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Sample records for green objects egos

  1. NEWLY IDENTIFIED EXTENDED GREEN OBJECTS (EGOs) FROM THE SPITZER GLIMPSE II SURVEY. II. MOLECULAR CLOUD ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xi; Gan Conggui; Shen Zhiqiang; Ellingsen, Simon P.; Titmarsh, Anita; He Jinhua

    2013-06-01

    We have undertaken a survey of molecular lines in the 3 mm band toward 57 young stellar objects using the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m radio telescope. The target sources were young stellar objects with active outflows (extended green objects (EGOs)) newly identified from the GLIMPSE II survey. We observe a high detection rate (50%) of broad line wing emission in the HNC and CS thermal lines, which combined with the high detection rate of class I methanol masers toward these sources (reported in Paper I) further demonstrates that the GLIMPSE II EGOs are associated with outflows. The physical and kinematic characteristics derived from the 3 mm molecular lines for these newly identified EGOs are consistent with these sources being massive young stellar objects with ongoing outflow activity and rapid accretion. These findings support our previous investigations of the mid-infrared properties of these sources and their association with other star formation tracers (e.g., infrared dark clouds, methanol masers and millimeter dust sources) presented in Paper I. The high detection rate (64%) of the hot core tracer CH{sub 3}CN reveals that the majority of these new EGOs have evolved to the hot molecular core stage. Comparison of the observed molecular column densities with predictions from hot core chemistry models reveals that the newly identified EGOs from the GLIMPSE II survey are members of the youngest hot core population, with an evolutionary time scale of the order of 10{sup 3} yr.

  2. A 1 mm SPECTRAL LINE SURVEY TOWARD GLIMPSE EXTENDED GREEN OBJECTS (EGOs)

    SciTech Connect

    He, J. H.; Chen, X. E-mail: satoko_t@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw

    2012-09-15

    A northern subsample of 89 Spitzer GLIMPSE extended green objects (EGOs), the candidate massive young stellar objects, are surveyed for molecular lines in two 1 GHz ranges: 251.5-252.5 and 260.188-261.188 GHz. A comprehensive catalog of observed molecular line data and spectral plots are presented. Eight molecular species are undoubtedly detected: H{sup 13}CO{sup +}, SiO, SO, CH{sub 3}OH, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CN, HCOOCH{sub 3}, and HN{sup 13}C. The H{sup 13}CO{sup +} 3-2 line is detected in 70 EGOs, among which 37 also show the SiO 6-5 line, demonstrating their association with dense gas and supporting the outflow interpretation of the extended 4.5 {mu}m excess emission. Our major dense gas and outflow tracers (H{sup 13}CO{sup +}, SiO, SO, and CH{sub 3}OH) are combined with our previous survey of {sup 13}CO, {sup 12}CO, and C{sup 18}O 1-0 toward the same sample of EGOs for a multi-line, multi-cloud analysis of linewidth and luminosity correlations. Good log-linear correlations are found among all considered line luminosities, the explanation of which requires a universal similarity of density and thermal structures and probably of shock properties among all EGO clouds. It also requires that the shocks be produced within the natal clouds of the EGOs. Diverse degrees of correlation are found among the linewidths. However, both the linewidth and luminosity correlations tend to progressively worsen across larger cloud subcomponent size scales, depicting the increase of randomness across cloud subcomponent sizes. Moreover, the linewidth correlations among the three isotopic CO 1-0 lines show data scatter as linear functions of the linewidth itself, indicating that the velocity randomness also increases with whole cloud sizes in a regular way.

  3. Ego, drives, and the dynamics of internal objects

    PubMed Central

    Boag, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between the ego, id, and internal objects. While ego psychology views the ego as autonomous of the drives, a less well-known alternative position views the ego as constituted by the drives. Based on Freud’s ego-instinct account, this position has developed into a school of thought which postulates that the drives act as knowers. Given that there are multiple drives, this position proposes that personality is constituted by multiple knowers. Following on from Freud, the ego is viewed as a composite sub-set of the instinctual drives (ego-drives), whereas those drives cut off from expression form the id. The nature of the “self” is developed in terms of identification and the possibility of multiple personalities is also established. This account is then extended to object-relations and the explanatory value of the ego-drive account is discussed in terms of the addressing the nature of ego-structures and the dynamic nature of internal objects. Finally, the impact of psychological conflict and the significance of repression for understanding the nature of splits within the psyche are also discussed. PMID:25071640

  4. A catalog of extended green objects in the Glimpse survey: A new sample of massive young stellar object outflow candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Cyganowski, C. J.; Holden, E.; Braden, E.; Churchwell, E.; Babler, B. L.; Meade, M. R.; Povich, M. S.; Whitney, B. A.; Brogan, C. L.; Indebetouw, R.; Watson, D. F.; Benjamin, R.; Gomez, M.; Robitaille, T. P.; Watson, C. E-mail: bwhitney@spacescience.org

    2008-12-01

    Using images from the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE), we have identified more than 300 extended 4.5 μm sources (Extended Green Objects (EGOs), for the common coding of the [4.5] band as green in three-color composite InfraRed Array Camera images). We present a catalog of these EGOs, including integrated flux density measurements at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 μm from GLIMPSE and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer Galactic Plane Survey. The average angular separation between a source in our sample and the nearest IRAS point source is greater than 1'. The majority of EGOs are associated with infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), and where high-resolution 6.7 GHz CH{sub 3}OH maser surveys overlap the GLIMPSE coverage, EGOs and 6.7 GHz CH{sub 3}OH masers are strongly correlated. Extended 4.5 μm emission is thought to trace shocked molecular gas in protostellar outflows; the association of EGOs with IRDCs and 6.7 GHz CH{sub 3}OH masers suggests that the extended 4.5 μm emission may pinpoint outflows specifically from massive protostars. The mid-IR colors of EGOs lie in regions of color-color space occupied by young protostars still embedded in infalling envelopes.

  5. Ego-rotation and object-rotation in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiu; Yang, Laiqi; Ma, Wentao; Wu, Xingqu; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Dunhong; Liu, Guangxiong; Deng, Zihe; Hua, Zhen; Jia, Ting

    2013-08-30

    Mental rotation (MR) performance provides a direct insight into a prototypical higher-level visuo-spatial cognitive operation. Previous studies suggest that progressive slowing with an increasing angle of orientation indicates a specific wing of object-based mental transformations in the psychomotor retardation that occurs in major depressive disorder (MDD). It is still not known, however, whether the ability of object-rotation is associated with the ability of ego-rotation in MDD. The present study was designed to investigate the level of impairment of mental transformation abilities in MDD. For this purpose we tested 33 MDD (aged 18-52 years, 16 women) and 30 healthy control subjects (15 women, age and education matched) by evaluating the performance of MDD subjects with regard to ego-rotation and object-rotation tasks. First, MDD subjects were significantly slower and made more errors than controls in mentally rotating hands and letters. Second, MDD and control subjects displayed the same pattern of response times to stimuli at various orientations in the letter task but not the hand task. Third, in particular, MDD subjects were significantly slower and made more errors during the mental transformation of hands than letters relative to control subjects and were significantly slower and made more errors in physiologically impossible angles than physiologically possible angles in the mental rotation hand task. In conclusion, MDD subjects present with more serious mental rotation deficits specific to the hand than the letter task. Importantly, deficits were more present during the mental transformation in outward rotation angles, thus suggesting that the mental imagery for hands and letters relies on different processing mechanisms which suggest a module that is more complex for the processing of human hands than for letters during mental rotation tasks. Our study emphasises the necessity of distinguishing different levels of impairment of action in MDD subjects.

  6. Subliminal galvanic-vestibular stimulation influences ego- and object-centred components of visual neglect.

    PubMed

    Oppenländer, Karin; Keller, Ingo; Karbach, Julia; Schindler, Igor; Kerkhoff, Georg; Reinhart, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    Neglect patients show contralesional deficits in egocentric and object-centred visuospatial tasks. The extent to which these different phenomena are modulated by sensory stimulation remains to be clarified. Subliminal galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) induces imperceptible, polarity-specific changes in the cortical vestibular systems without the unpleasant side effects (nystagmus, vertigo) induced by caloric vestibular stimulation. While previous studies showed vestibular stimulation effects on egocentric spatial neglect phenomena, such effects were rarely demonstrated in object-centred neglect. Here, we applied bipolar subsensory GVS over the mastoids (mean intensity: 0.7mA) to investigate its influence on egocentric (digit cancellation, text copying), object-centred (copy of symmetrical figures), or both (line bisection) components of visual neglect in 24 patients with unilateral right hemisphere stroke. Patients were assigned to two patient groups (impaired vs. normal in the respective task) on the basis of cut-off scores derived from the literature or from normal controls. Both groups performed all tasks under three experimental conditions carried out on three separate days: (a) sham/baseline GVS where no electric current was applied, (b) left cathodal/right anodal (CL/AR) GVS and (c) left anodal/right cathodal (AL/CR) GVS, for a period of 20min per session. CL/AR GVS significantly improved line bisection and text copying whereas AL/CR GVS significantly ameliorated figure copying and digit cancellation. These GVS effects were selectively observed in the impaired- but not in the unimpaired patient group. In conclusion, subliminal GVS modulates ego- and object-centred components of visual neglect rapidly. Implications for neurorehabilitation are discussed. PMID:25445776

  7. A WATER MASER AND NH{sub 3} SURVEY OF GLIMPSE EXTENDED GREEN OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Cyganowski, C. J.; Koda, J.; Towers, S.; Meyer, J. Donovan; Rosolowsky, E.; Egusa, F.; Momose, R.; Robitaille, T. P.

    2013-02-10

    We present the results of a Nobeyama 45 m H{sub 2}O maser and NH{sub 3} survey of all 94 northern GLIMPSE extended green objects (EGOs), a sample of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) identified based on their extended 4.5 {mu}m emission. We observed the NH{sub 3}(1,1), (2,2), and (3,3) inversion lines, and detected emission toward 97%, 63%, and 46% of our sample, respectively (median rms {approx} 50 mK). The H{sub 2}O maser detection rate is 68% (median rms {approx} 0.11 Jy). The derived H{sub 2}O maser and clump-scale gas properties are consistent with the identification of EGOs as young MYSOs. To explore the degree of variation among EGOs, we analyze subsamples defined based on mid-infrared (MIR) properties or maser associations. H{sub 2}O masers and warm dense gas, as indicated by emission in the higher-excitation NH{sub 3} transitions, are most frequently detected toward EGOs also associated with both Class I and II CH{sub 3}OH masers. Ninety-five percent (81%) of such EGOs are detected in H{sub 2}O (NH{sub 3}(3,3)), compared to only 33% (7%) of EGOs without either CH{sub 3}OH maser type. As populations, EGOs associated with Class I and/or II CH{sub 3}OH masers have significantly higher NH{sub 3} line widths, column densities, and kinetic temperatures than EGOs undetected in CH{sub 3}OH maser surveys. However, we find no evidence for statistically significant differences in H{sub 2}O maser properties (such as maser luminosity) among any EGO subsamples. Combining our data with the 1.1 mm continuum Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey, we find no correlation between isotropic H{sub 2}O maser luminosity and clump number density. H{sub 2}O maser luminosity is weakly correlated with clump (gas) temperature and clump mass.

  8. High resolution OH observations of Extended Green Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayandina, O. S.; Val'tts, I. E.; Kurtz, S. E.

    2015-11-01

    Themaser pumping schemes proposed for the various OH lines may not be as clear-cut as they once seemed. The main OH lines, at 1665 and 1667 MHz, are thought to be radiatively pumped, with the radiation typically coming from nearby ultracompact HII regions. Recently, a new class of main-line maser has been posited, collisionally pumped by shocks due to molecular outflows. The W3(OH)/W3(OH)-TW system is the archetype: traditional OH masers are excited by theW3(OH) ultracompact HII region, while collisionally pumped OH masers arise in the younger object W3(OH)-TW, which is driving an outflow. The 1720 MHz OH satellite line maser, typically found in SNR-cloud interaction regions, is thought to be collisionally pumped, as are class I methanol masers found in star formation regions. Thus it is plausible that these two masers arise in similar (shocked gas) circumstances. In this study we observe all four OH transitions in the direction of Extended Green Objects (EGOs) that trace shocked gas (possibly from outflows) in high-mass star formation regions. Previous studies have found a high incidence of class I methanol maser emission in these objects, suggesting that OH(1720) masers might also be abundant in this sample. Observations of 20 northern EGOs (δ > -17°) were carried out with the Jansky Very Large Array of all four ground state OH transitions, the HI line, and the 20 centimeter continuum. Positive detection of OH lines was obtained for 10 EGOs: OH lines at 1665 and 1667 MHz were detected toward 45% of the sample. The stellar OH line at 1612 MHz was detected toward 15% of the sample. The 1720 MHz emission line was detected in only one EGO source, G45.47+0.07, which is also presents the strongest main-line OH emission of our sample. We measure the projected separations between OH masers and GLIMPSE point sources associated with EGOs (median value 0.04 pc), betweenOH and class II methanol masers (median value 0.03 pc), and between OH and class I methanol masers

  9. Art Therapy to Promote Ego Development in Disturbed Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Ellen A.

    The paper discusses the six major ego functions, ego disturbances in mentally retarded children, and case examples of the use of art therapy to promote ego development. Identified are the following ego functions: control and regulation of instinctual drives, autonomous functions, reality testing, object relationships, defense, and synthesis. The…

  10. Ego-syntonicity and ego-dystonicity of eating-related intrusive thoughts in patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Roncero, María; Belloch, Amparo; Perpiñá, Conxa; Treasure, Janet

    2013-06-30

    The main objective of the present study was to analyse the role of the ego-dystonicity and ego-syntonicity of eating disorder intrusive thoughts (EDITs) in the genesis and maintenance of eating disorders (EDs). Participants were 98 female patients with EDs, 56 Spanish and 42 English (27.19±9.59 years; body mass index (BMI): 18.72±2.87). All of them completed the eating attitudes test, the Eating Attitudes Test, the Eating Intrusive Thoughts Inventory, the Ego-Dystonicity Questionnaire-Reduced version, and the Ego-Syntonicity Questionnaire. Patients indicated that their EDITs were rational and also undesirable and immoral, suggesting that EDITs are not fully ego-syntonic or ego-dystonic. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated no differences in ego-syntonicity and ego-dystonicity across ED subtypes. Path analyses were performed to investigate the mediating role of the EDITs' ego-syntonicity and ego-dystonicity in their interference, dysfunctional appraisals and control strategies. They showed, first, that the more interference an EDIT caused, the more ego-syntonic and the less ego-dystonic it was and, second, that when the EDITs were assessed as ego-syntonic, patients tried to do what they indicated, whereas when they were assessed as ego-dystonic, patients made efforts to neutralise them. Clinical implications for the conceptualisation and treatment of ED are discussed.

  11. A molecular line study towards massive extended green object clumps in the southern sky: chemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Naiping; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2015-08-01

    We present a molecular line study towards 31 extended green object (EGO) clumps in the southern sky using data from MALT90 (Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz). According to previous multiwavelength observations, we divide our sample into two groups: massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and H II regions. The most detected lines are N2H+ (J = 1 - 0), HCO+ (J = 1 - 0), HNC (J = 1 - 0), HCN (J = 1 - 0), HC3N (J = 10 - 9), H13CO+ (J = 1 - 0), C2H (N = 1 - 0) and SiO (J = 2 - 1), indicating that most EGOs are indeed associated with dense clumps and recent outflow activities. The velocity widths of the N2H+ (J = 1 - 0), H13CO+ (J = 1 - 0), C2H (N = 1 - 0) and HC3N (J = 10 - 9) lines are comparable to each other in MYSOs. However, in H II regions the velocity widths of the N2H+ (J = 1 - 0) and C2H (N = 1 - 0) lines tend to be narrower than those of H13CO+ (J = 1 - 0) and HC3N (J = 10 - 9). Our results seem to support that N2H+ and C2H emissions mainly come from the gas inside quiescent clumps. In addition, we also find that the [N2H+]/[H13CO+] and [C2H]/[H13CO+] relative abundance ratios decrease from MYSOs to H II regions. These results suggest depletion of N2H+ and C2H in the late stages of massive-star formation, probably caused by the formation of H II regions inside. N2H+ and C2H might be used as chemical clocks for massive-star formation by comparing with other molecules such as H13CO+ and HC3N.

  12. Tailoring Green Infrastructure Implementation Scenarios based on Stormwater Management Objectives

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure (GI) refers to stormwater management practices that mimic nature by soaking up, storing, and controlling onsite. GI practices can contribute reckonable benefits towards meeting stormwater management objectives, such as runoff peak shaving, volume reduction, f...

  13. The ego according to Klein: return to Freud and beyond.

    PubMed

    Blass, Rachel B

    2012-02-01

    This paper explores fundamental dimensions of Melanie Klein's concept of the ego through a detailed study of the writings of Klein and her early colleagues (Paula Heimann, Susan Isaacs and Joan Riviere). The study examines three central issues: (a) the basic theoretical framework for Klein's conceptualization of the ego, and specifically how her conceptualization builds on Freud's structural and dual instinct models; (b) the processes involved in the development of the ego and its capacities (including the development from id to ego and from ego to superego); and (c) the view of the ego as an object of phantasy. Through this examination, the study demonstrates that Klein's conceptualization of the ego is firmly grounded both in Freud's formulations about the ego and in his theoretical and metapsychological approach to thinking about the ego. This counters the prevalent view that Klein was only focused on clinical understandings, unconcerned with theory and fuzzy in her abstract thinking. More specifically, it counters the view that Klein did not really have a concept of the ego in any well-structured sense of the term (Britton, 2003; Hinshelwood, 1994; Segal, 2001). The study considers the sources of these misconceived views. Finally, it argues that discarding such views allows us to appreciate better the richness of Klein's thinking, her theoretical affinities to Freud, and the role of theory in the development and justification of psychoanalysis.

  14. The ego according to Klein: return to Freud and beyond.

    PubMed

    Blass, Rachel B

    2012-02-01

    This paper explores fundamental dimensions of Melanie Klein's concept of the ego through a detailed study of the writings of Klein and her early colleagues (Paula Heimann, Susan Isaacs and Joan Riviere). The study examines three central issues: (a) the basic theoretical framework for Klein's conceptualization of the ego, and specifically how her conceptualization builds on Freud's structural and dual instinct models; (b) the processes involved in the development of the ego and its capacities (including the development from id to ego and from ego to superego); and (c) the view of the ego as an object of phantasy. Through this examination, the study demonstrates that Klein's conceptualization of the ego is firmly grounded both in Freud's formulations about the ego and in his theoretical and metapsychological approach to thinking about the ego. This counters the prevalent view that Klein was only focused on clinical understandings, unconcerned with theory and fuzzy in her abstract thinking. More specifically, it counters the view that Klein did not really have a concept of the ego in any well-structured sense of the term (Britton, 2003; Hinshelwood, 1994; Segal, 2001). The study considers the sources of these misconceived views. Finally, it argues that discarding such views allows us to appreciate better the richness of Klein's thinking, her theoretical affinities to Freud, and the role of theory in the development and justification of psychoanalysis. PMID:22320140

  15. G333.466-0.164, An EGO That Is Not Aligned With Its Disk Axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Janet P.; Burton, Michael; Cotera, Angela; Cunningham, Maria; Lo, Nadia

    2015-08-01

    The infrared source G333.466-0.164 (IRAS 16175-5002) was discovered to contain a 4.5 micron emission feature (extended green object, EGO) in images taken with Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera in 2004. EGOs appear to define the location of outflows from massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and have been attributed to both emission from molecular hydrogen or CO in the shocked outflow and to scattered light from the outflow cavity. We confirmed that there is a MYSO at the south end of the 15'' long, thin EGO from spectra taken with Spitzer's Infrared Spectrograph in 2009 (Simpson et al. 2012, MNRAS, 419, 211). To further characterize G333.466-0.164 we obtained 12.3 and 24.5 micron images with T-ReCS on Gemini South. Although the MYSO itself is not detected at 12.3 micron, we clearly resolve an elongated source at the location of the MYSO at 24.5 micron with the 0.76" FWHM resolution of Gemini. The elongated region has major and minor axes 2.5'' and 1.5'', respectively, where the position angle of the major axis is 147 pm 5 degrees east of north. For a distance of 3.6 kpc, this corresponds to a size of 9000 AU by 5400 AU. We contrast the position angle of the source to that of the EGO, which is approximately -10 degrees east of north measured from the MYSO. Methanol masers have been measured in G333.466-0.164 by Caswell et al. (2011, MNRAS, 417, 1964) and Voronkov et al. (2014, MNRAS, 439, 258). The 6.7 GHz Class II maser is found at the position of the MYSO and the 36 and 44 GHz Class I masers, which are excited by shocks, are found in positions coinciding with the EGO and also in a line perpendicular to the EGO, in an area obscured by an optically thick dust lane. Voronkov et al. suggest that the actual outflow lies between the two lines of Class I masers in the northeast direction; this is in excellent agreement with the northeast-oriented minor axis of the elongated feature that we observe at 24.5 micron. Thus we identify the 24.5 micron source as the disk of the

  16. Ego-Resilience through Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Jack

    This paper reports the results of an ongoing study of individuals' ego control and ego resiliency. The study began with 130 subjects in 1969 when the subjects were in nursery school. At the most recent assessment, 104 participants still remained. Ego control is defined as the degree and kind of control individuals exert over their impulses, and…

  17. Erikson's concept of ego identity reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Wallerstein, R S

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores and attempts to explain the paradox that Erik Erikson--after Freud, undoubtedly the psychoanalyst best known, most deeply esteemed, and most widely influential in the sociohistorical surround of world culture--has at the same time never been properly integrated into the psychoanalytic mainstream, but has instead been marginalized, consigned to a persisting psychoanalytic limbo. Two successive contexts within the historical unfolding of psychoanalysis in America, the milieu in which Erikson worked, would seem to account for this neglect. First, Erikson's monumental contributions to our understanding of the psychosocial developmental process, of the epigenesis of the ego, of the phase-specific developmental tasks across the eight postulated stages of the life cycle, and of the intergenerational cogwheeling of the life cycles were made during the 1950s and 1960s and could not easily be integrated into the ego psychology metapsychological paradigm then monolithically regnant within American psychoanalysis. And, second, as a major paradigm shift took place in America, beginning in the 1970s, toward a more relational, interpersonal, and intersubjective framework, Erikson's contributions, couched as they were in the structural language of the ego psychology of his time, were overlooked and went unremarked as seminal precursors of the newly emerging emphases. The clear relationship of Erikson's concepts of (ego) identity to emerging conceptions of self in relation to objects was simply not noticed, and his work continues to this day to be neglected and unintegrated within psychoanalysis.

  18. Erikson's concept of ego identity reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Wallerstein, R S

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores and attempts to explain the paradox that Erik Erikson--after Freud, undoubtedly the psychoanalyst best known, most deeply esteemed, and most widely influential in the sociohistorical surround of world culture--has at the same time never been properly integrated into the psychoanalytic mainstream, but has instead been marginalized, consigned to a persisting psychoanalytic limbo. Two successive contexts within the historical unfolding of psychoanalysis in America, the milieu in which Erikson worked, would seem to account for this neglect. First, Erikson's monumental contributions to our understanding of the psychosocial developmental process, of the epigenesis of the ego, of the phase-specific developmental tasks across the eight postulated stages of the life cycle, and of the intergenerational cogwheeling of the life cycles were made during the 1950s and 1960s and could not easily be integrated into the ego psychology metapsychological paradigm then monolithically regnant within American psychoanalysis. And, second, as a major paradigm shift took place in America, beginning in the 1970s, toward a more relational, interpersonal, and intersubjective framework, Erikson's contributions, couched as they were in the structural language of the ego psychology of his time, were overlooked and went unremarked as seminal precursors of the newly emerging emphases. The clear relationship of Erikson's concepts of (ego) identity to emerging conceptions of self in relation to objects was simply not noticed, and his work continues to this day to be neglected and unintegrated within psychoanalysis. PMID:9565906

  19. The growth and transformation of American ego psychology.

    PubMed

    Wallerstein, Robert S

    2002-01-01

    The roots of ego psychology trace back to Sigmund Freud's The Ego and the Id (1923) and "Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety" (1926), works followed by two additional fundaments, Anna Freud's The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense (1936) and Heinz Hartmann's Ego Psychology and the Problem of Adaptation (1939). It was brought to full flowering in post-World War II America by Hartmann and his many collaborators, and for over two decades it maintained a monolithic hegemony over American psychoanalysis. Within this framework the conceptions of the psychoanalytic psychotherapies evolved as specific modifications of psychoanalytic technique directed to the clinical needs of the spectrum of patients not amenable to psychoanalysis proper. This American consensus on the ego psychology paradigm and its array of technical implementations fragmented several decades ago, with the rise in America of Kohut's self psychology, geared to the narcissistic disorders, and with the importation from Britain of neo-Kleinian and object-relational perspectives, all coinciding with the rapid growth of the varieties of relational psychoanalysis, with its shift in focus to the two-person, interactive, and co-constructed transference-countertransference matrix. Implications of this intermingled theoretical pluralism (as contrasted with the unity of the once dominant ego psychology paradigm) for the evolution of the American ego psychology are spelled out.

  20. The many faces of self: ego and ethnic identities.

    PubMed

    Branch, C W

    2001-12-01

    This study addressed how adolescents come to develop a sense of ethnic identity. The author examined ethnic identity development as a process that occurs simultaneously with the development of ego identity and attitudes toward groups other than one's own. A multiethnic sample of 297 adolescents and young adults (aged 13 to 26 years) completed the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Scale Revision 2 (EOMEIS2; L. Bennion & G. Adams, 1986), the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM; J. Phinney, 1992), and the Other Group Orientation Scale (J. Phinney, 1992). An Age x Ethnic Group x Gender experimental design was used to determine whether these factors contributed differently to ethnic identity and ego identity. Analyses showed significant differences in the level of ethnic identity development among the ethnic groups. More pronounced age differences were found at the lower levels of ego identity development than at the more advanced levels.

  1. A CLASS I AND CLASS II CH{sub 3}OH MASER SURVEY OF EGOs FROM THE GLIMPSE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Cyganowski, C. J.; Churchwell, E.; Brogan, C. L.; Hunter, T. R.

    2009-09-10

    We present the results of a high angular resolution Very Large Array (VLA) Class I 44 GHz and Class II 6.7 GHz CH{sub 3}OH maser survey of a sample of {approx}20 massive young stellar object (MYSO) outflow candidates selected on the basis of extended 4.5 {mu}m emission in Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire images. These 4.5 {mu}m selected candidates are referred to as extended green objects (EGOs), for the common coding of this band as green in three-color Infrared Array Camera images. The detection rate of 6.7 GHz Class II CH{sub 3}OH masers, which are associated exclusively with massive YSOs, toward EGOs is {approx}>64%-nearly double the detection rate of surveys using other MYSO selection criteria. The detection rate of Class I 44 GHz CH{sub 3}OH masers, which trace molecular outflows, is {approx}89% toward EGOs associated with 6.7 GHz CH{sub 3}OH masers. The two types of CH{sub 3}OH masers exhibit different spatial distributions: 6.7 GHz masers are centrally concentrated and usually coincide with 24 {mu}m emission, while 44 GHz masers are widely distributed and generally trace diffuse 4.5 {mu}m features. We also present results of a complementary James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) single-pointing molecular line survey of EGOs in the outflow tracers HCO{sup +}(3-2) and SiO(5-4). The HCO{sup +} line profiles and high SiO detection rate (90%) are indicative of the presence of active outflows. No 44 GHz continuum emission is detected at the 5 mJy beam{sup -1} (5{sigma}) level toward 95% of EGOs surveyed, excluding bright ultracompact H II regions as powering sources for the 4.5 {mu}m outflows. The results of our surveys constitute strong evidence that EGOs are young, massive YSOs, with active outflows, presumably powered by ongoing accretion.

  2. AKARI Near-infrared Spectroscopy of the Extended Green Object G318.05+0.09: Detection of CO Fundamental Ro-vibrational Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onaka, Takashi; Mori, Tamami; Sakon, Itsuki; Ardaseva, Aleksandra

    2016-10-01

    We present the results of near-infrared (2.5-5.4 μm) long-slit spectroscopy of the extended green object (EGO) G318.05+0.09 with AKARI. Two distinct sources are found in the slit. The brighter source has strong red continuum emission with H2O ice, CO2 ice, and CO gas and ice absorption features at 3.0, 4.25 μm, 4.67 μm, respectively, while the other greenish object shows peculiar emission that has double peaks at around 4.5 and 4.7 μm. The former source is located close to the ultra compact H ii region IRAS 14498-5856 and is identified as an embedded massive young stellar object (YSO). The spectrum of the latter source can be interpreted by blueshifted (-3000 ˜ -6000 km s-1) optically thin emission of the fundamental ro-vibrational transitions (v=1{--}0) of CO molecules with temperatures of 12000-3700 K without noticeable H2 and H i emission. We discuss the nature of this source in terms of outflow associated with the young stellar object and supernova ejecta associated with a supernova remnant.

  3. Multi-Objective Optimization of Green EDM: An Integrated Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadish; Ray, A.

    2015-01-01

    Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) generates toxic substances, results in serious occupational health, and environmental issues, which influence the process parameters of EDM. These process parameters are multi-response parameters. The aim of this research is to solve the multi-response optimization problems and selection of optimum process parameters of green EDM using an integrated methodology comprising of entropy and Grey Relational Analysis (GRA). In this work, initially, an experiment was performed using Taguchi experimental technique. Thereafter, Entropy-GRA has been used to convert the multi-response parameters into single response parameter. Finally, the ranking of the parameter decides the best experimental set up and optimizes the input process parameters. In this work, Entropy method has been used to extract the precise value of each of the output parameters, which influences the gray relational grades for finding the optimal experimental set up. The justification of optimal input process parameters has been made using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) analysis. An attempt has been made to compare the proposed methodology with the Fuzzy-TOPSIS and Taguchi-VIKOR methodology. The numerical result shows that the optimum process parameters are peak current (4.5 A), pulse duration (261 μs), dielectric level (80 mm) and flushing pressure (0.3 kg/cm2).

  4. Herbig-haro objects and mid-infrared outflows in the VELA C molecular cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Miaomiao; Wang, Hongchi; Henning, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    We have performed a deep [S II] λλ6717/6731 wide field Herbig-Haro (HH) object survey toward the Vela C molecular cloud with a sky coverage of about 2 deg{sup 2}. In total, 18 new HH objects, HH 1090-1107, are discovered and the two previously known HH objects, HH 73-74, are also detected in our [S II] images. We also present an investigation of mid-infrared outflows in the Vela C molecular cloud using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer images taken from AllWISE data release. Using the method suggested by Zhang and Wang, 11 extended green objects (EGOs) are identified to be the mid-infrared outflows, including 6 new mid-infrared outflows that have not been detected previously at other wavelengths and 5 mid-infrared counterparts of the HH objects detected in this work. Using the AllWISE Source Catalog and the source classification scheme suggested by Koenig et al., we have identified 56 young stellar object (YSO) candidates in the Vela C molecular cloud. The possible driving sources of the HH objects and EGOs are discussed based on the morphology of HH objects and EGOs and the locations of HH objects, EGOs and YSO candidates. Finally we associate 12 HH objects and 5 EGOs with 10 YSOs and YSO candidates. The median length of the outflows in Vela C is 0.35 pc and the outflows seem to be oriented randomly.

  5. Herbig-Haro Objects and Mid-infrared Outflows in the Vela C Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Miaomiao; Wang, Hongchi; Henning, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    We have performed a deep [S II] λλ6717/6731 wide field Herbig-Haro (HH) object survey toward the Vela C molecular cloud with a sky coverage of about 2 deg2. In total, 18 new HH objects, HH 1090-1107, are discovered and the two previously known HH objects, HH 73-74, are also detected in our [S II] images. We also present an investigation of mid-infrared outflows in the Vela C molecular cloud using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer images taken from AllWISE data release. Using the method suggested by Zhang & Wang, 11 extended green objects (EGOs) are identified to be the mid-infrared outflows, including 6 new mid-infrared outflows that have not been detected previously at other wavelengths and 5 mid-infrared counterparts of the HH objects detected in this work. Using the AllWISE Source Catalog and the source classification scheme suggested by Koenig et al., we have identified 56 young stellar object (YSO) candidates in the Vela C molecular cloud. The possible driving sources of the HH objects and EGOs are discussed based on the morphology of HH objects and EGOs and the locations of HH objects, EGOs and YSO candidates. Finally we associate 12 HH objects and 5 EGOs with 10 YSOs and YSO candidates. The median length of the outflows in Vela C is 0.35 pc and the outflows seem to be oriented randomly.

  6. Retirement: An Ego Alien View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Helen

    1977-01-01

    Since knowledge of ego development can be used in professional work, a needed classification of attitudes toward the work ethic is advanced. A radical departure from our retirement policy towards those over 65 years of age requires additional competence on the part of counselors in the field of aging. (Author)

  7. Ego depletion impairs implicit learning.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kelsey R; Sanchez, Daniel J; Wesley, Abigail H; Reber, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing) can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent.

  8. Phenomenological and evidence based research in ego state therapy: recognized and unrecognized successes and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hageman, Joan H; Frederick, Claire

    2013-07-01

    The status of research in ego state therapy is examined against the backdrop of 20th and 21st century developments in the philosophy of science and the emerging recognition of the subjective as a vital element in all science. Attention is paid to the phenomenological method because until recently phenomenological studies have been the basis for the standards of care and training in ego state therapy as well as in many aspects of hypnotically facilitated psychotherapy. The importance of bringing an end to the "science wars" through the integration of the subjective and the objective, of phenomenological studies and evidence-based studies in ego state therapy and hypnosis research, is proposed.

  9. Linking academic social environments, ego-identity formation, ego virtues, and academic success.

    PubMed

    Good, Marie; Adams, Gerald R

    2008-01-01

    This study used Structural Equation Modeling to test an Eriksonian conceptual model linking academic social environments (relationships with faculty and fellow students), ego-identity formation, ego virtues, and academic success. Participants included 765 first-year students at a university in southern Ontario, Canada. Results indicated that supportive relationships with faculty was directly related to higher average grades and perceived academic ability, whereas positive relationships with fellow students was indirectly related to academic success through ego virtues. Positive ego-identity formation (identity achievement) was also indirectly related to academic success through ego virtues.

  10. Ego depletion impairs implicit learning.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kelsey R; Sanchez, Daniel J; Wesley, Abigail H; Reber, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing) can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent. PMID:25275517

  11. Fuzzy decision analysis for power, recreation, and environmental objectives on the Green River, CO and UT

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, W.J.; Gates, T.K.; Flug, M.

    1995-12-31

    A major challenge facing hydropower operators in today`s complex environment is making management decisions among conflicting objectives. To complicate the problem, many of these objectives are subjective by nature and, thus, are difficult to quantify. Fuzzy set theory creates a quantitative medium in which imprecise or ambiguous objectives can be characterized. Fuzzy membership functions for each objective or constraint can be combined to suggest the best solution. This methodology is applied to the dilemma which currently confronts reservoir operators at Flaming Gorge Dam, located on the Green River in northeastern Utah. The problem is how to balance hydropower objectives with needs of downstream recreationists, endangered fish, riparian vegetation and others. Construction of the membership functions from surveys of experts and estimation of the degree of variation within the functions are discussed. Preliminary results are also presented.

  12. Some alterations of the ego which make analyses interminable.

    PubMed

    Anzieu, D

    1987-01-01

    After summarizing the seven questions put by Freud in his 1937 paper 'Analysis terminable and interminable', the author reports on the case of a female patient in whose second analysis four difficulties arose: the condensation of several traumas; a preverbal main trauma; the need for a permanent auxiliary ego to perform certain psychical functions; and resistance to analysis of her sexual inhibitions. The concept of the 'skin-ego' is proposed as a guide to interpretation. Several factors in the negative therapeutic reaction are demonstrated: in neurotic patients, fulfillment of incestuous oedipal wishes with the analyst may be postponed until after the end of the analysis, thereby abolishing that end; while in borderline patients the need for an indestructible, immortal external object may make it impossible to bring the analysis to an end, the transference being both anaclitic and paradoxical. Three other cases are discussed more briefly and illustrate the alterations of the ego when confronted with destructive envy, boundless greed and the repetition compulsion. The concept of the 'all-embracing object', as distinct from the part-object and whole object, can explain some patients' need to change analysts.

  13. Ego identity of adolescent children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Teichman, Meir

    2007-01-01

    The study examines the issue of ego identity among adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers. Forty-four adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers, age of 15-18, constituted the sample. They were drawn from public alcohol treatment center in Israel. The control group included 60 adolescents none of their parents is known as an alcoholic, sampled from integrative schools in the same neighborhood and matched by age. Ego identity was measured by Tzuriel's "Adolescent Ego Identity Scale" (AEIS). It was hypothesized that adolescent children of alcoholics will show lower scores of ego identity and of its dimensions. The hypothesis was not confirmed. To the contrary, adolescent children of alcoholics reported higher scores of "ego identity-total" and of four of the seven ego identity dimensions. One possible explanation is that children of alcoholics are maturing early in age compared to their controls. They have developed different coping strategies that facilitate creating a more "stable" ego identity compared to their peers. Another explanation is that children of alcoholics apply defense mechanisms that enhance the development of an "adaptive self."

  14. Multilevel Green's function interpolation method for scattering from composite metallic and dielectric objects.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Wang, Hao Gang; Li, Long; Chan, Chi Hou

    2008-10-01

    A multilevel Green's function interpolation method based on two kinds of multilevel partitioning schemes--the quasi-2D and the hybrid partitioning scheme--is proposed for analyzing electromagnetic scattering from objects comprising both conducting and dielectric parts. The problem is formulated using the surface integral equation for homogeneous dielectric and conducting bodies. A quasi-2D multilevel partitioning scheme is devised to improve the efficiency of the Green's function interpolation. In contrast to previous multilevel partitioning schemes, noncubic groups are introduced to discretize the whole EM structure in this quasi-2D multilevel partitioning scheme. Based on the detailed analysis of the dimension of the group in this partitioning scheme, a hybrid quasi-2D/3D multilevel partitioning scheme is proposed to effectively handle objects with fine local structures. Selection criteria for some key parameters relating to the interpolation technique are given. The proposed algorithm is ideal for the solution of problems involving objects such as missiles, microstrip antenna arrays, photonic bandgap structures, etc. Numerical examples are presented to show that CPU time is between O(N) and O(N log N) while the computer memory requirement is O(N). PMID:18830332

  15. Reciprocal Relations Between Emotional Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Ego-Resiliency across Time

    PubMed Central

    Milioni, Michela; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Castellani, Valeria; Zuffianò, Antonio; Vecchione, Michele; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study examined the longitudinal relations of adolescents’ self-reported ego-resiliency to their emotional self-efficacy beliefs in expressing positive emotions and in managing negative emotions as they moved into early adulthood. Method Participants were 239 females and 211 males with a mean age of 17 years (SD = .80) at T1, 19 years (SD = .80) at T2, 21 years (SD = .82) at T3, and 25 years (SD = .80) at T4. A four-wave cross-lagged regression model and mediational analyses were used. Results In a panel structural equation model controlling for the stability of the constructs, reciprocal relationships across time were found between ego-resiliency and emotional self-efficacy beliefs related to the expression of positive emotions and to the management of negative emotions. Moreover, the relation between ego-resiliency assessed at T1 and T3, and ego-resiliency assessed at T2 and T4 was mediated through emotional self-efficacy beliefs (at T2 and T3, respectively), and vice versa. Conclusions The posited conceptual model accounted for a significant portion of variance in ego-resiliency and has implications for understanding the development of ego-resiliency. PMID:25204666

  16. Ego-Dissolution and Psychedelics: Validation of the Ego-Dissolution Inventory (EDI)

    PubMed Central

    Nour, Matthew M.; Evans, Lisa; Nutt, David; Carhart-Harris, Robin L.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The experience of a compromised sense of “self”, termed ego-dissolution, is a key feature of the psychedelic experience. This study aimed to validate the Ego-Dissolution Inventory (EDI), a new 8-item self-report scale designed to measure ego-dissolution. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the specificity of the relationship between psychedelics and ego-dissolution. Method: Sixteen items relating to altered ego-consciousness were included in an internet questionnaire; eight relating to the experience of ego-dissolution (comprising the EDI), and eight relating to the antithetical experience of increased self-assuredness, termed ego-inflation. Items were rated using a visual analog scale. Participants answered the questionnaire for experiences with classical psychedelic drugs, cocaine and/or alcohol. They also answered the seven questions from the Mystical Experiences Questionnaire (MEQ) relating to the experience of unity with one’s surroundings. Results: Six hundred and ninety-one participants completed the questionnaire, providing data for 1828 drug experiences (1043 psychedelics, 377 cocaine, 408 alcohol). Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated that the eight EDI items loaded exclusively onto a single common factor, which was orthogonal to a second factor comprised of the items relating to ego-inflation (rho = −0.110), demonstrating discriminant validity. The EDI correlated strongly with the MEQ-derived measure of unitive experience (rho = 0.735), demonstrating convergent validity. EDI internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach’s alpha 0.93). Three analyses confirmed the specificity of ego-dissolution for experiences occasioned by psychedelic drugs. Firstly, EDI score correlated with drug-dose for psychedelic drugs (rho = 0.371), but not for cocaine (rho = 0.115) or alcohol (rho = −0.055). Secondly, the linear regression line relating the subjective intensity of the experience to ego-dissolution was significantly steeper for psychedelics

  17. The Id, Ego and Super-Ego in "Pride and Prejudice"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Yamin

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly analyses the the id, ego, and super-ego which exists in the main character Elizabeth from several aspects, such as her pursuit for love, her prejudice towards Mr. Darcy, and the changes in her attitudes towards Wickham. This analysis helps readers appreciate this masterpiece from a different aspect which is related to the…

  18. Ego Development, Ego Strengths, and Ethnic Identity among First Nation Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gfellner, Barbara M.; Armstrong, Helen D.

    2012-01-01

    Three conceptualizations of psychosocial development were investigated among Canadian First Nation adolescents. Loevinger's social cognitive model of ego development reflects the way in which an individual views the self and social reality. From Eriksonian theory, ego strengths refer to the emergent values or outcomes that represent resolution of…

  19. a Multi Objective Model for Optimization of a Green Supply Chain Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paksoy, Turan; Özceylan, Eren; Weber, Gerhard-Wilhelm

    2010-06-01

    This study develops a model of a closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) network which starts with the suppliers and recycles with the decomposition centers. As a traditional network design, we consider minimizing the all transportation costs and the raw material purchasing costs. To pay attention for the green impacts, different transportation choices are presented between echelons according to their CO2 emissions. The plants can purchase different raw materials in respect of their recyclable ratios. The focuses of this paper are conducting the minimizing total CO2 emissions. Also we try to encourage the customers to use recyclable materials as an environmental performance viewpoint besides minimizing total costs. A multi objective linear programming model is developed via presenting a numerical example. We close the paper with recommendations for future researches.

  20. Intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence angiography--an objective evaluation of anastomotic perfusion in colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Protyniak, Bogdan; Dinallo, Anthony M; Boyan, William P; Dressner, Roy M; Arvanitis, Michael L

    2015-06-01

    The essentials for any bowel anastomosis are: adequate perfusion, tension free, accurate tissue apposition, and minimal local spillage. Traditionally, perfusion is measured by assessing palpable pulses in the mesentery, active bleeding at cut edges, and lack of tissue discoloration. However, subjective methods lack predictive accuracy for an anastomotic leak. We used intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence angiography to objectively assess colon perfusion before a bowel anastomosis. Seventy-seven laparoscopic colorectal operations, between June 2013 and June 2014, were retrospectively reviewed. The perfusion to the colon and ileum was clinically assessed, and then measured using the SPY Elite Imaging System. The absolute value provided an objective number on a 0-256 gray-scale to represent differences in ICG fluorescence intensity. The lowest absolute value was used in data analysis for each anastomosis (including small bowel) to represent the theoretical least perfused/weakest anastomotic area. The lowest absolute value recorded was 20 in a patient who underwent a laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for an adenoma, with no postoperative complications. Four low anterior resection patients had additional segments of descending colon resected. There was one mortality in a patient who underwent a laparoscopic right hemicolectomy. This study illustrates an initial experience with the SPY system in colorectal surgery. The SPY provides an objective, numerical value of bowel perfusion. However, evidence is scant as to the significance of these numbers. Large-scale randomized controlled trials are required to determine specific cutoff values correlated with surgical outcomes, specifically anastomotic leak rates. PMID:26031270

  1. egoSlider: Visual Analysis of Egocentric Network Evolution.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanhong; Pitipornvivat, Naveen; Zhao, Jian; Yang, Sixiao; Huang, Guowei; Qu, Huamin

    2016-01-01

    Ego-network, which represents relationships between a specific individual, i.e., the ego, and people connected to it, i.e., alters, is a critical target to study in social network analysis. Evolutionary patterns of ego-networks along time provide huge insights to many domains such as sociology, anthropology, and psychology. However, the analysis of dynamic ego-networks remains challenging due to its complicated time-varying graph structures, for example: alters come and leave, ties grow stronger and fade away, and alter communities merge and split. Most of the existing dynamic graph visualization techniques mainly focus on topological changes of the entire network, which is not adequate for egocentric analytical tasks. In this paper, we present egoSlider, a visual analysis system for exploring and comparing dynamic ego-networks. egoSlider provides a holistic picture of the data through multiple interactively coordinated views, revealing ego-network evolutionary patterns at three different layers: a macroscopic level for summarizing the entire ego-network data, a mesoscopic level for overviewing specific individuals' ego-network evolutions, and a microscopic level for displaying detailed temporal information of egos and their alters. We demonstrate the effectiveness of egoSlider with a usage scenario with the DBLP publication records. Also, a controlled user study indicates that in general egoSlider outperforms a baseline visualization of dynamic networks for completing egocentric analytical tasks. PMID:26529706

  2. egoSlider: Visual Analysis of Egocentric Network Evolution.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanhong; Pitipornvivat, Naveen; Zhao, Jian; Yang, Sixiao; Huang, Guowei; Qu, Huamin

    2016-01-01

    Ego-network, which represents relationships between a specific individual, i.e., the ego, and people connected to it, i.e., alters, is a critical target to study in social network analysis. Evolutionary patterns of ego-networks along time provide huge insights to many domains such as sociology, anthropology, and psychology. However, the analysis of dynamic ego-networks remains challenging due to its complicated time-varying graph structures, for example: alters come and leave, ties grow stronger and fade away, and alter communities merge and split. Most of the existing dynamic graph visualization techniques mainly focus on topological changes of the entire network, which is not adequate for egocentric analytical tasks. In this paper, we present egoSlider, a visual analysis system for exploring and comparing dynamic ego-networks. egoSlider provides a holistic picture of the data through multiple interactively coordinated views, revealing ego-network evolutionary patterns at three different layers: a macroscopic level for summarizing the entire ego-network data, a mesoscopic level for overviewing specific individuals' ego-network evolutions, and a microscopic level for displaying detailed temporal information of egos and their alters. We demonstrate the effectiveness of egoSlider with a usage scenario with the DBLP publication records. Also, a controlled user study indicates that in general egoSlider outperforms a baseline visualization of dynamic networks for completing egocentric analytical tasks.

  3. Ego depletion increases risk-taking.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Asal, Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how the availability of self-control resources affects risk-taking inclinations and behaviors. We proposed that risk-taking often occurs from suboptimal decision processes and heuristic information processing (e.g., when a smoker suppresses or neglects information about the health risks of smoking). Research revealed that depleted self-regulation resources are associated with reduced intellectual performance and reduced abilities to regulate spontaneous and automatic responses (e.g., control aggressive responses in the face of frustration). The present studies transferred these ideas to the area of risk-taking. We propose that risk-taking is increased when individuals find themselves in a state of reduced cognitive self-control resources (ego-depletion). Four studies supported these ideas. In Study 1, ego-depleted participants reported higher levels of sensation seeking than non-depleted participants. In Study 2, ego-depleted participants showed higher levels of risk-tolerance in critical road traffic situations than non-depleted participants. In Study 3, we ruled out two alternative explanations for these results: neither cognitive load nor feelings of anger mediated the effect of ego-depletion on risk-taking. Finally, Study 4 clarified the underlying psychological process: ego-depleted participants feel more cognitively exhausted than non-depleted participants and thus are more willing to take risks. Discussion focuses on the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. PMID:22931000

  4. Ego States of nurses working in psychiatric clinics according to transactional analysis theory

    PubMed Central

    Ertem, Melike Yonder; Kececi, Ayla

    2016-01-01

    Objective: An effective interpersonal communication is an essential nursing skill required to help provide quality health care and meet the treatment objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the communication between the psychiatric nurses and the patients in terms of Transactional Analysis Theory ego states. Methods: The quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. The descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation) were used in the data analysis and Kendall’s Tau-c coefficient was used to assess the agreement among the observers. Results: Of the psychiatric nurses, 66.7% (n = 14) had served as a psychiatric nurse for 1-10 years. Among the nurses, 52.4% (n=11) had received training about communication from any institution/organization. The agreement among the opinions of the nurses, the researcher and the charge nurses about the psychiatric nurses’ ego states showed that there was a significant relationship between the researcher’s opinion of the nurses’ ego states and the charge nurses’ opinion of the nurses’ ego states in terms of Critical Parent, Nurturing Parent, Adult, Adapted Child and Natural Child ego states. Conclusion: It is suggested that training be offered in regards to raising awareness about ulterior transactions that can affect communication negatively, patient autonomy and therapeutic communication in particular, and patients requiring the use of special communication methods. PMID:27182267

  5. Exponential Gaussian approach for spectral modelling: The EGO algorithm II. Band asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompilio, Loredana; Pedrazzi, Giuseppe; Cloutis, Edward A.; Craig, Michael A.; Roush, Ted L.

    2010-08-01

    The present investigation is complementary to a previous paper which introduced the EGO approach to spectral modelling of reflectance measurements acquired in the visible and near-IR range (Pompilio, L., Pedrazzi, G., Sgavetti, M., Cloutis, E.A., Craig, M.A., Roush, T.L. [2009]. Icarus, 201 (2), 781-794). Here, we show the performances of the EGO model in attempting to account for temperature-induced variations in spectra, specifically band asymmetry. Our main goals are: (1) to recognize and model thermal-induced band asymmetry in reflectance spectra; (2) to develop a basic approach for decomposition of remotely acquired spectra from planetary surfaces, where effects due to temperature variations are most prevalent; (3) to reduce the uncertainty related to quantitative estimation of band position and depth when band asymmetry is occurring. In order to accomplish these objectives, we tested the EGO algorithm on a number of measurements acquired on powdered pyroxenes at sample temperature ranging from 80 up to 400 K. The main results arising from this study are: (1) EGO model is able to numerically account for the occurrence of band asymmetry on reflectance spectra; (2) the returned set of EGO parameters can suggest the influence of some additional effect other than the electronic transition responsible for the absorption feature; (3) the returned set of EGO parameters can help in estimating the surface temperature of a planetary body; (4) the occurrence of absorptions which are less affected by temperature variations can be mapped for minerals and thus used for compositional estimates. Further work is still required in order to analyze the behaviour of the EGO algorithm with respect to temperature-induced band asymmetry using powdered pyroxene spanning a range of compositions and grain sizes and more complex band shapes.

  6. Self-regulation, ego depletion, and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, Roy F

    2014-12-01

    Inhibition is a major form of self-regulation. As such, it depends on self-awareness and comparing oneself to standards and is also susceptible to fluctuations in willpower resources. Ego depletion is the state of reduced willpower caused by prior exertion of self-control. Ego depletion undermines inhibition both because restraints are weaker and because urges are felt more intensely than usual. Conscious inhibition of desires is a pervasive feature of everyday life and may be a requirement of life in civilized, cultural society, and in that sense it goes to the evolved core of human nature. Intentional inhibition not only restrains antisocial impulses but can also facilitate optimal performance, such as during test taking. Self-regulation and ego depletion- may also affect less intentional forms of inhibition, even chronic tendencies to inhibit. Broadly stated, inhibition is necessary for human social life and nearly all societies encourage and enforce it.

  7. Some technical implications of Klein's concept of 'premature ego development'.

    PubMed

    Mitrani, Judith L

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, the author revisits the problem of 'premature ego development' first introduced by Melanie Klein in 1930. She also highlights several developments in post-Kleinian thinking since the publication of that paper, which can be seen as offshoots of or complements to Klein's work. The author proposes a link between this category of precocious development and the absence of the experience of what Bion termed the 'containing object.' She puts forward several technical considerations relevant to analytic work with patients who suffer as a result of early developmental failures and presents various clinical vignettes in order to demonstrate the ways in which these considerations take shape in the analytic setting.

  8. Parental attitudes and ego identity status of Turkish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cakir, S Gulfem; Aydin, Gul

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the differences among 403 middle adolescents regarding Marcia's four identity statuses in terms of perceived parental attitudes and gender. The Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (EOMEIS-2) and Parental Education Scale (PAS) were used to collect data. Results showed that children of authoritative parents scored significantly higher on identity foreclosure than those of neglectful parents. Children of permissive parents scored significantly higher on identity foreclosure than those of neglectful parents. In addition, female students scored higher on achievement identity status while male students scored higher on identity foreclosure.

  9. Detection of linear ego-acceleration from optic flow.

    PubMed

    Festl, Freya; Recktenwald, Fabian; Yuan, Chunrong; Mallot, Hanspeter A

    2012-07-20

    Human observers are able to estimate various ego-motion parameters from optic flow, including rotation, translational heading, time-to-collision (TTC), time-to-passage (TTP), etc. The perception of linear ego-acceleration or deceleration, i.e., changes of translational velocity, is less well understood. While time-to-passage experiments indicate that ego-acceleration is neglected, subjects are able to keep their (perceived) speed constant under changing conditions, indicating that some sense of ego-acceleration or velocity change must be present. In this paper, we analyze the relation of ego-acceleration estimates and geometrical parameters of the environment using simulated flights through cylindrical and conic (narrowing or widening) corridors. Theoretical analysis shows that a logarithmic ego-acceleration parameter, called the acceleration rate ρ, can be calculated from retinal acceleration measurements. This parameter is independent of the geometrical layout of the scene; if veridical ego-motion is known at some instant in time, acceleration rate allows updating of ego-motion without further depth-velocity calibration. Results indicate, however, that subjects systematically confuse ego-acceleration with corridor narrowing and ego-deceleration with corridor widening, while veridically judging ego-acceleration in straight corridors. We conclude that judgments of ego-acceleration are based on first-order retinal flow and do not make use of acceleration rate or retinal acceleration.

  10. Differential binding of colors to objects in memory: red and yellow stick better than blue and green.

    PubMed

    Kuhbandner, Christof; Spitzer, Bernhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Both evolutionary considerations and recent research suggest that the color red serves as a signal indicating an object's importance. However, until now, there is no evidence that this signaling function of red is also reflected in human memory. To examine the effect of red on memory, we conducted four experiments in which we presented objects colored in four different colors (red, green, blue, and yellow) and measured later memory for the presence of an object and for the color of an object. Across experiments, we varied the type of objects (words vs. pictures), task complexity (single objects vs. multiple objects in visual scenes), and intentionality of encoding (intentional vs. incidental learning). Memory for the presence of an object was not influenced by color. However, in all four experiments, memory for the color of an object depended on color type and was particularly high for red and yellow-colored objects and particularly low for green-colored objects, indicating that the binding of colors into object memory representations varies as a function of color type. Analyzing the observers' confidence in their color memories revealed that color not only influenced objective memory performance but also subjective confidence. Subjective confidence judgments differentiated well between correct and incorrect color memories for red-colored objects, but poorly for green-colored objects. Our findings reveal a previously unknown color effect which may be of considerable interest for both basic color research and applied settings like eyewitness testimony in which memory for color features is relevant. Furthermore, our results indicate that feature binding in memory is not a uniform process by which any attended feature is automatically bound into unitary memory representations. Rather, memory binding seems to vary across different subtypes of features, a finding that supports recent research showing that object features are stored in memory rather independently from

  11. Delayed Ego Strength Development in Opioid Dependent Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Abramoff, Benjamin A; Lange, Hannah L H; Matson, Steven C; Cottrill, Casey B; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Bonny, Andrea E

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate ego strengths, in the context of Erikson's framework, among adolescents and young adults diagnosed with opioid dependence as compared to non-drug using youth. Methods. Opioid dependent (n = 51) and non-drug using control (n = 31) youth completed the self-administered Psychosocial Inventory of Ego Strengths (PIES). The PIES assesses development in the framework of Erikson's ego strength stages. Multivariate linear regression modeling assessed the independent association of the primary covariate (opioid dependent versus control) as well as potential confounding variables (e.g., psychiatric comorbidities, intelligence) with total PIES score. Results. Mean total PIES score was significantly lower in opioid dependent youth (231.65 ± 30.39 opioid dependent versus 270.67 ± 30.06 control; p < 0.01). Evaluation of the PIES subscores found significant (p < 0.05) delays in all ego strength areas (hope, will, purpose, competence, fidelity, love, care, and wisdom). When adjusting for potential confounders, opioid dependence remained a significant (p < 0.001) independent predictor of total PIES score. Conclusion. Adolescents with opioid dependence demonstrated significant delays in ego strength development. A treatment approach acknowledging this delay may be needed in the counseling and treatment of adolescents with opioid dependence.

  12. Delayed Ego Strength Development in Opioid Dependent Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Abramoff, Benjamin A.; Lange, Hannah L. H.; Matson, Steven C.; Cottrill, Casey B.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Bonny, Andrea E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate ego strengths, in the context of Erikson's framework, among adolescents and young adults diagnosed with opioid dependence as compared to non-drug using youth. Methods. Opioid dependent (n = 51) and non-drug using control (n = 31) youth completed the self-administered Psychosocial Inventory of Ego Strengths (PIES). The PIES assesses development in the framework of Erikson's ego strength stages. Multivariate linear regression modeling assessed the independent association of the primary covariate (opioid dependent versus control) as well as potential confounding variables (e.g., psychiatric comorbidities, intelligence) with total PIES score. Results. Mean total PIES score was significantly lower in opioid dependent youth (231.65 ± 30.39 opioid dependent versus 270.67 ± 30.06 control; p < 0.01). Evaluation of the PIES subscores found significant (p < 0.05) delays in all ego strength areas (hope, will, purpose, competence, fidelity, love, care, and wisdom). When adjusting for potential confounders, opioid dependence remained a significant (p < 0.001) independent predictor of total PIES score. Conclusion. Adolescents with opioid dependence demonstrated significant delays in ego strength development. A treatment approach acknowledging this delay may be needed in the counseling and treatment of adolescents with opioid dependence. PMID:26664819

  13. Differential binding of colors to objects in memory: red and yellow stick better than blue and green

    PubMed Central

    Kuhbandner, Christof; Spitzer, Bernhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Both evolutionary considerations and recent research suggest that the color red serves as a signal indicating an object’s importance. However, until now, there is no evidence that this signaling function of red is also reflected in human memory. To examine the effect of red on memory, we conducted four experiments in which we presented objects colored in four different colors (red, green, blue, and yellow) and measured later memory for the presence of an object and for the color of an object. Across experiments, we varied the type of objects (words vs. pictures), task complexity (single objects vs. multiple objects in visual scenes), and intentionality of encoding (intentional vs. incidental learning). Memory for the presence of an object was not influenced by color. However, in all four experiments, memory for the color of an object depended on color type and was particularly high for red and yellow-colored objects and particularly low for green-colored objects, indicating that the binding of colors into object memory representations varies as a function of color type. Analyzing the observers’ confidence in their color memories revealed that color not only influenced objective memory performance but also subjective confidence. Subjective confidence judgments differentiated well between correct and incorrect color memories for red-colored objects, but poorly for green-colored objects. Our findings reveal a previously unknown color effect which may be of considerable interest for both basic color research and applied settings like eyewitness testimony in which memory for color features is relevant. Furthermore, our results indicate that feature binding in memory is not a uniform process by which any attended feature is automatically bound into unitary memory representations. Rather, memory binding seems to vary across different subtypes of features, a finding that supports recent research showing that object features are stored in memory rather independently

  14. The Development of Ego Defenses in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levit, David B.

    1993-01-01

    A model for developmental transitions in defense use in adolescence based on an integration of psychoanalytic views of adolescence and J. Loevinger's theory of ego development was tested with 31 male and 35 female adolescents. Results support some hypothesized developmental transitions and not others. Implications of findings are discussed. (SLD)

  15. Ego Identity of Adolescent Children of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Teichman, Meir

    2007-01-01

    The study examines the issue of ego identity among adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers. Forty-four adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers, age of 15-18, constituted the sample. They were drawn from public alcohol treatment center in Israel. The control group included 60 adolescents none of their parents is known as an alcoholic, sampled from…

  16. Ego Developmental Aspects of New Left Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candee, Dan

    1974-01-01

    The relationship of ego development and the structure of political reasoning among student leftists is examined. The results indicate that lower stage subjects see politics in terms of the emotional effect upon themselves while higher stage subjects see politics in terms of human development and justice. (DE)

  17. The modality effect of ego depletion: Auditory task modality reduces ego depletion.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiong; Wang, Zhenhong

    2016-08-01

    An initial act of self-control that impairs subsequent acts of self-control is called ego depletion. The ego depletion phenomenon has been observed consistently. The modality effect refers to the effect of the presentation modality on the processing of stimuli. The modality effect was also robustly found in a large body of research. However, no study to date has examined the modality effects of ego depletion. This issue was addressed in the current study. In Experiment 1, after all participants completed a handgrip task, one group's participants completed a visual attention regulation task and the other group's participants completed an auditory attention regulation task, and then all participants again completed a handgrip task. The ego depletion phenomenon was observed in both the visual and the auditory attention regulation task. Moreover, participants who completed the visual task performed worse on the handgrip task than participants who completed the auditory task, which indicated that there was high ego depletion in the visual task condition. In Experiment 2, participants completed an initial task that either did or did not deplete self-control resources, and then they completed a second visual or auditory attention control task. The results indicated that depleted participants performed better on the auditory attention control task than the visual attention control task. These findings suggest that altering task modality may reduce ego depletion.

  18. Learning to Recognize Ego Defense Mechanisms: Results of a Structured Teaching Experience for Psychiatric Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beresford, Thomas P.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Ego defense mechanism (EDM) recognition can offer a powerful and practical tool in clinical psychiatry. However, recognition skill learning can be difficult to assess and may account for the lack of formal EDM recognition training in residency courses. Method: This study hypothesized that mean test scores would increase significantly…

  19. Exponential Gaussian approach for spectral modeling: The EGO algorithm I. Band saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompilio, Loredana; Pedrazzi, Giuseppe; Sgavetti, Maria; Cloutis, Edward A.; Craig, Michael A.; Roush, Ted L.

    2009-06-01

    Curve fitting techniques are a widespread approach to spectral modeling in the VNIR range [Burns, R.G., 1970. Am. Mineral. 55, 1608-1632; Singer, R.B., 1981. J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7967-7982; Roush, T.L., Singer, R.B., 1986. J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10301-10308; Sunshine, J.M., Pieters, C.M., Pratt, S.F., 1990. J. Geophys. Res. 95, 6955-6966]. They have been successfully used to model reflectance spectra of powdered minerals and mixtures, natural rock samples and meteorites, and unknown remote spectra of the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Here, we test a new decomposition algorithm to model VNIR reflectance spectra and call it Exponential Gaussian Optimization (EGO). The EGO algorithm is derived from and complementary to the MGM of Sunshine et al. [Sunshine, J.M., Pieters, C.M., Pratt, S.F., 1990. J. Geophys. Res. 95, 6955-6966]. The general EGO equation has been especially designed to account for absorption bands affected by saturation and asymmetry. Here we present a special case of EGO and address it to model saturated electronic transition bands. Our main goals are: (1) to recognize and model band saturation in reflectance spectra; (2) to develop a basic approach for decomposition of rock spectra, where effects due to saturation are most prevalent; (3) to reduce the uncertainty related to quantitative estimation when band saturation is occurring. In order to accomplish these objectives, we simulate flat bands starting from pure Gaussians and test the EGO algorithm on those simulated spectra first. Then we test the EGO algorithm on a number of measurements acquired on powdered pyroxenes having different compositions and average grain size and binary mixtures of orthopyroxenes with barium sulfate. The main results arising from this study are: (1) EGO model is able to numerically account for the occurrence of saturation effects on reflectance spectra of powdered minerals and mixtures; (2) the systematic dilution of a strong absorber using a bright neutral material is not

  20. The ego and the id revisited Freud and Damasio on the body ego/self.

    PubMed

    Sletvold, Jon

    2013-10-01

    Freud's statement in The Ego and the Id (1923) that the ego is first and foremost a bodily ego is well known. This paper tempts to clarify the premises underlying Freud's thesis. Particular attention is paid to Freud's investigation of internal perceptions. Freud argued that internal perceptions are more primordial than perceptions arising externally. In Freud's opinion the roots of the ego, the id, are to be found in body sensations and feelings, but he had to admit that very little was known about these sensations and feelings. Only much later was neuroscience in a position to offer evidence that feelings can be the direct perception of the internal state of the body. Damasio (2010) has recently suggested that the core of the self might be found in what he, like Freud, terms primordial feelings. Not only was Freud able to conceive of the ego as the perception and feeling of our own body but also to conceive of knowing the mental life of another by means of recreating the bodily state of another through imitation.

  1. On the special status of "ego threats".

    PubMed

    Schotte, D E

    1992-05-01

    This article comments on a recent article by Heatherton, Herman, and Polivy (1991) in which they suggest that ego threats are a prerequisite to affectively induced disinhibition of food intake in restrained eaters and current dieters. In contrast, the present review suggests that mood induction procedures that involve no apparent threat (e.g., viewing a frightening film) can also prompt disinhibition in restrained eaters. Thus, any mood induction procedure that does not directly physically threaten the S may disinhibit restrained eaters. It is concluded that recommendations to focus future research on ego threats are premature and may serve to obscure the mechanisms by which changes in affective state influence food intake in dieters. PMID:1507070

  2. Towards Sustainability -- Green Building, Sustainability Objectives, and Building America Whole House Systems Research

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses Building America whole-house systems research within the broad effort to reduce or eliminate the environmental impact of building and provides specific recommendations for future Building America research based on Building Science Corporation’s experience with several recent projects involving green home building programs.

  3. Critical size of ego communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Gao, Jian; Zhou, Tao; Hu, Zheng; Tian, Hui

    2016-06-01

    With the help of information and communication technologies, studies on the overall social networks have been extensively reported recently. However, investigations on the directed Ego Communication Networks (ECNs) remain insufficient, where an ECN stands for a sub network composed of a centralized individual and his/her direct contacts. In this paper, the directed ECNs are built on the Call Detail Records (CDRs), which cover more than 7 million people of a provincial capital city in China for half a year. Results show that there is a critical size for ECN at about 150, above which the average emotional closeness between ego and alters drops, the balanced relationship between ego and network collapses, and the proportion of strong ties decreases. This paper not only demonstrate the significance of ECN size in affecting its properties, but also shows accordance with the “Dunbar's Number”. These results can be viewed as a cross-culture supportive evidence to the well-known Social Brain Hypothesis (SBH).

  4. The impact of cultural evolution on the ego ideal, depression, psychosis, and suicide: a South India community study of the widow.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Helen E

    2011-01-01

    Cultural factors have a significant impact on the manifestation of psychiatric illness and the development of the ego ideal. The evolution of the widow's cultural role in a South India village provides insight on the ego ideal through several generations. As treatment of widows changed so that their appearance became indistinguishable from other women, they no longer became objects of revulsion. A case study approach documents the interrelationship of changes in the cultural ego ideal on psychiatric illness among widows in a South India village over a period of more than four decades.

  5. Some technical implications of Klein's concept of 'premature ego development'.

    PubMed

    Mitrani, Judith L

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, the author revisits the problem of 'premature ego development' first introduced by Melanie Klein in 1930. She also highlights several developments in post-Kleinian thinking since the publication of that paper, which can be seen as offshoots of or complements to Klein's work. The author proposes a link between this category of precocious development and the absence of the experience of what Bion termed the 'containing object.' She puts forward several technical considerations relevant to analytic work with patients who suffer as a result of early developmental failures and presents various clinical vignettes in order to demonstrate the ways in which these considerations take shape in the analytic setting. PMID:17681895

  6. Temperament features in adolescents with ego-syntonic or ego-dystonic obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Marchesi, Carlo; Ampollini, Paolo; DePanfilis, Chiara; Maggini, Carlo

    2008-09-01

    The present study evaluated whether different patterns of temperament may predict a different threshold of acceptability of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in adolescents. OC symptomatology was detected with the Leyton Obsessional Inventory-Child Version (LOI-CV) and temperament was assessed using the tridimensional personality questionnaire in 2,775 high-school students. According to the LOI-CV scores, the adolescents were classified as high interference (interfering, ego-dystonic symptoms) (HI), supernormal (noninterfering, ego-syntonic symptoms) (Sn) and controls (C) HI were 119 (4.3%), Sn 85 (3.1%) and C 2,571 (92.6%). The best predictor of belonging to HI or Sn groups was the temperament configuration of high Harm Avoidance (HA) and high Persistence (P). The feature that mainly distinguishes the two symptomatic groups were Novelty Seeking (NS) levels. Our data suggest that people characterized by pessimistic worry in anticipation of future problems, passive avoidant behaviour, rapid fatigability (high HA) and irresoluteness, ambitiousness, perseverance, perfectionism, enduring feelings of frustration (high P) might develop OC symptoms. Whether OC symptoms become ego-syntonic or ego-dystonic seems to mainly depend on NS levels: low NS might protect people (with the prevention of "exploratory and active behaviours" that may elicit loss of control on symptoms) from the development of interfering OC symptoms.

  7. RET [Rational Emotive Therapy] Abolishes Most of the Human Ego.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Albert

    Rational-emotive therapy (RET) holds that much of what we call the human "ego" has little or no legitimacy and, when conceived of and given a global rating (e.g., the individual gets rated as "worthwhile" or "worthless"), interferes with survival and happiness. Certain aspects of "ego" do have a verifiable existence and lead to beneficial results:…

  8. The Role of Ego-Identity Status in Mating Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkel, Curtis S.; Papini, Dennis R.

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the role ego-identity plays in the mating preferences of late adolescents. In addition to examining the variance in mating preferences explained by ego-identity status, it was hoped that the results could assist in testing the competing Sexual Strategies (Buss & Schmitt, 1993) and Social Role (Eagly & Wood, 1999)…

  9. An Empirical Test of Erikson's Theory of Ego Identity Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, James E.; Levine, Charles G.

    1989-01-01

    This study explores interrelationships among the following components of Erik Erikson's theory of ego identity formation: (1) the identity crisis; (2) the institutionalized moratoria; (3) the ego-superego struggle for dominance of the personality; and (4) the value orientation stages. Humanistically oriented adolescents are more likely to have a…

  10. Racial and Ego Identity Development in Black Caribbean College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses among 255 Black Caribbean college students in the Northeast United States. Findings indicated that racial identity attitudes were predictive of ego identity statuses. Specifically, preencounter racial identity attitudes were predictive of lower scores…

  11. Intraoperative indocyanine green angiography for the objective measurement of blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ho-Chul; Han, Sang-Ah; Ahn, Hyung Joon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Intraoperative assessment of tissue perfusion is important to predict wound healing or improvement of symptoms in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) or vascular trauma. There is no widely accepted standard for intraoperative measurement of tissue perfusion. Here, we report the use of indocyanine green (ICG)-based angiography to determine the blood flow in patients with PAD and vascular trauma. Methods The SPY fluorescent imaging system was utilized. A dose of 3–5 mL of ICG (2.5 mg/mL) was injected intravenously followed by a 10 mL normal saline flush. The SPY imaging system was used to quantitatively assess perfusion. During the study period, the SPY imaging system was applied in 4 patients with PAD and one patient with vascular trauma. Results In 3 patients with PAD associated with an ischemic wound, complete wound healing was achieved with the indication of viable tissue by the SPY system. In one patient with severe claudication in both lower extremities, the ICG angiography was used to determine the increased blood flow after revascularization. In the case of vascular trauma, this imaging system enabled the delineation of viability of the injured tissue. Conclusion ICG angiography can determine the surface tissue viability in PAD patients. In cases of severe vascular trauma,the SPY system can be used to determine tissue perfusion. Further study is warranted to define the definite utility of this technology to assess perfusion, response to revascularization, and potentially, to predict the likelihood of wound healing. PMID:27186573

  12. Ego development in female-to-male transsexual couples.

    PubMed

    Fleming, M; Costos, D; MacGowan, B

    1984-12-01

    The ego development of 22 postoperative female-to-male transsexuals and their spouses or lovers with whom they had been living for a year or more was investigated. The transsexuals, their spouses, and a control group of 22 couples were administered the Washington University Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development, a projective measure of ego functioning. Ego development refers to the framework of meaning that the individual brings to an experience. The construct of ego development incorporates a series of sequential stages that integrate various frames of reference including cognitive style, interpersonal style, conscious preoccupation, and impulse control. These processes have received little attention in studies on female-to-male transsexuals who have successfully negotiated the social barrier of cross-living to the extent that they are living the male role in a heterosexual relationship. No significant differences in the distribution of ego development scores were found between the transsexuals and the control males, or between the transsexuals' spouses and the control spouses. Over 93% of the transsexuals and their spouses scored above the conformist level of ego development. These findings are discussed in terms of some of the previous literature on conformist thinking by transsexuals. PMID:6517690

  13. Dominating sets and ego-centered decompositions in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudourides, M. A.; Lenis, S. T.

    2016-09-01

    Our aim here is to address the problem of decomposing a whole network into a minimal number of ego-centered subnetworks. For this purpose, the network egos are picked out as the members of a minimum dominating set of the network. However, to find such an efficient dominating ego-centered construction, we need to be able to detect all the minimum dominating sets and to compare all the corresponding dominating ego-centered decompositions of the network. To find all the minimum dominating sets of the network, we are developing a computational heuristic, which is based on the partition of the set of nodes of a graph into three subsets, the always dominant vertices, the possible dominant vertices and the never dominant vertices, when the domination number of the network is known. To compare the ensuing dominating ego-centered decompositions of the network, we are introducing a number of structural measures that count the number of nodes and links inside and across the ego-centered subnetworks. Furthermore, we are applying the techniques of graph domination and ego-centered decomposition for six empirical social networks.

  14. Ego development in female-to-male transsexual couples.

    PubMed

    Fleming, M; Costos, D; MacGowan, B

    1984-12-01

    The ego development of 22 postoperative female-to-male transsexuals and their spouses or lovers with whom they had been living for a year or more was investigated. The transsexuals, their spouses, and a control group of 22 couples were administered the Washington University Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development, a projective measure of ego functioning. Ego development refers to the framework of meaning that the individual brings to an experience. The construct of ego development incorporates a series of sequential stages that integrate various frames of reference including cognitive style, interpersonal style, conscious preoccupation, and impulse control. These processes have received little attention in studies on female-to-male transsexuals who have successfully negotiated the social barrier of cross-living to the extent that they are living the male role in a heterosexual relationship. No significant differences in the distribution of ego development scores were found between the transsexuals and the control males, or between the transsexuals' spouses and the control spouses. Over 93% of the transsexuals and their spouses scored above the conformist level of ego development. These findings are discussed in terms of some of the previous literature on conformist thinking by transsexuals.

  15. The perception of ego-motion change in environments with varying depth: Interaction of stereo and optic flow.

    PubMed

    Ott, Florian; Pohl, Ladina; Halfmann, Marc; Hardiess, Gregor; Mallot, Hanspeter A

    2016-07-01

    When estimating ego-motion in environments (e.g., tunnels, streets) with varying depth, human subjects confuse ego-acceleration with environment narrowing and ego-deceleration with environment widening. Festl, Recktenwald, Yuan, and Mallot (2012) demonstrated that in nonstereoscopic viewing conditions, this happens despite the fact that retinal measurements of acceleration rate-a variable related to tau-dot-should allow veridical perception. Here we address the question of whether additional depth cues (specifically binocular stereo, object occlusion, or constant average object size) help break the confusion between narrowing and acceleration. Using a forced-choice paradigm, the confusion is shown to persist even if unambiguous stereo information is provided. The confusion can also be demonstrated in an adjustment task in which subjects were asked to keep a constant speed in a tunnel with varying diameter: Subjects increased speed in widening sections and decreased speed in narrowing sections even though stereoscopic depth information was provided. If object-based depth information (stereo, occlusion, constant average object size) is added, the confusion between narrowing and acceleration still remains but may be slightly reduced. All experiments are consistent with a simple matched filter algorithm for ego-motion detection, neglecting both parallactic and stereoscopic depth information, but leave open the possibility of cue combination at a later stage.

  16. The perception of ego-motion change in environments with varying depth: Interaction of stereo and optic flow.

    PubMed

    Ott, Florian; Pohl, Ladina; Halfmann, Marc; Hardiess, Gregor; Mallot, Hanspeter A

    2016-07-01

    When estimating ego-motion in environments (e.g., tunnels, streets) with varying depth, human subjects confuse ego-acceleration with environment narrowing and ego-deceleration with environment widening. Festl, Recktenwald, Yuan, and Mallot (2012) demonstrated that in nonstereoscopic viewing conditions, this happens despite the fact that retinal measurements of acceleration rate-a variable related to tau-dot-should allow veridical perception. Here we address the question of whether additional depth cues (specifically binocular stereo, object occlusion, or constant average object size) help break the confusion between narrowing and acceleration. Using a forced-choice paradigm, the confusion is shown to persist even if unambiguous stereo information is provided. The confusion can also be demonstrated in an adjustment task in which subjects were asked to keep a constant speed in a tunnel with varying diameter: Subjects increased speed in widening sections and decreased speed in narrowing sections even though stereoscopic depth information was provided. If object-based depth information (stereo, occlusion, constant average object size) is added, the confusion between narrowing and acceleration still remains but may be slightly reduced. All experiments are consistent with a simple matched filter algorithm for ego-motion detection, neglecting both parallactic and stereoscopic depth information, but leave open the possibility of cue combination at a later stage. PMID:27442810

  17. Orbital studies of cataclysmic binaries. II - Three objects from the Palomar-Green sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorstensen, J. R.

    1986-04-01

    I obtained radial-velocity spectra of PG 0834 + 488, PG 1003 + 678 = CH UMa, and PG 1711 + 336 = V795 Her to determine their orbital periods. PG 0834 + 488 has an apparently normal dwarf-nova type spectrum, and its orbital period is here found to be 6.4 hr with no cycle-count ambigu- ity. The present data show no visible absorption from a secondary star. PG 1003 + 678 = CH UMa most likely has a period of 8.3 hr, which is an alias of the preliminary period of 12.5 hr announced by Thorstensen (1985); the 12.5 hr period remains possible. It shows absorption features in its spectrum characteristic of a late-type secondary star, and these features appear to have velocities in antiphase to the emission lines. The velocity amplitude is small and the lines narrow, suggesting a low inclination. PG 1711 + 336 = V795 Her has a most likely period of 14.8 hr, unusually long for a cataclysmic binary; because of the weakness of the emission lines, some doubt remains about the period. The 2.75 hr photometric period determined by Baidak et al. (1985) is not indicated in the velocities. The emission lines are weak and the flux distribution very blue. The object is evidently a nova-like variable in a perpetual high state. if the photometric and spectroscopic periods are both correct, it may be a very slow DQ Her star as well.

  18. A Psychometric Examination of Rasmussen's Ego Identity Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Robert D.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examines Rasmussen's Ego Identity Scale for internal consistency reliability and construct validity. Subjects included 114 primarily White and middle-class seventh- and twelfth-grade students. Implications for identity assessment are drawn. (Author/RH)

  19. The Effects of Ego Involvement on Responses to Editorial Satire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, James Larry

    1975-01-01

    Examines the role of satire in immunizing receivers to counterarguments and concludes that attitude changes effected in low ego involved subjects are not maintained when influenced by counterarguments. (MH)

  20. Regret causes ego-depletion and finding benefits in the regrettable events alleviates ego-depletion.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongmei; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Fang; Xu, Yan; Hong, Ying-Yi; Jiang, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that experiencing regret would result in ego-depletion, while finding benefits (i.e., "silver linings") in the regret-eliciting events counteracted the ego-depletion effect. Using a modified gambling paradigm (Experiments 1, 2, and 4) and a retrospective method (Experiments 3 and 5), five experiments were conducted to induce regret. Results revealed that experiencing regret undermined performance on subsequent tasks, including a paper-and-pencil calculation task (Experiment 1), a Stroop task (Experiment 2), and a mental arithmetic task (Experiment 3). Furthermore, finding benefits in the regret-eliciting events improved subsequent performance (Experiments 4 and 5), and this improvement was mediated by participants' perceived vitality (Experiment 4). This study extended the depletion model of self-regulation by considering emotions with self-conscious components (in our case, regret). Moreover, it provided a comprehensive understanding of how people felt and performed after experiencing regret and after finding benefits in the events that caused the regret. PMID:24940811

  1. The role of ego-identity status in mating preferences.

    PubMed

    Dunkel, Curtis S; Papini, Dennis R

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the role ego-identity plays in the mating preferences of late adolescents. In addition to examining the variance in mating preferences explained by ego-identity status, it was hoped that the results could assist in testing the competing Sexual Strategies (Buss & Schmitt, 1993) and Social Role (Eagly & Wood, 1999) theories. Ego-identity and the sex of the participant accounted for a significant amount of variance in the number of sexual partners desired and the penchant for short-term mating. The sex of the participant was the lone predictor of the importance placed on the mate characteristics of physical attractiveness and earning capacity with females placing more emphasis on the former and males placing more emphasis on the latter characteristic.

  2. Macrostructure from Microstructure: Generating Whole Systems from Ego Networks

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new simulation method to make global network inference from sampled data. The proposed simulation method takes sampled ego network data and uses Exponential Random Graph Models (ERGM) to reconstruct the features of the true, unknown network. After describing the method, the paper presents two validity checks of the approach: the first uses the 20 largest Add Health networks while the second uses the Sociology Coauthorship network in the 1990's. For each test, I take random ego network samples from the known networks and use my method to make global network inference. I find that my method successfully reproduces the properties of the networks, such as distance and main component size. The results also suggest that simpler, baseline models provide considerably worse estimates for most network properties. I end the paper by discussing the bounds/limitations of ego network sampling. I also discuss possible extensions to the proposed approach. PMID:25339783

  3. Recovering ego-motion from optical flow for aerial navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Tongxin; Deng, He; Liu, Jianguo

    2011-11-01

    A new solution to recover 6DoF (Degrees of Freedom) ego-motion is present. The problem is to estimate the ego-motion information solely from dense optical flow (OF) field efficiently and robustly, free of Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). The algorithm is a hierarchical framework and in each level there exist three parts, which are the optical flow Computation(OFC), the ego-motion estimation(EME) from two different models, and image warping(IW) according to the EME for the next level. The numerical precision of the algorithm under noise was investigated in the paper. We also compared its performance with Srinivasan's interpolation method and the 4DoF affine model on real aerial images. Our method are more accurate under large displacements and can resist the impacts of the rotations around x and y axis in a reasonable extent during computer navigation simulation.

  4. The role of ego-identity status in mating preferences.

    PubMed

    Dunkel, Curtis S; Papini, Dennis R

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the role ego-identity plays in the mating preferences of late adolescents. In addition to examining the variance in mating preferences explained by ego-identity status, it was hoped that the results could assist in testing the competing Sexual Strategies (Buss & Schmitt, 1993) and Social Role (Eagly & Wood, 1999) theories. Ego-identity and the sex of the participant accounted for a significant amount of variance in the number of sexual partners desired and the penchant for short-term mating. The sex of the participant was the lone predictor of the importance placed on the mate characteristics of physical attractiveness and earning capacity with females placing more emphasis on the former and males placing more emphasis on the latter characteristic. PMID:16268128

  5. Nurse faculty members' ego states: transactional analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Keçeci, Ayla; Taşocak, Gülsün

    2009-10-01

    This study uses a Transactional Analysis Approach (TA) to investigate communication between faculty and students in nursing education. The research population was comprised of nurse faculty members (N=33) employed at a school of nursing and students (N=482) registered at the same school. The research sample was comprised of 26 faculty members and 325 students. Data collection was performed via questionnaires, focus group interviews and observation. Qualitative data were analyzed using descriptive analysis methods, and quantitative data were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Pearson moment correlation coefficients technique. Using the Transactional Analysis Approach (TA), faculty members viewed themselves as an Adult and felt they used the Critical Parent ego state the least. Students also perceived that faculty members used the Adult ego state the most and used the Free Child ego state the least. PMID:19329232

  6. Nurse faculty members' ego states: transactional analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Keçeci, Ayla; Taşocak, Gülsün

    2009-10-01

    This study uses a Transactional Analysis Approach (TA) to investigate communication between faculty and students in nursing education. The research population was comprised of nurse faculty members (N=33) employed at a school of nursing and students (N=482) registered at the same school. The research sample was comprised of 26 faculty members and 325 students. Data collection was performed via questionnaires, focus group interviews and observation. Qualitative data were analyzed using descriptive analysis methods, and quantitative data were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Pearson moment correlation coefficients technique. Using the Transactional Analysis Approach (TA), faculty members viewed themselves as an Adult and felt they used the Critical Parent ego state the least. Students also perceived that faculty members used the Adult ego state the most and used the Free Child ego state the least.

  7. A Multilab Preregistered Replication of the Ego-Depletion Effect.

    PubMed

    Hagger, Martin S; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2016-07-01

    Good self-control has been linked to adaptive outcomes such as better health, cohesive personal relationships, success in the workplace and at school, and less susceptibility to crime and addictions. In contrast, self-control failure is linked to maladaptive outcomes. Understanding the mechanisms by which self-control predicts behavior may assist in promoting better regulation and outcomes. A popular approach to understanding self-control is the strength or resource depletion model. Self-control is conceptualized as a limited resource that becomes depleted after a period of exertion resulting in self-control failure. The model has typically been tested using a sequential-task experimental paradigm, in which people completing an initial self-control task have reduced self-control capacity and poorer performance on a subsequent task, a state known as ego depletion Although a meta-analysis of ego-depletion experiments found a medium-sized effect, subsequent meta-analyses have questioned the size and existence of the effect and identified instances of possible bias. The analyses served as a catalyst for the current Registered Replication Report of the ego-depletion effect. Multiple laboratories (k = 23, total N = 2,141) conducted replications of a standardized ego-depletion protocol based on a sequential-task paradigm by Sripada et al. Meta-analysis of the studies revealed that the size of the ego-depletion effect was small with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) that encompassed zero (d = 0.04, 95% CI [-0.07, 0.15]. We discuss implications of the findings for the ego-depletion effect and the resource depletion model of self-control. PMID:27474142

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Herschel-PACS and -SPIRE spectroscopy of 70 objects (Green+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J. D.; Yang, Y.-L.; Evans, N. J., II; Karska, A.; Herczeg, G.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Lee, J.-E.; Larson, R. L.; Bouwman, J.

    2016-10-01

    We present the CDF (COPS-DIGIT-FOOSH) archive, with Herschel spectroscopic observations of 70 objects (protostars, young stellar objects, and FU Orionis objects) from the "Dust, Ice, and Gas in Time" (DIGIT) Key Project, FU Orionis Objects Surveyed with Herschel" Open Time Program (FOOSH OT1), and "CO in Protostars" Open Time Program (COPS OT2) Herschel programs. These have been delivered to the Herschel archive and are available. The full source list is shown in Table1. The full DIGIT spectroscopic sample consists of 63 sources: 24 Herbig Ae/Be stars (intermediate mass sources with circumstellar disks), 9 T Tauri stars (low mass young stars with circumstellar disks), and 30 protostars (young stars with significant envelope emission) observed with Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) spectroscopy. DIGIT also included an additional wTTS (weak-line T Tauri star) sample that was observed photometrically and delivered separately. The wTTS sample is fully described by Cieza et al. 2013ApJ...762..100C. The full DIGIT embedded protostellar sample consisted of 30 Class 0/I targets, drawn from previous studies, focusing on protostars with high-quality Spitzer-IRS 5-40μm spectroscopy (summarized by Lahuis et al. 2006 c2d Spectroscopy Explanatory Supplement; Pasadena, CA: Spitzer Science Center), and UV, optical, infrared, and submillimeter complementary data. These objects are selected from some of the nearest and best-studied molecular clouds: Taurus (140pc; 6 targets), Ophiuchus (125pc; 7 targets), Perseus (230-250pc; 7 targets), R Corona Australis (130pc; 3 targets), Serpens (429pc; 2 targets), Chamaeleon (178pc, 1 target), and 4 additional isolated cores. PACS is a 5*5 array of 9.4''*9.4'' spatial pixels (spaxels) covering the spectral range from 50 to 210μm with λ/Δλ~1000-3000, divided into four segments, covering λ~50-75, 70-105, 100-145, and 140-210μm. The PACS spatial resolution ranges from ~9'' at the shortest wavelengths (50μm) to ~18'' at the

  9. Choice and ego-depletion: the moderating role of autonomy.

    PubMed

    Moller, Arlen C; Deci, Edward L; Ryan, Richard M

    2006-08-01

    The self-regulatory strength model maintains that all acts of self-regulation, self-control, and choice result in a state of fatigue called ego-depletion. Self-determination theory differentiates between autonomous regulation and controlled regulation. Because making decisions represents one instance of self-regulation, the authors also differentiate between autonomous choice and controlled choice. Three experiments support the hypothesis that whereas conditions representing controlled choice would be egodepleting, conditions that represented autonomous choice would not. In Experiment 3, the authors found significant mediation by perceived self-determination of the relation between the choice condition (autonomous vs. controlled) and ego-depletion as measured by performance.

  10. The Psychosocial Inventory of Ego Strengths: Examination of Theory and Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markstrom, Carol A.; Marshall, Sheila K.

    2007-01-01

    The psychosocial inventory of ego strengths (PIES) was devised as a measure of Erikson's eight ego strengths. The present investigation extended previous research through examination of the validity and reliability of the PIES among 502 high school students. The study also included an appraisal of Erikson's ego strengths as indices of psychosocial…

  11. The effect of ego-motion on environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Uri; Yacobi, Tamar; Levy, Ilan; Moltchanov, Sharon A; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Fishbain, Barak

    2015-11-15

    Air pollution has a proven impact on public health. Currently, pollutant levels are obtained by high-priced, sizeable, stationary Air Quality Monitoring (AQM) stations. Recent developments in sensory and communication technologies have made relatively low-cost, micro-sensing units (MSUs) feasible. Their lower power consumption and small size enable mobile sensing, deploying single or multiple units simultaneously. Recent studies have reported on measurements acquired by mobile MSUs, mounted on cars, bicycles and pedestrians. While these modes of transportation inherently present different velocity and acceleration regimes, the effect of the sensors' varying movement characteristics have not been previously accounted for. This research assesses the impact of sensor's motion on its functionality through laboratory measurements and a field campaign. The laboratory setup consists of a wind tunnel to assess the effect of air flow on the measurements of nitrogen dioxide and ozone at different velocities in a controlled environment, while the field campaign is based on three cars mounted with MSUs, measuring pollutants and environmental variables at different traveling speeds. In both experimental designs we can regard the MSUs as a moving object in the environment, i.e. having a distinct ego-motion. The results show that MSU's behavior is highly affected by variation in speed and sensor placement with respect to direction of movement, mainly due to the physical properties of installed sensors. This strongly suggests that any future design of MSU must account for the speed effect from the design stage all the way through deployment and results analysis. This is the first report examining the influence of airflow variations on MSU's ability to accurately measure pollutant levels.

  12. The effect of ego-motion on environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Uri; Yacobi, Tamar; Levy, Ilan; Moltchanov, Sharon A; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Fishbain, Barak

    2015-11-15

    Air pollution has a proven impact on public health. Currently, pollutant levels are obtained by high-priced, sizeable, stationary Air Quality Monitoring (AQM) stations. Recent developments in sensory and communication technologies have made relatively low-cost, micro-sensing units (MSUs) feasible. Their lower power consumption and small size enable mobile sensing, deploying single or multiple units simultaneously. Recent studies have reported on measurements acquired by mobile MSUs, mounted on cars, bicycles and pedestrians. While these modes of transportation inherently present different velocity and acceleration regimes, the effect of the sensors' varying movement characteristics have not been previously accounted for. This research assesses the impact of sensor's motion on its functionality through laboratory measurements and a field campaign. The laboratory setup consists of a wind tunnel to assess the effect of air flow on the measurements of nitrogen dioxide and ozone at different velocities in a controlled environment, while the field campaign is based on three cars mounted with MSUs, measuring pollutants and environmental variables at different traveling speeds. In both experimental designs we can regard the MSUs as a moving object in the environment, i.e. having a distinct ego-motion. The results show that MSU's behavior is highly affected by variation in speed and sensor placement with respect to direction of movement, mainly due to the physical properties of installed sensors. This strongly suggests that any future design of MSU must account for the speed effect from the design stage all the way through deployment and results analysis. This is the first report examining the influence of airflow variations on MSU's ability to accurately measure pollutant levels. PMID:26150302

  13. Ego Develoopment and Psychopathology: A Study of Hospitalized Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noam, Gil G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Achenbach and Edelbrock Child Behavior Checklist factor scores were compared with ego stage through correlational and multiple regression analyses. Findings indicated significant negative correlations with the externalizing and internalizing factors and with a variety of behavioral subscales. A significant relationship was found between the total…

  14. Confronting Task Difficulty in Ego Involvement: Change in Performance Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Shamala; Jagacinski, Carolyn M.

    2011-01-01

    Both Dweck (1986) and Nicholls (1984) proposed that when ego-involved individuals encounter difficulty, they would begin to doubt their level of ability, and as a consequence, their commitment to the goal of demonstrating high ability would decline. As difficulty continued, perceived ability would decline, and eventually the goal would be…

  15. Physical Activity Perceptions of Task- and Ego-Oriented Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruickshanks, Carla M.

    2010-01-01

    Children begin to show sedentary behaviors around the age of 12 and increased mortality is associated with sedentary behaviors in children and adults. This case study examined physical activity (PA) perceptions of task oriented and ego oriented children. Research has addressed perceptions based on goal orientations and how perception of PA changes…

  16. Linking psychoanalysis with neuroscience: the concept of ego.

    PubMed

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Semi, Antonio Alberto; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena

    2014-03-01

    Through his whole life Marc Jeannerod was fascinated by Freud's thinking. His interest in Freud is witnessed by several of his writings in which he expresses interest in building a bridge between psychoanalysis and cognitive neuroscience. Following Jeannerod's ideas we discuss here a fundamental point of Freud's construction, the concept of ego, from a neurophysiological point of view. We maintain that, in order both to act coherently and to have a basic, first person, understanding of the behavior of others, it is necessary to posit the existence of a neurophysiological "motor" ego similar to the "rider" of the Freudian metaphor. We review then a series of neurophysiological findings showing that the systems underlying the organization of action and conscious perception are both mediated by a cortical motor network formed by parieto-frontal circuits. In conclusion, we show that the activity of this network has strong similarities to that postulated by Freud for the conscious part of ego. We also propose that the default-mode network might represent that part of ego that is mostly involved in unconscious processes.

  17. Imagery Measures of Ego, Id, Superego, and Identity: Validity Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, D.; DeBruin, J.

    1988-01-01

    Five validity studies of the id, ego, superego, and identity scales of the Study of Imagery are reported, using undergraduate students. Multistage Bonferroni procedures are used to evaluate the significance of results. The scales are related to each other and to toughmindedness, self-control, and behavioral conflict. (TJH)

  18. Ego Development and Preferred Social Distance from Persons with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheaffer, Beverly L.; Sias, Shari M.; Toriello, Paul J.; Cubero, Christopher G.

    2008-01-01

    Bias toward persons with disabilities (PWD) is of particular interest in the rehabilitation counseling and allied health professions since negative attitudes among providers can marginalize the treatment of PWD. This exploratory study examined the influence of socio cognitive development, as measured by ego development (Hy & Loevinger, 1996), on…

  19. Bulimia: A Self-Psychological and Ego-Developmental View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner-Liss, Deborah

    1986-01-01

    Discusses key clinical issues in the treatment of bulimia with clinical examples from a self-psychological and ego-developmental point of view. Identifies three developmental issues for bulimia: self-regulatory, differentiation, and self-esteem. (Author/ABB)

  20. Promoting Ego Development and Multicultural Competence during Internship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Edward P.; Frank, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    This research involved an exploratory intervention to determine the effectiveness of using a deliberate psychological education (DPE) approach that incorporated issues of ethics, multicultural competence, oppression and diversity. The study attempted to discern if the DPE model used could make a difference in the promotion of ego development…

  1. Understanding Ego States: A Prerequisite for Cross-Cultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hoon

    This paper argues that cross-cultural training aimed at improving cultural sensitivity and awareness is a must for students and management trainees pursuing careers with international businesses and for U.S. companies actively seeking strategic alliances with foreign partners. It further argues that understanding the ego states of the parties…

  2. Continuity and Change from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood: Adolescence-Limited vs. Life-Course-Persistent Profound Ego Development Arrests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Rebecca L.; Hauser, Stuart T.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    Participants (n = 36) with consistent Pre-conformist ego development levels during multiple adolescent assessments were studied to determine whether and how their ego levels had changed at age 25. Those (n = 12) whose ego levels remained at the Pre-conformist level were assigned to a "life-course-persistent profound ego development arrest"…

  3. The relationship between early ego strength and adolescent responses to the threat of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Andrekus, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Ego resiliency and ego control, measured when subjects were 3 or 4 years old, were related to expectation of war, concern for the future, and activism in response to the threat of nuclear war, measured when subjects were 18 years old. Data from 92 participants in a longitudinal study of ego and cognitive development conducted by Jeanne and Jack Block at the University of California, Berkeley were used to test hypotheses. Assessments with the California Child Q-set, composited across multiple independent observers, provide measures of ego resiliency and ego control. Adolescent interviews regarding the perception of likelihood of nuclear war, how this affects their future, and their antinuclear and general political activism were scaled and rated. Early ego resiliency and ego under control were hypothesized to account for the variance in adolescent nuclear responses and activism. The only significant longitudinal relationships were in the female sample, where ego under control was found to be a significant predictor of both general political activism (p<.01) and ideas of the future being affected by the nuclear threat (p<.05). Among males, the relationship between early ego resiliency and adolescent antinuclear activism approached significance (p<.10). Adolescent personality was significantly related to several measures of nuclear response. In girls, adolescent ego under control related to perception of likelihood of nuclear war (p<.05) and antinuclear activism (p<.05), and the interaction of ego resiliency and ego under control predicted general political activism (p<.0005). In boys, adolescent ego resiliency correlated with antinuclear activism (p<.05). These findings were discussed in terms of antecedent parenting styles, and conceptual links were drawn between children's ego resiliency and security of attachment, perspective taking, and moral development.

  4. Changes in ego and moral development in adolescents: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gfellner, B M

    1986-12-01

    A longitudinal study was designed to examine the relation between Loevinger's measure of ego development and moral development as indexed by Rest's Defining Issues Test in a sample of 123 adolescents at 12 to 14 years of age and four years later. Study I assessed differential rates of change and theoretically predicted directions of change in the two developmental functions and gender differences in ego development. Substantial ego stage movement occurred (60 per cent advancement, 40 per cent stability); moral growth was moderate. Girls scored a half ego stage ahead of boys; patterns of directional change were similar. Ego level and moral development related at either fixed point in time, but ego functioning in early adolescence did not predict subsequent moral development. Study II addressed adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles in relation to these social cognitive functions. Parental behaviours that involve loving or support related to higher ego levels; parental demanding associated with lower ego development in early adolescence. Traditional gender-related parent socialization was found among girls and boys with greater ego development. The mediating role of perceived childrearing styles was considered in relation to gender differences in ego development.

  5. Effect of similarity of ego identity status on interpersonal attraction.

    PubMed

    Goldman, J A; Rosenzweig, C M; Lutter, A D

    1980-04-01

    Similarity of ego identity status, assessed by Marcia's four-category classification system, was related to interpersonal attraction. Using male and female college students as subjects, this study found that (1) while all judges preferred targets who had or who are undergoing a crisis to those who have not had a crisis, (2) diffuse judges preferred targets with no commitments to those with commitments, and (3) judges with commitments preferred a foreclosure target more than judges without commitments. Differential evaluations of the targets' intelligence, knowledge of current events, adjustment, and morality were also found. Results are discussed both in terms of previous research positively relating personality similarity to attraction and Erikson's theory of the relationship between ego identity development and intimacy in interpersonal relations. PMID:24318017

  6. Ego-motion based on EM for bionic navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Xiaofeng; Wang, L. J.; Liu, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Researches have proved that flying insects such as bees can achieve efficient and robust flight control, and biologists have explored some biomimetic principles regarding how they control flight. Based on those basic studies and principles acquired from the flying insects, this paper proposes a different solution of recovering ego-motion for low level navigation. Firstly, a new type of entropy flow is provided to calculate the motion parameters. Secondly, EKF, which has been used for navigation for some years to correct accumulated error, and estimation-Maximization, which is always used to estimate parameters, are put together to determine the ego-motion estimation of aerial vehicles. Numerical simulation on MATLAB has proved that this navigation system provides more accurate position and smaller mean absolute error than pure optical flow navigation. This paper has done pioneering work in bionic mechanism to space navigation.

  7. Ego-Vehicle Corridors for Vision-Based Driver Assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ruyi; Klette, Reinhard; Vaudrey, Tobi; Wang, Shigang

    Improving or generalizing lane detection solutions on curved roads with possibly broken lane marks is still a challenging task. This paper proposes a concept of a (virtual) corridor for modeling the space an ego-vehicle is able to drive through, using available (but often incomplete, e.g., due to occlusion, road conditions, or road intersections) information about the lane marks but also about the motion and relative position (with respect to the road) of the ego-vehicle. A corridor is defined in this paper by special features, such as two fixed starting points, a constant width, and a unique relationship with visible lane marks. Robust corridor detection is possible by hypothesis testing based on maximum a posterior (MAP) estimation, followed by boundary selection, and road patch extension. Obstacles are explicitly considered. A corridor tracking method is also discussed. Experimental results are provided.

  8. Beyond Empathy: The Tree of Compassion With Malevolent Ego States.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Claire

    2016-04-01

    Therapy with seriously dissociated patients requires the transformation and integration of malevolent ego states that produce a wide assortment of negative experiences and behaviors in the patient. During the course of therapy, they can present dangers to both patient and therapist, as well as to the therapeutic process (Watkins & Watkins, 1984). Perhaps the greatest challenges for therapists in this work are the development and the maintenance of empathy for these personality aspects. Without some degree of empathy, a healing therapeutic alliance cannot be formed, and absent a secure, healing, intersubjective experience, it is unlikely that malevolent ego states can undergo sufficient transformation for integration. Essential elements for developing and sustaining both the necessary empathy and the compassion, the altruistic activity that empathy engenders, are presented.

  9. Toward perception-based navigation using EgoSphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Kazuhiko; Peters, R. Alan; Wilkes, Don M.; Koku, Ahmet B.; Sekman, Ali

    2002-02-01

    A method for perception-based egocentric navigation of mobile robots is described. Each robot has a local short-term memory structure called the Sensory EgoSphere (SES), which is indexed by azimuth, elevation, and time. Directional sensory processing modules write information on the SES at the location corresponding to the source direction. Each robot has a partial map of its operational area that it has received a priori. The map is populated with landmarks and is not necessarily metrically accurate. Each robot is given a goal location and a route plan. The route plan is a set of via-points that are not used directly. Instead, a robot uses each point to construct a Landmark EgoSphere (LES) a circular projection of the landmarks from the map onto an EgoSphere centered at the via-point. Under normal circumstances, the LES will be mostly unaffected by slight variations in the via-point location. Thus, the route plan is transformed into a set of via-regions each described by an LES. A robot navigates by comparing the next LES in its route plan to the current contents of its SES. It heads toward the indicated landmarks until its SES matches the LES sufficiently to indicate that the robot is near the suggested via-point. The proposed method is particularly useful for enabling the exchange of robust route informa-tion between robots under low data rate communications constraints. An example of such an exchange is given.

  10. Ego Boundary Disturbance in Juvenile Anorexia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strober, Michael; Goldenberg, Irene

    1981-01-01

    Anorexics were compared to female depressed controls to measure boundary impairment. Anorexics scored higher on inner-outer and conceptual boundary disturbance and produced significantly more responses that emphasized the solidity of object boundaries. Boundary scores were unrelated to degree of weight loss and global symptom severity. (Author)

  11. Ego Depletion and the Strength Model of Self-Control: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagger, Martin S.; Wood, Chantelle; Stiff, Chris; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.

    2010-01-01

    According to the strength model, self-control is a finite resource that determines capacity for effortful control over dominant responses and, once expended, leads to impaired self-control task performance, known as "ego depletion". A meta-analysis of 83 studies tested the effect of ego depletion on task performance and related outcomes,…

  12. Ego Defense and Media Access: Conflicting Rhetorical Needs of a Contemporary Social Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Kathleen J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the relationship among the social movements of the 1960s, particularly the feminist movement and the mass media. Analyzes the nature of the rhetoric of social activism in that period which is characterized by the ego-defensive responses to media-created reality and by ego-building responses to media's reality-creating potential. (JMF)

  13. Ego and Self: A Synthesis of Theories of Consciousness and Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatzel, Miriam

    Ego and self refer to two ways of being. They are related on the one hand to neurosis and health and on the other hand to rational and intuitive modes of consciousness. The author in this article considers consciousness as it pertains to knowing oneself. She examines how ego, the rational consciousness as applied to oneself, can obstruct…

  14. Graduate Counseling Students' Levels of Ego Development, Wellness, and Psychological Disturbance: An Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambie, Glenn W.; Smith, Heather L.; Ieva, Kara P.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the findings of a descriptive, correlational study of 111 graduate counseling students' levels of ego development (L. X. Hy & J. Loevinger, 1996), wellness (J. E. Myers & T. J. Sweeney, 2005), and psychological disturbance (M. J. Lambert et al., 2004). Higher levels of ego maturity were associated with higher wellness scores.…

  15. The Skin-Ego: Dyadic Sensuality, Trauma in Infancy, and Adult Narcissistic Issues.

    PubMed

    Anzieu-Premmereur, Christine

    2015-10-01

    The skin-ego is a metaphor created by the French psychoanalyst Didier Anzieu to describe the process by which the infant's emerging ego develops a container for psychic contents and achieves a secure feeling of well-being. The ego encloses the psychic apparatus as the skin encloses the body. The ego becomes able to fix barriers protecting the internal world and to screen exchanges with the id, the superego, and the outside world. The skin-ego is an envelope that contains thoughts and gives to thinking activity some limits, continuity, and a protection against the instincts. The functions of the skin-ego are to maintain thoughts, to contain ideas and affects, to provide a protective shield, to register traces of primary communication with the outside world, to manage inter-sensorial correspondences, to individuate, to support sexual excitation, and to recharge the libido. The skin-ego is the foundation of the container-contained relationship. An important part of psychoanalytic work with borderline patients is the reconstruction of the earliest phases of the skin-ego and their consequences for mental organization. PMID:26485486

  16. The Role of Socialization, Effortful Control, and Ego Resiliency in French Adolescents' Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Claire; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The relations among effortful control, ego resiliency, socialization, and social functioning were examined with a sample of 182 French adolescents (14-20 years old). Adolescents, their parents, and/or teachers completed questionnaires on these constructs. Effortful control and ego resiliency were correlated with adolescents' social functioning,…

  17. Disparity of Ego-Identity Components in Relation to Psychological Security of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Diyar, Mosaad Abu; Salem, Ashraf Atta M. S.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed at investigating the Ego-identity components and the disparity of these components in relation to the psychological security of adolescents in Egypt. The sample of the study consisted of (400) male and female adolescents. The researchers used two main instruments; the psychological security scale and the Ego-identity scale.…

  18. Racial Identity Attitudes and Ego Identity Statuses in Dominican and Puerto Rican College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses in 94 Dominican and Puerto Rican Latino college students in an urban public college setting. Simultaneous regression analyses were conducted to test the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses, and findings indicated that…

  19. Ego Identity, Cognitive Ability, and Academic Achievement: Variances, Relationships, and Gender Differences Among High School Sophomores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrabel, Thomas J.

    This study examined the contributions of cognitive quantitative ability, cognitive verbal ability, normed test achievement and grade point average to the ego identity of 202 high school sophomores. The instrumentation used in this study was as follows: (1) Rasmussen Ego Identity Scale: Revised Short Form; (2) The 3-R's Abilities and Achievement…

  20. Ego Depletion Effects on Mathematics Performance in Primary School Students: Why Take the Hard Road?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Deborah Ann; Yates, Gregory C. R.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction in performance level following on from brief periods of self-control is referred to as ego depletion. This study aimed to investigate if a brief ego depletion experience would impact upon primary school students working through an online mathematics exercise involving 40 computational trials. Seventy-two students participated in the…

  1. The psychosocial inventory of ego strengths: examination of theory and psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Markstrom, Carol A; Marshall, Sheila K

    2007-02-01

    The psychosocial inventory of ego strengths (PIES) was devised as a measure of Erikson's eight ego strengths. The present investigation extended previous research through examination of the validity and reliability of the PIES among 502 high school students. The study also included an appraisal of Erikson's ego strengths as indices of psychosocial well-being. Reliability of the subscales of the PIES was shown through acceptable Cronbach's alphas. As expected, higher scores on ego strengths were positively correlated with psychosocial indictors of identity achievement, self-esteem, locus of control, empathic concern, perspective-taking, and positive forms of coping. Lower scores on ego strengths were related to less desirable psychosocial constructs. Biological sex and age differences also are reported. Based on the findings, the study offers validation of psychosocial theory. As well, the PIES is recommended for use among high school students.

  2. The function of wisdom dimensions in ego-identity development among Chinese university students.

    PubMed

    Bang, Hyeyoung; Zhou, Yuchun

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between wisdom and ego-identity among university students in China. Using Marcia's ego-identity statuses and Ardelt's wisdom dimensions as the theoretical and conceptual framework, the study investigates 356 university students in China. After exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, four factors from wisdom and five factors from ego-identity were retrieved. A structural equation model was then conducted to analyse the relationships. The findings were: (1) among wisdom dimensions, cognitive, and reflective wisdom, especially perspective-taking best predicted achievement, (2) all three dimensions of wisdom predicted moratorium, but reflective wisdom was the most pronounced predictor, (3) all three dimensions of wisdom predicted diffusion, but resentment items from reflective wisdom were the most pronounced predictors, and (4) gender was a significant predictor of ego-identity achievement and diffusion. These findings suggest that efforts to build reflective wisdom might contribute to healthier ego-identity formation.

  3. The function of wisdom dimensions in ego-identity development among Chinese university students.

    PubMed

    Bang, Hyeyoung; Zhou, Yuchun

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between wisdom and ego-identity among university students in China. Using Marcia's ego-identity statuses and Ardelt's wisdom dimensions as the theoretical and conceptual framework, the study investigates 356 university students in China. After exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, four factors from wisdom and five factors from ego-identity were retrieved. A structural equation model was then conducted to analyse the relationships. The findings were: (1) among wisdom dimensions, cognitive, and reflective wisdom, especially perspective-taking best predicted achievement, (2) all three dimensions of wisdom predicted moratorium, but reflective wisdom was the most pronounced predictor, (3) all three dimensions of wisdom predicted diffusion, but resentment items from reflective wisdom were the most pronounced predictors, and (4) gender was a significant predictor of ego-identity achievement and diffusion. These findings suggest that efforts to build reflective wisdom might contribute to healthier ego-identity formation. PMID:25355666

  4. Exploring the Relationships between Racial/Cultural Identity and Ego Identity among African Americans and Mexican Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miville, Marie L.; Koonce, Danel; Darlington, Pat; Whitlock, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Relationships between collective identity and ego identity were examined among 229 African American and Mexican American university students. Participants completed scales measuring racial or cultural identity and ego identity. Regression analyses indicated that ego identity was significantly related to racial identity for African Americans and…

  5. "Ego-dystonic" delusions as a predictor of dangerous behavior.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Zislin; Victor, Kuperman; Rimona, Durst

    2011-06-01

    This paper aims to report a possible warning sign for dangerous behavior in delusional psychotic patients. We demonstrate an association between aggressive or auto-aggressive ideation and "ego-dystonic" grandiose delusions, where the patient believes to possess unique qualities but finds them unbearable. The study is based on the sample of seven interviews with five psychotic in-patients at the Kfar Shaul Mental Health Center, Jerusalem, Israel. All patients experienced an acute psychotic episode, and committed acts of aggression or suicidality. The research method is narrative analysis of semi-structured interviews. Patients report ideas of grandiose self-identification with deities, Biblical figures or celebrities, yet report their reluctance to be in these high positions due to feelings of unworthiness, withdrawal, and social isolation. Resulting frustration arguably leads to aggressive and suicidal ideation or actions. Contrary to the established view, grandiose delusions are not free of association with (auto-)aggression. The patient's ego-dystonic attitude towards his/her delusional identity may serve as the warning sign for dangerous behavior and, as such, should be searched for and recognized by the mental health professionals.

  6. Finding the self by losing the self: Neural correlates of ego-dissolution under psilocybin.

    PubMed

    Lebedev, Alexander V; Lövdén, Martin; Rosenthal, Gidon; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2015-08-01

    Ego-disturbances have been a topic in schizophrenia research since the earliest clinical descriptions of the disorder. Manifesting as a feeling that one's "self," "ego," or "I" is disintegrating or that the border between one's self and the external world is dissolving, "ego-disintegration" or "dissolution" is also an important feature of the psychedelic experience, such as is produced by psilocybin (a compound found in "magic mushrooms"). Fifteen healthy subjects took part in this placebo-controlled study. Twelve-minute functional MRI scans were acquired on two occasions: subjects received an intravenous infusion of saline on one occasion (placebo) and 2 mg psilocybin on the other. Twenty-two visual analogue scale ratings were completed soon after scanning and the first principal component of these, dominated by items referring to "ego-dissolution", was used as a primary measure of interest in subsequent analyses. Employing methods of connectivity analysis and graph theory, an association was found between psilocybin-induced ego-dissolution and decreased functional connectivity between the medial temporal lobe and high-level cortical regions. Ego-dissolution was also associated with a "disintegration" of the salience network and reduced interhemispheric communication. Addressing baseline brain dynamics as a predictor of drug-response, individuals with lower diversity of executive network nodes were more likely to experience ego-dissolution under psilocybin. These results implicate MTL-cortical decoupling, decreased salience network integrity, and reduced inter-hemispheric communication in psilocybin-induced ego disturbance and suggest that the maintenance of "self"or "ego," as a perceptual phenomenon, may rest on the normal functioning of these systems.

  7. Finding the self by losing the self: Neural correlates of ego-dissolution under psilocybin.

    PubMed

    Lebedev, Alexander V; Lövdén, Martin; Rosenthal, Gidon; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2015-08-01

    Ego-disturbances have been a topic in schizophrenia research since the earliest clinical descriptions of the disorder. Manifesting as a feeling that one's "self," "ego," or "I" is disintegrating or that the border between one's self and the external world is dissolving, "ego-disintegration" or "dissolution" is also an important feature of the psychedelic experience, such as is produced by psilocybin (a compound found in "magic mushrooms"). Fifteen healthy subjects took part in this placebo-controlled study. Twelve-minute functional MRI scans were acquired on two occasions: subjects received an intravenous infusion of saline on one occasion (placebo) and 2 mg psilocybin on the other. Twenty-two visual analogue scale ratings were completed soon after scanning and the first principal component of these, dominated by items referring to "ego-dissolution", was used as a primary measure of interest in subsequent analyses. Employing methods of connectivity analysis and graph theory, an association was found between psilocybin-induced ego-dissolution and decreased functional connectivity between the medial temporal lobe and high-level cortical regions. Ego-dissolution was also associated with a "disintegration" of the salience network and reduced interhemispheric communication. Addressing baseline brain dynamics as a predictor of drug-response, individuals with lower diversity of executive network nodes were more likely to experience ego-dissolution under psilocybin. These results implicate MTL-cortical decoupling, decreased salience network integrity, and reduced inter-hemispheric communication in psilocybin-induced ego disturbance and suggest that the maintenance of "self"or "ego," as a perceptual phenomenon, may rest on the normal functioning of these systems. PMID:26010878

  8. Barriers to ego identity status formation: a contextual qualification of Marcia's identity status paradigm.

    PubMed

    Yoder, A E

    2000-02-01

    While many psychological, sociological and educational researchers acknowledge that ego identity formation is a socially embedded process, others have found that identity research often focuses, almost exclusively, on internal psychological development. The concept of "barriers" provides a means by which to describe external influences associated with adolescent and young adult ego identity exploration and commitment processes which affect and possibly limit individual developmental options. Based on Erikson's assumption that ego identity formation involves both personal growth and communal change, the barriers qualification expands upon Marica's identity status paradigm to more accurately reflect socio-cultural variables which may have impact upon individual internal psychological function.

  9. Understanding the patient's use of the method of free association: an ego psychological approach.

    PubMed

    Busch, F

    1997-01-01

    While most of our methods of listening have been geared toward unearthing unconscious fantasies, those directed toward the ego's all-inclusive role in effecting the associative process have lagged far behind. It is the thesis of this paper that listening from the perspective of the ego allows the analyst to work more closely with what the patient is ready to understand. Clinical technique, using an ego psychological view, is elaborated, demonstrated, and compared to technique dependent on the reading of signs and symbols of the unconscious.

  10. Healing the wounded self: combining hypnotherapy with ego state therapy.

    PubMed

    Alladin, Assen

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to formulate a theoretical conceptualization for utilizing ego state therapy (EST) as an adjunct with cognitive hypnotherapy (CH) for depression. As the relationship between life events and onset of depression is very complex, it is not clear from current literature how stressors cause depressive symptoms. The notion of "wounded self," derived from the work of Wolfe (2005, 2006), is examined as a potential unifying concept for binding the role of risk factors in the precipitation of depression. By incorporating wounded self, the circular feedback model of depression, on which CH for depression is based, is expanded. This revised version provides conceptual and empirical underpinnings for integrating EST with CH in the management of depression.

  11. Sex role identity in young adults: its parental antecedents and relation to ego development.

    PubMed

    Costos, D

    1986-03-01

    This study, inspired by Block's (1973) work, was designed to enable one to examine how ego development and socialization experience interact in relation to sex role identity. Sex role identity was measured via the Bem Sex Role Inventory, and socialization practices were measured via the Block Child-Rearing Practices Report. Both measures were scaled so as to yield scores on agency, communion, and androgyny. Ego development was assessed via Loevinger's Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development. The sample consisted of 120 young adult men and women, married and single. Analyses revealed that the predictive power of the variables differed by sex. Ego development was predictive of sex role identity in men but not women, whereas socialization practices were predictive of sex role identity in women but not men. The results were seen as supporting Chodorow's (1974) position regarding the differing socialization experiences of men and women. PMID:3701594

  12. Ego development, psychopathology, and parenting problems in substance-abusing mothers.

    PubMed

    Suchman, Nancy; McMahon, Thomas; Decoste, Cindy; Castiglioni, Nicole; Luthar, Suniya

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined maternal ego development in relation to psychopathology and parenting problems in a sample of substance abusing mothers. Given predilections at higher levels of ego development for introspection and guilt, the authors expected mothers at higher levels to report more psychopathology. Given predilections at lower levels of ego development for dichotomous perceptions and limited conceptions of causation, the authors expected mothers at low levels to report more problematic parenting behaviors. Intelligence was expected to correlate but not overlap with ego development. Subjects were 182 mothers who expressed interest in a randomized clinical trial for a new parenting intervention. Measures included the Washington University Sentence Completion Task--Short Form, the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire, the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Results of correlation and multivariate analyses of variance confirmed predictions. Implications for future development of interventions for substance abusing mothers are discussed.

  13. Relations of parenting style to Chinese children’s effortful control, ego resilience, and maladjustment

    PubMed Central

    EISENBERG, NANCY; CHANG, LEI; MA, YUE; HUANG, XIAORUI

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relations of authoritative parenting and corporal punishment to Chinese first and second graders’ effortful control (EC), impulsivity, ego resilience, and maladjustment, as well as mediating relations. A parent and teacher reported on children’s EC, impulsivity, and ego resilience; parents reported on children’s internalizing symptoms and their own parenting, and teachers and peers reported on children’s externalizing symptoms. Authoritative parenting and low corporal punishment predicted high EC, and EC mediated the relation between parenting and externalizing problems. In addition, impulsivity mediated the relation of corporal punishment to externalizing problems. The relation of parenting to children’s ego resilience was mediated by EC and/or impulsivity, and ego resilience mediated the relations of EC and impulsivity to internalizing problems. PMID:19338693

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Ego Identity Development at a Liberal Arts College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, Alan S.; Goldman, Jeffrey A.

    1976-01-01

    Ego identity development in the areas of occupational choice, religion, and political ideology was studied using Marcia's categorization system. The findings are clearly consistent with Erikson's theory of psychosocial development during youth. (RC)

  15. Nature gives us strength: exposure to nature counteracts ego-depletion.

    PubMed

    Chow, Jason T; Lau, Shun

    2015-01-01

    Previous research rarely investigated the role of physical environment in counteracting ego-depletion. In the present research, we hypothesized that exposure to natural environment counteracts ego-depletion. Three experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis. In Experiment 1, initially depleted participants who viewed pictures of nature scenes showed greater persistence on a subsequent anagram task than those who were given a rest period. Experiment 2 expanded upon this finding by showing that natural environment enhanced logical reasoning performance after ego-depleting task. Experiment 3 adopted a two- (depletion vs. no-depletion) -by-two (nature exposure vs. urban exposure) factorial design. We found that nature exposure moderated the effect of depletion on anagram task performance. Taken together, the present studies offer a viable and novel strategy to mitigate the negative impacts of ego-depletion.

  16. Sex role identity in young adults: its parental antecedents and relation to ego development.

    PubMed

    Costos, D

    1986-03-01

    This study, inspired by Block's (1973) work, was designed to enable one to examine how ego development and socialization experience interact in relation to sex role identity. Sex role identity was measured via the Bem Sex Role Inventory, and socialization practices were measured via the Block Child-Rearing Practices Report. Both measures were scaled so as to yield scores on agency, communion, and androgyny. Ego development was assessed via Loevinger's Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development. The sample consisted of 120 young adult men and women, married and single. Analyses revealed that the predictive power of the variables differed by sex. Ego development was predictive of sex role identity in men but not women, whereas socialization practices were predictive of sex role identity in women but not men. The results were seen as supporting Chodorow's (1974) position regarding the differing socialization experiences of men and women.

  17. Ego depletion and the strength model of self-control: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hagger, Martin S; Wood, Chantelle; Stiff, Chris; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2010-07-01

    According to the strength model, self-control is a finite resource that determines capacity for effortful control over dominant responses and, once expended, leads to impaired self-control task performance, known as ego depletion. A meta-analysis of 83 studies tested the effect of ego depletion on task performance and related outcomes, alternative explanations and moderators of the effect, and additional strength model hypotheses. Results revealed a significant effect of ego depletion on self-control task performance. Significant effect sizes were found for ego depletion on effort, perceived difficulty, negative affect, subjective fatigue, and blood glucose levels. Small, nonsignificant effects were found for positive affect and self-efficacy. Moderator analyses indicated minimal variation in the effect across sphere of depleting and dependent task, frequently used depleting and dependent tasks, presentation of tasks as single or separate experiments, type of dependent measure and control condition task, and source laboratory. The effect size was moderated by depleting task duration, task presentation by the same or different experimenters, intertask interim period, dependent task complexity, and use of dependent tasks in the choice and volition and cognitive spheres. Motivational incentives, training on self-control tasks, and glucose supplementation promoted better self-control in ego-depleted samples. Expecting further acts of self-control exacerbated the effect. Findings provide preliminary support for the ego-depletion effect and strength model hypotheses. Support for motivation and fatigue as alternative explanations for ego depletion indicate a need to integrate the strength model with other theories. Findings provide impetus for future investigation testing additional hypotheses and mechanisms of the ego-depletion effect.

  18. Reciprocal Relations Between Emotional Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Ego-Resiliency Across Time.

    PubMed

    Milioni, Michela; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Castellani, Valeria; Zuffianò, Antonio; Vecchione, Michele; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2015-10-01

    The present study examined the longitudinal relations of adolescents' self-reported ego-resiliency to their emotional self-efficacy beliefs in expressing positive emotions and in managing negative emotions as they moved into early adulthood. Participants were 239 females and 211 males with a mean age of 17 years (SD = .80) at T1, 19 years (SD = .80) at T2, 21 years (SD = .82) at T3, and 25 years (SD = .80) at T4. A four-wave cross-lagged regression model and mediational analyses were used. In a panel structural equation model controlling for the stability of the constructs, reciprocal relationships across time were found between ego-resiliency and emotional self-efficacy beliefs related to the expression of positive emotions and to the management of negative emotions. Moreover, the relation between ego-resiliency assessed at T1 and T3, and ego-resiliency assessed at T2 and T4, was mediated through emotional self-efficacy beliefs (at T2 and T3, respectively), and vice versa. The posited conceptual model accounted for a significant portion of variance in ego-resiliency and has implications for understanding the development of ego-resiliency. PMID:25204666

  19. Evaluation of a program on self-esteem and ego-identity for Korean nursing students.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Jung

    2016-09-01

    Nursing students with high levels of self-esteem and a strong ego-identity maintain a level of self-integrity that enables them to participate successfully in shared group values and interests while simultaneously meeting their own needs. Self-esteem and ego-identity are associated with academic achievement, major (area of study) satisfaction, and life satisfaction in undergraduate students. This study evaluated a brief group program for Korean nursing students that focused on promoting positive self-esteem and ego-identity development. Twenty-three Korean nursing school students participated. Changes in the students' ego-identity and self-esteem were quantitatively examined. Scores for ego-identity and self-esteem increased significantly for the students who participated in the group, while scores in the control group remained the same. The program is judged as an effective method for nursing educators or college mental health providers to utilize in order to promote affirmative ego-identity and self-esteem in nursing students. Additionally, the program contributes to helping students achieve developmental goals during their college life.

  20. Evaluation of a program on self-esteem and ego-identity for Korean nursing students.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Jung

    2016-09-01

    Nursing students with high levels of self-esteem and a strong ego-identity maintain a level of self-integrity that enables them to participate successfully in shared group values and interests while simultaneously meeting their own needs. Self-esteem and ego-identity are associated with academic achievement, major (area of study) satisfaction, and life satisfaction in undergraduate students. This study evaluated a brief group program for Korean nursing students that focused on promoting positive self-esteem and ego-identity development. Twenty-three Korean nursing school students participated. Changes in the students' ego-identity and self-esteem were quantitatively examined. Scores for ego-identity and self-esteem increased significantly for the students who participated in the group, while scores in the control group remained the same. The program is judged as an effective method for nursing educators or college mental health providers to utilize in order to promote affirmative ego-identity and self-esteem in nursing students. Additionally, the program contributes to helping students achieve developmental goals during their college life. PMID:27080200

  1. Self-concept and ego development in deaf adolescents: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    van Gent, Tiejo; Goedhart, Arnold W; Knoors, Harry E T; Westenberg, P Michiel; Treffers, Philip D A

    2012-01-01

    Self-concept and ego development, two intertwined aspects of self-indicating well-being and social-cognitive maturation, respectively, were examined in a representative sample of deaf adolescents of normal intelligence (N = 68), using translated and adapted versions of Harter's (1988, Manual for the self-perception profile for adolescents. Denver, CO: University of Denver) multidimensional measure of self-concept and Loevinger's (1998, Technical foundations for measuring ego development. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum) measure of ego development. Compared to hearing norm groups, deaf adolescents showed lower levels of self-perceived social acceptance, close friendships and ego development and higher physical appearance. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses controlling for sociodemographic variables showed positive associations of global self-worth with support for signing during childhood and quality of parent-child communication and of ego development with attending a regular school. Cluster analysis identified three social competence profiles: uniformly low competence, uniformly high competence, and low social acceptance with high physical appearance. Cluster membership was associated with school type, ego development, and (past) neurological disorder. The results are discussed in reference to interventions aimed at the well-being of deaf youth.

  2. The Benefits of Self-Set Goals: Is Ego Depletion Really a Result of Self-Control Failure?

    PubMed Central

    Zahn, Daniela; Rowland, Zarah; Kubiak, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Research on ego depletion aims at explaining self-control failures in daily life. Both resource models and motivational accounts have been proposed for explanation. The aim of the present research was to test the different assumptions in two dual-task experiments where we operationalized ego depletion as a performance deviation from a self-set goal. In two experiments, we found evidence for this deviation contradicting motivational accounts of ego depletion: Participants experiencing ego depletion set themselves a stricter instead of a more lenient goal than controls, in that they chose to eat less cookies or wanted to perform better. Moreover, only participants without an initial self-control task could adhere to their self-set goal, whereas participants in the ego depletion condition in both experiments could not follow through with their more ambitious intentions. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the importance of goals in ego depletion research. PMID:27280531

  3. Personality development from adolescence to emerging adulthood: linking trajectories of ego development to the family context and identity formation.

    PubMed

    Syed, Moin; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2013-02-01

    This longitudinal study analyzed personality development using an individual approach by examining changes in ego development across the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Specifically, the study mapped the heterogeniety in ego development growth trajectories and linked the different trajectories to the family context in adolescence and identity development in emerging adulthood. Participants were 98 families with a child who were followed from age 14 to age 24. Latent class growth analysis identified 4 distinct trajectories of growth in ego development of the children over the 10-year period. The results indicated that growth was more rapid during adolescence and tended to taper off in emerging adulthood. In addition, promotion of personal growth within the family and parents' ego development were particulary instrumental in children's ego developmental gains in adolescence. Finally, youth who demonstrated continued ego development into emerging adulthood also demonstrated heightened levels of identity exploration.

  4. Ego-location and situational awareness in semistructured environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodsell, Thomas G.; Snorrason, Magnus S.; Stevens, Mark R.; Stube, Brian; McBride, Jonah

    2003-09-01

    The success of any potential application for mobile robots depends largely on the specific environment where the application takes place. Practical applications are rarely found in highly structured environments, but unstructured environments (such as natural terrain) pose major challenges to any mobile robot. We believe that semi-structured environments-such as parking lots-provide a good opportunity for successful mobile robot applications. Parking lots tend to be flat and smooth, and cars can be uniquely identified by their license plates. Our scenario is a parking lot where only known vehicles are supposed to park. The robot looks for vehicles that do not belong in the parking lot. It checks both license plates and vehicle types, in case the plate is stolen from an approved vehicle. It operates autonomously, but reports back to a guard who verifies its performance. Our interest is in developing the robot's vision system, which we call Scene Estimation & Situational Awareness Mapping Engine (SESAME). In this paper, we present initial results from the development of two SESAME subsystems, the ego-location and license plate detection systems. While their ultimate goals are obviously quite different, our design demonstrates that by sharing intermediate results, both tasks can be significantly simplified. The inspiration for this design approach comes from the basic tenets of Situational Awareness (SA), where the benefits of holistic perception are clearly demonstrated over the more typical designs that attempt to solve each sensing/perception problem in isolation.

  5. [Inpatient psychoanalytic treatment of patients with structural ego disorders].

    PubMed

    Ehl, M; Tress, W

    1988-01-01

    Psychoneurotic and psychosomatic patients with severe personality disorders suffer from structural defects of their ego-functions and are in need of specific treatment techniques which can be supplied by the differentiated strategies of inpatient psychoanalysis. The experiences of a specific inpatient ward of the Psychosomatic department at the Central Institute of Mental Health in Mannheim are summarized whereby the use of the inward setting to initiate long term psychotherapeutic processes is emphasized. According to an integrative treatment concept various verbal and non-verbal modalities of experience and working through represented by different members of the therapeutic team co-operate within their well defined functions. The main task of the team is to identify the various splitting mechanisms of the patients with personality disorders and to combine all the walled off ways of experiencing and social behavior into a complete picture of his person. To this end close attention is payed to the dynamics within the group of the patients as well as with the group of the therapists. As a precondition the setting of the ward and its rules of conduct for inpatient group life have closely to be watched and the respective behavior of the patients and the team has to be monitored. We describe our setting, the time phases of treatment, the tasks of the different therapists, and explicitely emphasize sociotherapeutic aspects for the final therapy phase. At last, we mention special emotional difficulties waiting for therapists who work in this setting. PMID:3239270

  6. The 'body-container': a new perspective on the 'body-ego'.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Tamar

    2009-06-01

    Psychoanalytic theory and practice tend to focus on metaphorical and symbolic mental representations in a way that often pushes aside the importance of a bodily 'presence' possessing qualities that can not and should not be subordinated to the representational structure. By introducing the 'body-container' model, this paper reintroduces the concrete physical body into the psychoanalytic discourse in a more direct way. This clinical-theoretical model links the 'body-ego' (Freud, 1923) to the container idea (Bion, 1962) aiming to creates a new integrative psyche-soma scheme. The 'body-container' experience is available as a subjective realization through a priori psycho-physical forms structured as an envelope and a central vertical axis. These forms are the outcome of our given bodily structure experienced under the 'magnetic' force of object relation. The mental envelope is already discussed in psychoanalytic theory (Anzieu, 1989, 1990; Bick, 1968) and I wish to introduce the characteristics of the vertical axis which I call 'the frontal spine', emphasizing its constitutional reciprocity with the skin envelope. The proposed model offers new insights into the psycho-physical organization in primitive mental states and may contribute to the understanding of the complementary structural relation between embodied and represented in human experience. Two clinical examples illustrate the therapeutic work relevant to disturbances in the primal psycho-physical space organization at different developmental levels. PMID:19580594

  7. The Nudity of the Ego. An Eckhartian Perspective on the Levinas/Derrida Debate on Alterity

    PubMed Central

    Roesner, Martina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present paper examines the Eckhartian motives in Derrida's critique of Levinas’ concept of the “Other”. The focus is put on the Husserlian concept of alter ego that is at the core of the debate between Levinas and Derrida. Against Levinas, Derrida argues that alter is not an epithet that expresses a mere accidental modification of the ego, but an indicator of radical exteriority. Interestingly enough, this position is virtually identical with Meister Eckhart's interpretation of the famous proposition from Exodus 3:14 “I am who I am”. Eckhart claims that the pronoun ego denotes the absolutely simple substance of the uncreated intellect, which can, by definition, never receive any accidental determination whatsoever. The reduplication of the “I am” is by no means tautological, but expresses the intra-divine dynamic of the Father who engenders the Son as his perfect equal and alter ego. This transcendental conception of egoity also governs the relationships between human beings: the ethical encounter with the “Other” requires that we consider them not primarily in their empirical, contingent existence but in the transcendental purity of their indeclinable ego, which is identical with the incessant act in which God knows himself in the Son as his absolutely Other. Thus, Meister Eckhart's approach proves, against Levinas, that it is possible to develop an “egological” philosophy that avoids the pitfalls of a naturalistic and potentially violent ontology of the subject. PMID:27152029

  8. Ego depletion decreases trust in economic decision making

    PubMed Central

    Ainsworth, Sarah E.; Baumeister, Roy F.; Vohs, Kathleen D.; Ariely, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments tested the effects of ego depletion on economic decision making. Participants completed a task either requiring self-control or not. Then participants learned about the trust game, in which senders are given an initial allocation of $10 to split between themselves and another person, the receiver. The receiver receives triple the amount given and can send any, all, or none of the tripled money back to the sender. Participants were assigned the role of the sender and decided how to split the initial allocation. Giving less money, and therefore not trusting the receiver, is the safe, less risky response. Participants who had exerted self-control and were depleted gave the receiver less money than those in the non-depletion condition (Experiment 1). This effect was replicated and moderated in two additional experiments. Depletion again led to lower amounts given (less trust), but primarily among participants who were told they would never meet the receiver (Experiment 2) or who were given no information about how similar they were to the receiver (Experiment 3). Amounts given did not differ for depleted and non-depleted participants who either expected to meet the receiver (Experiment 2) or were led to believe that they were very similar to the receiver (Experiment 3). Decreased trust among depleted participants was strongest among neurotics. These results imply that self-control facilitates behavioral trust, especially when no other cues signal decreased social risk in trusting, such as if an actual or possible relationship with the receiver were suggested. PMID:25013237

  9. Evaluating ego defense mechanisms using clinical interviews: an empirical study of adolescent diabetic and psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, A M; Beardslee, W; Hauser, S T; Noam, G G; Powers, S I; Houlihan, J; Rider, E

    1986-12-01

    Ego defense mechanisms were studied in three groups of early adolescents: diabetic patients, non-psychotic psychiatric patients, and healthy high school students. Defenses were assessed from ratings of open-ended, in-depth interviews. High levels of denial and low levels of asceticism were found in all three groups. Comparisons between groups indicated that psychiatric patients had a distinctive profile of defense usage, in comparison to adolescents from the other two groups. An independent measure of ego development was positively correlated with the defenses of altruism, intellectualization, and suppression, while it was negatively correlated with acting out, avoidance, denial, displacement, projection, and repression. The findings of substantial differences in defense usage between the psychiatric and non-psychiatric samples, and the size and directions of the correlations with ego development level, lend support to the validity of the defense codes.

  10. The Interrelationship of Social Anxiety with Anxiety, Depression, Locus of Control, Ways of Coping and Ego Strength amongst University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Robin-Marie; Edelman, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This is the first study to investigate the interrelationship of social anxiety with the variables anxiety, depression, locus of control, ego strength and ways of coping in a sample of university students. There were high scores of social anxiety which were related to high scores on measures of anxiety and depression, low ego strength, external…

  11. An Investigation of Task and Ego Oriented Goals of the Students Majoring at the Faculty of Sport Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belli, Emre

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the task and ego oriented goals of the students majoring at the Faculty of Sports Sciences at Ataturk University. For data collection, "The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire", which was developed by Duda (1) and adapted into Turkish by Toros and Yetim (2), was used in the current study to…

  12. Ego strengths, racial/ethnic identity, and well-being among North American Indian/First Nations adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gfellner, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated associations between ego strengths (psychosocial development), racial/ethnic identity using Multi-Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (exploration, commitment) and Multidimensional Measure of Racial Identity (centrality, private regard, public regard) dimensions, and personal adjustment/well-being among 178 North American Indian/First Nations adolescents who resided and attended school on reserves. As predicted, ego strengths related directly with centrality, private regard, and the adjustment measures; the moderation of ego strengths for exploration, commitment, and private regard reflected adverse functioning for those with less than advanced ego strengths. As well, ego strengths mediated associations between centrality and private regard with several measures of personal well-being. Practical and theoretical implications are considered.

  13. The super-ego, the voice of the self and the depressive position.

    PubMed

    Lesmeister, R

    1998-04-01

    The Freudian concept of the super-ego and Jung's idea of a primary moral reaction in the unconscious--the voice of the self--are compared. From its origin the superego is connected with human destructiveness, but for Jung individual conscience is based on a collision between the ego and the inner world of archetypes. With reference to Neumann's 'New Ethic', some implications of Jung's idea of the unconscious ambiguity of good and evil are discussed. Finally an attempt is made to relate the concept of the primary moral reaction to a developmental and clinical framework, notably Klein's depressive position, but only a partial integration is possible.

  14. The super-ego, the voice of the self and the depressive position.

    PubMed

    Lesmeister, R

    1998-04-01

    The Freudian concept of the super-ego and Jung's idea of a primary moral reaction in the unconscious--the voice of the self--are compared. From its origin the superego is connected with human destructiveness, but for Jung individual conscience is based on a collision between the ego and the inner world of archetypes. With reference to Neumann's 'New Ethic', some implications of Jung's idea of the unconscious ambiguity of good and evil are discussed. Finally an attempt is made to relate the concept of the primary moral reaction to a developmental and clinical framework, notably Klein's depressive position, but only a partial integration is possible. PMID:9629074

  15. Heritabilities of ego strength (factor C), super ego strength (factor G), and self-sentiment (factor Q3) by multiple abstract variance analysis.

    PubMed

    Cattell, R B; Schuerger, J M; Klein, T W

    1982-10-01

    Tested over 3,000 boys (identical and fraternal twins, ordinary sibs, general population) aged 12-18 on Ego Strength, Super Ego Strength, and Self Sentiment. The Multiple Abstract Variance Analysis (MAVA) method was used to obtain estimates of abstract (hereditary, environmental) variances and covariances that contribute to total variation in the three traits. Within-family heritabilities for these traits were about .30, .05, and .65. Between-family heritabilities were .60, .08, and .45. Within-family correlations of genetic and environmental deviations were trivial, unusually so among personality variables, but between-family values showed the usual high negative values, consistent with the law of coercion to the biosocial mean.

  16. Early object relations into new objects.

    PubMed

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    Two strands of change are suggested by this review, one maturational, the other therapeutic or developmental (Hartmann and Kris, 1945). By "maturational" I mean to suggest energies that infuse the individual from earliest life in a manner that includes object relations, but for the healthy exercise of which object relations per se need not be of central and crucial importance. Within wide limits such energies may be delayed until growth conditions prevail without significant distortion of certain of the organism's ego functions. Therapeutic change is analogous to developmental change in that both involve the crucial presence of another to release energies. In therapeutic change these are energies that have been repressed beyond the reach of developmental dynamics. In everyday development crisis and synthesis alternate in conjunction with new and emerging objects to add to the psychological structures brought to the fore by maturation. In many instances, as we see with John, over time and in a less focussed manner, developmental changes can approximate therapeutic change and visa versa. Freud-Dann in their "experiment" pursued one line, in which the equipmental delay brought on by extremely adverse living circumstances was redressed by providing an interpersonally enriching, loving, developmentally facilitating milieu. The sketches of individual children and John's subsequent story provide a perspective into what becomes the stuff of growth and what remains the stuff of neurosis. The developmental reserves and ego resilience of these children were impressive but probably not extraordinary. Usual growth ensued as soon as they were provided with the rich soil of Bulldogs Bank instead of the desert sand of the Tereszin concentration camp. However, no one can escape such adverse circumstances without having taken in the stuff of neurosis. Affects and percepts that were not assimilatable or even available to consciousness at the time remain buried in the unconscious

  17. Early object relations into new objects.

    PubMed

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    Two strands of change are suggested by this review, one maturational, the other therapeutic or developmental (Hartmann and Kris, 1945). By "maturational" I mean to suggest energies that infuse the individual from earliest life in a manner that includes object relations, but for the healthy exercise of which object relations per se need not be of central and crucial importance. Within wide limits such energies may be delayed until growth conditions prevail without significant distortion of certain of the organism's ego functions. Therapeutic change is analogous to developmental change in that both involve the crucial presence of another to release energies. In therapeutic change these are energies that have been repressed beyond the reach of developmental dynamics. In everyday development crisis and synthesis alternate in conjunction with new and emerging objects to add to the psychological structures brought to the fore by maturation. In many instances, as we see with John, over time and in a less focussed manner, developmental changes can approximate therapeutic change and visa versa. Freud-Dann in their "experiment" pursued one line, in which the equipmental delay brought on by extremely adverse living circumstances was redressed by providing an interpersonally enriching, loving, developmentally facilitating milieu. The sketches of individual children and John's subsequent story provide a perspective into what becomes the stuff of growth and what remains the stuff of neurosis. The developmental reserves and ego resilience of these children were impressive but probably not extraordinary. Usual growth ensued as soon as they were provided with the rich soil of Bulldogs Bank instead of the desert sand of the Tereszin concentration camp. However, no one can escape such adverse circumstances without having taken in the stuff of neurosis. Affects and percepts that were not assimilatable or even available to consciousness at the time remain buried in the unconscious

  18. Revising the Rorschach Ego Impairment Index to Accommodate Recent Recommendations about Improving Rorschach Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viglione, Donald J.; Perry, William; Giromini, Luciano; Meyer, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    We used multiple regression to calculate a new Ego Impairment Index (EII-3). The aim was to incorporate changes in the component variables and distribution of the number of responses as found in the new Rorschach Performance Assessment System, while sustaining the validity and reliability of previous EIIs. The EII-3 formula was derived from a…

  19. PARADE Replication Manual: Projects Advancing Reading Achievement and Developing Ego-Strength.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Springs Public Schools, CO.

    Provided is the replication manual for the PARADE (Projects Advancing Reading Achievement and Developing Ego-Strength) project, a program designed to identify and diagnose reading problems in elementary and secondary level students entering a new school, provide an intensive program of prescriptive training, and aid the child in development of…

  20. Ego-Involvement and the Third Person Effect of Televised News Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perloff, Richard M.

    1989-01-01

    Explores the interface between ego-involvement and the third person effect. Finds (1) that partisan viewers (pro-Israeli and pro-Palestinian) believe that news coverage causes neutral viewers to view their side unfavorably and their antagonist more favorably; and (2) that news coverage did not significantly affect neutral subjects' attitudes. (SR)

  1. Reminiscence, Psychological Well-Being, and Ego Integrity in Portuguese Elderly People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afonso, Rosa Maria; Bueno, Belen; Loureiro, Manuel Joachim; Pereira, Henrique

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of a reminiscence program on the psychological well-being and ego integrity of elderly people with depressive symptomatology. Ninety people aged 65 and over participated in a quasi-experimental design with pretest and posttest evaluations. They were assigned to one of three groups: (a) experimental group…

  2. Self-Concept and Ego Development in Deaf Adolescents: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gent, Tiejo; Goedhart, Arnold W.; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Westenberg, P. Michiel; Treffers, Philip D. A.

    2012-01-01

    Self-concept and ego development, two intertwined aspects of self-indicating well-being and social-cognitive maturation, respectively, were examined in a representative sample of deaf adolescents of normal intelligence (N = 68), using translated and adapted versions of Harter's (1988, "Manual for the self-perception profile for adolescents".…

  3. Ego Integrity of Older People with Physical Disability and Therapeutic Recreation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Shim, Hye-Eun; Sia, Charmin Kathleen M.; Siazon, Wilbart Harvey S.; Sibal, Mary Joyce Ann P.; Siglos, Joanna Brigitte Lorraine C.; Simeon, Francis Marlo C.

    2011-01-01

    Ego integrity, the last developmental task in Erikson's psychological theory, develops naturally among older people. However, the presence of loss-like physical disability-can considerably affect the quality of life, interactions, and well being of older adults. Hence, older people with physical disabilities need more assistance in accomplishing…

  4. Brief quiet ego contemplation reduces oxidative stress and mind-wandering.

    PubMed

    Wayment, Heidi A; Collier, Ann F; Birkett, Melissa; Traustadóttir, Tinna; Till, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Excessive self-concern increases perceptions of threat and defensiveness. In contrast, fostering a more inclusive and expanded sense of self can reduce stress and improve well-being. We developed and tested a novel brief intervention designed to strengthen a student's compassionate self-identity, an identity that values balance and growth by reminding them of four quiet ego characteristics: detached awareness, inclusive identity, perspective taking, and growth. Students (N = 32) in their first semester of college who reported greater self-protective (e.g., defensive) goals in the first 2 weeks of the semester were invited to participate in the study. Volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: quiet ego contemplation (QEC), QEC with virtual reality (VR) headset (QEC-VR), and control. Participants came to the lab three times to engage in a 15-min exercise in a 30-days period. The 15-min QEC briefly described each quiet ego characteristic followed by a few minutes time to reflect on what that characteristic meant to them. Those in the QEC condition reported improved quiet ego characteristics and pluralistic thinking, decreases in a urinary marker of oxidative stress, and reduced mind-wandering on a cognitive task. Contrary to expectation, participants who wore the VR headsets while listening to the QEC demonstrated the least improvement. Results suggest that a brief intervention that reduces self-focus and strengthens a more compassionate self-view may offer an additional resource that individuals can use in their everyday lives. PMID:26483734

  5. Determinants and Mechanisms in Ego Identity Development: A Review and Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosma, Harke A.; Kunnen, E. Saskia

    2001-01-01

    Reviews literature on ego identity development. Presents a model of identity development as an iterative process of person-context transactions. Maintains that one's developmental trajectory is determined by the way conflicts arising through transactions are solved. Suggests that optimal development requires balance between assimilation and…

  6. Ego-Attitudes in Second Language Learning; A Socio-Economic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganguly, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a study done to explore the impact of socioeconomic variables on ego-attitudes in second language learners, 12-16 years of age. There were significant differences between the children of professional and the children of working class parents in IQ and vocabulary but not in inferential comprehension.(SED)

  7. What's Going on in Your Professor's Head? Demonstrating the Id, Ego, and Superego

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segrist, Dan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an in-class activity designed to demonstrate Freud's structural theory of the psyche, specifically the roles of the id, ego, and superego, as well as the interplay among them. Additionally, the activity visually illustrates Freud's ideas about the levels of consciousness associated with these 3 components. Pre-post quiz…

  8. Brief quiet ego contemplation reduces oxidative stress and mind-wandering.

    PubMed

    Wayment, Heidi A; Collier, Ann F; Birkett, Melissa; Traustadóttir, Tinna; Till, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Excessive self-concern increases perceptions of threat and defensiveness. In contrast, fostering a more inclusive and expanded sense of self can reduce stress and improve well-being. We developed and tested a novel brief intervention designed to strengthen a student's compassionate self-identity, an identity that values balance and growth by reminding them of four quiet ego characteristics: detached awareness, inclusive identity, perspective taking, and growth. Students (N = 32) in their first semester of college who reported greater self-protective (e.g., defensive) goals in the first 2 weeks of the semester were invited to participate in the study. Volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: quiet ego contemplation (QEC), QEC with virtual reality (VR) headset (QEC-VR), and control. Participants came to the lab three times to engage in a 15-min exercise in a 30-days period. The 15-min QEC briefly described each quiet ego characteristic followed by a few minutes time to reflect on what that characteristic meant to them. Those in the QEC condition reported improved quiet ego characteristics and pluralistic thinking, decreases in a urinary marker of oxidative stress, and reduced mind-wandering on a cognitive task. Contrary to expectation, participants who wore the VR headsets while listening to the QEC demonstrated the least improvement. Results suggest that a brief intervention that reduces self-focus and strengthens a more compassionate self-view may offer an additional resource that individuals can use in their everyday lives.

  9. The Relation of Re-Creation to a Theory of Ego Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colley, Louise Annie

    This study explores the relationship of ego-stage development (based on the theories of Erik Erikson and roughly defined as psychological maturity) to experiences which a group of adults identified as leading to re-creation for them. The author believes that re-creation -- defined as a feeling of heightened well-being or a sense of renewal and…

  10. Longitudinal Relations of Intrusive Parenting and Effortful Control to Ego-Resiliency during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal relations among ego-resiliency (ER), effortful control (EC), and observed intrusive parenting were examined at 18, 30, and 42 months of age ("Ns" = 256, 230, and 210) using structural equation modeling. Intrusive parenting at 18 and 30 months negatively predicted EC a year later, over and above earlier levels. EC at…

  11. Ego Identity, Social Anxiety, Social Support, and Self-Concealment in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potoczniak, Daniel J.; Aldea, Mirela A.; DeBlaere, Cirleen

    2007-01-01

    This study examined a model in which the relationship between social anxiety and two dimensions of ego identity (commitment and exploration) was expected to be mediated by social support and self-concealment for a sample of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals (N=347). Statistically significant paths were found from social anxiety to social…

  12. Ego defense mechanisms in Pakistani medical students: a cross sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ego defense mechanisms (or factors), defined by Freud as unconscious resources used by the ego to reduce conflict between the id and superego, are a reflection of how an individual deals with conflict and stress. This study assesses the prevalence of various ego defense mechanisms employed by medical students of Karachi, which is a group with higher stress levels than the general population. Methods A questionnaire based cross-sectional study was conducted on 682 students from five major medical colleges of Karachi over 4 weeks in November 2006. Ego defense mechanisms were assessed using the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) individually and as grouped under Mature, Immature, and Neurotic factors. Results Lower mean scores of Immature defense mechanisms (4.78) were identified than those for Neurotic (5.62) and Mature (5.60) mechanisms among medical students of Karachi. Immature mechanisms were more commonly employed by males whereas females employed more Neurotic mechanisms than males. Neurotic and Immature defenses were significantly more prevalent in first and second year students. Mature mechanisms were significantly higher in students enrolled in Government colleges than Private institutions (p < 0.05). Conclusions Immature defense mechanisms were less commonly employed than Neurotic and Mature mechanisms among medical students of Karachi. The greater employment of Neurotic defenses may reflect greater stress levels than the general population. Employment of these mechanisms was associated with female gender, enrollment in a private medical college, and students enrolled in the first 2 years of medical school. PMID:20109240

  13. Predictive Power of the Success Tendency and Ego Identity Status of the University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Pepe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to assess the predictive power of the success tendency and ego identity status of the students of Physical Education and Sports Teaching Department. 581 students of Physical Education and Sports Teaching Department in Kayseri, Nigde, Burdur, Bolu and Diyarbakir participated in this research. The acquired results were…

  14. The Contribution of Ego Development Level to Burnout in School Counselors: Implications for Professional School Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambie, Glenn W.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a national survey study of school counseling professionals to determine if higher ego development contributed to a lower degree of burnout. Although the primary path analysis model tested did not fit the data observed, a significant positive relationship indicated that participants scoring at higher levels of…

  15. A Practical Use for Miscue Analysis: Building Egos. AVKO "Great Idea" Reprint Series No. 631.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Don

    A student's misreading of the word "statues" as "sanctuaries" and an application of miscue analysis show how students' egos can be boosted. The student expressed surprise when informed of his misreading, wondering how he could confuse the words. The student's reading specialist explained to the student that his "computer" brain made a quick search…

  16. Relations of Temperament to Maladjustment and Ego Resiliency in At-Risk Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Haugen, Rg; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Hofer, Claire; Chassin, Laurie; Zhou, Qing; Kupfer, Anne; Smith, Cynthia L.; Valiente, Carlos; Liew, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The relations of control/regulation-related temperamentally based dispositions (effortful control (EC), impulsivity, and approach/avoidance) to externalizing problems and personality ego resiliency were examined in a sample of 467 children (M age = 7.46 years), some of whom were children of alcoholics (COAs). In addition, we examined if the…

  17. Brief quiet ego contemplation reduces oxidative stress and mind-wandering

    PubMed Central

    Wayment, Heidi A.; Collier, Ann F.; Birkett, Melissa; Traustadóttir, Tinna; Till, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive self-concern increases perceptions of threat and defensiveness. In contrast, fostering a more inclusive and expanded sense of self can reduce stress and improve well-being. We developed and tested a novel brief intervention designed to strengthen a student’s compassionate self-identity, an identity that values balance and growth by reminding them of four quiet ego characteristics: detached awareness, inclusive identity, perspective taking, and growth. Students (N = 32) in their first semester of college who reported greater self-protective (e.g., defensive) goals in the first 2 weeks of the semester were invited to participate in the study. Volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: quiet ego contemplation (QEC), QEC with virtual reality (VR) headset (QEC-VR), and control. Participants came to the lab three times to engage in a 15-min exercise in a 30-days period. The 15-min QEC briefly described each quiet ego characteristic followed by a few minutes time to reflect on what that characteristic meant to them. Those in the QEC condition reported improved quiet ego characteristics and pluralistic thinking, decreases in a urinary marker of oxidative stress, and reduced mind-wandering on a cognitive task. Contrary to expectation, participants who wore the VR headsets while listening to the QEC demonstrated the least improvement. Results suggest that a brief intervention that reduces self-focus and strengthens a more compassionate self-view may offer an additional resource that individuals can use in their everyday lives. PMID:26483734

  18. Cognitive/Developmental Characteristics of Play and Their Relation to Ego Resiliency: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Debra Ellen

    This study links cognitive development and psychological adaptation by relating play attributes, assessed from a predominantly cognitive-developmental perspective, to "ego resiliency," which is a measure of flexibility in coping with stress. Subjects were 104 participants in a longitudinal study (Block & Block, 1980); 78 were given solitary free…

  19. Stigma and Glucose Levels: Testing Ego Depletion and Arousal Explanations of Stereotype Threat Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Andrew M.; Willer, Robb

    2011-01-01

    Stereotype threat research shows that when stigmatized group membership is made salient, group members' cognitive performance is lowered; however, the mechanism through which this effect operates is not well understood. This study tests between arousal and ego depletion accounts of stereotype threat by examining whether stereotype threat effects…

  20. Detecting moving objects under a moving camera in complex environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Genyuan; Yu, Qin; Yang, Sisi; Zhou, Hong

    2015-03-01

    Robust detection of moving objects in image sequences is an essential part of many vision applications. However, it is not easily achievable with a moving camera since the camera and moving objects motions are mixed together. In this paper we propose a method to detect moving objects under a moving camera. The camera ego-motion is compensated by the corresponding feature sets. The difference image between two consecutive images that ego-motion is compensated is transformed into a binary image using k-means algorithm. According to the clustering results, the region of interest where moving objects are likely to exist is searched by the projection approach. Then local threshold and contour filling methods are applied to detect the accurate moving objects. Experimental results on real image sequences demonstrate that our method can get intact moving objects in the case of a moving camera efficiently.

  1. Green-E general program and public information support program report, August 1, 1999 - September 30, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Kirk

    2000-09-30

    Green-E Program support from the Dept. of Energy augmented the costs of implementing the objectives of the Green-E Renewable Electricity Project; general program implementation; regional adaptation; developing strategic partnerships; and public information/education/outreach.

  2. When do ego threats lead to self-regulation failure? Negative consequences of defensive high self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Lambird, Kathleen Hoffman; Mann, Traci

    2006-09-01

    High self-esteem (HSE) is increasingly recognized as heterogeneous. By measuring subtypes of HSE, the present research reevaluates the finding that HSE individuals show poor self-regulation following ego threat (Baumeister, Heatherton, & Tice, 1993). In Experiment 1, participants with HSE showed poor self-regulation after ego threat only if they also were defensive (high in self-presentation bias). In Experiment 2, two measures--self-presentation bias and implicit self-esteem--were used to subtype HSE individuals as defensive. Both operationalizations of defensive HSE predicted poor self-regulation after ego threat. The results indicate that (a) only defensive HSE individuals are prone to self-regulation failure following ego threat and (b) measures of self-presentation bias and implicit self-esteem can both be used to detect defensiveness.

  3. The Green Revolution Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbridge, Stuart

    1985-01-01

    The Green Revolution game helps college students learn about agrarian change in which people use science to transform nature. The rational and basic objectives of the game are discussed, and the game's strengths and weaknesses are examined. (RM)

  4. Object Knowledge, Personal Knowledge, and Processes of Equilibration in Adult Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labouvie-Vief, Gisela; Lawrence, Renee

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the logical discontinuity between object and personal knowledge. Proposes an extension of Piaget's subject-object equilibrium to a dialogic situation between an ego and an alter. Suggests that this structural model provides a scheme by which differences in adulthood between adaptive and maladaptive cognitive change can be clarified.…

  5. Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  6. The narrow use of the term ego in analytical psychology: the 'not-I' is also who I am.

    PubMed

    West, Marcus

    2008-06-01

    This paper(1) explores some aspects of the narrowness of Jung's usage of the term ego and the consequences which are understood to follow there from. Jung is understood to see the ego as a surface phenomenon and, essentially, as the focal point of consciousness, not recognizing its potential to function more broadly, deeply, and unconsciously. Furthermore, although he does recognize the ego as 'the total conscious personality' his use of the term frequently does not reflect that definition. Whilst Jung's analysis of the narrowly functioning ego is enlightening and groundbreaking, he treats this narrow functioning as if it is characteristic of the ego itself, ascribing any 'broad functioning' primarily to the Self. This narrow use of the term ego, and the corresponding use of the term Self, are understood to have significant consequences for clinical practice, including leading the analyst into an over-identification with the patient and a loss of the analyst's sense of self. It is also understood to lead to difficulties dealing with more disturbed individuals, to stuck and broken down analyses, to wear and tear on the analyst and, potentially, splits between the different schools of analytical psychology. These concerns all represent difficulties with working in the transference, and Jung's own experience of this is briefly explored.

  7. Ego depletion and positive illusions: does the construction of positivity require regulatory resources?

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Frey, Dieter

    2007-09-01

    Individuals frequently exhibit positive illusions about their own abilities, their possibilities to control their environment, and future expectations. The authors propose that positive illusions require resources of self-control, which is considered to be a limited resource similar to energy or strength. Five studies revealed that people with depleted self-regulatory resources indeed exhibited a less-optimistic sense of their own abilities (Study 1), a lower sense of subjective control (Study 2), and less-optimistic expectations about their future (Study 3). Two further studies shed light on the underlying psychological process: Ego-depleted (compared to nondepleted) individuals generated/retrieved less positive self-relevant attributes (Studies 4 and 5) and reported a lower sense of general self-efficacy (Study 5), which both partially mediated the impact of ego depletion on positive self-views (Study 5).

  8. Ego development and ethnic identity formation in rural American Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Newman, Denise L

    2005-01-01

    Ethnic identity development was assessed in the context of ego development in 12- to 15-year-old students from a Southeastern American Indian community. Self-protective was the modal level and was characterized by awareness of ethnic group membership but little exploration or self-reflection. Impulsive adolescents had the least developed ethnic identities and highest levels of interpersonal vulnerability. Conformist adolescents expressed positive feelings about ethnic group affiliation, described relationships as harmonious, but demonstrated moderate social anxiety. Postconformist adolescents had the highest levels of agency, social competence, and identity achievement, but also had high levels of psychological distress and family conflict. Adolescent identity strivings may be understood in context with the level and timing of psychosocial maturity, for which ego development appears a useful marker.

  9. The center core in ego state therapy and other hypnotically facilitated psychotherapies.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Claire

    2013-07-01

    Center core phenomena have been utilized in the practice of ego state therapy and other forms of hypnotically facilitated psychotherapy for nearly 40 years. Despite the frequency with which they are employed, many confusions, contradictions, and questions remain concerning them. In this article relevant center core phenomena literature is reviewed and an essential differentiation between two different kinds of center core phenomena is clarified. Psychodynamic explanations are offered for the therapeutic benefits of archetypal center core experiences such as inner strength and inner wisdom. The information provided offers clinicians a sturdier platform from which to decide whether to incorporate center core experiences into clinical practice. The persistent question of whether center core phenomena are ego states is revisited and addressed. PMID:24660338

  10. Ego-Resiliency Reloaded: A Three-Component Model of General Resiliency

    PubMed Central

    Farkas, Dávid; Orosz, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Ego-resiliency (ER) is a capacity that enables individuals to adapt to constantly changing environmental demands. The goal of our research was to identify components of Ego-resiliency, and to test the reliability and the structural and convergent validity of the refined version of the ER11 Ego-resiliency scale. In Study 1 we used a factor analytical approach to assess structural validity and to identify factors of Ego-resiliency. Comparing alternative factor-structures, a hierarchical model was chosen including three factors: Active Engagement with the World (AEW), Repertoire of Problem Solving Strategies (RPSS), and Integrated Performance under Stress (IPS). In Study 2, the convergent and divergent validity of the ER11 scale and its factors and their relationship with resilience were tested. The results suggested that resiliency is a double-faced construct, with one function to keep the personality system stable and intact, and the other function to adjust the personality system in an adaptive way to the dynamically changing environment. The stability function is represented by the RPSS and IPS components of ER. Their relationship pattern is similar to other constructs of resilience, e.g. the Revised Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (R-CD-RISC). The flexibility function is represented by the unit of RPSS and AEW components. In Study 3 we tested ER11 on a Hungarian online representative sample and integrated the results in a model of general resiliency. This framework allows us to grasp both the stability-focused and the plasticity-focused nature of resiliency. PMID:25815881

  11. Ego-resiliency reloaded: a three-component model of general resiliency.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Dávid; Orosz, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Ego-resiliency (ER) is a capacity that enables individuals to adapt to constantly changing environmental demands. The goal of our research was to identify components of Ego-resiliency, and to test the reliability and the structural and convergent validity of the refined version of the ER11 Ego-resiliency scale. In Study 1 we used a factor analytical approach to assess structural validity and to identify factors of Ego-resiliency. Comparing alternative factor-structures, a hierarchical model was chosen including three factors: Active Engagement with the World (AEW), Repertoire of Problem Solving Strategies (RPSS), and Integrated Performance under Stress (IPS). In Study 2, the convergent and divergent validity of the ER11 scale and its factors and their relationship with resilience were tested. The results suggested that resiliency is a double-faced construct, with one function to keep the personality system stable and intact, and the other function to adjust the personality system in an adaptive way to the dynamically changing environment. The stability function is represented by the RPSS and IPS components of ER. Their relationship pattern is similar to other constructs of resilience, e.g. the Revised Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (R-CD-RISC). The flexibility function is represented by the unit of RPSS and AEW components. In Study 3 we tested ER11 on a Hungarian online representative sample and integrated the results in a model of general resiliency. This framework allows us to grasp both the stability-focused and the plasticity-focused nature of resiliency. PMID:25815881

  12. A quiet ego quiets death anxiety: humility as an existential anxiety buffer.

    PubMed

    Kesebir, Pelin

    2014-04-01

    Five studies tested the hypothesis that a quiet ego, as exemplified by humility, would buffer death anxiety. Humility is characterized by a willingness to accept the self and life without comforting illusions, and by low levels of self-focus. As a consequence, it was expected to render mortality thoughts less threatening and less likely to evoke potentially destructive behavior patterns. In line with this reasoning, Study 1 found that people high in humility do not engage in self-serving moral disengagement following mortality reminders, whereas people low in humility do. Study 2 showed that only people low in humility respond to death reminders with increased fear of death, and established that this effect was driven uniquely by humility and not by some other related personality trait. In Study 3, a low sense of psychological entitlement decreased cultural worldview defense in response to death thoughts, whereas a high sense of entitlement tended to increase it. Study 4 demonstrated that priming humility reduces self-reported death anxiety relative to both a baseline and a pride priming condition. Finally, in Study 5, experimentally induced feelings of humility prevented mortality reminders from leading to depleted self-control. As a whole, these findings obtained from relatively diverse Internet samples illustrate that the dark side of death anxiety is brought about by a noisy ego only and not by a quiet ego, revealing self-transcendence as a sturdier, healthier anxiety buffer than self-enhancement.

  13. What Is Ego Depletion? Toward a Mechanistic Revision of the Resource Model of Self-Control.

    PubMed

    Inzlicht, Michael; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2012-09-01

    According to the resource model of self-control, overriding one's predominant response tendencies consumes and temporarily depletes a limited inner resource. Over 100 experiments have lent support to this model of ego depletion by observing that acts of self-control at Time 1 reduce performance on subsequent, seemingly unrelated self-control tasks at Time 2. The time is now ripe, therefore, not only to broaden the scope of the model but to start gaining a precise, mechanistic account of it. Accordingly, in the current article, the authors probe the particular cognitive, affective, and motivational mechanics of self-control and its depletion, asking, "What is ego depletion?" This study proposes a process model of depletion, suggesting that exerting self-control at Time 1 causes temporary shifts in both motivation and attention that undermine self-control at Time 2. The article highlights evidence in support of this model but also highlights where evidence is lacking, thus providing a blueprint for future research. Though the process model of depletion may sacrifice the elegance of the resource metaphor, it paints a more precise picture of ego depletion and suggests several nuanced predictions for future research.

  14. Narcissism and other-derogation in the absence of ego threat.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun W; Colvin, C Randall

    2015-06-01

    The relation between narcissism and other-derogation has been examined primarily in the context of ego threat. In three studies, we investigated whether narcissistic individuals derogate others in the absence of ego threat. In Study 1, 79 judges watched four videotaped dyadic interactions and rated the personality of the same four people. In Study 2, 66 judges rated the personality of a friend. In Study 3, 72 judges considered the average Northeastern University student and rated the personality of this hypothetical person. Across the three studies, targets' personality characteristics were described on the 100-item California Adult Q-Sort (CAQ; Block, 2008). Judges' ratings of targets were compared to a CAQ prototype of the optimally adjusted person to assess target-derogation. Judges' narcissism and other-derogation were positively related in Studies 1 and 2. Narcissism positively predicted and self-esteem negatively predicted target-derogation after controlling for each other in Study 3. Narcissistic individuals derogate others more than non-narcissistic individuals regardless of whether ego threat is present or absent.

  15. Green Buildings and Health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health. PMID:26231502

  16. Green Buildings and Health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  17. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  18. Psychometric Characteristics of a Patient Reported Outcome Measure on Ego-Integrity and Despair among Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kleijn, Gitta; Post, Lenneke; Witte, Birgit I.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Westerhof, Gerben J.; Cuijpers, Pim; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate psychometric characteristics of a questionnaire (the Northwestern Ego-integrity Scale (NEIS)) on ego-integrity (the experience of wholeness and meaning in life, even in spite of negative experiences) and despair (the experience of regret about the life one has led, and feelings of sadness, failure and hopelessness) among cancer patients. Methods Cancer patients (n = 164) completed patient reported outcome measures on ego-integrity and despair (NEIS), psychological distress, anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)), and quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30 (cancer survivors, n = 57) or EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL (advanced cancer patients, n = 107)). Confirmatory Factor Analysis was used to assess construct validity. Cronbach’s alpha was used to assess internal consistency. Convergent validity was tested based on a priori defined hypotheses: a higher level of ego-integrity was expected to be related to a higher level of quality of life, and lower levels of distress, depression and anxiety; a higher level of despair was expected to be related to a lower level of quality of life, and higher levels of distress, depression and anxiety. Results The majority of all items (94.5%) of the NEIS were completed by patients and single item missing rate was below 2%. The two subscales, labeled as Ego-integrity (5 items) and Despair (4 items) had acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha .72 and .61, respectively). The Ego-integrity subscale was not significantly associated with quality of life, distress, anxiety, or depression. The Despair subscale correlated significantly (p <.001) with quality of life (r = -.29), distress (r = .44), anxiety (r = .47) and depression (r = .32). Conclusion The NEIS has good psychometric characteristics to assess ego-integrity and despair among cancer patients. PMID:27195750

  19. Ego development and sociometrically evaluated maturity: an investigation of the validity of the Washington University Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development.

    PubMed

    Rootes, M D; Moras, K; Gordon, R

    1980-12-01

    The reported study was an attempt to validate the Washington University Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development (WU-SCT), using a broad, sociometric index of maturity as the criterion variable. Sixty college women living in a sorority house completed the WU-SCT and evaluated one another's readiness for mature functioning in each of four adult social roles: career, marriage, parenthood, and community involvement. The reliabilities and the intercorrelations of the ratings suggested that peers distinguished two facets of maturity. While results support the hypothesized relationship between WU-SCT scores and a global sociometric index of maturity, the test's substantial correlations with indices relating to relatively impersonal roles (career and community) and apparent lack of correlation with indices relating to intimate interpersonal roles (marital and parental) suggests that the validity of the WU-SCT may be less broad than Loevinger's theory would imply. Several alternative interpretations of the data are suggested. PMID:16366916

  20. “When the going gets tough, who keeps going?” Depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; De Vet, Emely; Fennis, Bob M.; De Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2014-01-01

    Self-control relies on a limited resource that can get depleted, a phenomenon that has been labeled ego-depletion. We argue that individuals may differ in their sensitivity to depleting tasks, and that consequently some people deplete their self-control resource at a faster rate than others. In three studies, we assessed individual differences in depletion sensitivity, and demonstrate that depletion sensitivity moderates ego-depletion effects. The Depletion Sensitivity Scale (DSS) was employed to assess depletion sensitivity. Study 1 employs the DSS to demonstrate that individual differences in sensitivity to ego-depletion exist. Study 2 shows moderate correlations of depletion sensitivity with related self-control concepts, indicating that these scales measure conceptually distinct constructs. Study 3 demonstrates that depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect. Specifically, participants who are sensitive to depletion performed worse on a second self-control task, indicating a stronger ego-depletion effect, compared to participants less sensitive to depletion. PMID:25009523

  1. No Evidence of the Ego-Depletion Effect across Task Characteristics and Individual Differences: A Pre-Registered Study

    PubMed Central

    Lurquin, John H.; Michaelson, Laura E.; Barker, Jane E.; Gustavson, Daniel E.; von Bastian, Claudia C.; Carruth, Nicholas P.; Miyake, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Ego-depletion, a psychological phenomenon in which participants are less able to engage in self-control after prior exertion of self-control, has become widely popular in the scientific community as well as in the media. However, considerable debate exists among researchers as to the nature of the ego-depletion effect, and growing evidence suggests the effect may not be as strong or robust as the extant literature suggests. We examined the robustness of the ego-depletion effect and aimed to maximize the likelihood of detecting the effect by using one of the most widely used depletion tasks (video-viewing attention control task) and by considering task characteristics and individual differences that potentially moderate the effect. We also sought to make our research plan transparent by pre-registering our hypotheses, procedure, and planned analyses prior to data collection. Contrary to the ego-depletion hypothesis, participants in the depletion condition did not perform worse than control participants on the subsequent self-control task, even after considering moderator variables. These findings add to a growing body of evidence suggesting ego-depletion is not a reliable phenomenon, though more research is needed that uses large sample sizes, considers moderator variables, and pre-registers prior to data collection. PMID:26863227

  2. No Evidence of the Ego-Depletion Effect across Task Characteristics and Individual Differences: A Pre-Registered Study.

    PubMed

    Lurquin, John H; Michaelson, Laura E; Barker, Jane E; Gustavson, Daniel E; von Bastian, Claudia C; Carruth, Nicholas P; Miyake, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Ego-depletion, a psychological phenomenon in which participants are less able to engage in self-control after prior exertion of self-control, has become widely popular in the scientific community as well as in the media. However, considerable debate exists among researchers as to the nature of the ego-depletion effect, and growing evidence suggests the effect may not be as strong or robust as the extant literature suggests. We examined the robustness of the ego-depletion effect and aimed to maximize the likelihood of detecting the effect by using one of the most widely used depletion tasks (video-viewing attention control task) and by considering task characteristics and individual differences that potentially moderate the effect. We also sought to make our research plan transparent by pre-registering our hypotheses, procedure, and planned analyses prior to data collection. Contrary to the ego-depletion hypothesis, participants in the depletion condition did not perform worse than control participants on the subsequent self-control task, even after considering moderator variables. These findings add to a growing body of evidence suggesting ego-depletion is not a reliable phenomenon, though more research is needed that uses large sample sizes, considers moderator variables, and pre-registers prior to data collection. PMID:26863227

  3. The relations of ego-resiliency and emotion socialization to the development of empathy and prosocial behavior across early childhood.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Zoe E; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; Eggum, Natalie D; Sulik, Michael J

    2013-10-01

    The present study explored early personality and environmental predictors of the development of young children's empathy, as well as relations of empathy to prosocial behavior with peers at a later age. How children manage their own emotions and behaviors when under stress--their ego-resiliency--would be expected to affect their responses to others' emotions. Also, socialization experiences, such as the quality of parenting behaviors, have been associated with individual differences in empathy-related responding. We examined whether mothers' emotion socialization practices and children's ego-resiliency at 18 months predicted initial levels and change in empathy across five time points (24, 30, 42, 48, and 54 months; N = 242), and whether empathy in turn predicted prosocial behavior with peers at 72/84 months of age. Ego-resiliency and mothers' expressive encouragement both uniquely predicted the intercept of empathy. Boys' empathy was lower than girls' but improved more with age. Initial levels and growth of empathy positively predicted later prosocial behavior. Children's ego-resiliency predicted the slope of empathy at near significance (p = .054). We also found that the intercept of empathy mediated the relation between ego-resiliency and prosocial behavior as well as the relation between mothers' expressive encouragement and prosocial behavior. These findings suggest that both parenting and personality characteristics are relevant to the development of empathy during early childhood and might contribute to children's later prosocial behavior with peers. PMID:24098930

  4. The relations of ego-resiliency and emotion socialization to the development of empathy and prosocial behavior across early childhood.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Zoe E; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; Eggum, Natalie D; Sulik, Michael J

    2013-10-01

    The present study explored early personality and environmental predictors of the development of young children's empathy, as well as relations of empathy to prosocial behavior with peers at a later age. How children manage their own emotions and behaviors when under stress--their ego-resiliency--would be expected to affect their responses to others' emotions. Also, socialization experiences, such as the quality of parenting behaviors, have been associated with individual differences in empathy-related responding. We examined whether mothers' emotion socialization practices and children's ego-resiliency at 18 months predicted initial levels and change in empathy across five time points (24, 30, 42, 48, and 54 months; N = 242), and whether empathy in turn predicted prosocial behavior with peers at 72/84 months of age. Ego-resiliency and mothers' expressive encouragement both uniquely predicted the intercept of empathy. Boys' empathy was lower than girls' but improved more with age. Initial levels and growth of empathy positively predicted later prosocial behavior. Children's ego-resiliency predicted the slope of empathy at near significance (p = .054). We also found that the intercept of empathy mediated the relation between ego-resiliency and prosocial behavior as well as the relation between mothers' expressive encouragement and prosocial behavior. These findings suggest that both parenting and personality characteristics are relevant to the development of empathy during early childhood and might contribute to children's later prosocial behavior with peers.

  5. No Evidence of the Ego-Depletion Effect across Task Characteristics and Individual Differences: A Pre-Registered Study.

    PubMed

    Lurquin, John H; Michaelson, Laura E; Barker, Jane E; Gustavson, Daniel E; von Bastian, Claudia C; Carruth, Nicholas P; Miyake, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Ego-depletion, a psychological phenomenon in which participants are less able to engage in self-control after prior exertion of self-control, has become widely popular in the scientific community as well as in the media. However, considerable debate exists among researchers as to the nature of the ego-depletion effect, and growing evidence suggests the effect may not be as strong or robust as the extant literature suggests. We examined the robustness of the ego-depletion effect and aimed to maximize the likelihood of detecting the effect by using one of the most widely used depletion tasks (video-viewing attention control task) and by considering task characteristics and individual differences that potentially moderate the effect. We also sought to make our research plan transparent by pre-registering our hypotheses, procedure, and planned analyses prior to data collection. Contrary to the ego-depletion hypothesis, participants in the depletion condition did not perform worse than control participants on the subsequent self-control task, even after considering moderator variables. These findings add to a growing body of evidence suggesting ego-depletion is not a reliable phenomenon, though more research is needed that uses large sample sizes, considers moderator variables, and pre-registers prior to data collection.

  6. The influences of chronic illness and ego development on self-esteem in diabetic and psychiatric adolescent patients.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, A M; Hauser, S T; Powers, S; Noam, G

    1984-12-01

    Self-esteem as measured by the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory [Coopersmith, S. (1967),The Antecedents of Self-Esteem, Freeman, San Francisco] and ego development as measured by the Washington University Sentence Completion Test [Loevinger, J., and Wessler, R. (1970),Measuring Ego Development, Vol. I, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco] were evaluated in three groups of early adolescents: diabetic patients, nonpsychotic psychiatric patients, and a nonpatient group of high-school students. We found that low levels of ego development were associated with low levels of global and domain-specific self-esteem in all three subject groups. Levels of self-esteem among diabetic patients were not significantly different from those of nonpatients. While psychiatric patients had significantly lower self-esteem levels than the other groups, this difference was accounted for by preconformists, i.e., those at the lowest stages of ego development. Psychiatric patients reaching higher ego levels showed self-esteem levels indistinguishable from those of the diabetics and nonpatients.

  7. Education and Public Outreach at EGO/Virgo: past experiences and future projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzano, Massimiliano

    2015-08-01

    We are approaching the new generation Gravitational Wave (GW) detector Era and in the next months a new exiting period for GW scientists will start enforcing collaboration and interactions among different scientific communities. We aim to reach a wider audience to spread this enthusiasm in the general public about our every day activities and let them know how it will change our understanding of the Universe, once revealed the Gravitational waves. In this talk, we will report about the activities of the last years and about the EGO/Virgo outreach plans for the future. The main goal of the Virgo/EGO outreach activity is to raise awareness and curiosity about the GW research projects. In the past years we informed the general public about science we do at EGO/Virgo site, trying to attract students in doing research, letting them know about the Virgo detector and involving them in small research activities. We run a regular program of site visits, and we often organized astronomical observations and science cafe' events which attracted a large number of people. Efforts were made also to involve kids in understanding our scientific job. We started a series of regular events in which art and science were fused.We are strengthening our outreach activities with common efforts in the Virgo laboratories which are spread all over in Europe.We plan to make available a scientific path within Virgo, where the public can do little experiences of science or for example tile, for a day, the activity of our researchers.

  8. Freud's ego ideals: a study of admired modern historical and political personages.

    PubMed

    Szaluta, J

    1983-01-01

    It is appropriate to conclude this study with a statement that characterizes Freud and his search for particular models, and this is: "A genius chooses his family from among heroes." His historical heroes were Cromwell, Napoleon, Masséna, Garibaldi, Bismarck, Adler, Lasalle, Lasker, and Wilson. Of course, toward many of these figures, Freud was also ambivalent. Yet these leaders have certain common denominators. In various degrees, they may be characterized as progressive, secular, and anti-Catholic. Moreover, they all had spectacular careers, stood up against great odds, and in many instances had serious conflicts with their fathers or men in authority. These leaders had a special significance for Freud, and their selection is representative not only of his own personal dynamics, but also of his historical milieu. His ego ideals demonstrate that Freud was ambitious and had partisan political feelings and concerns. In some cases the choice of the ego ideals stemmed from his ambivalent feelings toward his father and his particular resolution of the oedipal situation. Also very significant is the fact of Freud's Jewish heritage and the anti-Semitism he experienced as a citizen of the Hapsburg Empire. Moreover, Freud was always sensitive about the power and the influence of the Catholic church. Still another reason for his selection of widely scattered figures with whom to identify is the broadening influence of his classical education. In addition, being gifted linguistically, he was able to transcend a parochial environment. In general then, Freud's ego ideals reveal that he was informed politically and historically and that he regarded these men as promoting policies that were liberating. PMID:6399290

  9. Freud's ego ideals: a study of admired modern historical and political personages.

    PubMed

    Szaluta, J

    1983-01-01

    It is appropriate to conclude this study with a statement that characterizes Freud and his search for particular models, and this is: "A genius chooses his family from among heroes." His historical heroes were Cromwell, Napoleon, Masséna, Garibaldi, Bismarck, Adler, Lasalle, Lasker, and Wilson. Of course, toward many of these figures, Freud was also ambivalent. Yet these leaders have certain common denominators. In various degrees, they may be characterized as progressive, secular, and anti-Catholic. Moreover, they all had spectacular careers, stood up against great odds, and in many instances had serious conflicts with their fathers or men in authority. These leaders had a special significance for Freud, and their selection is representative not only of his own personal dynamics, but also of his historical milieu. His ego ideals demonstrate that Freud was ambitious and had partisan political feelings and concerns. In some cases the choice of the ego ideals stemmed from his ambivalent feelings toward his father and his particular resolution of the oedipal situation. Also very significant is the fact of Freud's Jewish heritage and the anti-Semitism he experienced as a citizen of the Hapsburg Empire. Moreover, Freud was always sensitive about the power and the influence of the Catholic church. Still another reason for his selection of widely scattered figures with whom to identify is the broadening influence of his classical education. In addition, being gifted linguistically, he was able to transcend a parochial environment. In general then, Freud's ego ideals reveal that he was informed politically and historically and that he regarded these men as promoting policies that were liberating.

  10. Tobacyk's sex differences in the experiences of ego-alien intrusions.

    PubMed

    Persinger, M A; Richards, P

    1991-12-01

    Tobacyk's Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and an inventory that infers temporal lobe signs were administered to 44 men and 54 women who were enrolled in first-year university courses. Women believed more in psi phenomena, witchcraft, and spiritualism than did men, who believed more in extraterrestrial life forms. Although complex partial epileptic-like signs were moderately (0.40) correlated with total beliefs for both sexes, these signs were dominated by experiences of ego-alien intrusions for women only. The results support the concept of greater interhemispheric coherence in women compared to men and emphasize the importance of limbic processes in the formation and maintenance of religious and paranormal beliefs.

  11. Enuresis, firesetting, and cruelty to animals: does the ego triad show predictive validity?

    PubMed

    Slavkin, M L

    2001-01-01

    The hypothesis tested in this study was that the presence of enuresis and cruelty to animals in juvenile firesetters would be significantly related to recidivistic firesetting. This hypothesis was related to Yarnell's belief in an ego triad among juvenile firesetters, which linked the occurrence of enuresis, cruelty to animals and others, and firesetting. No relationship was found between groups for firesetting recidivism and enuresis. However, juveniles who were identified as being cruel to animals were more likely than those who were not cruel to animals to engage in recidivistic firesetting behaviors. PMID:11817628

  12. Group psychology and the analysis of the ego--a lifetime later.

    PubMed

    Mitscherlich, A

    1978-01-01

    In a retrospective evaluation of Freud's essay, the author discusses the formation of emotionally fused mass movements, the implications of drastically changing social patterns and staggering population increases. He sees the critical faculty of the individual ego as the only safeguard against the pull of mass regressions. However, for people long held in subjection, fusion in a common political purpose can constitute a first step toward individual self-awareness, although their leaders may be terrorists, agents of the accumulated aggression. Only the concept of a death drive fully explains the recurrence of mass regression; only the fear of our enormous destructive power may offset its terrible seduction.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Newly EGOs from GLIMPSE II survey. II. MoC (Chen+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Gan, C.-G.; Ellingsen, S. P.; He, J.-H.; Shen, Z.-Q.; Titmarsh, A.

    2013-10-01

    A survey for molecular lines in the 3mm band toward ~60% of the GLIMPSE II EGO catalog (Paper I, Cat. J/ApJS/206/9) was performed with the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) Mopra 22m radio telescope in 2009 august 9-20. Fifty-five sites, which include fifty-seven of the GLIMPSE II EGOs were observed in the survey (the two EGO-pairs G352.52+0.76(a)/G352.52+0.76(b) and G358.46-0.39(a)/G358.46-0.39(b) were covered simultaneously within a single Mopra observation). (11 data files).

  14. Extrapunitive and intropunitive individuals activate different parts of the prefrontal cortex under an ego-blocking frustration.

    PubMed

    Minamoto, Takehiro; Osaka, Mariko; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Different people make different responses when they face a frustrating situation: some punish others (extrapunitive), while others punish themselves (intropunitive). Few studies have investigated the neural structures that differentiate extrapunitive and intropunitive individuals. The present fMRI study explored these neural structures using two different frustrating situations: an ego-blocking situation which blocks a desire or goal, and a superego-blocking situation which blocks self-esteem. In the ego-blocking condition, the extrapunitive group (n = 9) showed greater activation in the bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, indicating that these individuals prefer emotional processing. On the other hand, the intropunitive group (n = 9) showed greater activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, possibly reflecting an effortful control for anger reduction. Such patterns were not observed in the superego-blocking condition. These results indicate that the prefrontal cortex is the source of individual differences in aggression direction in the ego-blocking situation. PMID:24454951

  15. Extrapunitive and Intropunitive Individuals Activate Different Parts of the Prefrontal Cortex under an Ego-Blocking Frustration

    PubMed Central

    Minamoto, Takehiro; Osaka, Mariko; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Different people make different responses when they face a frustrating situation: some punish others (extrapunitive), while others punish themselves (intropunitive). Few studies have investigated the neural structures that differentiate extrapunitive and intropunitive individuals. The present fMRI study explored these neural structures using two different frustrating situations: an ego-blocking situation which blocks a desire or goal, and a superego-blocking situation which blocks self-esteem. In the ego-blocking condition, the extrapunitive group (n = 9) showed greater activation in the bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, indicating that these individuals prefer emotional processing. On the other hand, the intropunitive group (n = 9) showed greater activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, possibly reflecting an effortful control for anger reduction. Such patterns were not observed in the superego-blocking condition. These results indicate that the prefrontal cortex is the source of individual differences in aggression direction in the ego-blocking situation. PMID:24454951

  16. How Lower- and Working-Class Youth Become Middle-Class Adults: The Association between Ego Defense Mechanisms and Upward Social Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snarey, John R.; Vaillant, George E.

    1985-01-01

    Among 278 inner-city men studied for four decades and over three generations, eight variables captured 28 percent of the explained variance in upward social mobility: IQ, mother's education, mother's occupation, boyhood ego strength, and four ego defense mechanisms--intellectualization, dissociation, sublimation, and anticipation.…

  17. Association of Ego Defense Mechanisms with Academic Performance, Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Ahmed; Malik, Aamenah; Muhammad, Umer; Khan, Sarah; Mahmood, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ego defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological processes that help an individual to prevent anxiety when exposed to a stressful situation. These mechanisms are important in psychiatric practice to assess an individual’s personality dynamics, psychopathologies, and modes of coping with stressful situations, and hence, to design appropriate individualized treatment. Our study delineates the relationship of ego defense mechanisms with anxiety, depression, and academic performance of Pakistani medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done at CMH Lahore Medical College and Fatima Memorial Hospital Medical and Dental College, both in Lahore, Pakistan, from December 1, 2014 to January 15, 2015. Convenience sampling was used and only students who agreed to take part in this study were included. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: 1) Demographics, documenting demographic data and academic scores on participants’ most recent exams; 2) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and 3) Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40). The data were analyzed with SPSS v. 20. Mean scores and frequencies were calculated for demographic variables and ego defense mechanisms. Bivariate correlations, one-way ANOVA, and multiple linear regression were used to identify associations between academic scores, demographics, ego defense mechanisms, anxiety, and depression. Results: A total of 409 medical students participated, of whom 286 (70%) were females and 123 (30%) were males. Mean percentage score on the most recent exams was 75.6% in medical students. Bivariate correlation revealed a direct association between mature and neurotic ego defense mechanisms and academic performance, and an indirect association between immature mechanisms and academic performance. One-way ANOVA showed that moderate levels of anxiety (P < .05) and low levels of depression (P < .05) were associated with higher academic performance. Conclusion: There was a

  18. GATA Factor Regulation in Excess Nitrogen Occurs Independently of Gtr-Ego Complex-Dependent TorC1 Activation.

    PubMed

    Tate, Jennifer J; Georis, Isabelle; Rai, Rajendra; Vierendeels, Fabienne; Dubois, Evelyne; Cooper, Terrance G

    2015-05-29

    The TorC1 protein kinase complex is a central component in a eukaryotic cell's response to varying nitrogen availability, with kinase activity being stimulated in nitrogen excess by increased intracellular leucine. This leucine-dependent TorC1 activation requires functional Gtr1/2 and Ego1/3 complexes. Rapamycin inhibition of TorC1 elicits nuclear localization of Gln3, a GATA-family transcription activator responsible for the expression of genes encoding proteins required to transport and degrade poor nitrogen sources, e.g., proline. In nitrogen-replete conditions, Gln3 is cytoplasmic and Gln3-mediated transcription minimal, whereas in nitrogen limiting or starvation conditions, or after rapamycin treatment, Gln3 is nuclear and transcription greatly increased. Increasing evidence supports the idea that TorC1 activation may not be as central to nitrogen-responsive intracellular Gln3 localization as envisioned previously. To test this idea directly, we determined whether Gtr1/2- and Ego1/3-dependent TorC1 activation also was required for cytoplasmic Gln3 sequestration and repressed GATA factor-mediated transcription by abolishing the Gtr-Ego complex proteins. We show that Gln3 is sequestered in the cytoplasm of gtr1Δ, gtr2Δ, ego1Δ, and ego3Δ strains either long term in logarithmically glutamine-grown cells or short term after refeeding glutamine to nitrogen-limited or -starved cells; GATA factor-dependent transcription also was minimal. However, in all but a gtr1Δ, nuclear Gln3 localization in response to nitrogen limitation or starvation was adversely affected. Our data demonstrate: (i) Gtr-Ego-dependent TorC1 activation is not required for cytoplasmic Gln3 sequestration in nitrogen-rich conditions; (ii) a novel Gtr-Ego-TorC1 activation-independent mechanism sequesters Gln3 in the cytoplasm; (iii) Gtr and Ego complex proteins participate in nuclear Gln3-Myc(13) localization, heretofore unrecognized functions for these proteins; and (iv) the importance of

  19. Ego identity and perceived family functioning: comparing at-risk native-born and immigrant Ethiopian adolescents in Israel.

    PubMed

    Romi, Shlomo; Simcha, Getahun

    2009-01-01

    Ego identity and perceived family functioning among at-risk Ethiopian-born (EB) adolescents in Israel and their native-born counterparts were examined. Results showed similar ego-identity ratings. Contrary to the Israeli-born (IB), distress and detachment among the Ethiopian-born are unrelated to poor family functioning. The importance of family-as-support among the Ethiopian-born may discourage removing children from home for rehabilitation, and encourage the development of programs to strengthen bonds between at-risk adolescents and their families in this and other immigrant communities.

  20. Testing Cross-Cultural Generalizability of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire across American and Chinese Samples

    PubMed Central

    Monsma, Eva

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the factor structure and measurement invariance of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) across American and Chinese samples. Results based on the mean and covariance structure analyses supported configural invariance, metric invariance and scalar invariance across groups. Latent means analyses revealed that American sample had significantly higher mean scores on task and ego orientations than the Chinese sample. The findings suggest that the TEOSQ is a valid and reliable instrument in assessing achievement motivation across these two diverse populations. PMID:27399869

  1. Exploring the association of ego defense mechanisms with problematic internet use in a Pakistani medical school.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Ahmed; Rehman, Abdul; Malik, Aamenah; Aftab, Ramsha; Allah Yar, Aroosa; Allah Yar, Arooj; Rai, Aitzaz Bin Sultan

    2016-09-30

    The present study was designed to analyze association between problematic internet use and use of ego defense mechanisms in medical students. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at CMH Lahore Medical College (CMH LMC) in Lahore, Pakistan from 1st March, 2015 to 30th May, 2015. 522 medical and dental students were included in the study. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: a) demographic characteristics of respondent b) the Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40) and c) the Internet Addiction Test (IAT). All data were analyzed in SPSS v20. Chi square, Independent sample t test and One Way ANOVA were run to analyze association of different variables with scores on IAT. Multiple regression analysis was used to delineate ego defenses as predictors of problematic internet use. A total of 32 (6.1%) students reported severe problems with internet usage. Males had higher scores on IAT i.e had more problematic use of internet. Scores on internet addiction test (IAT) were negatively associated with sublimation and positively associated with projection, denial, autistic fantasy, passive aggression and displacement. There was a high prevalence of problematic use of internet among medical and dental students. It had significant associations with several defense mechanisms.

  2. Exploring the association of ego defense mechanisms with problematic internet use in a Pakistani medical school.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Ahmed; Rehman, Abdul; Malik, Aamenah; Aftab, Ramsha; Allah Yar, Aroosa; Allah Yar, Arooj; Rai, Aitzaz Bin Sultan

    2016-09-30

    The present study was designed to analyze association between problematic internet use and use of ego defense mechanisms in medical students. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at CMH Lahore Medical College (CMH LMC) in Lahore, Pakistan from 1st March, 2015 to 30th May, 2015. 522 medical and dental students were included in the study. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: a) demographic characteristics of respondent b) the Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40) and c) the Internet Addiction Test (IAT). All data were analyzed in SPSS v20. Chi square, Independent sample t test and One Way ANOVA were run to analyze association of different variables with scores on IAT. Multiple regression analysis was used to delineate ego defenses as predictors of problematic internet use. A total of 32 (6.1%) students reported severe problems with internet usage. Males had higher scores on IAT i.e had more problematic use of internet. Scores on internet addiction test (IAT) were negatively associated with sublimation and positively associated with projection, denial, autistic fantasy, passive aggression and displacement. There was a high prevalence of problematic use of internet among medical and dental students. It had significant associations with several defense mechanisms. PMID:27504797

  3. Ego and Spiritual Transcendence: Relevance to Psychological Resilience and the Role of Age

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates different approaches of transcendence in the sense of spiritual experience as predictors for general psychological resilience. This issue is based on the theoretical assumption that resilience does play a role for physical health. Furthermore, there is a lack of empirical evidence about the extent to which spirituality does play a role for resilience. As potential predictors for resilience, ego transcendence, spiritual transcendence, and meaning in life were measured in a sample of 265 people. The main result of a multiple regression analysis is that, in the subsample with people below 29 years, only one rather secular scale that is associated with ego transcendence predicts resilience, whereas for the older subsample of 29 years and above, spiritual transcendence gains both a positive (oneness and timelessness) and a negative (spiritual insight) relevance to psychological resilience. On the one hand, these results concur with previous studies that also found age-related differences. On the other hand, it is surprising that the MOS spiritual insight predicts psychological resilience negatively, the effect is increasing with age. One possible explanation concerns wisdom research. Here, an adaptive way of dealing with the age-related loss of control is assumed to be relevant to successful aging. PMID:24223619

  4. Comparison of ego defenses among physically abused children, neglected, and non-maltreated children.

    PubMed

    Finzi, Ricky; Har-Even, Dov; Weizman, Abraham

    2003-01-01

    The nature and level of ego functioning were assessed in 41 recently detected physically abused children, and in two control groups of 38 neglected and 35 non-abused/non-neglected children (aged 6 to 12 years), using the Child Suicidal Potential Scales (CSPS). The results obtained in this study support the hypothesis that the influences of parental violence on the child's ego functions are detrimental, as reflected by significantly higher impairments in affect regulation (like irritability, anger, passivity, depression), low levels of impulse control, distortions in reality testing, and extensive operation of immature defense mechanisms in the physically abused children in comparison to the controls. Significant differences between the physically abused and the non-abused/non-neglected children were found for all mechanisms except displacement. The differences between the physically abused and neglected children for regression, denial and splitting, projection, and introjection (high scores for the physically abused children), and for compensation and undoing (higher scores for the neglected children) were also significant. It is suggested that physically abused children should be distinguished as a high-risk population for future personality disorders.

  5. The scenic function of the ego and its role in symptom and character formation.

    PubMed

    Argelander, Hermann

    2013-04-01

    The author argues that the scenic function of the ego permits the situationally appropriate representation of an unconscious, infantile configuration - that is, of a relatively stable, personality-based drive scene having the same status as latent dream thoughts. The products of conflict elaboration (symptoms, etc.) are manifested in different ways in accordance with the conditions of the relevant situation. The contents of the drive scene are created by the psychical apparatus on the basis of infantile perceptions and are revealed in screen memories. The capacity for situationally appropriate representation is apparently bound up with the mobile drive, including its narcissistic transformations. Desexualization (in the sense of neutralization) renders scenic elaboration impossible. The drive derivatives withdrawn from the scenic configuration contribute to ego organization and the formation of character traits, which no longer vary according to the situation, but can only be modified by a change in personality structure itself. It is as yet unclear whether a process of resexualization can make them amenable once more to analytic work. The form of narcissistic libido that can assume a scenic configuration is closely related to primary narcissism. Its manifestations, which may likewise emerge in situation-dependent symptom formations, appear accessible to analysis.

  6. Ego and spiritual transcendence: relevance to psychological resilience and the role of age.

    PubMed

    Hanfstingl, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates different approaches of transcendence in the sense of spiritual experience as predictors for general psychological resilience. This issue is based on the theoretical assumption that resilience does play a role for physical health. Furthermore, there is a lack of empirical evidence about the extent to which spirituality does play a role for resilience. As potential predictors for resilience, ego transcendence, spiritual transcendence, and meaning in life were measured in a sample of 265 people. The main result of a multiple regression analysis is that, in the subsample with people below 29 years, only one rather secular scale that is associated with ego transcendence predicts resilience, whereas for the older subsample of 29 years and above, spiritual transcendence gains both a positive (oneness and timelessness) and a negative (spiritual insight) relevance to psychological resilience. On the one hand, these results concur with previous studies that also found age-related differences. On the other hand, it is surprising that the MOS spiritual insight predicts psychological resilience negatively, the effect is increasing with age. One possible explanation concerns wisdom research. Here, an adaptive way of dealing with the age-related loss of control is assumed to be relevant to successful aging. PMID:24223619

  7. Green Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Ho

    Today, the environment has become a main subject in lots of science disciplines and the industrial development due to the global warming. This paper presents the analysis of the tendency of Green Architecture in France on the threes axes: Regulations and Approach for the Sustainable Architecture (Certificate and Standard), Renewable Materials (Green Materials) and Strategies (Equipments) of Sustainable Technology. The definition of 'Green Architecture' will be cited in the introduction and the question of the interdisciplinary for the technological development in 'Green Architecture' will be raised up in the conclusion.

  8. Correlation of the Scores on Barron's Ego Strength Scale with the Scores on the Bender-Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, John D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The degree of relationship between scores on the Barron Ego Strength Scale and the scores on the Bender-Gestalt Test was investigated on a sample of college students. Correlations were moderate to low. Racial differences were observed on the Bender-Gestalt Test. (Author/JKS)

  9. Differential Effects of Hypnosis, Biofeedback Training, and Trophotropic Responses on Anxiety, Ego Strength, and Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, John D.

    1980-01-01

    College students were randomly assigned to one of four groups: hypnotic treatment, biofeedback treatment, trophotropic treatment, and control. Results indicated hypnosis was more effective in lowering anxiety levels. With regard to increasing ego strength, both the hypnotic and biofeedback training groups proved to be significant. Presented at the…

  10. Cortisol Reactions in Five-Year-Olds to Parent-Child Interaction: The Moderating Role of Ego-Resiliency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeekens, Sanny; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; van Bakel, Hedwig J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study with five-year-olds is the first to examine whether low-quality interactions with parents elicit physiological stress in children beyond toddlerhood, as evident from elevated cortisol levels in their saliva. It was hypothesised that particularly children with low levels of ego-resiliency--a personality construct reflecting…

  11. A Comparison of Able-Bodied and Disabled College Students on Erikson's Ego Stages and Maslow's Needs Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriegsman, Kay Harris; Hershenson, David B.

    1987-01-01

    Compared physically disabled and able-bodied college students on Erickson's epigenetic stages of life-span development, and Maslow's motivational needs hierarchy of personality development. The groups were more similar than dissimilar in ego development and needs level. College students with disabilities may be a select population because of their…

  12. Ego Deficiencies in the Areas of Pleasure, Intimacy, and Cooperation: Guidelines in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Sexual Dysfunctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levay, Alexander N.; Kagle, Arlene

    1977-01-01

    Psychopathology, in the form of a deficiency in ego functions of pleasure, intimacy, or cooperation, is usually associated with sexual dysfunctions that prove refractory to sex therapy techniques alone. Each deficiency forms a distinct clinical syndrome with specific treatment requirements, necessitating further diagnostic subcategorization of…

  13. Identity consolidation in early adulthood: relations with ego-resiliency, the context of marriage, and personality change.

    PubMed

    Pals, J L

    1999-04-01

    Identity consolidation during early adulthood was conceptualized as a process of investing oneself in new adult roles, responsibilities, and contexts and evaluating one's ongoing experience in order to construct a coherent, grounded, and positive identity. The current study longitudinally examined (age 21 to age 27) the roles of ego-resiliency, an important personality resource, and marriage, an important identity context, in the process of identity consolidation as it unfolded in a cohort of women who experienced early adulthood during the early 1960s. Prototypes of identity in marriage were developed to reflect the different ways these women invested and evaluated their identities in the context of marriage. Results showed that ego-resiliency at age 21 and the experience of identity in marriage at age 27 were both related to identity consolidation at age 27, and findings also suggested that the relation of age 21 ego-resiliency to age 27 identity consolidation was mediated by identity in marriage. Finally, successful identity consolidation was associated with increasing ego-resiliency from age 21 to age 27. Discussion focuses on the interaction between personality and social context in the process of identity consolidation and the role of identity consolidation in personality change.

  14. Effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women. Before participating in Pilates exercise programs, researcher explained the purpose and the intention of the research to elderly women who were willing to participate in this research. A total of 148 elderly women agreed to participate in the program and they filled in ego resiliency and depression questionnaires. Then, the elderly participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program and completed the same questionnaires afterwards. Collected data was analyzed by the SPSS ver. 20.0 program and results of paired t-test were as follows; there were statistically significant differences in all subvariables of the ego resiliency such as self-confidence (t=7.770, P<0.001), communication efficiency (t=2.690, P<0.01), optimistic trait (t=1.996, P<0.05), and anger management (t=4.525, P<0.001) after elderly women participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program, there was a statistically significant difference in depression of elderly women who participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program (t=−6.506, P<0.001) which was statistically lower than before their participation in the program. Consequently, participating in the Pilates exercise program can help improve the ego-resiliency and alleviate depression of the elderly women. PMID:27807531

  15. Peer Victimization, Self-Esteem, and Ego Resilience Types in Adolescents: A Prospective Analysis of Person-Context Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overbeek, Geertjan; Zeevalkink, Herma; Vermulst, Ad; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined bidirectional, longitudinal associations between peer victimisation and self-esteem in adolescents, and tested for moderator effects of undercontrolling, overcontrolling, and ego-resilient personality types in these associations. Data were used from 774 adolescents ages 11-16 years who participated in a three-wave (i.e., 2005,…

  16. Ambitions Fulfilled? The Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Goal Attainment on Older Adults' Ego-Integrity and Death Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hiel, Alain; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goal attainment on older adults' ego-integrity, psychological well-being, and death attitudes. Hypotheses were derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Vansteenkiste, Ryan, & Deci, in press). Study 1 (N = 202, Mean age = 68.2 years) indicated that, after…

  17. Predicting Early Adolescents' Academic Achievement, Social Competence, and Physical Health from Parenting, Ego Resilience, and Engagement Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; O'Brien, T. Caitlin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined ego resilience and engagement coping as mediators of the relationships between supportive and controlling parenting practices and early adolescents' academic achievement, social competence, and physical health. Participants were 240 predominantly Mexican American early adolescents, their parents, and their teachers. There were…

  18. Dynamic relocation of the TORC1–Gtr1/2–Ego1/2/3 complex is regulated by Gtr1 and Gtr2

    PubMed Central

    Kira, Shintaro; Kumano, Yuri; Ukai, Hirofumi; Takeda, Eigo; Matsuura, Akira; Noda, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    TORC1 regulates cellular growth, metabolism, and autophagy by integrating various signals, including nutrient availability, through the small GTPases RagA/B/C/D in mammals and Gtr1/2 in budding yeast. Rag/Gtr is anchored to the lysosomal/vacuolar membrane by the scaffold protein complex Ragulator/Ego. Here we show that Ego consists of Ego1 and Ego3, and novel subunit Ego2. The ∆ego2 mutant exhibited only partial defects both in Gtr1-dependent TORC1 activation and Gtr1 localization on the vacuole. Ego1/2/3, Gtr1/2, and Tor1/Tco89 were colocalized on the vacuole and associated puncta. When Gtr1 was in its GTP-bound form and TORC1 was active, these proteins were preferentially localized on the vacuolar membrane, whereas when Gtr1 was in its GDP-bound form, they were mostly localized on the puncta. The localization of TORC1 to puncta was further facilitated by direct binding to Gtr2, which is involved in suppression of TORC1 activity. Thus regulation of TORC1 activity through Gtr1/Gtr2 is tightly coupled to the dynamic relocation of these proteins. PMID:26609069

  19. EGO: Towards a global glider infrastructure for the benefit of marine research and operational oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testor, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    In the 1990 s, while gliders were being developed and successfully passing first tests, their potential use for ocean research started to be discussed in international conferences because they could help us improve the cost-effectiveness, sampling, and distribution of the ocean observations (see OceanObs'99 Conference Statement - UNESCO). After the prototype phase, in the 2000 s, one could only witness the growing glider activity throughout the world. The first glider experiments in Europe brought together several teams that were interested in the technology and a consortium formed naturally from these informal collaborations. Since 2006, Everyone's Gliding Observatories (EGO - http://www.ego-network.org) Workshops and Glider Schools have been organized, whilst becoming the international forum for glider activities. Some key challenges have emerged from the expansion of the glider system and require now setting up a sustainable European as well as a global system to operate glider and to ensure a smooth and sustained link to the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). Glider technology faces many scientific, technological and logistical issues. In particular, it approaches the challenge of controlling many steerable probes in a variable environment for better sampling. It also needs the development of new formats and procedures in order to build glider observatories at a global level. Several geographically distributed teams of oceanographers now operate gliders, and there is a risk of fragmentation. We will here present results from our consortium who intends to solve most of these issues through scientific and technological coordination and networking. This approach is supported by the ESF through Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST). The COST Action ES0904 "EGO" started in July 2010 aiming to build international cooperation and capacities at the scientific, technological, and organizational levels, for sustained observations of the

  20. A Green Role Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Building a new green campus and adopting a philosophy of sustainability is exciting, but if not done properly, it is not always the wisest decision. As one considers the education, health, and safety of a campus community, along with its business objectives, one may discover that there are numerous ways to make the campus more sustainable without…

  1. Brassica greens herbicide screening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to screen herbicides for potential use in brassica greens. Plots were in a RBD with 4 replications. The study was direct seeded on May 19, 2009 with a seeding rate of 272,000 seeds/acre (‘Savanna’ mustard). Treatments included trifluralin PPI + DCPA pre-emergence ap...

  2. Green chemistry metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic chemists have always had an objective to achieve reliable and high-yielding routes to the syntheses of targeted molecules. The importance of minimal waste generation has emphasized the use of green chemistry principles and sustainable development. These directions lead ...

  3. The use of hypnotic age progressions as prognostic, ego-strengthening, and integrating techniques.

    PubMed

    Phillips, M; Frederick, C

    1992-10-01

    Age progression as a hypnotherapeutic technique is mentioned infrequently in the literature when compared with its counterpart, age regression. In this paper we explore the use of progressions, or "views of the future," as prognostic indicators of therapeutic progress and as valuable tools for ego strengthening and for the integration of clinical material. Age progressions vary in the types of suggestions given and can be used to promote growth on multiple levels, facilitating treatment goals and deepening the working-through process. We present six cases in which we used different types of age progressions, and we discuss the significance of the progressions used in each case, within the context of relevant clinical material. We conclude from our observations that the use of hypnotic progressions can be a sustaining, valuable aspect of hypnotherapy, particularly in providing an index of the current direction and progression of the therapy process itself.

  4. A longitudinal study of ego identity development at a liberal arts college.

    PubMed

    Waterman, A S; Goldman, J A

    1976-12-01

    Ego identity development in the areas of occupational choice, religion, and political ideology was studied using Marcia's categorization system. The results indicated a significant increase in the frequency of the identity achiever status for occupational choice and corresponding decreases in the frequency of the moratorium and identity diffusion statuses. A significant decrease in the frequency of foreclosures on religion was also found. In those instances where students underwent an identity crisis, the probability of resolving it successfully was very high. High scores on the Cultural Sophistication scale of the College Student Questionnaire-Part 1 were found to be associated with presence in the identity achievement status. For students not in the achiever status as freshmen, an interest in various literary and art forms was predictive of becoming an achiever while in college.

  5. [Mirror image of the ego. On Jacques Lacan's theory of the imaginary].

    PubMed

    Gekle, H

    1995-08-01

    Lacan places the concept of the imaginary alongside the categories of the real and the symbolic. This concept plays a highly prominent role in his thinking, given that the essential determination of the imaginary is the primary relation of the ego to the image of the similar. Thus it is not surprising that unlike Freud the early Lacan acceded to the status of theoretician of surrealism, his decentralization of the cogito having a profound effect on Dalí in particular. The author shows that non-identity and paranoic anamorphosis are only conceivable as the forms of the imaginary absolutised by Lacan if they are seen in relation to an Oedipally constructed cogito--just as mannerism regularly follows classicism and cannot be conceived of separately from it. If Freud was a classicist, Lacan was the mannerist who came after him--except that the latter refused to countenance this connection. PMID:7676068

  6. Detection of obstacles on runway using Ego-Motion compensation and tracking of significant features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasturi, Rangachar (Principal Investigator); Camps, Octavia (Principal Investigator); Gandhi, Tarak; Devadiga, Sadashiva

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a method for obstacle detection on a runway for autonomous navigation and landing of an aircraft. Detection is done in the presence of extraneous features such as tiremarks. Suitable features are extracted from the image and warping using approximately known camera and plane parameters is performed in order to compensate ego-motion as far as possible. Residual disparity after warping is estimated using an optical flow algorithm. Features are tracked from frame to frame so as to obtain more reliable estimates of their motion. Corrections are made to motion parameters with the residual disparities using a robust method, and features having large residual disparities are signaled as obstacles. Sensitivity analysis of the procedure is also studied. Nelson's optical flow constraint is proposed to separate moving obstacles from stationary ones. A Bayesian framework is used at every stage so that the confidence in the estimates can be determined.

  7. Code Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, John

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the integrated approach to green design in the new Computer Science Building at Toronto's York University. The building design fulfills the university's demand to combine an energy efficient design with sustainability. Floor and site plans are included. (GR)

  8. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  9. Green Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  10. Green Coffee

    MedlinePlus

    ... orange in combination with caffeine or caffeine-containing herbs can increase blood pressure and heart rate in ... serious heart problems. Avoid this combination.Caffeine-containing herbs and supplementsUsing green coffee along with other caffeine- ...

  11. The Bitter Truth About Sugar and Willpower: The Limited Evidential Value of the Glucose Model of Ego Depletion.

    PubMed

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Gold, Natalie; Osman, Magda

    2016-09-01

    The idea behind ego depletion is that willpower draws on a limited mental resource, so that engaging in an act of self-control impairs self-control in subsequent tasks. To present ego depletion as more than a convenient metaphor, some researchers have proposed that glucose is the limited resource that becomes depleted with self-control. However, there have been theoretical challenges to the proposed glucose mechanism, and the experiments that have tested it have found mixed results. We used a new meta-analytic tool, p-curve analysis, to examine the reliability of the evidence from these experiments. We found that the effect sizes reported in this literature are possibly influenced by publication or reporting bias and that, even within studies yielding significant results, the evidential value of this research is weak. In light of these results, and pending further evidence, researchers and policymakers should refrain from drawing any conclusions about the role of glucose in self-control.

  12. Green foot.

    PubMed

    LeFeber, W P; Golitz, L E

    1984-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa may infect the skin surface, nails, hair follicles, or deeper tissues. We report a 13-year-old male with an asymptomatic green discoloration of the toenails and sole of the right foot. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cultured from the shoe, but not from the discolored skin. We suspect that constant wearing of occlusive, rubber-soled, basketball shoes associated with hyperhidrosis allowed colonization of his shoe with pseudomonas. This case is unique in that colonization resulted in a green color of the foot not associated with infection of the skin.

  13. The ego, the ocular, and the uncanny: why are metaphors of vision central in accounts of the uncanny?

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Sadeq

    2013-06-01

    I am my own twin, Always with me, same as me, and always watching me! From interview with a psychotic patient Every man carries with him through life a mirror, as unique and impossible to get rid of as his shadow W.H. Auden, 1989, p.93 I cannot urge you too strongly to a meditation on optics. Jacques Lacan, 1991, p.76 This paper outlines the basic arguments for a reading of the notion of the uncanny that draws on direct and metaphorical significances of the ocular in the development of human ego. It is argued that a specular-oriented reading of the uncanny as made possible through Lacan's model for ego development introduces a significant analytic device capable of explaining diverse features of the uncanny experience that escaped the traditional phallic/castration-based reading. To examine this claim, evidence is presented from a number of contexts to demonstrate how uncanny experiences are typically constructed through and associated with themes and metaphors of vision, blindness, mirrors and other optical tropes. Evidence is also presented from a historical point of view to demonstrate the strong presence of ocular and specular themes, devices and associations in a tradition of literary and psychological writing out of which the notion of 'the uncanny' (including Freud's own formulation) emerged. It is demonstrated that the main instances of the uncanny, such as doppelgangers, ghosts, déjà vu, alter egos, self-alienations and split personhoods, phantoms, twins, living dolls and many more in the list of 'things of terror' typically share two important features: they are closely tied with visual tropes, and they are variations on the theme of doubling. It is then argued that both of these features are integrally associated with the developmental processes of ego formation and self-identity, thus explaining the strong association of the uncanny accounts and experiences with ocular and specular motifs and metaphors.

  14. The ego, the ocular, and the uncanny: why are metaphors of vision central in accounts of the uncanny?

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Sadeq

    2013-06-01

    I am my own twin, Always with me, same as me, and always watching me! From interview with a psychotic patient Every man carries with him through life a mirror, as unique and impossible to get rid of as his shadow W.H. Auden, 1989, p.93 I cannot urge you too strongly to a meditation on optics. Jacques Lacan, 1991, p.76 This paper outlines the basic arguments for a reading of the notion of the uncanny that draws on direct and metaphorical significances of the ocular in the development of human ego. It is argued that a specular-oriented reading of the uncanny as made possible through Lacan's model for ego development introduces a significant analytic device capable of explaining diverse features of the uncanny experience that escaped the traditional phallic/castration-based reading. To examine this claim, evidence is presented from a number of contexts to demonstrate how uncanny experiences are typically constructed through and associated with themes and metaphors of vision, blindness, mirrors and other optical tropes. Evidence is also presented from a historical point of view to demonstrate the strong presence of ocular and specular themes, devices and associations in a tradition of literary and psychological writing out of which the notion of 'the uncanny' (including Freud's own formulation) emerged. It is demonstrated that the main instances of the uncanny, such as doppelgangers, ghosts, déjà vu, alter egos, self-alienations and split personhoods, phantoms, twins, living dolls and many more in the list of 'things of terror' typically share two important features: they are closely tied with visual tropes, and they are variations on the theme of doubling. It is then argued that both of these features are integrally associated with the developmental processes of ego formation and self-identity, thus explaining the strong association of the uncanny accounts and experiences with ocular and specular motifs and metaphors. PMID:23781831

  15. Masculinity unraveled: the roots of male gender identity and the shifting of male ego ideals throughout life.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    A model of masculine gender identity development is presented that demonstrates how a male's sense of his masculinity and the ambiguities of his gender are being reworked throughout his life. Of factors shaping the boy's sense of masculinity early on, particular emphasis is placed on the role of the involved father, the nature of the parental relationship, and the mother's recognition and affirmation of her son's maleness. While healthy masculine gender identity is founded predominantly on the boy's unique struggles in separating from his mother, it does not result from what has been traditionally viewed as the boy's disidentification from her (and from the feminine more generally). Indeed, boys who need to violently repudiate their identifications with their mother are more susceptible to a fragile, rigid masculine identity and narcissistic psychopathology. A case example of a young adult man illustrates the impact of identifications with both parents. The interplay of early masculine identity development and later life challenges confronting the adult male is briefly noted. "Masculine" ego ideals shift across developmental junctions until, ultimately, a more mature sense of masculinity emerges: the phallic wish to deny differentiation and maintain unlimited possibility is renounced and mourned and certain real limits concerning sex, gender, and generational differences are accepted. This reshaping of the "masculine" ego ideal consequently involves the transformation of a man's previously adaptive "phallicism" into more realistic, "genital" ego ideals-an achievement involving interplay between masculine and feminine identifications and the integration of antithetical elements no longer so unconsciously gendered.

  16. The Impact of an Ego Depletion Manipulation on Performance-Based and Self-Report Assessment Measures.

    PubMed

    Charek, Daniel B; Meyer, Gregory J; Mihura, Joni L

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the impact of ego depletion on selected Rorschach cognitive processing variables and self-reported affect states. Research indicates acts of effortful self-regulation transiently deplete a finite pool of cognitive resources, impairing performance on subsequent tasks requiring self-regulation. We predicted that relative to controls, ego-depleted participants' Rorschach protocols would have more spontaneous reactivity to color, less cognitive sophistication, and more frequent logical lapses in visualization, whereas self-reports would reflect greater fatigue and less attentiveness. The hypotheses were partially supported; despite a surprising absence of self-reported differences, ego-depleted participants had Rorschach protocols with lower scores on two variables indicative of sophisticated combinatory thinking, as well as higher levels of color receptivity; they also had lower scores on a composite variable computed across all hypothesized markers of complexity. In addition, self-reported achievement striving moderated the effect of the experimental manipulation on color receptivity, and in the Depletion condition it was associated with greater attentiveness to the tasks, more color reactivity, and less global synthetic processing. Results are discussed with an emphasis on the response process, methodological limitations and strengths, implications for calculating refined Rorschach scores, and the value of using multiple methods in research and experimental paradigms to validate assessment measures. PMID:26002059

  17. The relationship of task and ego orientation to sportsmanship attitudes and the perceived legitimacy of injurious acts.

    PubMed

    Duda, J L; Olson, L K; Templin, T J

    1991-03-01

    Nicholls's theory of achievement motivation (1989) assumes one's goal orientation in an achievement activity is consistent with one's views concerning what is acceptable behavior in that setting. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of a task and ego goal orientation (i.e., the tendency to focus on personal mastery or beating others, respectively) to sportsmanship attitudes and perceptions of the legitimacy of aggressive acts by testing this assumption in the context of interscholastic sport. Fifty-six male and 67 female high school basketball players completed a three-part questionnaire assessing (a) individual differences in goal orientation, (b) approval of "unsportsmanlike play/cheating," "strategic play," and "sportsmanship behaviors," and (c) subjective ratings of the legitimacy of intentionally injurious behaviors. All measures were basketball-specific. Results indicated a low task orientation and high ego orientation corresponded to an endorsement of unsportsmanlike play/cheating. Ego orientation positively related to the rating of aggressive acts as more legitimate. Gender differences in goal orientation, sportsmanship attitudes, and legitimacy ratings were observed.

  18. Going Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the benefits that schools and universities can gain by adopting environmentally sensitive practices in their design and operations. Includes resources for locating additional information about green schools and a list of 11 features that represent a comprehensive, sustainable school. (GR)

  19. Green Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowski, David, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses "going green" concept in school-building design, its cost-savings benefits through more efficient energy use, and its use by the State University of New York at Buffalo as solution to an energy retrofit program. Examples are provided of how this concept can be used, even for small colleges without large capital budgets, and how it can…

  20. Green Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    In the world of higher education, even the most ambitious sustainability plans often begin with tiny steps taken by individual departments. Michael Crowley, a program manager for Environmental Health & Engineering (EH&E) and former assistant director of the Harvard (Massachusetts) Green Campus Initiative, explains that going for small wins through…

  1. Buying Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  2. Green pioneers.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  3. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts. PMID:19062433

  4. Green pioneers.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output. PMID:23763098

  5. Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  6. Green Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    More and more people are viewing the world through green-tinted glasses, and those ideas about making school and university facilities more environmentally friendly suddenly are appearing to be prudent and responsible. Among the groups that have been advocating for environmentally friendly school design for years are the Collaborative for High…

  7. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts.

  8. Green Engineering-Integration of Green Chemistry, Pollution Prevention, and Risk-Based Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shonnard, David; Lindner, Angela; Nguyen, Nhan; Ramachandran, Palghat A.; Fichana, Daniel; Hesketh, Robert; Slater, C. Stewart; Engler, Richard

    Literature sources on green chemistry and green engineering are numerous. The objective of this chapter is to familiarize readers with some of the green engineering and chemistry concepts, approaches and tools. In order to do this, the chapter is organized into five sections as follows.

  9. [The "impersonal id" and resolution of the ego. On Karl Philipp Moritz].

    PubMed

    Bong, J

    1994-06-01

    Long before Freud, 18th and 19th century thinkers were speculating on the nature of the unconscious. One such thinker was the German littérateur and psychologist Karl Philipp Moritz, a representative of the "Storm and Stress" movement with roots in late German Enlightenment thinking. In the historiography of psychoanalysis his significance as an early theoretician of the unconscious has yet to be adequately appreciated. The author shows that the very term "Es" (German for "id") and an (albeit fragmentary and inconsistent) conception of what the term implies can in fact be traced back to Moritz. His view of the "id" was that of an uncanny force invested with an "energy" that is the very essence of Nature and frequently overwhelms the ego of the individual human agent. Moritz' concept of two opposing urges, one cohesive, the other disintegrative, is related to the Freudian dualism between life instinct and death wish and reveals Moritz as a thinker caught up in the conflict between Enlightenment and Counter-Enlightenment and adumbrating some of the essential features of irrationalist thinking in the late 19th century. PMID:8047661

  10. Increased Global Functional Connectivity Correlates with LSD-Induced Ego Dissolution.

    PubMed

    Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Roseman, Leor; Kaelen, Mendel; Orban, Csaba; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Murphy, Kevin; Laufs, Helmut; Leech, Robert; McGonigle, John; Crossley, Nicolas; Bullmore, Edward; Williams, Tim; Bolstridge, Mark; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin

    2016-04-25

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a non-selective serotonin-receptor agonist that was first synthesized in 1938 and identified as (potently) psychoactive in 1943. Psychedelics have been used by indigenous cultures for millennia [1]; however, because of LSD's unique potency and the timing of its discovery (coinciding with a period of major discovery in psychopharmacology), it is generally regarded as the quintessential contemporary psychedelic [2]. LSD has profound modulatory effects on consciousness and was used extensively in psychological research and psychiatric practice in the 1950s and 1960s [3]. In spite of this, however, there have been no modern human imaging studies of its acute effects on the brain. Here we studied the effects of LSD on intrinsic functional connectivity within the human brain using fMRI. High-level association cortices (partially overlapping with the default-mode, salience, and frontoparietal attention networks) and the thalamus showed increased global connectivity under the drug. The cortical areas showing increased global connectivity overlapped significantly with a map of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor densities (the key site of action of psychedelic drugs [4]). LSD also increased global integration by inflating the level of communication between normally distinct brain networks. The increase in global connectivity observed under LSD correlated with subjective reports of "ego dissolution." The present results provide the first evidence that LSD selectively expands global connectivity in the brain, compromising the brain's modular and "rich-club" organization and, simultaneously, the perceptual boundaries between the self and the environment.

  11. EGO-1, a C. elegans RdRP, Modulates Gene Expression via Production of mRNA-Templated Short Antisense RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Maniar, Jay M.; Fire, Andrew Z.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Background The development of the germline in Caenorhabditis elegans is a complex process involving the regulation of thousands of genes in a coordinated manner. Several genes required for small RNA biogenesis and function are among those required for the proper organization of the germline. EGO-1 is a putative RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RdRP) that is required for multiple aspects of C. elegans germline development and efficient RNAi of germline-expressed genes. RdRPs have been proposed to act through a variety of mechanisms including the post-transcriptional targeting of specific mRNAs as well as through a direct interaction with chromatin. Despite extensive investigation, the molecular role of EGO-1 has remained enigmatic. Results Here we use high-throughput small RNA and messenger RNA sequencing to investigate EGO-1 function. We found that EGO-1 is required to produce a distinct pool of small RNAs antisense to a number of germline-expressed mRNAs through several developmental stages. These potential mRNA targets fall into distinct classes, including genes required for kinetochore and nuclear pore assembly, histone-modifying activities and centromeric proteins. We also found several RNAi-related genes to be targets of EGO-1. Finally, we show a strong association between the loss of small RNAs and the rise of mRNA levels in ego-1(−) animals. Conclusions Our data support the conclusion that EGO-1 produces triphosphorylated small RNAs derived from mRNA templates and that these small RNAs modulate gene expression through the targeting of their cognate mRNAs. PMID:21396820

  12. Green toxicology.

    PubMed

    Maertens, Alexandra; Anastas, Nicholas; Spencer, Pamela J; Stephens, Martin; Goldberg, Alan; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Historically, early identification and characterization of adverse effects of industrial chemicals was difficult because conventional toxicological test methods did not meet R&D needs for rapid, relatively inexpensive methods amenable to small amounts of test material. The pharmaceutical industry now front-loads toxicity testing, using in silico, in vitro, and less demanding animal tests at earlier stages of product development to identify and anticipate undesirable toxicological effects and optimize product development. The Green Chemistry movement embraces similar ideas for development of less toxic products, safer processes, and less waste and exposure. Further, the concept of benign design suggests ways to consider possible toxicities before the actual synthesis and to apply some structure/activity rules (SAR) and in silico methods. This requires not only scientific development but also a change in corporate culture in which synthetic chemists work with toxicologists. An emerging discipline called Green Toxicology (Anastas, 2012) provides a framework for integrating the principles of toxicology into the enterprise of designing safer chemicals, thereby minimizing potential toxicity as early in production as possible. Green Toxicology`s novel utility lies in driving innovation by moving safety considerations to the earliest stage in a chemical`s lifecycle, i.e., to molecular design. In principle, this field is no different than other subdisciplines of toxicology that endeavor to focus on a specific area - for example, clinical, environmental or forensic toxicology. We use the same principles and tools to evaluate an existing substance or to design a new one. The unique emphasis is in using 21st century toxicology tools as a preventative strategy to "design out" undesired human health and environmental effects, thereby increasing the likelihood of launching a successful, sustainable product. Starting with the formation of a steering group and a series of workshops

  13. A New Angle on Object-Background Effects in Vection

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Michael T. T.

    2016-01-01

    We considered whether optic flow generated by 3D relief of a foreground surface might influence visually-mediated self-motion perception (vection). We generated background motion consistent with self-rotation, and a foreground object with bumpy relief was either rotated with the observer (ego-centric) or fixed in world coordinates (world-centric). We found that vection strength ratings were greater in conditions with world-centric retinal motion of the foreground object, despite generating flow that was opposite to background motion. This effect was explained by observer judgments of the axis self-rotation in depth; whereas ego-centric flow generated experiences of more on-axis self-rotation, world-centric flow generated experiences of centrifugal rotation around the foreground object. These data suggest that foreground object motion can increase the perception of self-motion generated by optic flow, even when they reduce net retinal motion coherence and promote conditions for multisensory conflict. This finding supports the view that self-motion perception depends on mid-level representations of whole-scene motion. PMID:27433322

  14. A New Angle on Object-Background Effects in Vection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juno; Tran, Michael T T

    2016-03-01

    We considered whether optic flow generated by 3D relief of a foreground surface might influence visually-mediated self-motion perception (vection). We generated background motion consistent with self-rotation, and a foreground object with bumpy relief was either rotated with the observer (ego-centric) or fixed in world coordinates (world-centric). We found that vection strength ratings were greater in conditions with world-centric retinal motion of the foreground object, despite generating flow that was opposite to background motion. This effect was explained by observer judgments of the axis self-rotation in depth; whereas ego-centric flow generated experiences of more on-axis self-rotation, world-centric flow generated experiences of centrifugal rotation around the foreground object. These data suggest that foreground object motion can increase the perception of self-motion generated by optic flow, even when they reduce net retinal motion coherence and promote conditions for multisensory conflict. This finding supports the view that self-motion perception depends on mid-level representations of whole-scene motion. PMID:27433322

  15. Mirror Neuron Dysfunction and Ego-Boundary Disturbances in Schizophrenia: A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Basavaraju, Rakshathi; Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Gangadhar, Bangalore N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ego-boundary disturbance (EBD) is a unique symptom cluster characterized by passivity experiences (involving thoughts, actions, emotions and sensations) attributed by patients to some external agency. The neurobiology of these “first rank” symptoms is poorly understood. Aberrant mirror neuron activation may explain impaired self-monitoring and agency attribution underlying these symptoms. We aim to study mirror neuron activity (MNA) in schizophrenia patients with and without EBD using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Materials and Methods: 50 right-handed schizophrenia patients (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) were evaluated using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. They completed a TMS experiment to assess putative premotor MNA. Motor evoked potential (MEP) was recorded in the right first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI) with (a) 120% of resting motor threshold (RMT), (b) stimulus intensity set to evoke MEP of motor threshold 1 mV amplitude (MT1), (c) two paired pulse paradigms (short- and long interval intra-cortical inhibition). These were done in three states: Actual observation of an action using the FDI, virtual-observation (video) of this action and resting state. The percent change of MEP from resting to action-observation states formed the measure of putative MNA. Results: MNA measured using MT1 and 120% RMT paradigms was significantly lower in the 18 patients with EBD (thought-broadcast/withdrawal/insertion, made-act/impulse/affect and somatic passivity) than the 32 patients without EBD (t = 2.431, P = 0.020; t = 2.051, P = 0.04 respectively for the two paradigms). The two groups did not differ on age, gender, education and total symptom scores. Conclusion: Schizophrenia patients with EBD have lower premotor MNA. This highlights the role of MNA dysfunction in the pathophysiology of this unique and intriguing symptom cluster in

  16. Image Mapping and Visual Attention on the Sensory Ego-Sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Katherine Achim; Peters, Richard Alan, II

    2012-01-01

    The Sensory Ego-Sphere (SES) is a short-term memory for a robot in the form of an egocentric, tessellated, spherical, sensory-motor map of the robot s locale. Visual attention enables fast alignment of overlapping images without warping or position optimization, since an attentional point (AP) on the composite typically corresponds to one on each of the collocated regions in the images. Such alignment speeds analysis of the multiple images of the area. Compositing and attention were performed two ways and compared: (1) APs were computed directly on the composite and not on the full-resolution images until the time of retrieval; and (2) the attentional operator was applied to all incoming imagery. It was found that although the second method was slower, it produced consistent and, thereby, more useful APs. The SES is an integral part of a control system that will enable a robot to learn new behaviors based on its previous experiences, and that will enable it to recombine its known behaviors in such a way as to solve related, but novel, task problems with apparent creativity. The approach is to combine sensory-motor data association and dimensionality reduction to learn navigation and manipulation tasks as sequences of basic behaviors that can be implemented with a small set of closed-loop controllers. Over time, the aggregate of behaviors and their transition probabilities form a stochastic network. Then given a task, the robot finds a path in the network that leads from its current state to the goal. The SES provides a short-term memory for the cognitive functions of the robot, association of sensory and motor data via spatio-temporal coincidence, direction of the attention of the robot, navigation through spatial localization with respect to known or discovered landmarks, and structured data sharing between the robot and human team members, the individuals in multi-robot teams, or with a C3 center.

  17. Increased Global Functional Connectivity Correlates with LSD-Induced Ego Dissolution.

    PubMed

    Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Roseman, Leor; Kaelen, Mendel; Orban, Csaba; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Murphy, Kevin; Laufs, Helmut; Leech, Robert; McGonigle, John; Crossley, Nicolas; Bullmore, Edward; Williams, Tim; Bolstridge, Mark; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin

    2016-04-25

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a non-selective serotonin-receptor agonist that was first synthesized in 1938 and identified as (potently) psychoactive in 1943. Psychedelics have been used by indigenous cultures for millennia [1]; however, because of LSD's unique potency and the timing of its discovery (coinciding with a period of major discovery in psychopharmacology), it is generally regarded as the quintessential contemporary psychedelic [2]. LSD has profound modulatory effects on consciousness and was used extensively in psychological research and psychiatric practice in the 1950s and 1960s [3]. In spite of this, however, there have been no modern human imaging studies of its acute effects on the brain. Here we studied the effects of LSD on intrinsic functional connectivity within the human brain using fMRI. High-level association cortices (partially overlapping with the default-mode, salience, and frontoparietal attention networks) and the thalamus showed increased global connectivity under the drug. The cortical areas showing increased global connectivity overlapped significantly with a map of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor densities (the key site of action of psychedelic drugs [4]). LSD also increased global integration by inflating the level of communication between normally distinct brain networks. The increase in global connectivity observed under LSD correlated with subjective reports of "ego dissolution." The present results provide the first evidence that LSD selectively expands global connectivity in the brain, compromising the brain's modular and "rich-club" organization and, simultaneously, the perceptual boundaries between the self and the environment. PMID:27085214

  18. Love Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusack, Lynne

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the role of "security" or "transition" objects, such as a blanket or stuffed toy, in children's development of self-comfort and autonomy. Notes the influence of parents in the child-object relationship, and discusses children's responses to losing a security object, and the developmental point at which a child will give up such an…

  19. Object crowding.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Julian M; Tjan, Bosco S

    2011-05-25

    Crowding occurs when stimuli in the peripheral fields become harder to identify when flanked by other items. This phenomenon has been demonstrated extensively with simple patterns (e.g., Gabors and letters). Here, we characterize crowding for everyday objects. We presented three-item arrays of objects and letters, arranged radially and tangentially in the lower visual field. Observers identified the central target, and we measured contrast energy thresholds as a function of target-to-flanker spacing. Object crowding was similar to letter crowding in spatial extent but was much weaker. The average elevation in threshold contrast energy was in the order of 1 log unit for objects as compared to 2 log units for letters and silhouette objects. Furthermore, we examined whether the exterior and interior features of an object are differentially affected by crowding. We used a circular aperture to present or exclude the object interior. Critical spacings for these aperture and "donut" objects were similar to those of intact objects. Taken together, these findings suggest that crowding between letters and objects are essentially due to the same mechanism, which affects equally the interior and exterior features of an object. However, for objects defined with varying shades of gray, it is much easier to overcome crowding by increasing contrast.

  20. Citizenship Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee on Assessing the Progress of Education, Ann Arbor, MI.

    The general procedures used to develop educational objectives for the National Assessment of Educational Progress are outlined, as are the procedures used to develop citizenship objectives. Ten general objectives are stated: "show concern for the welfare and dignity of others"; "support rights and freedoms of all individuals"; "help maintain law…

  1. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  2. Customer Aggregation: An Opportunity for Green Power?

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, E.; Bird, L.

    2001-02-26

    We undertook research into the experience of aggregation groups to determine whether customer aggregation offers an opportunity to bring green power choices to more customers. The objectives of this report, therefore, are to (1) identify the different types of aggregation that are occurring today, (2) learn whether aggregation offers an opportunity to advance sales of green power, and (3) share these concepts and approaches with potential aggregators and green power advocates.

  3. Ego depletion and attention regulation under pressure: is a temporary loss of self-control strength indeed related to impaired attention regulation?

    PubMed

    Englert, Chris; Zwemmer, Kris; Bertrams, Alex; Oudejans, Raôul R

    2015-04-01

    In the current study we investigated whether ego depletion negatively affects attention regulation under pressure in sports by assessing participants' dart throwing performance and accompanying gaze behavior. According to the strength model of self-control, the most important aspect of self-control is attention regulation. Because higher levels of state anxiety are associated with impaired attention regulation, we chose a mixed design with ego depletion (yes vs. no) as between-subjects and anxiety level (high vs. low) as within-subjects factor. Participants performed a perceptual-motor task requiring selective attention, namely, dart throwing. In line with our expectations, depleted participants in the high-anxiety condition performed worse and displayed a shorter final fixation on bull's eye, demonstrating that when one's self-control strength is depleted, attention regulation under pressure cannot be maintained. This is the first study that directly supports the general assumption that ego depletion is a major factor in influencing attention regulation under pressure.

  4. Green Phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vijay; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Rao, J. L.; Dhoble, S. J.; Kim, S. H.

    2014-11-01

    Manganese-doped LaMgAl11O19 powder has been prepared by an easy combustion method. Powder x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy have been used to characterize the as-prepared phosphor. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of LaMgAl11O19:Mn2+ phosphor exhibits six-line hyperfine structure centered at g ≈ 1.973. The number of spins participating in resonance ( N) and the paramagnetic susceptibility ( χ) for the resonance signal at g ≈ 1.973 have been calculated as a function of temperature. The photoluminescence spectrum exhibits green emission at 516 nm, which is attributed to 4T1 → 6A1 transition of Mn2+ ions. From EPR and luminescence studies, it is observed that Mn2+ ions occupy Mg2+ sites and Mn2+ ions are located at tetrahedral sites in the prepared phosphors.

  5. Underwater green laser vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antończak, Arkadiusz J.; Kozioł, Paweł; Wąż, Adam T.; Sotor, Jarosław Z.; Dudzik, Grzegorz; Kaczmarek, Paweł R.; Abramski, Krzysztof M.

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a laser vibrometer based on an monolithic single-frequency green laser operating at 532 nm. This wavelength can be particularly useful in the case of underwater vibrometry, especially with regard to the minimum of water absorption for this wavelength range (blue-green window). Using polarizing optics, we proposed a configuration that allows the elimination of parasitic reflections at the air-glass-water boundary. A measurement of heterodyne signals as a mixing result of scattered and reference beams has been performed. The study was conducted in aqueous medium for the scattering waterproof paper and retro-reflective surface. In both configurations we have obtained signals with a relatively high S/N ratio > 20 dB (for scattering surface) and > 31 dB (for retro-reflective tape) with the Resolution Bandwidth RBW 10 kHz for a vibrometer output power of 5 mW and the distance to the moving object 1.2 m (including 0.3 m in air). In our opinion, laser Doppler vibrometry LDV based on high-performance single frequency solid-state lasers with a wavelength range corresponding to the blue-green window allows effective measurement of vibration in the underwater environment.

  6. Aerobic Exercise As a Potential Way to Improve Self-Control after Ego-Depletion in Healthy Female College Students

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zhiling; Liu, Yang; Xie, Jing; Huang, Xiting

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether aerobic exercise can help build self-control stamina in healthy female young adults. Stamina in this context is defined as the capability to endure ego depletion, which can be measured with a self-control task following another activity also requiring self-control. Methods: Forty-five healthy undergraduate women were randomized to either an experimental group or control group. Participants in the experimental group were required to run in their campus running field for 30 min for a period of 5 weeks. Individuals in the control group were required to do diary entries regarding self-control in their daily lives, also for a period of 5 weeks. Before and after the 5-week intervention, participants completed a pain threshold test, a color word Stroop task and the following Cold Pressor Task (CPT) (with and without a distraction component). Results: There was significant decrease of pain tolerance in session 2 relative to session 1 in the control group, but no such decline was found in the experimental group (though the improvement of pain tolerance was not significant), possibly suggesting successful self-control against this kind of decline. Conclusions: Five weeks of aerobic exercise increased self-control after ego depletion in terms of pain tolerance. These findings suggest that aerobic exercise may serve as a potential effective intervention for enhancing self-control in a college female population. PMID:27148113

  7. Ambitions fulfilled? The effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goal attainment on older adults' ego-integrity and death attitudes.

    PubMed

    Van Hiel, Alain; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goal attainment on older adults' ego-integrity, psychological well-being, and death attitudes. Hypotheses were derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Vansteenkiste, Ryan, & Deci, in press). Study 1 (N = 202, Mean age = 68.2 years) indicated that, after controlling for extrinsic goal attainment, intrinsic goal attainment contributed positively to subjective well-being and ego-integrity and negatively to despair, whereas extrinsic goal attainment was unrelated to psychological health and contributed positively to despair. Study 2 (N = 213, Mean age = 75.2 years) replicated and extended these results, showing that intrinsic goal attainment contributed to the acceptance of one's own death, lower ill-being, and less death anxiety, whereas extrinsic goal attainment was negatively associated with death acceptance. It is argued that the attainment of intrinsic goals is related to better psychological health, because intrinsic goals are more conducive to the satisfaction of basic psychological needs.

  8. The Bitter Truth About Sugar and Willpower: The Limited Evidential Value of the Glucose Model of Ego Depletion.

    PubMed

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Gold, Natalie; Osman, Magda

    2016-09-01

    The idea behind ego depletion is that willpower draws on a limited mental resource, so that engaging in an act of self-control impairs self-control in subsequent tasks. To present ego depletion as more than a convenient metaphor, some researchers have proposed that glucose is the limited resource that becomes depleted with self-control. However, there have been theoretical challenges to the proposed glucose mechanism, and the experiments that have tested it have found mixed results. We used a new meta-analytic tool, p-curve analysis, to examine the reliability of the evidence from these experiments. We found that the effect sizes reported in this literature are possibly influenced by publication or reporting bias and that, even within studies yielding significant results, the evidential value of this research is weak. In light of these results, and pending further evidence, researchers and policymakers should refrain from drawing any conclusions about the role of glucose in self-control. PMID:27485134

  9. Frontally placed eyes versus laterally placed eyes: computational comparison of their functions for ego-motion estimation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhi; Wang, Pengfei; Zhai, Ruifang; Tang, Yazhe

    2016-04-01

    Both frontally placed eyes and laterally placed eyes are popular in nature, and although which one is better could be one of the most intuitive questions to ask, it could also be the hardest question to answer. Their most obvious difference is that, at least as supposed in the computer vision community, stereopsis plays the central role in the visual system composed of frontally placed eyes (or cameras); however, it is not available in the lateral configuration due to the lack of overlap between the visual fields. As a result, researchers have adopted completely different approaches to model the two configurations and developed computational mimics of them to address various vision problems. Recently, the advent of novel quasi-parallax conception unifies the ego-motion estimation procedure of these two eye configurations into the same framework and makes systematic comparison feasible. In this paper, we intend to establish the computational superiority of eye topography from the perspective of ego-motion estimation. Specifically, quasi-parallax is applied to fuse motion cues from individual cameras at an early stage, at the pixel level, and to recover the translation and rotation separately with high accuracy and efficiency without the need of feature matching. Furthermore, its applicability on the extended sideways arrangements is studied successfully to make our comparison more general and insightful. Extensive experiments on both synthetic and real data have been done, and the computational superiority of the lateral configuration is verified.

  10. Ego depletion interferes with rule-defined category learning but not non-rule-defined category learning

    PubMed Central

    Minda, John P.; Rabi, Rahel

    2015-01-01

    Considerable research on category learning has suggested that many cognitive and environmental factors can have a differential effect on the learning of rule-defined (RD) categories as opposed to the learning of non-rule-defined (NRD) categories. Prior research has also suggested that ego depletion can temporarily reduce the capacity for executive functioning and cognitive flexibility. The present study examined whether temporarily reducing participants’ executive functioning via a resource depletion manipulation would differentially impact RD and NRD category learning. Participants were either asked to write a story with no restrictions (the control condition), or without using two common letters (the ego depletion condition). Participants were then asked to learn either a set of RD categories or a set of NRD categories. Resource depleted participants performed more poorly than controls on the RD task, but did not differ from controls on the NRD task, suggesting that self regulatory resources are required for successful RD category learning. These results lend support to multiple systems theories and clarify the role of self-regulatory resources within this theory. PMID:25688220

  11. Green nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoff B.

    2011-10-01

    Nanotechnology, in particular nanophotonics, is proving essential to achieving green outcomes of sustainability and renewable energy at the scales needed. Coatings, composites and polymeric structures used in windows, roof and wall coatings, energy storage, insulation and other components in energy efficient buildings will increasingly involve nanostructure, as will solar cells. Nanostructures have the potential to revolutionize thermoelectric power and may one day provide efficient refrigerant free cooling. Nanomaterials enable optimization of optical, opto-electrical and thermal responses to this urgent task. Optical harmonization of material responses to environmental energy flows involves (i) large changes in spectral response over limited wavelength bands (ii) tailoring to environmental dynamics. The latter includes engineering angle of incidence dependencies and switchable (or chromogenic) responses. Nanomaterials can be made at sufficient scale and low enough cost to be both economic and to have a high impact on a short time scale. Issues to be addressed include human safety and property changes induced during manufacture, handling and outdoor use. Unexpected bonuses have arisen in this work, for example the savings and environmental benefits of cool roofs extend beyond the more obvious benefit of reduced heat flows from the roof into the building.

  12. Trusted Objects

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  13. Leadership in Two Worlds: Operating in Disparate Realms, One that Pushes Ego and Ambition, the Other that Promotes Personal Values and Principled Acts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goens, George A.

    2011-01-01

    People live in two worlds. The first is the external world of competition, ego, ambition and power. Here they chase the brass ring of success through control and standardized procedures designed to stave off failure. In this context, leaders face politics, conflicting expectations and bottom-line metrics. But in quiet moments of solitude, these…

  14. The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire: Testing for Measurement Invariance and Latent Mean Differences in Spanish and Portuguese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Isabel; Tomas, Ines; Balaguer, Isabel; Fonseca, Antonio M.; Dias, Claudia; Duda, Joan L.

    2010-01-01

    Within the theoretical framework of achievement goals (Nicholls, 1989), Duda and Nicholls (see Duda, 1989; Duda & Whitehead, 1998) developed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) to assess individual differences in achievement goal orientations. This study searches for validity evidence of the TEOSQ in the case of Spanish…

  15. Infusing the School Counseling Internship with a Global Perspective to Promote Ego Development, Moral Reasoning, and Ethnocultural Empathy: A Deliberate Psychological Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Derek Lane

    2013-01-01

    This study utilized a quasi-experimental, pre and posttest, comparison group design to determine the effects of a semester long deliberate psychological education (DPE), infused with a global perspective to promote ego development, moral reasoning and ethnocultural empathy in an intervention group composed of school counseling interns. The…

  16. Teaching psychotherapy. Learning objectives in individual psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Watters, W W; Rubenstein, J S; Bellissimo, A

    1980-03-01

    This paper constitutes an initial attempt to establish specific end-point objectives for the teaching (and learning) of individual psychotherapy skills. A working framework for teaching psychotherapy, which includes intrapsychic as well as interactional phenomena, is articulated. The framework also tries to achieve an integration of basic concepts of psychotherapy and specific skills for clinical practice. It draws on concepts derived from communication theory, psychoanalytic theory, adaptational theory (ego theory), learning theory, and transactional theory. In presenting these objectives three classes of skills are articulated: perceptual, conceptual, and executive. The end-point objectives are discribed for the following categories: 1) therapeutic stance, 2) history and mental status, 3) models and concepts, 4) communication channels, 5) patient's affect, 6) therapist's affect, 7) acceptance of affect, 8) interpretation, 9) transactions and 10) reinforcement and adaptation. This framework is truly eclectic in nature and effects a healthy compromise between the technique oriented "ABC's of psychotherapy" school and proponents of the view that psychotherapy is an art that cannot be taught. By drawing from more than one model it encourages the student to recognize early the distinction between theoretical formulation and ideological commitment in psychotherapy. It presents these objectives in the form of an instrument that can, with continuous refinement and testing, be used to evaluate student's progress in a psychotherapy training program.

  17. Ego depletion--is it all in your head? implicit theories about willpower affect self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Job, Veronika; Dweck, Carol S; Walton, Gregory M

    2010-11-01

    Much recent research suggests that willpower--the capacity to exert self-control--is a limited resource that is depleted after exertion. We propose that whether depletion takes place or not depends on a person's belief about whether willpower is a limited resource. Study 1 found that individual differences in lay theories about willpower moderate ego-depletion effects: People who viewed the capacity for self-control as not limited did not show diminished self-control after a depleting experience. Study 2 replicated the effect, manipulating lay theories about willpower. Study 3 addressed questions about the mechanism underlying the effect. Study 4, a longitudinal field study, found that theories about willpower predict change in eating behavior, procrastination, and self-regulated goal striving in depleting circumstances. Taken together, the findings suggest that reduced self-control after a depleting task or during demanding periods may reflect people's beliefs about the availability of willpower rather than true resource depletion. PMID:20876879

  18. Brief report: the Ego Identity Process Questionnaire: factor structure, reliability, and convergent validity in Dutch-speaking late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Luc; Beyers, Wim; Soenens, Bart

    2006-02-01

    The reliability and validity of a Dutch version of the Ego Identity Process Questionnaire (EIPQ) were evaluated. In Study 1, the instrument was found to exhibit a clear factor structure and acceptable reliability. Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis, both a model with two process factors (Commitment, Exploration) and a model with four content factors (Ideological Commitment, Ideological Exploration, Interpersonal Commitment, Interpersonal Exploration) evidenced a good fit once direction of wording was taken into account. In Study 2, moderate convergence was observed between Commitment and Exploration, and continuous measures of identity statuses and identity styles. The results of both studies combined indicated that the Dutch version of the EIPQ may be recommended as a research tool with college students.

  19. Ego depletion--is it all in your head? implicit theories about willpower affect self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Job, Veronika; Dweck, Carol S; Walton, Gregory M

    2010-11-01

    Much recent research suggests that willpower--the capacity to exert self-control--is a limited resource that is depleted after exertion. We propose that whether depletion takes place or not depends on a person's belief about whether willpower is a limited resource. Study 1 found that individual differences in lay theories about willpower moderate ego-depletion effects: People who viewed the capacity for self-control as not limited did not show diminished self-control after a depleting experience. Study 2 replicated the effect, manipulating lay theories about willpower. Study 3 addressed questions about the mechanism underlying the effect. Study 4, a longitudinal field study, found that theories about willpower predict change in eating behavior, procrastination, and self-regulated goal striving in depleting circumstances. Taken together, the findings suggest that reduced self-control after a depleting task or during demanding periods may reflect people's beliefs about the availability of willpower rather than true resource depletion.

  20. Ego depletion in color priming research: self-control strength moderates the detrimental effect of red on cognitive test performance.

    PubMed

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F; Englert, Chris; Furley, Philip

    2015-03-01

    Colors have been found to affect psychological functioning. Empirical evidence suggests that, in test situations, brief perceptions of the color red or even the word "red" printed in black ink prime implicit anxious responses and consequently impair cognitive performance. However, we propose that this red effect depends on people's momentary capacity to exert control over their prepotent responses (i.e., self-control). In three experiments (Ns = 66, 78, and 130), first participants' self-control strength was manipulated. Participants were then primed with the color or word red versus gray prior to completing an arithmetic test or an intelligence test. As expected, self-control strength moderated the red effect. While red had a detrimental effect on performance of participants with depleted self-control strength (ego depletion), it did not affect performance of participants with intact self-control strength. We discuss implications of the present findings within the current debate on the robustness of priming results. PMID:25567999

  1. The effects of self-esteem and ego threat on interpersonal appraisals of men and women: a naturalistic study.

    PubMed

    Vohs, Kathleen D; Heatherton, Todd F

    2003-11-01

    A naturalistic study examined the effects of self-esteem and threats to the self on interpersonal appraisals. Self-esteem scores, ego threat (operationalized as a substantial decrease in self-esteem across an average of 9 months), and their interaction were used to predict likability and personality perceptions of college men and women. The results revealed a curvilinear function explaining likability: Moderate to low self-esteem men and women were higher in likability when threatened, whereas high self-esteem men were seen as less likable when threatened. Personality ratings indicated that high self-esteem men and women who were threatened were rated highest on Antagonism (i.e., fake, arrogant, unfriendly, rude, and uncooperative). Mediational analyses revealed that differences in Antagonism statistically accounted for differences in likability. These patterns are interpreted with respect to gender and time in interpersonal perceptions as well as naturalistic versus laboratory investigations.

  2. When ethical leader behavior breaks bad: How ethical leader behavior can turn abusive via ego depletion and moral licensing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Szu-Han Joanna; Ma, Jingjing; Johnson, Russell E

    2016-06-01

    The literature to date has predominantly focused on the benefits of ethical leader behaviors for recipients (e.g., employees and teams). Adopting an actor-centric perspective, in this study we examined whether exhibiting ethical leader behaviors may come at some cost to leaders. Drawing from ego depletion and moral licensing theories, we explored the potential challenges of ethical leader behavior for actors. Across 2 studies which employed multiwave designs that tracked behaviors over consecutive days, we found that leaders' displays of ethical behavior were positively associated with increases in abusive behavior the following day. This association was mediated by increases in depletion and moral credits owing to their earlier displays of ethical behavior. These results suggest that attention is needed to balance the benefits of ethical leader behaviors for recipients against the challenges that such behaviors pose for actors, which include feelings of mental fatigue and psychological license and ultimately abusive interpersonal behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Utilizing hypnosis and ego-state therapy to facilitate healthy adaptive differentiation in the treatment of sexual disorders.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Much of the literature focuses on the pathology that falls to the far right of the Watkins (1997) differentiation-dissociation continuum, such as Dissociative Identity Disorder and Dissociative Disorder NOS. Adding a "far left" to this continuum, as well as a construct of what the "far left" looks like, makes apparent the value of healthy adaptive differentiation for those individuals that fall to the "far left" of the spectrum; those who don't differentiate enough. A discussion of sexual dysfunction at this end of the continuum and cases of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder and Vaginismus demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of an approach combining hypnosis and ego-state therapy to facilitate healthy adaptive differentiation.

  4. Use of an integrated approach to characterize the physicochemical properties of foundry green sands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fresh green sand, spent green sand, and a weathered spent green sand from a landfill were analyzed using diffractometry, electron microscopy, granulometry, spectrometry, and thermogravimetry. Our objective was to understand how the physicochemical properties of the green sands change from their o...

  5. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    The CAFE Green Flight Challenge sponsored by Google will be held at the CAFE Foundation Flight Test Center at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. The Green Flight Challeng...

  6. Blue-green algae

    MedlinePlus

    “Blue-green algae” describes a large and diverse group of simple, plant-like organisms found in salt water and some large fresh water lakes. Blue-green algae products are used for many conditions, but so ...

  7. What Is Green?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokrandt, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Green is a question with varying answers and sometimes no answer at all. It is a question of location, resources, people, environment, and money. As green really has no end point, a teacher's goal should be to teach students to question and consider green. In this article, the author provides several useful metrics to help technology teachers…

  8. Public Libraries Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Going green is now a national issue, and patrons expect their library to respond in the same way many corporations have. Libraries are going green with logos on their Web sites, programs for the public, and a host of other initiatives. This is the first book to focus strictly on the library's role in going green, helping you with: (1) Collection…

  9. Show Me the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Gone are the days when green campus initiatives were a balm to the soul and a drain on the wallet. Today's environmental initiatives are all about saving lots of green--in every sense of the word. The environmental benefits of green campus projects--whether wind turbines or better insulation--are pretty clear. Unfortunately, in today's…

  10. The Green Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  11. In the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Education officials used to debate whether they could afford to pursue green design and construction. Now the green movement has gained a foothold not just in education, but in society at large, and the prevailing attitude seems to have shifted. Can schools afford "not" to go green? As budgets are slashed repeatedly, education administrators must…

  12. EPA's Green Roof Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  13. Longitudinal assessment of autonomy and relatedness in adolescent-family interactions as predictors of adolescent ego development and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Allen, J P; Hauser, S T; Bell, K L; O'Connor, T G

    1994-02-01

    This study examined links between processes of establishing autonomy and relatedness in adolescent-family interactions and adolescents' psychosocial development. Adolescents in 2-parent families and their parents were observed in a revealed-differences interaction task when adolescents were 14, and adolescents' ego development and self-esteem were assessed at both 14 and 16. Developmental indices were strongly related to autonomy and relatedness displayed by both parents and adolescents. Significant variance was explained even after accounting for the number and quality of speeches of each family member as rated by a different, well-validated family coding system. Increases in adolescents' ego development and self-esteem over time were predicted by fathers' behaviors challenging adolescents' autonomy and relatedness, but only when these occurred in the context of fathers' overall display of autonomous-relatedness with the adolescent. The importance of the mutually negotiated process of adolescents' exploration from the secure base of parental relationships is discussed.

  14. Promoting green engineering through green chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kirchhoff, Mary M

    2003-12-01

    The decisions made by chemists in designing chemical products and processes directly impactthe options available to engineers. The physical and chemical properties of a material, for example, dictate the type of reactor that must be used in a given process. The task of the engineer is simplified when chemists design products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. Green chemistry provides a foundation on which to build green engineering. This paper highlights green chemistry technologies that minimize the need for engineering safeguards in the areas of feedstocks, reagents, solvents, and syntheses. PMID:14700319

  15. The default-mode, ego-functions and free-energy: a neurobiological account of Freudian ideas

    PubMed Central

    Friston, K. J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the notion that Freudian constructs may have neurobiological substrates. Specifically, we propose that Freud’s descriptions of the primary and secondary processes are consistent with self-organized activity in hierarchical cortical systems and that his descriptions of the ego are consistent with the functions of the default-mode and its reciprocal exchanges with subordinate brain systems. This neurobiological account rests on a view of the brain as a hierarchical inference or Helmholtz machine. In this view, large-scale intrinsic networks occupy supraordinate levels of hierarchical brain systems that try to optimize their representation of the sensorium. This optimization has been formulated as minimizing a free-energy; a process that is formally similar to the treatment of energy in Freudian formulations. We substantiate this synthesis by showing that Freud’s descriptions of the primary process are consistent with the phenomenology and neurophysiology of rapid eye movement sleep, the early and acute psychotic state, the aura of temporal lobe epilepsy and hallucinogenic drug states. PMID:20194141

  16. Eudaimonic growth: Narrative growth goals predict increases in ego development and subjective well-being 3 years later.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jack J; McAdams, Dan P

    2010-07-01

    We examine (a) the normative course of eudaimonic well-being in emerging adulthood and (b) whether people's narratives of major life goals might prospectively predict eudaimonic growth 3 years later. We define eudaimonic growth as longitudinal increases in eudaimonic well-being, which we define as the combination of psychosocial maturity and subjective well-being (SWB). College freshmen and seniors took measures of ego development (ED; to assess maturity; Loevinger, 1976) and SWB at Time 1 (T1) and again 3 years later (Time 2). ED levels increased longitudinally across that time for men and T1 freshmen, but SWB levels did not change. Participants also wrote narratives of 2 major life goals at T1 that were coded for an explicit emphasis on specific kinds of personal growth. Participants' intellectual-growth goals (especially agentic ones) predicted increases in ED 3 years later, whereas participants' socioemotional-growth goals (especially communal ones) predicted increases in SWB 3 years later. These findings were independent of the effects of Big Five personality traits-notably conscientiousness, which on its own predicted increases in SWB. We discuss (a) emerging adulthood as the last stop for normative eudaimonic growth in modern society and (b) empirical and theoretical issues surrounding the relations among narrative identity, life planning, dispositional traits, eudaimonia, and 2 paths of personal growth.

  17. Panic-fear in asthma. Symptomatology as an index of signal anxiety and personality as an index of ego resources.

    PubMed

    Dirks, J F; Kinsman, R A; Staudenmayer, H; Kleiger, J H

    1979-10-01

    Clinical observations and studies of asthmatic patients have often concluded that therre is a strong relationship between the degree of the patient's anxiety and the medical intractability of his illness. However, psychotherapeutic interventions designed to alleviate patient anxiety have been noticeably inconsistent in achieving meaningful alleviation of the patient's asthma. The present paper addresses this apparent paradox by positing the existence of two types of anxiety: a) asthma-specific anxiety, as indexed by Panic-Fear symptomatology scores of the Asthma Symptom Checklist; and b) characterological and pervasive anxiety, as indexed by Panic-Fear personality scores of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. In this study, long term medical outcome was found to be influenced by the combination of these types of anxiety. Wehn high asthma-specific anxiety coexisted with high characterological anxiety, medical outcome following intensive long term medical treatment was exceptionally poor. In contrast, when high asthma-specific anxiety coexisted with average levels of characterological anxiety, medical outcome was exceptionally good. These results are discussed relative to the theoretical distinctions between signal anxiety and anxiety concomitant with a lack of basic ego resources.

  18. Green Power Marketing Abroad: Recent Experience and Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Wustenhagen, R.; Aabakken, J.

    2002-04-01

    Green power marketing--the act of differentially selling electricity generated wholly or in part from renewable sources--has emerged in more than a dozen countries around the world. This report reviews green power marketing activity abroad to gain additional perspective on consumer demand and to discern key factors or policies that affect the development of green power markets. The objective is to draw lessons from experience in other countries that could be applicable to the U.S. market.

  19. Optical variability of extragalactic objects used to tie the HIPPARCOS reference frame to an extragalactic system using Hubble space telescope observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozyan, Elizabeth P.; Hemenway, Paul D.; Argue, A. Noel

    1990-01-01

    Observations of a set of 89 extragalactic objects (EGOs) will be made with the Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensors and Planetary Camera in order to link the HIPPARCOS Instrumental System to an extragalactic coordinate system. Most of the sources chosen for observation contain compact radio sources and stellarlike nuclei; 65 percent are optical variables beyond a 0.2 mag limit. To ensure proper exposure times, accurate mean magnitudes are necessary. In many cases, the average magnitudes listed in the literature were not adequate. The literature was searched for all relevant photometric information for the EGOs, and photometric parameters were derived, including mean magnitude, maximum range, and timescale of variability. This paper presents the results of that search and the parameters derived. The results will allow exposure times to be estimated such that an observed magnitude different from the tabular magnitude by 0.5 mag in either direction will not degrade the astrometric centering ability on a Planetary Camera CCD frame.

  20. Green Cleaning Label Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  1. Lighting: Green Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniccia, Dorine

    2003-01-01

    Explains that by using sustainable (green) building practices, schools and universities can make their lighting systems more efficient, noting that embracing green design principles can help schools attract students. Discusses lighting-control technologies (occupancy sensing technology, daylighting technology, and scheduling based technologies),…

  2. Greening the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Norma Velia

    2011-01-01

    Because educators vicariously touch the future through their students, the author believes that they sometimes have the uncanny ability to see the future. One common future forecast is the phenomenal growth of green jobs in the emerging green economy, leading to the creation of the "Reach of the Sun" Solar Energy Academy at La Mirada High School…

  3. Green Infrastructure 101

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure 101 • What is it? What does it do? What doesn’t it do? • Green Infrastructure as a stormwater and combined sewer control • GI Controls and Best Management Practices that make sense for Yonkers o (Include operations and maintenance requirements for each)

  4. 10 Paths to Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Some institutions may feel comfortable with a few baby steps into the green world, while others may be ready to commit totally to environmental consciousness. Here, the author discusses 10 areas in which educators and administrators can beef up their green portfolio. These areas are in: alternative fuel, bikes/walking, water, education tools,…

  5. Custodial Operations: Green & Sustainable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, J. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Custodial Operations can have a significant impact on institutional green and sustainable goals if given the proper support and challenge. This article describes the green and sustainable custodial operations in place at Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota. The article reviews the college's sustainable efforts on biodegradables, packaging,…

  6. Green Building Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sailor, David Jean

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  7. Sowing Green Seeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yingjun, Chen; Jianzhuang, Rong

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with the development of environmental education Hunan Yueyang Middle School Number One. Famous for its beautiful environment and lush green trees, the school has won titles such as "park" unit, "garden" school, "green school" and "National Advanced Unit for Environmental Education." In order to popularize scientific knowledge of…

  8. Green Chemistry and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  9. The Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huke, Robert E.

    1985-01-01

    Modern agriculture's green revolution refers to a complex package that includes improved seeds and a wide range of efficient management practices. The genetic history of and technological developments that led to the green revolution are described, and its impact discussed. (RM)

  10. A Green Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravitz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In the professional cleaning industry, green cleaning has been much discussed in the past few years. Usually, the information pertains to the many reasons why a green cleaning program should be started, the steps involved to get the program off the ground, and the potential benefits. However, although many facility managers and school…

  11. Green tea in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Pazyar, Nader; Feily, Amir; Kazerouni, Afshin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this brief review is to summarize all in vitro, in vivo, and controlled clinical trials on green tea preparations and their uses in dermatology. An extensive literature search was carried out to identify in vivo and in vitro studies as well as clinical trials. Twenty studies were assessed and the results suggest that oral administration of green tea can be effective in the scavenging of free radicals, cancer prevention, hair loss, and skin aging plus protection against the adverse effects associated with psoralen-UV-A therapy. Topical application of green tea extract should be potentially effective for atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, rosacea, androgenetic alopecia, hirsutism, keloids, genital warts, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and candidiosis. There are promising results with the use of green tea for several dermatologic conditions; however, the efficacy of oral and topical green tea has not always been confirmed. PMID:23346663

  12. Green tea in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Pazyar, Nader; Feily, Amir; Kazerouni, Afshin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this brief review is to summarize all in vitro, in vivo, and controlled clinical trials on green tea preparations and their uses in dermatology. An extensive literature search was carried out to identify in vivo and in vitro studies as well as clinical trials. Twenty studies were assessed and the results suggest that oral administration of green tea can be effective in the scavenging of free radicals, cancer prevention, hair loss, and skin aging plus protection against the adverse effects associated with psoralen-UV-A therapy. Topical application of green tea extract should be potentially effective for atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, rosacea, androgenetic alopecia, hirsutism, keloids, genital warts, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and candidiosis. There are promising results with the use of green tea for several dermatologic conditions; however, the efficacy of oral and topical green tea has not always been confirmed.

  13. Building the green way.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  14. Creeping bentgrass putting green response to foliar nitrogen fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ABSTRACT In 2009 and 2010, three independent fertility trials were conducted on a putting green (PG) managed within the Pennsylvania State University Joseph Valentine Turfgrass Research Center (University Park, PA). The objective was to identify Penn A-1/A-4 creeping bentgrass putting green quality ...

  15. Coprecipitation of Arsenate and Arsenite with Green Rust Minerals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the extent and nature of arsenic co-precipitation with green rusts and to examine the influence of arsenic incorporation on the mineralogy of formed solid phases. Stoichiometric green rusts were obtained by coprecipitation of fe...

  16. Going Green: Greening Your Marketing Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Carol Anne

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt that the "Going Green" movement is in full swing. With global warming and other ecological concerns, people are paying closer attention to environmental issues and striving to live in a more sustainable world. For libraries, this is a perfect opportunity to be active in a campus-wide program and simultaneously promote library…

  17. Collection Development "Green Business": The Green Capitalist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The "greening" of corporate behemoths like Wal-Mart, DuPont, and Toyota has received much media attention in recent years. But consider small businesses: according to the U.S. Small Business Administration, of the estimated 27 million firms in the United States, 99.7 percent have fewer than 500 employees, 97.5 percent have fewer than 20, and more…

  18. Moving Object Detection on a Vehicle Mounted Back-Up Camera

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Sun; Kwon, Jinsan

    2015-01-01

    In the detection of moving objects from vision sources one usually assumes that the scene has been captured by stationary cameras. In case of backing up a vehicle, however, the camera mounted on the vehicle moves according to the vehicle’s movement, resulting in ego-motions on the background. This results in mixed motion in the scene, and makes it difficult to distinguish between the target objects and background motions. Without further treatments on the mixed motion, traditional fixed-viewpoint object detection methods will lead to many false-positive detection results. In this paper, we suggest a procedure to be used with the traditional moving object detection methods relaxing the stationary cameras restriction, by introducing additional steps before and after the detection. We also decribe the implementation as a FPGA platform along with the algorithm. The target application of this suggestion is use with a road vehicle’s rear-view camera systems. PMID:26712761

  19. Moving Object Detection on a Vehicle Mounted Back-Up Camera.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Sun; Kwon, Jinsan

    2015-01-01

    In the detection of moving objects from vision sources one usually assumes that the scene has been captured by stationary cameras. In case of backing up a vehicle, however, the camera mounted on the vehicle moves according to the vehicle's movement, resulting in ego-motions on the background. This results in mixed motion in the scene, and makes it difficult to distinguish between the target objects and background motions. Without further treatments on the mixed motion, traditional fixed-viewpoint object detection methods will lead to many false-positive detection results. In this paper, we suggest a procedure to be used with the traditional moving object detection methods relaxing the stationary cameras restriction, by introducing additional steps before and after the detection. We also decribe the implementation as a FPGA platform along with the algorithm. The target application of this suggestion is use with a road vehicle's rear-view camera systems. PMID:26712761

  20. [Cognitive ego-disturbances in the elderly who have become victims of organized violence].

    PubMed

    Schreuder, B J

    1999-08-01

    It is not easy to diagnose the sequelae of organized violence as they might become manifest at older age. The concept of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) gives to little to hang on. A more specific diagnosis such as the DESNOS (Disorders of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified) which was proposed for (but not included in) the DSM IV is lacking. In the ICD-10 we find the diagnosis "Durable personality changes after catastrofic experiences" based on five global criteria which are not validated yet. From a clinical point of view there is a need for a testable and operational concept of the enduring posttraumatic personality changes. The concept of the posttraumatic self disorder is chosen here. It consists of disorders of the physical self, the object relational self and the historical self. In this article the historical self is described in more detail. Different empirical findings are discussed to illustrate that experience of one's own life history might be disturbed after having been submitted to organized violence. This can lead to serious complaints and functional psychological interferences. Self disorders are part of these late and durable posttraumatic phenomenology.

  1. White is green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glicksman, Hal

    1998-12-01

    Green is the center of the visible spectrum and the hue to which we are most sensitive. In RGB color, green is 60 percent of white. When we look through a prism at a white square, as Goethe did, we see white between yellow and cyan, just where green appears in the spectrum of Newton. Additional arguments were published previously and appear at www.csulb.edu/-percept, along with the Percept color chart of the hue/value relationships. A new argument, derived from the perception of leaves, is presented here. The Percept color chart transformed into a color wheel is also presented.

  2. Green Light Pulse Oximeter

    DOEpatents

    Scharf, John Edward

    1998-11-03

    A reflectance pulse oximeter that determines oxygen saturation of hemoglobin using two sources of electromagnetic radiation in the green optical region, which provides the maximum reflectance pulsation spectrum. The use of green light allows placement of an oximetry probe at central body sites (e.g., wrist, thigh, abdomen, forehead, scalp, and back). Preferably, the two green light sources alternately emit light at 560 nm and 577 nm, respectively, which gives the biggest difference in hemoglobin extinction coefficients between deoxyhemoglobin, RHb, and oxyhemoglobin, HbO.sub.2.

  3. Green Infrastructure Research at EPA's Edison Environmental Center

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation outline includes: (1) Green infrastructure research objectives (2) Introduction to ongoing research projects - Aspects of design, construction, and maintenence that affect function - Real-world applications of GI research

  4. Green Supercomputing at Argonne

    SciTech Connect

    Pete Beckman

    2009-11-18

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) talks about Argonne National Laboratory's green supercomputing—everything from designing algorithms to use fewer kilowatts per operation to using cold Chicago winter air to cool the machine more efficiently.

  5. No More Green Thumbs!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Judith A.

    1977-01-01

    An alternative method of bacterial spore staining using malachite green is described. This technique is designed to save time and expense by a less messy procedure. Advantages and adaptations of the technique are also given. (MR)

  6. Expanding the Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, John W.; Riely, Frank Z.

    1989-01-01

    Described are some of the successes of the Green Revolution in third-world nations. Discussed are research priorities; misconceptions; and improvements in management skills, training and education, infrastructure, and international trade. (CW)

  7. Green Space Attachment and Health: A Comparative Study in Two Urban Neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; van Dijk, Terry; Tang, Jianjun; van den Berg, Agnes E

    2015-11-01

    The positive relationships between urban green space and health have been well documented. Little is known, however, about the role of residents' emotional attachment to local green spaces in these relationships, and how attachment to green spaces and health may be promoted by the availability of accessible and usable green spaces. The present research aimed to examine the links between self-reported health, attachment to green space, and the availability of accessible and usable green spaces. Data were collected via paper-mailed surveys in two neighborhoods (n = 223) of a medium-sized Dutch city in the Netherlands. These neighborhoods differ in the perceived and objectively measured accessibility and usability of green spaces, but are matched in the physically available amount of urban green space, as well as in demographic and socio-economic status, and housing conditions. Four dimensions of green space attachment were identified through confirmatory factor analysis: place dependence, affective attachment, place identity and social bonding. The results show greater attachment to local green space and better self-reported mental health in the neighborhood with higher availability of accessible and usable green spaces. The two neighborhoods did not differ, however, in physical and general health. Structural Equation Modelling confirmed the neighborhood differences in green space attachment and mental health, and also revealed a positive path from green space attachment to mental health. These findings convey the message that we should make green places, instead of green spaces.

  8. Green Space Attachment and Health: A Comparative Study in Two Urban Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; van Dijk, Terry; Tang, Jianjun; van den Berg, Agnes E.

    2015-01-01

    The positive relationships between urban green space and health have been well documented. Little is known, however, about the role of residents’ emotional attachment to local green spaces in these relationships, and how attachment to green spaces and health may be promoted by the availability of accessible and usable green spaces. The present research aimed to examine the links between self-reported health, attachment to green space, and the availability of accessible and usable green spaces. Data were collected via paper-mailed surveys in two neighborhoods (n = 223) of a medium-sized Dutch city in the Netherlands. These neighborhoods differ in the perceived and objectively measured accessibility and usability of green spaces, but are matched in the physically available amount of urban green space, as well as in demographic and socio-economic status, and housing conditions. Four dimensions of green space attachment were identified through confirmatory factor analysis: place dependence, affective attachment, place identity and social bonding. The results show greater attachment to local green space and better self-reported mental health in the neighborhood with higher availability of accessible and usable green spaces. The two neighborhoods did not differ, however, in physical and general health. Structural Equation Modelling confirmed the neighborhood differences in green space attachment and mental health, and also revealed a positive path from green space attachment to mental health. These findings convey the message that we should make green places, instead of green spaces. PMID:26569280

  9. Green Space Attachment and Health: A Comparative Study in Two Urban Neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; van Dijk, Terry; Tang, Jianjun; van den Berg, Agnes E

    2015-11-01

    The positive relationships between urban green space and health have been well documented. Little is known, however, about the role of residents' emotional attachment to local green spaces in these relationships, and how attachment to green spaces and health may be promoted by the availability of accessible and usable green spaces. The present research aimed to examine the links between self-reported health, attachment to green space, and the availability of accessible and usable green spaces. Data were collected via paper-mailed surveys in two neighborhoods (n = 223) of a medium-sized Dutch city in the Netherlands. These neighborhoods differ in the perceived and objectively measured accessibility and usability of green spaces, but are matched in the physically available amount of urban green space, as well as in demographic and socio-economic status, and housing conditions. Four dimensions of green space attachment were identified through confirmatory factor analysis: place dependence, affective attachment, place identity and social bonding. The results show greater attachment to local green space and better self-reported mental health in the neighborhood with higher availability of accessible and usable green spaces. The two neighborhoods did not differ, however, in physical and general health. Structural Equation Modelling confirmed the neighborhood differences in green space attachment and mental health, and also revealed a positive path from green space attachment to mental health. These findings convey the message that we should make green places, instead of green spaces. PMID:26569280

  10. High Performance Green LEDs by Homoepitaxial

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, Christian; Schubert, E Fred

    2009-11-22

    This work's objective was the development of processes to double or triple the light output power from green and deep green (525 - 555 nm) AlGaInN light emitting diode (LED) dies within 3 years in reference to the Lumileds Luxeon II. The project paid particular effort to all aspects of the internal generation efficiency of light. LEDs in this spectral region show the highest potential for significant performance boosts and enable the realization of phosphor-free white LEDs comprised by red-green-blue LED modules. Such modules will perform at and outperform the efficacy target projections for white-light LED systems in the Department of Energy's accelerated roadmap of the SSL initiative.

  11. Transpersonalism: Ego Meets Soul.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohl, James E.

    1998-01-01

    The transpersonal approach has emerged from mainstream psychology to address the effects of spirituality and consciousness on personal transformation and health, and to explore optimal levels of human functioning. This article provides an overview of the historical development, scientific basis, philosophical stance, theoretical principles, and…

  12. Early Adolescent Ego Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the theoretical characteristics of social identity in early adolescence (ages 10 to 15). It is suggested that no longer is identity thought to begin with adolescence, but may have its beginnings in the preteen years. The article draws heavily on Eriksonian concepts. (Editor/KC)

  13. Green surgical practices for health care.

    PubMed

    Kwakye, Gifty; Brat, Gabriel A; Makary, Martin A

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to identify leading practices to promote environmentally friendly and efficient efforts in the provision of surgical health care. Health care is the second leading contributor to waste in the United States. Despite widespread enthusiasm for "going green" in the US economy, little substantive information is available to the medical community, to our knowledge. We explore safe and efficient strategies for hospitals and providers to protect the environment while delivering high-quality care. We performed a systematic review of the literature using relevant PubMed search terms and surveyed a panel of hospital managers and chief executive officers of health care organizations pursuing green initiatives. Recommendations were itemized and reviewed by a 7-member panel to generate a consensus agreement. We identified 43 published articles and used interview data from the panel. The following 5 green recommendations for surgical practices were identified: operating room waste reduction and segregation, reprocessing of single-use medical devices, environmentally preferable purchasing, energy consumption management, and pharmaceutical waste management. The medical community has a large opportunity to implement green practices in surgical units. These practices can provide significant benefits to the health care community and to the environment. Additional research and advocacy are needed to further explore green practices in health care.

  14. Green Clay Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velde, B.

    2003-12-01

    Color is a problem for scientific study. One aspect is the vocabulary one used to describe color. Mint green, bottle green, and Kelly green are nice names but not of great utility in that people's physical perception of color is not always the same. In some industries, such as colored fabric manufacture, current use is to send a set of standard colors which are matched by the producer. This is similar to the use of the Munsell color charts in geology. None of these processes makes use of physical optical spectral studies. The reason is that they are difficult to obtain and interpret. For a geologist, color is very important but we rarely have the possibility to standardize the method of our color perception. One reason is that color is both a reflective and transmission phenomenon. The thickness of the sample is critical to any transmission characteristics. Hence, a field color determination is different from one made by using a petrographic microscope. Green glauconite in a hand specimen is not the same color in 30 μm thick thin section seen with a microscope using transmitted light.A second problem is that color in a spectral identification is the result of several absorption emissions,with overlapping signal, forming a complicated spectrum. Interpretation depends very greatly on the spectrum of the light source and the conditions of transmission-reflection of the sample. As a result, for this text, we will not attempt to analyze the physical aspect of green in green clays. In the discussion which follows, reference is made concerning color, to thin section microscopic perception.Very briefly, green clay minerals are green, because they contain iron. This is perhaps not a great revelation to mineralogists, but it is the key to understanding the origin and stability of green clay minerals. In fact, iron can color minerals either red or green or in various shades of orange and brown. The color most likely depends upon the relative abundance of the iron ion valence

  15. Green roof valuation: a probabilistic economic analysis of environmental benefits.

    PubMed

    Clark, Corrie; Adriaens, Peter; Talbot, F Brian

    2008-03-15

    Green (vegetated) roofs have gained global acceptance as a technologythat has the potential to help mitigate the multifaceted, complex environmental problems of urban centers. While policies that encourage green roofs exist atthe local and regional level, installation costs remain at a premium and deter investment in this technology. The objective of this paper is to quantitatively integrate the range of stormwater, energy, and air pollution benefits of green roofs into an economic model that captures the building-specific scale. Currently, green roofs are primarily valued on increased roof longevity, reduced stormwater runoff, and decreased building energy consumption. Proper valuation of these benefits can reduce the present value of a green roof if investors look beyond the upfront capital costs. Net present value (NPV) analysis comparing a conventional roof system to an extensive green roof system demonstrates that at the end of the green roof lifetime the NPV for the green roof is between 20.3 and 25.2% less than the NPV for the conventional roof over 40 years. The additional upfront investment is recovered at the time when a conventional roof would be replaced. Increasing evidence suggests that green roofs may play a significant role in urban air quality improvement For example, uptake of N0x is estimated to range from $1683 to $6383 per metric ton of NOx reduction. These benefits were included in this study, and results translate to an annual benefit of $895-3392 for a 2000 square meter vegetated roof. Improved air quality leads to a mean NPV for the green roof that is 24.5-40.2% less than the mean conventional roof NPV. Through innovative policies, the inclusion of air pollution mitigation and the reduction of municipal stormwater infrastructure costs in economic valuation of environmental benefits of green roofs can reduce the cost gap that currently hinders U.S. investment in green roof technology.

  16. Green Logistics Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yoon S.; Oh, Chang H.

    Nowadays, environmental management becomes a critical business consideration for companies to survive from many regulations and tough business requirements. Most of world-leading companies are now aware that environment friendly technology and management are critical to the sustainable growth of the company. The environment market has seen continuous growth marking 532B in 2000, and 590B in 2004. This growth rate is expected to grow to 700B in 2010. It is not hard to see the environment-friendly efforts in almost all aspects of business operations. Such trends can be easily found in logistics area. Green logistics aims to make environmental friendly decisions throughout a product lifecycle. Therefore for the success of green logistics, it is critical to have real time tracking capability on the product throughout the product lifecycle and smart solution service architecture. In this chapter, we introduce an RFID based green logistics solution and service.

  17. Green Supercomputing at Argonne

    ScienceCinema

    Beckman, Pete

    2016-07-12

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) talks about Argonne National Laboratory's green supercomputing—everything from designing algorithms to use fewer kilowatts per operation to using cold Chicago winter air to cool the machine more efficiently. Argonne was recognized for green computing in the 2009 HPCwire Readers Choice Awards. More at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/news091117.html Read more about the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility at http://www.alcf.anl.gov/

  18. Apollo 15 green glasses.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, W. I.; Reid, A. M.; Warner, J. L.; Brown, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The samples analyzed include 28 spheres, portions of spheres, and angular fragments from soil 15101. Emerald green glasses from other soils are identical to those from 15101. The composition of the green glass is unlike that of any other major lunar glass group. The Fe content is comparable to that in mare basalts, but Ti is much lower. The Mg content is much higher than in most lunar materials analyzed to date, and the Cr content is also high. The low Al content is comparable to that of mare basalt glasses.

  19. Learning Object Repositories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This chapter looks at the development and nature of learning objects, meta-tagging standards and taxonomies, learning object repositories, learning object repository characteristics, and types of learning object repositories, with type examples. (Contains 1 table.)

  20. Object locating system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, J.L.; Petterson, B.

    1998-06-09

    A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object`s effect on electric fields. The object`s effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions. 12 figs.

  1. Object locating system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, James L.; Petterson, Ben

    1998-06-09

    A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object's effect on electric fields. The object's effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions.

  2. Raising a "Green Generation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leger-Ferraro, Susan

    2010-01-01

    These days, "going green" is at the forefront of conversation in political, entertainment, and corporate circles. Yet to truly impact change, future generations must carry the torch of transformation. To ensure success, adults need to begin the practices with the fertile minds of young children in early education. Practicing sustainability is not…

  3. News: Green Chemistry & Technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of 21 articles focused on different features of green chemistry in a recent issue of Chemical Reviews. Topics extended over a wide range to include the design of sustainable synthetic processes to biocatalysis. A selection of perspectives follows as part of this colu

  4. The Green Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnigen, Charlie

    2006-01-01

    As interest in green building grows, much discussion has focused on aligning a project with the principles of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification: (1) cost savings through energy and water conservation; (2) improved worker productivity; (3) health, insurance and risk-management benefits; and (4) enhanced building…

  5. The Green Obligation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Cameron

    2007-01-01

    As the green movement grows, studies provide conclusive evidence about the benefits of environmentally conscious practices indoors and outdoors. Schools are no exception. Many of these studies demonstrate how poor indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools adversely affects many of the nation's 55 million students with health problems such as asthma and…

  6. The Green Hunter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ed

    1991-01-01

    Environmentalists who oppose hunting have little understanding of the sport, its ethics and regulations, and its immense role in wildlife conservation. "Green" hunting involves not only the hunter's methods but also his perceptions of the hunt as a cultural or spiritual experience. (SV)

  7. Putting on the green

    EPA Science Inventory

    The green chemistry movement is scrutinized for marks of tangible success in this short perspective. Beginning with the easily identified harm of the Union Carbide Bhopal, India disaster and the concerns of Love Canal site in Niagara Falls, NY the public can begin to more easily ...

  8. Toward Green Challenge Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karl E.

    1999-01-01

    Designing environmentally friendly challenge courses involves considering factors such as clearing, trees versus poles, soil erosion and compaction, toilet design, waste disposal, and carrying capacity. Strategies used in "green development" such as systems thinking, solution multipliers, and brainstorming with stakeholders could promote challenge…

  9. Green Schools: Electric Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    A student committee whose main duty is changing light bulbs may sound like the punch line to a bad joke, but as the students and faculty at Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) in Rockville, MD, know, changing a light bulb is no laughing matter. As part of the district's green initiative, all standard incandescent and fluorescent light bulbs…

  10. Green Supercomputing at Argonne

    ScienceCinema

    Pete Beckman

    2016-07-12

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) talks about Argonne National Laboratory's green supercomputing—everything from designing algorithms to use fewer kilowatts per operation to using cold Chicago winter air to cool the machine more efficiently.

  11. The Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestage, R. M.; Constantikes, K. T.; Hunter, T. R.; King, L. J.; Lacasse, R. J.; Lockman, F. J.; Norrod, R. D.

    2009-08-01

    The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is the world's premiere single-dish radio telescope operating at centimeter to long millimeter wavelengths. This paper describes the history, construction, and main technical features of the telescope.

  12. Elements of Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turckes, Steven; Engelbrecht, Kathie

    2002-01-01

    Discusses incorporating green design into school construction, asserting that schools can improve their impact on the environment and reduce their operating costs while educating people about the value of sustainable design. Addresses energy reduction (including daylighting), site design for low environmental impact, flexible design, indoor air…

  13. Lean Green Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Colleges and universities have been among the leaders nationwide in adopting green initiatives, partly due to their demographics, but also because they are facing their own budget pressures. Virtualization has become the poster child of many schools' efforts, because it provides significant bang for the buck. However, more and more higher…

  14. Research University STEM Faculty Members' Motivation to Engage in Teaching Professional Development: Building the Choir Through an Appeal to Extrinsic Motivation and Ego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwma-Gearhart, Jana

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative, grounded-theory-based study that explored the motivations of science and engineering faculty to engage in teaching professional development at a major research university. Faculty members were motivated to engage in teaching professional development due to extrinsic motivations, mainly a weakened professional ego, and sought to bring their teaching identities in better concordance with their researcher identities. The results pose a challenge to a body of research that has concluded that faculty must be intrinsically motivated to participate in teaching professional development. Results confirmed a pre-espoused theory of motivation, self-determination theory; a discussion of research literature consideration during grounded theory research is offered. A framework for motivating more faculty members at research universities to engage in teaching professional development is provided.

  15. EPA NRMRL green Infrastructure research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure is an engineering approach to wet weather flow management that uses infiltration, evapotranspiration, capture and reuse to better mimic the natural drainage processes than traditional gray systems. Green technologies supplement gray infrastructure to red...

  16. Green tea: potential health benefits.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Craig; Segre, Tiffany

    2009-04-01

    Green tea has been used widely and in high doses for centuries as a health tonic in many societies. Evidence suggests that green tea is effective for treating genital warts. There is some supportive evidence for the use of green tea in cancer prevention. Drinking green tea is associated with a decrease in all-cause mortality, but not in cancer-related mortality. Small clinical studies have found that green tea may also be helpful in losing and managing weight, and lowering cholesterol. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that green tea may prevent stroke and cardiovascular disease. Green tea appears to be safe, although there have been case reports of hepatotoxicity possibly related to a specific extract in pill or beverage form. Green tea seems to be a low-risk complementary therapy for a number of conditions, but more studies are needed.

  17. The green highway forum

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    In late 2004, as part of American Coal Ash Association's (ACAA) strategic planning process, a plan was approved by its Board of Directors implementing a 'green highways' concept which emphasized use of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highways in a variety of ways including being used alone, in combination with other forms of CCPs, and combined with non ash materials. The incentives behind the developed concept were the derived advantages from beneficial technical economic and environmental impacts. Although the primary use of fly ash is concrete, other forms of CCPs could be considered for more non-traditional highway applications. For example, these might include soils stabilization, binders for in-place pavement recycling, use in flowable fills, aggregates, source materials for structural fills and embankments, components in manufactured soils, and for granular base courses beneath pavements. At this same time, unknown to ACCA, EPA Region 3 in Philadelphia was working with the Wetlands and Watershed Work Group, a non-profit organization involved in wetlands policy and management along with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) on their own Green Highways initiative. These groups were planning a conference, the 'Green Highway Forum'. This was held in College Park, Maryland at the University of Maryland, Nov 8-10 2005. At the conference a draft 'roadmap' was presented as a guide to executive level participants bringing the diverse viewpoints of many agencies and interest groups together. Ten guiding principals were considered. The 'Green Highways' is a new effort to recognize the 'greenness' of many projects already completed and those to be initiated. 2 photos.

  18. "Green" School Programs. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, J. Howard

    2009-01-01

    What are "Green School" programs and how do they benefit students, teachers and the community? Green School programs seek to weave concepts of sustainability and environmental awareness into the social and academic culture of the school community. Green schools are high performance facilities that have been designed, built, renovated operated or…

  19. It's Not Easy Building Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Discusses green buildings, facilities designed, constructed, and operated in an environmentally friendly and resource-efficient way. Discusses reasons for campuses to "go green," the "shades of green" or variations in environmental-friendliness, certification through the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system, financial…

  20. Green Roofs for Stormwater Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Results indicate that the green roofs are capable of removing 40% of the annual rainfall volume from a roof through retention and evapotranspiration. Rainfall not retained by green roofs is detained, effectively...

  1. Greening from the Top Down.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberndorfer, Erica

    2002-01-01

    Green roofs, with their topsoil and plants, improve insulation, filter air, reduce water runoff, and provide habitat for urban wildlife. They are compatible with schools because they save energy; schools' flat roofs are conducive to greening; and green roofs can be outdoor classrooms for botany, ecology, and energy efficiency. Although scarce in…

  2. Green Schools on Ordinary Budgets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Some in the green building industry have spoken for some time now of green buildings not needing to cost more. Jason McLennan in his 2004 book "The Philosophy of Sustainable Design" discusses not falling into the "green is always more" syndrome. He goes on to explain the concept of tunneling through the cost barrier. A 2007 cost study by the…

  3. Picturing Objects in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinskey, Jeanne L.; Jachens, Liza J.

    2014-01-01

    Infants' transfer of information from pictures to objects was tested by familiarizing 9-month-olds (N = 31) with either a color or black-and-white photograph of an object and observing their preferential reaching for the real target object versus a distractor. One condition tested object recognition by keeping both objects visible, and the…

  4. Selecting a Reference Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

  5. Using (green) bricks and mortar for dialysis clinic construction.

    PubMed

    Bednar, Bob

    2011-03-01

    The completed dialysis unit demonstrates that building green means creating and using processes that are environmentally responsible and resource efficient throughout a building's life cycle. The common objective is that green buildings are designed to reduce the overall impact of the environment on human health and the natural environment by: using energy, water and other resources more efficiently; protecting patient health while improving staff productivity; reducing waste.

  6. Tom Green County Library Literacy Project. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavricka, D. Karen

    The final report of the Tom Green Country Library System (Texas) literacy project details progress toward achievement of 11 objectives. Objectives of the literacy outreach program were to: (1) increase Hispanic enrollment; (2) increase Black enrollment; (3) provide free child care for 4 students to attend 50 tutoring sessions; (4) provide…

  7. Magnetic fields of green.

    PubMed

    Branton, Scott; Lile, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    By incorporating even the basic elements of a more environmentally friendly, "green"construction and design in an MRI setting can create a safer, more pleasant space for the patients and staff, better images, and operational cost savings. Using building systems that have reduced amounts of steel can decrease construction time, increase thermal insulation, and reduce the weight of the structure meaning less energy required to transport and install. HVAC systems and lighting design can also play a major role in creating a "green"MRI suite. LEED certification places a focus on quality of the built environment, life cycle cost, and a productive indoor environment, as well as impact on the exterior environment. An LEED certified building considers costs and benefits for the lifetime of the building. PMID:22043731

  8. Green biorefinery - Industrial implementation.

    PubMed

    Kamm, B; Schönicke, P; Hille, Ch

    2016-04-15

    Oil refineries currently generate a multitude of products for almost every sphere of life at very high efficiency. However, fossil raw materials are just available in limited quantities. The development of comparable BIOREFINERIES is necessary to make a variety of competitive biological products regarding their equivalent products based on fossil raw materials. The product range of a biorefinery comprises products that can be manufactured on the basis of crude oil, as well as such products that cannot be produced on the basis of crude oil (Kamm, Gruber, & Kamm, 2011). GREEN BIOREFINERIES [GBR's] are complex systems of sustainable, environment- and resource-friendly technologies for a comprehensive material and energy use or recovery of renewable raw materials in form of green and waste biomasses from a sustainable land use as target (Kamm et al., 2009; Digman, Runge, Shinners, & Hatfield, 2013). PMID:26675876

  9. Magnetic fields of green.

    PubMed

    Branton, Scott; Lile, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    By incorporating even the basic elements of a more environmentally friendly, "green"construction and design in an MRI setting can create a safer, more pleasant space for the patients and staff, better images, and operational cost savings. Using building systems that have reduced amounts of steel can decrease construction time, increase thermal insulation, and reduce the weight of the structure meaning less energy required to transport and install. HVAC systems and lighting design can also play a major role in creating a "green"MRI suite. LEED certification places a focus on quality of the built environment, life cycle cost, and a productive indoor environment, as well as impact on the exterior environment. An LEED certified building considers costs and benefits for the lifetime of the building.

  10. Green biorefinery - Industrial implementation.

    PubMed

    Kamm, B; Schönicke, P; Hille, Ch

    2016-04-15

    Oil refineries currently generate a multitude of products for almost every sphere of life at very high efficiency. However, fossil raw materials are just available in limited quantities. The development of comparable BIOREFINERIES is necessary to make a variety of competitive biological products regarding their equivalent products based on fossil raw materials. The product range of a biorefinery comprises products that can be manufactured on the basis of crude oil, as well as such products that cannot be produced on the basis of crude oil (Kamm, Gruber, & Kamm, 2011). GREEN BIOREFINERIES [GBR's] are complex systems of sustainable, environment- and resource-friendly technologies for a comprehensive material and energy use or recovery of renewable raw materials in form of green and waste biomasses from a sustainable land use as target (Kamm et al., 2009; Digman, Runge, Shinners, & Hatfield, 2013).

  11. Green chemistry: development trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, I. I.

    2013-07-01

    Examples of applications of green chemistry methods in heavy organic synthesis are analyzed. Compounds, which can be produced by the processing of the biomass, and the criteria for the selection of the most promising products are summarized. The current status of the ethanol production and processing is considered. The possibilities of the use of high fatty acid triglycerides, glycerol, succinic acid, and isoprene are briefly discussed. The bibliography includes 67 references.

  12. From object structure to object function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlateva, Stoyanka D.; Vaina, Lucia M.

    1991-03-01

    In this paper we provide a mathematical support for the nature of the shape representation methods useful for the computation of possible functions of an objects as derived from its shape structure. We discuss the concepts of parts and subparts of objects in the framework of axis based shape representation methods and boundary based methods. We propose a new method for obtaining descriptions of parts which based on a theorem from differential geometry (Pogorelov 1974) that any regular surface can be approximated in a finite environment with a given accuracy by a parabolloid of one of the following types - elliptic, hyperbolic and a parabolloid degenerating into a plane or a parabolic cylinder. Based on these considerations we suggest a heuristic for the approximation of convex object parts by a polyhedra, cylinder, ellipsoid or generalized cone with straight axis depending on the presence of plane, parabolic, elliptic subsets in their boundary, and nonconvex object parts by generalized cones with curved axis. This approach allows to obtain a primitive based shape description after the decomposition of the object shape through the more general boundary-based methods. We present examples of decomposing and describing shapes of common objects in terms of their parts, subparts and associated features.

  13. Green spaces and General Health: Roles of mental health status, social support, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Dadvand, Payam; Bartoll, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; Martinez, David; Ambros, Albert; Cirach, Marta; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Gascon, Mireia; Borrell, Carme; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    Green spaces are associated with improved health, but little is known about mechanisms underlying such association. We aimed to assess the association between greenness exposure and subjective general health (SGH) and to evaluate mental health status, social support, and physical activity as mediators of this association. This cross-sectional study was based on a population-based sample of 3461 adults residing in Barcelona, Spain (2011). We characterized outcome and mediators using the Health Survey of Barcelona. Objective and subjective residential proximity to green spaces and residential surrounding greenness were used to characterize greenness exposure. We followed Baron and Kenny's framework to establish the mediation roles and we further quantified the relative contribution of each mediator. Residential surrounding greenness and subjective residential proximity to green spaces were associated with better SGH. We found indications for mediation of these associations by mental health status, perceived social support, and to less extent, by physical activity. These mediators altogether could explain about half of the surrounding greenness association and one-third of the association for subjective proximity to green spaces. We observed indications that mental health and perceived social support might be more relevant for men and those younger than 65years. The results for objective residential proximity to green spaces were not conclusive. In conclusion, our observed association between SGH and greenness exposure was mediated, in part, by mental health status, enhanced social support, and physical activity. There might be age and sex variations in these mediation roles.

  14. INL Green Building Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer Dalton

    2005-05-01

    Green buildings, also known as sustainable buildings, resource efficient buildings, and high performance buildings, are structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reducing solid waste and pollutants, and limiting the depletion of natural resources. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish the mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate green design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. With this in mind, the recommendations described in this strategy are intended to form the INL foundation for green building standards. The recommendations in this strategy are broken down into three levels: Baseline Minimum, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)Certification, and Innovative. Baseline Minimum features should be included in all new occupied buildings no matter what the purpose or size. These features do not require significant research, design, or capital costs and yet they can reduce Operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs and produce more environmentally friendly buildings. LEED Certification features are more aggressive than the Baseline Minimums in that they require documentation, studies, and/or additional funding. Combined with the Baseline Minimums, many of the features in this level will need to be implemented to achieve the goal of LEED certification. LEED Silver certification should be the minimum goal for all new buildings (including office buildings, laboratories, cafeterias, and visitor centers) greater than 25,000 square feet or a total cost of $10 million. Innovative features can also contribute to LEED certification, but are less mainstream than those listed in the previous two levels. These features are identified as areas where

  15. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Marć, Mariusz; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed. PMID:26076112

  16. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Marć, Mariusz; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-06-12

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  17. AVNG system objectives and concept

    SciTech Connect

    Macarthur, Duncan W; Thron, Jonathan; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander; Kondratov, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released to the monitoring party. At the same time, the monitoring party must gain sufficient confidence from the measurement to believe that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The AVNG that we describe is an attribute measurement system built by RFNC-VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. The AVNG measures the three attributes of 'plutonium presence,' 'plutonium mass >2 kg,' and 'plutonium isotopic ratio ({sup 240}Pu to {sup 239}Pu) <0.1' and was demonstrated in Sarov for a joint US/Russian audience in June 2009. In this presentation, we will outline the goals and objectives of the AVNG measurement system. These goals are driven by the two, sometimes conflicting, requirements mentioned above. We will describe the conceptual design of the AVNG and show how this conceptual design grew out of these goals and objectives.

  18. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  19. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness. PMID:27648219

  20. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  1. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness. PMID:27648219

  2. Challenges to global green job growth.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Sean; Kubit, Jill; Renner, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The authors recognize that green is a relative term and that what's green today may be decidedly not green tomorrow. They developed the idea of "shades of green" to try to capture the differences between jobs and looked at where the green jobs currently are. They found that green jobs in renewables are likely to grow, but in other sectors green jobs face enormous challenges. Among them are investment, technology, agriculture, labor market, and urbanization hurdles.

  3. Dry Machining Process of Milling Machine using Axiomatic Green Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puspita Andriani, Gita; Akbar, Muhammad; Irianto, Dradjad

    2016-02-01

    Most of companies know that there are strategies to become green industry, and they realize that green efforts have impacts on product quality and cost. Axiomatic Green Methodology models the relationship between green, quality, and cost. This methodology starts with determining the green improvement objective and then continues with mapping the functional, economic, and green requirements. From the mapping, variables which affect the requirements are identified. Afterwards, the effect of each variable is determined by performing experiments and regression modelling. In this research, axiomatic green methodology was implemented to dry machining of milling machine in order to reduce the amount of coolant. Dry machining will be feasible if it is not worse than the minimum required quality. As a result, dry machining is feasible without producing any defect. The proposed machining parameter is to reduce the coolant flow rate from 6.882 ml/minute to 0 ml/minute, set the depth of cut at 1.2 mm, spindle rotation speed at 500 rpm, and feed rate at 128 mm/minute. This solution is also resulted in reduction of cost for 200.48 rupiahs for each process.

  4. Green design assessment of electromechanical products based on group weighted-AHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jinwei; Zhou, MengChu; Li, Zhiwu; Xie, Huiguang

    2015-11-01

    Manufacturing industry is the backbone of a country's economy while environmental pollution is a serious problem that human beings must face today. The green design of electromechanical products based on enterprise information systems is an important method to solve the environmental problem. The question on how to design green products must be answered by excellent designers via both advanced design methods and effective assessment methods of electromechanical products. Making an objective and precise assessment of green design is one of the problems that must be solved when green design is conducted. An assessment method of green design on electromechanical products based on Group Weighted-AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) is proposed in this paper, together with the characteristics of green products. The assessment steps of green design are also established. The results are illustrated via the assessment of a refrigerator design.

  5. Seasonal greening in grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orescanin, Biljana

    Grasslands cover about one quarter of the Earth's land and are currently considered to act as carbon sinks, taking up an estimated 0.5 Gt C per year. Thus, robust understanding of the grassland biome (e.g. representation of seasonal cycle of plant growth and the amount of green mass, often referred to as phenology, in global carbon models) plays a key role in understanding and predicting the global carbon cycle. The focus of this research is on improvement of a grassland biome representation in a biosphere model, which sometimes fails to correctly represent the phenology of vegetation. For this purpose, as a part of Simple Biosphere model (SiB3), a phenology model is tested and improved to provide more realistic representation of plant growth dependence on available moisture, which along with temperature and light controls plant growth. The new methodology employs integrated soil moisture in plant growth simulation. This new representation addresses the nature of the plants to use their root system to access the water supply. At same time it represents the plant's moisture recourses more accurately than the currently used vapor pressure method, which in grasslands is often non-correlated with soil conditions. The new technique has been developed and tested on data from the Skukuza flux tower site in South Africa and evaluated at 6 different flux tower sites around the world covering a variety of climate conditions. The technique is relatively easy and inexpensive to implement into the existing model providing excellent results capturing both the onset of green season and greening cycle at all locations. Although the method is developed for grasslands biome its representation of natural plant processes provides a good potential for its global use.

  6. Greening critical care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and environmental stewardship are phrases that have been defining the past few decades and promoting change in our societies. The sensitivities of intensive care as a specialty make the process of greening an intensive care unit a challenge, but not one that is insurmountable. This paper discusses opportunities for critical care to reduce its environmental impact and provide a framework change. The article includes suggestions of what can be done as an individual, as a unit and as a hospital. Generally, practices in critical care are accepted without questioning the environmental consequences. We believe it is time for change, and critical care should give environmental stewardship a higher priority. PMID:21635700

  7. Objectives and Preparing Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purohit, Anal A.; Bober, Kenneth F.

    1984-01-01

    The concepts behind, and construction of, specific behavioral objectives are examined as steps that are preliminary to evaluating student performance through tests. A taxonomy of educational objectives and guidelines in preparing them are outlined in detail. (MSE)

  8. Green chemistry: principles and practice.

    PubMed

    Anastas, Paul; Eghbali, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Green Chemistry is a relatively new emerging field that strives to work at the molecular level to achieve sustainability. The field has received widespread interest in the past decade due to its ability to harness chemical innovation to meet environmental and economic goals simultaneously. Green Chemistry has a framework of a cohesive set of Twelve Principles, which have been systematically surveyed in this critical review. This article covers the concepts of design and the scientific philosophy of Green Chemistry with a set of illustrative examples. Future trends in Green Chemistry are discussed with the challenge of using the Principles as a cohesive design system (93 references). PMID:20023854

  9. Green light in photomorphogenic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruhnich, Stefanie Anne

    Light quality, quantity, and duration provide essential environmental cues that shape plant growth and development. Over the last century, researchers have worked to discover how plants sense, integrate, and respond to red, blue, and far-red light. Green light is often considered a “benign” wavelength with little to no effect in plant development. However, sparse experiments in the literature demonstrate that green effects are often counterintuitive to normal light responses and oppose red- and blue-light-induced responses. Green light effects on plant growth and development are described here through the use of custom, tunable LED, light-emitting diode, chambers. These light sources allow for specific light qualities and quantities to be administered. The effects of green wavebands were assessed when red and blue photomorphogenic systems were active to answer the question: Are the effects of an inhibitor (green light) more evident in the presence of inducers (red and blue light)? In seedlings, supplemental green light increased hypocotyl elongation opposite to classical inhibition of hypocotyl elongation associated with growth in light and induced by red and blue wavebands. Results indicate that added green light induced a reversion of light-grown phenotypes. In mature plants, supplemental green light induced phenotypes typical of the shade-avoidance syndrome, including elongated petioles, smaller leaf areas, and leaf hyponasty. These responses are typical of lower-light conditions or far-red enriched environments. Contrary to far-red-light-induced shade-avoidance, data indicate green delays flowering. In Arabidopsis and strawberry plants, anthocyanin levels also decreased when green light was added to red and blue light treatments, which is again opposite to normal light-induced phenotypes. Photoreceptor mutants were tested and indicate green light effects in early development are cryptochromedependent. However, green-light-induced shade-avoidance responses

  10. Experimental analysis of green roof substrate detention characteristics.

    PubMed

    Yio, Marcus H N; Stovin, Virginia; Werdin, Jörg; Vesuviano, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Green roofs may make an important contribution to urban stormwater management. Rainfall-runoff models are required to evaluate green roof responses to specific rainfall inputs. The roof's hydrological response is a function of its configuration, with the substrate - or growing media - providing both retention and detention of rainfall. The objective of the research described here is to quantify the detention effects due to green roof substrates, and to propose a suitable hydrological modelling approach. Laboratory results from experimental detention tests on green roof substrates are presented. It is shown that detention increases with substrate depth and as a result of increasing substrate organic content. Model structures based on reservoir routing are evaluated, and it is found that a one-parameter reservoir routing model coupled with a parameter that describes the delay to start of runoff best fits the observed data. Preliminary findings support the hypothesis that the reservoir routing parameter values can be defined from the substrate's physical characteristics.

  11. What Is Green Growth Strategy for Government Link Company?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamilah Asha'ari, Maryam; Daud, Salina; Hassan, Hasmaizan

    2016-03-01

    Disasters around the world are very extreme because of the global warming and climate change. Malaysia firms have to play their role in handling the challenging of environmental problems in order to sustain. The feature of the new strategy which is green growth strategy has been identified. The study focuses on the features of the green growth strategy which discuss on the keys to sustaining the strategy, marketing emphasis, production emphasis, product line, basis of competitive advantage and strategic target. Business had contributed to the industrialisation era positively or negatively and therefore there is a must for business people to use the best strategy in reducing the environmental risks. By 2020, Malaysia will achieve the target in becoming an advanced economy by applying the right strategy. The objective of this paper is to propose a feature for new strategy known as green growth strategy. Future study is to propose to conduct an empirical analysis to confirm the green growth strategy features.

  12. Ownership and Object History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Ori; Neary, Karen R.; Defeyter, Margaret A.; Malcolm, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate behavior in relation to an object often requires judging whether it is owned and, if so, by whom. The authors propose accounts of how people make these judgments. Our central claim is that both judgments often involve making inferences about object history. In judging whether objects are owned, people may assume that artifacts (e.g.,…

  13. Objects in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  14. Survivability via Control Objectives

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  15. Learning Objects and Gerontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinreich, Donna M.; Tompkins, Catherine J.

    2006-01-01

    Virtual AGE (vAGE) is an asynchronous educational environment that utilizes learning objects focused on gerontology and a learning anytime/anywhere philosophy. This paper discusses the benefits of asynchronous instruction and the process of creating learning objects. Learning objects are "small, reusable chunks of instructional media" Wiley…

  16. On the Crime Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akutaev, Rasul M.; Magomedov, Guseyn B.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research of this problem is caused by the theoretical and practical needs of a specific concept of the crime object as one of the corpus delicti signs essentially the determining and defining its object and objective side, thereby--the nature of socially dangerous act. Besides, being a facultative sign of corpus delicti, the…

  17. The Language of Objection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Francis M.

    2010-01-01

    Whenever the author talks to audiences about transforming school systems, without exception people raise objections. The half dozen most common objections often come in the form of "Yes, nice idea but..." What follows the "but" is the objection. The author learned a technique for responding to these "buts" from family members who work in sales.…

  18. Presentation on Instructional Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naz, Bibi Asia

    2009-01-01

    "Learning can be defined as change in a student's capacity for performance as a result of experience" (Kenneth D. Moore). The intended changes should be specified in instructional objectives. Viewed in this context, an objective can be defined as a clear and unambiguous description of your instructional intent. An objective is not a statement of…

  19. [Behavioral Objectives in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Richard; And Others

    1970-01-01

    This edition of the "Virginia English Bulletin" is devoted primarily to articles about behavioral objectives and the teaching of English. In "Behavioral Objectives for English?" Richard A. Meade argues that these objectives ought to include the acquisition not only of skills and knowledge but also of understandings, insights, and feelings. He also…

  20. Can Growth Be Green?

    PubMed

    Gough, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This short article, based on a presentation at the London School of Economics, criticizes the common opinion that "green growth" offers a relatively painless - some even say pain-free - transition path for capitalist economies. After a brief summary of the daunting arithmetic entailed in combining fast decarbonization with continuing growth, the article advances 3 propositions. First, market-based carbon mitigation programs, such as carbon trading, cannot be sufficient and must be coupled with other policy pillars that foster transformative investment and widespread regulation. Second, a political economy of climate policy needs to draw on the lessons of comparative social policy research, which emphasizes the role of international pressures, interests, institutions, and ideas. Taking these into account gives a more realistic perspective on climate policy making in today's neoliberal world. Third, more radical policies on both consumption and production are called for, to ensure that carbon mitigation is not pursued at the expense of equity and social welfare. These include policies to restrain high-carbon luxury consumption and a transition toward shorter paid working time. The conclusion is that a realistic program of green growth will be immensely difficult and entail radical political change.

  1. Greening of orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rushyuan J; Mears, Simon C

    2012-06-01

    Every year, 4 billion pounds of waste are produced by health care facilities, and the amount continues to increase annually. In response, a movement toward greening health care has been building, with a particular focus on the operating room. Between 20% and 70% of health care waste originates from a hospital's operating room, and up to 90% of operating room waste is improperly sorted and sent for costly and unneeded hazardous waste processing. Recent successful changes include segregation of hospital waste, substitution of the ubiquitous polypropylene plastic wrap used for the sterilization and handling of surgical equipment with metal cases, and the reintroduction of reusable surgical gowns. Orthopedic-related changes include the successful reprocessing and reuse of external fixators, shavers, blades, burs, and tourniquets. These changes have been shown to be environmentally and economically beneficial. Early review indicates that these changes are feasible, but a need exists for further evaluation of the effect on the operating room and flow of the surgical procedure and of the risks to the surgeons and operating room staff. Other key considerations are the effects of reprocessed and reused equipment on patient care and outcome and the role of surgeons in helping patients make informed decisions regarding surgical care. The goals of this study were to summarize the amount and types of waste produced in hospitals and operating rooms, highlight the methods of disposal used, review disposal methods that have been developed to reduce waste and improve recycling, and explore future developments in greening health care.

  2. Can Growth Be Green?

    PubMed

    Gough, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This short article, based on a presentation at the London School of Economics, criticizes the common opinion that "green growth" offers a relatively painless - some even say pain-free - transition path for capitalist economies. After a brief summary of the daunting arithmetic entailed in combining fast decarbonization with continuing growth, the article advances 3 propositions. First, market-based carbon mitigation programs, such as carbon trading, cannot be sufficient and must be coupled with other policy pillars that foster transformative investment and widespread regulation. Second, a political economy of climate policy needs to draw on the lessons of comparative social policy research, which emphasizes the role of international pressures, interests, institutions, and ideas. Taking these into account gives a more realistic perspective on climate policy making in today's neoliberal world. Third, more radical policies on both consumption and production are called for, to ensure that carbon mitigation is not pursued at the expense of equity and social welfare. These include policies to restrain high-carbon luxury consumption and a transition toward shorter paid working time. The conclusion is that a realistic program of green growth will be immensely difficult and entail radical political change. PMID:26077854

  3. Descriptive analysis and U.S. consumer acceptability of 6 green tea samples from China, Japan, and Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Delores H

    2010-03-01

    In the past, green tea has been one of the least popular nonalcoholic beverages for U.S. consumers. However, green tea has been receiving attention because of its potential health benefits. Knowing which green tea flavor attributes contribute to consumer liking will help the fast growing green tea business including green tea importers, tea shops, and beverage companies to understand which characteristics are most accepted by U.S. consumers. The objectives of this study were (1) to examine differences in acceptability of commonly available loose leaf and bagged green teas available from the major exporters to the U.S. (Japan, Korea, and China) and (2) to determine which green tea flavor characteristics are related to consumers' liking. In the study, consumers from the U.S. evaluated 6 green tea samples from China, Japan, and Korea for acceptability. A highly trained panel also evaluated the green tea samples to provide descriptive sensory attributes that might be related to acceptability. We found that U.S. consumers liked green tea samples with lower flavor intensity and lower bitterness intensity. Consumers' acceptability of green tea was negatively correlated with spinach and animalic flavor and bitterness and astringency of green teas evaluated using descriptive sensory analysis, but the correlation was only moderate. To learn what green tea flavor characteristics influence consumers' liking, future studies using more green tea samples with different flavor profiles are needed.

  4. Green(ing) English: Voices Howling in the Wilderness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Heather E.

    2011-01-01

    The relatively new fields of ecocriticism in literary studies and ecocomposition in rhetoric and composition studies provide a usable foundation for those interested in green(ing) English. Nevertheless, even suggesting that interest in the environment within English studies is a relatively new concern is somewhat misleading. Contemplation of…

  5. Investigating Green: Creating Surveys to Answer Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Being green means different things to different people. Some suggest that being green means saving energy, not wasting paper towels, going solar, harnessing wind, using less fertilizer, or buying products that are organically grown. Given that being green can mean a lot of things, what does "being green" or "going green" mean to both you and your…

  6. 7 CFR 51.574 - Green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.574 Green. Green means that the middle portions of the outer branches on the stalk are generally green to light green color. ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Green. 51.574 Section 51.574 Agriculture...

  7. Surrounding Greenness and Pregnancy Outcomes in Four Spanish Birth Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Sunyer, Jordi; Basagaña, Xavier; Ballester, Ferran; Lertxundi, Aitana; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Estarlich, Marisa; García-Esteban, Raquel; Mendez, Michelle A.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Green spaces have been associated with improved physical and mental health; however, the available evidence on the impact of green spaces on pregnancy is scarce. Objectives: We investigated the association between surrounding greenness and birth weight, head circumference, and gestational age at delivery. Methods: This study was based on 2,393 singleton live births from four Spanish birth cohorts (Asturias, Gipuzkoa, Sabadell, and Valencia) located in two regions of the Iberian Peninsula with distinct climates and vegetation patterns (2003–2008). We defined surrounding greenness as average of satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) (Landsat 4–5 TM data at 30 m × 30 m resolution) during 2007 in buffers of 100 m, 250 m, and 500 m around each maternal place of residence. Separate linear mixed models with adjustment for potential confounders and a random cohort effect were used to estimate the change in birth weight, head circumference, and gestational age for 1-interquartile range increase in surrounding greenness. Results: Higher surrounding greenness was associated with increases in birth weight and head circumference [adjusted regression coefficients (95% confidence interval) of 44.2 g (20.2 g, 68.2 g) and 1.7 mm (0.5 mm, 2.9 mm) for an interquartile range increase in average NDVI within a 500-m buffer] but not gestational age. These findings were robust against the choice of the buffer size and the season of data acquisition for surrounding greenness, and when the analysis was limited to term births. Stratified analyses indicated stronger associations among children of mothers with lower education, suggesting greater benefits from surrounding greenness. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a beneficial impact of surrounding greenness on measures of fetal growth but not pregnancy length. PMID:22899599

  8. Data-Driven Objectness.

    PubMed

    Hongwen Kang; Hebert, Martial; Efros, Alexei A; Kanade, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    We propose a data-driven approach to estimate the likelihood that an image segment corresponds to a scene object (its "objectness") by comparing it to a large collection of example object regions. We demonstrate that when the application domain is known, for example, in our case activity of daily living (ADL), we can capture the regularity of the domain specific objects using millions of exemplar object regions. Our approach to estimating the objectness of an image region proceeds in two steps: 1) finding the exemplar regions that are the most similar to the input image segment; 2) calculating the objectness of the image segment by combining segment properties, mutual consistency across the nearest exemplar regions, and the prior probability of each exemplar region. In previous work, parametric objectness models were built from a small number of manually annotated objects regions, instead, our data-driven approach uses 5 million object regions along with their metadata information. Results on multiple data sets demonstrates our data-driven approach compared to the existing model based techniques. We also show the application of our approach in improving the performance of object discovery algorithms. PMID:26353218

  9. A suggestion to improve a day keeps your depletion away: Examining promotive and prohibitive voice behaviors within a regulatory focus and ego depletion framework.

    PubMed

    Lin, Szu-Han Joanna; Johnson, Russell E

    2015-09-01

    One way that employees contribute to organizational effectiveness is by expressing voice. They may offer suggestions for how to improve the organization (promotive voice behavior), or express concerns to prevent harmful events from occurring (prohibitive voice behavior). Although promotive and prohibitive voices are thought to be distinct types of behavior, very little is known about their unique antecedents and consequences. In this study we draw on regulatory focus and ego depletion theories to derive a theoretical model that outlines a dynamic process of the antecedents and consequences of voice behavior. Results from 2 multiwave field studies revealed that promotion and prevention foci have unique ties to promotive and prohibitive voice, respectively. Promotive and prohibitive voice, in turn, were associated with decreases and increases, respectively, in depletion. Consistent with the dynamic nature of self-control, depletion was associated with reductions in employees' subsequent voice behavior, regardless of the type of voice (promotive or prohibitive). Results were consistent across 2 studies and remained even after controlling for other established antecedents of voice and alternative mediating mechanisms beside depletion.

  10. The potential health hazard due to elevated radioactivity in old uranium mines in Dolina Białego, Tatra Mountains, Poland.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Krzysztof; Mazur, Jadwiga; Vaupotič, Janja; Grządziel, Dominik; Kobal, Ivan; Omran, Khaled M H

    2013-06-01

    Natural radioactivity is one of the essential components of the environment. Unlike the Sudety mountains area in Poland, the Tatra Mountains were not the subject of wide survey as regards the levels of natural radioactivity. Especially, the concentrations of radon (natural radioactive gas) have not been investigated there in terms of their possible negative health impact. Within the frame of bilateral cooperation between the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Kraków, Poland, and the Jožef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana, Slovenia, the measurements of natural radioactive elements in old uranium mines in the Tatra National Park were performed in June 2010. The investigated sites were located in Dolina Białego (The Valley of the White). One of the mines is situated near the tourist path. The paper presents the results of complex measurements of natural radioactivity in both uranium drifts. The concentration of radon gas inside the mining drifts exceeded 28,000 Bq m(-3). Also, very high gamma dose rates were observed (up to 5600 nSv h(-1)). The maximum concentrations of natural radioactive elements (potassium (40)K, radium (226)Ra, thorium (232)Th) in rock samples amounted to 535, 2137, and 18 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The effective dose rates due to radon and thoron inhalation have been assessed as 0.013 mSv h(-1) (for the lowest concentration) and 0.121 mSv h(-1) (for the highest concentration).

  11. Lighting Demands in Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danis, Jim; Thurnquist, Annmarie

    2011-01-01

    Growing up in a more eco-conscious world, incoming students are more savvy about "greening" the world around them. A decade ago, green college campuses were those that offered recycling bins in residence halls. Now education institutions are integrating sustainability efforts into as many aspects of their campus operations as possible. And that…

  12. "Green" Classes Flourish in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Courses focused on renewable and alternative energy are taking hold across the country as educators seek to channel students' concerns about the environment and conservation into classroom lessons. This article talks about the rising interest in "green" curriculum. Here, the author describes the Green Tech class that introduces students to the…

  13. Green as the New Norm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Lured by the recognition that comes with a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating from the U.S. Green Building Council, many schools and universities have become aware of that certification process. But for years, the involvement was limited to a few trendsetters; according to the Green Building Council's database, only about…

  14. News from Online: Green Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uffelman, Erich S.

    2004-01-01

    Green chemistry closely relates to energy and environmental problems, and includes the promotion of environmental friendly products and systems within the framework of renewable resources. Various websites on green chemistry are reviewed, one of which lists the 12 commandments of this particular subject.

  15. Savvy Schools Are Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Gerard, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how the green phenomenon is spreading, especially among schools, which have found that not only are they being environmentally friendly, they are also saving big money. Green buildings focus on efficiency and renewable energy, water stewardship, environmentally preferable building materials and specifications, waste…

  16. Virtual Rewards for Driving Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide from automobiles is a major contributor to global climate change. In "Virtual Rewards for Driving Green," Josh Pritchard proposes a computer application that will enable fuel-efficient drivers to earn "green" dollars with which to buy digital merchandise on the Web. Can getting items that exist only in cyberspace actually change a…

  17. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  18. Green from the inside out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seydel, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    "Green school" is an umbrella term that covers a number of educational approaches, such as environment-based curricula, environment-integrated curricula, education for sustainability, and education for sustainable development. Green schools enrich the traditional secondary curriculum by relating it to practical issues of environmental…

  19. Recent developments of green tribology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Si-Wei

    2016-06-01

    Green tribology is a new field of great interest to a large number of tribologists. This article reviews the latest advances in this area including energy conservation, emission reduction, super-low friction and super-low wear, wind turbines, smart coatings, and fundamentals. Moreover, an overview of the future development of green tribology is also presented.

  20. [Sarcoid granuloma in green tattooing].

    PubMed

    Kremser, M

    1987-01-01

    The case report is presented of a 34-year old man with the sudden appearance of multiple granulomas at the site of green tattoo markings which had been undertaken 8 years previously. Unusual was his case history of an anaphylactic reaction after the ingestion of green pistachio nuts. A non-immunological food intolerance without cross-reaction to the dye of the green tattoo namely phthalocyanine, was detected. Aerosil, colloidal silica, was found to be the trigger substance; it was present exclusively in the green dye, and was responsible for the patient's sarcoid reaction. Excision of the green tattoos employing pedicle flaps was successful. At the latest follow-up examination no features of sarcoidosis were detected. PMID:3564486

  1. Robot Grasps Rotating Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Tso, Kam S.; Litwin, Todd E.; Hayati, Samad A.; Bon, Bruce B.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental robotic system semiautomatically grasps rotating object, stops rotation, and pulls object to rest in fixture. Based on combination of advanced techniques for sensing and control, constructed to test concepts for robotic recapture of spinning artificial satellites. Potential terrestrial applications for technology developed with help of system includes tracking and grasping of industrial parts on conveyor belts, tracking of vehicles and animals, and soft grasping of moving objects in general.

  2. Propelling Extended Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…

  3. Green tea gets molecular.

    PubMed

    Rouzer, Carol A; Marnett, Lawrence J

    2011-09-01

    Green tea and its major polyphenolic flavonoid, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), have been credited with cancer chemopreventive activity for many years; the mechanism for this activity, however, has remained obscure. Now, as reported in this issue of the journal (beginning on page 1366), Urusova and colleagues showed direct binding of EGCG to the peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1, which inhibited Pin1 enzymatic activity. They showed that Pin1 expression is required for EGCG effects on cell growth, c-Jun activation, and transcription regulation mediated by NF-κB and activator protein-1. The data provide a glimpse of the mechanism of action of EGCG and set a new bar for the future study of natural products with chemopreventive activity. PMID:21893494

  4. Habitat goes green

    SciTech Connect

    Kriescher, P.; Smith, M.

    1999-12-01

    A Denver family enjoys the financial and personal benefits of owning an affordable, energy-efficient home. On Earth Day, April 22, 1997, Habitat for Humanity of Metro Denver witnessed the realization of a dream. As Luis and Estella Valadez and their four children cut the ribbon on their 1,100 square foot (102 m{sup 2}) northwest Denver home, it signified the completion of the Denver Habitat affiliate's first ``Green'' home. Building this dream involved developing a plan to build affordable Habitat homes that also embodied a sense of stewardship of the Earth's environment. The affiliate also wanted to use this effort to achieve the additional goal of reducing the homeowner's utility and maintenance bills.

  5. USING GREEN CHEMISTRY TO INFLUENCE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The twelve principles of green chemistry by Anastas and Warner provide the researcher with a foundation or pathway which allows opportunities to incorporate greenness into an existing reaction or when developing alternative technologies. The twelve additional principles of green ...

  6. Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control - Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2274 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2274 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20...

  8. 7 CFR 29.2274 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2274 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20...

  9. 7 CFR 29.2274 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2274 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20...

  10. 7 CFR 29.2274 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2274 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20...

  11. 7 CFR 29.2274 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2274 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20...

  12. Moving Object Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method is provided for controlling two objects relatively moveable with respect to each other. A plurality of receivers are provided for detecting a distinctive microwave signal from each of the objects and measuring the phase thereof with respect to a reference signal. The measured phase signal is used to determine a distance between each of the objects and each of the plurality of receivers. Control signals produced in response to the relative distances are used to control the position of the two objects.

  13. Stormwater Attenuation by Green Roofs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, A.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Robinson, C. E.; Smart, C. C.

    2014-12-01

    Innovative municipal stormwater management technologies are urgently required in urban centers. Inadequate stormwater management can lead to excessive flooding, channel erosion, decreased stream baseflows, and degraded water quality. A major source of urban stormwater is unused roof space. Green roofs can be used as a stormwater management tool to reduce roof generated stormwater and generally improve the quality of runoff. With recent legislation in some North American cities, including Toronto, requiring the installation of green roofs on large buildings, research on the effectiveness of green roofs for stormwater management is important. This study aims to assess the hydrologic response of an extensive sedum green roof in London, Ontario, with emphasis on the response to large precipitation events that stress municipal stormwater infrastructure. A green roof rapidly reaches field capacity during large storm events and can show significantly different behavior before and after field capacity. At field capacity a green roof has no capillary storage left for retention of stormwater, but may still be an effective tool to attenuate peak runoff rates by transport through the green roof substrate. The attenuation of green roofs after field capacity is linked to gravity storage, where gravity storage is the water that is temporarily stored and can drain freely over time after field capacity has been established. Stormwater attenuation of a modular experimental green roof is determined from water balance calculations at 1-minute intervals. Data is used to evaluate green roof attenuation and the impact of field capacity on peak flow rates and gravity storage. In addition, a numerical model is used to simulate event based stormwater attenuation. This model is based off of the Richards equation and supporting theory of multiphase flow through porous media.

  14. Building Green: The Adoption Process of LEED- and Energy Star-Rated Office Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkani, Arvin P.

    2012-01-01

    There are opportunities for green building technology in office buildings to produce energy savings and cost efficiencies that can produce a positive economic and environmental impact. In order for these opportunities to be realized, however, decision makers must appreciate the value of green building technology. The objective of this research is…

  15. Green tea polyphenols avert chronic inflammation-induced myocardial fibrosis of female rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Green tea proposes anti-inflammatory properties which may attenuate chronic inflammation-induced fibrosis of vessels. This study evaluated whether green tea polyphenols (GTP) can avert fibrosis or vascular disruption along with mechanisms in rats with chronic inflammation. Treatments: Fo...

  16. Self-Efficacy and green entrepreneurship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, K. L.; Suhaida, S.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate empirically the extent to which self-efficacy contributes to the development of green entrepreneurial intention. The measurement constructs of self-efficacy were classified into market opportunities, innovative environment, initiating relationships, defining purpose, coping with challenges, and developing human resources. The study comprises 252 usable convenient samples through structured questionnaires. The coefficient of determination R2 shows that the variance of intention to entrepreneurship is explained by the variance of the independent variables. It was also found that the model is fit for prediction.

  17. Carbon sequestration potential of extensive green roofs.

    PubMed

    Getter, Kristin L; Rowe, D Bradley; Robertson, G Philip; Cregg, Bert M; Andresen, Jeffrey A

    2009-10-01

    Two studies were conducted with the objective of quantifying the carbon storage potential of extensive green roofs. The first was performed on eight roofs in Michigan and four roofs in Maryland, ranging from 1 to 6 years in age. All 12 green roofs were composed primarily of Sedum species, and substrate depths ranged from 2.5 to 12.7 cm. Aboveground plant material was harvested in the fall of 2006. On average, these roofs stored 162 g C x m(-2) in aboveground biomass. The second study was conducted on a roof in East Lansing, MI. Twenty plots were established on 21 April 2007 with a substrate depth of 6.0 cm. In addition to a substrate only control, the other plots were sown with a single species of Sedum (S. acre, S. album, S. kamtshaticum, or S. spurium). Species and substrate depth represent typical extensive green roofs in the United States. Plant material and substrate were harvested seven times across two growing seasons. Results at the end of the second year showed that aboveground plant material storage varied by species, ranging from 64 g C x m(-2) (S. acre) to 239 g C x m(-2) (S. album), with an average of 168 g C x m(-2). Belowground biomass ranged from 37 g C x m(-2) (S. acre) to 185 g C x m(-2) (S. kamtschaticum) and averaged 107 g C x m(-2). Substrate carbon content averaged 913 g C x m(-2), with no species effect, which represents a sequestration rate of 100 g C x m(-2) over the 2 years of this study. The entire extensive green roof system sequestered 375 g C x m(-2) in above- and belowground biomass and substrate organic matter.

  18. Green Chemistry at the present in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Kyu; Park, Hyeon-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Despite the great contribution made by chemical substances to the development of modern civilization, their indiscriminate use has caused various kinds of damage to the global environment and human beings. Accordingly, the major developed countries and international society have tried to ensure the safe use of chemicals and a reduction in the use of hazardous chemicals through the establishment of the United Nations Environment Programme and various international agreements. In this reason, we tried to introduce about Green Chemistry progress at the present in worldwide and Korea. Methods We checked and analyzed relative journals, reports using keyword as like Green Chemistry, alternative chemicals, eco-friendly etc. and major country’s government homepage search. Results Green Chemistry theory, which argues for the reduction or removal of harmfulness in chemicals throughout their entire life-cycle, has been spreading, and major developed countries, such as the US and Denmark, have developed and operate programs to provide reliable chemical information to help replace hazardous chemicals. Korea has also been conducting studies as like eco-innovation project. Through this project the “Alternative Chemical Search program,” has been developed, distributed, and operated since 2011 to provide reliable information to small and medium-sized businesses that have difficulties collecting information to ensure conformity to international regulations. The program provides information that includes the regulations of major countries and Korea, information on 340 alternative chemicals, 70 application cases, and 1:1 consulting. Conclusions The Alternative Chemical Search program is expected to contribute to the establishment of response systems for regulation of Korean small and medium-sized businesses, and it also will be used to provide basic data for Korean hazardous chemical regulation, together with the Act on the Registration and Evaluation, etc. of

  19. Manipulator for hollow objects

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, William E.; Frantz, Charles E.

    1977-01-01

    A device for gripping the interior of a tubular object to pull it out of a body in which it has become stuck includes an expandable rubber tube having a plurality of metal cables lodged in the exterior of the rubber tube so as to protrude slightly therefrom, means for inflating the tube and means for pulling the tube longitudinally of the tubular object.

  20. Bibliographic Instruction Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huston, Mary M.

    The objectives presented define the basic information required of a student operating in the Library System of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. These statements of objectives are intended to provide a tangible framework for all public service personnel in the Undergraduate Library, and their various components can be coordinated to…

  1. Objects in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the use of artifacts as primary sources within the classroom. Provides examples of this technique, as well as the use of objects from personal family history. Explains how objects can help students learn more about history and society. (CMK)

  2. Eye - foreign object in

    MedlinePlus

    ... to gently flush it out with water or eye drops. If that does not work, try touching a second cotton-tipped swab to the object to remove it. If the object is on the white of the eye, try gently rinsing the eye with water or ...

  3. Images of Axial Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabal, Hector; Cap, Nelly; Trivi, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Imaging of three-dimensional objects by lenses and mirrors is sometimes poorly indicated in textbooks and can be incorrectly drawn. We stress a need to clarify the concept of longitudinal magnification, with simulated images illustrating distortions introduced along the optical axis. We consider all possible positions of the object for both a…

  4. Estimations of object frequency are frequently overestimated.

    PubMed

    Greene, Michelle R

    2016-04-01

    Real-world scenes are complex but lawful: blenders are more likely to be found in kitchens than beaches, and elephants are not generally found inside homes. Research over the past 40years has demonstrated that contextual associations influence object recognition, change eye movement distributions, and modulate brain activity. However, the majority of these studies choose object-scene pairs from experimenters' intuitions because the statistical relationships between objects and scenes had yet to be systematically quantified. How do intuitive estimations compare to actual object frequencies? Across six experiments, observers estimated the frequency with which an object is found in a particular environment, such as the frequency of "mug" in an office. Estimated frequencies were compared to observed frequencies in two fully labeled scene databases (Greene, 2013). Although inter-observer similarity was high, observers systematically overestimated object frequency by an average of 32% across experiments. Altogether, these results speak to the richness of scene schemata and to the necessity of measuring object frequencies. PMID:26774103

  5. Tracking of deformable objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswani, Parimal; Wong, K. K.; Chong, Man N.

    2000-12-01

    Tracking of moving-objects in image sequences is needed for several video processing applications such as content-based coding, object oriented compression, object recognition and more recently for video object plane extraction in MPEG-4 coding. Tracking is a natural follow-up of motion-based segmentation. It is a fast and efficient method to achieve coherent motion segments along the temporal axis. Segmenting out moving objects for each and every frame in a video sequence is a computationally expensive approach. Thus, for better performance, semi-automatic segmentation is an acceptable compromise as automatic segmentation approaches rely heavily on prior assumptions. In semi-automatic segmentation approaches, motion-segmentation is performed only on the initial frame and the moving object is tracked in subsequent frames using tracking algorithms. In this paper, a new model for object tracking is proposed, where the image features -- edges, intensity pattern, object motion and initial keyed-in contour (by the user) form the prior and likelihood model of a Markov Random Field (MRF) model. Iterated Conditional Mode (ICM) is used for the minimization of the global energy for the MRF model. The motion segment for each frame is initialized using the segment information from the previous frame. For the initial frame, the motion segment is obtained by manually keying in the object contour. The motion-segments obtained using the proposed model are coherent and accurate. Experimental results on tracking using the proposed algorithm for different sequences -- Bream, Alexis and Claire are presented in this paper. The results obtained are accurate and can be used for a variety of applications including MPEG-4 Video Object Plane (VOP) extraction.

  6. Antioxidant effects of green tea

    PubMed Central

    FORESTER, SARAH C.; LAMBERT, JOSHUA D.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of green tea (Camellia sinensis) may provide protection against chronic diseases, including cancer. Green tea polyphenols are believed to be responsible for this cancer preventive effect, and the antioxidant activity of the green tea polyphenols has been implicated as a potential mechanism. This hypothesis has been difficult to study in vivo due to metabolism of these compounds and poor understanding of the redox environment in vivo. Green tea polyphenols can be direct antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species or chelating transition metals as has been demonstrated in vitro. Alternatively, they may act indirectly by up-regulating phase II antioxidant enzymes. Evidence of this latter effect has been observed in vivo, yet more work is required to determine under which conditions these mechanisms occur. Green tea polyphenols can also be potent pro-oxidants, both in vitro and in vivo, leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion. The potential role of these pro-oxidant effects in the cancer preventive activity of green tea is not well understood. The evidence for not only the antioxidant, but also pro-oxidant, properties of green tea are discussed in the present review. PMID:21538850

  7. Green tea and bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Yeh, James K; Cao, Jay J; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2009-07-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in both elderly women and men. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea or its bioactive components on bone health, with an emphasis on (i) the prevalence and etiology of osteoporosis; (ii) the role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in osteoporosis; (iii) green tea composition and bioavailability; (iv) the effects of green tea and its active components on osteogenesis, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis from human epidemiological, animal, as well as cell culture studies; (v) possible mechanisms explaining the osteoprotective effects of green tea bioactive compounds; (vi) other bioactive components in tea that benefit bone health; and (vii) a summary and future direction of green tea and bone health research and the translational aspects. In general, tea and its bioactive components might decrease the risk of fracture by improving bone mineral density and supporting osteoblastic activities while suppressing osteoclastic activities.

  8. Greening the German Classroom: Starting Points for a Cultural Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Angelika; DeMaris, Sarah Glenn; Moller-Tank, Beth

    2013-01-01

    The article presents and discusses materials for a cultural lesson about Green Germany. An introductory mini-unit frames the over-all student learning objective: students should be able to respond to the questions "Where are we?" and "Where are we going?" with regard to the natural environment. Three different units then help…

  9. Understanding Green Purchase Behavior: College Students and Socialization Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Ruoh-Nan; Xu, Huimin

    2010-01-01

    Taking the perspective of consumer socialization theory, this study examined the influences of different socialization agents on consumers' purchases of green products. A total of 224 surveys were distributed to students enrolled in a business-related course at a major university in the northeastern United States. The objectives were twofold. The…

  10. Application of NDE methods to green ceramics: initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Kupperman, D.S.; Karplus, H.B.; Poeppel, R.B.; Ellingson, W.A.; Berger, H.; Robbins, C.; Fuller, E.

    1984-03-01

    This paper describes a preliminary investigation to assess the effectiveness of microradiography, ultrasonic methods, nuclear magnetic resonance, and neutron radiography for the nondestructive evaluation of green (unfired), ceramics. Objective is to obtain useful information on defects, cracking, delaminations, agglomerates, inclusions, regions of high porosity, and anisotropy.

  11. Object Locating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A portable system is provided that is operational for determining, with three dimensional resolution, the position of a buried object or approximately positioned object that may move in space or air or gas. The system has a plurality of receivers for detecting the signal front a target antenna and measuring the phase thereof with respect to a reference signal. The relative permittivity and conductivity of the medium in which the object is located is used along with the measured phase signal to determine a distance between the object and each of the plurality of receivers. Knowing these distances. an iteration technique is provided for solving equations simultaneously to provide position coordinates. The system may also be used for tracking movement of an object within close range of the system by sampling and recording subsequent position of the object. A dipole target antenna. when positioned adjacent to a buried object, may be energized using a separate transmitter which couples energy to the target antenna through the medium. The target antenna then preferably resonates at a different frequency, such as a second harmonic of the transmitter frequency.

  12. It's hard to be green: Reverse green value chain.

    PubMed

    Couto, João; Tiago, Teresa; Gil, Artur; Tiago, Flávio; Faria, Sandra

    2016-08-01

    Firms have recently discovered that it is not enough to optimize internal processes and relationships with partners along the value chain to create a sustainable competitive market position. A clear customer orientation, which acknowledges that consumer buying behavior is complex and includes many elements implied in the value chain, is required. As companies offering green products are no exception to this rule, this study analyzes consumer behavior in Europe from a reserve green supply chain management perspective, using descriptive analyses and a structural equation model, with data collected by Flash Barometer comprising 26,573 responses from 28 European countries. The results suggest that European consumers are conscious of the green concept, but are not willing to buy or pay more for these products since the value is unclear. Companies offering green products must therefore rethink their strategies, especially in terms of value proposition, communication strategies, and eco-labeling.

  13. It's hard to be green: Reverse green value chain.

    PubMed

    Couto, João; Tiago, Teresa; Gil, Artur; Tiago, Flávio; Faria, Sandra

    2016-08-01

    Firms have recently discovered that it is not enough to optimize internal processes and relationships with partners along the value chain to create a sustainable competitive market position. A clear customer orientation, which acknowledges that consumer buying behavior is complex and includes many elements implied in the value chain, is required. As companies offering green products are no exception to this rule, this study analyzes consumer behavior in Europe from a reserve green supply chain management perspective, using descriptive analyses and a structural equation model, with data collected by Flash Barometer comprising 26,573 responses from 28 European countries. The results suggest that European consumers are conscious of the green concept, but are not willing to buy or pay more for these products since the value is unclear. Companies offering green products must therefore rethink their strategies, especially in terms of value proposition, communication strategies, and eco-labeling. PMID:27209347

  14. Measurement of Object Relations

    PubMed Central

    SMITH, THOMAS E.

    1993-01-01

    Although object relations theories are increasingly prominent in the psychoanalytic and psychotherapeutic literature, efforts to study these phenomena empirically remain in their infancy. Researchers interested in studying intrapsychic processes have nonetheless attempted to assess levels of object relatedness, and several reports have documented both construct and predictive validity. This literature is reviewed, with special emphasis on the difficulties involved in the development of assessment instruments. The author summarizes reliability and validity data on the most widely used instruments in an effort to provide general guidelines for researchers interested in developing strategies for measuring object relations. PMID:22700124

  15. [Development of green hospitals home and abroad].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yiju; Zeng, Na; Shen, Minxue; Sun, Zhenqiu

    2013-09-01

    Green hospital construction is a new challenge for medical industry after global sustainable development strategy was put forward. The core connotation of green hospital includes green building, green healthcare, patient safety, and doctor-patient harmony. Many countries have established green building evaluation system to deal with energy crisis. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), Green Guide for Health Care (GGHC) in the U.S., and Evaluation System for Green Hospital Building (CSUS/GBC 2-2011) in China have guiding significance for the development of green hospitals in China. The evaluation system of green hospitals home and abroad still focuses on green building, and establishment of suitable synthesis evaluation system of green hospitals in China needs further research. PMID:24071694

  16. [Development of green hospitals home and abroad].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yiju; Zeng, Na; Shen, Minxue; Sun, Zhenqiu

    2013-09-01

    Green hospital construction is a new challenge for medical industry after global sustainable development strategy was put forward. The core connotation of green hospital includes green building, green healthcare, patient safety, and doctor-patient harmony. Many countries have established green building evaluation system to deal with energy crisis. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), Green Guide for Health Care (GGHC) in the U.S., and Evaluation System for Green Hospital Building (CSUS/GBC 2-2011) in China have guiding significance for the development of green hospitals in China. The evaluation system of green hospitals home and abroad still focuses on green building, and establishment of suitable synthesis evaluation system of green hospitals in China needs further research.

  17. Green roofs: potential at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, Elena M

    2009-01-01

    Green roofs, roof systems that support vegetation, are rapidly becoming one of the most popular sustainable methods to combat urban environmental problems in North America. An extensive list of literature has been published in the past three decades recording the ecological benefits of green roofs; and now those benefits have been measured in enumerated data as a means to analyze the costs and returns of green roof technology. Most recently several studies have made substantial progress quantifying the monetary savings associated with storm water mitigation, the lessoning of the Urban Heat Island, and reduction of building cooling demands due to the implementation of green roof systems. Like any natural vegetation, a green roof is capable of absorbing the precipitation that falls on it. This capability has shown to significantly decrease the amount of storm water runoff produced by buildings as well as slow the rate at which runoff is dispensed. As a result of this reduction in volume and velocity, storm drains and sewage systems are relieved of any excess stress they might experience in a storm. For many municipalities and private building owners, any increase in storm water mitigation can result in major tax incentives and revenue that does not have to be spent on extra water treatments. Along with absorption of water, vegetation on green roofs is also capable of transpiration, the process by which moisture is evaporated into the air to cool ambient temperatures. This natural process aims to minimize the Urban Heat Island Effect, a phenomenon brought on by the dark and paved surfaces that increases air temperatures in urban cores. As the sun distributes solar radiation over a city's area, dark surfaces such as bitumen rooftops absorb solar rays and their heat. That heat is later released during the evening hours and the ambient temperatures do not cool as they normally would, creating an island of constant heat. Such excessively high temperatures induce heat

  18. Using reusable learning objects.

    PubMed

    Billings, Diane M

    2010-02-01

    Reusable learning objects (RLOs) are predeveloped digital learning activities that can be integrated into lessons, modules, and courses. Several repositories have nursing-specific RLOs waiting to be used by nurse educators.

  19. Preservation of Digital Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to preservation of digital objects: practical examples; stakeholders; recordkeeping standards; genre-specific problems; trusted repository standards; preservation methods; preservation metadata standards; and future directions. (Contains 82 references.) (MES)

  20. Quantum origins of objectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horodecki, R.; Korbicz, J. K.; Horodecki, P.

    2015-03-01

    In spite of all of its successes, quantum mechanics leaves us with a central problem: How does nature create a bridge from fragile quanta to the objective world of everyday experience? Here we find that a basic structure within quantum mechanics that leads to the perceived objectivity is a so-called spectrum broadcast structure. We uncover this based on minimal assumptions, without referring to any dynamical details or a concrete model. More specifically, working formally within the decoherence theory setting with multiple environments (called quantum Darwinism), we show how a crucial for quantum mechanics notion of nondisturbance due to Bohr [N. Bohr, Phys. Rev. 48, 696 (1935), 10.1103/PhysRev.48.696] and a natural definition of objectivity lead to a canonical structure of a quantum system-environment state, reflecting objective information records about the system stored in the environment.

  1. Building Green: The Adoption Process of LEED- and Energy Star-Rated Office Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkani, Arvin P.

    There are opportunities for green building technology in office buildings to produce energy savings and cost efficiencies that can produce a positive economic and environmental impact. In order for these opportunities to be realized, however, decision makers must appreciate the value of green building technology. The objective of this research is to better understand the motivations that lead office building professionals to adopt green building technology. By utilizing a validated theory named the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), the investigator analyzes the impact of four predictor variables on the behavioral intention to adopt green building technology. The adapted UTAUT model, called the Green Building Technology Model (GBTM), was found to have a statistically significant correlation with the intention to adopt green building technology. The results provide a model for using the GBTM in green building technology applications. Implications are drawn for the green industry on the whole and for the green office building movement in particular. Industry and government can develop interventions based on the insights learned from this study about the adoption process. These interventions, such as education or awareness campaigns, can help increase the adoption of green building technology, further advancing society's efforts to conserve the natural environment and achieve cost efficiencies.

  2. Bactericidal activity of green tea extracts: the importance of catechin containing nano particles

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Judy; Muthu, Manikandan; Paul, Diby; Kim, Doo-Hwan; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-01

    When we drink green tea infusion, we believe we are drinking the extract of the green tea leaves. While practically each tea bag infused in 300 mL water contains about 50 mg of suspended green tea leaf particles. What is the role of these particles in the green tea effect is the objective of this study. These particles (three different size ranges) were isolated via varying speed centrifugation and their respective inputs evaluated. Live oral bacterial samples from human volunteers have been screened against green tea extracts and macro, micro and nano sized green tea particles. The results showed that the presence/absence of the macro and mico sized tea particles in the green tea extract did not contribute much. However, the nano sized particles were characterized to be nature’s nano stores of the bioactive catechins. Eradication of these nano tea particles resulted in decrease in the bactericidal property of the green tea extracts. This is a curtain raiser investigation, busting the nano as well as green tea leaf particle contribution in green tea extracts. PMID:26818408

  3. Bactericidal activity of green tea extracts: the importance of catechin containing nano particles.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Judy; Muthu, Manikandan; Paul, Diby; Kim, Doo-Hwan; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-28

    When we drink green tea infusion, we believe we are drinking the extract of the green tea leaves. While practically each tea bag infused in 300 mL water contains about 50 mg of suspended green tea leaf particles. What is the role of these particles in the green tea effect is the objective of this study. These particles (three different size ranges) were isolated via varying speed centrifugation and their respective inputs evaluated. Live oral bacterial samples from human volunteers have been screened against green tea extracts and macro, micro and nano sized green tea particles. The results showed that the presence/absence of the macro and mico sized tea particles in the green tea extract did not contribute much. However, the nano sized particles were characterized to be nature's nano stores of the bioactive catechins. Eradication of these nano tea particles resulted in decrease in the bactericidal property of the green tea extracts. This is a curtain raiser investigation, busting the nano as well as green tea leaf particle contribution in green tea extracts.

  4. Lipoprotein processing is essential for resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to malachite green.

    PubMed

    Banaei, Niaz; Kincaid, Eleanor Z; Lin, S-Y Grace; Desmond, Edward; Jacobs, William R; Ernst, Joel D

    2009-09-01

    Malachite green, a synthetic antimicrobial dye, has been used for over 50 years in mycobacterial culture medium to inhibit the growth of contaminants. The molecular basis of mycobacterial resistance to malachite green is unknown, although the presence of malachite green-reducing enzymes in the cell envelope has been suggested. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of lipoproteins in resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to malachite green. The replication of an M. tuberculosis lipoprotein signal peptidase II (lspA) mutant (DeltalspA::lspAmut) on Middlebrook agar with and without 1 mg/liter malachite green was investigated. The lspA mutant was also compared with wild-type M. tuberculosis in the decolorization rate of malachite green and sensitivity to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) detergent and first-line antituberculosis drugs. The lspA mutant has a 10(4)-fold reduction in CFU-forming efficiency on Middlebrook agar with malachite green. Malachite green is decolorized faster in the presence of the lspA mutant than wild-type bacteria. The lspA mutant is hypersensitive to SDS detergent and shows increased sensitivity to first-line antituberculosis drugs. In summary, lipoprotein processing by LspA is essential for resistance of M. tuberculosis to malachite green. A cell wall permeability defect is likely responsible for the hypersensitivity of lspA mutant to malachite green.

  5. Gore proposes green strategy

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-26

    A national environmental technology strategy laying out incentives for developing and using {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} technology was announced last week by Vice President Al Gore. The plan proposes a national goal of cutting waste 40%-50% and using 20%-25% less materials/unit of gross domestic product by Earth Day 2020. To meet that goal, the federal government aims to streamline environmental permitting, provide federal sites where US firms can test and demonstrate new technologies, create flexible regulation that encourages efficient and effective technologies, encourage research on pollution prevention, and improve monitoring data and information systems. The Administration says environmental technology is providing job growth twice that of the economy as a whole, and global markets are expected to rise from $300 billion to $500 billion by 2000. It adds that the US is the world market leader but only by a slim- and slipping-margin. Whereas previous federal support for environmental technologies focused on the front end of R&D and prototyping, the new strategy aims to bring technologies to market and encourage exports, according to the Administration`s National Commission for Employment Policy, which issued two reports last week. The commission says federal environmental policies now produce 68,000-80,000 jobs and contribute $3.5 billion-$3.7 billion to the economy.

  6. [Study on spectral detection of green plant target].

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei; Zhao, Chun-jiang; He, Xiong-kui; Chen, Li-ping; Zhang, Lu-da; Wu, Guang-wei; Mueller, J; Zhai, Chang-yuan

    2010-08-01

    Weeds grow scatteredly in fields, where many insentient objects exist, for example, withered grasses, dry twig and barriers. In order to improve the precision level of spraying, it is important to study green plant detecting technology. The present paper discussed detecting method of green plant by using spectral recognizing technology, because of the real-time feature of spectral recognition. By analyzing the reflectivity difference between each of the two sides of the "red edge" of the spectrum from plants and surrounding environment, green plant discriminat index (GPDI) is defined as the value which equals the reflectivity ratio at the wavelength of 850 nm divided by the reflectivity ratio at the wavelength of 650 nm. The original spectral data of green plants and the background were measured by using the handhold FieldSpec 3 Spectroradiometer manufactured by ASD Inc. in USA. The spectral data were processed to get the reflectivity of each measured objects and to work out the GPDI thereof as well. The classification model of green plant and its background was built up using decision tree method in order to obtain the threshold of GPDI to distinguish green plants and the background. The threshold of GPDI was chosen as 5.54. The detected object was recognized as green plant when it is GPDI>GPDITH, and vice versa. Through another test, the accuracy rate was verified which was 100% by using the threshold. The authors designed and developed the green plant detector based on single chip microcomputer (SCM) "AT89S51" and photodiode "OPT101" to realize detecting green plants from the background. After passing through two optical filters, the center wavelengths of which are 650 and 850 nm respectively, the reflected light from measured targets was detected by two photodiodes and converted into electrical signals. These analog signals were then converted to digital signals via an analog-to-digital converter (ADS7813) after being amplified by a signal amplifier (OP400

  7. Movie Trailer: 'Romancing the Green'

    NASA Video Gallery

    The research and development by NASA Aeronautics of next generation "green" technologies and systems are highlighted in this parody of a "coming attraction" trailer produced by NASA Television. The...

  8. A blueprint for green marketing.

    PubMed

    Davis, J J

    1991-01-01

    Companies have rushed to market environmentally acceptable products. But according to the author, many have ignored the planning considerations that should have preceded the development and promotion of these "green" products. PMID:10112307

  9. Balancing green and grain trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yiping; Wang, Kaibo; Lin, Yishan; Shi, Weiyu; Song, Yi; He, Xinhua

    2015-10-01

    Since 1999, China's Grain for Green project has greatly increased the vegetation cover on the Loess Plateau. Now that erosion levels have returned to historic values, vegetation should be maintained but not expanded further as planned.

  10. USPS – Lean Green Teams

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-01

    Institutional change case study details the U.S. Postal Service's Lean Green Teams, which collaborate across functions to identify and implement low- and no-cost ways to conserve natural resources, purchase fewer consumable products, and reduce waste.

  11. Green Construction in Building Renovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksit, Barbara; Majcherek, Michał

    2016-06-01

    Modern materials and construction solutions draw more and more attention to ecology and building certification. Among the criteria appearing in revitalization, an important element is bringing plants back into heavily urbanized areas. In its natural form, this is not possible to carry out everywhere, often requiring large amounts of space. Nowadays, however, there are a number of green roofs and green wall systems, allowing "greener" construction without making significant changes in the urban environment. The article includes a presentation and analysis of selected solutions of biological surfaces known as green roofs and green walls, specifying various solutions and their most important features. The case study focuses primarily on material and design solutions, as well as the potential benefits, risks and limitations in their use. Plants structures on the surfaces of vertical and horizontal partitions continue to be a very interesting alternative to take into account when applying for grants, such as LEED or BREEAM certificates.

  12. Green Building and School Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiNola, Ralph; Guerra, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of green, or high-performance, buildings, such as health and comfort, cost effectiveness, and sustainability. Explores the barriers to their use by schools--most notably cost. Offers suggestions on overcoming these barriers. (EV)

  13. Objects of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Donald D; Prakash, Chetan

    2014-01-01

    Current models of visual perception typically assume that human vision estimates true properties of physical objects, properties that exist even if unperceived. However, recent studies of perceptual evolution, using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms, reveal that natural selection often drives true perceptions to extinction when they compete with perceptions tuned to fitness rather than truth: Perception guides adaptive behavior; it does not estimate a preexisting physical truth. Moreover, shifting from evolutionary biology to quantum physics, there is reason to disbelieve in preexisting physical truths: Certain interpretations of quantum theory deny that dynamical properties of physical objects have definite values when unobserved. In some of these interpretations the observer is fundamental, and wave functions are compendia of subjective probabilities, not preexisting elements of physical reality. These two considerations, from evolutionary biology and quantum physics, suggest that current models of object perception require fundamental reformulation. Here we begin such a reformulation, starting with a formal model of consciousness that we call a "conscious agent." We develop the dynamics of interacting conscious agents, and study how the perception of objects and space-time can emerge from such dynamics. We show that one particular object, the quantum free particle, has a wave function that is identical in form to the harmonic functions that characterize the asymptotic dynamics of conscious agents; particles are vibrations not of strings but of interacting conscious agents. This allows us to reinterpret physical properties such as position, momentum, and energy as properties of interacting conscious agents, rather than as preexisting physical truths. We sketch how this approach might extend to the perception of relativistic quantum objects, and to classical objects of macroscopic scale.

  14. Objects of consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Donald D.; Prakash, Chetan

    2014-01-01

    Current models of visual perception typically assume that human vision estimates true properties of physical objects, properties that exist even if unperceived. However, recent studies of perceptual evolution, using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms, reveal that natural selection often drives true perceptions to extinction when they compete with perceptions tuned to fitness rather than truth: Perception guides adaptive behavior; it does not estimate a preexisting physical truth. Moreover, shifting from evolutionary biology to quantum physics, there is reason to disbelieve in preexisting physical truths: Certain interpretations of quantum theory deny that dynamical properties of physical objects have definite values when unobserved. In some of these interpretations the observer is fundamental, and wave functions are compendia of subjective probabilities, not preexisting elements of physical reality. These two considerations, from evolutionary biology and quantum physics, suggest that current models of object perception require fundamental reformulation. Here we begin such a reformulation, starting with a formal model of consciousness that we call a “conscious agent.” We develop the dynamics of interacting conscious agents, and study how the perception of objects and space-time can emerge from such dynamics. We show that one particular object, the quantum free particle, has a wave function that is identical in form to the harmonic functions that characterize the asymptotic dynamics of conscious agents; particles are vibrations not of strings but of interacting conscious agents. This allows us to reinterpret physical properties such as position, momentum, and energy as properties of interacting conscious agents, rather than as preexisting physical truths. We sketch how this approach might extend to the perception of relativistic quantum objects, and to classical objects of macroscopic scale. PMID:24987382

  15. Objects of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Donald D; Prakash, Chetan

    2014-01-01

    Current models of visual perception typically assume that human vision estimates true properties of physical objects, properties that exist even if unperceived. However, recent studies of perceptual evolution, using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms, reveal that natural selection often drives true perceptions to extinction when they compete with perceptions tuned to fitness rather than truth: Perception guides adaptive behavior; it does not estimate a preexisting physical truth. Moreover, shifting from evolutionary biology to quantum physics, there is reason to disbelieve in preexisting physical truths: Certain interpretations of quantum theory deny that dynamical properties of physical objects have definite values when unobserved. In some of these interpretations the observer is fundamental, and wave functions are compendia of subjective probabilities, not preexisting elements of physical reality. These two considerations, from evolutionary biology and quantum physics, suggest that current models of object perception require fundamental reformulation. Here we begin such a reformulation, starting with a formal model of consciousness that we call a "conscious agent." We develop the dynamics of interacting conscious agents, and study how the perception of objects and space-time can emerge from such dynamics. We show that one particular object, the quantum free particle, has a wave function that is identical in form to the harmonic functions that characterize the asymptotic dynamics of conscious agents; particles are vibrations not of strings but of interacting conscious agents. This allows us to reinterpret physical properties such as position, momentum, and energy as properties of interacting conscious agents, rather than as preexisting physical truths. We sketch how this approach might extend to the perception of relativistic quantum objects, and to classical objects of macroscopic scale. PMID:24987382

  16. The Road to a Green District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutter, Rachel; Knupp, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Green design, green construction, and green operations for new buildings are rapidly becoming the norm for school districts throughout the country. Today, increased availability of green products and technology coupled with cost savings that are realized through an integrated design process mean that schools like Arabia Mountain High School in…

  17. The Road to a Green District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutter, Rachel; Knupp, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Green design, green construction and green operations for new buildings are rapidly becoming the norm for school districts throughout the country. Today, increased availability of green products and technology coupled with cost savings that are realized through an integrated design process mean that schools like Arabia Mountain High School can be…

  18. On the colors of distant objects.

    PubMed

    Lynch, David K; Mazuk, S

    2005-09-20

    Distant objects like clouds, mountains, and the Sun can appear to have colors that are significantly different from their intrinsic colors: the low Sun is often red, white clouds and snow-capped peaks appear yellow or pink, and dark green or gray mountains can appear blue or purple. The color alteration increases with distance, or alternatively, optical depth. We investigate the perceived colors of distant objects by computing the CIE chromaticity coordinates from their spectra. For sources viewed through significant amounts of atmosphere (e.g., the low Sun), MODTRAN4 radiative-transfer calculations are used to retrieve the spectra. In addition to clouds and mountains, the colors of stars, the Sun, and the sky are presented as a function of solar elevation under a variety of atmospheric conditions.

  19. Brief Discussion on Green Building Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jia-wei; Sun, Jian

    2014-08-01

    With more and more emphasizes on the environment and resources, the concept of green buildings has been widely accepted. Building materials are vectors of architectures, only if green building materials and related technical means are used, can we construct green buildings to achieve the purpose of energy conservation and environmental protection. This paper introduces the relationship between green building materials and green buildings, the current situation of green building materials in China, as well as the measures to accelerate the development of green building materials.

  20. [Medicine and conscientious objection].

    PubMed

    Martínez, K

    2007-01-01

    Conscientious objection to democratically accepted laws in democratic societies is a fact, both among citizens and among professionals. Due respect for laws is a prima facie duty in these societies. But democratic justice must at the same time respect peoples' conscience for it constitutes the ethical identity of individuals. And both law and ethics are necessary - although neither of them is sufficient - for its realization. The problem of conscientious objection among healthcare professionals is analysed from this standpoint and the conclusion is that objection is not an absolute right to exemption from several duties, but that the responsibility of the professional and of the institutions towards the citizenry must always be taken into account. Some solutions are suggested that try to protect both the professionals and the citizens in a bi-directional way.