daniel W; Murphy, Dennis J; Puri, Virendra M

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated.

  13. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk

    PubMed Central

    Manbeck, Harvey B.; Hofstetter, Daniel W.; Murphy, Dennis J.; Puri, Virendra M.

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated. PMID:27303661

  14. The effect of manuring on cereal and pulse amino acid δ(15)N values.

    PubMed

    Styring, Amy K; Fraser, Rebecca A; Bogaard, Amy; Evershed, Richard P

    2014-06-01

    Amino acid δ(15)N values of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) grains and rachis and broad bean (Vicia faba) and pea (Pisum sativum) seeds, grown in manured and unmanured soil at the experimental farm stations of Rothamsted, UK and Bad Lauchstädt, Germany, were determined by GC-C-IRMS. Manuring was found to result in a consistent (15)N-enrichment of cereal grain amino acid δ(15)N values, indicating that manuring did not affect the metabolic routing of nitrogen (N) into cereal grain amino acids. The increase in cereal grain δ(15)N values with manuring is therefore due to a (15)N-enrichment in the δ(15)N value of assimilated inorganic-N. Greater variation was observed in the (15)N-enrichment of rachis amino acids with manuring, possibly due to enhanced sensitivity to changes in growing conditions and higher turnover of N in rachis cells compared to cereal grains. Total amino acid δ(15)N values of manured and unmanured broad beans and peas were very similar, indicating that the legumes assimilated N2 from the atmosphere rather than N from the soil, since there was no evidence for routing of (15)N-enriched manure N into any of the pulse amino acids. Crop amino acid δ(15)N values thus provide insights into the sources of N assimilated by non N2-fixing and N2-fixing crops grown on manured and unmanured soils, and reveal an effect of manure on N metabolism in different crop species and plant parts.

  15. Bloom of resident antibiotic-resistant bacteria in soil following manure fertilization.

    PubMed

    Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina; Wichmann, Fabienne; Broderick, Nichole A; Handelsman, Jo

    2014-10-21

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a global threat to public health. Agricultural use of antibiotics is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance, but the mechanisms by which many agricultural practices influence resistance remain obscure. Although manure from dairy farms is a common soil amendment in crop production, its impact on the soil microbiome and resistome is not known. To gain insight into this impact, we cultured bacteria from soil before and at 10 time points after application of manure from cows that had not received antibiotic treatment. Soil treated with manure contained a higher abundance of β-lactam-resistant bacteria than soil treated with inorganic fertilizer. Functional metagenomics identified β-lactam-resistance genes in treated and untreated soil, and indicated that the higher frequency of resistant bacteria in manure-amended soil was attributable to enrichment of resident soil bacteria that harbor β-lactamases. Quantitative PCR indicated that manure treatment enriched the blaCEP-04 gene, which is highly similar (96%) to a gene found previously in a Pseudomonas sp. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the abundance of Pseudomonas spp. increased in manure-amended soil. Populations of other soil bacteria that commonly harbor β-lactamases, including Janthinobacterium sp. and Psychrobacter pulmonis, also increased in response to manure treatment. These results indicate that manure amendment induced a bloom of certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria in soil that was independent of antibiotic exposure of the cows from which the manure was derived. Our data illustrate the unintended consequences that can result from agricultural practices, and demonstrate the need for empirical analysis of the agroecosystem. PMID:25288759

  16. Nutrient leaching and soil retention in mined land reclaimed with stabilized manure.

    PubMed

    Dere, Ashlee L; Stehouwer, Richard C; Aboukila, Emad; McDonald, Kirsten E

    2012-01-01

    Two environmental problems in Pennsylvania are degraded mined lands and excess manure nutrients from intensive animal production. Manure could be used in mine reclamation, but the large application rates required for sustained biomass production could result in significant nutrient discharge. An abandoned mine site in Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, was used to test manure nutrient stabilization by composting and by mixing with primary paper mill sludge (PMS). Reclamation treatments were lime and fertilizer, composted poultry manure (78 and 156 Mg ha), and poultry manure (50 Mg ha) mixed with PMS (103 and 184 Mg ha) to achieve C-to-N ratios of 20 and 29. Leachates were collected with zero-tension lysimeters, and during 3 yr following amendment application, <1% of added N leached from the compost treatments. The manure+PMS C:N 29 treatment leached more N than any other treatment (393 kg N ha during 3 yr, 12.4 times more N than compost treatments), mostly as pulses of NO in the first two fall seasons following reclamation. The manure+PMS C:N 20 treatment leached 107 kg N ha during 3 yr. Three years after amendment application, most of the N and P added with the manure-based amendments was retained in the mine soil even though net immobilization of N by PMS appeared to be limited to 3 mo following application. Composting or mixing PMS with manure to achieve a C-to-N ratio of 20 can effectively minimize N leaching, retain added N in mine soil, and provide greater improvement in soil quality than lime and fertilizer amendment.

  17. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk.

    PubMed

    Manbeck, Harvey B; Hofstetter, Daniel W; Murphy, Dennis J; Puri, Virendra M

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated. PMID:27303661

  18. Bloom of resident antibiotic-resistant bacteria in soil following manure fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina; Wichmann, Fabienne; Broderick, Nichole A.; Handelsman, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a global threat to public health. Agricultural use of antibiotics is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance, but the mechanisms by which many agricultural practices influence resistance remain obscure. Although manure from dairy farms is a common soil amendment in crop production, its impact on the soil microbiome and resistome is not known. To gain insight into this impact, we cultured bacteria from soil before and at 10 time points after application of manure from cows that had not received antibiotic treatment. Soil treated with manure contained a higher abundance of β-lactam–resistant bacteria than soil treated with inorganic fertilizer. Functional metagenomics identified β-lactam–resistance genes in treated and untreated soil, and indicated that the higher frequency of resistant bacteria in manure-amended soil was attributable to enrichment of resident soil bacteria that harbor β-lactamases. Quantitative PCR indicated that manure treatment enriched the blaCEP-04 gene, which is highly similar (96%) to a gene found previously in a Pseudomonas sp. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the abundance of Pseudomonas spp. increased in manure-amended soil. Populations of other soil bacteria that commonly harbor β-lactamases, including Janthinobacterium sp. and Psychrobacter pulmonis, also increased in response to manure treatment. These results indicate that manure amendment induced a bloom of certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria in soil that was independent of antibiotic exposure of the cows from which the manure was derived. Our data illustrate the unintended consequences that can result from agricultural practices, and demonstrate the need for empirical analysis of the agroecosystem. PMID:25288759

  19. Dairy heifer manure management, dietary phosphorus, and soil test P effects on runoff phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Jokela, William E; Coblentz, Wayne K; Hoffman, Patrick C

    2012-01-01

    Manure application to cropland can contribute to runoff losses of P and eutrophication of surface waters. We conducted a series of three rainfall simulation experiments to assess the effects of dairy heifer dietary P, manure application method, application rate, and soil test P on runoff P losses from two successive simulated rainfall events. Bedded manure (18-21% solids) from dairy heifers fed diets with or without supplemental P was applied on a silt loam soil packed into 1- by 0.2-m sheet metal pans. Manure was either surface-applied or incorporated (Experiment 1) or surface-applied at two rates (Experiment 2) to supply 26 to 63 kg P ha. Experiment 3 evaluated runoff P from four similar nonmanured soils with average Bray P1-extractable P levels of 11, 29, 51, and 75 mg kg. We measured runoff quantity, total P (TP), dissolved reactive P (DRP), and total and volatile solids in runoff collected for 30 min after runoff initiation from two simulated rain events (70 mm h) 3 or 4 d apart. Manure incorporation reduced TP and DRP concentrations and load by 85 to 90% compared with surface application. Doubling the manure rate increased runoff DRP and TP concentrations an average of 36%. In the same experiment, P diet supplementation increased water-extractable P in manure by 100% and increased runoff DRP concentration threefold. Concentrations of solids, TP, and DRP in runoff from Rain 2 were 25 to 75% lower than from Rain 1 in Experiments 1 and 2. Runoff DRP from nonmanured soils increased quadratically with increasing soil test P. These results show that large reductions in P runoff losses can be achieved by incorporation of manure, avoiding unnecessary diet P supplementation, limiting manure application rate, and managing soils to prevent excessive soil test P levels.

  20. A novel phosphorus biofertilizer based on cattle manure and phytases-nanoclay complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, Daniel; Jorquera, Milko; Greiner, Ralf; Velasquez, Gabriela; Mora, María de la Luz

    2013-04-01

    Phytate and other phytase labile organic phosphorus (P) are abundant in both soils and manures. These recalcitrant forms of P accumulate in soils by their interaction with mineral particles. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of treating cattle manure with phytases stabilized in allophanic nanoclays, as a novel P biofertilization technology for crops grown in volcanic soils (Andisol). Two Andisols and two manures with contrasting inorganic Pcontent were used: Low P soil from Piedras Negras series (SPN-LP); High P soil from Freire Series (SF-HP); Low P Waste (WPN-LP); High P Waste (WF-HP). The used Andisols and manures were incubated with phytase-nanoclay complexes and the inorganic P was determined in the NaOH-EDTA and bicarbonate extracts. The WPN-LP was also inoculated with an alkaline β-propeller phytase (BPP) producing bacterium. The incubated SPN-LP and SPN-LP-WPN-LP mixture were evaluated for their P supplying capacity to wheat plants under greenhouse conditions. Our resultsindicated that the treatment of cattle manure with phytase stabilized in nanoclays resulted in a significant (P≤0.0.5) increase in the inorganic P. The use of phytase treated cattle manure increased 10% plant dry weight and 39% P concentration in wheat plants under greenhouse conditions, being equivalent to a P fertilizer dose of about 150 kg of P ha-1. In the case of low P cattle manure inoculated with BPP producing bacterium, inorganic P increased 10% in soil extracts (NaOH EDTA and Bicarbonate). However, the application of this treated manure did not result in a significant response to wheat growth and P acquisition. Our results suggest that this novel approach of incubating cattle manure with phytase stabilized in nanoclays enhances organic P cycling and P nutrition of plants grown under P-deficient soils.

  1. Effects of pH and manure on transport of sulfonamide antibiotics in soil.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Claudia; Harter, Thomas; Radke, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Sulfonamide antibiotics are a commonly used group of compounds in animal husbandry. They are excreted with manure, which is collected in a storage lagoon in certain types of confined animal feeding operations. Flood irrigation of forage fields with this liquid manure creates the potential risk of groundwater contamination in areas with shallow groundwater levels. We tested the hypothesis that-in addition to the soil characteristics-manure as cosolute and manure pH are two major parameters influencing sulfonamide transport in soils. Solute displacement experiments in repacked, saturated soil columns were performed with soil (loamy sand) and manure from a dairy farm in California. Breakthrough of nonreactive tracer and sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethazine, and sulfamethoxazole at different solution pH (5, 6.5, 8.5) with and without manure was modeled using Hydrus-1D to infer transport and reaction parameters. Tracer and sulfonamide breakthrough curves were well explained by a model concept based on physical nonequilibrium transport, equilibrium sorption, and first-order dissipation kinetics. Sorption of the antibiotics was low ( K₄ ≤ 0.7 L kg) and only weakly influenced by pH and manure. However, sulfonamide attenuation was significantly affected by both pH and manure. The mass recovery of sulfonamides decreased with decreasing pH, e.g., for sulfamethoxazole from 77 (pH 8.5) to 56% (pH 5). The sulfonamides were highly mobile under the studied conditions, but manure application increased their attenuation substantially. The observed attenuation was most likely caused by a combination of microbial transformation and irreversible sorption to the soil matrix.

  2. Dairy diet phosphorus and rainfall timing effects on runoff phosphorus from land-applied manure.

    PubMed

    Hanrahan, Laura P; Jokela, William E; Knapp, Joanne R

    2009-01-01

    Surface-applied dairy manure can increase P concentrations in runoff, which may contribute to eutrophication of lakes and streams. The amount of dietary P fed to dairy cows (Bos taurus) and the timing of a rain event after manure application may further affect runoff P losses. The objective of this study was to examine dietary P supplementation effects on manure and runoff P concentrations from rain events occurring at different time intervals after manure application. Manure from dairy cows fed an unsupplemented low P diet (LP; 3.6 g P kg(-1)) or a diet supplemented with either an inorganic (HIP; 4.4 g P kg(-1)) or an organic (HOP; 4.6 g P kg(-1)) source was hand-applied onto soil-packed pans at 56 wet Mg ha(-1). Thirty min of runoff was collected from simulated rain events (30 mm h(-1)) 2, 5, or 9 d after manure application. Total P (TP) concentrations in runoff from HIP and HOP diet manure from the 2-d rain were 46 and 31% greater than that of the LP diet. Runoff P concentrations from high P diets were numerically higher than that of the LP diet at 5 and 9 d after application, but differences were significant only for dissolved reactive P (DRP) at 5 d. Large decreases in runoff TP (89%) and DRP (65%) concentrations occurred with delay of rainfall from 2 d until 5 d. The proportion of TP as DRP increased as the time between manure application and runoff increased. Results showed that reducing dietary P and extending the time between manure application and a rain event can significantly reduce concentrations of TP and DRP in runoff.

  3. Environmental assay on the effect of poultry manure application on soil organisms in agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Delgado, M; Rodríguez, C; Martín, J V; Miralles de Imperial, R; Alonso, F

    2012-02-01

    This paper reports the effects produced on the organisms of the soil (plants, invertebrates and microorganisms), after the application of two types of poultry manure (sawdust and straw bed) on an agricultural land. The test was made using a terrestrial microcosm, Multi-Species Soil System (MS3) developed in INIA. There was no difference in the germination for any of the three species of plants considered in the study. The biomass was increased in the wheat (Triticum aestivum) coming from ground treated with both kinds of poultry manure. Oilseed rape (Brasica rapa) was not affected and regarding vetch (Vicia sativa) only straw poultry manure showed significant difference. For length only Vicia sativa was affected showing a reduction when straw was exposed to poultry manure. When the effect on invertebrates was studied, we observed a reduction in the number of worms during the test, especially from the ground control (13.7%), higher than in the ground with sawdust poultry manure (6.7%), whereas in the ground with straw poultry manure, there was no reduction. The biomass was affected and at the end of the test it was observed that while the reduction of worms in the ground control was about 48%, the number of those that were in the ground with sawdust poultry manure or straw poultry manure decreased by 41% and 22% respectively. Finally, the effects on microorganisms showed that the enzymatic activities: dehydrogenase (DH) and phosphatase and basal respiration rate increased at the beginning of the test, and the differences were statistically significant compared with the values of the control group. During the test, all these parameters decreased (except DH activities) but they were always higher than in the ground control. This is why it is possible to deduce that the contribution of poultry manure caused an improvement in the conditions of fertilization and also for the soil. PMID:22154182

  4. Effect of temperature on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure.

    PubMed

    Deng, Liangwei; Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Yang, Hongnan; Liu, Yi; Chen, Ziai

    2016-07-15

    Laboratory-scale experiments were performed on the dry digestion of solid swine manure in a semi-continuous mode using 4.5 L down plug-flow anaerobic reactors with an organic loading rate of 3.46 kg volatile solids (VS) m(-3) d(-1) to evaluate the effects of temperature (15, 25 and 35 °C). At 15 °C, biogas production was the poorest due to organic overload and acidification, with a methane yield of 0.036 L CH4 g(-1) VS added and a volumetric methane production rate of 0.125 L CH4 L(-1) d(-1). The methane yield and volumetric methane production rate at 25 °C (0.226 L CH4 g(-1) VS added and 0.783 L CH4 L(-1) d(-1), respectively) were 6.24 times higher than those at 15 °C. However, the methane yield (0.237 L CH4 g(-1) VS added) and the volumetric methane production rate (0.821 L CH4 L(-1) d(-1)) at 35 °C were only 4.86% higher than those at 25 °C, which indicated similar results were obtained at 25 °C and 35 °C. The lower biogas production at 35 °C in dry digestion compared with that in wet digestion could be attributed to ammonia inhibition. For a single pig farm, digestion of solid manure is accomplished in small-scale domestic or small-farm bioreactors, for which operating temperatures of 35 °C are sometimes difficult to achieve. Considering biogas production, ammonia inhibition and net energy recovery, an optimum temperature for dry digestion of solid swine manure is 25 °C. PMID:27107950

  5. Transformation of Swine Manure and Algal Consortia to Value-added Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharara, Mahmoud A.

    The swine production sector is projected to grow globally. In the past, this growth manifested itself in increased herd sizes and geographically concentrated production. Although economically sound, these trends had negative consequences on surrounding ecosystems. Over-application of manure resulted in water quality degradation, while long-term storage of manure slurries was found to promote release of potent GHG emissions. There is a need for innovative approaches for swine manure management that are compatible with current scales of production, and increasingly strict environmental regulations. This study aims to investigate the potential for incorporating gasification as part of a novel swine manure management system which utilizes liquid-solid separation and periphytic algal consortia as a phycoremediation vector for the liquid slurry. The gasification of swine manure solids, and algal biomass solids generate both a gaseous fuel product (producer gas) in addition to a biochar co-product. First, the decomposition kinetics for both feedstock, i.e., swine manure solids, and algal solids, were quantified using thermogravimetry at different heating rates (1 ~ 40°C min-1) under different atmospheres (nitrogen, and air). Pyrolysis kinetics were determined for manure solids from two farms with different manure management systems. Similarly, the pyrolysis kinetics were determined for phycoremediation algae grown on swine manure slurries. Modeling algal solids pyrolysis as first-order independent parallel reactions was sufficient to describe sample devolatilization. Combustion of swine manure solids blended with algal solids, at different ratios, showed no synergistic effects. Gasification of phycoremediation algal biomass was studied using a bench-scale auger gasification system at temperatures between 760 and 960°C. The temperature profile suggested a stratification of reaction zones common to fixed-bed reactors. The producer gas heating value ranged between 2.2 MJ m

  6. The economics of energy from animal manure for greenhouse gas mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafoori, Emad

    2007-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) has significant economies of scale, i.e. per unit processing costs decrease with increasing size. The economics of AD to produce biogas and in turn electric power in farm or feedlot based units as well as centralized plants is evaluated for two settings in Alberta: a mixed farming area, Red Deer County, and an area of concentrated beef cattle feedlots, Lethbridge County. A centralized plant drawing manure from 61 sources in the mixed farming area could produce power at a cost of 218 MWh-1 (2005 US). A centralized plant drawing manure from 560,000 beef cattle in Lethbridge County, can produce power at a cost of 138 MWh-1. Digestate processing, if commercially available, shifts the balance in favor of centralized processing. At larger scales, pipelines could be used to deliver manure to a centralized plant and return the processed digestate back to the manure source for spreading. Pipeline transport of beef cattle manure is more economic than truck transport for the manure produced by more than 90,000 animals. Pipeline transport of digestate is more economic when manure from more than 21,000 beef cattle is available and two-way pipelining of manure plus digestate is more economic when manure from more than 29,000 beef cattle is available. The value of carbon credits necessary to make AD profitable in a mixed farming region is also calculated based on a detailed analysis of manure and digestate transport and processing costs at an AD plant. Carbon emission reductions from power generation are calculated for displacement of power from coal and natural gas. The required carbon credit to cover the cost of AD processing of manure is greater than 150 per tonne of CO2. These results show that AD treatment of manure from mixed farming areas is not economic given current values of carbon credits. Power from biogas has a high cost relative to current power prices and to the cost of power from other large scale renewable sources. Power from biogas would

  7. Meeting environmental requirements for the land application of manure.

    PubMed

    Centner, T J; Newton, G L

    2008-11-01

    In an effort to save regulatory resources, the US Environmental Protection Agency and individual states have interpreted the Clean Water Act in a manner that authorizes discharges from concentrated animal feeding operations without the review of nutrient management plans. Environmental groups have objected to the abbreviated regulatory procedures, and courts have ruled that permitting agencies must review substantive documentation of effluent limitations contained in nutrient management plans. Proposed new federal regulations prescribing the requirement of a meaningful review of appropriate documentation by the permitting agency respond to the judicial mandates. To facilitate regulatory approval, regulators might use a state certification program to achieve the obligatory meaningful review. Independent certifiers would ensure that an operation's land application of manure meets federal water quality requirements. PMID:18539820

  8. Antifoaming effect of chemical compounds in manure biogas reactors.

    PubMed

    Kougias, P G; Tsapekos, P; Boe, K; Angelidaki, I

    2013-10-15

    A precise and efficient antifoaming control strategy in bioprocesses is a challenging task as foaming is a very complex phenomenon. Nevertheless, foam control is necessary, as foam is a major operational problem in biogas reactors. In the present study, the effect of 14 chemical compounds on foam reduction was evaluated at concentration of 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.5% v/v(sample), in raw and digested manure. Moreover, two antifoam injection methods were compared for foam reduction efficiency. Natural oils (rapeseed and sunflower oil), fatty acids (oleic, octanoic and derivative of natural fatty acids), siloxanes (polydimethylsiloxane) and ester (tributylphosphate) were found to be the most efficient compounds to suppress foam. The efficiency of antifoamers was dependant on their physicochemical properties and greatly correlated to their chemical characteristics for dissolving foam. The antifoamers were more efficient in reducing foam when added directly into the liquid phase rather than added in the headspace of the reactor.

  9. Anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and potato waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadanaparthi, Sai Krishna Reddy

    Dairy and potato are two important agricultural commodities in Idaho. Both the dairy and potato processing industries produce a huge amount of waste which could cause environmental pollution. To minimize the impact of potential pollution associated with dairy manure (DM) and potato waste (PW), anaerobic co-digestion has been considered as one of the best treatment process. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and potato waste in terms of process stability, biogas generation, construction and operating costs, and potential revenue. For this purpose, I conducted 1) a literature review, 2) a lab study on anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and potato waste at three different temperature ranges (ambient (20-25°C), mesophilic (35-37°C) and thermophilic (55-57°C) with five mixing ratios (DM:PW-100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60), and 3) a financial analysis for anaerobic digesters based on assumed different capital costs and the results from the lab co-digestion study. The literature review indicates that several types of organic waste were co-digested with DM. Dairy manure is a suitable base matter for the co-digestion process in terms of digestion process stability and methane (CH4) production (Chapter 2). The lab tests showed that co-digestion of DM with PW was better than digestion of DM alone in terms of biogas and CH4 productions (Chapter 3). The financial analysis reveals DM and PW can be used as substrate for full size anaerobic digesters to generate positive cash flow within a ten year time period. Based on this research, the following conclusions and recommendations were made: ▸ The ratio of DM:PW-80:20 is recommended at thermophilic temperatures and the ratio of DM:PW-90:10 was recommended at mesophilic temperatures for optimum biogas and CH4 productions. ▸ In cases of anaerobic digesters operated with electricity generation equipment (generators), low cost plug flow digesters (capital cost of 600/cow

  10. Green Cleaning Label Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  11. Lighting: Green Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniccia, Dorine

    2003-01-01

    Explains that by using sustainable (green) building practices, schools and universities can make their lighting systems more efficient, noting that embracing green design principles can help schools attract students. Discusses lighting-control technologies (occupancy sensing technology, daylighting technology, and scheduling based technologies),…

  12. Greening the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Norma Velia

    2011-01-01

    Because educators vicariously touch the future through their students, the author believes that they sometimes have the uncanny ability to see the future. One common future forecast is the phenomenal growth of green jobs in the emerging green economy, leading to the creation of the "Reach of the Sun" Solar Energy Academy at La Mirada High School…

  13. Green Buildings and Health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health. PMID:26231502

  14. Green Infrastructure 101

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure 101 • What is it? What does it do? What doesn’t it do? • Green Infrastructure as a stormwater and combined sewer control • GI Controls and Best Management Practices that make sense for Yonkers o (Include operations and maintenance requirements for each)

  15. 10 Paths to Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Some institutions may feel comfortable with a few baby steps into the green world, while others may be ready to commit totally to environmental consciousness. Here, the author discusses 10 areas in which educators and administrators can beef up their green portfolio. These areas are in: alternative fuel, bikes/walking, water, education tools,…

  16. Custodial Operations: Green & Sustainable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, J. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Custodial Operations can have a significant impact on institutional green and sustainable goals if given the proper support and challenge. This article describes the green and sustainable custodial operations in place at Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota. The article reviews the college's sustainable efforts on biodegradables, packaging,…

  17. Green Building Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sailor, David Jean

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  18. Sowing Green Seeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yingjun, Chen; Jianzhuang, Rong

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with the development of environmental education Hunan Yueyang Middle School Number One. Famous for its beautiful environment and lush green trees, the school has won titles such as "park" unit, "garden" school, "green school" and "National Advanced Unit for Environmental Education." In order to popularize scientific knowledge of…

  19. Green Buildings and Health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  20. Green Chemistry and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  1. The Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huke, Robert E.

    1985-01-01

    Modern agriculture's green revolution refers to a complex package that includes improved seeds and a wide range of efficient management practices. The genetic history of and technological developments that led to the green revolution are described, and its impact discussed. (RM)

  2. A Green Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravitz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In the professional cleaning industry, green cleaning has been much discussed in the past few years. Usually, the information pertains to the many reasons why a green cleaning program should be started, the steps involved to get the program off the ground, and the potential benefits. However, although many facility managers and school…

  3. Multivariate Analysis of the Determinants of the End-Product Quality of Manure-Based Composts and Vermicomposts Using Bayesian Network Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Faverial, Julie; Cornet, Denis; Paul, Jacky

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that the quality of tropical composts is poorer than that of composts produced in temperate regions. The aim of this study was to test the type of manure, the use of co-composting with green waste, and the stabilization method for their ability to improve compost quality in the tropics. We produced 68 composts and vermicomposts that were analysed for their C, lignin and NPK contents throughout the composting process. Bayesian networks were used to assess the mechanisms controlling compost quality. The concentration effect, for C and lignin, and the initial blend quality, for NPK content, were the main factors affecting compost quality. Cattle manure composts presented the highest C and lignin contents, and poultry litter composts exhibited the highest NPK content. Co-composting improved quality by enhancing the concentration effect, which reduced the impact of C and nutrient losses. Vermicomposting did not improve compost quality; co-composting without earthworms thus appears to be a suitable stabilization method under the conditions of this study because it produced high quality composts and is easier to implement. PMID:27314950

  4. Multivariate Analysis of the Determinants of the End-Product Quality of Manure-Based Composts and Vermicomposts Using Bayesian Network Modelling.

    PubMed

    Faverial, Julie; Cornet, Denis; Paul, Jacky; Sierra, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that the quality of tropical composts is poorer than that of composts produced in temperate regions. The aim of this study was to test the type of manure, the use of co-composting with green waste, and the stabilization method for their ability to improve compost quality in the tropics. We produced 68 composts and vermicomposts that were analysed for their C, lignin and NPK contents throughout the composting process. Bayesian networks were used to assess the mechanisms controlling compost quality. The concentration effect, for C and lignin, and the initial blend quality, for NPK content, were the main factors affecting compost quality. Cattle manure composts presented the highest C and lignin contents, and poultry litter composts exhibited the highest NPK content. Co-composting improved quality by enhancing the concentration effect, which reduced the impact of C and nutrient losses. Vermicomposting did not improve compost quality; co-composting without earthworms thus appears to be a suitable stabilization method under the conditions of this study because it produced high quality composts and is easier to implement. PMID:27314950

  5. Green tea in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Pazyar, Nader; Feily, Amir; Kazerouni, Afshin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this brief review is to summarize all in vitro, in vivo, and controlled clinical trials on green tea preparations and their uses in dermatology. An extensive literature search was carried out to identify in vivo and in vitro studies as well as clinical trials. Twenty studies were assessed and the results suggest that oral administration of green tea can be effective in the scavenging of free radicals, cancer prevention, hair loss, and skin aging plus protection against the adverse effects associated with psoralen-UV-A therapy. Topical application of green tea extract should be potentially effective for atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, rosacea, androgenetic alopecia, hirsutism, keloids, genital warts, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and candidiosis. There are promising results with the use of green tea for several dermatologic conditions; however, the efficacy of oral and topical green tea has not always been confirmed. PMID:23346663

  6. Green tea in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Pazyar, Nader; Feily, Amir; Kazerouni, Afshin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this brief review is to summarize all in vitro, in vivo, and controlled clinical trials on green tea preparations and their uses in dermatology. An extensive literature search was carried out to identify in vivo and in vitro studies as well as clinical trials. Twenty studies were assessed and the results suggest that oral administration of green tea can be effective in the scavenging of free radicals, cancer prevention, hair loss, and skin aging plus protection against the adverse effects associated with psoralen-UV-A therapy. Topical application of green tea extract should be potentially effective for atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, rosacea, androgenetic alopecia, hirsutism, keloids, genital warts, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and candidiosis. There are promising results with the use of green tea for several dermatologic conditions; however, the efficacy of oral and topical green tea has not always been confirmed.

  7. Building the green way.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  8. Going Green: Greening Your Marketing Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Carol Anne

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt that the "Going Green" movement is in full swing. With global warming and other ecological concerns, people are paying closer attention to environmental issues and striving to live in a more sustainable world. For libraries, this is a perfect opportunity to be active in a campus-wide program and simultaneously promote library…

  9. Collection Development "Green Business": The Green Capitalist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The "greening" of corporate behemoths like Wal-Mart, DuPont, and Toyota has received much media attention in recent years. But consider small businesses: according to the U.S. Small Business Administration, of the estimated 27 million firms in the United States, 99.7 percent have fewer than 500 employees, 97.5 percent have fewer than 20, and more…

  10. Responses of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes and bacterial taxa to (fluoro)quinolones-containing manure in arable soil.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wenguang; Sun, Yongxue; Ding, Xueyao; Zhang, Yiming; Zhong, Xiaoxia; Liang, Wenfei; Zeng, Zhenling

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the fate of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and the disturbance of soil bacterial communities posed by (fluoro)quinolones (FQNs)-containing manure in arable soil. Representative FQNs (enrofloxacin (ENR), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and norfloxacin (NOR)), PMQR genes (qepA, oqxA, oqxB, aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrS) and bacterial communities in untreated soil, +manure and +manure+FQNs groups were analyzed using culture independent methods. The significantly higher abundance of oqxA, oqxB and aac(6')-Ib-cr, and significantly higher abundance of qnrS in +manure group than those in untreated soil disappeared at day 30 and day 60, respectively. All PMQR genes (oqxA, oqxB, aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrS) dissipated 1.5-1.7 times faster in +manure group than those in +manure+FQNs group. The disturbance of soil bacterial communities posed by FQNs-containing manure was also found. The results indicated that significant effects of PMQR genes (oqxA, oqxB, aac(6')-Ib and qnrS) on arable soils introduced by manure disappeared 2 month after manure application. FQNs introduced by manure slowed down the dissipation of PMQR genes. The presence of high FQNs provided a selective advantage for species affiliated to the phylum including Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes while suppressing Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria.

  11. An in vitro study of manure composition on the biochemical origins, composition, and accumulation of odorous compounds in cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Miller, D N; Varel, V H

    2002-09-01

    Very little is known about the biochemical origin of cattle feedlot odors and the environmental factors controlling their production. The tie between diet and manure composition is well established, but the effect of different manure compositions on odorous chemical production is unknown. This study describes the effect of starch, casein, and cellulose substrate additions to slurries of fresh (< 24 h) and aged cattle manure (> 1 d) on the anaerobic production of fermentation products and the consumption of substrates relative to no addition treatments. Aged cattle manure accumulated more VFA (245 to 290 mM) than the fresh manure (91 to 181 mM) irrespective of substrate additions (P < 0.001). In fresh manures, VFA concentrations were increased (P < 0.01) over no addition treatments when carbohydrate (starch or cellulose) was added, whereas starch and protein treatments to aged manure increased VFA content relative to no addition treatments (P < 0.001). Branched-chain VFA and aromatic compounds accumulated only in the aged manure (no addition and protein treatments), indicating that some protein fermentation occurred in those treatments. Based upon substrate loss, starch fermentation was the dominant process in both manures and all treatments with losses exceeding 18.6 g/L. Protein fermentation occurred only in the aged manure, specifically the no addition and protein treatments, when starch was no longer available. The production of odorous compounds from manure was controlled by substrate availability and pH, with pH related to lactate accumulation. We believe that calcareous soil and lactate-consuming microorganisms in the aged manure slurries minimized slurry acidification and resulted in greater accumulations of odorous products. Substrate additions had little effect on the overall accumulation of odor compounds in manure but had profound effects on odor compound composition. We propose that modifying cattle diets to limit starch and protein excretion would

  12. An in vitro study of manure composition on the biochemical origins, composition, and accumulation of odorous compounds in cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Miller, D N; Varel, V H

    2002-09-01

    Very little is known about the biochemical origin of cattle feedlot odors and the environmental factors controlling their production. The tie between diet and manure composition is well established, but the effect of different manure compositions on odorous chemical production is unknown. This study describes the effect of starch, casein, and cellulose substrate additions to slurries of fresh (< 24 h) and aged cattle manure (> 1 d) on the anaerobic production of fermentation products and the consumption of substrates relative to no addition treatments. Aged cattle manure accumulated more VFA (245 to 290 mM) than the fresh manure (91 to 181 mM) irrespective of substrate additions (P < 0.001). In fresh manures, VFA concentrations were increased (P < 0.01) over no addition treatments when carbohydrate (starch or cellulose) was added, whereas starch and protein treatments to aged manure increased VFA content relative to no addition treatments (P < 0.001). Branched-chain VFA and aromatic compounds accumulated only in the aged manure (no addition and protein treatments), indicating that some protein fermentation occurred in those treatments. Based upon substrate loss, starch fermentation was the dominant process in both manures and all treatments with losses exceeding 18.6 g/L. Protein fermentation occurred only in the aged manure, specifically the no addition and protein treatments, when starch was no longer available. The production of odorous compounds from manure was controlled by substrate availability and pH, with pH related to lactate accumulation. We believe that calcareous soil and lactate-consuming microorganisms in the aged manure slurries minimized slurry acidification and resulted in greater accumulations of odorous products. Substrate additions had little effect on the overall accumulation of odor compounds in manure but had profound effects on odor compound composition. We propose that modifying cattle diets to limit starch and protein excretion would

  13. Antibiotic resistance genes in manure-amended soil and vegetables at harvest.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Hua; Qiao, Min; Chen, Zheng; Su, Jian-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-12-15

    Lettuce and endive, which can be eaten raw, were planted on the manure-amended soil in order to explore the influence of plants on the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in bulk soil and rhizosphere soil, and the occurrence of ARGs on harvested vegetables. Twelve ARGs and one integrase gene (intI1) were detected in all soil samples. Five ARGs (sulI, tetG, tetC, tetA, and tetM) showed lower abundance in the soil with plants than those without. ARGs and intI1 gene were also detected on harvested vegetables grown in manure-amended soil, including endophytes and phyllosphere microorganisms. The results demonstrated that planting had an effect on the distribution of ARGs in manure-amended soil, and ARGs were detected on harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil, which had potential threat to human health.

  14. Life cycle assessment of swine and dairy manure: pyrolysis and combustion processes.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Lopez, M; Puig-Gamero, M; Lopez-Gonzalez, D; Avalos-Ramirez, Antonio; Valverde, J; Sanchez-Silva, L

    2015-04-01

    The valorization of three different manure samples via pyrolysis and combustion processes was evaluated. Dairy manure (sample Pre) was biologically pretreated by anaerobic digestion (sample Dig R) whereas swine manure (sample SW) was pretreated by a biodrying process. Thermal behavior of manure samples were studied by means of thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry (TGA-MS). These processes could be divided into four general stages: dehydration, devolatilization, char transformation (oxidation for combustion) and inorganic matter decomposition. The main differences observed among the samples were attributed to their different composition and pretreatment. The economic feasibility, energetic and environmental impacts of pyrolysis and combustion technologies for dairy samples were carried out by means of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Four different scenarios were analyzed. The economic feasibility of the pyrolysis process was demonstrated, being sample Dig R the best environmental option. However, the combustion of sample Pre was the best energetic option.

  15. Leachate water quality of soils amended with different swine manure-based amendments

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the face of the rising level of manure production from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), management options are being sought that can provide nutrient recycling for plant growth and improved soil conditions with minimal environmental impacts. Alternatives to dire...

  16. Experimental studies on combustion of cattle manure in a fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Annamaial, K.; Ibrahim, M.Y.; Sweeten, J.M.

    1987-06-01

    Manure from cattle feedlots is a renewable energy source which has the potential of supplementing the existing fossil fuels. But the heat content of manure is rather low. Since the fluidized bed combustion technology has been used for the energy conversion of marginal fuels, such a technology is being explored for the combustion of feedlot manure. A fluidized bed combustor of 0.15 m (6 in.) diameter was used for the combustion tests on manure. Experiments were conducted with -20 to +20 percent excess air and at bed temperatures ranging from 600/sup 0/C (1112/sup 0/F) to 800/sup 0/C (1472/sup 0/F). Experimental data revealed that the gasification efficiencies ranged from 90 to 98 percent, while the combustion efficiencies varied from 45 to 85 percent.

  17. Effects Of Winter Manure Application In Ohio On The Quality Of Surface Runoff

    EPA Science Inventory

    Winter application of manure can pose environmental risks depending upon the application approach. Seven continuous corn, instrumented watersheds (approximately 1 ha each) at the USDA-ARS North Applachian Experimental Watershed research station near Coshocton, Ohio were used to ...

  18. Mechanisms of Virus Adsorption Following Land Application of Anaerobically Treated Flushed Dairy Manure Wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soil adsorption mechanisms of viruses in untreated and anaerobically treated animal manure wastewater and groundwater was investigated. Batch adsorption studies were performed using cationic (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, HTAB), anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), and nonionic (polyoxy...

  19. Emissions of N2O and CH4 during the composting of liquid swine manure.

    PubMed

    Thompson, A G; Wagner-Riddle, C; Fleming, R

    2004-02-01

    Composted organic wastes have been shown to reduce emissions of N2O and CH4, but little is known about the release of these gases during the composting process. This research examined the emissions of N2O and CH4 during the composting of liquid swine manure and wheat straw at two operations, one with forced aeration and the other without. The lack of aeration increased CH4 emissions to 24 times that of composting with aeration, but had no significant effect on N2O production. When total N2O and CH4 emissions from composting were compared with liquid swine manure emissions, aerated composting was found to reduce emissions to as low as 30% of those from liquid manure storage, while non-aerated composting elevated emissions up to an estimated 330% of liquid manure storage.

  20. Effect of nitrogen and fish manure fertilization on growth and chemical composition of lettuce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, Ertan; Kul, Raziye; Turan, Metin; Ekinci, Melek; Alak, Gonca; Atamanalp, Muhammet

    2016-04-01

    Present experiment was designed to determine the response of various dozes of fish manure (FM) and commercial fertilizers on plant growth, yield and nutrient content of lettuce. The treatments consisted of fish manure, commercial fertilizer and the combination of fish manure and commercial fertilizer with four dozes of nitrogen (0 kg/ha, 100 kg/ha, 150 kg/ha and 200 kg/ha). The results of the study showed that treatments significantly affected the growth and chemical characteristics of lettuce. The best results in regard to plant growth and yield were obtained from 100 and 150 kg kg/ha nitrogen dozes of the combination of fish manure and commercial fertilizer.