Science.gov

Sample records for greenhouse gas policy

  1. Wellbeing Impacts of City Policies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias; Martuzzi, Marco; Perez, Laura; Sabel, Clive

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what ‘wellbeing’ is and how it can be operationalized for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies. PMID:25464129

  2. Wellbeing impacts of city policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias; Martuzzi, Marco; Perez, Laura; Sabel, Clive

    2014-11-28

    To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what 'wellbeing' is and how it can be operationalised for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies.

  3. Interactions between greenhouse gas policies and acid rain control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, D.E.; Kane, R.L.; Mansueti, L.

    1997-12-31

    Conventional wisdom and much of the public policy debate have usually drawn a clean delineation between acid rain issues and global warming concerns. This traditional approach of evaluating one policy at a time is too simplistic to serve as a framework for electric utilities making major capital investment and fuel procurement decisions to comply with various environmental requirements. Potential Climate change regulation can affect acid rain compliance decisions, and acid rain compliance decisions will affect future GHG emissions. This paper explores two categories of linkages between these different environmental issues. First, the assumptions one makes regarding future climate change policies can have a profound impact on the economic attractiveness of various acid rain compliance strategies. Second, decisions regarding acid rain compliance strategy can have greenhouse gas implications that might prove more or less difficult to address in future climate change legislation.

  4. Providing policy-relevant information for greenhouse gas management: Perspectives from science and technology policy research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilling, L.

    2009-12-01

    In the 12 years since the Kyoto Protocol was signed setting forth targets for greenhouse gas emissions from several nations, the number of policies, voluntary programs and commercial enterprises that have developed to manage carbon has grown exponentially. Many of these programs have occurred in a voluntary context, such as carbon trading, carbon offset programs, and climate registries . To date, no single, common system for accrediting, verifying and recording carbon credits has developed. Moreover, as the international community continues to negotiate the dimensions of an international agreement for the post-Kyoto time period, discussions still center on targets for fossil fuel emissions, biospheric carbon protection, and appropriate distribution of the burden of compliance globally. If carbon still remains the currency for discussion in a climate agreement, some type of effective measurement and verification system will be needed to ensure that commitments are being met. While entire volumes over the past decade have been written on what it is possible to observe about the carbon cycle and how to do so-- these tend to describe observations from the perspective of studying the carbon cycle to discover fundamental new knowledge. I will argue, however, that for the application under consideration in this session, i.e. a global greenhouse gas information system, it is essential to bring in the perspective of the policy and regulatory community. The needs of the scientific community for measuring the uncertainties in the global carbon cycle are not necessarily the same as those for the policy community. To ensure that such a system can serve a policy-relevant function, the scientific community must engage with policy makers, entrepreneurs, those who must comply, and others involved in constructing the policy framework. This paper will examine some of the key fundamentals that the policy community may be considering in designing a greenhouse gas monitoring system. I

  5. Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model

    SciTech Connect

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

    2013-10-10

    A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas (GHG) and regional criteria pollutant emissions. The model included representations of all GHG- emitting sectors of the California economy (including those outside the energy sector, such as high global warming potential gases, waste treatment, agriculture and forestry) in varying degrees of detail, and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources. Starting from basic drivers such as population, numbers of households, gross state product, numbers of vehicles, etc., the model calculated energy demands by type (various types of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three criteria pollutants: reactive organic gases (ROG), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine (2.5 ?m) particulate matter (PM2.5). Calculations were generally statewide, but in some sectors, criteria pollutants were also calculated for two regional air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Three scenarios were developed that attempt to model: (1) all committed policies, (2) additional, uncommitted policy targets and (3) potential technology and market futures. Each scenario received extensive input from state energy planning agencies, in particular the California Air Resources Board. Results indicate that all three scenarios are able to meet the 2020 statewide GHG targets, and by 2030, statewide GHG emissions range from between 208 and 396 MtCO2/yr. However, none of the scenarios are able to meet the 2050 GHG target of 85 MtCO2/yr, with emissions ranging from 188 to 444 MtCO2/yr, so additional policies will need to be developed for California to meet this stringent future target. A full sensitivity study of major scenario assumptions was also performed. In terms of criteria pollutants

  6. The Greenhouse Effect: Science and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Stephen H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses many of the scientific questions surrounding the greenhouse effect debate and the issue of plausible responses. Discussion includes topics concerning projecting emissions and greenhouse gas concentrations, estimating global climatic response, economic, social, and political impacts, and policy responses. (RT)

  7. Benefits on public health from transport-related greenhouse gas mitigation policies in Southeastern European cities.

    PubMed

    Sarigiannis, D A; Kontoroupis, P; Nikolaki, S; Gotti, A; Chapizanis, D; Karakitsios, S

    2017-02-01

    Climate change is a major environmental threat of our time. Cities have a significant impact on greenhouse gas emissions as most of the traffic, industry, commerce and more than 50% of world population is situated in urban areas. Southern Europe is a region that faces financial turmoil, enhanced migratory fluxes and climate change pressure. The case study of Thessaloniki is presented, one of the only two cities in Greece with established climate change action plans. The effects of feasible traffic policies in year 2020 are assessed and their potential health impact is compared to a business as usual scenario. Two types of measures are investigated: operation of underground rail in the city centre and changes in fleet composition. Potential co-benefits from reduced greenhouse gas emissions on public health by the year 2020 are computed utilizing state-of-the-art concentration response functions for PMx, NO2 and C6H6. Results show significant environmental health and monetary co-benefits when the city metro is coupled with appropriate changes in the traffic composition. Monetary savings due to avoided mortality or leukaemia incidence corresponding to the reduction in PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and C6H6 exposure will be 56.6, 45, 37.7 and 1.0 million Euros respectively. Promotion of 'green' transportation in the city (i.e. the wide use of electric vehicles), will provide monetary savings from the reduction in PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and C6H6 exposure up to 60.4, 49.1, 41.2 and 1.08 million Euros. Overall, it was shown that the respective GHG emission reduction policies resulted in clear co-benefits in terms of air quality improvement, public health protection and monetary loss mitigation.

  8. National greenhouse-gas accounting for effective climate policy on international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kander, Astrid; Jiborn, Magnus; Moran, Daniel D.; Wiedmann, Thomas O.

    2015-05-01

    National greenhouse-gas accounting should reflect how countries’ policies and behaviours affect global emissions. Actions that contribute to reduced global emissions should be credited, and actions that increase them should be penalized. This is essential if accounting is to serve as accurate guidance for climate policy. Yet this principle is not satisfied by the two most common accounting methods. Production-based accounting used under the Kyoto Protocol does not account for carbon leakage--the phenomenon of countries reducing their domestic emissions by shifting carbon-intensive production abroad. Consumption-based accounting (also called carbon footprinting) does not credit countries for cleaning up their export industries, and it also punishes some types of trade that could contribute to more carbon efficient production worldwide. We propose an improvement to consumption-based carbon accounting that takes technology differences in export sectors into account and thereby tends to more correctly reflect how national policy changes affect total global emissions. We also present empirical results showing how this new measure redraws the global emissions map.

  9. Impact of policy on greenhouse gas emissions and economics of biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Olivetti, Elsa; Gülşen, Ece; Malça, João; Castanheira, Erica; Freire, Fausto; Dias, Luis; Kirchain, Randolph

    2014-07-01

    As an alternative transportation fuel to petrodiesel, biodiesel has been promoted within national energy portfolio targets across the world. Early estimations of low lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of biodiesel were a driver behind extensive government support in the form of financial incentives for the industry. However, studies consistently report a high degree of uncertainty in these emissions estimates, raising questions concerning the carbon benefits of biodiesel. Furthermore, the implications of feedstock blending on GHG emissions uncertainty have not been explicitly addressed despite broad practice by the industry to meet fuel quality standards and to control costs. This work investigated the impact of feedstock blending on the characteristics of biodiesel by using a chance-constrained (CC) blend optimization method. The objective of the optimization is minimization of feedstock costs subject to fuel standards and emissions constraints. Results indicate that blending can be used to manage GHG emissions uncertainty characteristics of biodiesel, and to achieve cost reductions through feedstock diversification. Simulations suggest that emissions control policies that restrict the use of certain feedstocks based on their GHG estimates overlook blending practices and benefits, increasing the cost of biodiesel. In contrast, emissions control policies which recognize the multifeedstock nature of biodiesel provide producers with feedstock selection flexibility, enabling them to manage their blend portfolios cost effectively, potentially without compromising fuel quality or emissions reductions.

  10. Uncertainty in life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from United States natural gas end-uses and its effects on policy.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Aranya; Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2011-10-01

    Increasing concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States have spurred interest in alternate low carbon fuel sources, such as natural gas. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methods can be used to estimate potential emissions reductions through the use of such fuels. Some recent policies have used the results of LCAs to encourage the use of low carbon fuels to meet future energy demands in the U.S., without, however, acknowledging and addressing the uncertainty and variability prevalent in LCA. Natural gas is a particularly interesting fuel since it can be used to meet various energy demands, for example, as a transportation fuel or in power generation. Estimating the magnitudes and likelihoods of achieving emissions reductions from competing end-uses of natural gas using LCA offers one way to examine optimal strategies of natural gas resource allocation, given that its availability is likely to be limited in the future. In this study, the uncertainty in life cycle GHG emissions of natural gas (domestic and imported) consumed in the U.S. was estimated using probabilistic modeling methods. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to obtain sample distributions representing life cycle GHG emissions from the use of 1 MJ of domestic natural gas and imported LNG. Life cycle GHG emissions per energy unit of average natural gas consumed in the U.S were found to range between -8 and 9% of the mean value of 66 g CO(2)e/MJ. The probabilities of achieving emissions reductions by using natural gas for transportation and power generation, as a substitute for incumbent fuels such as gasoline, diesel, and coal were estimated. The use of natural gas for power generation instead of coal was found to have the highest and most likely emissions reductions (almost a 100% probability of achieving reductions of 60 g CO(2)e/MJ of natural gas used), while there is a 10-35% probability of the emissions from natural gas being higher than the incumbent if it were used as a

  11. The effect of agency budgets on minimizing greenhouse gas emissions from road rehabilitation policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reger, Darren; Madanat, Samer; Horvath, Arpad

    2015-11-01

    Transportation agencies are being urged to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One possible solution within their scope is to alter their pavement management system to include environmental impacts. Managing pavement assets is important because poor road conditions lead to increased fuel consumption of vehicles. Rehabilitation activities improve pavement condition, but require materials and construction equipment, which produce GHG emissions as well. The agency’s role is to decide when to rehabilitate the road segments in the network. In previous work, we sought to minimize total societal costs (user and agency costs combined) subject to an emissions constraint for a road network, and demonstrated that there exists a range of potentially optimal solutions (a Pareto frontier) with tradeoffs between costs and GHG emissions. However, we did not account for the case where the available financial budget to the agency is binding. This letter considers an agency whose main goal is to reduce its carbon footprint while operating under a constrained financial budget. A Lagrangian dual solution methodology is applied, which selects the optimal timing and optimal action from a set of alternatives for each segment. This formulation quantifies GHG emission savings per additional dollar of agency budget spent, which can be used in a cap-and-trade system or to make budget decisions. We discuss the importance of communication between agencies and their legislature that sets the financial budgets to implement sustainable policies. We show that for a case study of Californian roads, it is optimal to apply frequent, thin overlays as opposed to the less frequent, thick overlays recommended in the literature if the objective is to minimize GHG emissions. A promising new technology, warm-mix asphalt, will have a negligible effect on reducing GHG emissions for road resurfacing under constrained budgets.

  12. Production efficiencies of U.S. electric generation plants: Effects of data aggregation and greenhouse gas and renewable energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynes, Melissa Kate

    Over the last few decades there has been a shift in electricity production in the U.S. Renewable energy sources are becoming more widely used. In addition, electric generation plants that use coal inputs are more heavily regulated than a couple decades ago. This shift in electricity production was brought on by changes in federal policy -- a desire for electricity produced in the U.S. which led to policies being adopted that encourage the use of renewable energy. The change in production practices due to policies may have led to changes in the productivity of electric generation plants. Multiple studies have examined the most efficient electric generation plants using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach. This study builds on past research to answer three questions: 1) Does the level of aggregation of fuel input variables affect the plant efficiency scores and how does the efficiency of renewable energy input compare to nonrenewable energy inputs; 2) Are policies geared toward directly or indirectly reducing greenhouse gas emissions affecting the production efficiencies of greenhouse gas emitting electric generation plants; and 3) Do renewable energy policies and the use of intermittent energy sources (i.e. wind and solar) affect the productivity growth of electric generation plants. All three analysis, presented in three essays, use U.S. plant level data obtained from the Energy Information Administration to answer these questions. The first two essays use DEA to determine the pure technical, overall technical, and scale efficiencies of electric generation plants. The third essay uses DEA within the Malmquist index to assess the change in productivity over time. Results indicate that the level of aggregation does matter particularly for scale efficiency. This implies that valuable information is likely lost when fuel inputs are aggregated together. Policies directly focused on reducing greenhouse gas emissions may improve the production efficiencies of

  13. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Adoption Increases Fleet Gasoline Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions under United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy Policy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards.

    PubMed

    Jenn, Alan; Azevedo, Inês M L; Michalek, Jeremy J

    2016-03-01

    The United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission standards are designed to reduce petroleum consumption and GHG emissions from light-duty passenger vehicles. They do so by requiring automakers to meet aggregate criteria for fleet fuel efficiency and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rates. Several incentives for manufacturers to sell alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have been introduced in recent updates of CAFE/GHG policy for vehicles sold from 2012 through 2025 to help encourage a fleet technology transition. These incentives allow automakers that sell AFVs to meet less-stringent fleet efficiency targets, resulting in increased fleet-wide gasoline consumption and emissions. We derive a closed-form expression to quantify these effects. We find that each time an AFV is sold in place of a conventional vehicle, fleet emissions increase by 0 to 60 t of CO2 and gasoline consumption increases by 0 to 7000 gallons (26,000 L), depending on the AFV and year of sale. Using projections for vehicles sold from 2012 to 2025 from the Energy Information Administration, we estimate that the CAFE/GHG AFV incentives lead to a cumulative increase of 30 to 70 million metric tons of CO2 and 3 to 8 billion gallons (11 to 30 billion liters) of gasoline consumed over the vehicles' lifetimes - the largest share of which is due to legacy GHG flex-fuel vehicle credits that expire in 2016. These effects may be 30-40% larger in practice than we estimate here due to optimistic laboratory vehicle efficiency tests used in policy compliance calculations.

  14. Netherlands policy-making process on scenarios and projections for greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkus, Henk; Iestra, Wim

    1996-01-01

    An important commitment in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) for so-called Annex I Parties (OECD plus Central and Eastern Europe) is the communication on climate change policies. A detailed description of policies and measures and specific estimates of their effects on projected anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks are crucial chapters in each Annex I Party communication. This article focuses on the Netherlands' climate change policy-making process with respect to projections of greenhouse gases (GHG). A main element of this process is the periodic monitoring of the progress of climate change policy, including assessment of effects of implemented measures, updating the validity of assumptions made, and analysis of structural economic changes. Another element of this policy-making process is analysis of the cost-effectiveness of possible mitigation options and evaluation of the impacts of these options. Several monitoring and analysis instruments and modeling tools used in this process are discussed, as is the broader framework. Attention is also given to the FCCC review process and its relevance for the Netherlands' policy-making process.

  15. The making of greenhouse policy

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of anthropogenic climate change on a global scale has raised a public policy debate which has become the archetypical science policy issue. Against a background of natural changes in the earth's climate man has altered the surface of the earth and its atmosphere. We have evidence of increases in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The computer models of the climate effect take into account this input, but do not adequately simulate fundamental aspects of the Earth system which may reduce or increase the predicted climate effects. The average global temperatures did not increase from 1979 to 1989 yet global increases in releases of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere were at unprecendented levels. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, an international body, has set up three working groups to investigate different aspects of climate change. Their reports were presented to the Second World Climate Conference in Geneva from October 29 to November 7, 1990. All three groups cited uncertainties in their assessments of effects of global climate change. A government wide U.S. Global Change Research Program has been formed to monitor and understand the Earth system and predict global change. President Bush has asked for over $1 billion to fund this research program. Social and economic factors will play a large role in any policy decisions that affect climate change. Policies have been instituted by this administration which will reduce greenhouse-gas-emissions. These include the phasing out of CFCs by the year 2000, The Clean Air Act being debated by Congress, and a National Energy Strategy. President Bush has proposed the U.S. host the first negotiating sessions leading to an international agreement on greenhouse policy.

  16. Greenhouse Gas Court Decision

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the June 26, 2012, U.S. Court of Appeals- D.C. Circuit's decision to uphold EPA's Endangerment Finding and greenhouse gas regulations issued under the Clean Air Act (CAA) for passenger vehicles and CAA permitting for stationary sources.

  17. Economically and environmentally informed policy for road resurfacing: tradeoffs between costs and greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reger, Darren; Madanat, Samer; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-10-01

    As road conditions worsen, users experience an increase in fuel consumption and vehicle wear and tear. This increases the costs incurred by the drivers, and also increases the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that vehicles emit. Pavement condition can be improved through rehabilitation activities (resurfacing) to reduce the effects on users, but these activities also have significant cost and GHG emission impacts. The objective of pavement management is to minimize total societal (user and agency) costs. However, the environmental impacts associated with the cost-minimizing policy are not currently accounted for. We show that there exists a range of potentially optimal decisions, known as the Pareto frontier, in which it is not possible to decrease total emissions without increasing total costs and vice versa. This research explores these tradeoffs for a system of pavement segments. For a case study, a network was created from a subset of California’s highways using available traffic data. It was shown that the current resurfacing strategy used by the state’s transportation agency, Caltrans, does not fall on the Pareto frontier, meaning that significant savings in both total costs and total emissions can be achieved by switching to one of the optimal policies. The methods presented in this paper also allow the decision maker to evaluate the impact of other policies, such as reduced vehicle kilometers traveled or better construction standards.

  18. The impact of economic activity in Asturias on greenhouse gas emissions: consequences for environmental policy within the Kyoto Protocol framework.

    PubMed

    Argüelles, Margarita; Benavides, Carmen; Junquera, Beatriz

    2006-11-01

    Climate change is one of the major worldwide environmental concerns. It is especially the case in many developed countries, where the greenhouse gas emissions responsible for this change are mainly concentrated. For the first time, the Kyoto Protocol includes an international agreement for the reduction of the net emissions of these gases. To fulfil this agreement measures designed to reduce or limit current emissions have to be brought into force. Consequently, fears have arisen about possible consequences on competitiveness and future development of manufacturing activities and the need for support mechanisms for the affected sectors is obvious. In this paper, we carry out a study of the emissions of gases responsible for climate change in Asturias (Spain), a region with an important economic presence of sectors with intensive emissions of CO(2), the chief greenhouse gas. To be precise, in the first place, the volumes of direct emissions of the said gases in 1995 were calculated, showing that the sectors most affected by the Kyoto Protocol in Asturias are iron and steel and electricity production. Secondly, input-output analysis was applied to determine the direct and indirect emissions and the direct, indirect and induced emissions of the different production sectors, respectively. The results derived from the direct and indirect emissions analysis and their comparison with the results of the former allow us to reach some conclusions and environmental policy implications.

  19. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from plug-in hybrid vehicles: implications for policy.

    PubMed

    Samaras, Constantine; Meisterling, Kyle

    2008-05-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which use electricity from the grid to power a portion of travel, could play a role in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transport sector. However, meaningful GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs are conditional on low-carbon electricity sources. We assess life cycle GHG emissions from PHEVs and find that they reduce GHG emissions by 32% compared to conventional vehicles, but have small reductions compared to traditional hybrids. Batteries are an important component of PHEVs, and GHGs associated with lithium-ion battery materials and production account for 2-5% of life cycle emissions from PHEVs. We consider cellulosic ethanol use and various carbon intensities of electricity. The reduced liquid fuel requirements of PHEVs could leverage limited cellulosic ethanol resources. Electricity generation infrastructure is long-lived, and technology decisions within the next decade about electricity supplies in the power sector will affectthe potential for large GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs for several decades.

  20. Multiagency Initiative to Provide Greenhouse Gas Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boland, Stacey W.; Duren, Riley M.

    2009-11-01

    Global Greenhouse Gas Information System Workshop; Albuquerque, New Mexico, 20-22 May 2009; The second Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) workshop brought together 74 representatives from 28 organizations including U.S. government agencies, national laboratories, and members of the academic community to address issues related to the understanding, operational monitoring, and tracking of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon offsets. The workshop was held at Sandia National Laboratories and organized by an interagency collaboration among NASA centers, Department of Energy laboratories, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It was motivated by the perceived need for an integrated interagency, community-wide initiative to provide information about greenhouse gas sources and sinks at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales. Such an initiative could significantly enhance the ability of national and regional governments, industry, and private citizens to implement and evaluate effective climate change mitigation policies.

  1. EU strategies and policies on soil and waste management to offset greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Marmo, L

    2008-01-01

    Climate change has become an important political priority in the environmental field, and beyond. To revert the increase in the Earth's temperature, developed country parties to the Kyoto Protocol committed to limit their greenhouse gas emissions. The 15 Member States that made up the European Community in 1997 have a combined reduction target of 8% in CO2-equivalent emissions in the period 2008-2012 compared to 1990. The role of soil, both as a source and a sink for carbon, is particularly important. How can soil organic matter be maintained or increased? There is no single answer, and a broad range of options need to be explored. Among the different measures proposed, the promotion of organic input on arable land (crop residues, cover crops, farm yard manure, compost, sewage sludge) has been mentioned. The challenge is to ensure that organic wastes of good quality are used to increase soil organic matter in carbon depleted soils and that appropriate monitoring is established. On the waste management front, the European Commission intends to produce guidance for Member States on the management of biowaste that will take into account all related environmental issues, including soil aspects. As for monitoring, the European Commission has put forward legislation according to which Member States would have to identify the areas at risk of soil organic matter decline in their national territory. Such legislation should be regarded as a major step forward for Europe, as it would ensure a high level of soil protection across the Community. This development will have the potential to enable the kind of estimation, measurement or modelling of crop or grazing land management needed for accounting under Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol.

  2. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  3. The potential role for management of U.S. public lands in greenhouse gas mitigation and climate policy.

    PubMed

    Olander, Lydia P; Cooley, David M; Galik, Christopher S

    2012-03-01

    Management of forests, rangelands, and wetlands on public lands, including the restoration of degraded lands, has the potential to increase carbon sequestration or reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions beyond what is occurring today. In this paper we discuss several policy options for increasing GHG mitigation on public lands. These range from an extension of current policy by generating supplemental mitigation on public lands in an effort to meet national emissions reduction goals, to full participation in an offsets market by allowing GHG mitigation on public lands to be sold as offsets either by the overseeing agency or by private contractors. To help place these policy options in context, we briefly review the literature on GHG mitigation and public lands to examine the potential for enhanced mitigation on federal and state public lands in the United States. This potential will be tempered by consideration of the tradeoffs with other uses of public lands, the needs for climate change adaptation, and the effects on other ecosystem services.

  4. Uncertainty analysis of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from petroleum-based fuels and impacts on low carbon fuel policies.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Aranya; Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2011-01-01

    The climate change impacts of U.S. petroleum-based fuels consumption have contributed to the development of legislation supporting the introduction of low carbon alternatives, such as biofuels. However, the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions estimated for these policies using life cycle assessment methods are predominantly based on deterministic approaches that do not account for any uncertainty in outcomes. This may lead to unreliable and expensive decision making. In this study, the uncertainty in life cycle GHG emissions associated with petroleum-based fuels consumed in the U.S. is determined using a process-based framework and statistical modeling methods. Probability distributions fitted to available data were used to represent uncertain parameters in the life cycle model. Where data were not readily available, a partial least-squares (PLS) regression model based on existing data was developed. This was used in conjunction with probability mixture models to select appropriate distributions for specific life cycle stages. Finally, a Monte Carlo simulation was performed to generate sample output distributions. As an example of results from using these methods, the uncertainty range in life cycle GHG emissions from gasoline was shown to be 13%-higher than the typical 10% minimum emissions reductions targets specified by low carbon fuel policies.

  5. Sectoral roles in greenhouse gas emissions and policy implications for energy utilization and carbon emissions trading: a case study of Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jianping; Lei, Yalin; Xu, Qun; Wang, Xibo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a decomposition and emissions matrix is developed to identify the roles (giver or taker) played by the sectors in the greenhouse gas emissions for the economy of Beijing in China. Our results indicate that services were the most important emitter if we consider the total (direct and indirect) emissions. In addition to Construction, Scientific studies and technical services and Finance sectors of services were the largest takers. They have a large role in boosting greenhouse gas emissions throughout the economy of Beijing. As the basis and supporter of production activities, the electricity production and the transportation sectors were the greatest givers. More emphasis should be placed on using clean energy and carbon capture and storage technologies to reduce emissions within these sectors. Based on the roles played by these sectors in greenhouse gas emissions, some policy implications were proposed for energy utilization and carbon emissions trading.

  6. Technological and policy options for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from mobile sources

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents issues and explores options for reducing emissions of carbonaceous pollutants from mobile sources. It discusses first what can be expected from current and proposed emission control system designed chiefly to reduce the output of regulated pollutants, then explores opportunities for incremental control of emissions of carbon (bound in gaseous form) that appear at this time to have good potential for success. The presentation of current and anticipated control technologies is organized by vehicle type, considering, in turn, passenger vehicles and light-duty trucks, medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, and non-highway vehicular modes. The discussion of incremental control opportunities focuses first on hardware and (existing) fuels modification for reduced emissions and improved fuel efficiency, then turns to advanced vehicular technologies and fuels, new refrigerants (to replace CFCs, which, in addition to being implicated in the destruction of stratospheric ozone, are molecule for molecule more potent than carbon dioxide as greenhouse gases), and in-use emissions testing and travel reduction strategies. Finally, opportunities for continuation of the current (net) downward trend in fuel consumption by most non-highway transportation activities are described. The paper concludes that evolutionary developments in most transportation activities-- developments driven in large measure by simple economics--could be at least as effective in mitigating the contribution of (domestic) mobile sources to greenhouse warming'' as any specific revolutionary change. 41 refs.

  7. Greenhouse gas trading starts up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    While nations decide on whether to sign on to the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, some countries and private companies are moving forward with greenhouse gas emissions trading.A 19 March report, "The Emerging International Greenhouse Gas Market," by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, reports that about 65 greenhouse gas emissions trades for quantities above 1,000 metric tons of carbon dioxideequivalent already have occurred worldwide since 1996. Many of these trades have taken place under a voluntary, ad hoc framework, though the United Kingdom and Denmark have established their own domestic emissions trading programs.

  8. Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Acccord, or Midwestern Greenhouse gas Accord (MGA), is a regional agreement by governors of the states in the US Midwest and one Canadian province to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to combat climate change. Signatories to the accord include the US states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Kansas, Ohio and South Dakota, and the Canadian Province of Manitoba. The accord, signed on November 15, 2007, established the Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Program, which aims to: establish greenhouse gas reduction targets and timeframes consistent with MGA member states' targets; develop a market-based and multi-sector cap-and-trade mechanism to help achieve those reduction targets; establish a system to enable tracking, management, and crediting for entities that reduce greenhouse gas emissions; and develop and implement additional steps as needed to achieve the reduction targets, such as a low-carbon fuel standards and regional incentives and funding mechanisms. The GHG registry will be managed by the Climate Registry, which manages the registry for other US state schemes. One of the first actions was to convene an Energy Security under Climate Stewardship Platform to guide future development of the Midwest's energy economy.

  9. Second Greenhouse Gas Information System Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boland, S. W.; Duren, R. M.; Mitchiner, J.; Rotman, D.; Sheffner, E.; Ebinger, M. H.; Miller, C. E.; Butler, J. H.; Dimotakis, P.; Jonietz, K.

    2009-12-01

    The second Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) workshop was held May 20-22, 2009 at the Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The workshop brought together 74 representatives from 28 organizations including U.S. government agencies, national laboratories, and members of the academic community to address issues related to the understanding, operational monitoring, and tracking of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon offsets. The workshop was organized by an interagency collaboration between NASA centers, DOE laboratories, and NOAA. It was motivated by the perceived need for an integrated interagency, community-wide initiative to provide information about greenhouse gas sources and sinks at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales in order to significantly enhance the ability of national and regional governments, industry, and private citizens to implement and evaluate effective climate change mitigation policies. This talk provides an overview of the second Greenhouse Gas Information System workshop, presents its key findings, and discusses current status and next steps in this interagency collaborative effort.

  10. Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6

    ScienceCinema

    Anderson, Diana

    2016-07-12

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas — one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

  11. Integrated Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options and Related Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased concerns over air pollution (combined with detrimental health effects) and climate change have called for more stringent emission reduction strategies for criteria air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions. However, stringent regulatory policies can possibly have a...

  12. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes ...

  13. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    given to methods appropriate to low-income countries, where strategies are needed for getting robust data with extremely limited resources in order to support national mitigation planning within widely accepted standards and thus provide access to essential international support, including climate funding. Managing agricultural emissions needs to occur in tandem with managing for agricultural productivity, resilience to climate change, and ecosystem impacts. Management decisions and priorities will require measures and information that identify GHG efficiencies in production and reduce inputs without reducing yields, while addressing climate resilience and maintaining other essential environmental services, such as water quality and support for pollinators. Another set of papers in this issue considers the critical synergies and tradeoffs possible between these multiple objectives of mitigation, resilience, and production efficiency to help us understand how we need to tackle these in our quantification systems. Significant capacity to quantify greenhouse gases is already built, and with some near-term strategic investment, could become an increasingly robust and useful tool for planning and development in the agricultural sector around the world. Acknowledgments The Climate Change Agriculture and Food Security Program of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, the Technical Working Group on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases (T-AGG) at Duke University's Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions, and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) have come together to guide the development of this focus issue and associated activities and papers, given their common desire to improve our understanding of the state of agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) quantification and to advance ideas for building data and methods that will help mitigation policy and programs move forward around the world. We thank the David and Lucile Packard

  14. An integrated analytical framework for quantifying the LCOE of waste-to-energy facilities for a range of greenhouse gas emissions policy and technical factors

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Aaron K.; Webber, Michael E.

    2012-07-15

    This study presents a novel integrated method for considering the economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities with priced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based upon technical and economic characteristics of the WTE facility, MSW stream, landfill alternative, and GHG emissions policy. The study demonstrates use of the formulation for six different policy scenarios and explores sensitivity of the results to ranges of certain technical parameters as found in existing literature. The study shows that details of the GHG emissions regulations have large impact on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of WTE and that GHG regulations can either increase or decrease the LCOE of WTE depending on policy choices regarding biogenic fractions from combusted waste and emissions from landfills. Important policy considerations are the fraction of the carbon emissions that are priced (i.e. all emissions versus only non-biogenic emissions), whether emissions credits are allowed due to reducing fugitive landfill gas emissions, whether biogenic carbon sequestration in landfills is credited against landfill emissions, and the effectiveness of the landfill gas recovery system where waste would otherwise have been buried. The default landfill gas recovery system effectiveness assumed by much of the industry yields GHG offsets that are very close to the direct non-biogenic GHG emissions from a WTE facility, meaning that small changes in the recovery effectiveness cause relatively larger changes in the emissions factor of the WTE facility. Finally, the economics of WTE are dependent on the MSW stream composition, with paper and wood being advantageous, metal and glass being disadvantageous, and plastics, food, and yard waste being either advantageous or disadvantageous depending upon the avoided tipping fee and the GHG emissions price.

  15. The cost effectiveness of a policy to store carbon in Australian agricultural soils to abate greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Robert E.; Davidson, Brian

    2015-07-01

    Data for cropping and pastoral enterprises in south eastern Australia were used in a cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the feasibility of abating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through storing soil carbon (C) as soil organic matter under the Australian government's Carbon Farming Initiative. We used the C credit value for 2013-14 of 24.15 per tonne of CO2- equivalent (CO2-e) and a C storage rate of 0.5 tonne C/hectare/year for conversion of cropland to pasture. Given that a change of enterprise is driven primarily by farmer returns, we found that none of the changes were feasible at current prices, with the exception of wheat to cattle or sheep in an irrigated system, and dryland cotton to cattle or sheep. Given that our model scenario assumed the most favourable economic factors, it is unlikely that increased soil C storage through a change from cropping to pasture can make a significant contribution to abating Australia's CO2 emissions. However, of greater concern to society is the methane emissions from grazing cattle or sheep, which would negate any gain in soil C under pasture, except for a switch from dryland cropping to sheep.

  16. International Experiences with Quantifying the Co-Benefits of Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse-Gas Mitigation Programs and Policies

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Christopher; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Wu, Grace

    2012-09-30

    Improving the efficiency of energy production and consumption and switching to lower carbon energy sources can significantly decrease carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and reduce climate change impacts. A growing body of research has found that these measures can also directly mitigate many non-climate change related human health hazards and environmental damage. Positive impacts of policies and programs that occur in addition to the intended primary policy goal are called co-benefits. Policy analysis relies on forecasting and comparing the costs of policy and program implementation and the benefits that accrue to society from implementation. GHG reduction and energy efficiency policies and programs face political resistance in part because of the difficulty of quantifying their benefits. On the one hand, climate change mitigation policy benefits are often global, long-term, and subject to large uncertainties, and subsidized energy pricing can reduce the direct monetary benefits of energy efficiency policies to below their cost. On the other hand, the co-benefits that accrue from these efforts’ resultant reductions in conventional air pollution (such as improved health, agricultural productivity, reduced damage to infrastructure, and local ecosystem improvements) are generally near term, local, and more certain than climate change mitigation benefits and larger than the monetary value of energy savings. The incorporation of co-benefits into energy efficiency and climate mitigation policy and program analysis therefore might significantly increase the uptake of these policies. Faster policy uptake is especially important in developing countries because ongoing development efforts that do not consider co-benefits may lock in suboptimal technologies and infrastructure and result in high costs in future years. Over the past two decades, studies have repeatedly documented that non-climate change related benefits of energy efficiency and fuel conversion efforts, as a part

  17. Greenhouse-gas-trading markets.

    PubMed

    Sandor, Richard; Walsh, Michael; Marques, Rafael

    2002-08-15

    This paper summarizes the extension of new market mechanisms for environmental services, explains of the importance of generating price information indicative of the cost of mitigating greenhouse gases (GHGs) and presents the rationale and objectives for pilot GHG-trading markets. It also describes the steps being taken to define and launch pilot carbon markets in North America and Europe and reviews the key issues related to incorporating carbon sequestration into an emissions-trading market. There is an emerging consensus to employ market mechanisms to help address the threat of human-induced climate changes. Carbon-trading markets are now in development around the world. A UK market is set to launch in 2002, and the European Commission has called for a 2005 launch of an European Union (EU)-wide market, and a voluntary carbon market is now in formation in North America. These markets represent an initial step in resolving a fundamental problem in defining and implementing appropriate policy actions to address climate change. Policymakers currently suffer from two major information gaps: the economic value of potential damages arising from climate changes are highly uncertain, and there is a lack of reliable information on the cost of mitigating GHGs. These twin gaps significantly reduce the quality of the climate policy debate. The Chicago Climate Exchange, for which the authors serve as lead designers, is intended to provide an organized carbon-trading market involving energy, industry and carbon sequestration in forests and farms. Trading among these diverse sectors will provide price discovery that will help clarify the cost of combating climate change when a wide range of mitigation options is employed. By closing the information gap on mitigation costs, society and policymakers will be far better prepared to identify and implement optimal policies for managing the risks associated with climate change. Establishment of practical experience in providing

  18. Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete; Martino, Daniel; Cai, Zucong; Gwary, Daniel; Janzen, Henry; Kumar, Pushpam; McCarl, Bruce; Ogle, Stephen; O'Mara, Frank; Rice, Charles; Scholes, Bob; Sirotenko, Oleg; Howden, Mark; McAllister, Tim; Pan, Genxing; Romanenkov, Vladimir; Schneider, Uwe; Towprayoon, Sirintornthep; Wattenbach, Martin; Smith, Jo

    2008-02-27

    Agricultural lands occupy 37% of the earth's land surface. Agriculture accounts for 52 and 84% of global anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Agricultural soils may also act as a sink or source for CO2, but the net flux is small. Many agricultural practices can potentially mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the most prominent of which are improved cropland and grazing land management and restoration of degraded lands and cultivated organic soils. Lower, but still significant mitigation potential is provided by water and rice management, set-aside, land use change and agroforestry, livestock management and manure management. The global technical mitigation potential from agriculture (excluding fossil fuel offsets from biomass) by 2030, considering all gases, is estimated to be approximately 5500-6000Mt CO2-eq.yr-1, with economic potentials of approximately 1500-1600, 2500-2700 and 4000-4300Mt CO2-eq.yr-1 at carbon prices of up to 20, up to 50 and up to 100 US$ t CO2-eq.-1, respectively. In addition, GHG emissions could be reduced by substitution of fossil fuels for energy production by agricultural feedstocks (e.g. crop residues, dung and dedicated energy crops). The economic mitigation potential of biomass energy from agriculture is estimated to be 640, 2240 and 16 000Mt CO2-eq.yr-1 at 0-20, 0-50 and 0-100 US$ t CO2-eq.-1, respectively.

  19. EDITORIAL: Tropical deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Holly K.; Herold, Martin

    2007-10-01

    Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation have long been recognized as a key component of the global carbon budget, and more recently of our global climate system. Tropical forest clearing accounts for roughly 20% of anthropogenic carbon emissions and destroys globally significant carbon sinks (IPCC 2007). Global climate policy initiatives are now being proposed to address these emissions and to more actively include developing countries in greenhouse gas mitigation (e.g. Santilli et al 2005, Gullison et al 2007). In 2005, at the Conference of the Parties (COP) in Montreal, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) launched a new initiative to assess the scientific and technical methods and issues for developing policy approaches and incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) in developing countries (Gullison et al 2007). Over the last two years the methods and tools needed to estimate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation have quickly evolved, as the scientific community responded to the UNFCCC policy needs. This focus issue highlights those advancements, covering some of the most important technical issues for measuring and monitoring emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and emphasizing immediately available methods and data, as well as future challenges. Elements for effective long-term implementation of a REDD mechanism related to both environmental and political concerns are discussed in Mollicone et al. Herold and Johns synthesize viewpoints of national parties to the UNFCCC on REDD and expand upon key issues for linking policy requirements and forest monitoring capabilities. In response to these expressed policy needs, they discuss a remote-sensing-based observation framework to start REDD implementation activities and build historical deforestation databases on the national level. Achard et al offer an assessment of remote sensing measurements across the world

  20. Reservoir Greenhouse Gas Emissions at Russian HPP

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, M. P.; Elistratov, V. V.; Maslikov, V. I.; Sidorenko, G. I.; Chusov, A. N.; Atrashenok, V. P.; Molodtsov, D. V.; Savvichev, A. S.; Zinchenko, A. V.

    2015-05-15

    Studies of greenhouse-gas emissions from the surfaces of the world’s reservoirs, which has demonstrated ambiguity of assessments of the effect of reservoirs on greenhouse-gas emissions to the atmosphere, is analyzed. It is recommended that greenhouse- gas emissions from various reservoirs be assessed by the procedure “GHG Measurement Guidelines for Fresh Water Reservoirs” (2010) for the purpose of creating a data base with results of standardized measurements. Aprogram for research into greenhouse-gas emissions is being developed at the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University in conformity with the IHA procedure at the reservoirs impounded by the Sayano-Shushenskaya and Mainskaya HPP operated by the RusHydro Co.

  1. Advancing Greenhouse Gas Reductions through Affordable Housing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    James City County, Virginia, is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s Climate Showcase Communities Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  2. Non-Profit Greenhouse Gas Reductions Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Baltimore City, Maryland, is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s Climate Showcase Communities Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  3. Regulations for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aircraft

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are taking coordinated steps to enable the production of a new generation of clean vehicles, through reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and improved fuel use from onroad vehicles.

  4. Greenhouse Gas Reductions for Marginalized Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Honolulu, Hawaii, is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s Climate Showcase Communities Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  5. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  6. Bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, M.M.; Mintz, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    A bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies has been compiled to assist the Climate change Action Plan Task Force in their consideration of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from personal motor vehicles. The document contains a summary of the literature, including it major directions and implications; and annotated listing of 32 recent pertinent documents; and a listing of a larger group of related reports.

  7. Greenhouse policy study from NAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    The National Academy of Sciences will produce a study for the Environmental Protection Agency on policy responses to global warming. The report is due out before the end of 1990.Dan J. Evans, former U.S. Senator and former Governor of Washington, will chair a panel of the Commission on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, a body of the councils of the NAS, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. Evans is a registered civil engineer and previously chaired the Pacific Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Planning Council.The 13-person panel includes AGU members Stephen Schneider of the National Center for Atmospheric Research and Robert Frosch, Vice President of Research Laboratores at General Motors Corp., Jessica Mathews, Vice President of the World Resources Institute, and Sir Crispin Tickell, the United Kingdom's Ambassador to the United Nations.

  8. Greenhouse Gas Analysis by GC/MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, E. M.; Easton, Z. M.; Macek, P.

    2015-12-01

    Current methods to analyze greenhouse gases rely on designated complex, multiple-column, multiple-detector gas chromatographs. A novel method was developed in partnership with Shimadzu for simultaneous quantification of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in environmental gas samples. Gas bulbs were used to make custom standard mixtures by injecting small volumes of pure analyte into the nitrogen-filled bulb. Resulting calibration curves were validated using a certified gas standard. The use of GC/MS systems to perform this analysis has the potential to move the analysis of greenhouse gasses from expensive, custom GC systems to standard single-quadrupole GC/MS systems that are available in most laboratories, which wide variety of applications beyond greenhouse gas analysis. Additionally, use of mass spectrometry can provide confirmation of identity of target analytes, and will assist in the identification of unknown peaks should they be present in the chromatogram.

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane are the primary greenhouse gases associated with global climate change. Livestock production’s contribution to carbon dioxide emissions is minimal, but it is a substantial contributor to both nitrous oxide and methane emissions. In both grazing and confin...

  10. Towards a Greenhouse Gas Lidar in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehret, Gerhard; Amediek, Axel; Quatrevalet, Mathieu

    Highly accurate measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) by a space-borne lidar will help to substantially improve knowledge of greenhouse gas fluxes. The method of integrated-path differential-absorption lidar for total column measurements has proven to be a suitable means for CH4 detection in natural gas leak surveillance and active remote sensing of CO2. This pioneering work facilitated the instrument development of an advanced greenhouse gas lidar on HALO and set the stage for the development of a CH4-lidar in space instrument foreseen in the Franco-German climate mission MERLIN.

  11. Searching for solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural policy decisions--Application of system dynamics modeling for the case of Latvia.

    PubMed

    Dace, Elina; Muizniece, Indra; Blumberga, Andra; Kaczala, Fabio

    2015-09-15

    European Union (EU) Member States have agreed to limit their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS). That includes also emissions from agricultural sector. Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established a methodology for assessment of GHG emissions from agriculture, the forecasting options are limited, especially when policies and their interaction with the agricultural system are tested. Therefore, an advanced tool, a system dynamics model, was developed that enables assessment of effects various decisions and measures have on agricultural GHG emissions. The model is based on the IPCC guidelines and includes the main elements of an agricultural system, i.e. land management, livestock farming, soil fertilization and crop production, as well as feedback mechanisms between the elements. The case of Latvia is selected for simulations, as agriculture generates 22% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions in the country. The results demonstrate that there are very limited options for GHG mitigation in the agricultural sector. Thereby, reaching the non-ETS GHG emission targets will be very challenging for Latvia, as the level of agricultural GHG emissions will be exceeded considerably above the target levels. Thus, other non-ETS sectors will have to reduce their emissions drastically to "neutralize" the agricultural sector's emissions for reaching the EU's common ambition to move towards low-carbon economy. The developed model may serve as a decision support tool for impact assessment of various measures and decisions on the agricultural system's GHG emissions. Although the model is applied to the case of Latvia, the elements and structure of the model developed are similar to agricultural systems in many countries. By changing numeric values of certain parameters, the model can be applied to analyze decisions and measures in other countries.

  12. Measuring and managing reservoir greenhouse gas emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with a heat trapping capacity 34 times greater than that of carbon dioxide on a 100 year time scale. Known anthropogenic CH4 sources include livestock production, rice agriculture, landfills, and natural gas...

  13. Stakeholder Workshop Presentations: EPA Greenhouse Gas Data on Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the summary and presentations from the November 2015 stakeholder workshop on greenhouse gas data on petroleum and natural gas systems from the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program and U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Emissions and Sinks.

  14. An assessment of electric vehicles: technology, infrastructure requirements, greenhouse-gas emissions, petroleum use, material use, lifetime cost, consumer acceptance and policy initiatives.

    PubMed

    Delucchi, M A; Yang, C; Burke, A F; Ogden, J M; Kurani, K; Kessler, J; Sperling, D

    2014-01-13

    Concerns about climate change, urban air pollution and dependence on unstable and expensive supplies of foreign oil have led policy-makers and researchers to investigate alternatives to conventional petroleum-fuelled internal-combustion-engine vehicles in transportation. Because vehicles that get some or all of their power from an electric drivetrain can have low or even zero emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and urban air pollutants, and can consume little or no petroleum, there is considerable interest in developing and evaluating advanced electric vehicles (EVs), including pure battery-electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicles. To help researchers and policy-makers assess the potential of EVs to mitigate climate change and reduce petroleum use, this paper discusses the technology of EVs, the infrastructure needed for their development, impacts on emissions of GHGs, petroleum use, materials use, lifetime costs, consumer acceptance and policy considerations.

  15. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R

    1991-09-01

    In 2988 the Congress requested DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. This report presents the results of that study. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity), and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiactively important gases. Topics discussed include: energy and environmental technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy production and electricity generation technologies, nuclear energy technology, renewable energy technologies, energy storage, transmission, and distribution technology, transportation, technology, industrial technology, residential and commercial building technology, greenhouse gas removal technology, approaches to restructuring the demand for energy.

  16. Research on Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesinger, M. E.

    2001-07-15

    During the 5 years of NSF grant ATM 95-22681 (Research on Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change, $1,605,000, 9/15/1995 to 8/31/2000) we have performed work which we are described in this report under three topics: (1) Development and Application of Atmosphere, Ocean, Photochemical-Transport, and Coupled Models; (2) Analysis Methods and Estimation; and (3) Climate-Change Scenarios, Impacts and Policy.

  17. 78 FR 23149 - Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 96 to 99, revised as of July 1, 2012, on page 768, in Sec. 98.226, in...

  18. Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from University Purchases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Matthew; Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory was conducted for Yale University's procurement of goods and services over a one-year period. The goal of the inventory was to identify the financial expenditures resulting in the greatest "indirect" GHG emissions. This project is part of an ongoing effort to quantify and reduce the university's…

  19. Accounting For Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Flooded Lands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the inundation of rivers and terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can lead to enhanced rates of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a method...

  20. Joint Implementation: Biodiversity and Greenhouse Gas Offsets

    PubMed

    CUTRIGHT

    1996-11-01

    / One of the most pressing environmental issues today is the possibility that projected increases in global emissions of greenhouse gases from increased deforestation, development, and fossil-fuel combustion could significantly alter global climate patterns. Under the terms of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed in Rio de Janeiro during the June 1992 Earth Summit, the United States and other industrialized countries committed to balancing greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels in the year 2000. Included in the treaty is a provision titled "Joint Implementation," whereby industrialized countries assist developing countries in jointly modifying long-term emission trends, either through emission reductions or by protecting and enhancing greenhouse gas sinks (carbon sequestration). The US Climate Action Plan, signed by President Clinton in 1993, calls for voluntary climate change mitigation measures by various sectors, and the action plan included a new program, the US Initiative on Joint Implementation. Wisconsin Electric decided to invest in a JI project because its concept encourages creative, cost-effective solutions to environmental problems through partnering, international cooperation, and innovation. The project chosen, a forest preservation and management effort in Belize, will sequester more than five million tons of carbon dioxide over a 40-year period, will become economically self-sustaining after ten years, and will have substantial biodiversity benefits.KEY WORDS: Joint implementation; Activities implemented jointly; Carbon sequestration; Carbon dioxide; Global climate change; Greenhouse gas; Belize

  1. Towards a Global Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duren, Riley; Butler, James; Rotman, Doug; Miller, Charles; Decola, Phil; Sheffner, Edwin; Tucker, Compton; Mitchiner, John; Jonietz, Karl; Dimotakis, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Over the next few years, an increasing number of entities ranging from international, national, and regional governments, to businesses and private land-owners, are likely to become more involved in efforts to limit atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. In such a world, geospatially resolved information about the location, amount, and rate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will be needed, as well as the stocks and flows of all forms of carbon through terrestrial ecosystems and in the oceans. The ability to implement policies that limit GHG concentrations would be enhanced by a global, open, and transparent greenhouse gas information system (GHGIS). An operational and scientifically robust GHGIS would combine ground-based and space-based observations, carbon-cycle modeling, GHG inventories, meta-analysis, and an extensive data integration and distribution system, to provide information about sources, sinks, and fluxes of greenhouse gases at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales. The GHGIS effort was initiated in 2008 as a grassroots inter-agency collaboration intended to rigorously identify the needs for such a system, assess the capabilities of current assets, and suggest priorities for future research and development. We will present a status of the GHGIS effort including our latest analysis and ideas for potential near-term pilot projects with potential relevance to European initiatives including the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) and the Integrated Carbon Observing System (ICOS).

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions in Canada and Japan: sector-specific estimates and managerial and economic implications.

    PubMed

    Hayami, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Masao

    2007-10-01

    Many firms generate large amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases when they burn fossil fuels in their production processes. In addition, production of raw materials and other inputs the firms procure for their operations also generates greenhouse gases indirectly. These direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions occur in many sectors of our economies. In this paper, we first present sector-specific estimates for such greenhouse gas emissions. We then show that estimates for such sector-specific greenhouse gas emissions are often required for various types of corporate as well as public policy analyses in both domestic and international contexts. Measuring greenhouse gas emissions resulting from firms' multi-stage production processes in a multi-sector context is relevant for policies related to the Kyoto protocol, an international agreement to limit global greenhouse gas emissions. For example, since the protocol allows firms to engage in trading and offsetting of their greenhouse gas emissions across national borders, provided that emissions are correctly measured, the firms can take advantage of such trading schemes by placing their energy-intensive production facilities globally and strategically. We present several case studies which illustrate the importance of this and other aspects of greenhouse gas emissions in firms' environmental management. We also argue that our modeling and estimation methods based on input-output analyses are suitable for the types of research goals we have in this paper. Our methods are applied to data for Canada and Japan in a variety of environmental management circumstances.

  3. The Dairy Greenhouse Gas Emission Model: Reference Manual

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dairy Greenhouse Gas Model (DairyGHG) is a software tool for estimating the greenhouse gas emissions and carbon footprint of dairy production systems. A relatively simple process-based model is used to predict the primary greenhouse gas emissions, which include the net emission of carbon dioxide...

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions intensity of global croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Gerber, James S.; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Herrero, Mario; MacDonald, Graham K.; Brauman, Kate A.; Havlik, Petr; O'Connell, Christine S.; Johnson, Justin A.; Saatchi, Sassan; West, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    Stabilizing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from croplands as agricultural demand grows is a critical component of climate change mitigation. Emissions intensity metrics--including carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per kilocalorie produced (`production intensity’)--can highlight regions, management practices, and crops as potential foci for mitigation. Yet the spatial and crop-wise distribution of emissions intensity has been uncertain. Here, we develop global crop-specific circa 2000 estimates of GHG emissions and GHG intensity in high spatial detail, reporting the effects of rice paddy management, peatland draining, and nitrogen (N) fertilizer on CH4, CO2 and N2O emissions. Global mean production intensity is 0.16 Mg CO2e M kcal-1, yet certain cropping practices contribute disproportionately to emissions. Peatland drainage (3.7 Mg CO2e M kcal-1)--concentrated in Europe and Indonesia--accounts for 32% of these cropland emissions despite peatlands producing just 1.1% of total crop kilocalories. Methane emissions from rice (0.58 Mg CO2e M kcal-1), a crucial food staple supplying 15% of total crop kilocalories, contribute 48% of cropland emissions, with outsized production intensity in Vietnam. In contrast, N2O emissions from N fertilizer application (0.033 Mg CO2e M kcal-1) generate only 20% of cropland emissions. We find that current total GHG emissions are largely unrelated to production intensity across crops and countries. Climate mitigation policies should therefore be directed to locations where crops have both high emissions and high intensities.

  5. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Lipman, Tim; Lai, Judy; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier

    2009-09-01

    The motivation and objective of this research is to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions by: (1) applying the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM); (2) using the California Commercial End-Use Survey (CEUS) database for commercial buildings; (3) selecting buildings with electric peak loads between 100 kW and 5 MW; (4) considering fuel cells, micro-turbines, internal combustion engines, gas turbines with waste heat utilization, solar thermal, and PV; (5) testing of different policy instruments, e.g. feed-in tariff or investment subsidies.

  6. Recent and future trends in synthetic greenhouse gas radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, M.; Prinn, R. G.; O'Doherty, S.; Miller, B. R.; Ivy, D.; Mühle, J.; Harth, C. M.; Salameh, P. K.; Arnold, T.; Weiss, R. F.; Krummel, P. B.; Steele, L. P.; Fraser, P. J.; Young, D.; Simmonds, P. G.

    2014-04-01

    Atmospheric measurements show that emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons are now the primary drivers of the positive growth in synthetic greenhouse gas (SGHG) radiative forcing. We infer recent SGHG emissions and examine the impact of future emissions scenarios, with a particular focus on proposals to reduce HFC use under the Montreal Protocol. If these proposals are implemented, overall SGHG radiative forcing could peak at around 355 mW m-2 in 2020, before declining by approximately 26% by 2050, despite continued growth of fully fluorinated greenhouse gas emissions. Compared to "no HFC policy" projections, this amounts to a reduction in radiative forcing of between 50 and 240 mW m-2 by 2050 or a cumulative emissions saving equivalent to 0.5 to 2.8 years of CO2 emissions at current levels. However, more complete reporting of global HFC emissions is required, as less than half of global emissions are currently accounted for.

  7. Accounting For Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Flooded ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the inundation of rivers and terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can lead to enhanced rates of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used a ‘basis for future methodological development’ due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. The research approaches include 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane emissions. To inform th

  8. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used as a ‘basis for future methodological development’ due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. In the U.S., research approaches include: 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane em

  9. Greenhouse Gas Management Program Overview (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    Program fact sheet highlighting federal requirements for GHG emissions management, FEMP services to help agencies reduce emissions, and additional resources. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) assists Federal agencies with managing their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG management entails measuring emissions and understanding their sources, setting a goal for reducing emissions, developing a plan to meet this goal, and implementing the plan to achieve reductions in emissions. FEMP provides the following services to help Federal agencies meet the requirements of inventorying and reducing their GHG emissions: (1) FEMP offers one-on-one technical assistance to help agencies understand and implement the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance and fulfill their inventory reporting requirements. (2) FEMP provides training, tools, and resources on FedCenter to help agencies complete their annual inventories. (3) FEMP serves a leadership role in the interagency Federal Working Group on Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting that develops recommendations to the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance. (4) As the focus continues to shift from measuring emissions (completing inventories) to mitigating emissions (achieving reductions), FEMP is developing a strategic planning framework and resources for agencies to prioritize among a variety of options for mitigating their GHG emissions, so that they achieve their reduction goals in the most cost-effective manner. These resources will help agencies analyze their high-quality inventories to make strategic decisions about where to use limited resources to have the greatest impact on reducing emissions. Greenhouse gases trap heat in the lower atmosphere, warming the earth's surface temperature in a natural process known as the 'greenhouse effect.' GHGs include carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4

  10. Requirements for a Global Greenhouse Gas Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duren, R.; Boland, S.; Lempert, R.; Miller, C.

    2008-12-01

    A global greenhouse gas information system will prove a critical component of any successful effort to mitigate climate change which relies on limiting the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. The system will provide the situational awareness necessary to actively reduce emissions, influence land use change, and sequester carbon. The information from such a system will be subject to intense scrutiny. Therefore, an effective system must openly and transparently produce data of unassailable quality. A global greenhouse gas information system will likely require a combination of space-and air-based remote- sensing assets, ground-based measurements, carbon cycle modeling and self-reporting. The specific requirements on such a system will be shaped by the degree of international cooperation it enjoys and the needs of the policy regime it aims to support, which might range from verifying treaty obligations, to certifying the tradable permits and offsets underlying a market in greenhouse gas emission reductions, to providing a comprehensive inventory of high and low emitters that could be used by non-governmental organizations and other international actors. While some technical studies have examined particular system components in single scenarios, there remains a need for a comprehensive survey of the range of potential requirements, options, and strategies for the overall system. We have initiated such a survey and recently hosted a workshop which engaged a diverse community of stakeholders to begin synthesizing requirements for such a system, with an initial focus on carbon dioxide. In this paper we describe our plan for completing the definition of the requirements, options, and strategies for a global greenhouse gas monitoring system. We discuss our overall approach and provide a status on the initial requirements synthesis activity.

  11. The greenhouse impact of unconventional gas for electricity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultman, Nathan; Rebois, Dylan; Scholten, Michael; Ramig, Christopher

    2011-10-01

    New techniques to extract natural gas from unconventional resources have become economically competitive over the past several years, leading to a rapid and largely unanticipated expansion in natural gas production. The US Energy Information Administration projects that unconventional gas will supply nearly half of US gas production by 2035. In addition, by significantly expanding and diversifying the gas supply internationally, the exploitation of new unconventional gas resources has the potential to reshape energy policy at national and international levels—altering geopolitics and energy security, recasting the economics of energy technology investment decisions, and shifting trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In anticipation of this expansion, one of the perceived core advantages of unconventional gas—its relatively moderate GHG impact compared to coal—has recently come under scrutiny. In this paper, we compare the GHG footprints of conventional natural gas, unconventional natural gas (i.e. shale gas that has been produced using the process of hydraulic fracturing, or 'fracking'), and coal in a transparent and consistent way, focusing primarily on the electricity generation sector. We show that for electricity generation the GHG impacts of shale gas are 11% higher than those of conventional gas, and only 56% that of coal for standard assumptions.

  12. Vision for an Open, Global Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duren, R. M.; Butler, J. H.; Rotman, D.; Ciais, P.; Greenhouse Gas Information System Team

    2010-12-01

    Over the next few years, an increasing number of entities ranging from international, national, and regional governments, to businesses and private land-owners, are likely to become more involved in efforts to limit atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. In such a world, geospatially resolved information about the location, amount, and rate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will be needed, as well as the stocks and flows of all forms of carbon through the earth system. The ability to implement policies that limit GHG concentrations would be enhanced by a global, open, and transparent greenhouse gas information system (GHGIS). An operational and scientifically robust GHGIS would combine ground-based and space-based observations, carbon-cycle modeling, GHG inventories, synthesis analysis, and an extensive data integration and distribution system, to provide information about anthropogenic and natural sources, sinks, and fluxes of greenhouse gases at temporal and spatial scales relevant to decision making. The GHGIS effort was initiated in 2008 as a grassroots inter-agency collaboration intended to identify the needs for such a system, assess the capabilities of current assets, and suggest priorities for future research and development. We will present a vision for an open, global GHGIS including latest analysis of system requirements, critical gaps, and relationship to related efforts at various agencies, the Group on Earth Observations, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

  13. 40 CFR 1036.108 - Greenhouse gas emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Greenhouse gas emission standards... and Related Requirements § 1036.108 Greenhouse gas emission standards. This section contains standards... of six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  14. 40 CFR 1036.108 - Greenhouse gas emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Greenhouse gas emission standards... and Related Requirements § 1036.108 Greenhouse gas emission standards. This section contains standards... of six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  15. Joint implementation: Biodiversity and greenhouse gas offsets

    SciTech Connect

    Cutright, N.J.

    1996-11-01

    One of the most pressing environmental issues today is the possibility that projected increases in global emissions of greenhouse gases form increased deforestation, development, and fossil-fuel combustion could significantly alter global climate patterns. Under the terms of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed in Rio de janeiro during the June 19923 Earth Summit, the United States and other industrialized countries committed to balancing greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels in the year 2000. Included in the treaty is a provision titled {open_quotes}Joint Implementation,{close_quotes} whereby industrialized countries assist developing countries in jointly modifying long-term emission trends, either through emission reductions or by protecting and enhancing greenhouse gas sinks (carbon sequestration). The US Climate Action Plan, signed by President Clinton in 1993, calls for voluntary climate change mitigation measures by various sectors, and the action plan included a new program, the US Initiative on Joint Implementation. Wisconsin Electric decided to invest in a JI project because its concept encourages creative, cost-effective solutions to environmental problems through partnering, international cooperation, and innovation. The project chosen, a forest preservation and management effort in Belize, will sequester more than five million tons of carbon dioxide over a 40-year period, will become economically self-sustaining after ten years, and will have substantial biodiversity benefits. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Impact of greenhouse gas emissions reduction in Indonesia: NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susandi, A.

    2004-12-01

    In this study, we develop scenarios of total air pollution from fossil fuel consumption and its impacts for the 21st century, using an inter-temporal general equilibrium model MERGE. The Model for Evaluating the Regional and Global Effects of greenhouse gas reduction policies (MERGE) is used to project energy consumption and production. We use the base scenarios from IPCC (2000). These scenarios assume that no measures are undertaken to control greenhouse gas emissions. We extend the IPCC scenarios with mitigation scenarios, estimating the air pollution impacts of greenhouse gas emission reduction. The MERGE model was extended to analyze emissions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), their concentrations, impacts on human health, and economic valuation. To estimate of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) impacts on respiratory symptoms, we calculated the NO2 concentration as derived from nitrogen oxide (NOx). In the baseline scenario, the concentrations of NO2 are rising to 2,263 μg/m3 in 2100. If the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries reduce their emissions, respiratory symptoms among adult's associated with NO2 case would reach the highest to 65,741% of adult population cases by the end of century. If all countries reduce their emission in the future, the total health problem cost associated with NO2 will lower 35% of GDP than in the baseline scenario during the century.

  17. Greenhouse-gas payback times for crop-based biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshout, P. M. F.; van Zelm, R.; Balkovic, J.; Obersteiner, M.; Schmid, E.; Skalsky, R.; van der Velde, M.; Huijbregts, M. A. J.

    2015-06-01

    A global increase in the demand for crop-based biofuels may be met by cropland expansion, and could require the sacrifice of natural vegetation. Such land transformation alters the carbon and nitrogen cycles of the original system, and causes significant greenhouse-gas emissions, which should be considered when assessing the global warming performance of crop-based biofuels. As an indicator of this performance we propose the use of greenhouse-gas payback time (GPBT), that is, the number of years it takes before the greenhouse-gas savings due to displacing fossil fuels with biofuels equal the initial losses of carbon and nitrogen stocks from the original ecosystem. Spatially explicit global GPBTs were derived for biofuel production systems using five different feedstocks (corn, rapeseed, soybean, sugarcane and winter wheat), cultivated under no-input and high-input farm management. Overall, GPBTs were found to range between 1 and 162 years (95% range, median: 19 years) with the longest GPBTs occurring in the tropics. Replacing no-input with high-input farming typically shortened the GPBTs by 45 to 79%. Location of crop cultivation was identified as the primary factor driving variation in GPBTs. This study underscores the importance of using spatially explicit impact assessments to guide biofuel policy.

  18. Federal, state and utility roles in reducing new building greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.A.; Shankle, D.; Boulin, J.

    1995-03-01

    This paper will explore the role of implementation of building energy codes and standards in reducing US greenhouse gas emissions. It will discuss the role of utilities in supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency in improving the efficiency of new buildings. The paper will summarize Federal policies and programs that improve code compliance and increase overall greenhouse gas emission reductions. Finally, the paper will discuss the role of code compliance and the energy and greenhouse gas emission reductions that have been realized from various Federal, State and utility programs that enhance compliance.

  19. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1997-10-01

    This report serves as the technology basis of a needed national climate change technology strategy, with the confidence that a strong technology R&D program will deliver a portfolio of technologies with the potential to provide very substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions along with continued economic growth. Much more is needed to define such a strategy, including identification of complementary deployment policies and analysis to support the seeping and prioritization of R&D programs. A national strategy must be based upon governmental, industrial, and academic partnerships.

  20. The Effect of Natural Gas Supply on US Renewable Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, C.; Bistline, J.; Inman, M.; Davis, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Increased use of natural gas has been promoted as a means of decarbonizing the US power sector, because of superior generator efficiency and lower CO2 emissions per unit of electricity than coal. We model the effect of different gas supplies on the US power sector and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Across a range of climate policies, we find that more abundant natural gas decreases use of both coal and renewable energy technologies in the future. Without a climate policy, overall energy use also increases as the gas supply increases. With reduced deployment of lower-carbon renewable energies and increased electricity consumption, the effect of higher gas supplies on GHG emissions is small: cumulative emissions 2013-2055 in our high gas supply scenario are 2% less than in our low gas supply scenario, when there are no new climate policies and a methane leakage rate of 1.5% is assumed. Assuming leakage rates of 0 or 3% does not substantially alter this finding. In our results, only climate policies bring about a significant reduction in future CO2 emissions within the US electricity sector. Our results suggest that without strong limits on GHG emissions or policies that explicitly encourage renewable energy, more abundant natural gas may actually slow the process of decarbonization, primarily by delaying deployment of renewable energy technologies.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions control by economic incentives: Survey and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    South, D.W.; Kosobud, R.F.; Quinn, K.G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of issues and concerns raised in recent literature on the application of market-based approaches to greenhouse effect policy with an emphasis on tradeable emission permits. The potential advantages of decentralized decision-making -- cost-effectiveness or allocation efficiency, stimulation of innovations, and political feasibility are discussed. The potential difficulties of data recording, monitoring, enforcement, and of creating viable emission permit contracts and markets are examined. Special attention is given to the problem of designing a greenhouse effect policy that is cost-effective over time, a problem that has been given little attention to date. Proposals to reduce or stabilize greenhouse gas emission (especially CO{sub 2}) in the short run require high carbon tax rates or permit prices and impose heavy adjustment costs on the fossil fuel industry. A more cost-effective time path of permit prices is proposed that achieves the same long-run climate change stabilization goals. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions control by economic incentives: Survey and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    South, D.W.; Kosobud, R.F.; Quinn, K.G.

    1991-12-31

    This paper presents a survey of issues and concerns raised in recent literature on the application of market-based approaches to greenhouse effect policy with an emphasis on tradeable emission permits. The potential advantages of decentralized decision-making -- cost-effectiveness or allocation efficiency, stimulation of innovations, and political feasibility are discussed. The potential difficulties of data recording, monitoring, enforcement, and of creating viable emission permit contracts and markets are examined. Special attention is given to the problem of designing a greenhouse effect policy that is cost-effective over time, a problem that has been given little attention to date. Proposals to reduce or stabilize greenhouse gas emission (especially CO{sub 2}) in the short run require high carbon tax rates or permit prices and impose heavy adjustment costs on the fossil fuel industry. A more cost-effective time path of permit prices is proposed that achieves the same long-run climate change stabilization goals. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  3. On strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Bolin, B; Kheshgi, H S

    2001-04-24

    Equity is of fundamental concern in the quest for international cooperation to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations by the reduction of emissions. By modeling the carbon cycle, we estimate the global CO(2) emissions that would be required to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of CO(2) at levels ranging from 450 to 1,000 ppm. These are compared, on both an absolute and a per-capita basis, to scenarios for emissions from the developed and developing worlds generated by socio-economic models under the assumption that actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions are not taken. Need and equity have provided strong arguments for developing countries to request that the developed world takes the lead in controlling its emissions, while permitting the developing countries in the meantime to use primarily fossil fuels for their development. Even with major and early control of CO(2) emissions by the developed world, limiting concentration to 450 ppm implies that the developing world also would need to control its emissions within decades, given that we expect developing world emissions would otherwise double over this time. Scenarios leading to CO(2) concentrations of 550 ppm exhibit a reduction of the developed world's per-capita emission by about 50% over the next 50 years. Even for the higher stabilization levels considered, the developing world would not be able to use fossil fuels for their development in the manner that the developed world has used them.

  4. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R

    1991-09-01

    In 1988, Congress requested that DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity) and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiatively important gases. Topics discussed include: state of the science in estimating atmosphere/climate change relationships, the potential consequences of atmosphere/climate change, us greenhouse emissions past and present, an approach to analyzing the technical potential and cost of reducing US energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, current policy base and National Energy Strategy actions, fiscal instruments, regulatory instruments, combined strategies and instruments, macroeconomic impacts, carbon taxation and international trade, a comparison to other studies.

  5. 2013 Update of NOAA's Annual Greenhouse Gas Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, James H.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Elkins, James W.; Masari, Kenneth A.; Schnell, Russell C.; Tans, Pieter P.

    2013-04-01

    Indexes are becoming increasingly important in communicating messages about climate change to a diverse public. Indexes exist for a number of climate-related phenomena including heat, precipitation, and extreme events. These help communicate complex phenomena to the public and, at times, policy makers, to aid in understanding or making decisions. Several years ago, NOAA introduced a unique index for expressing the influence of human-emitted, long-lived greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (DJ Hofmann et al., Tellus, 2006, S8B 614-619). Essentially a condensation and normalization of radiative forcing from long-lived gases, the NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) was designed to enhance the connection between scientists and society by providing a standard that could be easily understood and followed. The index each year is calculated from high quality, long-term observations by NOAA's Global Monitoring Division, which includes real-time measurements extending over the past five decades, as well as published ice core record that go back to 1750. The AGGI is normalized to 1.00 in 1990, the Kyoto Climate Protocol baseline year. At the end of 2011, the AGGI was 1.30, indicating that global radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases had increased 30% since 1990. During the 1980s CO2 accounted for about 50-60% of the annual increase in radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases, whereas, since 2000, it has accounted for 85-90% of this increase each year. After nearly a decade of virtually level concentrations in the atmosphere, methane (CH4) increased measurably over the past 2-3 years, as did its contribution to radiative forcing. In addition to presenting the AGGI for 2012, increases in radiative forcing will be evaluated and discussed with respect to the contributions from CO2, CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and other emerging greenhouse gases.

  6. Promoting international deployment of greenhouse gas technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Kelley, J.S.; Voss, M.K.

    1995-12-31

    Increasing emission of greenhouse gases from human activities are predicted to lead to significant global warming and possible undesirable Environmental effects by the middle of the next century. These gases trap solar energy that is reradiated from the earth`s surface, raising its temperature. The gases-carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)-are emitted as the result of a wide range of anthropogenic activities, including the production and conversion of energy from fossil fuels, the operation of air conditioning and refrigeration equipment, and coal mining, domestic sewage treatment, and the manufacture of cement and nylon. To slow global warming, technologies are being developed, promoted, and deployed to reduce these emissions. To make a practical response to global environmental issues such as greenhouse gas emissions, it is recognized that international collaboration is needed. Because of the accelerating pace of technology innovation and the increasingly interconnected world economy, national efforts to adapt to global environmental challenges are no longer sufficient. Through international collaboration, scarce resources can be shared and technological solutions can be adapted and replicated. ORNL is responsible for managing and supporting the U.S, involvement in many of the implementing agreements. In addition to collaborating with GREENTIE, ORNL is involved with the following other IEA implementing agreements, either as executive committee members, national team leaders, or operating agents: the Center for the Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated Energy Technologies, Heat Pump Program, Buildings and Community Systems, Alternative Motor Fuels, and Fusion Energy Stellerator Concept.

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from global cities.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Christopher; Steinberger, Julia; Gasson, Barrie; Hansen, Yvonne; Hillman, Timothy; Havránek, Miroslav; Pataki, Diane; Phdungsilp, Aumnad; Ramaswami, Anu; Villalba Mendez, Gara

    2009-10-01

    The world's population is now over 50% urban, and cities make an important contribution to national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Many cities are developing strategies to reduce their emissions. Here we ask how and why emissions differ between cities. Our study often global cities shows how a balance of geophysical factors (climate, access to resources, and gateway status) and technical factors (power generation, urban design, and waste processing) determine the GHGs attributable to cities. Within the overall trends, however, there are differences between cities with more or less public transit while personal income also impacts heating and industrial fuel use. By including upstream emissions from fuels, GHG emissions attributable to cities exceed those from direct end use by upto 25%. Our findings should help foster intercity learning on reducing GHG emissions.

  8. Greenhouse gas budgets of managed European grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammann, C.; Horváth, L.; Jones, S. K.

    2012-04-01

    Greenhouse gas exchange of grasslands are directly and indirectly related to the respective carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) budget. Within the framework of the NitroEurope project we investigated the greenhouse gas, carbon, and nitrogen budgets of four European grassland systems over several years: Easter Bush (UK), Oensingen intensive and extensive (CH), and Bugac (HU). They span contrasting climatic conditions, management types (grazing, cutting) and intensity. While Easter Bush (pasture) and Oensingen int. (meadow) were intensively managed and received a considerable amount of fertiliser, the unfertilised sites Bugac (pasture) and Oensingen ext. (meadow) depended on atmospheric N input (wet and dry deposition) and biological N fixation. The experimental results of the four sites were also compared to published GHG fluxes of other European grasslands. While the ecosystem CO2 exchange was measured on the field scale with the eddy covariance method, the soil fluxes of the other greenhouse gases CH4 and N2O have been detected generally by means of static chambers (only occasional application of eddy covariance). The emission of CH4 by grazing ruminant resulting from enteric fermentation was estimated by animal type specific emission factors. For characterizing the total GHG effect of the grassland sites, the contributions of the different GHGs were normalised to CO2-equivalents. Except for Oensingen ext., all sites showed positive C budgets (sequestration). The observed positive correlation between C and N sequestration (with a ratio between 10 and 20) agrees with studies reported in the literature. The magnitude of N2O emission depended mainly on management intensity (fertiliser input) and on the soil moisture conditions. Whereas for the Oensingen and the Bugac sites, the total GHG budget was dominated by the carbon budget, for Easter Bush the combined effect of N2O and CH4 emission (including animal enteric fermentation) was in the same order of magnitude as the

  9. USDA Northeast climate hub greenhouse gas mitigation workshop technical report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In April 2015, USDA Secretary Vilsack announced the Greenhouse Gas Building Blocks for Climate Smart Agriculture and Forestry in an effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, increase carbon sequestration, and expand renewable energy production in the agricultural and forestry sectors. This initiati...

  10. An integrated study of nutrient leaching and greenhouse gas emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient leaching and greenhouse gas emission are two of the primary environmental impacts of crop production. These processes have been studied at great length separately, but few integrated studies of leaching and greenhouse gas emission have been conducted. We measured nutrient leaching and green...

  11. 40 CFR 1036.530 - Calculating greenhouse gas emission rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calculating greenhouse gas emission rates. 1036.530 Section 1036.530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Procedures § 1036.530 Calculating greenhouse gas emission rates. This section describes how to...

  12. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator for Grain and Biofuel Farming Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSwiney, Claire P.; Bohm, Sven; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for farmers to participate in greenhouse gas (GHG) credit markets require that growers, students, extension educators, offset aggregators, and other stakeholders understand the impact of agricultural practices on GHG emissions. The Farming Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator, a web-based tool linked to the SOCRATES soil…

  13. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various methods exist to calculate global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHG) as measures of net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agroecosystems. Little is, however, known about net GWP and GHGI that account for all sources and sinks of GHG emissions. Sources of GHG include...

  14. Chapter 4: Assessing the Air Pollution, Greenhouse Gas, Air Quality, and Health Benefits of Clean Energy Initiatives

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Chapter 4 of “Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy” helps state energy, environmental, and economic policy makers assess the air quality, greenhouse gas, air pollution, and health benefits of clean energy initiatives.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from a managed grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S. K.; Rees, R. M.; Skiba, U. M.; Ball, B. C.

    2005-07-01

    Managed grasslands contribute to global warming by the exchange of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane. To reduce uncertainties of the global warming potential of European grasslands and to assess potential mitigation options, an integrated approach quantifying fluxes from all three gases is needed. Greenhouse gas emissions from a grassland site in the SE of Scotland were measured in 2002 and 2003. Closed static chambers were used for N 2O and CH 4 flux measurements, and samples were analysed by gas chromatography. Closed dynamic chambers were used for soil respiration measurements, using infrared gas analysis. Three organic manures and two inorganic fertilizers were applied at a rate of 300 kg N ha -1 a -1 (available N) and compared with a zero-N control on grassland plots in a replicated experimental design. Soil respiration from plots receiving manure was up to 1.6 times larger than CO 2 release from control plots and up to 1.7 times larger compared to inorganic treatments ( p<0.05). A highly significant ( p<0.001) effect of fertilizer and manure treatments on N 2O release was observed. Release of N 2O from plots receiving inorganic fertilizers resulted in short term peaks of up to 388 g N 2O-N ha -1 day -1. However losses from plots receiving organic manures were both longer lasting and greater in magnitude, with an emission of up to 3488 g N 2O-N ha -1 day -1 from the sewage sludge treatments. During the 2002 growing season the cumulative total N 2O flux from manure treatments was 25 times larger than that from mineral fertilizers. CH 4 emissions were only significantly increased ( p<0.001) for a short period following applications of cattle slurry. Although soil respiration in manure plots was high, model predictions and micrometeorological flux measurements at an adjacent site suggest that all plots receiving fertilizer or manure acted as a sink for CO 2. Therefore in terms of global warming potentials the contribution of N 2O from

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative futures of deforestation and agricultural management in the southern Amazon.

    PubMed

    Galford, Gillian L; Melillo, Jerry M; Kicklighter, David W; Cronin, Timothy W; Cerri, Carlos E P; Mustard, John F; Cerri, Carlos C

    2010-11-16

    The Brazilian Amazon is one of the most rapidly developing agricultural areas in the world and represents a potentially large future source of greenhouse gases from land clearing and subsequent agricultural management. In an integrated approach, we estimate the greenhouse gas dynamics of natural ecosystems and agricultural ecosystems after clearing in the context of a future climate. We examine scenarios of deforestation and postclearing land use to estimate the future (2006-2050) impacts on carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from the agricultural frontier state of Mato Grosso, using a process-based biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystems Model (TEM). We estimate a net emission of greenhouse gases from Mato Grosso, ranging from 2.8 to 15.9 Pg CO(2)-equivalents (CO(2)-e) from 2006 to 2050. Deforestation is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions over this period, but land uses following clearing account for a substantial portion (24-49%) of the net greenhouse gas budget. Due to land-cover and land-use change, there is a small foregone carbon sequestration of 0.2-0.4 Pg CO(2)-e by natural forests and cerrado between 2006 and 2050. Both deforestation and future land-use management play important roles in the net greenhouse gas emissions of this frontier, suggesting that both should be considered in emissions policies. We find that avoided deforestation remains the best strategy for minimizing future greenhouse gas emissions from Mato Grosso.

  17. 75 FR 57275 - Information Collection; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Information Collection; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot AGENCY: Federal... Supplier Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Inventory pilot. Public comments are particularly invited on... Information Collection 3090- 00XX; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot, by any of the...

  18. 77 FR 69585 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality... rule titled ``Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations....gov . For technical questions, please see the ] Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program Web site...

  19. Overview of ARB's Greenhouse Gas Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, M.; Chen, Y.; Kuwayama, T.; Vijayan, A.; Herner, J.; Croes, B.

    2015-12-01

    Since the passage of the California Global Warming Solutions Act (or AB32) in 2006, California Air Resources Board (ARB) has established and implemented a comprehensive plan to understand, quantify, and mitigate the various greenhouse gas (GHG) emission source sectors in the state. ARB has also developed a robust and multi-tiered in-house research effort to investigate methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and fluorinated gas emission sources. This presentation will provide an overview of ARB's monitoring and measurement research efforts to study the regional and local emission sources of these pollutants in California. ARB initiated the first subnational GHG Research Monitoring Network in 2010 to study the regional GHG emissions throughout the state. The network operates several high precision analyzers to study CH4, N2O, CO and CO2 emissions at strategically selected regional sites throughout California, and the resulting data are used to study the statewide emission trends and evaluate regional sources using statistical analyses and inverse modeling efforts. ARB is also collaborating with leading scientists to study important emission sources including agriculture, waste, and oil and gas sectors, and to identify "hot spot" methane sources through aerial surveys of high methane emitters in California. At the source level, ARB deploys Mobile Measurement Platforms (MMP) and flux chambers to measure local and source specific emissions, and uses the information to understand source characteristics and inform emissions inventories. Collectively, all these efforts are offering a comprehensive view of regional and local emission sources, and are expected to help in developing effective mitigation strategies to reduce GHG emissions in California.

  20. Economics of lifecycle analysis and greenhouse gas regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2009-11-01

    Interest in alternatives to fossil fuels has risen significantly during the current decade. Although a variety of different alternative technologies have experienced rapid growth, biofuels have emerged as the main alternative transportation fuel. Energy policies in several countries envision blending biofuels with fossil fuels as the main mechanism to increase energy independence and energy security. Climate change policies in several regions are also riding on the same hope for reducing emissions from transportation. The main advantage of biofuels is that they are technically mature, cheaper to produce and more convenient to use relative to other alternative fuels. However, the impact of current biofuels on the environment and on economic welfare, is controversial. In my dissertation I focus on three topics relevant to future energy and climate policies. The first is the economics of lifecycle analysis and its application to the assessment of environmental impact of biofuel policies. The potential of biofuel for reducing greenhouse gas emissions was brought to the fore by research that relied on the methodology called lifecycle analysis (LCA). Subsequent research however showed that the traditional LCA fails to account for market-mediated effects that will arise when biofuel technologies are scaled up. These effects can increase or decrease emissions at each stage of the lifecycle. I discuss how the LCA will differ depending on the scale, a single firm versus a region and why LCA of the future should be distinguished from LCA of the past. I describe some approaches for extending the LCA methodology so that it can be applied under these different situations. The second topic is the economic impact of biofuels. Biofuels reduce the demand for oil and increase the demand for agricultural goods. To high income countries which tend to be both large importers of oil and large exporters of agricultural goods, this implies two major benefits. One of the one hand it reduces

  1. California's new mandatory greenhouse gas reporting regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Gaffney; Doug Thompson; Richard Bode

    2008-11-15

    Beginning in early 2009, approximately 1000 California businesses will begin reporting their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based on the requirements of a new regulation adopted by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) in December 2007. California's mandatory GHG reporting regulation is the first rule adopted as a requirement of the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006, passed by the California Legislature as Assembly Bill 32 (AB 32; Nunez, Chapter 488, Statutes of 2006) and signed by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger in September 2006. The regulation is the first of its kind in the United States to require facilities to report annual GHG emissions. In general, all facilities subject to reporting are required to report their on-site stationary source combustion emissions of CO{sub 2}, nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and methane (CH{sub 4}). Some industrial sectors, such as cement producers and oil refineries, also must report their process emissions, which occur from chemical or other noncombustion activities. Fugitive emissions from facilities are required to be reported when specified in the regulation. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) use is prevalent in electricity facilities and must be reported. CO{sub 2} emissions from biomass-derived fuels must be separately identified during reporting, and reporters must also provide their consumption of purchased or acquired electricity and thermal energy; these requirements will assist facilities in evaluating changes in their fossil fuel carbon footprints. 1 tab.

  2. Embodied Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Diets

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Prajal; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Juergen P.

    2013-01-01

    Changing food consumption patterns and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a matter of scientific debate for decades. The agricultural sector is one of the major GHG emitters and thus holds a large potential for climate change mitigation through optimal management and dietary changes. We assess this potential, project emissions, and investigate dietary patterns and their changes globally on a per country basis between 1961 and 2007. Sixteen representative and spatially differentiated patterns with a per capita calorie intake ranging from 1,870 to 3,400 kcal/day were derived. Detailed analyses show that low calorie diets are decreasing worldwide, while in parallel diet composition is changing as well: a discernable shift towards more balanced diets in developing countries can be observed and steps towards more meat rich diets as a typical characteristics in developed countries. Low calorie diets which are mainly observable in developing countries show a similar emission burden than moderate and high calorie diets. This can be explained by a less efficient calorie production per unit of GHG emissions in developing countries. Very high calorie diets are common in the developed world and exhibit high total per capita emissions of 3.7–6.1 kg CO2eq./day due to high carbon intensity and high intake of animal products. In case of an unbridled demographic growth and changing dietary patterns the projected emissions from agriculture will approach 20 Gt CO2eq./yr by 2050. PMID:23700408

  3. Greenhouse gas accounting and waste management.

    PubMed

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas H; Aoustin, Emmanuelle

    2009-11-01

    Accounting of emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) is a major focus within waste management. This paper analyses and compares the four main types of GHG accounting in waste management including their special features and approaches: the national accounting, with reference to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the corporate level, as part of the annual reporting on environmental issues and social responsibility, life-cycle assessment (LCA), as an environmental basis for assessing waste management systems and technologies, and finally, the carbon trading methodology, and more specifically, the clean development mechanism (CDM) methodology, introduced to support cost-effective reduction in GHG emissions. These types of GHG accounting, in principle, have a common starting point in technical data on GHG emissions from specific waste technologies and plants, but the limited availability of data and, moreover, the different scopes of the accounting lead to many ways of quantifying emissions and producing the accounts. The importance of transparency in GHG accounting is emphasised regarding waste type, waste composition, time period considered, GHGs included, global warming potential (GWP) assigned to the GHGs, counting of biogenic carbon dioxide, choice of system boundaries, interactions with the energy system, and generic emissions factors. In order to enhance transparency and consistency, a format called the upstream-operating-downstream framework (UOD) is proposed for reporting basic technology-related data regarding GHG issues including a clear distinction between direct emissions from waste management technologies, indirect upstream (use of energy and materials) and indirect downstream (production of energy, delivery of secondary materials) activities.

  4. Embodied greenhouse gas emissions in diets.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Prajal; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Juergen P

    2013-01-01

    Changing food consumption patterns and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a matter of scientific debate for decades. The agricultural sector is one of the major GHG emitters and thus holds a large potential for climate change mitigation through optimal management and dietary changes. We assess this potential, project emissions, and investigate dietary patterns and their changes globally on a per country basis between 1961 and 2007. Sixteen representative and spatially differentiated patterns with a per capita calorie intake ranging from 1,870 to >3,400 kcal/day were derived. Detailed analyses show that low calorie diets are decreasing worldwide, while in parallel diet composition is changing as well: a discernable shift towards more balanced diets in developing countries can be observed and steps towards more meat rich diets as a typical characteristics in developed countries. Low calorie diets which are mainly observable in developing countries show a similar emission burden than moderate and high calorie diets. This can be explained by a less efficient calorie production per unit of GHG emissions in developing countries. Very high calorie diets are common in the developed world and exhibit high total per capita emissions of 3.7-6.1 kg CO(2eq.)/day due to high carbon intensity and high intake of animal products. In case of an unbridled demographic growth and changing dietary patterns the projected emissions from agriculture will approach 20 Gt CO(2eq.)/yr by 2050.

  5. Greenhouse gas emission inventory for Senegal, 1991.

    PubMed

    Sokona, Y

    1995-01-01

    The first greenhouse gas (GHG) emission estimates for Senegal, for the year 1991, were produced according to the draft IPCC/OECD guidelines for national inventories of GHGs. Despite certain discrepancies, nonavailability of data, the quality of some of the data collected, and the methodology, the estimates provide a provisional basis for Senegal to fulfill its obligations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. This inventory reveals that GHG emissions in Senegal, like those in many developing countries, can mainly be attributed to the use of biomass for energy, land-use change and forestry, and savanna burning. Taking into account the direct global warming potential of the main GHGs (CO2, CH4, and N2O), Senegal's emissions are estimated at 17.6 Tg ECO2. The major gases emitted are CO2 (61% of GHG emissions), followed by CH4 (35%) and N2O (4%). Energy accounts for 45% of total emissions (12% from fossil energy and 33% from traditional biomass energy); land-use change and forests, 18%; agriculture, 24%; waste, 12%; and industry, 1%.

  6. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    SciTech Connect

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V.; Martins, A.; Pesur, A.; Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H.

    1996-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions related to ethanol produced from corn

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, G.

    1994-04-01

    This report confers the details of a panel meeting discussion on greenhouse gases. The topic of this discussion was ethanol. Members discussed all aspects of growing corn and producing ethanol. Then the question was raised as to whether or not this is a suitable substitute to fossil fuel usage in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions from soil under changing environmental conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is the Guest Editors’ Introduction to a special issue on greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. The papers were assembled following presentation at EuroSoil 2012. Exchange of greenhouse gases between soils and the atmosphere is a natural consequence of several ecosystem process...

  10. Maximizing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions through Food Waste Diversion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Humboldt County, California, is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s Climate Showcase Communities Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  11. Regulations for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Passenger Cars and Trucks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are taking coordinated steps to enable the production of a new generation of clean vehicles, through reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and improved fuel use from onroad vehicles.

  12. Regulations for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Commercial Trucks & Buses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are taking coordinated steps to enable the production of a new generation of clean vehicles, through reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and improved fuel use from onroad vehicles.

  13. Interagency Pilot of Greenhouse Gas Accounting Tools: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Kandt, A.

    2013-02-01

    The Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) and Tongass National Forest (Tongass) partnered with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct a pilot study of three greenhouse gas (GHG) inventorying tools.

  14. Detection of Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climatic Change

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.

    1998-05-26

    The objective of this report is to assemble and analyze instrumental climate data and to develop and apply climate models as a basis for (1) detecting greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change, and (2) validation of General Circulation Models.

  15. Integrated Belowground Greenhouse Gas Flux Modeling (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, E. A.; Savage, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    Soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions play a significant role as biotic feedbacks to climate change. However, these complex processes, involving C, N, and O2 substrates and inhibitors, interactions with plant processes, and environmental influences of temperature, moisture, and gas transport, remain challenging to simulate in process models. Because CO2, CH4, and N2O production and consumption processes are inter-linked through common substrates and the contrasting effects of O2 as either an essential substrate or a potential inhibitor, the simulation of fluxes of any one gas must be consistent with mechanistic simulations and observations of fluxes of the other gases. Simulating the fluxes of one gas alone is a simpler task, but simulating all three gases simultaneously would provide multiple constraints and would afford greater confidence that the most important mechanisms are aptly simulated. A case in point is the challenge of resolving the apparent paradox of observed simultaneous CO2 production by aerobic respiration, CH4 uptake (oxidation), CH4 production, and N2O uptake (reduction) in the same soil profile. Consumption of atmospheric N2O should occur only under reducing conditions, and yet we have observed uptake of atmospheric CH4 (oxidation) and N2O (reduction) simultaneously. One of the great challenges of numerical modeling is determining the appropriate level of complexity when representing the most important environmental controllers. Ignoring complexity, such as simulating microbial processes with only simple Q10 functions, often results in poor model performance, because soil moisture and substrate supply can also be important factors. On the other hand, too much complexity, while perhaps mechanistically compelling, may result in too many poorly constrained parameters. Here we explore a parsimonious modeling framework for consistently integrated mechanistic and mathematical representation of the biophysical processes of belowground GHG production and

  16. A "Greenhouse Gas" Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Elaine; Paul, Melissa; Como, Charles; Barat, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This experiment and analysis offer an effective experience in greenhouse gas reduction. Ammoniated water is flowed counter-current to a simulated flue gas of air and CO2 in a packed column. The gaseous CO2 concentrations are measured with an on-line, non- dispersive, infrared analyzer. Column operating parameters include total gas flux, dissolved…

  17. Greenhouse Gas Endangerment Finding: Health Effects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View English or Spanish-language version of a fact sheet that highlights key effects that support EPA’s determination that current and future concentrations of greenhouse gases endanger public health.

  18. Inventory of Alabama greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chumeng; Herz, W.J.; Griffin, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    Greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere have been increasing since the industrial revolution. Worldwide efforts are being made to study anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. This study quantified the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in Alabama in 1990. Alabama anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks from 13 sources were studied. 1990 Alabama total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks were estimated to be 153.42 and 21.66 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. As a result, the net total greenhouse gas emissions were estimated to be 131.76 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. Fossil fuel combustion is the major source of emissions, representing approximately 78 percent. Coal mining and landfills are other two significant emission sources, representing approximately 10 and 6 percent of the total emissions respectively. Forests in Alabama represent the major sink, offsetting approximately 14 percent of the total emissions. On a per capita basis, Alabama`s emission rate is 32.3 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per capita in 1990, compared to the national per capita average of 23.4 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. The high emission rate is attributed to higher emissions than the national average from fossil fuel combustion, from coal mining and landfills in Alabama.

  19. Co-benefits, trade-offs, barriers and policies for greenhouse gas mitigation in the agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) sector.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Mercedes; Robledo-Abad, Carmenza; Harper, Richard; Mbow, Cheikh; Ravindranat, Nijavalli H; Sperling, Frank; Haberl, Helmut; Pinto, Alexandre de Siqueira; Smith, Pete

    2014-10-01

    The agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) sector is responsible for approximately 25% of anthropogenic GHG emissions mainly from deforestation and agricultural emissions from livestock, soil and nutrient management. Mitigation from the sector is thus extremely important in meeting emission reduction targets. The sector offers a variety of cost-competitive mitigation options with most analyses indicating a decline in emissions largely due to decreasing deforestation rates. Sustainability criteria are needed to guide development and implementation of AFOLU mitigation measures with particular focus on multifunctional systems that allow the delivery of multiple services from land. It is striking that almost all of the positive and negative impacts, opportunities and barriers are context specific, precluding generic statements about which AFOLU mitigation measures have the greatest promise at a global scale. This finding underlines the importance of considering each mitigation strategy on a case-by-case basis, systemic effects when implementing mitigation options on the national scale, and suggests that policies need to be flexible enough to allow such assessments. National and international agricultural and forest (climate) policies have the potential to alter the opportunity costs of specific land uses in ways that increase opportunities or barriers for attaining climate change mitigation goals. Policies governing practices in agriculture and in forest conservation and management need to account for both effective mitigation and adaptation and can help to orient practices in agriculture and in forestry towards global sharing of innovative technologies for the efficient use of land resources. Different policy instruments, especially economic incentives and regulatory approaches, are currently being applied however, for its successful implementation it is critical to understand how land-use decisions are made and how new social, political and economic forces

  20. The greenhouse gas balance of European grasslands.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jinfeng; Ciais, Philippe; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Sultan, Benjamin; Soussana, Jean-François

    2015-10-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of European grasslands (EU-28 plus Norway and Switzerland), including CO2 , CH4 and N2 O, is estimated using the new process-based biogeochemical model ORCHIDEE-GM over the period 1961-2010. The model includes the following: (1) a mechanistic representation of the spatial distribution of management practice; (2) management intensity, going from intensively to extensively managed; (3) gridded simulation of the carbon balance at ecosystem and farm scale; and (4) gridded simulation of N2 O and CH4 emissions by fertilized grassland soils and livestock. The external drivers of the model are changing animal numbers, nitrogen fertilization and deposition, land-use change, and variable CO2 and climate. The carbon balance of European grassland (NBP) is estimated to be a net sink of 15 ± 7 g C m(-2 ) year(-1) during 1961-2010, equivalent to a 50-year continental cumulative soil carbon sequestration of 1.0 ± 0.4 Pg C. At the farm scale, which includes both ecosystem CO2 fluxes and CO2 emissions from the digestion of harvested forage, the net C balance is roughly halved, down to a small sink, or nearly neutral flux of 8 g C m(-2 ) year(-1) . Adding CH4 and N2 O emissions to net ecosystem exchange to define the ecosystem-scale GHG balance, we found that grasslands remain a net GHG sink of 19 ± 10 g C-CO2 equiv. m(-2 ) year(-1) , because the CO2 sink offsets N2 O and grazing animal CH4 emissions. However, when considering the farm scale, the GHG balance (NGB) becomes a net GHG source of -50 g C-CO2 equiv. m(-2 ) year(-1) . ORCHIDEE-GM simulated an increase in European grassland NBP during the last five decades. This enhanced NBP reflects the combination of a positive trend of net primary production due to CO2 , climate and nitrogen fertilization and the diminishing requirement for grass forage due to the Europe-wide reduction in livestock numbers.

  1. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions of European cities--modeling emissions with only one spatial and one socioeconomic variable.

    PubMed

    Baur, Albert H; Lauf, Steffen; Förster, Michael; Kleinschmit, Birgit

    2015-07-01

    Substantive and concerted action is needed to mitigate climate change. However, international negotiations struggle to adopt ambitious legislation and to anticipate more climate-friendly developments. Thus, stronger actions are needed from other players. Cities, being greenhouse gas emission centers, play a key role in promoting the climate change mitigation movement by becoming hubs for smart and low-carbon lifestyles. In this context, a stronger linkage between greenhouse gas emissions and urban development and policy-making seems promising. Therefore, simple approaches are needed to objectively identify crucial emission drivers for deriving appropriate emission reduction strategies. In analyzing 44 European cities, the authors investigate possible socioeconomic and spatial determinants of urban greenhouse gas emissions. Multiple statistical analyses reveal that the average household size and the edge density of discontinuous dense urban fabric explain up to 86% of the total variance of greenhouse gas emissions of EU cities (when controlled for varying electricity carbon intensities). Finally, based on these findings, a multiple regression model is presented to determine greenhouse gas emissions. It is independently evaluated with ten further EU cities. The reliance on only two indicators shows that the model can be easily applied in addressing important greenhouse gas emission sources of European urbanites, when varying power generations are considered. This knowledge can help cities develop adequate climate change mitigation strategies and promote respective policies on the EU or the regional level. The results can further be used to derive first estimates of urban greenhouse gas emissions, if no other analyses are available.

  2. FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Ruether, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth`s atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide.

  3. Review of Mitigation Costs for Stabilizing Greenhouse Gas Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ruijven, B. J.; O'Neill, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions to avoid future climate change comes at a cost, because low-emission technologies are more expensive than GHG-emitting technology options. The increase in mitigation cost is not linearly related to the stabilization level, though: the first emission reductions are relatively cheap, but deeper emission reductions become more expensive. Therefore, emission reduction to medium levels of GHG concentrations , such as 4.5 or 6 W/m2, is considerably cheaper than emission reduction to low levels of GHG concentrations, such as 2.6 or 3.7 W/m2. Moreover, mitigation costs are influenced by many other aspects than the targeted mitigation level alone, such as whether or not certain technologies are available or societally acceptable (Kriegler et al., 2014); the rate of technological progress and cost reduction of low-emission technologies; the level of final energy demand (Riahi et al., 2011), and the level of global cooperation and trade in emission allowances (den Elzen and Höhne, 2010). This paper reviews the existing literature on greenhouse gas mitigation costs. We analyze the available data on mitigation costs and draw conclusions on how these change for different stabilization levels of GHG concentrations. We will take into account the aspects of technology, energy demand, and cooperation in distinguishing differences between scenarios and stabilization levels. References: den Elzen, M., Höhne, N., 2010. Sharing the reduction effort to limit global warming to 2C. Climate Policy 10, 247-260. Kriegler, E., Weyant, J., Blanford, G., Krey, V., Clarke, L., Edmonds, J., Fawcett, A., Luderer, G., Riahi, K., Richels, R., Rose, S., Tavoni, M., Vuuren, D., 2014. The role of technology for achieving climate policy objectives: overview of the EMF 27 study on global technology and climate policy strategies. Climatic Change, 1-15. Riahi, K., Dentener, F., Gielen, D., Grubler, A., Jewell, J., Klimont, Z., Krey, V., McCollum, D., Pachauri, S

  4. Income-Based Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nations.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sai; Qu, Shen; Zhu, Zeqi; Guan, Dabo; Xu, Ming

    2017-01-03

    Accounting for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of nations is essential to understanding their importance to global climate change and help inform the policymaking on global GHG mitigation. Previous studies have made efforts to evaluate direct GHG emissions of nations (a.k.a. production-based accounting method) and GHG emissions caused by the final consumption of nations (a.k.a. consumption-based accounting method), but overlooked downstream GHG emissions enabled by primary inputs of individual nations and sectors (a.k.a. income-based accounting method). Here we show that the income-based accounting method reveals new GHG emission profiles for nations and sectors. The rapid development of mining industries drives income-based GHG emissions of resource-exporting nations (e.g., Australia, Canada, and Russia) during 1995-2009. Moreover, the rapid development of sectors producing basic materials and providing financial intermediation services drives income-based GHG emissions of developing nations (e.g., China, Indonesia, India, and Brazil) during this period. The income-based accounting can support supply side policy decisions and provide additional information for determining GHG emission quotas based on cumulative emissions of nations and designing policies for shared responsibilities.

  5. Editorial and Introduction of the Special Issue for the Ninth International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies in the International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.; Benson, Sally M.; Karimjee, Anhar; Rubin, Edward S.

    2010-03-01

    Short one page editorial to introduce the +30 peer reviewed papers contained within the Special Issue for the Ninth International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies in the International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control

  6. Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Voluntary Reporting 1996

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Presents information on voluntary actions to reduce greenhouse gases or remove such gases from the atmosphere in 1995. It provides an overview of participation in the Voluntary Reporting Program, a perspective on the composition of activities reported, and a review of some key issues in interpreting and evaluating achievements associated with reported emissions mitigation initiatives.

  7. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

    2012-01-17

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  8. The potential for biomass to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the Northeastern US

    SciTech Connect

    Bernow, S.S.; Gurney, K.; Prince, G.; Cyr, M.

    1992-04-01

    This study, for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) of the Coalition of Northeast Governors (CONEG), evaluates the potential for local, state and regional biomass policies to contribute to an overall energy/biomass strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gas releases in the Northeastern United States. Biomass is a conditionally renewable resource that can play a dual role: by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in meeting our energy needs; and by removing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it in standing biomass stocks and long-lived products. In this study we examine the contribution of biomass to the energy system in the Northeast and to the region's net releases of carbon dioxide and methane, and project these releases over three decades, given a continuation of current trends and policies. We then compare this Reference Case with three alternative scenarios, assuming successively more aggressive efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through strategic implementation of energy efficiency and biomass resources. Finally, we identify and examine policy options for expanding the role of biomass in the region's energy and greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

  9. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology feasibility and options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

  10. 2012 Stakeholder Workshop on Natural Gas in the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page describes EPA's September 2012 stakeholder workshop on key aspects of the estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from the natural gas sector in the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks.

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative futures of deforestation and agricultural management in the southern Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Galford, Gillian L.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Kicklighter, David W.; Cronin, Timothy W.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Mustard, John F.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian Amazon is one of the most rapidly developing agricultural areas in the world and represents a potentially large future source of greenhouse gases from land clearing and subsequent agricultural management. In an integrated approach, we estimate the greenhouse gas dynamics of natural ecosystems and agricultural ecosystems after clearing in the context of a future climate. We examine scenarios of deforestation and postclearing land use to estimate the future (2006–2050) impacts on carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from the agricultural frontier state of Mato Grosso, using a process-based biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystems Model (TEM). We estimate a net emission of greenhouse gases from Mato Grosso, ranging from 2.8 to 15.9 Pg CO2-equivalents (CO2-e) from 2006 to 2050. Deforestation is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions over this period, but land uses following clearing account for a substantial portion (24–49%) of the net greenhouse gas budget. Due to land-cover and land-use change, there is a small foregone carbon sequestration of 0.2–0.4 Pg CO2-e by natural forests and cerrado between 2006 and 2050. Both deforestation and future land-use management play important roles in the net greenhouse gas emissions of this frontier, suggesting that both should be considered in emissions policies. We find that avoided deforestation remains the best strategy for minimizing future greenhouse gas emissions from Mato Grosso. PMID:20651250

  12. 76 FR 22825 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 98 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems AGENCY..., 2010 EPA promulgated Subpart W: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule... outlined for calculating greenhouse gas emissions for the petroleum and natural gas systems source...

  13. [Progress in research of urban greenhouse gas emission inventory].

    PubMed

    Chen, Cao-Cao; Liu, Chun-Lan; Tian, Gang; Wang, Hai-Hua; Li, Zheng

    2010-11-01

    Urban areas carry main responsibility for consuming massive energy sources and make great contribution to global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. City and local governments are seen to have a key role in climate mitigation. Hence,one of the important work concerns accounting for city greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, because it plays significant role in setting reduction targets and evaluating success of local measures. However, open system architectures like city face many challenges for greenhouse gas accounting. Based on the review in details the methodology and case study, our study focuses on the difference and interconnection between country and city GHG accounts,and uncertainty of accounts. Further, we propose the valuable experience in order to improve domestic research on city GHG emission inventory.

  14. Understanding the Design and Performance of Emissions Trading Systems for Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Toman, M.

    1999-01-31

    Research Spotlight presents new research findings and projects underway at Resources for the Future that are relevant to the analysis of climate change policy. As interest in greenhouse gas trading policies grows in the United States and other Annex I countries, so does the need for stronger analytical tools. The paper by Tietenberg in this collection lays out some of the principal conceptual issues that analysts face in providing more accurate and relevant tools and results for decisionmakers. In this paper we build on Tietenberg's analysis to consider some of the key modeling challenges that analysts face in developing an improved capacity for quantitatively assessing real-world policies.

  15. Technology and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: An IntegratedScenario Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Koomey, J.G.; Latiner, S.; Markel, R.J.; Marnay, C.; Richey, R.C.

    1998-09-01

    This report describes an analysis of possible technology-based scenarios for the U.S. energy system that would result in both carbon savings and net economic benefits. We use a modified version of the Energy Information Administration's National Energy Modeling System (LBNL-NEMS) to assess the potential energy, carbon, and bill savings from a portfolio of carbon saving options. This analysis is based on technology resource potentials estimated in previous bottom-up studies, but it uses the integrated LBNL-NEMS framework to assess interactions and synergies among these options. The analysis in this paper builds on previous estimates of possible "technology paths" to investigate four major components of an aggressive greenhouse gas reduction strategy: (1) the large scale implementation of demand-side efficiency, comparable in scale to that presented in two recent policy studies on this topic; (2) a variety of "alternative" electricity supply-side options, including biomass cofiring, extension of the renewable production tax credit for wind, increased industrial cogeneration, and hydropower refurbishment. (3) the economic retirement of older and less efficient existing fossil-find power plants; and (4) a permit charge of $23 per metric ton of carbon (1996 $/t),l assuming that carbon trading is implemented in the US, and that the carbon permit charge equilibrates at this level. This level of carbon permit charge, as discussed later in the report, is in the likely range for the Clinton Administration's position on this topic.

  16. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options.

    PubMed

    Olabisi, Laura Schmitt; Reich, Peter B; Johnson, Kris A; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Su, Sangwon H; Wilson, Elizabeth J

    2009-03-15

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by 2050. A portfolio of conservation strategies, including electricity conservation, increased vehicle fleet fuel efficiency, and reduced vehicle miles traveled, is likely the most cost-effective option for Minnesota and could reduce emissions by 18% below 2005 levels. An 80% GHG reduction would require complete decarbonization of the electricity and transportation sectors, combined with carbon capture and sequestration at power plants, or deep cuts in other relatively more intransigent GHG-emitting sectors. In order to achieve ambitious GHG reduction goals, policymakers should promote aggressive conservation efforts, which would probably have negative net costs, while phasing in alternative fuels to replace coal and motor gasoline over the long-term.

  17. Cost of abating greenhouse gas emissions with cellulosic ethanol.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Wang, Weiwei; Hudiburg, Tara; Jaiswal, Deepak; Parton, William; Long, Stephen; DeLucia, Evan; Khanna, Madhu

    2015-02-17

    We develop an integrated framework to determine and compare greenhouse gas (GHG) intensities and production costs of cellulosic ethanol derived from corn stover, switchgrass, and miscanthus grown on high and low quality soils for three representative counties in the Eastern United States. This information is critical for assessing the cost-effectiveness of utilizing cellulosic ethanol for mitigating GHG emissions and designing appropriate policy incentives to support cellulosic ethanol production nationwide. We find considerable variations in the GHG intensities and production costs of ethanol across feedstocks and locations mostly due to differences in yields and soil characteristics. As compared to gasoline, the GHG savings from miscanthus-based ethanol ranged between 130% and 156% whereas that from switchgrass ranged between 97% and 135%. The corresponding range for GHG savings with corn stover was 57% to 95% and marginally below the threshold of at least 60% for biofuels classified as cellulosic biofuels under the Renewable Fuels Standard. Estimates of the costs of producing ethanol relative to gasoline imply an abatement cost of at least $48 Mg(-1) of GHG emissions (carbon dioxide equivalent) abated and can be used to infer the minimum carbon tax rate needed to induce consumption of cellulosic ethanol.

  18. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options

    SciTech Connect

    Laura Schmitt Olabisi; Peter B. Reich; Kris A. Johnson; Anne R. Kapuscinski; Sangwon Suh; Elizabeth J. Wilson

    2009-03-15

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by 2050. A portfolio of conservation strategies, including electricity conservation, increased vehicle fleet fuel efficiency, and reduced vehicle miles traveled, is likely the most cost-effective option for Minnesota and could reduce emissions by 18% below 2005 levels. An 80% GHG reduction would require complete decarbonization of the electricity and transportation sectors, combined with carbon capture and sequestration at power plants, or deep cuts in other relatively more intransigent GHG-emitting sectors. In order to achieve ambitious GHG reduction goals, policymakers should promote aggressive conservation efforts, which would probably have negative net costs, while phasing in alternative fuels to replace coal and motor gasoline over the long-term. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. [Evaluation indices of greenhouse gas mitigation technologies in cropland ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-zheng; Wang, Ying-chun; Wang, Li-gang; Li, Hu; Qiu, Jian-jun; Wang, Dao-long

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the increasing studies on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation technologies, there is still a lack of systematic indices for evaluation of their overall impacts in croplands. In this study, we collected all the indices relating to greenhouse gas emissions and analyzed each index following the principles of representativeness, objectivity, completeness, dominance and operability. Finally, we proposed evaluation indices for mitigation technologies based on the current situation of China. Crop yield per unit area was proposed as a constrained index, and greenhouse gas emissions intensity, defined as GHG emissions per unit of produced yield, was proposed as comprehensive index to evaluate the greenhouse effect of various croplands mitigation technologies. Calculation of GHG emissions intensity involved yield, change of soil organic carbon, direct N2O emissions, paddy CH4 emissions and direct and indirect emissions from inputs into croplands. By following these evaluation indices, the greenhouse effect of the technologies could be well evaluated, which could provide scientific basis for their further adoption.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, D. Y. C.; Lee, Y. T.

    This study provides a quantitative review of the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2) and methane (CH 4), the two most significant greenhouse gases (GHGs) in Hong Kong. Study indicated that CO 2 accounts for 90% of the local GHG emissions in Hong Kong. Among the different types of fuels coal is identified as the major source of CO 2, which constitutes about 50% by fuel type. On the other hand, CH 4, which mainly comes from waste decomposition, contributes to 5% of the total GHG emissions. Correlation study revealed that energy consumption and waste quantity were strongly correlated with population and gross domestic products (GDP), implying that not much has been done in Hong Kong to re-mediate GHG emissions. Regression analysis concluded that supply side management (fuel switch) was more effective than demand side management (energy conservation) in mitigating CO 2 emissions in Hong Kong.

  1. Sub-tropical freshwater storage catchments: major greenhouse gas sinks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinham, Alistair; Dunbabin, Matthew

    2013-04-01

    The relatively unstudied catchments and freshwater storages of the sub-tropics represent a potentially important gap in understanding global greenhouse gas cycling. The low number of studies may bias attempts to include this region's contribution to global greenhouse gas cycling, as very few studies have examined the major drivers behind terrestrial and aquatic greenhouse cycling in such sub-tropical areas. In addition, the uncertainty associated in quantifying greenhouse gas emission rates is relatively unknown. This information is crucial to determine whether freshwater storages and their associated catchments are net sources or sinks of greenhouse gas. Here, we present a greenhouse gas audit of the catchment and freshwater storage of Little Nerang Dam to determine the greenhouse gas status of the system as a whole. Little Nerang Dam is a sub-tropical freshwater storage located in Southeast Queensland, Australia. The catchment is in a relatively pristine condition with over 85% native forest remaining dominated by carbon dense Eucalypt species trees. Aquatic surface area is approximately 0.5 km2 in contrast to the terrestrial surface area of 35 km2. This system is an ideal model to investigate drivers behind greenhouse cycling in a relatively undisturbed catchment. A comprehensive field survey was conducted to estimate the major pools of carbon including terrestrial above and belowground fractions as well as the aquatic sediment and water column fractions. Greenhouse rates of emissions and sequestration were monitored over an annual cycle; parameters included tree growth rates, soil respiration, forest litter fall rates and aquatic methane and nitrous oxide fluxes. Results demonstrated the terrestrial carbon pool exceeded the aquatic pool by at least 2 orders of magnitude. When emission and sequestration rates were expressed as CO2 equivalents per unit area catchment sequestration was approximately double that of catchment and storage emissions. When rates were

  2. 78 FR 19605 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring Method Request Submission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring Method Request... published a direct final rule, Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring Method... petroleum and natural gas systems source category of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule are required...

  3. 76 FR 37300 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to Best...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AP99 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas... available monitoring methods in regulations for Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems of the Greenhouse Gas...-HQ-OAR- 2011-0417, Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems....

  4. USDA Agriculture and Forestry Greenhouse Gas Inventory: 1990-2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations in the atmosphere have increased by approximately 43%, 152%, and 20% respectively since about 1750. In 2013, total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions were 6,673 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MMT CO2 eq.), ris...

  5. The Role of Nuclear Power in Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    For Frank Princiotta’s book, Global Climate Change—The Technology Challenge As this chapter will point out, nuclear energy is a low greenhouse gas emitter and is capable of providing large amounts of power using proven technology. In the immediate future, it can contribute to gr...

  6. Predicting greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedyard manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved predictive models for nitrous oxide and methane are crucial for assessing the greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of beef cattle production. Biochemical process-based models to predict GHG from manure rely on information derived from studies on soil and only limited study has been conducted on m...

  7. Predicting greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedyard manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved predictive models for nitrous oxide and methane are crucial for assessing the greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of beef cattle production. Biochemical process based models to predict GHG from manure rely on information derived from studies on soil and only limited study has been conducted on m...

  8. PROCEEDINGS: THE 1992 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND MITIGATION RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the 1992 Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Research Symposium held in Washington, DC, August 18-20, 1992. The symposium provided a forum for exchange of technical information on global change emissions and potential mitigation technologies. The primary ...

  9. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options Database(GMOD)and Tool

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options Database (GMOD) is a decision support database and tool that provides cost and performance information for GHG mitigation options for the power, cement, refinery, landfill and pulp and paper sectors. The GMOD includes approximately 450 studies fo...

  10. Assessment and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This was an invited 45 minute oral presentation concerning assessment and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from feedlots. The audience at the summit (about 60 people) included university professors, environmental regulators, and producers. The presentation included a brief review of environm...

  11. Intertemporal Regulatory Tasks and Responsibilities for Greenhouse Gas Reductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deason, Jeffrey A.; Friedman, Lee S.

    2010-01-01

    Jurisdictions are in the process of establishing regulatory systems to control greenhouse gas emissions. Short-term and sometimes long-term emissions reduction goals are established, as California does for 2020 and 2050, but little attention has yet been focused on annual emissions targets for the intervening years. We develop recommendations for…

  12. Designing advanced biochar products for maximizing greenhouse gas mitigation potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural operations continue to increase. Carbon enriched char materials like biochar have been described as a mitigation strategy. Utilization of biochar material as a soil amendment has been demonstrated to provide potentially further soil GHG suppression du...

  13. Institutionalizing a Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Target at Yale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauch, Jason N.; Newman, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the development and implementation of how a greenhouse gas GHG reduction target at Yale University has resulted in broad and long-term institutional commitment. Design/methodology/approach: Interviews are conducted with key individuals representing those most directly involved in developing and…

  14. Subsurface banding poultry litter impacts greenhouse gas emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact subsurface banding poultry litter (PL) has on greenhouse gas emissions is limited. Thus, a study was conducted in established bermudagrass pastures located in Coastal Plain and Piedmont regions to determine the effects subsurface applying PL has on soil flux using two different band spaci...

  15. Mitigation potential and costs for global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural activities are a substantial contributor to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, accounting for about 58% of the world’s anthropogenic non-carbon dioxide GHG emissions and 14% of all anthropogenic GHG emissions, and agriculture is often viewed as a potential source of relatively low-c...

  16. Aerosol Observing System Greenhouse Gas (AOS GhG) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Biraud, S. C.; Reichl, K.

    2016-03-01

    The Greenhouse Gas (GhG) Measurement system is a combination of two systems in series: (1) the Tower Gas Processing (TGP) System, an instrument rack which pulls, pressurizes, and dries air streams from an atmospheric sampling tower through a series of control and monitoring components, and (2) the Picarro model G2301 cavity ringdown spectrometer (CRDS), which measures CO2, CH4, and H2O vapor; the primary measurements of the GhG system.

  17. Greenhouse gas fluxes during growth of different bioenergy crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, K.; Don, A.; Flessa, H.

    2012-04-01

    Bioenergy crops are expected to contribute to greenhouse gas mitigation by substituting fossil fuels. However, during production, processing and transport of bioenergy crops greenhouse gas emissions are generated that have to be taken into account when evaluating the role of bioenergy for climate mitigation. Especially nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions during feedstock production determine the greenhouse gas balance of bioenergy due to its strong global warming potential. This fact has often been ignored due to insufficient data and knowledge on greenhouse gas emission from cropland soils under bioenergy production. Therefore, we started to investigate the greenhouse gas emissions of major bioenergy crops maize, oil seed rape, grass (grass-clover, without N-fertilizer) and short rotation coppice (SRC, poplar hybrid) at two sites in Central Germany (near Göttingen and in Thuringia). The nitrous oxide and methane (CH4) fluxes from these sites have been determined by weekly chamber measurements since May 2011. The N2O emissions from all fields were low and without extreme peaks during the first five months of measurement (222 to 687 g N2O-N ha-1 for 5 months). The rape field near Göttingen emitted less N2O than the SRC, probably because SRC was newly established in spring 2011 and the rape has not been fertilized during the measurement period (cumulative emission over 5 months: rape seed 366 ± 188 g N2O-N ha-1, grassland 497 ± 153 g N2O-N ha-1, SRC 687 ± 124 g N2O-N ha-1). The maize field in Thuringia emitted more N2O than the SRC due to emission peaks related to the fertilization of maize (cumulative emission over 5 months: maize 492 ± 140 g N2O-N ha-1, grasslands 253 ± 87 and 361 ± 135 g N2O-N ha-1, new SRC 222 ± 90 g N2O-N ha-1, 4 years old SRC 340 ± 264 g N2O-N ha-1). All sites showed a net uptake of atmospheric methane throughout the summer season (104 to 862 g CH4-C ha-1 for 5 months). However, net-exchange of CH4 is of little importance for the greenhouse

  18. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, E. Jr.; Vernet, J.E. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    DOE is developing guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and their reductions, under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The establishment of this voluntary program should encourage the reduction of greenhouse gases while providing the opportunity to share innovative approaches to achieving such reductions. This social learning aspect is an important element of the program. In addition to greenhouse gas reductions achieved during a given year, reporters are encouraged to also report their actual emissions of such gases for 1987 through 1990. Due to the voluntary nature of this program, and the myriad differences among the potential reporting entities and possible uses for the data reported, the guidelines will need to be structured so as to maximize participation without compromising the usefulness of the data collected. Through a broad notice of inquiry, published in the Federal Register on July 27, 1993, the Department began seeking input into development of the guidelines. Subsequently, to gain a better understanding of the various sectors of the economy, six public workshops were held during the 1993. One workshop addressed institutional issues of potential interest to all sectors of the economy, with the other five workshops focusing more on matters of concern to specific sectors. These meetings were structured so as to provide broad representation from potential reporting entities along with public interest organizations. It is clear that there are significant variations among those reporting greenhouse information. Presently voluntary, the program will need flexibility to encourage broad participation.

  19. Implications of ethanol-based fuels for greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, G.; DeLuchi, M.A.; Wyman, C.

    1994-02-14

    The US Environmental Protection Agency has proposed a rule which would mandate that 30% of the oxygen content of reformulated gasoline be provided by renewable oxygenates. The rule would essentially require that biomass-based ethanol, or ETBE derived from ethanol, be used to supply 30% of the oxygen in reformulated gasoline. This short statement addresses the very narrow question, ``Would this rule result in a net decrease in greenhouse gas emissions?`` The challenge then is to determine how much greenhouse gas is emitted during the ethanol fuel cycle, a fuel cycle that is much less mature and less well documented than the petroleum fuel cycle. In the petroleum fuel cycle, most of the greenhouse gas emissions come from fuel combustion. In the ethanol fuel cycle most of the greenhouse gas emissions come from the fuel production processes. Details of corn productivity, fertilizer use, process efficiency, fuel source, etc. become very important. It is also important that the ethanol fuel cycle produces additional products and the greenhouse gas emissions have somehow to be allocated among the respective products. With so many variables in the ethanol fuel cycle, the concern is actually with ethanol-based additives which will be produced in response to the proposed rule, and not necessarily with the average of ethanol which is being produced now. A first important observation is that the difference between standard gasoline and reformulated gasoline is very small so that when differences are drawn against alternative fuels, it makes little difference whether the contrast is against standard or reformulated gasoline. A second observation is that for this base case comparison, emissions of CO{sub 2} alone are roughly 13% less for the ethanol fuel cycle than for the reformulated gasoline cycle.

  20. Policy implications of greenhouse warming: Mitigation, adaptation, and the science base

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This book discusses the policy implications of greenhouse warming by examining three major areas: general summary of information about the greenhouse effect leading to a framework for policy; the science basis for the greenhouse effect; mitigation of greenhouse warming. Each section contains 9-13 chapters on specific subjects including the following: overview of greenhouse gases; policy implications; internations considerations; climate records and models; sea levels; temperature rise estimation; energy management at several levels; nonenergy emission reduction; human populations; deforestation. Conclusions are summarized at the end of each section.

  1. Quantifying greenhouse gas mitigation potential of cropland management practices: A review of the GRA croplands research group greenhouse gas network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multi-national greenhouse gas (GHG) flux networks play a central role facilitating model development and verification while concurrently identifying critical research needs. In 2012, a network was established within Component 1 of the Global Research Alliance (GRA) Croplands Research Group. The ne...

  2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Educational Facilities and the EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Actions You Need to Take Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurmbrand, Mitchell M.; Klotz, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    On September 22, 2009, The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its final rule on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reporting. The informational literature that EPA has published to support the rule clearly states that EPA believes the vast majority of smaller GHG-emitting facilities, such as educational facilities, will not be…

  3. The Dairy Greenhouse Gas Model: A Tool for estimating greenhouse gas emissions and the carbon footprint of dairy production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their potential impact on the environment has become an important national and international concern. Animal agriculture is a recognized source of GHG emissions, but good information does not exist on the net emissions from our farms. A software tool called the Dai...

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Compliance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) is a free, desktop computer application that estimates the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel efficiency performance of specific aspects of heavy-duty vehicles.

  5. 75 FR 45112 - Call for Information: Information on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated With Bioenergy and Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Call for Information: Information on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated With Bioenergy and Other... greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy and other biogenic sources. Inadvertently, incorrect text...

  6. 75 FR 41452 - Draft Guidance, “Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... QUALITY Draft Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting'' AGENCY: Council on Environmental Quality. ACTION: Notice of Availability, Draft Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and... (GHG) emissions a priority for Federal agencies. Among other provisions, E.O. 13514 requires...

  7. Greenhouse gas fluxes over Central European grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörtnagl, L. J.; Bahn, M.; Barthel, M.; Eugster, W.; Klumpp, K.; Ladreiter-Knauss, T.; Merbold, L.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Buchmann, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    The uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) by grassland ecosystems can be offset by the concurrent emission of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in terms of CO2-equivalents. As a consequence, CH4 and N2O emissions can contribute to an increase of the global warming potential (GWP) of the respective study site. For a full assessment of the climatic impact of grassland ecosystems it is therefore necessary to quantify fluxes of these two compounds in combination with CO2 exchange. Since agricultural management practices and land use change at a given site can have a strong impact on annual CH4 and N2O budgets, both compounds are a frequent topic of discussion when planning GHG mitigation strategies.Here we present an overview of the GHG exchange of eight managed Central European grassland sites along a gradient of elevation and land use intensity. Fluxes of the three major GHGs CO2, CH4 and N2O were quantified using the eddy covariance or chamber technique. The grasslands differed with regard to the amount of fertilizer input, frequency of cuts and grazing duration and intensity, ranging from more intensively managed to very lightly managed and abandoned grassland. In this presentation we focus on time periods when measurements of all three compounds were available for all sites. We investigate common features among observed CH4 and N2O exchange patterns at the different grassland sites in relation to management activities and concurrently measured biotic / abiotic parameters. In addition, we evaluate the impact of CH4 and N2O fluxes on the annual GWP of field sites for which long-term measurements are available.

  8. Manure management for greenhouse gas mitigation.

    PubMed

    Petersen, S O; Blanchard, M; Chadwick, D; Del Prado, A; Edouard, N; Mosquera, J; Sommer, S G

    2013-06-01

    Ongoing intensification and specialisation of livestock production lead to increasing volumes of manure to be managed, which are a source of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Net emissions of CH4 and N2O result from a multitude of microbial activities in the manure environment. Their relative importance depends not only on manure composition and local management practices with respect to treatment, storage and field application, but also on ambient climatic conditions. The diversity of livestock production systems, and their associated manure management, is discussed on the basis of four regional cases (Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, China and Europe) with increasing levels of intensification and priorities with respect to nutrient management and environmental regulation. GHG mitigation options for production systems based on solid and liquid manure management are then presented, and potentials for positive and negative interactions between pollutants, and between management practices, are discussed. The diversity of manure properties and environmental conditions necessitate a modelling approach for improving estimates of GHG emissions, and for predicting effects of management changes for GHG mitigation, and requirements for such a model are discussed. Finally, we briefly discuss drivers for, and barriers against, introduction of GHG mitigation measures for livestock production. There is no conflict between efforts to improve food and feed production, and efforts to reduce GHG emissions from manure management. Growth in livestock populations are projected to occur mainly in intensive production systems where, for this and other reasons, the largest potentials for GHG mitigation may be found.

  9. Greenhouse gas impacts of natural gas: Influence of deployment choice, methane leak rate, and methane GWP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohan, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Growing supplies of natural gas have heightened interest in the net impacts of natural gas on climate. Although its production and consumption result in greenhouse gas emissions, natural gas most often substitutes for other fossil fuels whose emission rates may be higher. Because natural gas can be used throughout the sectors of the energy economy, its net impacts on greenhouse gas emissions will depend not only on the leak rates of production and distribution, but also on the use for which natural gas is substituted. Here, we present our estimates of the net greenhouse gas emissions impacts of substituting natural gas for other fossil fuels for five purposes: light-duty vehicles, transit buses, residential heating, electricity generation, and export for electricity generation overseas. Emissions are evaluated on a fuel cycle basis, from production and transport of each fuel through end use combustion, based on recent conditions in the United States. We show that displacement of existing coal-fired electricity and heating oil furnaces yield the largest reductions in emissions. The impact of compressed natural gas replacing petroleum-based vehicles is highly uncertain, with the sign of impact depending on multiple assumptions. Export of liquefied natural gas for electricity yields a moderate amount of emissions reductions. We further show how uncertainties in upstream emission rates for natural gas and in the global warming potential of methane influence the net greenhouse gas impacts. Our presentation will make the case that how natural gas is deployed is crucial to determining how it will impact climate.

  10. Communicating the uncertainty in estimated greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture.

    PubMed

    Milne, Alice E; Glendining, Margaret J; Lark, R Murray; Perryman, Sarah A M; Gordon, Taylor; Whitmore, Andrew P

    2015-09-01

    In an effort to mitigate anthropogenic effects on the global climate system, industrialised countries are required to quantify and report, for various economic sectors, the annual emissions of greenhouse gases from their several sources and the absorption of the same in different sinks. These estimates are uncertain, and this uncertainty must be communicated effectively, if government bodies, research scientists or members of the public are to draw sound conclusions. Our interest is in communicating the uncertainty in estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture to those who might directly use the results from the inventory. We tested six methods of communication. These were: a verbal scale using the IPCC calibrated phrases such as 'likely' and 'very unlikely'; probabilities that emissions are within a defined range of values; confidence intervals for the expected value; histograms; box plots; and shaded arrays that depict the probability density of the uncertain quantity. In a formal trial we used these methods to communicate uncertainty about four specific inferences about greenhouse gas emissions in the UK. Sixty four individuals who use results from the greenhouse gas inventory professionally participated in the trial, and we tested how effectively the uncertainty about these inferences was communicated by means of a questionnaire. Our results showed differences in the efficacy of the methods of communication, and interactions with the nature of the target audience. We found that, although the verbal scale was thought to be a good method of communication it did not convey enough information and was open to misinterpretation. Shaded arrays were similarly criticised for being open to misinterpretation, but proved to give the best impression of uncertainty when participants were asked to interpret results from the greenhouse gas inventory. Box plots were most favoured by our participants largely because they were particularly favoured by those who worked

  11. Estimating the Impact of US Agriculture Subsidies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshel, G.; Martin, P. A.

    2006-12-01

    It has been proposed in the popular media that US agricultural subsidies contribute deleteriously to both the American diet and environment. In this view, subsidies render mostly corn-based, animal products and sweeteners artificically cheap, leading to enhanced consumption. Problems accompanying this structure mentioned include enhanced meat, fat and sugar consumption and the associated enhancement of obesity, cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes and possible various types of cancer, as well as air, soil and water pollution. Often overlooked in these discussions is the potential enhancement of greenhouse gas emissions accompanying this policy-based steering of food consumption toward certain products at the expense of others, possibly more nutritionally and environmentally benign. If such enhancements are in fact borne out by data, the policies that give rise to them will prove to constitute government-sponsored enhancement of greenhouse gas emissions, in contrast to any climate change mitigation efforts. If so, they represent low- hanging fruits in the national effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which may one day be launched. Agriculture subsidies impact the emissions of CO2 (by direct energy consumption), nitrous oxide (by land use alteration and manure management), and methane (by ruminant digestion and manure treatment). Quantifying the impacts of agricultural subsidies is complicated by many compounding and conflicting effects (many related to human behavior rather than the natural sciences) and the relatively short data timeseries. For example, subsidy policies change over time, certain subsidy types are introduced or eliminated, food preferences change as nutritional understanding (or propaganda) shift, etc. Despite the difficulties, such quantification is crucial to better estimate the overall effect and variability of dietary choices on greenhouse gas emissions, and ultimately minimize environmental impacts. In this study, we take preliminary

  12. Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Peatland Pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, E.; Baird, A. J.; Billett, M. F.; Chapman, P. J.; Dinsmore, K. J.; Holden, J.

    2015-12-01

    Peatlands contain around one third of the global soil carbon (C) stock. Understanding the processes in peatland C cycling, and in particular those involved in the release of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere, is a current research priority. Natural open-water pools are a common feature of many peatlands, and previous research suggests pools can be strong sources of atmospheric GHGs, particularly CH4, and thus have the potential to play an important role in global radiative forcing. The area of open-water in peatlands is rapidly expanding in a warming Arctic (e.g. Walter et al., 2007) while artificially created pools are becoming more commonplace in the recent drive to restore the hydrological functioning of drained peatlands by blocking ditches. We present the results of >2 years of comprehensive field monitoring from pool complexes in the Flow Country of northern Scotland, the largest expanse (c.4000 km2) of blanket bog in Europe. Concentrations and fluxes of CO2 and CH4 are presented from 12 intensively monitored pools and the adjacent terrestrial surface. We examined both natural (n = 6) and artificial (n = 6) pools, which allowed us to quantify how pools created during restoration compare to undisturbed sites. C and hydrology budgets were determined for the study pools and the adjacent terrestrial surface. Dissolved concentrations of GHGs ranged from 0.08-4.68 mg CO2-C L-1 and 0.01-731 µg CH4-C L-1 in natural pools, and 0.29-10.38 mg CO2-C L-1 and 0.04-239 µg CH4-C L-1 in artificial pools. GHG fluxes from natural pool surfaces ranged between -2.47-653 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and -31.7-14.8 g CO2 m-2 d-1. Artificial pool GHG fluxes were -8.19-581 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and -7.66-34.9 g CO2 m-2 d-1. We provide more accurate GHG budgets for peatlands with natural pool complexes by considering their relative importance at the landscape-scale, and outline the potential effect on GHG fluxes when creating artificial pools during peatland restoration

  13. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Czechoslovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Kostalova, M. ); Suk, J. ); Kolar, S. )

    1991-12-01

    In this paper are presented important findings on the potential for energy conservation and carbon emissions reduction over the coming decades in Czechoslovakia. The authors describe the state of the energy use in Czechoslovakia today and the measures required to transform its energy system to a market-based economy oriented towards the environmental goal of decreased energy intensity. This work furthers our understanding of the need for energy efficiency in the newly forming market economies of East and Central Europe. This paper is part of a series of country studies sponsored by the Global Climate Division of the Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). We have completed similar studies in Canada, the former Soviet Union, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Poland the United Kingdom, and the United States. Research is currently underway or planned in Bulgaria, Romania, and Ukraine.

  14. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992: General Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, Congress authorized a voluntary program for the public to report achievements in reducing those gases. This document offers guidance on recording historic and current greenhouse gas emissions, emissions reductions, and carbon sequestration. Under the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) reporters will have the opportunity to highlight specific achievements. If you have taken actions to lessen the greenhouse gas effect, either by decreasing greenhouse gas emissions or by sequestering carbon, the Department of Energy (DOE) encourages you to report your achievements under this program. The program has two related, but distinct parts. First, the program offers you an opportunity to report your annual emissions of greenhouse gases. Second, the program records your specific projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Although participants in the program are strongly encouraged to submit reports on both, reports on either annual emissions or emissions reductions and carbon sequestration projects will be accepted. These guidelines and the supporting technical documents outline the rationale for the program and approaches to analyzing emissions and emissions reduction projects. Your annual emissions and emissions reductions achievements will be reported.

  15. The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index - 2012 Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, J. H.; Montzka, S. A.; Conway, T. J.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Elkins, J. W.; Masari, K. A.; Schnell, R. C.; Tans, P. P.

    2012-04-01

    For the past several decades, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has monitored all of the long-lived atmospheric greenhouse gases. These global measurements have provided input to databases, analyses, and various relevant products, including national and international climate assessments. To make these data more useful and available, NOAA several years ago released its Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI), http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi. This index, based on the climate forcing properties of long-lived greenhouse gases, was designed to enhance the connection between scientists and society by providing a normalized standard that can be easily understood and followed. The long-lived gases capture most of the radiative forcing, and uncertainty in their measurement is very small. This allows us to provide a robust measure and assessment of the long-term, radiative influence of these gases. Continuous greenhouse gas measurements are made at baseline climate observatories (Pt. Barrow, Alaska; Mauna Loa, Hawaii; American Samoa; and the South Pole) and weekly flask air samples are collected through a global network of over 60 sites, including an international cooperative program for carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. The gas samples are analyzed at NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) in Boulder, Colorado, using WMO standard reference gases prepared by NOAA/ESRL. The AGGI is normalized to 1.00 in 1990, the Kyoto Climate Protocol baseline year. In 2010, the AGGI was 1.29, indicating that global radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases had increased 29% since 1990. During the 1980s CO2 accounted for about 50-60% of the annual increase in radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases, whereas, since 2000, it has accounted for 85-90% of this increase each year. After nearly a decade of virtually level concentrations in the atmosphere, methane (CH4) increased measurably over the past 2-3 years, as did its

  16. 75 FR 67059 - Public Hearings for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... Hearings for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty... to be held for the joint proposed rules ``Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency... NHTSA and EPA's proposal for ``Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards...

  17. 40 CFR 1036.241 - Demonstrating compliance with greenhouse gas pollutant standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... greenhouse gas pollutant standards. 1036.241 Section 1036.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... HIGHWAY ENGINES Certifying Engine Families § 1036.241 Demonstrating compliance with greenhouse gas... deterioration factors as follows: (1) Additive deterioration factor for greenhouse gas emissions. Except...

  18. 40 CFR 1036.241 - Demonstrating compliance with greenhouse gas pollutant standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... greenhouse gas pollutant standards. 1036.241 Section 1036.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... HIGHWAY ENGINES Certifying Engine Families § 1036.241 Demonstrating compliance with greenhouse gas... deterioration factors as follows: (1) Additive deterioration factor for greenhouse gas emissions. Except...

  19. 77 FR 26476 - Standards of Performance for Greenhouse Gas Emissions for New Stationary Sources: Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 Standards of Performance for Greenhouse Gas Emissions for New Stationary Sources... proposed rule, ``Standards of Performance for Greenhouse Gas Emissions for New Stationary Sources: Electric... for the proposed Standards of Performance for Greenhouse Gas Emissions for New Stationary...

  20. Towards European organisation for integrated greenhouse gas observation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaukolehto, Marjut; Vesala, Timo; Sorvari, Sanna; Juurola, Eija; Paris, Jean-Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is one the most challenging problems that humanity will have to cope with in the coming decades. The perturbed global biogeochemical cycles of the greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) are a major driving force of current and future climate change. Deeper understanding of the driving forces of climate change requires full quantification of the greenhouse gas emissions and sinks and their evolution. Regional greenhouse gas budgets, tipping-points, vulnerabilities and the controlling mechanisms can be assessed by long term, high precision observations in the atmosphere and at the ocean and land surface. ICOS RI is a distributed infrastructure for on-line, in-situ monitoring of greenhouse gases (GHG) necessary to understand their present-state and future sinks and sources. ICOS RI provides the long-term observations required to understand the present state and predict future behaviour of the global carbon cycle and greenhouse gas emissions. Linking research, education and innovation promotes technological development and demonstrations related to greenhouse gases. The first objective of ICOS RI is to provide effective access to coherent and precise data and to provide assessments of GHG inventories with high temporal and spatial resolution. The second objective is to provide profound information for research and understanding of regional budgets of greenhouse gas sources and sinks, their human and natural drivers, and the controlling mechanisms. ICOS is one of several ESFRI initiatives in the environmental science domain. There is significant potential for structural and synergetic interaction with several other ESFRI initiatives. ICOS RI is relevant for Joint Programming by providing the data access for the researchers and acting as a contact point for developing joint strategic research agendas among European member states. The preparatory phase ends in March 2013 and there will be an interim period before the legal entity will

  1. Lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of coal, conventional and unconventional natural gas for electricity generation

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analysis of the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with natural gas use recently published by Howarth et al. (2011) stated that use of natural gas produced from shale formations via hydraulic fracturing would generate greater lifecycle GHG emissions than petro...

  2. Quantification and Controls of Wetland Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    McNicol, Gavin

    2016-05-10

    Wetlands cover only a small fraction of the Earth’s land surface, but have a disproportionately large influence on global climate. Low oxygen conditions in wetland soils slows down decomposition, leading to net carbon dioxide sequestration over long timescales, while also favoring the production of redox sensitive gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Freshwater marshes in particular sustain large exchanges of greenhouse gases under temperate or tropical climates and favorable nutrient regimes, yet have rarely been studied, leading to poor constraints on the magnitude of marsh gas sources, and the biogeochemical drivers of flux variability. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was once a great expanse of tidal and freshwater marshes but underwent drainage for agriculture during the last two centuries. The resulting landscape is unsustainable with extreme rates of land subsidence and oxidation of peat soils lowering the surface elevation of much of the Delta below sea level. Wetland restoration has been proposed as a means to slow further subsidence and rebuild peat however the balance of greenhouse gas exchange in these novel ecosystems is still poorly described. In this dissertation I first explore oxygen availability as a control on the composition and magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions from drained wetland soils. In two separate experiments I quantify both the temporal dynamics of greenhouse gas emission and the kinetic sensitivity of gas production to a wide range of oxygen concentrations. This work demonstrated the very high sensitivity of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide production to oxygen availability, in carbon rich wetland soils. I also found the temporal dynamics of gas production to follow a sequence predicted by thermodynamics and observed spatially in other soil or sediment systems. In the latter part of my dissertation I conduct two field studies to quantify greenhouse gas exchange and understand the carbon sources for

  3. Optimization of wastewater treatment plant operation for greenhouse gas mitigation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongwook; Bowen, James D; Ozelkan, Ertunga C

    2015-11-01

    This study deals with the determination of optimal operation of a wastewater treatment system for minimizing greenhouse gas emissions, operating costs, and pollution loads in the effluent. To do this, an integrated performance index that includes three objectives was established to assess system performance. The ASMN_G model was used to perform system optimization aimed at determining a set of operational parameters that can satisfy three different objectives. The complex nonlinear optimization problem was simulated using the Nelder-Mead Simplex optimization algorithm. A sensitivity analysis was performed to identify influential operational parameters on system performance. The results obtained from the optimization simulations for six scenarios demonstrated that there are apparent trade-offs among the three conflicting objectives. The best optimized system simultaneously reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 31%, reduced operating cost by 11%, and improved effluent quality by 2% compared to the base case operation.

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Stored Dairy Slurry from Multiple Farms.

    PubMed

    Le Riche, Etienne L; VanderZaag, Andrew C; Wood, Jeffrey D; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia; Dunfield, Kari; Ngwabie, N Martin; McCabe, John; Gordon, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    A significant need exists to improve our understanding of the extent of greenhouse gas emissions from the storage of livestock manure to both improve the reliability of inventory assessments and the impact of beneficial management practice adoption. Factors affecting the extent and variability of greenhouse gas emissions from stored dairy manure were investigated. Emissions from six slurries stored in clean concrete tanks under identical "warm-season" conditions were monitored consecutively over 173 d (18°C average air temperature). Methane (CH) emissions varied considerably among the manures from 6.3 to 25.9 g m d and accounted for ∼96% of the total CO equivalent greenhouse gas emissions. The duration of the lag period, when methane emissions were near baseline levels, varied from 30 to 90 d from the beginning of storage. As a result, CH emissions were poorly correlated with air temperature prior to the time of peak emissions (i.e., the initial 48 to 108 d of storage) but improved afterward. The air temperature following the time of the peak CH flux and the length of the active methanogenesis period (i.e., when the daily CH emissions ≥ 7.6 g m d) were highly correlated with CH emissions ( = 0.98, < 0.01). Methane conversion factors (MCFs) ranged from 0.08 to 0.52 for the different manures. The MCFs generated from existing CH emission models were correlated ( = 0.68, = 0.02) to MCFs calculated for the active methanogenesis period for manure containing wood bedding. A temperature component was added that improved the accuracy ( = 0.82, < 0.01). This demonstrated that an improved understanding of lag period dynamics will enhance stored dairy manure greenhouse gas emission inventory calculations.

  5. Idaho National Laboratory's FY11 Greenhouse Gas Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberly Frerichs

    2012-03-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho.

  6. Idaho National Laboratory FY12 Greenhouse Gas Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberly Frerichs

    2013-03-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho.

  7. Why New Zealand must rapidly halve its greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Scott; Woodward, Alistair; Macmillan, Alexandra; Baker, Michael; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Lindsay, Graeme; Hales, Simon; Sinclair, David; Jaine, Richard; Springford, Liz; Holmes, Andrew; Laking, George; Jones, Rhys; Carr, Harriette; Edwards, Richard; Shaw, Caroline; Wells, Susan; Hosking, Jamie; Forde, Andrea; Bismark, Marie; Palmer, Stephen; Keating, Gay; Simpson, Jenny; Highton, Rachel; Dhar, Divya; Kane, Penny

    2009-10-09

    New Zealand must commit to substantial decreases in its greenhouse gas emissions, to avoid the worst impacts of climate change on human health, both here and internationally. We have the fourth highest per capita greenhouse gas emissions in the developed world. Based on the need to limit warming to 2 degrees C by 2100, our cumulative emissions, and our capability to mitigate, New Zealand should at least halve its greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 (i.e. a target of at least 40% less than 1990 levels). This target has a strong scientific basis, and if anything may be too lenient; reducing the risk of catastrophic climate change may require deeper cuts. Short-term economic costs of mitigation have been widely overstated in public debate. They must also be balanced by the far greater costs caused by inertia and the substantial health and social benefits that can be achieved by a low emissions society. Large emissions reductions are achievable if we mobilise New Zealand society and let technology follow the signal of a responsible target.

  8. 77 FR 64051 - 2017 and Later Model Year Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Corporate Average Fuel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... established fuel economy standards for light-duty vehicles under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as amended by the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA), 49 U.S.C. 32901 et seq. DATES... Model Year Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Corporate Average Fuel Economy...

  9. Biomass energy: Sustainable solution for greenhouse gas emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadrul Islam, A. K. M.; Ahiduzzaman, M.

    2012-06-01

    sustainable carbon sink will be developed. Clean energy production from biomass (such as ethanol, biodiesel, producer gas, bio-methane) could be viable option to reduce fossil fuel consumption. Electricity generation from biomass is increasing throughout the world. Co-firing of biomass with coal and biomass combustion in power plant and CHP would be a viable option for clean energy development. Biomass can produce less emission in the range of 14% to 90% compared to emission from fossil for electricity generation. Therefore, biomass could play a vital role for generation of clean energy by reducing fossil energy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The main barriers to expansion of power generation from biomass are cost, low conversion efficiency and availability of feedstock. Internationalization of external cost in power generation and effective policies to improve energy security and carbon dioxide reduction is important to boost up the bio-power. In the long run, bio-power will depend on technological development and on competition for feedstock with food production and arable land use.

  10. The greenhouse gas balance of the Province of Siena.

    PubMed

    Ridolfi, R; Kneller, M; Donati, A; Pulselli, R M

    2008-01-01

    There is a profound debate over how to assign greenhouse gas (GHG) responsibilities; therefore, we have decided to follow IPCC guidelines, as they offer the only standardized method. We have identified each type of greenhouse emission and its level of absorption. We have studied the province and its districts and municipalities. We have determined that the energy sector is that with the highest level of emissions, even if the per capita emissions of the Province of Siena are very low. This is caused by a very low level of industrialization and the presence of a local geothermal production of energy. In order to highlight this aspect, we have considered scenarios both with and without geothermal production. Our research was then focused on single districts (groups of homogenous municipalities) and municipalities, where we found great differences among the greenhouse emissions of the areas. We have constructed a map of the greenhouse emissions of the whole province. It has been interesting to note that there are 14 municipalities with net negative emissions, seven with low positive emissions, 12 with medium positive emissions and three with elevated positive emissions. These latter correspond to the main city and to two of the most industrialized municipalities.

  11. Determining thresholds for mandatory reporting of greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    West, Tristram O; Peña, Naomi

    2003-03-15

    A number of countries are considering implementation of reporting requirements for greenhouse gases. Some reporting systems have been proposed that would require each entity or facility exceeding an annual emissions threshold to report their emissions to a governmental agency. The analysis presented here provides a first approximation of the number of facilities in selected U.S. economic sectors that would report under several different reporting thresholds. Results indicate that thresholds below 10,000 Mg of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2E) per year may bring in relatively large numbers of facilities while minimally increasing the percentage of reported emissions. None of the reporting thresholds considered in this analysis would account for the majority of greenhouse gas emissions from the U.S. agricultural, transportation, or residential and commercial building sectors. If these sectors, in which large numbers of farms, vehicles, and buildings each emit relatively small amounts of greenhouse gases, are to be included in a reporting framework, additional or alternative approaches to reporting should be considered. Alternative approaches may include creating separate thresholds for individual greenhouse gases instead of using an aggregated CO2E unit, creating separate reporting thresholds for individual sectors, or combining sources of small emissions into a single reporting entity.

  12. Influences on Adoption of Greenhouse Gas Reduction Targets among US States, 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    Cale, Tabitha M; Reams, Margaret A

    2013-01-01

    While the United States has not established federal regulations for greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets, many US states have adopted their own standards and guidelines. In this study we examine state adoption of targets for GHG reductions during the ten-year period of 1998-2008, and identify factors that explain variation in target adoption. Potential influences are drawn from research from the public policy formulation and diffusion literature, and from studies specific to climate policy adoption. Potential influences on GHG reduction efforts among US states include socioeconomic attributes of residents, political and ideological orientations of citizens and state government, interest group activities, environmental pressures, and proximity to other states that have adopted GHG reduction targets. The findings of the multinomial logistic regression analysis indicate that states are more likely to adopt GHG reduction targets if they share a border with another state with a similar climate program and if their citizens are more ideologically liberal. Other factors including socioeconomic resources and interest group activities were not found to be associated with policy adoption. The findings yield insights into the conditions under which states are more likely to take action to reduce GHG's, and are relevant both to state policy makers and residents with an interest in climate planning, and for researchers attempting to estimate future greenhouse gas reduction scenarios.

  13. 75 FR 43889 - Proposed Confidentiality Determinations for Data Required Under the Mandatory Greenhouse Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Supplemental... Data Required under the Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule and Proposed Amendment to Special Rules...: Revision of Certain Provisions of the Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule,'' also signed...

  14. Multi-sectorial convergence in greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Guilherme de; Bourscheidt, Deise Maria

    2017-03-20

    This paper uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to test the hypothesis of per capita convergence in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for a multi-sectorial panel of countries. The empirical strategy applies conventional estimators of random and fixed effects and Arellano and Bond's (1991) GMM to the main pollutants related to the greenhouse effect. For reasonable empirical specifications, the model revealed robust evidence of per capita convergence in CH4 emissions in the agriculture, food, and services sectors. The evidence of convergence in CO2 emissions was moderate in the following sectors: agriculture, food, non-durable goods manufacturing, and services. In all cases, the time for convergence was less than 15 years. Regarding emissions by energy use, the largest source of global warming, there was only moderate evidence in the extractive industry sector-all other pollutants presented little or no evidence.

  15. Measuring Greenhouse-Gas Emissions from a Synthetic Tracer Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Liu, W.; Zhang, T.; Lu, Y.

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a controlled tracer-release experiment in which methane was released from a synthetic source at known rates. An open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy system was used to measure line-averaged methane concentrations downwind of the source. A Lagrangian stochastic (LS) dispersion model was employed to infer emission rates from downwind gas concentrations. The main purpose of our study was to investigate the ability of our open-path FTIR system combined with the LS dispersion model to accurately measure greenhouse gas emissions. In our study, the average ratio of the estimated emissions to actual release rates QLS/Q for CH4 was about 0.86 (σQLS/Q = 0.2, n = 6) and 0.84 (σQLS/Q = 0.22, n = 3) after data fi ltering for a 15- and a 30- min period, respectively. Although there is a limited amount of data in this experiment, the results demonstrate the potential of the measurement system for accurate quantifi cation of greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. Influences of Land Use on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes within Mixed Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, J.; Contosta, A.; Deng, J.; Lepine, L. C.; Li, C.; Ollinger, S. V.; Ouimette, A.; Tang, J.; Varner, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities (e.g., urbanization, land use planning) have led to complex patterns of urban, suburban, agricultural, and forested landscapes. Ecosystems within these landscapes play an important role in climate regulation by acting as regulators of CO2 and other greenhouse gases and altering surface albedo and other biophysical properties. The overarching goal of our work is to examine the interactions among carbon cycling, land use, and climate change in a human-dominated, mixed land use region that includes urban, suburban, agriculture, and forest land uses. We combine field measurements of carbon storage and greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, and N2O), an improved process-based biogeochemical model - DNDC (DeNitrification and DeComposition) designed to predict C fluxes and trace gas emissions, and historical and projected land use change data derived from Landsat imagery and cellular automata/agent-based modeling. Our specific objectives designed to achieve the overarching goal are to: (1) Measure C pools and greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, and N2O) in urban, suburban, agricultural, and forested landscapes; (2) Improve and parameterize the DNDC (DeNitrification and DeComposition) model and validate model predictions; (3) Develop historical land use change data for the last three decades from Landsat imagery and projections of future land use change; (4) Generate spatially continuous predictions of C pools and greenhouse gas emissions using Urban-DNDC and assess how land use interacts with C cycling and climate change and how future land use change will influence carbon sequestration potential within these complex landscapes. Our results will have implications for crafting effective land management policies that balance C sequestration and climate mitigation with food production, forest resources and many other services that these landscapes provide.

  17. The greenhouse gas emissions performance of cellulosic ethanol supply chains in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Raphael; Bauen, Ausilio; Shah, Nilay

    2009-01-01

    Background Calculating the greenhouse gas savings that may be attributed to biofuels is problematic because production systems are inherently complex and methods used to quantify savings are subjective. Differing approaches and interpretations have fuelled a debate about the environmental merit of biofuels, and consequently about the level of policy support that can be justified. This paper estimates and compares emissions from plausible supply chains for lignocellulosic ethanol production, exemplified using data specific to the UK and Sweden. The common elements that give rise to the greatest greenhouse gas emissions are identified and the sensitivity of total emissions to variations in these elements is estimated. The implications of including consequential impacts including indirect land-use change, and the effects of selecting alternative allocation methods on the interpretation of results are discussed. Results We find that the most important factors affecting supply chain emissions are the emissions embodied in biomass production, the use of electricity in the conversion process and potentially consequential impacts: indirect land-use change and fertiliser replacement. The large quantity of electricity consumed during enzyme manufacture suggests that enzymatic conversion processes may give rise to greater greenhouse gas emissions than the dilute acid conversion process, even though the dilute acid process has a somewhat lower ethanol yield. Conclusion The lignocellulosic ethanol supply chains considered here all lead to greenhouse gas savings relative to gasoline An important caveat to this is that if lignocellulosic ethanol production uses feedstocks that lead to indirect land-use change, or other significant consequential impacts, the benefit may be greatly reduced. Co-locating ethanol, electricity generation and enzyme production in a single facility may improve performance, particularly if this allows the number of energy intensive steps in enzyme

  18. Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Alterra, Swart; Masanet, Eric; Lecocq, Franck; Najam, Adil; Schaeffer, Robert; Winkler, Harald; Sathaye, Jayant

    2008-07-04

    There is a multiplicity of development pathways in which low energy sector emissions are not necessarily associated with low economic growth. However, changes in development pathways can rarely be imposed from the top. On this basis, examples of energy efficiency opportunities to change development pathways toward lower emissions are presented in this paper. We review opportunities at the sectoral and macro level. The potential for action on nonclimate policies that influence energy use and emissions are presented. Examples are drawn from policies already adopted and implemented in the energy sector. The paper discusses relationships between energy efficiency policies and their synergies and tradeoffs with sustainable development and greenhouse gas emissions. It points to ways that energy efficiency could be mainstreamed into devel?opment choices.

  19. Contribution of cooperative sector recycling to greenhouse gas emissions reduction: A case study of Ribeirão Pires, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    King, Megan F.; Gutberlet, Jutta

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Cooperative recycling achieves environmental, economic and social objectives. • We calculate GHG emissions reduction for a recycling cooperative in São Paulo, Brazil. • The cooperative merits consideration as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project. • A CDM project would enhance the achievements of the recycling cooperative. • National and local waste management policies support the recycling cooperative. - Abstract: Solid waste, including municipal waste and its management, is a major challenge for most cities and among the key contributors to climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced through recovery and recycling of resources from the municipal solid waste stream. In São Paulo, Brazil, recycling cooperatives play a crucial role in providing recycling services including collection, separation, cleaning, stocking, and sale of recyclable resources. The present research attempts to measure the greenhouse gas emission reductions achieved by the recycling cooperative Cooperpires, as well as highlight its socioeconomic benefits. Methods include participant observation, structured interviews, questionnaire application, and greenhouse gas accounting of recycling using a Clean Development Mechanism methodology. The results show that recycling cooperatives can achieve important energy savings and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and suggest there is an opportunity for Cooperpires and other similar recycling groups to participate in the carbon credit market. Based on these findings, the authors created a simple greenhouse gas accounting calculator for recyclers to estimate their emissions reductions.

  20. Preparing US community greenhouse gas inventories for climate action plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackhurst, Michael; Matthews, H. Scott; Sharrard, Aurora L.; Hendrickson, Chris T.; Lima Azevedo, Inês

    2011-07-01

    This study illustrates how alternative and supplemental community-level greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory techniques could improve climate action planning. Eighteen US community GHG inventories are reviewed for current practice. Inventory techniques could be improved by disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty and variability, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions reductions. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. While GHG inventorying and climate action planning are nascent fields, these techniques can improve CAP design, help communities set more meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring.

  1. The challenge of identifying greenhouse gas-induced climatic change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maccracken, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    Meeting the challenge of identifying greenhouse gas-induced climatic change involves three steps. First, observations of critical variables must be assembled, evaluated, and analyzed to determine that there has been a statistically significant change. Second, reliable theoretical (model) calculations must be conducted to provide a definitive set of changes for which to search. Third, a quantitative and statistically significant association must be made between the projected and observed changes to exclude the possibility that the changes are due to natural variability or other factors. This paper provides a qualitative overview of scientific progress in successfully fulfilling these three steps.

  2. Energy-saving options for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from the Mongolian energy sector

    SciTech Connect

    Dorjpurev, J.; Purevjal, O.; Erdenechimeg, Ch.

    1996-12-31

    The Energy sector is the largest contributor to GHG emission in Mongolia. The Energy sector emits 54 percent of CO2 and 4 percent of methane. All emissions of other greenhouse gases are accounted from energy related activities. The activities in this sector include coal production, fuel combustion, and biomass combustion at the thermal power stations and in private houses (stoves) for heating purposes. This paper presents some important Demand-side options considered for mitigation of CO2 emissions from energy sector such as Energy Conservation in Industrial Sector and in Buildings. Changes in energy policies and programmes in the Mongolian situation that promote more efficient and sustainable practices are presented in the paper. These energy saving measures will not only help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but will also promote economic development and alleviate other environmental problems.

  3. The potential for biomass to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the Northeastern US. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bernow, S.S.; Gurney, K.; Prince, G.; Cyr, M.

    1992-04-01

    This study, for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) of the Coalition of Northeast Governors (CONEG), evaluates the potential for local, state and regional biomass policies to contribute to an overall energy/biomass strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gas releases in the Northeastern United States. Biomass is a conditionally renewable resource that can play a dual role: by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in meeting our energy needs; and by removing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it in standing biomass stocks and long-lived products. In this study we examine the contribution of biomass to the energy system in the Northeast and to the region`s net releases of carbon dioxide and methane, and project these releases over three decades, given a continuation of current trends and policies. We then compare this Reference Case with three alternative scenarios, assuming successively more aggressive efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through strategic implementation of energy efficiency and biomass resources. Finally, we identify and examine policy options for expanding the role of biomass in the region`s energy and greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

  4. 75 FR 74457 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ...EPA is promulgating a regulation to require monitoring and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions from petroleum and natural gas systems. This action adds this source category to the list of source categories already required to report greenhouse gas emissions. This action applies to sources with carbon dioxide equivalent emissions above certain threshold levels as described in this regulation.......

  5. Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of sugar production. Results According to our calculations, 241 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent were released to the atmosphere per a ton of sugar produced (2406 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a hectare of the cropped area, and 26.5 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a ton of sugarcane processed). The major part of the total emission (44%) resulted from residues burning; about 20% resulted from the use of synthetic fertilizers, and about 18% from fossil fuel combustion. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the most important reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sugarcane areas could be achieved by switching to a green harvest system, that is, to harvesting without burning. PMID:20565736

  6. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Arctic Freshwaters: Approaches for Scaling UP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacIntyre, S.; Cortés, A.; Cooke, M.; Sadro, S.; Kushner, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Turbulence moderates emissions of greenhouse gases on a number of scales, and it, in turn, is moderated by processes which govern the stability of boundary layers. On the smallest scale, it mediates the fluxes of gases across the air-water interface; at intermediate scales, that is, the size of within lake eddies, it brings gases to the air-water interface; on a larger scale, eddies in the unstable atmospheric boundary layers transport gases away from water bodies and maintain concentration gradients and further, help sustain fluxes by inducing within lake turbulence. The winds and cooling which induce within-lake turbulence and over-lake boundary layers are moderated by weather patterns dependent on even larger scale physical processes. Using time series measurements of lake temperatures, surface meteorology, and profiles of temperature-gradient microstructure in Alaskan arctic lakes ranging from 0.1 to 150 ha in surface area, we quantify the dependency of turbulence in the water column and at the air-water interface on surface meteorology and lake size. We show the lake size dependent variability in the stability of atmospheric boundary layers. We illustrate the resulting lake-size and weather dependent variability in gas transfer coefficients and within lake mixing. Using cluster analysis, we identify dominant weather patterns in the Alaskan Arctic Region and link them to within lake mixing dynamics. We then illustrate the dependency of greenhouse gas emissions on variability in local weather, lake size, and weather patterns.

  7. Are greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping a type of marine pollution?

    PubMed

    Shi, Yubing

    2016-12-15

    Whether greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping are a type of marine pollution is a controversial issue and is currently open to debate. This article examines the current treaty definitions of marine pollution, and applies them to greenhouse gas emissions from ships. Based on the legal analysis of treaty definitions and relevant international and national regulation on this issue, this article asserts that greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping are a type of 'conditional' marine pollution.

  8. How Much Leakage Renders the Greenhouse Gas Footprint of Natural Gas Equivalent to Coal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, N., II; Mays, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    Under ideal circumstances, generating electricity from natural gas releases approximately half the carbon dioxide-equivalent emissions of coal. However, because the primary component of natural gas (i.e., methane) is a potent greenhouse gas, accounting for leakage is crucial when considering natural gas as a bridge fuel. This presentation answers the question: How much leakage renders the greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of natural gas equivalent to coal? To answer this question, we present a simple model that assumes the GHG footprint for each fuel is the sum of emissions from (1) electricity generation and (2) natural gas leakage. Emissions resulting from electricity generation are taken from published life-cycle assessments (LCAs). Emissions from natural gas leakage are estimated assuming that natural gas is 80% methane, which is converted to carbon dioxide-equivalent emissions using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC's) global warming potential (GWP). One complication in using the GWP is its dependence on time horizon, where shorter time horizons penalize methane emissions more, and longer time horizons less. Specifically, the IPCC considers time horizons of 20, 100 and 500 years for comparison between the differing greenhouse gases. To explicitly account for the effect of time horizon, the results presented here are shown on a straightforward plot of GHG footprint versus time horizon for natural gas leakage rates of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8%. This plot shows that natural gas leakage of 2.0% or 4.8% eliminates half of natural gas's GHG footprint advantage over coal at 20- or 100-year time horizons, respectively. Leakage of 3.9% or 9.1% completely eliminates the GHG footprint advantage over coal at 20- and 100-year time horizons, respectively. Results indicate that leakage control is essential for the electricity generated from the combustion of natural gas to create a smaller GHG footprint than the electricity generated from the combustion of coal.

  9. 75 FR 18607 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ...EPA is proposing a supplemental rule to require reporting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from petroleum and natural gas systems. Specifically, the proposed supplemental rulemaking would require emissions reporting from the following industry segments: Onshore petroleum and natural gas production, offshore petroleum and natural gas production, natural gas processing, natural gas transmission......

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from septic systems in New York State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truhlar, A. M.; Rahm, B. G.; Brooks, R. A.; Nadeau, S. A.; Walter, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Onsite septic systems are a practical way to treat wastewater in rural or less-densely populated areas. Septic systems utilize microbial processes to eliminate organic wastes and nutrients such as nitrogen; these processes can contribute to air pollution through the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs). At each of nine septic systems, we measured fluxes of CH4, CO2, and N2O from the soil over the leach field and sand filter, and from the roof outlet vent. These are the most likely locations for gas emissions during normal operation of the septic system. The majority of all septic system gas emissions were released from the roof vent. However, our comparisons of the gas fluxes from these locations suggest that biological processes in the soil, especially the soil over the leach field, can influence the type and quantity of gas that is released from the system. The total vent, sand filter, and leach field GHG emissions were 0.12, 0.045, and 0.046 tonne CO2e capita-1 year-1, respectively. In total, this represents about 1.5% of the annual carbon footprint of an individual living in the US.

  11. Quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from sludge treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Uggetti, Enrica; García, Joan; Lind, Saara E; Martikainen, Pertti J; Ferrer, Ivet

    2012-04-15

    Constructed wetlands are nowadays successfully employed as an alternative technology for wastewater and sewage sludge treatment. In these systems organic matter and nutrients are transformed and removed by a variety of microbial reaction and gaseous compounds such as methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) may be released to the atmosphere. The aim of this work is to introduce a method to determine greenhouse gas emissions from sludge treatment wetlands (STW) and use the method in a full-scale system. Sampling and analysing techniques used to determine greenhouse gas emissions from croplands and natural wetlands were successfully adapted to the quantification of CH(4) and N(2)O emissions from an STW. Gas emissions were measured using the static chamber technique in 9 points of the STW during 13 days. The spatial variation in the emission along the wetland did not follow some specific pattern found for the temporal variation in the fluxes. Emissions ranged from 10 to 5400 mg CH(4)/m(2)d and from 20 to 950 mgN(2)O/m(2)d, depending on the feeding events. The comparison between the CH(4) and N(2)O emissions of different sludge management options shows that STW have the lowest atmospheric impact in terms of CO(2) equivalent emissions (Global warming potential with time horizon of 100 years): 17 kg CO(2) eq/PE y for STW, 36 kg CO(2) eq/PE y for centrifuge and 162 kg CO(2) eq/PE y for untreated sludge transport, PE means Population Equivalent.

  12. Cattle ranching intensification in Brazil can reduce global greenhouse gas emissions by sparing land from deforestation.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Avery S; Mosnier, Aline; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Schmid, Erwin; O'Hare, Michael; Obersteiner, Michael

    2014-05-20

    This study examines whether policies to encourage cattle ranching intensification in Brazil can abate global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by sparing land from deforestation. We use an economic model of global land use to investigate, from 2010 to 2030, the global agricultural outcomes, land use changes, and GHG abatement resulting from two potential Brazilian policies: a tax on cattle from conventional pasture and a subsidy for cattle from semi-intensive pasture. We find that under either policy, Brazil could achieve considerable sparing of forests and abatement of GHGs, in line with its national policy targets. The land spared, particularly under the tax, is far less than proportional to the productivity increased. However, the tax, despite prompting less adoption of semi-intensive ranching, delivers slightly more forest sparing and GHG abatement than the subsidy. This difference is explained by increased deforestation associated with increased beef consumption under the subsidy and reduced deforestation associated with reduced beef consumption under the tax. Complementary policies to directly limit deforestation could help limit these effects. GHG abatement from either the tax or subsidy appears inexpensive but, over time, the tax would become cheaper than the subsidy. A revenue-neutral combination of the policies could be an element of a sustainable development strategy for Brazil and other emerging economies seeking to balance agricultural development and forest protection.

  13. Cattle ranching intensification in Brazil can reduce global greenhouse gas emissions by sparing land from deforestation

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Avery S.; Mosnier, Aline; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Schmid, Erwin; O’Hare, Michael; Obersteiner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether policies to encourage cattle ranching intensification in Brazil can abate global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by sparing land from deforestation. We use an economic model of global land use to investigate, from 2010 to 2030, the global agricultural outcomes, land use changes, and GHG abatement resulting from two potential Brazilian policies: a tax on cattle from conventional pasture and a subsidy for cattle from semi-intensive pasture. We find that under either policy, Brazil could achieve considerable sparing of forests and abatement of GHGs, in line with its national policy targets. The land spared, particularly under the tax, is far less than proportional to the productivity increased. However, the tax, despite prompting less adoption of semi-intensive ranching, delivers slightly more forest sparing and GHG abatement than the subsidy. This difference is explained by increased deforestation associated with increased beef consumption under the subsidy and reduced deforestation associated with reduced beef consumption under the tax. Complementary policies to directly limit deforestation could help limit these effects. GHG abatement from either the tax or subsidy appears inexpensive but, over time, the tax would become cheaper than the subsidy. A revenue-neutral combination of the policies could be an element of a sustainable development strategy for Brazil and other emerging economies seeking to balance agricultural development and forest protection. PMID:24778243

  14. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer application on greenhouse gas emissions and economics of corn production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E

    2008-08-15

    Nitrogen fertilizer plays an important role in corn cultivation in terms of both economic and environmental aspects. Nitrogen fertilizer positively affects corn yield and the soil organic carbon level, but it also has negative environmental effects through nitrogen-related emissions from soil (e.g., N20, NOx, NO3(-) leaching, etc.). Effects of nitrogen fertilizer on greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain are investigated via life cycle assessment. Ecoefficiency analysis is also used to determine an economically and environmentally optimal nitrogen application rate (NAR). The ecoefficiency index in this study is defined as the ratio of economic return due to nitrogen fertilizer to the greenhouse gas emissions of corn cultivation. Greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain decrease as NAR increases at a lower NAR until a minimum greenhouse gas emission level is reached because corn yield and soil organic carbon level increase with NAR. Further increasing NAR after a minimum greenhouse gas emission level raises greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain. Increased greenhouse gas emissions of corn grain due to nitrous oxide emissions from soil are much higher than reductions of greenhouse gas emissions of corn grain due to corn yield and changes in soil organic carbon levels at a higher NAR. Thus, there exists an environmentally optimal NAR in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. The trends of the ecoefficiency index are similar to those of economic return to nitrogen and greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain. Therefore, an appropriate NAR could enhance profitability as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain.

  15. Adapting a weather forecast model for greenhouse gas simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polavarapu, S. M.; Neish, M.; Tanguay, M.; Girard, C.; de Grandpré, J.; Gravel, S.; Semeniuk, K.; Chan, D.

    2015-12-01

    The ability to simulate greenhouse gases on the global domain is useful for providing boundary conditions for regional flux inversions, as well as for providing reference data for bias correction of satellite measurements. Given the existence of operational weather and environmental prediction models and assimilation systems at Environment Canada, it makes sense to use these tools for greenhouse gas simulations. In this work, we describe the adaptations needed to reasonably simulate CO2 with a weather forecast model. The main challenges were the implementation of a mass conserving advection scheme, and the careful implementation of a mixing ratio defined with respect to dry air. The transport of tracers through convection was also added, and the vertical mixing through the boundary layer was slightly modified. With all these changes, the model conserves CO2 mass well on the annual time scale, and the high resolution (0.9 degree grid spacing) permits a good description of synoptic scale transport. The use of a coupled meteorological/tracer transport model also permits an assessment of approximations needed in offline transport model approaches, such as the neglect of water vapour mass when computing a tracer mixing ratio with respect to dry air.

  16. Reducing California's Greenhouse Gas Emissions through ProductLife-Cycle Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Masanet, Eric; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Worrell,Ernst

    2005-12-30

    Product life-cycle optimization addresses the reduction ofenvironmental burdens associated with the production, use, andend-of-life stages of a product s life cycle. In this paper, we offer anevaluation of the opportunities related to product life-cycleoptimization in California for two key products: personal computers (PCs)and concrete. For each product, we present the results of an explorativecase study to identify specific opportunities for greenhouse gas (GHG)emissions reductions at each stage of the product life cycle. We thenoffer a discussion of the practical policy options that may exist forrealizing the identified GHG reduction opportunities. The case studiesdemonstrate that there may be significant GHG mitigation options as wellas a number of policy options that could lead to life-cycle GHG emissionsreductions for PCs and concrete in California.

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions within Seasonally Flooded Tropical River Deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, A. K.; Schaefer, M.; Roberts, K. A.; Fendorf, S. E.; Benner, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    Soils contain the largest terrestrial carbon pool on Earth, and approximately one-third of soil carbon is stored in the tropics. Gas exchange between soil and the atmosphere occurs largely as a result of microbial degradation (mineralization) of organic carbon. The rate of soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is determined by a combination of climatic factors and soil ecosystem properties, which dictate the dominant metabolic pathway(s) within soil at a given time; major changes in metabolic rate are particularly pronounced between aerobic and anaerobic mineralization. Here we assessed the impact of soil moisture, a major factor determining soil anaerobiosis, on greenhouse gas fluxes in a tropical, seasonally flooded wetland in the Mekong Delta. We monitored CO2, CH4, and N2O gas fluxes, porewater chemistry, and soil moisture content in a seasonal wetland. Additionally, we collected wetland soil cores (10 cm diameter) and manipulated them in the laboratory, allowing us to control soil moisture and drying rates, and to simulate multiple periods of wetting and drying. During drying, CH4 fluxes within the wetland initially increase to a maximum before decreasing as soil moisture decreases and oxygen diffusion into the soil increases. Maximum CH4 fluxes vary with moisture content, but the wettest sites produced fluxes >1000 mg C m-2 d-1 for short periods of time. As drying continues, CH4 fluxes decrease to nearly zero, and N2O fluxes begin to increase to ~3 mg N m-2 d-1 but do not appear to have reached a maximum before sampling ceased. Gas flux from soil core incubations (n=5) exhibit trends and values similar to field measurements. CH4 fluxes initially increase and reach >1000 mg C m-2 d-1 in cores while N2O fluxes reach up to 10 mg N m-2 d-1 and decrease with continued drying. CO2 fluxes in both field and laboratory are sustained until near desiccated conditions. Seasonal wetlands are characteristic of large tropical deltas. Our findings provide a means to

  18. Beyond Hammers and Nails: Mitigating and Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurney, Kevin Robert

    2013-05-01

    One of the biggest challenges to future international agreements on climate change is an independent, science-driven method of verifying reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) [Niederberger and Kimble, 2011]. The scientific community has thus far emphasized atmospheric measurements to assess changes in emissions. An alternative is direct measurement or estimation of fluxes at the source. Given the many challenges facing the approach that uses "top-down" atmospheric measurements and recent advances in "bottom-up" estimation methods, I challenge the current doctrine, which has the atmospheric measurement approach "validating" bottom-up, "good-faith" emissions estimation [Balter, 2012] or which holds that the use of bottom-up estimation is like "dieting without weighing oneself" [Nisbet and Weiss, 2010].

  19. Advancing Development and Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Vietnam's Wind Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Bilello, D.; Katz, J.; Esterly, S.; Ogonowski, M.

    2014-09-01

    Clean energy development is a key component of Vietnam's Green Growth Strategy, which establishes a target to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from domestic energy activities by 20-30 percent by 2030 relative to a business-as-usual scenario. Vietnam has significant wind energy resources, which, if developed, could help the country reach this target while providing ancillary economic, social, and environmental benefits. Given Vietnam's ambitious clean energy goals and the relatively nascent state of wind energy development in the country, this paper seeks to fulfill two primary objectives: to distill timely and useful information to provincial-level planners, analysts, and project developers as they evaluate opportunities to develop local wind resources; and, to provide insights to policymakers on how coordinated efforts may help advance large-scale wind development, deliver near-term GHG emission reductions, and promote national objectives in the context of a low emission development framework.

  20. A design for a relational database for the calculation and storage of greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, T M

    2001-10-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has published guidelines for the development of national greenhouse gas-emissions inventories and recommendations for collecting data necessary to calculate greenhouse gas emissions. Many regional and local jurisdictions will be performing inventories of greenhouse gas emissions and estimating the benefits of mitigation strategies to reduce emissions. This article advocates the development of relational databases to calculate and store emissions estimates based on IPCC guidelines and quantities of precursors of greenhouse gases. Specific examples of tables and queries are used to illustrate calculation methods and formulae, the choice of database keys, and the choice of methods for joining tables to construct queries.

  1. Unconventional Heavy Oil Growth and Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    PubMed

    Nduagu, Experience I; Gates, Ian D

    2015-07-21

    Enormous global reserves of unconventional heavy oil make it a significant resource for economic growth and energy security; however, its extraction faces many challenges especially on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, and recently, social acceptability. Here, we question whether it makes sense to extract and use unconventional heavy oil in spite of these externalities. We place unconventional oils (oil sands and oil shale) alongside shale gas, coal, lignite, wood and conventional oil and gas, and compare their energy intensities and life cycle GHG emissions. Our results reveal that oil shale is the most energy intensive fuel among upgraded primary fossil fuel options followed by in situ-produced bitumen from oil sands. Lignite is the most GHG intensive primary fuel followed by oil shale. Based on future world energy demand projections, we estimate that if growth of unconventional heavy oil production continues unabated, the incremental GHG emissions that results from replacing conventional oil with heavy oil would amount to 4-21 Gt-CO2eq GtCO2eq over four decades (2010 by 2050). However, prevailing socio-economic, regional and global energy politics, environmental and technological challenges may limit growth of heavy oil production and thus its GHG emissions contributions to global fossil fuel emissions may be smaller.

  2. Rice management interventions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions: a review.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Saddam; Peng, Shaobing; Fahad, Shah; Khaliq, Abdul; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2015-03-01

    Global warming is one of the gravest threats to crop production and environmental sustainability. Rice, the staple food of more than half of the world's population, is the most prominent cause of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture and gives way to global warming. The increasing demand for rice in the future has deployed tremendous concerns to reduce GHG emissions for minimizing the negative environmental impacts of rice cultivation. In this review, we presented a contemporary synthesis of existing data on how crop management practices influence emissions of GHGs in rice fields. We realized that modifications in traditional crop management regimes possess a huge potential to overcome GHG emissions. We examined and evaluated the different possible options and found that modifying tillage permutations and irrigation patterns, managing organic and fertilizer inputs, selecting suitable cultivar, and cropping regime can mitigate GHG emissions. Previously, many authors have discussed the feasibility principle and the influence of these practices on a single gas or, in particular, in the whole agricultural sector. Nonetheless, changes in management practices may influence more than one gas at the same time by different mechanisms or sometimes their effects may be antagonistic. Therefore, in the present attempt, we estimated the overall global warming potential of each approach to consider the magnitude of its effects on all gases and provided a comprehensive assessment of suitable crop management practices for reducing GHG emissions in rice culture.

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions from forestry operations: a life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Edie

    2006-01-01

    Most forest carbon assessments focus only on biomass carbon and assume that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from forestry activities are minimal. This study took an in-depth look at the direct and indirect emissions from Pacific Northwest (PNW) Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] forestry activities to support or deny this claim. Greenhouse gas budgets for 408 "management regimes" were calculated using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. These management regimes were comprised of different combinations of three types of seedlings (P + 1, 1 + 1, and large plug), two types of site preparation (pile and burn, and chemical), 17 combinations of management intensity including fertilization, herbicide treatment, pre-commercial thinning (PCT), commercial thinning (CT), and nothing, and four different rotation ages (30, 40, 50, and 60 yr). Normalized to 50 yr, average direct GHG emissions were 8.6 megagrams (Mg) carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) ha(-1), which accounted for 84% of total GHG emissions from the average of 408 management regimes. Harvesting (PCT, CT, and clear cutting) contributed the most to total GHG emissions (5.9 Mg CO2e per 700 m3 harvested timber), followed by pile and burn site preparation (4.0 Mg CO2e ha(-1) or 32% of total GHG emissions) and then fertilization (1.9 Mg CO2e ha(-1) or 15% of total GHG emissions). Seedling production, seedling transportation, chemical site preparation, and herbicide treatment each contributed less than 1% of total GHG emissions when assessed per hectare of planted timberland. Total emissions per 100 m3 averaged 1.6 Mg CO2e ha(-1) over all 408 management regimes. An uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo simulations revealed that there are significant differences between most alternative management regimes.

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from heavy-duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Lisa A.; Rideout, Greg; Rosenblatt, Deborah; Hendren, Jill

    This paper summarizes greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions measurements obtained during several recent studies conducted by Environment Canada, Emissions Research and Measurement Division (ERMD). A variety of heavy-duty vehicles and engines operating on a range of different fuels including diesel, biodiesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), hythane (20% hydrogen, 80% CNG), and liquefied natural gas (LNG), and with different advanced aftertreatment technologies were studied by chassis dynamometer testing, engine dynamometer testing or on-road testing. Distance-based emission rates of CO 2, CH 4, and N 2O are reported. Fuel consumption calculated by carbon balance from measured emissions is also reported. The measurement results show, for heavy-duty diesel vehicles without aftertreatment, that while CO 2 emissions dominate, CH 4 emissions account for between 0% and 0.11% and N 2O emissions account for between 0.16% and 0.27% of the CO 2-equivalent GHG emissions. Both of the aftertreatment technologies (diesel oxidation catalyst and active regeneration diesel particle filter) studied increased N 2O emissions compared to engine out emissions while CH 4 emissions remain essentially unchanged. No effect on tailpipe GHG emissions was found with the use of up to 20% biodiesel when the engine was equipped with an oxidation catalyst. Biodiesel use did show some reductions in tailpipe GHG emissions as compared to ULSD without aftertreatment and with the use of a diesel particle filter. Natural gas and hythane also offer decreased GHG emissions (10-20%) at the tailpipe when compared with diesel. Emission factors (g L -1 fuel) for CH 4 and N 2O are suggested for heavy-duty vehicles fueled with diesel-based fuels and natural gas. These emission factors are substantially lower than those recommended for use by IPCC methodologies for developing national inventories.

  5. Overview of Production Sector in the Greenhouse Gas Inventory- September 2012 Workshop

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View a presentation on the production sector in the GHG inventory, presented at the Stakeholder Workshop on Natural Gas in the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions and Sinks on Thursday, September 13, 2012.

  6. Coupling above and below ground gas measurements to understand greenhouse gas production in the soil profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickerson, Nick; Creelman, Chance

    2016-04-01

    Natural and anthropogenic changes in climate have the potential to significantly affect the Earth's natural greenhouse gas balances. To understand how these climatic changes will manifest in a complex biological, chemical and physical system, a process-based understanding of the production and consumption of greenhouse gases in soils is critical. Commonly, both chamber methods and gradient-based approaches are used to estimate greenhouse gas flux from the soil to the atmosphere. Each approach offers benefits, but not surprisingly, comes with a list of drawbacks. Chambers are easily deployed on the surface without significant disturbance to the soil, and can be easily spatially replicated. However the high costs of automated chamber systems and the inability to partition fluxes by depth are potential downfalls. The gradient method requires a good deal of disturbance for installation, however it also offers users spatiotemporally resolved flux estimates at a reasonable price point. Researchers widely recognize that the main drawback of the gradient approach is the requirement to estimate diffusivity using empirical models based on studies of specific soils or soil types. These diffusivity estimates can often be off by several orders of magnitude, yielding poor flux estimates. Employing chamber and gradient methods in unison allows for in-situ estimation of the diffusion coefficient, and therefore improves gradient-based estimates of flux. A dual-method approach yields more robust information on the temporal dynamics and depth distribution of greenhouse gas production and consumption in the soil profile. Here we present a mathematical optimization framework that allows these complimentary measurement techniques to yield more robust information than a single technique alone. We then focus on how it can be used to improve the process-based understanding of greenhouse gas production in the soil profile.

  7. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions from alternative fuels in Australian heavy vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Tom; Grant, Tim; Williams, David; Watson, Harry

    This paper quantifies the expected pre-combustion and combustion emissions of greenhouse gases from Australian heavy vehicles using alternative fuels. We use the term exbodied emissions for these full fuel-cycle emissions. The fuels examined are low sulfur diesel (LSD), ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULS), compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), ethanol (from lignocellulose), biodiesel and waste oil. Biodiesel and ethanol have the lowest exbodied greenhouse gas emissions (in grams greenhouse gases per kilometre travelled). Biodiesel reduces exbodied greenhouse gas emissions from 41% to 51% whereas ethanol reduces emissions by 49-55%. In fact, both emit larger quantities of CO 2 than conventional fuels, but as most of the CO 2 is from renewable carbon stocks that fraction is not counted towards the greenhouse gas emissions from the fuel. The gaseous fuels (LPG, CNG) come next with emissions that range from 88% to 92% of diesel. The emissions of greenhouse gases from diesel are reduced if waste oil is used as a diesel extender, but the processing energy required to generate LSD and ULS in Australia increase their greenhouse gas emissions compared to diesel fuel. The extra energy required liquefy and cool LNG means that it has the highest exbodied greenhouse gas emissions of the fuels that were considered.

  8. INVENTORY OF U.S. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND SINKS 1990-2011

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency submits the U.S. greenhouse gas inventory as an annual reporting requirement under UNFCCC, which the United States and other developed countries signed June 1992 at the Rio Earth Summit. The EPA has submitted the greenhouse gas inventory to the...

  9. 40 CFR 1036.610 - Innovative technology credits and adjustments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Innovative technology credits and adjustments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. 1036.610 Section 1036.610 Protection of Environment... adjustments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. (a) You may ask us to apply the provisions of this...

  10. 40 CFR 1037.241 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards for greenhouse gas pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards for greenhouse gas pollutants. 1037.241 Section 1037.241 Protection of Environment... standards for greenhouse gas pollutants. (a) For purposes of certification, your vehicle family...

  11. 40 CFR 1037.241 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards for greenhouse gas pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards for greenhouse gas pollutants. 1037.241 Section 1037.241 Protection of Environment... standards for greenhouse gas pollutants. (a) For purposes of certification, your vehicle family...

  12. 40 CFR 1036.610 - Innovative technology credits and adjustments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Innovative technology credits and adjustments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. 1036.610 Section 1036.610 Protection of Environment... adjustments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. (a) You may ask us to apply the provisions of this...

  13. 40 CFR 1037.241 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards for greenhouse gas pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards for greenhouse gas pollutants. 1037.241 Section 1037.241 Protection of Environment... standards for greenhouse gas pollutants. (a) For purposes of certification, your vehicle family...

  14. 40 CFR 1036.610 - Innovative technology credits and adjustments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Innovative technology credits and adjustments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. 1036.610 Section 1036.610 Protection of Environment... adjustments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. (a) You may ask us to apply the provisions of this...

  15. 76 FR 30781 - Confidentiality Determinations for Data Required Under the Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ...This action finalizes the confidentiality determinations for certain data elements required to be reported under the Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule. This action also finalizes amendments to the special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act, which authorizes EPA to release or withhold as confidential reported data under the Mandatory Greenhouse Gas......

  16. 78 FR 51724 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas...: The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has notified EPA that it has adopted a tractor-trailer greenhouse gas emission regulation applicable to new and in-use 53-foot and longer box-type trailers and...

  17. 77 FR 22312 - Access by EPA Contractors to Confidential Business Information Related to the Greenhouse Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... AGENCY Access by EPA Contractors to Confidential Business Information Related to the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA's Office of... to EPA under the Greenhouse Gas Reporting ] Program that may be designated or claimed as...

  18. 77 FR 14507 - Revision to Guidance, “Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... QUALITY Revision to Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting'' AGENCY: Council On... Accounting and Reporting''. SUMMARY: On October 5, 2009, President Obama signed Executive Order (EO) 13514... greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions a priority for Federal agencies. Among other provisions, EO 13514...

  19. 75 FR 63823 - Final Guidance, “Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... QUALITY Final Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting'' AGENCY: Council on... other provisions, E.O. 13514 requires agencies to measure, report, and reduce their GHG emissions. It... agency operations. This Final Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting,'' is...

  20. Microbial mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from landfill cover soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung-Woo

    Landfills are one of the major sources of methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential (GWP) ˜23 times higher than that of carbon dioxide (CO2). Although some effective strategies have been formulated to prevent methane emissions from large landfills, many landfills allow methane to be freely emitted to the atmosphere. In such situations, it is often proposed to stimulate methanotrophs, a group of bacteria that consume methane, in the cover soil to prevent fugitive methane emissions. Several factors, however, must be addressed to make such a biogenic removal mechanism effective. First, methanotrophic activity can be inhibited by nonmethane organic compounds (NMOCs) that are commonly found in landfill soil gas. Second, although methanotrophs can be easily stimulated with the addition of nitrogenous fertilizers, biogenic production of nitrous oxide with a GWP ˜296 times higher than that of carbon dioxide, is also stimulated. To consider these issues, two general areas of research were performed. First, a dimensionless number was developed based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics that describes the effects of the presence of multiple NMOCs on methanotrophic growth and survival. This model was validated via experimental measurements of methanotrophic growth in the presence of varying amounts of NMOCs. Second, the effects of nutrient amendments on methane oxidation and nitrous oxide production were examined by constructing soil microcosms using landfill cover soils. Here, it was shown that the addition of ammonium in the presence of phenylacetylene stimulated methane oxidation but inhibited nitrous oxide production. Furthermore, to understand the methanotrophic community structure and activity in response to these amendments, DNA microarray and transcript analyses were performed. The results indicated the predominance of Type II methanotrophs but that Type I methanotrophs responded more significantly to these amendments. Also, substantial activity

  1. Combustion efficiency: Greenhouse gas emission reductions from the power generation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, R.; South, D.W.; Fish, A.L.

    1993-12-31

    Concern for the possibility of an enhanced greenhouse effect and global climate change (GCC) has often been associated with energy use in general, and fossil fuel combustion in particular, because of associated emissions of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases (GHG). Therefore, energy policies play a significant role in determining greenhouse gas emissions. The generation of electricity and power from more efficient fossil energy technologies provides an opportunity to significantly lower GHG emissions, together with other pollutants. The U.S. government oversees a broad-based program to facilitate the development, demonstration, and deployment of these technologies. Advanced fossil technologies offer other benefits as well, in that they permit continued use of widely available fuels such as coal. An international perspective is critical for assessing the role of these fuels, since countries differ in terms of their ability to maximize these benefits. Often, new technologies are considered the domain of industrialized countries. Yet more efficient technologies may have their greatest potential - to concurrently permit the utilization of indigenous fuels and to lower global GHG emissions in developing countries, especially those in the Asia-Pacific region.

  2. Assessment of alternative disposal methods to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste in India.

    PubMed

    Yedla, Sudhakar; Sindhu, N T

    2016-06-01

    Open dumping, the most commonly practiced method of solid waste disposal in Indian cities, creates serious environment and economic challenges, and also contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. The present article attempts to analyse and identify economically effective ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste. The article looks at the selection of appropriate methods for the control of methane emissions. Multivariate functional models are presented, based on theoretical considerations as well as the field measurements to forecast the greenhouse gas mitigation potential for all the methodologies under consideration. Economic feasibility is tested by calculating the unit cost of waste disposal for the respective disposal process. The purpose-built landfill system proposed by Yedla and Parikh has shown promise in controlling greenhouse gas and saving land. However, these studies show that aerobic composting offers the optimal method, both in terms of controlling greenhouse gas emissions and reducing costs, mainly by requiring less land than other methods.

  3. U.S. Air Quality and Health Benefits from Avoided Climate Change under Greenhouse Gas Mitigation.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Menendez, Fernando; Saari, Rebecca K; Monier, Erwan; Selin, Noelle E

    2015-07-07

    We evaluate the impact of climate change on U.S. air quality and health in 2050 and 2100 using a global modeling framework and integrated economic, climate, and air pollution projections. Three internally consistent socioeconomic scenarios are used to value health benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation policies specifically derived from slowing climate change. Our projections suggest that climate change, exclusive of changes in air pollutant emissions, can significantly impact ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution across the U.S. and increase associated health effects. Climate policy can substantially reduce these impacts, and climate-related air pollution health benefits alone can offset a significant fraction of mitigation costs. We find that in contrast to cobenefits from reductions to coemitted pollutants, the climate-induced air quality benefits of policy increase with time and are largest between 2050 and 2100. Our projections also suggest that increasing climate policy stringency beyond a certain degree may lead to diminishing returns relative to its cost. However, our results indicate that the air quality impacts of climate change are substantial and should be considered by cost-benefit climate policy analyses.

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from on-site wastewater treatment systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somlai-Haase, Celia; Knappe, Jan; Gill, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    Nearly one third of the Irish population relies on decentralized domestic wastewater treatment systems which involve the discharge of effluent into the soil via a percolation area (drain field). In such systems, wastewater from single households is initially treated on-site either by a septic tank and an additional packaged secondary treatment unit, in which the influent organic matter is converted into carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) by microbial mediated processes. The effluent from the tanks is released into the soil for further treatment in the unsaturated zone where additional CO2 and CH4 are emitted to the atmosphere as well as nitrous oxide (N2O) from the partial denitrification of nitrate. Hence, considering the large number of on-site systems in Ireland and internationally, these are potential significant sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and yet have received almost no direct field measurement. Here we present the first attempt to quantify and qualify the production and emissions of GHGs from a septic tank system serving a single house in the County Westmeath, Ireland. We have sampled the water for dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O and measured the gas flux from the water surface in the septic tank. We have also carried out long-term flux measurements of CO2 from the drain field, using an automated soil gas flux system (LI-8100A, Li-Cor®) covering a whole year semi-continuously. This has enabled the CO2 emissions from the unsaturated zone to be correlated against different meteorological parameters over an annual cycle. In addition, we have integrated an ultraportable GHG analyser (UGGA, Los Gatos Research Inc.) into the automated soil gas flux system to measure CH4 flux. Further, manual sampling has also provided a better understanding of N2O emissions from the septic tank system.

  5. Long-term greenhouse gas measurements from aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Wolter, S.; Newberger, T.; Chen, H.; Andrews, A.; Kofler, J.; Neff, D.; Tans, P.

    2013-03-01

    In March 2009 the NOAA/ESRL/GMD Carbon Cycle and Greenhouse Gases Group collaborated with the US Coast Guard (USCG) to establish the Alaska Coast Guard (ACG) sampling site, a unique addition to NOAA's atmospheric monitoring network. This collaboration takes advantage of USCG bi-weekly Arctic Domain Awareness (ADA) flights, conducted with Hercules C-130 aircraft from March to November each year. Flights typically last 8 h and cover a large area, traveling from Kodiak up to Barrow, Alaska, with altitude profiles near the coast and in the interior. NOAA instrumentation on each flight includes a flask sampling system, a continuous cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) carbon dioxide (CO2)/methane (CH4)/carbon monoxide (CO)/water vapor (H2O) analyzer, a continuous ozone analyzer, and an ambient temperature and humidity sensor. Air samples collected in flight are analyzed at NOAA/ESRL for the major greenhouse gases and a variety of halocarbons and hydrocarbons that influence climate, stratospheric ozone, and air quality. We describe the overall system for making accurate greenhouse gas measurements using a CRDS analyzer on an aircraft with minimal operator interaction and present an assessment of analyzer performance over a three-year period. Overall analytical uncertainty of CRDS measurements in 2011 is estimated to be 0.15 ppm, 1.4 ppb, and 5 ppb for CO2, CH4, and CO, respectively, considering short-term precision, calibration uncertainties, and water vapor correction uncertainty. The stability of the CRDS analyzer over a seven-month deployment period is better than 0.15 ppm, 2 ppb, and 4 ppb for CO2, CH4, and CO, respectively, based on differences of on-board reference tank measurements from a laboratory calibration performed prior to deployment. This stability is not affected by variation in pressure or temperature during flight. We conclude that the uncertainty reported for our measurements would not be significantly affected if the measurements were made without in

  6. Long-term greenhouse gas measurements from aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Wolter, S.; Newberger, T.; Chen, H.; Andrews, A.; Kofler, J.; Neff, D.; Tans, P.

    2012-10-01

    In March 2009 the NOAA/ESRL/GMD Carbon Cycle and Greenhouse Gases Group collaborated with the US Coast Guard (USCG) to establish the Alaska Coast Guard (ACG) sampling site, a unique addition to NOAA's atmospheric monitoring network. This collaboration takes advantage of USCG bi-weekly Arctic Domain Awareness (ADA) flights, conducted with Hercules C-130 aircraft from March to November each year. NOAA has installed window-replacement inlet plates on two USCG C-130 aircraft and deploys a pallet with NOAA instrumentation on each ADA flight. Flights typically last 8 h and cover a very large area, traveling from Kodiak, AK in the south up to Barrow, AK in the north, and making altitude profiles near the coast as well as in the interior. NOAA instrumentation on each flight includes: a flask sampling system, a continuous CO2/CH4/CO/H2O analyzer, a continuous ozone analyzer, and an ambient temperature and humidity sensor. GPS time and location from the aircraft's navigation system are also collected. Air samples collected in flight are analyzed at NOAA/ESRL for the major greenhouse gases and a variety of halocarbons and hydrocarbons that influence climate, stratospheric ozone, and air quality. Instruments on this aircraft are designed and deployed to be able to collect air samples and data autonomously, so that NOAA personnel visit the site only for installation at the beginning of each season. We present an assessment of the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) CO2/CH4/CO/H2O analyzer performance operating on an aircraft over a three-year period. We describe the overall system for making accurate greenhouse gas measurements using a CRDS analyzer on an aircraft with minimal operator interaction. Short and long-term stability of the CRDS analyzer over a seven-month deployment period is better than 0.15 ppm, 2 ppb, and 5 ppb for CO2, CH4, CO respectively, considering differences of on-board reference tank measurements from a laboratory calibration performed prior to

  7. Glacial greenhouse-gas fluctuations controlled by ocean circulation changes.

    PubMed

    Schmittner, Andreas; Galbraith, Eric D

    2008-11-20

    Earth's climate and the concentrations of the atmospheric greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) varied strongly on millennial timescales during past glacial periods. Large and rapid warming events in Greenland and the North Atlantic were followed by more gradual cooling, and are highly correlated with fluctuations of N(2)O as recorded in ice cores. Antarctic temperature variations, on the other hand, were smaller and more gradual, showed warming during the Greenland cold phase and cooling while the North Atlantic was warm, and were highly correlated with fluctuations in CO(2). Abrupt changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) have often been invoked to explain the physical characteristics of these Dansgaard-Oeschger climate oscillations, but the mechanisms for the greenhouse-gas variations and their linkage to the AMOC have remained unclear. Here we present simulations with a coupled model of glacial climate and biogeochemical cycles, forced only with changes in the AMOC. The model simultaneously reproduces characteristic features of the Dansgaard-Oeschger temperature, as well as CO(2) and N(2)O fluctuations. Despite significant changes in the land carbon inventory, CO(2) variations on millennial timescales are dominated by slow changes in the deep ocean inventory of biologically sequestered carbon and are correlated with Antarctic temperature and Southern Ocean stratification. In contrast, N(2)O co-varies more rapidly with Greenland temperatures owing to fast adjustments of the thermocline oxygen budget. These results suggest that ocean circulation changes were the primary mechanism that drove glacial CO(2) and N(2)O fluctuations on millennial timescales.

  8. Save water to save carbon and money: developing abatement costs for expanded greenhouse gas reduction portfolios.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Hendrickson, Thomas P; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-12-02

    The water-energy nexus is of growing interest for researchers and policy makers because the two critical resources are interdependent. Their provision and consumption contribute to climate change through the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs). This research considers the potential for conserving both energy and water resources by measuring the life-cycle economic efficiency of greenhouse gas reductions through the water loss control technologies of pressure management and leak management. These costs are compared to other GHG abatement technologies: lighting, building insulation, electricity generation, and passenger transportation. Each cost is calculated using a bottom-up approach where regional and temporal variations for three different California water utilities are applied to all alternatives. The costs and abatement potential for each technology are displayed on an environmental abatement cost curve. The results reveal that water loss control can reduce GHGs at lower cost than other technologies and well below California's expected carbon trading price floor. One utility with an energy-intensive water supply could abate 135,000 Mg of GHGs between 2014 and 2035 and save--rather than spend--more than $130/Mg using the water loss control strategies evaluated. Water loss control technologies therefore should be considered in GHG abatement portfolios for utilities and policy makers.

  9. Development of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options for Alberta's Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanyam, Veena

    Alberta is the third largest economy in Canada and is expected to grow significantly in the coming decade. The energy sector plays a major role in Alberta's economy. The objective of this research is to develop various greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigations scenarios in the energy demand and supply sectors for the Province of Alberta. This is done through an energy-environment planning and forecasting tool called Long Range Energy Alternative Planning system model (LEAP). By using LEAP, a sankey diagram for energy and emission flows for the Province of Alberta has been developed. A reference case also called as business-as-usual scenario was developed for a study period of 25 years (2005-2030). The GHG mitigation scenarios encompassed various demand and supply side scenarios. In the energy conversion sector, mitigation scenarios for renewable power generation and inclusion of supercritical, ultra-supercritical and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants were investigated. In the oil and gas sector, GHG mitigation scenarios with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) option were considered. In Alberta's residential and commercial sector 4-6 MT of CO2 equivalents per year of GHG mitigation could be achieved with efficiency improvement. In the industrial sector up to 40 MT of CO2 equivalents per year of GHG reduction could be achieved with efficiency improvement. In the energy conversion sector large GHG mitigation potential lies in the oil and gas sector and also in power plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS) option. The total GHG mitigation possible in the supply side option is between 20--70 MT CO2 equivalents per year.

  10. Anthropogenic greenhouse gas contribution to UK autumn flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pall, Pardeep; Aina, Tolu; Stone, Dáithí; Stott, Peter; Nozawa, Toru; Hilberts, Arno; Lohmann, Dag; Allen, Myles

    2010-05-01

    Interest in attributing the risk of damaging weather-related events to anthropogenic climate change is increasing[1]. Yet climate models typically used for studying the attribution problem do not resolve weather at scales causing damage[2]. Here we present the first multi-step study that attributes increasing risk of a damaging regional weather-related event to global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The event was the UK flooding of October and November 2000, occurring during the wettest autumn in England & Wales since records began in 1766[3] and inundating several river catchments[4]. Nearly 10,000 properties were flooded and transport services and power supplies severely disrupted, with insured losses estimated at £1.3bn[5,6]. Though the floods were deemed a ‘wake up call' to the impacts of climate change[7], anthropogenic drivers cannot be blamed for this individual event: but they could be blamed for changing its risk[8,9]. Indeed, typically quoted thermodynamic arguments do suggest increased probability of precipitation extremes under anthropogenic warming[10]. But these arguments are too simple[11,12,13] to fully account for the complex weather[4,14] associated with the flooding. Instead we use a Probabilistic Event Attribution framework, to rigorously estimate the contribution of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions to England & Wales Autumn 2000 flood risk. This involves comparing an unprecedented number of daily river runoff realisations for the region, under Autumn 2000 scenarios both with and without the emissions. These realisations are produced using publicly volunteered distributed computing power to generate several thousand seasonal forecast resolution climate model simulations[15,16] that are then fed into a precipitation-runoff model[17,18]. Autumn 2000 flooding is characterised by realisations exceeding the highest daily river runoff for that period, derived from the observational-based ERA-40 re-anaylsis[19]. We find that our

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions in the state of Morelos, Mexico: a first approximation for establishing mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Quiroz-Castañeda, Rosa Estela; Sánchez-Salinas, Enrique; Castrejón-Godínez, María Luisa; Ortiz-Hernández, Ma Laura

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the authors report the first greenhouse gas emission inventory of Morelos, a state in central Mexico, in which the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) have been identified using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were estimated as CO2 equivalents (CO2 eq) for the years 2005, 2007, and 2009, with 2005 being treated as the base year. The percentage contributions from each category to the CO2 eq emissions in the base year were as follows: 38% from energy, 30% from industrial processes, 23% from waste, 5% from agriculture, and 4% from land use/land use change and forestry (LULUCF). As observed in other state inventories in Mexico, road transportation is the main source of CO2 emissions, wastewater handling and solid waste disposal are the main sources of CH4 emissions, and agricultural soils are the source of the most significant N2O emissions. The information reported in this inventory identifies the main emission sources. Based on these results, the government can propose public policies specifically designed for the state of Morelos to establish GHG mitigation strategies in the near future.

  12. The impact of 'Cash for Clunkers' on greenhouse gas emissions: a life cycle perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenski, Shoshannah M.; Keoleian, Gregory A.; Bolon, Kevin M.

    2010-10-01

    One of the goals of the US Consumer Assistance to Recycle and Save (CARS) Act of 2009, more commonly known as 'Cash for Clunkers', was to improve the US vehicle fleet fuel efficiency. Previous studies of the program's environmental impact have focused mainly on the effect of improved fuel economy, and the resulting reductions in fuel use and emissions during the vehicle use phase. We propose and apply a method for analyzing the net effect of CARS on greenhouse gas emissions from a full vehicle life cycle perspective, including the impact of premature production and retirement of vehicles. We find that CARS had a one-time effect of preventing 4.4 million metric tons of CO2-equivalent emissions, about 0.4% of US annual light-duty vehicle emissions. Of these, 3.7 million metric tons are avoided during the period of the expected remaining life of the inefficient 'clunkers'. 1.5 million metric tons are avoided as consumers purchase vehicles that are more efficient than their next replacement vehicle would otherwise have been. An additional 0.8 million metric tons are emitted as a result of premature manufacturing and disposal of vehicles. These results are sensitive to the remaining lifetime of the 'clunkers' and to the fuel economy of new vehicles in the absence of CARS, suggesting important considerations for policymakers deliberating on the use of accelerated vehicle retirement programs as a part of the greenhouse gas emissions policy.

  13. Life cycle Greenhouse gas emissions of current Oil Sands Technologies: surface mining and in situ applications.

    PubMed

    Bergerson, Joule A; Kofoworola, Oyeshola; Charpentier, Alex D; Sleep, Sylvia; Maclean, Heather L

    2012-07-17

    Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with two major recovery and extraction processes currently utilized in Alberta's oil sands, surface mining and in situ, are quantified. Process modules are developed and integrated into a life cycle model-GHOST (GreenHouse gas emissions of current Oil Sands Technologies) developed in prior work. Recovery and extraction of bitumen through surface mining and in situ processes result in 3-9 and 9-16 g CO(2)eq/MJ bitumen, respectively; upgrading emissions are an additional 6-17 g CO(2)eq/MJ synthetic crude oil (SCO) (all results are on a HHV basis). Although a high degree of variability exists in well-to-wheel emissions due to differences in technologies employed, operating conditions, and product characteristics, the surface mining dilbit and the in situ SCO pathways have the lowest and highest emissions, 88 and 120 g CO(2)eq/MJ reformulated gasoline. Through the use of improved data obtained from operating oil sands projects, we present ranges of emissions that overlap with emissions in literature for conventional crude oil. An increased focus is recommended in policy discussions on understanding interproject variability of emissions of both oil sands and conventional crudes, as this has not been adequately represented in previous studies.

  14. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: low-carbon electricity generation.

    PubMed

    Markandya, Anil; Armstrong, Ben G; Hales, Simon; Chiabai, Aline; Criqui, Patrick; Mima, Silvana; Tonne, Cathryn; Wilkinson, Paul

    2009-12-12

    In this report, the third in this Series on health and climate change, we assess the changes in particle air pollution emissions and consequent effects on health that are likely to result from greenhouse-gas mitigation measures in the electricity generation sector in the European Union (EU), China, and India. We model the effect in 2030 of policies that aim to reduce total carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions by 50% by 2050 globally compared with the effect of emissions in 1990. We use three models: the POLES model, which identifies the distribution of production modes that give the desired CO(2) reductions and associated costs; the GAINS model, which estimates fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 2.5 microm or less (PM(2.5)) concentrations; and a model to estimate the effect of PM(2.5) on mortality on the basis of the WHO's Comparative Risk Assessment methods. Changes in modes of production of electricity to reduce CO(2) emissions would, in all regions, reduce PM(2.5) and deaths caused by it, with the greatest effect in India and the smallest in the EU. Health benefits greatly offset costs of greenhouse-gas mitigation, especially in India where pollution is high and costs of mitigation are low. Our estimates are approximations but suggest clear health gains (co-benefits) through decarbonising electricity production, and provide additional information about the extent of such gains.

  15. Soil, Water, and Greenhouse-gas Impacts of Alternative Biomass Cropping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte Moore, L. A.; Bach, E.; Cambardella, C.; Hargreaves, S.; Helmers, M.; Hofmockel, K.; Isenhart, T.; Kolka, R. K.; Ontl, T.; Welsh, W.; Williams, R.; Landscape Biomass Team

    2010-12-01

    Through the 2008 Energy Independence and Security Act and other state and federal mandates, the U.S. is embarking on an aggressive agenda to reduce dependency on fossil fuels. While grain-derived ethanol will be used to largely meet initial renewable fuels targets, advanced biofuels derived from lignocellulosic materials are expected to comprise a growing proportion of the renewable energy portfolio and provide a more sustainable solution. As part of our interdisciplinary research, we are assessing the environmental impacts of four lignocellulosic biomass cropping systems and comparing them to a conventional corn cropping system. This comparison is conducted using a randomized, replicated experiment initiated in fall 2008, which compares the five cropping systems across a toposequence (i.e., floodplain, toeslope, backslope, shoulder, summit). In addition to assessing herbaceous and woody biomass yields, we are evaluating the environmental performance of these systems through changes in water quality, greenhouse-gas emissions, and carbon pools. Initial results document baseline soil parameters, including the capacity of the soils to sequester carbon across the toposequence, and the impacts of landscape heterogeneity and cropping system on soil moisture and nitrate-nitrogen levels in the vadose zone. Additional results on greenhouse-gas emissions and carbon dynamics are forthcoming from this year’s field research. The fuller understanding of the environmental performance of these systems will help inform federal and state policies seeking to incentivize the development of a sustainable bioenergy industry.

  16. Greenhouse gas mitigation options in the forestry sector of The Gambia: Analysis based on COMAP model

    SciTech Connect

    Jallow, B.P.

    1996-12-31

    Results of the 1993 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory of The Gambia showed net CO{sub 2} emissions of over (1.66 x 10{sup 6} tons) and 1% was due to uptake by plantations (0.01 x 10{sup 6} tons). This is a clear indication that there is need to identify changes in the land-use policy, law and tenure that discourages forest clearing at the same time significantly influencing the sustainable distribution of land among forestry, rangeland and livestock, and agriculture. About 11% of the total area of The Gambia is either fallow or barren flats that once supported vegetation and hence is still capable of supporting vegetation. The US Country Study Programme has provided the Government of The Gambia through the National Climate Committee funds to conduct Assessment of Mitigation Options to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The Forestry Sector is one area for which assessment is being conducted. The assessment is expected to end in September 1996. The Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) is one of the Models supplied to the National Climate Committee by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, on behalf of the US Country Study Programme, and is being used to conduct the analysis in The Gambia.

  17. High-Impact Actions for Individuals to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Wynes, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is the result of greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere, which records the aggregation of billions of individual decisions. While systemic and structural changes receive great attention for addressing climate change, the contribution that individual citizens can make is often overlooked, especially in developed countries where per-capita emissions are highest. Here we consider a broad range of individual lifestyle choices and calculate their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. We find that four widely applicable high-impact actions have the potential to reduce personal emissions by more than 1 tonne CO2-equivalent per year: having one fewer child (59.2 tonnes of reductions), living car-free (2.3 tonnes), avoiding airplane travel (1.5 tonnes per flight) and eating a plant-based diet (0.82 tonnes). These actions have much greater potential to reduce emissions than commonly promoted strategies like recycling (4 times less effective than a plant-based diet) or changing lightbulbs (8 times). However, high school textbooks from Canada and government resources from the EU, USA, Canada, and Australia largely fail to mention these actions, instead focusing on incremental changes with much smaller potential impact. We conclude that climate policy should focus not only on national and international targets, but also on encouraging responsible behaviour, especially for adolescents who will grow up in the era of climate change and are poised to establish a lifelong pattern of sustainable lifestyle choices.

  18. Greenhouse Gas and Noxious Emissions from Dual Fuel Diesel and Natural Gas Heavy Goods Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Stettler, Marc E J; Midgley, William J B; Swanson, Jacob J; Cebon, David; Boies, Adam M

    2016-02-16

    Dual fuel diesel and natural gas heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) operate on a combination of the two fuels simultaneously. By substituting diesel for natural gas, vehicle operators can benefit from reduced fuel costs and as natural gas has a lower CO2 intensity compared to diesel, dual fuel HGVs have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the freight sector. In this study, energy consumption, greenhouse gas and noxious emissions for five after-market dual fuel configurations of two vehicle platforms are compared relative to their diesel-only baseline values over transient and steady state testing. Over a transient cycle, CO2 emissions are reduced by up to 9%; however, methane (CH4) emissions due to incomplete combustion lead to CO2e emissions that are 50-127% higher than the equivalent diesel vehicle. Oxidation catalysts evaluated on the vehicles at steady state reduced CH4 emissions by at most 15% at exhaust gas temperatures representative of transient conditions. This study highlights that control of CH4 emissions and improved control of in-cylinder CH4 combustion are required to reduce total GHG emissions of dual fuel HGVs relative to diesel vehicles.

  19. Towards a comprehensive greenhouse gas emissions inventory for biosolids.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Gaitan, J P; Short, Michael D; Lundie, Sven; Stuetz, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Effective handling and treatment of the solids fraction from advanced wastewater treatment operations carries a substantial burden for water utilities relative to the total economic and environmental impacts from modern day wastewater treatment. While good process-level data for a range of wastewater treatment operations are becoming more readily available, there remains a dearth of high quality operational data for solids line processes in particular. This study seeks to address this data gap by presenting a suite of high quality, process-level life cycle inventory data covering a range of solids line wastewater treatment processes, extending from primary treatment through to biosolids reuse in agriculture. Within the study, the impacts of secondary treatment technology and key parameters such as sludge retention time, activated sludge age and primary-to-waste activated sludge ratio (PS:WAS) on the life cycle inventory data of solids processing trains for five model wastewater treatment plant configurations are presented. BioWin(®) models are calibrated with real operational plant data and estimated electricity consumption values were reconciled against overall plant energy consumption. The concept of "representative crop" is also introduced in order to reduce the uncertainty associated with nitrous oxide emissions and soil carbon sequestration offsets under biosolids land application scenarios. Results indicate that both the treatment plant biogas electricity offset and the soil carbon sequestration offset from land-applied biosolids, represent the main greenhouse gas mitigation opportunities. In contrast, fertiliser offsets are of relatively minor importance in terms of the overall life cycle emissions impacts. Results also show that fugitive methane emissions at the plant, as well as nitrous oxide emissions both at the plant and following agricultural application of biosolids, are significant contributors to the overall greenhouse gas balance and combined are

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Three Cage Layer Housing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fournel, Sébastien; Pelletier, Frédéric; Godbout, Stéphane; Lagacé, Robert; Feddes, John

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were measured from three different cage layer housing systems. A comparative study was conducted to identify the housing system with the least impact on the environment. The results showed that liquid manure from deep-pit housing systems produces greater emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) than natural and forced dried manure from belt housing systems. The influencing factors appeared to be the manure removal frequency and the dry matter content of the manure. Abstract Agriculture accounts for 10 to 12% of the World’s total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Manure management alone is responsible for 13% of GHG emissions from the agricultural sector. During the last decade, Québec’s egg production systems have shifted from deep-pit housing systems to manure belt housing systems. The objective of this study was to measure and compare carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from three different cage layer housing systems: a deep liquid manure pit and a manure belt with natural or forced air drying. Deep liquid manure pit housing systems consist of “A” frame layer cages located over a closed pit containing the hens’ droppings to which water is added to facilitate removal by pumping. Manure belt techniques imply that manure drops on a belt beneath each row of battery cages where it is either dried naturally or by forced air until it is removed. The experiment was replicated with 360 hens reared into twelve independent bench-scale rooms during eight weeks (19–27 weeks of age). The natural and forced air manure belt systems reduced CO2 (28.2 and 28.7 kg yr−1 hen−1, respectively), CH4 (25.3 and 27.7 g yr−1 hen−1, respectively) and N2O (2.60 and 2.48 g yr−1 hen−1, respectively) emissions by about 21, 16 and 9% in comparison with the deep-pit technique (36.0 kg CO2 yr−1 hen−1, 31.6 g CH4 yr−1 hen−1 and 2.78 g N2O yr−1 hen−1). The

  1. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-15

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid-peak hours and

  2. Energy, greenhouse gas, and cost reductions for municipal recycling systems.

    PubMed

    Chester, Mikhail; Martin, Elliot; Sathaye, Nakul

    2008-03-15

    Curbside recycling programs can be more cost-effective than landfilling and lead to environmental benefits from the recovery of materials. Significant reductions in energy and emissions are derived from the decrease of energy-intensive production with virgin materials. In many cities, competing priorities can lead to limited consideration given to system optimal collection and processing strategies that can drive down costs and increase revenue while simultaneously reducing system energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We evaluate three alterations to a hypothetical California city's recycling network to discern the conditions under which the changes.constitute system improvements to cost, energy, and emissions. The system initially operates with a collection zoning scheme that does not mitigate the impact of seasonal variations in consumer tonnage. In addition, two collection organizations operate redundantly, collecting recyclables from different customer types on the same street network. Finally, the system is dual stream, meaning recyclables are separated at the curbside. In some scenarios, this practice can limit the consumer participation rate leading to lower collection quantities. First, we evaluate a "business as usual" (BAU) scenario and find that the system operates at a $1.7 M/yr loss but still avoids a net 18.7 GJ and 1700 kg of greenhouse gas equivalent (GGE) per ton of material recycled. Second, we apply an alternative zoning scheme for collection that creates a uniform daily pickup demand throughout the year reducing costs by $0.2 M/yr, energy by 30 MJ/ton, and GHG emissions by 2 kg GGE/ton. Next, the two collection organizations are consolidated into a single entity further reducing vehicle fleet size and weekly vehicle miles traveled resulting in savings from BAU of $0.3 M/yr, 100 MJ/ton, and 8 kg GGE/ton. Lastly, we evaluate a switch to a single-stream system (where recyclables are commingled). We showthat single-stream recycling

  3. The economics of biomass for power and greenhouse gas reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Jay Brooker

    The power cost and optimum plant size for power plants using straw fuel in western Canada was determined. The optimum size for agricultural residues is 450 MW (the largest single biomass unit judged feasible in this study), and the power cost is 50.30 MWh-1. If a larger biomass boiler could be built, the optiμm project size for straw would be 628 MW. For a market power price of 40 MWh-1 the cost of the GHG credit generated by a straw-fired plant is 11 tonne-1 CO2. Straw was evaluated as a possible supplement to the primary coal fuel at the Genesee power station in order to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensity. Cofiring straw at the Genesee power station does not compete favorably with other GHG abatement technologies, even the lowest cost option is estimated at 22 tonne-1 CO2. The cost of transporting wood chips by truck and by pipeline as a water slurry is determined. The pipeline would be economical at large capacity (>0.5 M dry tonnes per year for a one way pipeline, and >1.25 M dry tonnes per year for a two way pipeline that returns the carrier fluid to the pipeline inlet), and at medium to long distances (>75 km (one way) and >470 km (two way) at a capacity of 2 M dry tonnes per year). Pipelining was determined to be unsuitable for combustion applications. Pipeline transport of corn is evaluated against a range of truck transport costs. At 20% solids, pipeline transport of corn stover costs less than trucking at capacities in excess of 1.4 M dry tonnes/yr when compared to a mid range of truck transport. Pipelining of corn stover gives the opportunity to conduct simultaneous transport and saccharification (STS) but would require a source of waste heat at the pipeline inlet in order to be economical. Transport of corn stover in multiple pipelines offers the opportunity to develop a large ethanol fermentation plant, avoiding some of the diseconomies of scale that arise from smaller plants whose capacities are limited by issues of truck congestion

  4. Greenhouse Gas Exchange and Biogeochemistry of Fertilized Canadian Plantation Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basiliko, N.; Grayston, S. J.; Roy, R.; Mohn, W. W.; Yolova, V.; Prescott, C.

    2005-12-01

    Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in 2002 has raised questions of the role of ecosystem management as a tool to temporarily reduce the net greenhouse gas burden of the forestry industry and potentially generate emission offset credits. We examined growing season methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes, soil nutrient chemistry, and microbial biomass and CH4-oxidizing bacterial communities in 20-year-old sub-boreal lodgepole pine and maritime hemlock plantations under control conditions and simulated operational fertilization with N (200kg urea-N per ha, applied twice) and N, P, K, and micronutrients. CH4 uptake was significantly greater in the lodgepole pine site than in the hemlock site (152-221 and 57-81 micrograms CH4 consumed per square meter per hour), and there were no significant differences among treatments at either site. Among sites, treatments, and sampling times, CH4 uptake correlated positively with NH4 concentrations and negatively with extractable organic N:P quotients, indicating that this process may potentially be limited by nutrient availability to the CH4-oxidizing bacteria. N2O efflux was measured sporadically at a few flux collars, but was not significantly different from zero at any site, treatment, or time. Soil respiration (CO2 efflux) rates were faster in the hemlock than lodgepole pine site (243-409 and 100-266 milligrams CO2 per square meter per hour), and significant treatment differences were observed at individual times, though with fertilized plots exhibiting both faster and slower rates than controls. Soil respiration correlated significantly with microbial biomass C and N and NO3. Within each site, soil respiration, but not CH4 uptake, was positively correlated with soil temperature. New experiments examining the short-term effects of fertilization on greenhouse gas exchanges are underway, and both short and long-term effects will be evaluated in relation to changes in C storage in plant biomass

  5. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R.A.; Watts, E.C.; Williams, E.R.

    1991-09-01

    Over the past decade, global climate change has been a subject of growing concern. The United States government in general, and the US Department of Energy in particular, have increased their level of activity in this area in recent years; since the 1970s, the DOE has sponsored scientific research programs in global climate change. These programs have sought to define the issues, reduce uncertainties, and quantify the interaction of global human and natural systems. Understanding the relationship between the production and use of energy and the accumulation of radiatively active gases in the atmosphere, as well as the consequences of this relationship for global climate systems, has been of particular interest, because constructive policy cannot be formulated without a firm scientific grasp of these issues. The National Energy Strategy was developed to address all of the nation's energy concerns, taking into account related environmental issues such as global climate change. Actions included in the National Energy Strategy are projected to hold US energy-related emissions of greenhouse important gases, weighted by IPCC-estimated global warming potential (GWP) coefficients, at or below 1990 levels through the year 2030.

  6. Supplanting ecosystem services provided by scavengers raises greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Reyes, Zebensui; Pérez-García, Juan M.; Moleón, Marcos; Botella, Francisco; Carrete, Martina; Lazcano, Carolina; Moreno-Opo, Rubén; Margalida, Antoni; Donázar, José A.; Sánchez-Zapata, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Global warming due to human-induced increments in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) is one of the most debated topics among environmentalists and politicians worldwide. In this paper we assess a novel source of GHG emissions emerged following a controversial policy decision. After the outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Europe, the sanitary regulation required that livestock carcasses were collected from farms and transformed or destroyed in authorised plants, contradicting not only the obligations of member states to conserve scavenger species but also generating unprecedented GHG emission. However, how much of this emission could be prevented in the return to traditional and natural scenario in which scavengers freely remove livestock carcasses is largely unknown. Here we show that, in Spain (home of 95% of European vultures), supplanting the natural removal of dead extensive livestock by scavengers with carcass collection and transport to intermediate and processing plants meant the emission of 77,344 metric tons of CO2 eq. to the atmosphere per year, in addition to annual payments of ca. $50 million to insurance companies. Thus, replacing the ecosystem services provided by scavengers has not only conservation costs, but also important and unnecessary environmental and economic costs.

  7. Supplanting ecosystem services provided by scavengers raises greenhouse gas emissions

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Reyes, Zebensui; Pérez-García, Juan M.; Moleón, Marcos; Botella, Francisco; Carrete, Martina; Lazcano, Carolina; Moreno-Opo, Rubén; Margalida, Antoni; Donázar, José A.; Sánchez-Zapata, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Global warming due to human-induced increments in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) is one of the most debated topics among environmentalists and politicians worldwide. In this paper we assess a novel source of GHG emissions emerged following a controversial policy decision. After the outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Europe, the sanitary regulation required that livestock carcasses were collected from farms and transformed or destroyed in authorised plants, contradicting not only the obligations of member states to conserve scavenger species but also generating unprecedented GHG emission. However, how much of this emission could be prevented in the return to traditional and natural scenario in which scavengers freely remove livestock carcasses is largely unknown. Here we show that, in Spain (home of 95% of European vultures), supplanting the natural removal of dead extensive livestock by scavengers with carcass collection and transport to intermediate and processing plants meant the emission of 77,344 metric tons of CO2 eq. to the atmosphere per year, in addition to annual payments of ca. $50 million to insurance companies. Thus, replacing the ecosystem services provided by scavengers has not only conservation costs, but also important and unnecessary environmental and economic costs. PMID:25589381

  8. Supplanting ecosystem services provided by scavengers raises greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Morales-Reyes, Zebensui; Pérez-García, Juan M; Moleón, Marcos; Botella, Francisco; Carrete, Martina; Lazcano, Carolina; Moreno-Opo, Rubén; Margalida, Antoni; Donázar, José A; Sánchez-Zapata, José A

    2015-01-15

    Global warming due to human-induced increments in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) is one of the most debated topics among environmentalists and politicians worldwide. In this paper we assess a novel source of GHG emissions emerged following a controversial policy decision. After the outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Europe, the sanitary regulation required that livestock carcasses were collected from farms and transformed or destroyed in authorised plants, contradicting not only the obligations of member states to conserve scavenger species but also generating unprecedented GHG emission. However, how much of this emission could be prevented in the return to traditional and natural scenario in which scavengers freely remove livestock carcasses is largely unknown. Here we show that, in Spain (home of 95% of European vultures), supplanting the natural removal of dead extensive livestock by scavengers with carcass collection and transport to intermediate and processing plants meant the emission of 77,344 metric tons of CO2 eq. to the atmosphere per year, in addition to annual payments of ca. $50 million to insurance companies. Thus, replacing the ecosystem services provided by scavengers has not only conservation costs, but also important and unnecessary environmental and economic costs.

  9. Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation.

    PubMed

    Heath, Garvin A; O'Donoughue, Patrick; Arent, Douglas J; Bazilian, Morgan

    2014-08-05

    Recent technological advances in the recovery of unconventional natural gas, particularly shale gas, have served to dramatically increase domestic production and reserve estimates for the United States and internationally. This trend has led to lowered prices and increased scrutiny on production practices. Questions have been raised as to how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the life cycle of shale gas production and use compares with that of conventionally produced natural gas or other fuel sources such as coal. Recent literature has come to different conclusions on this point, largely due to differing assumptions, comparison baselines, and system boundaries. Through a meta-analytical procedure we call harmonization, we develop robust, analytically consistent, and updated comparisons of estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for electricity produced from shale gas, conventionally produced natural gas, and coal. On a per-unit electrical output basis, harmonization reveals that median estimates of GHG emissions from shale gas-generated electricity are similar to those for conventional natural gas, with both approximately half that of the central tendency of coal. Sensitivity analysis on the harmonized estimates indicates that assumptions regarding liquids unloading and estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of wells have the greatest influence on life cycle GHG emissions, whereby shale gas life cycle GHG emissions could approach the range of best-performing coal-fired generation under certain scenarios. Despite clarification of published estimates through harmonization, these initial assessments should be confirmed through methane emissions measurements at components and in the atmosphere and through better characterization of EUR and practices.

  10. Estimating the Health Effects of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies: Addressing Parametric, Model, and Valuation Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Jeremy J.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Markandya, Anil; Balbus, John M.; Wilkinson, Paul; Haines, Andy; Chalabi, Zaid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Policy decisions regarding climate change mitigation are increasingly incorporating the beneficial and adverse health impacts of greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies. Studies of such co-benefits and co-harms involve modeling approaches requiring a range of analytic decisions that affect the model output. Objective: Our objective was to assess analytic decisions regarding model framework, structure, choice of parameters, and handling of uncertainty when modeling health co-benefits, and to make recommendations for improvements that could increase policy uptake. Methods: We describe the assumptions and analytic decisions underlying models of mitigation co-benefits, examining their effects on modeling outputs, and consider tools for quantifying uncertainty. Discussion: There is considerable variation in approaches to valuation metrics, discounting methods, uncertainty characterization and propagation, and assessment of low-probability/high-impact events. There is also variable inclusion of adverse impacts of mitigation policies, and limited extension of modeling domains to include implementation considerations. Going forward, co-benefits modeling efforts should be carried out in collaboration with policy makers; these efforts should include the full range of positive and negative impacts and critical uncertainties, as well as a range of discount rates, and should explicitly characterize uncertainty. We make recommendations to improve the rigor and consistency of modeling of health co-benefits. Conclusion: Modeling health co-benefits requires systematic consideration of the suitability of model assumptions, of what should be included and excluded from the model framework, and how uncertainty should be treated. Increased attention to these and other analytic decisions has the potential to increase the policy relevance and application of co-benefits modeling studies, potentially helping policy makers to maximize mitigation potential while

  11. Competitiveness of Terrestrial Greenhouse Gas Offsets: Are They a Bridge to the Future?

    SciTech Connect

    McCarl, Bruce A.; Sands, Ronald D.

    2007-01-22

    Activities to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions by biological soil or forest carbon sequestration utilize currently known and readily implementable technologies. Many other greenhouse gas emission reduction options require future technological development or must wait for turnover of capital stock. Carbon sequestration options in soils and forests, while ready to go now, generally have a finite life, allowing use until other strategies are developed. This paper reports on an investigation of the competitiveness of biological carbon sequestration from dynamic and multiple strategy viewpoints. Key factors affecting the competitiveness of terrestrial mitigation options are land availability and cost effectiveness relative to other options including CO2 capture and storage, energy efficiency improvements, fuel switching, and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emission reductions. The analysis results show that, at lower carbon prices and in the near term, soil carbon and other agricultural/forestry options are important bridges to the future, initially providing a substantial portion of attainable reductions in net greenhouse gas emissions, but with a limited role in later years. At higher carbon prices, afforestation and biofuels are more dominant among terrestrial options to offset greenhouse gas emissions. But in the longer run, allowing for capital stock turnover, options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the energy system provide an increasing share of potential reductions in total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions from municipal wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parravicini, Vanessa; Svardal, Karl

    2016-04-01

    by a person in Germany or Austria (10.6 t CO2e/p/a, UBA, 2016). The results indicate that GHG emissions from WWTP have at global scale a small impact, as also highlighted by the Austrian national inventory report (NIR, 2015), where the estimated CO2e emissions from WWTPs account for only 0.23% of the total CO2e emission in Austria. References IPCC (2006). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Program, Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Anabe K. (eds). Published: IGES, Japan. http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/. NIR (2015). Austria's National Inventory Report 2015. Submission under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and under the Kyoto Protocol. Reports, Band 0552, ISBN: 978-3-99004-364-6, Umweltbundesamt, Wien. Parravicini V., Valkova T., Haslinger J., Saracevic E., Winkelbauer A., Tauber J., Svardal K., Hohenblum P., Clara M., Windhofer G., Pazdernik K., Lampert C. (2015). Reduktionspotential bei den Lachgasemissionen aus Kläranlagen durch Optimierung des Betriebes (ReLaKO). The research project was financially supported by the Ministry for agriculture, forestry, Environment and Water Management. Project leader: TU Wien, Institute for Water Quality, Ressources and Waste Management; Project partner: Umweltbundesamt GmbH. Final report: http://www.bmlfuw.gv.at/service/publikationen/wasser/Lachgasemissionen---Kl-ranlagen.html. UBA (2016). German average carbon footprint. Umweltbundesamt, Januar 2016, http://uba.klimaktiv-co2-rechner.de/de_DE/page/footprint/

  13. The challenges of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution through energy sources: evidence from a panel of developed countries.

    PubMed

    Akhmat, Ghulam; Zaman, Khalid; Shukui, Tan; Sajjad, Faiza; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Khan, Muhammad Zahir

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the long-run relationship between climatic factors (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural methane emissions, and industrial nitrous oxide emission), air pollution (i.e., carbon dioxide emissions), and energy sources (i.e., nuclear energy; oil, gas, and coal energy; and fossil fuel energy) in the panel of 35 developed countries (including EU-15, new EU member states, G-7, and other countries) over a period of 1975-2012. In order to achieve this objective, the present study uses sophisticated panel econometric techniques including panel cointegration, panel fully modified OLS (FMOLS), and dynamic OLS (DOLS). The results show that there is a long-run relationship between the variables. Nuclear energy reduces greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the other emissions, i.e., agricultural methane emissions and industrial nitrous oxide, are still to increase during the study period. Electricity production from oil, gas, and coal sources increases the greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the intensity to increase emissions is far less than the intensity to increase emissions through fossil fuel. Policies that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases can simultaneously alter emissions of conventional pollutants that have deleterious effects on human health and the environment.

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions from stabilization ponds in subtropical climate.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Paniagua, I Y; Ramirez-Vargas, R; Ramos-Gomez, M S; Dendooven, L; Avelar-Gonzalez, F J; Thalasso, F

    2014-01-01

    Waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) are a cost-efficient method to treat municipal and non-toxic industrial effluents. Numerous studies have shown that WSPs are a source of greenhouse gas (GHG). However, most reports concerned anaerobic ponds (AP) and few have addressed GHG emissions from facultative (FP) and aerobic/maturation ponds (MPs). In this paper, GHG emissions from three WSP in series are presented. These WSPs were designed as anaerobic, facultative and aerobic/maturation and were treating agricultural wastewater. CH4 fluxes from 0.6 +/- 0.4 g CH4 m(-2) d(-1) in the MP, to 7.0 +/- 1.0 g CH4 m(-2) d(-1) in the (AP), were measured. A linear correlation was found between the loading rates of the ponds and CH4 emissions. Relatively low CO2 fluxes (0.2 +/- 0.1 to 1.0 +/- 0.8 g CO2 m(-2) d(-1)) were found, which suggest that carbonate/bicarbonate formation is caused by alkaline pH. A mass balance performed showed that 30% of the total chemical oxygen demand removed was converted to CH4. It has been concluded that the WSP system studied emits at least three times more GHG than aerobic activated sludge systems and that the surface loading rate is the most important design parameter for CH4 emissions.

  15. Greenhouse Gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobler, Jeremy; Blume, Nathan; Braun, Michael; Zaccheo, T. Scott; Pernini, Tim; Botos, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Exelis has recently developed a novel laser-based instrument to aid in the autonomous real-time monitoring and mapping of CO2 concentration over a two-dimensional area. The Greenhouse gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE) instrument uses two transceivers and a series of retroreflectors to continuously measure the differential transmission over a number of overlapping lines of sight or "chords", forming a plane. By inverting the differential transmission measurements along with locally measured temperature (T), pressure (P) and relative humidity (RH) the average concentration of CO2 along each chord can be determined and, based on the overlap between chords, a 2D map of CO2 concentration over the measurement plane can be estimated. The GreenLITE system was deployed to the Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) center in Bozeman, Montana, in Aug-Sept 2014, where more than 200 hours of data were collected over a wide range of environmental conditions, while utilizing a controlled release of CO2 into a segmented underground pipe [1]. The system demonstrated the ability to identify persistent CO2 sources at the test facility and showed strong correlation with an independent measurement using a LI-COR based system. Here we describe the measurement approach, instrument design, and results from the deployment to the ZERT site.

  16. Addressing biogenic greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower in LCA.

    PubMed

    Hertwich, Edgar G

    2013-09-03

    The ability of hydropower to contribute to climate change mitigation is sometimes questioned, citing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide resulting from the degradation of biogenic carbon in hydropower reservoirs. These emissions are, however, not always addressed in life cycle assessment, leading to a bias in technology comparisons, and often misunderstood. The objective of this paper is to review and analyze the generation of greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs for the purpose of technology assessment, relating established emission measurements to power generation. A literature review, data collection, and statistical analysis of methane and CO2 emissions are conducted. In a sample of 82 measurements, methane emissions per kWh hydropower generated are log-normally distributed, ranging from micrograms to 10s of kg. A multivariate regression analysis shows that the reservoir area per kWh electricity is the most important explanatory variable. Methane emissions flux per reservoir area are correlated with the natural net primary production of the area, the age of the power plant, and the inclusion of bubbling emissions in the measurement. Even together, these factors fail to explain most of the variation in the methane flux. The global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 85 gCO2/kWh and 3 gCH4/kWh, with a multiplicative uncertainty factor of 2. GHG emissions from hydropower can be largely avoided by ceasing to build hydropower plants with high land use per unit of electricity generated.

  17. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottrill, C.; Liverman, D.; Boykoff, M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors—such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities—have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO2e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO2e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO2e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  18. UK emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide.

    PubMed

    Skiba, U; Jones, S K; Dragosits, U; Drewer, J; Fowler, D; Rees, R M; Pappa, V A; Cardenas, L; Chadwick, D; Yamulki, S; Manning, A J

    2012-05-05

    Signatories of the Kyoto Protocol are obliged to submit annual accounts of their anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, which include nitrous oxide (N(2)O). Emissions from the sectors industry (3.8 Gg), energy (14.4 Gg), agriculture (86.8 Gg), wastewater (4.4 Gg), land use, land-use change and forestry (2.1 Gg) can be calculated by multiplying activity data (i.e. amount of fertilizer applied, animal numbers) with simple emission factors (Tier 1 approach), which are generally applied across wide geographical regions. The agricultural sector is the largest anthropogenic source of N(2)O in many countries and responsible for 75 per cent of UK N(2)O emissions. Microbial N(2)O production in nitrogen-fertilized soils (27.6 Gg), nitrogen-enriched waters (24.2 Gg) and manure storage systems (6.4 Gg) dominate agricultural emission budgets. For the agricultural sector, the Tier 1 emission factor approach is too simplistic to reflect local variations in climate, ecosystems and management, and is unable to take into account some of the mitigation strategies applied. This paper reviews deviations of observed emissions from those calculated using the simple emission factor approach for all anthropogenic sectors, briefly discusses the need to adopt specific emission factors that reflect regional variability in climate, soil type and management, and explains how bottom-up emission inventories can be verified by top-down modelling.

  19. UK emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide

    PubMed Central

    Skiba, U.; Jones, S. K.; Dragosits, U.; Drewer, J.; Fowler, D.; Rees, R. M.; Pappa, V. A.; Cardenas, L.; Chadwick, D.; Yamulki, S.; Manning, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Signatories of the Kyoto Protocol are obliged to submit annual accounts of their anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, which include nitrous oxide (N2O). Emissions from the sectors industry (3.8 Gg), energy (14.4 Gg), agriculture (86.8 Gg), wastewater (4.4 Gg), land use, land-use change and forestry (2.1 Gg) can be calculated by multiplying activity data (i.e. amount of fertilizer applied, animal numbers) with simple emission factors (Tier 1 approach), which are generally applied across wide geographical regions. The agricultural sector is the largest anthropogenic source of N2O in many countries and responsible for 75 per cent of UK N2O emissions. Microbial N2O production in nitrogen-fertilized soils (27.6 Gg), nitrogen-enriched waters (24.2 Gg) and manure storage systems (6.4 Gg) dominate agricultural emission budgets. For the agricultural sector, the Tier 1 emission factor approach is too simplistic to reflect local variations in climate, ecosystems and management, and is unable to take into account some of the mitigation strategies applied. This paper reviews deviations of observed emissions from those calculated using the simple emission factor approach for all anthropogenic sectors, briefly discusses the need to adopt specific emission factors that reflect regional variability in climate, soil type and management, and explains how bottom-up emission inventories can be verified by top-down modelling. PMID:22451103

  20. Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in tropical peatlands.

    PubMed

    Murdiyarso, D; Hergoualc'h, K; Verchot, L V

    2010-11-16

    The upcoming global mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries should include and prioritize tropical peatlands. Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are rapidly being converted into production systems by introducing perennial crops for lucrative agribusiness, such as oil-palm and pulpwood plantations, causing large greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for GHG Inventory on Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses provide an adequate framework for emissions inventories in these ecosystems; however, specific emission factors are needed for more accurate and cost-effective monitoring. The emissions are governed by complex biophysical processes, such as peat decomposition and compaction, nutrient availability, soil water content, and water table level, all of which are affected by management practices. We estimate that total carbon loss from converting peat swamp forests into oil palm is 59.4 ± 10.2 Mg of CO(2) per hectare per year during the first 25 y after land-use cover change, of which 61.6% arise from the peat. Of the total amount (1,486 ± 183 Mg of CO(2) per hectare over 25 y), 25% are released immediately from land-clearing fire. In order to maintain high palm-oil production, nitrogen inputs through fertilizer are needed and the magnitude of the resulting increased N(2)O emissions compared to CO(2) losses remains unclear.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from home composting in practice.

    PubMed

    Ermolaev, Evgheni; Sundberg, Cecilia; Pell, Mikael; Jönsson, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    In Sweden, 16% of all biologically treated food waste is home composted. Emissions of the greenhouse gases CH4 and N2O and emissions of NH3 from home composts were measured and factors affecting these emissions were examined. Gas and substrate in the compost bins were sampled and the composting conditions assessed 13 times during a 1-year period in 18 home composts managed by the home owners. The influence of process parameters and management factors was evaluated by regression analysis. The mean CH4 and N2O concentration was 28.1 and 5.46 ppm (v/v), respectively, above the ambient level and the CH4:CO2 and N2O:CO2 ratio was 0.38% and 0.15%, respectively (median values 0.04% and 0.07%, respectively). The home composts emitted less CH4 than large-scale composts, but similar amounts of N2O. Overall NH3 concentrations were low. Increasing the temperature, moisture content, mixing frequency and amount of added waste all increased CH4 emissions.

  2. Greenhouse gas mitigation potentials in the livestock sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, Mario; Henderson, Benjamin; Havlík, Petr; Thornton, Philip K.; Conant, Richard T.; Smith, Pete; Wirsenius, Stefan; Hristov, Alexander N.; Gerber, Pierre; Gill, Margaret; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Valin, Hugo; Garnett, Tara; Stehfest, Elke

    2016-05-01

    The livestock sector supports about 1.3 billion producers and retailers, and contributes 40-50% of agricultural GDP. We estimated that between 1995 and 2005, the livestock sector was responsible for greenhouse gas emissions of 5.6-7.5 GtCO2e yr-1. Livestock accounts for up to half of the technical mitigation potential of the agriculture, forestry and land-use sectors, through management options that sustainably intensify livestock production, promote carbon sequestration in rangelands and reduce emissions from manures, and through reductions in the demand for livestock products. The economic potential of these management alternatives is less than 10% of what is technically possible because of adoption constraints, costs and numerous trade-offs. The mitigation potential of reductions in livestock product consumption is large, but their economic potential is unknown at present. More research and investment are needed to increase the affordability and adoption of mitigation practices, to moderate consumption of livestock products where appropriate, and to avoid negative impacts on livelihoods, economic activities and the environment.

  3. Drivers of the growth in global greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Arto, Iñaki; Dietzenbacher, Erik

    2014-05-20

    Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 8.9 Gigatons CO2 equivalent (Gt) in the period 1995-2008. A phenomenon that has received due attention is the upsurge of emission transfers via international trade. A question that has remained unanswered is whether trade changes have affected global emissions. For each of five factors (one of which is trade changes) in 40 countries we quantify its contribution to the growth in global emissions. We find that the changes in the levels of consumption per capita have led to an enormous growth in emissions (+14.0 Gt). This effect was partly offset by the changes in technology (-8.4 Gt). Smaller effects are found for population growth (+4.2 Gt) and changes in the composition of the consumption (-1.5 Gt). Changes in the trade structure had a very moderate effect on global emissions (+0.6 Gt). Looking at the geographical distribution, changes in the emerging economies (Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia and China) have caused 44% of emission growth whereas the increase in their national emissions accounted for 59% of emission growth. This means that 15% (1.4 Gt) of all extra GHG emissions between 1995 and 2008 have been emitted in emerging countries but were caused by changes in other countries.

  4. Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in tropical peatlands

    PubMed Central

    Murdiyarso, D.; Hergoualc’h, K.; Verchot, L. V.

    2010-01-01

    The upcoming global mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries should include and prioritize tropical peatlands. Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are rapidly being converted into production systems by introducing perennial crops for lucrative agribusiness, such as oil-palm and pulpwood plantations, causing large greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for GHG Inventory on Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses provide an adequate framework for emissions inventories in these ecosystems; however, specific emission factors are needed for more accurate and cost-effective monitoring. The emissions are governed by complex biophysical processes, such as peat decomposition and compaction, nutrient availability, soil water content, and water table level, all of which are affected by management practices. We estimate that total carbon loss from converting peat swamp forests into oil palm is 59.4 ± 10.2 Mg of CO2 per hectare per year during the first 25 y after land-use cover change, of which 61.6% arise from the peat. Of the total amount (1,486 ± 183 Mg of CO2 per hectare over 25 y), 25% are released immediately from land-clearing fire. In order to maintain high palm-oil production, nitrogen inputs through fertilizer are needed and the magnitude of the resulting increased N2O emissions compared to CO2 losses remains unclear. PMID:21081702

  5. Idaho National Laboratory's FY13 Greenhouse Gas Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberly Frerichs

    2014-03-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. This report details the methods behind quantifying INL’s GHG inventory and discusses lessons learned on better practices by which information important to tracking GHGs can be tracked and recorded. It is important to note that because this report differentiates between those portions of INL that are managed and operated by Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) and those managed by other contractors, it includes only the large proportion of Laboratory activities overseen by BEA. It is assumed that other contractors will provide similar reporting for those activities they manage, where appropriate.

  6. Managed grasslands: A greenhouse gas sink or source?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, Paul; Kiely, Ger; Scanlon, Todd M.

    2004-10-01

    We describe a unique, one year investigation of CO2 and N2O fluxes over a fertilized grassland in Ireland using two eddy covariance systems. As the global warming potential (GWP) of N2O is 296 (100 year time horizon), relatively small N2O emissions have a potentially large impact on overall radiative forcing. Therefore nitrogen fertilizer application practices may possibly turn a site with a net CO2 uptake into a net radiative forcing source. We observed a net annual uptake of 9.45 T CO2 ha-1. N2O emissions equivalent to 5.42 T ha-1 CO2 GWP counteracted 57% of the effect of the CO2 uptake. Estimated methane emissions from ruminants (3.74 T ha-1 CO2 GWP) further counteract the CO2 uptake, making the overall GWP nearly neutral. This delicate balance of the greenhouse gas fluxes underscores the significance of fertilizer application strategies in determining whether a managed grassland is a net GWP source or sink.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emission from In-situ Denitrifying Bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluer, W.; Walter, M. T.; Geohring, L.

    2013-12-01

    Despite decades of concerted effort to mitigate nonpoint source nitrate (NO3-) pollution from agricultural lands, these efforts have not been sufficient to arrest eutrophication, which continues to be a serious and chronic problem. Two primary processes for removing excess NO3- from water are biological assimilation and denitrification. Denitrifying bacteria use NO3- as the electron acceptor for respiration in the absence of oxygen. Denitrification results in reduced forms of nitrogen, often dinitrogen gas (N2) but also nitrous oxide (N2O), an aggressive greenhouse gas (GHG). A promising solution to NO3- pollution is to intercept agricultural discharges with denitrifying bioreactors (DNBRs), though research has been limited to NO3- level reduction and omitted process mechanisms. DNBRs work by providing an anaerobic environment with plenty of organic matter (commonly woodchips) for denitrifying bacteria to flourish. While, initial results from bioreactor studies show that they can cost-effectively remove NO3-, GHG emission could be an unintended consequence. The study's goal is to determine how bioreactor design promotes microbial denitrification while limiting N2O production. It specifically focuses on expanding the body of knowledge concerning DNBRs in the areas of design implications and internal processes by measuring intermediate compounds and not solely NO3-. Nutrient samples are collected at inflow and outflow structures and tested for NO3- and nitrite (NO2-). Dissolved and headspace gas samples are collected and tested for N2O. Additional gas samples will be analyzed for naturally-occurring isotopic N2 to support proposed pathways. Designs will be analyzed both through the N2O/N2 production ratio and NO2- production caused by various residence times and inflow NO3- concentrations. High GHG ratios and NO2- production suggest non-ideal conditions or flow patterns for complete denitrification. NO3- reduction is used for comparison with previous studies. Few

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from naturally ventilated freestall dairy barns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, H. S.; Ndegwa, P. M.; Heber, A. J.; Ni, J.-Q.; Bogan, B. W.; Ramirez-Dorronsoro, J. C.; Cortus, E.

    2015-02-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from two naturally-ventilated dairy freestall barns measured for a total of 21 d, one week each in May, July, and September 2009, are presented in this article. The holding capacity of Barn 1 (B1) was 400 Holstein cows, while that for Barn 2 (B2) was 850 cows. Air samples were taken from inlets and outlets of the barns via a custom made multiplexer gas sampling system for measurement of gas concentrations using a photoacoustic infrared multigas analyzer. Barn ventilation rates were based on air velocity measured with arrays of 3-D ultrasonic anemometers at inlets and outlets. Gas concentrations (10 min means) in the barns ranged from: 443-789 ppm for CO2, 0.0-39.4 ppm for CH4, and 0.25-0.39 ppm for N2O; with mean concentrations ranging from 6 to 20%, 0 to 4%, and 26 to 180% above the average background concentrations for CO2, N2O, and CH4, respectively. The correlations between CO2 and CH4 enhanced concentrations were relatively stronger (R of 0.67-0.74) than between CO2 and N2O enhanced concentrations (R of 0.10-0.20). Environmental conditions did not significantly (p = 0.46) impact the enhanced concentrations of N2O in the barns. All three parameters (T, RH, and v) had significant (p < 0.01) influences on CO2 enhanced concentrations; while only T (p < 0.01) and v (p < 0.01) had significant influences on CH4 enhanced concentrations. Enhanced concentrations of CO2 and CH4 correlated negatively with all three parameters. The influence of the temperature-humidity index (THI) on CO2 enhanced concentrations was higher than that of v; while the effect v had on CH4 enhanced concentrations was slightly higher than that of the temperature-humidity index. The average emissions, based on hourly means, ranged from 5.3 to 10.7 kg d-1 AU-1 for CO2; 0.3 to 2.5 g d-1 AU-1 for N2O; and between 67 and 252 g d-1 AU-1 for CH4. Nitrous oxide emissions from the smaller barn, B1 (0.4-2.5 g d-1 AU-1), were significantly higher than from the larger barn, B2

  9. Trends in Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions from 1990 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Malik, Arunima; Lan, Jun; Lenzen, Manfred

    2016-05-03

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are known to alter hydrological cycles, disrupt marine ecosystems and species lifecycles, and cause global habitat loss. In this study, we use a comprehensive global input-output database to assess the driving forces underlying the change in global CO2 emissions from 1990 to 2010. We decompose the change in emissions for the 20 year period into six mutually exclusive causal determinants. Our assessment of trends in fuel-use reveals that a 10.8 Peta-gram (Pg) rise in emissions from 1990 to 2010 constitutes emissions from the consumption of coal (49%), petroleum (25%), natural gas (17%), and biomass (9%). We demonstrate that affluence (per-capita consumption) and population growth are outpacing any improvements in carbon efficiency in driving up emissions worldwide. Our results suggest that supply chain measures to improve technological efficiency are not sufficient to reduce emissions. To achieve significant emission savings, policy makers need to address the issue of affluence. We argue that policies to address unsustainable lifestyles and consumer behavior are largely unheard of, and governments may need to actively intervene in nonsustainable lifestyles to achieve emission reductions. The results presented in this paper are vital for informing future policy decisions for mitigating climate change.

  10. Greenhouse Gas Balance in a Restored and Natural Wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, K. V.; Jaffe, P. R.; Morin, T. H.; Bohrer, G.

    2015-12-01

    The greenhouse gas balance of natural and restored wetlands is an important consideration when assessing ecosystem services, structure and function and restoration success of wetlands. Fast methane (CH4) gas analyzers such as the LI7700 are now enabling continuous ecosystem scale (eddy flux) measurements and assessment in conjunction with CO2 measurements. Here, we have set up two locations, one in a natural and one in a restored tidal salt marsh in the Meadowlands of New Jersey (MNJ) USA, in order to compare ecosystem level methane and carbon dioxide fluxes. Continuous methane fluxes were measured at the ecosystem level over three growing seasons at the restored site and two growing seasons at the natural wetland site concomitant to carbon dioxide fluxes. Methane and carbon dioxide emissions were highly variable in space and time over the three years of investigation (2012-2014). The temporal dynamics of methane and carbon dioxide fluxes in each of the sites suggest small-scale site-specific controls on methane emissions, but ubiquitous, non-specific controls on carbon dioxide uptake and release. Methane emissions increased at the restored site from 2012 to 2013, despite no corresponding increases in carbon dioxide uptake. In contrast, methane emission decreased at the natural wetlands site over the same time with concomitant increase in carbon dioxide uptake (more negative net ecosystem exchange). In 2014, the trend continued at the natural and the restored wetland sites with decreasing methane emission and increasing CO2 uptake. The influence of temperature and phenology on the observed patterns will be discussed.

  11. Greenhouse gas fluxes from agricultural soils of Kenya and Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenstock, Todd S.; Mpanda, Mathew; Pelster, David E.; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Rufino, Mariana C.; Thiong'o, Margaret; Mutuo, Paul; Abwanda, Sheila; Rioux, Janie; Kimaro, Anthony A.; Neufeldt, Henry

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in soils is a prerequisite to constrain national, continental, and global GHG budgets. However, data characterizing fluxes from agricultural soils of Africa are markedly limited. We measured carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) fluxes at 10 farmer-managed sites of six crop types for 1 year in Kenya and Tanzania using static chambers and gas chromatography. Cumulative emissions ranged between 3.5-15.9 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1, 0.4-3.9 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1, and -1.2-10.1 kg CH4-C ha-1 yr-1, depending on crop type, environmental conditions, and management. Manure inputs increased CO2 (p = 0.03), but not N2O or CH4, emissions. Soil cultivation had no discernable effect on emissions of any of the three gases. Fluxes of CO2 and N2O were 54-208% greater (p < 0.05) during the wet versus the dry seasons for some, but not all, crop types. The heterogeneity and seasonality of fluxes suggest that the available data describing soil fluxes in Africa, based on measurements of limited duration of only a few crop types and agroecological zones, are inadequate to use as a basis for estimating the impact of agricultural soils on GHG budgets. A targeted effort to understand the magnitude and mechanisms underlying African agricultural soil fluxes is necessary to accurately estimate the influence of this source on the global climate system and for determining mitigation strategies.

  12. Greenhouse Gas Emission Evaluation of the GTL Pathway.

    PubMed

    Forman, Grant S; Hahn, Tristan E; Jensen, Scott D

    2011-10-15

    Gas to liquids (GTL) products have the potential to replace petroleum-derived products, but the efficacy with which any sustainability goals can be achieved is dependent on the lifecycle impacts of the GTL pathway. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an internationally established tool (with GHG emissions as a subset) to estimate these impacts. Although the International Standard Organization's ISO 14040 standard advocates the system boundary expansion method (also known as the "displacement method" or the "substitution method") for life-cycle analyses, application of this method for the GTL pathway has been limited until now because of the difficulty in quantifying potential products to be displaced by GTL coproducts. In this paper, we use LCA methodology to establish the most comprehensive GHG emissions evaluation to date of the GTL pathway. The influence of coproduct credit methods on the GTL GHG emissions results using substitution methodology is estimated to afford the Well-to-Wheels (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of GTL Diesel. These results are compared to results using energy-based allocation methods of reference GTL diesel and petroleum-diesel pathways. When substitution methodology is used, the resulting WTW GHG emissions of the GTL pathway are lower than petroleum diesel references. In terms of net GHGs, an interesting way to further reduce GHG emissions is to blend GTL diesel in refineries with heavy crudes that require severe hydrotreating, such as Venezuelan heavy crude oil or bitumen derived from Canadian oil sands and in jurisdictions with tight aromatic specifications for diesel, such as California. These results highlight the limitation of using the energy allocation approach for situations where coproduct GHG emissions reductions are downstream from the production phase.

  13. Energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of corn and cellulosic ethanol with technology improvements and land use changes.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.; Han, J.; Haq, Z; Tyner, .W.; Wu, M.; Elgowainy, A.

    2011-05-01

    Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the United States has grown from 76 dam{sup 3} in 1980 to over 40.1 hm{sup 3} in 2009 - and virtually all of it has been produced from corn. It has been debated whether using corn ethanol results in any energy and greenhouse gas benefits. This issue has been especially critical in the past several years, when indirect effects, such as indirect land use changes, associated with U.S. corn ethanol production are considered in evaluation. In the past three years, modeling of direct and indirect land use changes related to the production of corn ethanol has advanced significantly. Meanwhile, technology improvements in key stages of the ethanol life cycle (such as corn farming and ethanol production) have been made. With updated simulation results of direct and indirect land use changes and observed technology improvements in the past several years, we conducted a life-cycle analysis of ethanol and show that at present and in the near future, using corn ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emission by more than 20%, relative to those of petroleum gasoline. On the other hand, second-generation ethanol could achieve much higher reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In a broader sense, sound evaluation of U.S. biofuel policies should account for both unanticipated consequences and technology potentials. We maintain that the usefulness of such evaluations is to provide insight into how to prevent unanticipated consequences and how to promote efficient technologies with policy intervention.

  14. Waste-to-energy sector and the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Fotis, S.C.; Sussman, D.

    1997-12-01

    The waste-to-energy sector provides one important avenue for the United States to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the significant GHG reductions capable of being achieved by the waste-to-energy (WTE) sector through avoided fossil generation and reduced municipal landfills. The paper begins with a review of the current voluntary reporting mechanism for {open_quotes}registering{close_quotes} GHG reduction credits under section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The paper then provides an overview of possible emerging international and domestic trends that could ultimately lead to mandatory targets and timetables for GHG mitigation in the United States and other countries. The paper ends with an analysis of the GHG benefits achievable by the WTE sector, based on the section 1605(b) report filed by the Integrated Waste Services Association IWSA on the GHG emissions avoided for year 1995.

  15. The technology path to deep greenhouse gas emissions cuts by 2050: the pivotal role of electricity.

    PubMed

    Williams, James H; DeBenedictis, Andrew; Ghanadan, Rebecca; Mahone, Amber; Moore, Jack; Morrow, William R; Price, Snuller; Torn, Margaret S

    2012-01-06

    Several states and countries have adopted targets for deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, but there has been little physically realistic modeling of the energy and economic transformations required. We analyzed the infrastructure and technology path required to meet California's goal of an 80% reduction below 1990 levels, using detailed modeling of infrastructure stocks, resource constraints, and electricity system operability. We found that technically feasible levels of energy efficiency and decarbonized energy supply alone are not sufficient; widespread electrification of transportation and other sectors is required. Decarbonized electricity would become the dominant form of energy supply, posing challenges and opportunities for economic growth and climate policy. This transformation demands technologies that are not yet commercialized, as well as coordination of investment, technology development, and infrastructure deployment.

  16. The Technology Path to Deep Greenhouse Gas Emissions Cuts by 2050: The Pivotal Role of Electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, James H.; DeBenedictis, Andrew; Ghanadan, Rebecca; Mahone, Amber; Moore, Jack; Morrow, William R.; Price, Snuller; Torn, Margaret S.

    2012-01-01

    Several states and countries have adopted targets for deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, but there has been little physically realistic modeling of the energy and economic transformations required. We analyzed the infrastructure and technology path required to meet California’s goal of an 80% reduction below 1990 levels, using detailed modeling of infrastructure stocks, resource constraints, and electricity system operability. We found that technically feasible levels of energy efficiency and decarbonized energy supply alone are not sufficient; widespread electrification of transportation and other sectors is required. Decarbonized electricity would become the dominant form of energy supply, posing challenges and opportunities for economic growth and climate policy. This transformation demands technologies that are not yet commercialized, as well as coordination of investment, technology development, and infrastructure deployment.

  17. Achieving Realistic Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions in U.S. Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackhurst, Michael F.

    2011-12-01

    In recognizing that energy markets and greenhouse gas emissions are significantly influences by local factors, this research examines opportunities for achieving realistic energy greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. cities through provisions of more sustainable infrastructure. Greenhouse gas reduction opportunities are examined through the lens of a public program administrator charged with reducing emissions given realistic financial constraints and authority over emissions reductions and energy use. Opportunities are evaluated with respect to traditional public policy metrics, such as benefit-cost analysis, net benefit analysis, and cost-effectiveness. Section 2 summarizes current practices used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from communities. I identify improved and alternative emissions inventory techniques such as disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions mitigation. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. Finally, I highlight the need to integrate growth (population and economic) and business as usual implications (such as changes to electricity supply grids) into climate action planning. I demonstrate how these techniques could improve decision making when planning reductions, help communities set meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring. Section 3 evaluates the costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach explicitly evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings

  18. Boreal forests can have a remarkable role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions locally: Land use-related and anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks at the municipal level.

    PubMed

    Vanhala, Pekka; Bergström, Irina; Haaspuro, Tiina; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Holmberg, Maria; Forsius, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Ecosystem services have become an important concept in policy-making. Carbon (C) sequestration into ecosystems is a significant ecosystem service, whereas C losses can be considered as an ecosystem disservice. Municipalities are in a position to make decisions that affect local emissions and therefore are important when considering greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. Integrated estimations of fluxes at a regional level help local authorities to develop land use policies for minimising GHG emissions and maximising C sinks. In this study, the Finnish national GHG accounting system is modified and applied at the municipal level by combining emissions and sinks from agricultural land, forest areas, water bodies and mires (land use-related GHG emissions) with emissions from activities such as energy production and traffic (anthropogenic GHG emissions) into the LUONNIKAS calculation tool. The study area consists of 14 municipalities within the Vanajavesi catchment area located in Southern Finland. In these municipalities, croplands, peat extraction sites, water bodies and undrained mires are emission sources, whereas forests are large carbon sinks that turn the land use-related GHG budget negative, resulting in C sequestration into the ecosystem. The annual land use-related sink in the study area was 78tCO2eqkm(-2) and 2.8tCO2eq per capita. Annual anthropogenic GHG emissions from the area amounted to 250tCO2eqkm(-2) and 9.2tCO2eq per capita. Since forests are a significant carbon sink and the efficiency of this sink is heavily affected by forest management practices, forest management policy is a key contributing factor for mitigating municipal GHG emissions.

  19. Microtrap assembly for greenhouse gas and air pollution monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Mitra, Somenath; Saridara, Chutarat

    2015-08-25

    A microtrap assembly includes a carbon nanotube sorbent. The microtrap assembly may be employed as a preconcentrator operable to deliver a sample to an analytical device to measure the concentrations of greenhouse gases. A system includes a microtrap having a carbon nanotube sorbent for measuring the concentrations of greenhouse gases in a sample.

  20. Greenhouse gas fluxes from no-till rotated corn in the Upper Midwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined soil surface fluxes of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane) from no-till, dryland corn (Zea mays L.) in eastern South Dakota and tested the effect of rotation on greenhouse gas fluxes from corn. The corn was grown within a randomized, complete block study that incl...

  1. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and freshwater consumption of Marcellus shale gas.

    PubMed

    Laurenzi, Ian J; Jersey, Gilbert R

    2013-05-07

    We present results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of Marcellus shale gas used for power generation. The analysis employs the most extensive data set of any LCA of shale gas to date, encompassing data from actual gas production and power generation operations. Results indicate that a typical Marcellus gas life cycle yields 466 kg CO2eq/MWh (80% confidence interval: 450-567 kg CO2eq/MWh) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and 224 gal/MWh (80% CI: 185-305 gal/MWh) of freshwater consumption. Operations associated with hydraulic fracturing constitute only 1.2% of the life cycle GHG emissions, and 6.2% of the life cycle freshwater consumption. These results are influenced most strongly by the estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of the well and the power plant efficiency: increase in either quantity will reduce both life cycle freshwater consumption and GHG emissions relative to power generated at the plant. We conclude by comparing the life cycle impacts of Marcellus gas and U.S. coal: The carbon footprint of Marcellus gas is 53% (80% CI: 44-61%) lower than coal, and its freshwater consumption is about 50% of coal. We conclude that substantial GHG reductions and freshwater savings may result from the replacement of coal-fired power generation with gas-fired power generation.

  2. Renewable energy development in China: Resource assessment, technology status, and greenhouse gas mitigation potential

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y.; Renne, O.D.; Junfeng, Li

    1996-12-31

    China, which has pursued aggressive policies to encourage economic development, could experience the world`s fastest growth in energy consumption over the next two decades. China has become the third largest energy user in the world since 1990 when primary energy consumption reached 960 million tons of coal equivalent (tce). Energy use is increasing at an annual rate of 6-7% despite severe infrastructure and capital constraints on energy sector development. Energy consumption in China is heavily dominated by coal, and fossil fuels provide up to 95% of all commercial energy use. Coal currently accounts for 77% of total primary energy use; oil, 16%; hydropower, 5%; and natural gas, 2%. Coal is expected to continue providing close to three-quarters of all energy consumed, and the amount of coal used is expected to triple by year 2020. Currently, renewable energy resources (except for hydropower) account for only a fraction of total energy consumption. However, the estimated growth in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as serious local and regional environmental pollution problems caused by combustion of fossil fuels, provides strong arguments for the development of renewable energy resources. Renewable energy potential in China is significantly greater than that indicated by the current level of use. With a clear policy goal and consistent efforts from the Government of China, renewables can play a far larger role in its future energy supply.

  3. The impact of landfilling and composting on greenhouse gas emissions--a review.

    PubMed

    Lou, X F; Nair, J

    2009-08-01

    Municipal solid waste is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions through decomposition and life-cycle activities processes. The majority of these emissions are a result of landfilling, which remains the primary waste disposal strategy internationally. As a result, countries have been incorporating alternative forms of waste management strategies such as energy recovery from landfill gas capture, aerobic landfilling (aerox landfills), pre-composting of waste prior to landfilling, landfill capping and composting of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. As the changing global climate has been one of the major environmental challenges facing the world today, there is an increasing need to understand the impact of waste management on greenhouse gas emissions. This review paper serves to provide an overview on the impact of landfilling (and its various alternatives) and composting on greenhouse gas emissions taking into account streamlined life cycle activities and the decomposition process. The review suggests greenhouse gas emissions from waste decomposition are considerably higher for landfills than composting. However, mixed results were found for greenhouse gas emissions for landfill and composting operational activities. Nonetheless, in general, net greenhouse gas emissions for landfills tend to be higher than that for composting facilities.

  4. Climate Leadership webinar on Greenhouse Gas Management Resources for Small Businesses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Small businesses can calculate their carbon footprint and construct a greenhouse gas inventory to help track progress towards reaching emissions reduction goals. One strategy for this is EPA's Simplified GHG Emissions Calculator.

  5. Executive Summary: EPA's Waiver Decision on California's Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards for New Motor Vehicles

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA Administrator Stephen Johnson to Governor Schwarzenegger denies California's request for a waiver of Federal preemption for motor vehicle greenhouse gas emission standards submitted by the California Air Resources Board (CARB).

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions in an agroforestry system in the southeastern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry systems can provide diverse ecosystem services and economic benefits that conventional farming practices cannot. Importantly, these systems have the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by reducing the need for external inputs, enhancing nutrient cycling and promoting C seques...

  7. Soil C storage and greenhouse gas emission perennial grasses managed for bio energy feedstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial grasses like switchgrass or big bluestem when managed as bioenergy feedstock require nitrogenous inputs. Nitrogen fertilizer frequently cause nitrous oxide emission. Therefore, managing grasses as feedstock may reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential expected from perennial. ...

  8. Development of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) for Heavy- & Medium-Duty Vehicle Compliance

    EPA Science Inventory

    A regulatory vehicle simulation program was designed for determining greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel consumption by estimating the performance of technologies, verifying compliance with the regulatory standards and estimating the overall benefits of the program.

  9. THE IMPACT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ON GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technological advancements in United States (U.S.) municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal and a focus on the environmental advantages of integrated MSW management have greatly reduced the environmental impacts of MSW management, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study ...

  10. Greenhouse gas flux from managed grasslands in the U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed grasslands are increasingly looked upon to serve as cost-effective sinks for mitigating climate change. Assurances of effective greenhouse gas mitigation strategies require detailed understanding of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide flux for rangelands and pasturelands. Summarizat...

  11. The importance of goods and services consumption in household greenhouse gas calculators.

    PubMed

    Lenzen, M

    2001-11-01

    Despite the fact that lifestyles, in particular goods and services consumption, play a key role for global inequity and unsustainability of greenhouse gas emissions, these issues are often inadequately addressed in information and education materials such as household greenhouse gas calculators. Often, only limited individual responsibility for climate change can be concluded, and this is restricted to the reader's immediate surroundings such as the household and the private car, while goods and services consumption are almost always ignored. As a consequence, recommendations for reducing personal emissions concentrate on the relatively minor aspect of electricity and fuel use, while missing the more important issue of reducing goods and services consumption as an efficient way to abate climate change. These shortcomings are illustrated using the example of a recently published household greenhouse gas emissions questionnaire. An example for a comprehensive greenhouse gas calculator is also presented.

  12. CAAAC Greenhouse Gas Standards for Power Plants Webinar Meeting Minutes and Presentation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Greenhouse Gas Standards for Power Plants webinar, regarding modified and restructured standards for Section 111. This section of the Act establishes a mechanism for controlling air pollution from stationary sources.

  13. EPA Takes First Steps to Address Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aircraft

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing to find under the Clean Air Act that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from commercial aircraft contribute to the pollution that causes climate change endangering the health and welfare

  14. EPA Science Matters Newsletter: Breaking Through? Evaluating Technologies for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation (Published April 2014)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Read about the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) model that Dan Loughlin and his research colleagues created to help researchers to identify technologies that can make a true difference in reducing Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions.

  15. Spatial and temporal variability in greenhouse gas abundance of urban streams: The role of urban infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/MethodsStreams and rivers are significant sources of greenhouse gas emissions globally. Water quality and watershed management, are likely to influence GHG emissions regionally. In urban-impacted watersheds, increased nitrogen loading, organic matter, and war...

  16. How to Use the Efficient Producer Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Calculator, Version 1.1

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Instructions for version 1.1 of the Efficient Producer Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Calculator, a spreadsheet tool available for download through the EPA’s website for the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program.

  17. EPA GROUP VERIFIES PERFORMANCE OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS-MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Greenhouse Gas Technology Verification Center (the Center) is one of 12 independently operated environmental technology verification organizations established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Center provides third-party performance data to industry and o...

  18. Sustainability of Switchgrass for Cellulosic Ethanol: Evaluating Net Energy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Feedstocks Costs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial herbaceous plants such as switchgrass are being evaluated as cellulosic bioenergy crops. Sustainability concerns with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and similar energy crops have been about net energy efficiency, potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and economic feasibility grown ...

  19. Non-Kyoto Radiative Forcing in Long-Run Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Steven K.; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Riahi, Keywan; Stefler, Jessica; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2014-04-27

    Climate policies designed to achieve climate change objectives must consider radiative forcing from the Kyoto greenhouse gas, as well as other forcing constituents, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone. Net positive forcing leads to global average temperature increases. Modeling of non-Kyoto forcing is a relatively new component of climate management scenarios. Five of the nineteen models in the EMF-27 Study model both Kyoto and non-Kyoto forcing. This paper describes and assesses current non-Kyoto radiative forcing modeling within these integrated assessment models. The study finds negative forcing from aerosols masking significant positive forcing in reference non-climate policy projections. There are however large differences across models in projected non-Kyoto emissions and forcing, with differences stemming from differences in relationships between Kyoto and non-Kyoto emissions and fundamental differences in modeling structure and assumptions. Air pollution and non-Kyoto forcing decline in the climate policy scenarios. However, non-Kyoto forcing appears to be influencing mitigation results, including allowable carbon dioxide emissions, and further evaluation is merited. Overall, there is substantial uncertainty related to non-Kyoto forcing that must be considered.

  20. Greenhouse gas fluxes in mountain grassland differing in land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladreiter-Knauss, Thomas; Schmitt, Michael; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kienzl, Sandra; Ingrisch, Johannes; Hasibeder, Roland; Bahn, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Mountain grassland covers large areas, thus influences the global greenhouse gas (GHG) balance and is strongly affected by changes in land use. Effects of such changes on the GHG-balance have so far not been well documented. As a contribution to the EU-project GHG Europe we are studying the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) on a mountain meadow, an adjacent and an abandoned pasture at 1820-1970m a.s.l. in the Austrian Central Alps. The GHG balance is estimated from manual and auto-chamber measurements, combined with already published CO2-NEE over almost a decade. Winter CO2-fluxes, primarily soil respiration underneath the snowpack, are estimated with solid state CO2-sensors using a validated diffusion model. We found that abandon the management decreases the NEE of CO2 while its component, soil respiration (Rs), increases. The decrease is explained by differences in leaf area index, biomass and leaf-area-independent changes that were likely related to photosynthetic physiology. The increase in Rs can be explained by higher belowground carbon input due to missing grazing or mowing. The abandoned pasture showed the highest uptake rates of CH4 and a slight uptake of N2O, possibly due to better soil aeration. Spring freeze-thaw events caused slight CH4 emissions in the managed grassland. The meadow and pasture had just low emission rates of N2O even at freeze-thaw cycles and organic fertilization. These results suggest that in mountain grassland the main contributor to the GHG balance are CO2 fluxes that can largely be influenced by land use changes.

  1. Understanding the Canadian oil sands industry's greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpentier, Alex D.; Bergerson, Joule A.; MacLean, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    The magnitude of Canada's oil sands reserves, their rapidly expanding and energy intensive production, combined with existing and upcoming greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions regulations motivate an evaluation of oil sands-derived fuel production from a life cycle perspective. Thirteen studies of GHG emissions associated with oil sands operations are reviewed. The production of synthetic crude oil (SCO) through surface mining and upgrading (SM&Up) or in situ and upgrading (IS&Up) processes is reported to result in emissions ranging from 62 to 164 and 99 to 176 kgCO2eq/bbl SCO, respectively (or 9.2-26.5 and 16.2-28.7 gCO2eq MJ-1 SCO, respectively), compared to 27-58 kgCO2eq/bbl (4.5-9.6 gCO2eq MJ-1) of crude for conventional oil production. The difference in emissions intensity between SCO and conventional crude production is primarily due to higher energy requirements for extracting bitumen and upgrading it into SCO. On a 'well-to-wheel' basis, GHG emissions associated with producing reformulated gasoline from oil sands with current SM&Up, IS&Up, and in situ (without upgrading) technologies are 260-320, 320-350, and 270-340 gCO2eq km-1, respectively, compared to 250-280 gCO2eq km-1 for production from conventional oil. Some variation between studies is expected due to differences in methods, technologies studied, and operating choices. However, the magnitude of the differences presented suggests that a consensus on the characterization of life cycle emissions of the oil sands industry has yet to be reached in the public literature. Recommendations are given for future studies for informing industry and government decision making.

  2. a Review of Hydropower Reservoir and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, L. P.; Dos Santos, M. A.

    2013-05-01

    Like most manmade projects, hydropower dams have multiple effects on the environment that have been studied in some depth over the past two decades. Among their most important effects are potential changes in water movement, flowing much slower than in the original river. This favors the appearance of phytoplankton as nutrients increase, with methanogenesis replacing oxidative water and generating anaerobic conditions. Although research during the late 1990s highlighted the problems caused by hydropower dams emitting greenhouse gases, crucial aspects of this issue still remain unresolved. Similar to natural water bodies, hydropower reservoirs have ample biota ranging from microorganisms to aquatic vertebrates. Microorganisms (bacteria) decompose organic matter producing biogenic gases under water. Some of these biogenic gases cause global warming, including methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. The levels of GHG emissions from hydropower dams are a strategic matter of the utmost importance, and comparisons with other power generation options such as thermo-power are required. In order to draw up an accurate assessment of the net emissions caused by hydropower dams, significant improvements are needed in carbon budgets and studies of representative hydropower dams. To determine accurately the net emissions caused by hydro reservoir formation is required significant improvement of carbon budgets studies on different representatives' hydro reservoirs at tropical, boreal, arid, semi arid and temperate climate. Comparisons must be drawn with emissions by equivalent thermo power plants, calculated and characterized as generating the same amount of energy each year as the hydropower dams, burning different fuels and with varying technology efficiency levels for steam turbines as well as coal, fuel oil and natural gas turbines and combined cycle plants. This paper brings to the scientific community important aspects of the development of methods and techniques applied

  3. Designing optimal greenhouse gas monitoring networks for Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziehn, T.; Law, R. M.; Rayner, P. J.; Roff, G.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric transport inversion is commonly used to infer greenhouse gas (GHG) flux estimates from concentration measurements. The optimal location of ground-based observing stations that supply these measurements can be determined by network design. Here, we use a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) in reverse mode together with a Bayesian inverse modelling framework to derive optimal GHG observing networks for Australia. This extends the network design for carbon dioxide (CO2) performed by Ziehn et al. (2014) to also minimise the uncertainty on the flux estimates for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), both individually and in a combined network using multiple objectives. Optimal networks are generated by adding up to five new stations to the base network, which is defined as two existing stations, Cape Grim and Gunn Point, in southern and northern Australia respectively. The individual networks for CO2, CH4 and N2O and the combined observing network show large similarities because the flux uncertainties for each GHG are dominated by regions of biologically productive land. There is little penalty, in terms of flux uncertainty reduction, for the combined network compared to individually designed networks. The location of the stations in the combined network is sensitive to variations in the assumed data uncertainty across locations. A simple assessment of economic costs has been included in our network design approach, considering both establishment and maintenance costs. Our results suggest that, while site logistics change the optimal network, there is only a small impact on the flux uncertainty reductions achieved with increasing network size.

  4. Greenhouse gas emission from covered windrow composting with controlled ventilation.

    PubMed

    Ermolaev, Evgheni; Pell, Mikael; Smårs, Sven; Sundberg, Cecilia; Jönsson, Håkan

    2012-02-01

    Data on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from full-scale composting of municipal solid waste, investigating the effects of process temperature and aeration combinations, is scarce. Oxygen availability affects the composition of gases emitted during composting. In the present study, two experiments with three covered windrows were set up, treating a mixture of source separated biodegradable municipal solid waste (MSW) fractions from Uppsala, Sweden, and structural amendment (woodchips, garden waste and re-used compost) in the volume proportion 1:2. The effects of different aeration and temperature settings on the emission of methane (CH(4)), nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) during windrow composting with forced aeration following three different control schemes were studied. For one windrow, the controller was set to keep the temperature below 40 °C until the pH increased, another windrow had minimal aeration at the beginning of the process and the third one had constant aeration. In the first experiment, CH(4) concentrations (CH(4):CO(2) ratio) increased, from around 0.1% initially to between 1 and 2% in all windrows. In the second experiment, the initial concentrations of CH(4) displayed similar patterns of increase between windrows until day 12, when concentration peaked at 3 and 6%, respectively, in two of the windrows. In general, the N(2)O fluxes remained low (0.46 ± 0.02 ppm) in the experiments and were two to three times the ambient concentrations. In conclusion, the emissions of CH(4) and N(2)O were low regardless of the amount of ventilation. The data indicates a need to perform longer experiments in order to observe further emission dynamics.

  5. Greenhouse gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE)

    SciTech Connect

    Dobler, Jeremy; Zaccheo, T. Scott; Blume, Nathan; Pernini, Timothy; Braun, Michael; Botos, Christopher

    2016-03-31

    This report describes the development and testing of a novel system, the Greenhouse gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE), for Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) of CO2 at Geological Carbon Storage (GCS) sites. The system consists of a pair of laser based transceivers, a number of retroreflectors, and a set of cloud based data processing, storage and dissemination tools, which enable 2-D mapping of the CO2 in near real time. A system was built, tested locally in New Haven, Indiana, and then deployed to the Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) facility in Bozeman, MT. Testing at ZERT demonstrated the ability of the GreenLITE system to identify and map small underground leaks, in the presence of other biological sources and with widely varying background concentrations. The system was then ruggedized and tested at the Harris test site in New Haven, IN, during winter time while exposed to temperatures as low as -15 °CºC. Additional testing was conducted using simulated concentration enhancements to validate the 2-D retrieval accuracy. This test resulted in a high confidence in the reconstruction ability to identify sources to tens of meters resolution in this configuration. Finally, the system was deployed for a period of approximately 6 months to an active industrial site, Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP), where >1M metric tons of CO2 had been injected into an underground sandstone basin. The main objective of this final deployment was to demonstrate autonomous operation over a wide range of environmental conditions with very little human interaction, and to demonstrate the feasibility of the system for long term deployment in a GCS environment.

  6. 78 FR 11619 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring Method Request Submission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Method Request Submission Deadline for Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Source Category AGENCY... deadline by which owners or operators of facilities subject to the petroleum and natural gas systems source... facilities subject to the petroleum and natural gas systems source category, subpart W, of the Greenhouse...

  7. 76 FR 59533 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to Best...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AP99 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas... use of best available monitoring methods for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems source category of... operators of petroleum and natural gas systems. Regulated categories and entities may include those...

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands treating dairy wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Vimy M.

    In Nova Scotia, constructed wetland systems are widely considered as effective treatment systems for agricultural wastewater. Although research has examined the water quality treatment attributes, there has been limited focus on the air quality effects of these systems. Six operational pilot-scale constructed wetlands were built with flow-through chambers for quantifying greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Truro, NS. Utilized within this facility were three gas analyzers to monitor GHG emissions (CO2, N 2O, CH4) and the gaseous fluxes could then be determined using the mass balance micrometeorological technique. Prior to data collection, the site underwent testing to ensure valid conclusions and replicated responses from the wetland systems. Those wetlands receiving wastewater at a typical HLR (10.6 mm d-1) and with ample vegetation displayed the best concentration reductions. During the growing season (GS), average CO 2 consumption was large (approximately -44 g CO2m -2 d-1) for wetlands with dense vegetation (approximately 100% cover) at the typical loading rate. For those wetlands at higher loading rates, CO2 emissions were observed to be as high as +9.2 g CO 2m-2 d-1. Wetlands with typical loading rates and healthy aquatic vegetation produced average CH4 fluxes of approximately 43 g CO2 eq. m-2d-1, while higher loaded systems with little vegetation approached 90 g CO 2 eq. m-2d-1. During the non-growing season (NGS), all vegetated wetlands exhibited higher CH4 emissions than the non-vegetated systems (˜15 to 20% higher). Vegetation maturity played a strong role in the GHG balance. The average CO2consumption for wetlands with established vegetation was ˜ -36 g CO2 m -2 d-1 during the GS. Wetland 4, which had been newly transplanted in 2004, had the highest single day CO2 consumption of -152 g CO2m-2 d-1 . Methane emissions from wetlands with two-year-old vegetation followed the same pattern but were approximately half of the emissions recorded from 2003. The

  9. Nitrous Oxide: A Greenhouse Gas That is Also an Ozone Layer Depleting Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravishankara, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrous oxide, N2O, is the major source of nitrogen oxides in the stratosphere, where these oxides playa critical roles in ozone layer depletion by itself and moderating ozone layer depletion by chlorinated chemicals. Thus N2O plays a complex role in the stratosphere. Nitrous oxide is also a greenhouse gas and it contributes to the radiative forcing of climate. Indeed, it is considered the third most important greenhouse gas next to carbon dioxide and methane. This dual role of nitrous oxide makes it an interesting gas for the atmosphere- it bridges the issue of ozone layer depletion and climate change. Nitrous oxide has both natural and anthropogenic sources. Therefore, one needs to consider this important distinction between natural and anthropogenic sources as well as its role in two related but separate environmental issues. Further, the sources of nitrous oxide are varied and diffuse, which makes it difficult to quantify different sources. However, it is clear that a majority of anthropogenic nitrous oxide comes from food production (including agricultural and animal growth practices), an activity that is at the heart of human existence. Thus, limiting N2O emissions is not a simple task! I will briefly summarize our understanding of these roles of nitrous oxide in the earth's atmosphere and touch on the possible ways to limit N2O emissions.

  10. Energy Market Impacts of Alternative Greenhouse Gas Intensity Reduction Goals

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Ken Salazar that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impacts of implementing alternative variants of an emissions cap-and-trade program for greenhouse gases (GHGs).

  11. Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Garvin A.; O’Donoughue, Patrick; Arent, Douglas J.; Bazilian, Morgan

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological advances in the recovery of unconventional natural gas, particularly shale gas, have served to dramatically increase domestic production and reserve estimates for the United States and internationally. This trend has led to lowered prices and increased scrutiny on production practices. Questions have been raised as to how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the life cycle of shale gas production and use compares with that of conventionally produced natural gas or other fuel sources such as coal. Recent literature has come to different conclusions on this point, largely due to differing assumptions, comparison baselines, and system boundaries. Through a meta-analytical procedure we call harmonization, we develop robust, analytically consistent, and updated comparisons of estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for electricity produced from shale gas, conventionally produced natural gas, and coal. On a per-unit electrical output basis, harmonization reveals that median estimates of GHG emissions from shale gas-generated electricity are similar to those for conventional natural gas, with both approximately half that of the central tendency of coal. Sensitivity analysis on the harmonized estimates indicates that assumptions regarding liquids unloading and estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of wells have the greatest influence on life cycle GHG emissions, whereby shale gas life cycle GHG emissions could approach the range of best-performing coal-fired generation under certain scenarios. Despite clarification of published estimates through harmonization, these initial assessments should be confirmed through methane emissions measurements at components and in the atmosphere and through better characterization of EUR and practices. PMID:25049378

  12. Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2007-03-31

    {sub 2} fired MTF pilot testing and a subsequent retrofit design study of oxygen firing and CO{sub 2} capture on an existing air-fired CFB plant. ALSTOM received a contract award from the DOE to conduct a project entitled 'Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control', under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42205 that is the subject of this topical report.

  13. 77 FR 51499 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ..., such as liquefied natural gas, compressed natural gas, propane, hydrogen and electricity. \\8\\ POP... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 535 RIN 2127-AK74 Greenhouse Gas Emissions... purpose of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because the GHG standards fundamentally regulate...

  14. On the potential for alternative greenhouse gas equivalence metrics to influence sectoral mitigation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Mark E.; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.

    2013-03-01

    Equivalence metrics used to quantify the relative climate impacts of different atmospheric forcers serve an essential function in policy and economic discussions about global climate change. The 100-year global warming potential (GWP-100), the most established greenhouse gas (GHG) equivalence metric, is used within the Kyoto Protocol, and in most emissions inventory, trading and offset mechanisms, to assign the mitigation value of non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gases relative to carbon dioxide. In recent literature the GWP-100 and alternative metrics have been used to compare various anthropogenic climate forcers with respect to a wide range of environmental and economic goals. Building on this work, we examine how 16 different static and time-varying CO2-equivalence schemes might influence GHG mitigation across sectors and gases in a perfect and fluid global mitigation regime. This mitigation regime is guided by achieving a global mean radiative forcing (RF) of 5.7 Wm-2 in 2100 from 1765 levels through a mitigation policy of prescribed emissions reductions in each decade. It was found that static metrics defined on 20- instead of 100-year time horizons favor mitigation strategies that maximize the abatement of short-lived gases (e.g. methane), on average resulting in an RF from methane in 2100 of 0.5 Wm-2 instead of 1.1 Wm-2 from 100-year metrics. Similarly, metrics that consider integrated rather than end-point climate impacts imply mitigation strategies that maximize mitigation of shorter-lived GHGs, resulting in higher abatement of agriculture and waste emissions. Comparing extreme scenarios, these mitigation shifts across gases and sectors result in a nearly 30% difference in the representation of methane in global cumulative emissions reductions. This shift across gases and sectors to mitigate shorter-lived GHGs, in lieu of longer-lived GHGs like carbon dioxide, has implications for the long-term warming commitment due to 21st century emissions.

  15. Progress in Developing an Integrated Global Greenhouse Gas Information System (IG3IS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decola, P.; Butler, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that, if society can do no better than the commitments it's already made to reducing greenhouse gases, we will achieve a 2C threshold by 2030 and a 3C threshold by 2050 [e.g., Jackson et al., 2015]. Given that a global average of 2C or 3C translates to about three times that (6C, 9C) over continents, this portends a future of on-going climate change for generations to come, with all of its concomitant struggles in adapting. It also portends a global society looking increasingly at ways to mitigate the cause(s) of climate change. Recent events have propelled that to some extent already, but it is likely we will see more as time goes on. Nevertheless, there is a huge difference between making commitments and achieving them. Nations, states, cities, resource managers, energy interests, and other invested parties will be looking at ways to reduce emissions, driven either by markets, taxes, or other relevant policies. Anticipating this need, WMO has begun developing an implementation plan for an Integrated Global Greenhouse Gas Information System (IG3IS). To work effectively, an IG3IS must integrate high quality observations from multiple and varied platforms, incorporate observation-based information from transport models, and deliver useful information at sub-continental, policy-relevant scales. Existing surface-based networks, emerging networks in developing countries, and new aircraft-based measurements and satellite observations make a difference, but additional observations and improved transport modeling are critical. This presentation will look at what is available, what the gaps are, and how IG3IS intends to address them.

  16. [Effects of superphosphate addition on NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Sun, Qin-ping; Li, Ni; Liu, Chun-sheng; Li, Ji-jin; Liu, Ben-sheng; Zou, Guo-yuan

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of superphosphate (SP) on the NH, and greenhouse gas emissions, vegetable waste composting was performed for 27 days using 6 different treatments. In addition to the controls, five vegetable waste mixtures (0.77 m3 each) were treated with different amounts of the SP additive, namely, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. The ammonia volatilization loss and greenhouse gas emissions were measured during composting. Results indicated that the SP additive significantly decreased the ammonia volatilization and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting. The additive reduced the total NH3 emission by 4.0% to 16.7%. The total greenhouse gas emissions (CO2-eq) of all treatments with SP additives were decreased by 10.2% to 20.8%, as compared with the controls. The NH3 emission during vegetable waste composting had the highest contribution to the greenhouse effect caused by the four different gases. The amount of NH3 (CO2-eq) from each treatment ranged from 59.90 kg . t-1 to 81.58 kg . t-1; NH3(CO2-eq) accounted for 69% to 77% of the total emissions from the four gases. Therefore, SP is a cost-effective phosphorus-based fertilizer that can be used as an additive during vegetable waste composting to reduce the NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions as well as to improve the value of compost as a fertilizer.

  17. Greenhouse Gas Exchange in Small Arctic Thaw Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurion, I.; Bégin, P. N.; Bouchard, F.; Preskienis, V.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic lakes and ponds can represent up to one quarter of the land surface in permafrost landscapes, particularly in lowland tundra landscapes characterized by ice wedge organic polygons. Thaw ponds can be defined as the aquatic ecosystems associated to thawing of organic soils, either resulting from active layer processes and located above low-center peat polygons (hereafter low-center polygonal or LCP ponds), or resulting from thermokarst slumping above melting ice wedges linked to the accelerated degradation of permafrost (hereafter ice-wedge trough or IWT ponds). These ponds can merge together forming larger water bodies, but with relatively stable shores (hereafter merged polygonal or MPG ponds), and with limnological characteristics similar to LCP ponds. These aquatic systems are very small and shallow, and present a different physical structure than the larger thermokarst lakes, generated after years of development and land subsidence. In a glacier valley on Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, thermokarst and kettle lakes together represent 29% of the aquatic area, with a thermal profile resembling those of more standard arctic lakes (mixed epilimnion). The IWT ponds (44% of the area) are stratified for a large fraction of the summer despite their shallowness, while LCP and MPG ponds (27% of the area) show a more homogeneous water column. This will affect gas exchange in these diverse aquatic systems, in addition to their unique microbiota and organic carbon lability that control the production and consumption rates of greenhouse gases. The stratification in IWT ponds generates hypoxic conditions at the bottom, and together with the larger availability of organic carbon, stimulates methanogenesis and limits the mitigating action of methanotrophs. Overall, thaw ponds are largely supersaturated in methane, with IWT ponds dominating the emissions in this landscape (92% of total aquatic emissions estimated for the same valley), and they present large variations in

  18. Multiyear greenhouse gas balances at a rewetted temperate peatland.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David; Farrell, Catherine A; Fallon, David; Moser, Gerald; Müller, Christoph; Renou-Wilson, Florence

    2016-12-01

    Drained peat soils are a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to the atmosphere. Rewetting these soils is considered an important climate change mitigation tool to reduce emissions and create suitable conditions for carbon sequestration. Long-term monitoring is essential to capture interannual variations in GHG emissions and associated environmental variables and to reduce the uncertainty linked with GHG emission factor calculations. In this study, we present GHG balances: carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O) calculated for a 5-year period at a rewetted industrial cutaway peatland in Ireland (rewetted 7 years prior to the start of the study); and compare the results with an adjacent drained area (2-year data set), and with ten long-term data sets from intact (i.e. undrained) peatlands in temperate and boreal regions. In the rewetted site, CO2 exchange (or net ecosystem exchange (NEE)) was strongly influenced by ecosystem respiration (Reco ) rather than gross primary production (GPP). CH4 emissions were related to soil temperature and either water table level or plant biomass. N2 O emissions were not detected in either drained or rewetted sites. Rewetting reduced CO2 emissions in unvegetated areas by approximately 50%. When upscaled to the ecosystem level, the emission factors (calculated as 5-year mean of annual balances) for the rewetted site were (±SD) -104 ± 80 g CO2 -C m(-2)  yr(-1) (i.e. CO2 sink) and 9 ± 2 g CH4 -C m(-2)  yr(-1) (i.e. CH4 source). Nearly a decade after rewetting, the GHG balance (100-year global warming potential) had reduced noticeably (i.e. less warming) in comparison with the drained site but was still higher than comparative intact sites. Our results indicate that rewetted sites may be more sensitive to interannual changes in weather conditions than their more resilient intact counterparts and may switch from an annual CO2 sink to a source if triggered by slightly drier conditions.

  19. The FAOSTAT database of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubiello, Francesco N.; Salvatore, Mirella; Rossi, Simone; Ferrara, Alessandro; Fitton, Nuala; Smith, Pete

    2013-03-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture, including crop and livestock production, forestry and associated land use changes, are responsible for a significant fraction of anthropogenic emissions, up to 30% according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Yet while emissions from fossil fuels are updated yearly and by multiple sources—including national-level statistics from the International Energy Agency (IEA)—no comparable efforts for reporting global statistics for agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) emissions exist: the latest complete assessment was the 2007 IPCC report, based on 2005 emission data. This gap is critical for several reasons. First, potentially large climate funding could be linked in coming decades to more precise estimates of emissions and mitigation potentials. For many developing countries, and especially the least developed ones, this requires improved assessments of AFOLU emissions. Second, growth in global emissions from fossil fuels has outpaced that from AFOLU during every decade of the period 1961-2010, so the relative contribution of the latter to total climate forcing has diminished over time, with a need for regular updates. We present results from a new GHG database developed at FAO, providing a complete and coherent time series of emission statistics over a reference period 1961-2010, at country level, based on FAOSTAT activity data and IPCC Tier 1 methodology. We discuss results at global and regional level, focusing on trends in the agriculture sector and net deforestation. Our results complement those available from the IPCC, extending trend analysis to a longer historical period and, critically, beyond 2005 to more recent years. In particular, from 2000 to 2010, we find that agricultural emissions increased by 1.1% annually, reaching 4.6 Gt CO2 yr-1 in 2010 (up to 5.4-5.8 Gt CO2 yr-1 with emissions from biomass burning and organic soils included). Over the same decade 2000-2010, the

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting through Integrated Business Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D.

    2010-12-01

    Given the risks posed by global climate change, it is important that society as a whole responds in order to reduce the emission of greenhouse gas (GHG) into the atmosphere. Whether you are an environmentalist, a small-to-medium business owner, or a corporate risk manager - the need to act is now in order to reduce future environmental damage. While this sounds overwhelming, it’s really quite simple. Carbon Management is the process of understanding where your commercial activities generate GHG emissions, so that you can reduce those emissions in a planned, financially responsible way. Specifically, governments have the capacity to lead in this area and reduce these costs throughout their cities. Village Green Global develops and manages demonstration projects for the government that act as exemplar models to assist in gathering verifiable GHG reporting within selected regions and cities. This model highlights opportunities for the capture of conservation and energy credit commodities for local financial markets to use in global trading. Information gathered will prepare government for the ongoing changing global requirements and mitigate risk of unnecessary market exposure and cost; allow government to take a measured, responsible approach to its environmental responsibilities; reduce operational costs, improving the government’s asset utilization and more effectively streamlining its operations; and establish the government as responsible and proactive due to its creative approach to environmental challenges. Village Green Global’s government partnership model aims to deliver new jobs and technologies in the emerging “green economy;” a linkage to education at both at College and University levels, then assisting industry and community needs; and the involvement of industry leaders ensures training is targeted to job creation and local capacity building opportunities, in turn creating new skills and career pathways for the displaced workforce from the

  1. Idaho National Laboratory’s FY14 Greenhouse Gas Report

    SciTech Connect

    Frerichs, Kimberly Irene

    2015-03-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. In recent years, concern has grown about the environmental impact of GHGs. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of an inventory of the total GHGs generated at INL. Additionally, INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federal agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions. INL’s GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in federal GHG guidance documents using operational control boundaries. It measures emissions generated in three scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL’s organizational boundaries, but are a consequence of INL’s activities). This inventory found that INL generated 73,521 metric tons (MT) of CO2 equivalent (CO2e ) emissions during FY14. The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL’s FY14 GHG inventory: • Electricity (including the associated transmission and distribution losses) is the largest contributor to INL’s GHG inventory, with over 50% of the CO2e emissions • Other sources with high emissions were

  2. ObsPack: a framework for the preparation, delivery, and attribution of atmospheric greenhouse gas data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masarie, K. A.; Peters, W.; Jacobson, A. R.; Tans, P. P.

    2014-09-01

    Observation Package (ObsPack) is a framework designed to bring together atmospheric greenhouse gas observations from a variety of sampling platforms, prepare them with specific applications in mind, and package and distribute them in a self-consistent and well-documented product. Data products created using the ObsPack framework (called "ObsPack products") are intended to support carbon cycle modeling studies and represent the next generation of value-added greenhouse gas observation products modeled after the cooperative GLOBALVIEW products introduced in 1996. Depending on intended use, ObsPack products may include data in their original form reformatted using the ObsPack framework or may contain derived data consisting of averages, subsets or smoothed representations of original data. All products include extensive ancillary information (metadata) intended to help ensure the data are used appropriately, their calibration and quality assurance history are clearly described, and that individuals responsible for the measurements (data providers or principal investigators (PIs)) are properly acknowledged for their work. ObsPack products are made freely available using a distribution strategy designed to improve communication between data providers and product users. The strategy includes a data usage policy that requires users to directly communicate with data providers and an automated e-mail notification system triggered when a product is accessed. ObsPack products will be assigned a unique Digital Object Identifier (DOI) to ensure each product can be unambiguously identified in scientific literature. Here we describe the ObsPack framework and its potential role in supporting the evolving needs of both data providers and product users.

  3. Improving the accuracy of vehicle emissions profiles for urban transportation greenhouse gas and air pollution inventories.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Janet L; Chester, Mikhail V; Ahn, Soyoung; Fraser, Andrew M

    2015-01-06

    Metropolitan greenhouse gas and air emissions inventories can better account for the variability in vehicle movement, fleet composition, and infrastructure that exists within and between regions, to develop more accurate information for environmental goals. With emerging access to high quality data, new methods are needed for informing transportation emissions assessment practitioners of the relevant vehicle and infrastructure characteristics that should be prioritized in modeling to improve the accuracy of inventories. The sensitivity of light and heavy-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and conventional air pollutant (CAP) emissions to speed, weight, age, and roadway gradient are examined with second-by-second velocity profiles on freeway and arterial roads under free-flow and congestion scenarios. By creating upper and lower bounds for each factor, the potential variability which could exist in transportation emissions assessments is estimated. When comparing the effects of changes in these characteristics across U.S. cities against average characteristics of the U.S. fleet and infrastructure, significant variability in emissions is found to exist. GHGs from light-duty vehicles could vary by -2%-11% and CAP by -47%-228% when compared to the baseline. For heavy-duty vehicles, the variability is -21%-55% and -32%-174%, respectively. The results show that cities should more aggressively pursue the integration of emerging big data into regional transportation emissions modeling, and the integration of these data is likely to impact GHG and CAP inventories and how aggressively policies should be implemented to meet reductions. A web-tool is developed to aide cities in improving emissions uncertainty.

  4. ObsPack: a framework for the preparation, delivery, and attribution of atmospheric greenhouse gas measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masarie, K. A.; Peters, W.; Jacobson, A. R.; Tans, P. P.

    2014-12-01

    Observation Package (ObsPack) is a framework designed to bring together atmospheric greenhouse gas observations from a variety of sampling platforms, prepare them with specific applications in mind, and package and distribute them in a self-consistent and well-documented product. Data products created using the ObsPack framework (called "ObsPack products") are intended to support carbon cycle modeling studies and represent a next generation of value-added greenhouse gas observation products modeled after the cooperative GLOBALVIEW products introduced in 1996. Depending on intended use, ObsPack products may include data in their original form reformatted using the ObsPack framework or may contain derived data consisting of averages, subsets, or smoothed representations of original data. All products include extensive ancillary information (metadata) intended to help ensure the data are used appropriately, their calibration and quality assurance history are clearly described, and that individuals responsible for the measurements (data providers or principal investigators (PIs)) are properly acknowledged for their work. ObsPack products are made freely available using a distribution strategy designed to improve communication between data providers and product users. The strategy includes a data usage policy that requires users to directly communicate with data providers and an automated e-mail notification system triggered when a product is accessed. ObsPack products will be assigned a unique digital object identifier (DOI) to ensure each product can be unambiguously identified in scientific literature. Here we describe the ObsPack framework and its potential role in supporting the evolving needs of both data providers and product users.

  5. The effects of carbon tax on the Oregon economy and state greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, A. L.; Butenhoff, C. L.; Renfro, J.; Liu, J.

    2014-12-01

    Of the numerous mechanisms to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions on statewide, regional or national scales in the United States, a tax on carbon is perhaps one of the simplest. By taxing emissions directly, the costs of carbon emissions are incorporated into decision-making processes of market actors including consumers, energy suppliers and policy makers. A carbon tax also internalizes the social costs of climate impacts. In structuring carbon tax revenues to reduce corporate and personal income taxes, the negative incentives created by distortionary income taxes can be reduced or offset entirely. In 2008, the first carbon tax in North America across economic sectors was implemented in British Columbia through such a revenue-neutral program. In this work, we investigate the economic and environmental effects of a carbon tax in the state of Oregon with the goal of informing the state legislature, stakeholders and the public. The study investigates 70 different economic sectors in the Oregon economy and six geographical regions of the state. The economic model is built upon the Carbon Tax Analysis Model (C-TAM) to provide price changes in fuel with data from: the Energy Information Agency National Energy Modeling System (EIA-NEMS) Pacific Region Module which provides Oregon-specific energy forecasts; and fuel price increases imposed at different carbon fees based on fuel-specific carbon content and current and projected regional-specific electricity fuel mixes. CTAM output is incorporated into the Regional Economic Model (REMI) which is used to dynamically forecast economic impacts by region and industry sector including: economic output, employment, wages, fiscal effects and equity. Based on changes in economic output and fuel demand, we further project changes in greenhouse gas emissions resulting from economic activity and calculate revenue generated through a carbon fee. Here, we present results of this modeling effort under different scenarios of carbon fee and

  6. Strategies for the Commercialization and Deployment of Greenhouse Gas Intensity-Reducing Technologies and Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration

    2009-01-01

    New technologies will be a critical component--perhaps the critical component--of our efforts to tackle the related challenges of energy security, climate change, and air pollution, all the while maintaining a strong economy. But just developing new technologies is not enough. Our ability to accelerate the market penetration of clean energy, enabling, and other climate-related technologies will have a determining impact on our ability to slow, stop, and reverse the growth in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Title XVI, Subtitle A, of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005) directs the Administration to report on its strategy to promote the commercialization and deployment (C&D) of GHG intensity-reducing technologies and practices. The Act also requests the Administration to prepare an inventory of climate-friendly technologies suitable for deployment and to identify the barriers and commercial risks facing advanced technologies. Because these issues are related, they are integrated here within a single report that we, representing the Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration (CCCSTI), are pleased to provide the President, the Congress, and the public. Over the past eight years, the Administration of President George W. Bush has pursued a series of policies and measures aimed at encouraging the development and deployment of advanced technologies to reduce GHG emissions. This report highlights these policies and measures, discusses the barriers to each, and integrates them within a larger body of other extant policy. Taken together, more than 300 policies and measures described in this document may be viewed in conjunction with the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program's (CCTP's) Strategic Plan, published in September 2006, which focuses primarily on the role of advanced technology and associated research and development (R&D) for mitigating GHG emissions. The CCTP, a multi-agency technology planning and coordination program, initiated by

  7. Greenhouse Gas Source Attribution: Measurements Modeling and Uncertainty Quantification

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhen; Safta, Cosmin; Sargsyan, Khachik; Najm, Habib N.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; LaFranchi, Brian W.; Ivey, Mark D.; Schrader, Paul E.; Michelsen, Hope A.; Bambha, Ray P.

    2014-09-01

    In this project we have developed atmospheric measurement capabilities and a suite of atmospheric modeling and analysis tools that are well suited for verifying emissions of green- house gases (GHGs) on an urban-through-regional scale. We have for the first time applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to simulate atmospheric CO2 . This will allow for the examination of regional-scale transport and distribution of CO2 along with air pollutants traditionally studied using CMAQ at relatively high spatial and temporal resolution with the goal of leveraging emissions verification efforts for both air quality and climate. We have developed a bias-enhanced Bayesian inference approach that can remedy the well-known problem of transport model errors in atmospheric CO2 inversions. We have tested the approach using data and model outputs from the TransCom3 global CO2 inversion comparison project. We have also performed two prototyping studies on inversion approaches in the generalized convection-diffusion context. One of these studies employed Polynomial Chaos Expansion to accelerate the evaluation of a regional transport model and enable efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior for Bayesian inference. The other approach uses de- terministic inversion of a convection-diffusion-reaction system in the presence of uncertainty. These approaches should, in principle, be applicable to realistic atmospheric problems with moderate adaptation. We outline a regional greenhouse gas source inference system that integrates (1) two ap- proaches of atmospheric dispersion simulation and (2) a class of Bayesian inference and un- certainty quantification algorithms. We use two different and complementary approaches to simulate atmospheric dispersion. Specifically, we use a Eulerian chemical transport model CMAQ and a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model - FLEXPART-WRF. These two models share the same WRF

  8. A modeling comparison of deep greenhouse gas emissions reduction scenarios by 2030 in California

    DOE PAGES

    Yeh, Sonia; Yang, Christopher; Gibbs, Michael; ...

    2016-10-21

    California aims to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 40% below 1990 levels by 2030. We compare six energy models that have played various roles in informing the state policymakers in setting climate policy goals and targets. These models adopt a range of modeling structures, including stock-turnover back-casting models, a least-cost optimization model, macroeconomic/macro-econometric models, and an electricity dispatch model. Results from these models provide useful insights in terms of the transformations in the energy system required, including efficiency improvements in cars, trucks, and buildings, electrification of end-uses, low- or zero-carbon electricity and fuels, aggressive adoptions of zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs),more » demand reduction, and large reductions of non-energy GHG emissions. Some of these studies also suggest that the direct economic costs can be fairly modest or even generate net savings, while the indirect macroeconomic benefits are large, as shifts in employment and capital investments could have higher economic returns than conventional energy expenditures. These models, however, often assume perfect markets, perfect competition, and zero transaction costs. They also do not provide specific policy guidance on how these transformative changes can be achieved. Greater emphasis on modeling uncertainty, consumer behaviors, heterogeneity of impacts, and spatial modeling would further enhance policymakers' ability to design more effective and targeted policies. Here, this paper presents an example of how policymakers, energy system modelers and stakeholders interact and work together to develop and evaluate long-term state climate policy targets. Lastly, even though this paper focuses on California, the process of dialogue and interactions, modeling results, and lessons learned can be generally adopted across different regions and scales.« less

  9. A modeling comparison of deep greenhouse gas emissions reduction scenarios by 2030 in California

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Sonia; Yang, Christopher; Gibbs, Michael; Roland-Holst, David; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Mahone, Amber; Wei, Dan; Brinkman, Gregory; Cunningham, Joshua; Eggert, Anthony; Haley, Ben; Hart, Elaine; Williams, Jim

    2016-10-21

    California aims to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 40% below 1990 levels by 2030. We compare six energy models that have played various roles in informing the state policymakers in setting climate policy goals and targets. These models adopt a range of modeling structures, including stock-turnover back-casting models, a least-cost optimization model, macroeconomic/macro-econometric models, and an electricity dispatch model. Results from these models provide useful insights in terms of the transformations in the energy system required, including efficiency improvements in cars, trucks, and buildings, electrification of end-uses, low- or zero-carbon electricity and fuels, aggressive adoptions of zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs), demand reduction, and large reductions of non-energy GHG emissions. Some of these studies also suggest that the direct economic costs can be fairly modest or even generate net savings, while the indirect macroeconomic benefits are large, as shifts in employment and capital investments could have higher economic returns than conventional energy expenditures. These models, however, often assume perfect markets, perfect competition, and zero transaction costs. They also do not provide specific policy guidance on how these transformative changes can be achieved. Greater emphasis on modeling uncertainty, consumer behaviors, heterogeneity of impacts, and spatial modeling would further enhance policymakers' ability to design more effective and targeted policies. Here, this paper presents an example of how policymakers, energy system modelers and stakeholders interact and work together to develop and evaluate long-term state climate policy targets. Lastly, even though this paper focuses on California, the process of dialogue and interactions, modeling results, and lessons learned can be generally adopted across different regions and scales.

  10. ICOS, Integrated Carbon Observing System, a Research Infrastructure to Integrate Greenhouse Gas observations in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciais, P.; Paris, J.; Rivier, L.; Ceulemans, R.; Dolman, A. J.; Flaud, J.; Garrec, C.; Gerbig, C.; Grace, J.; Huertas, E.; Johannessen, T.; Jordan, A.; Levin, I.; Lindroth, A.; Loustau, D.; Papale, D.; Ramonet, M.; Valentini, R.; Vesala, T.; Kaukolehto, M.; Watson, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) is a European Research infrastructure. ICOS's mission is to collect data for monitoring greenhouse gas fluxes over Europe and adjacent regions, and to provide the long-term observations required to quantify and to predict the behavior of the carbon cycle. ICOS builds upon the measurement networks and expertise developed under many European and national projects by a research community of more that 2000 researchers and students. ICOS received initial funding for the period 2008-2013 for the preparation of a Research Infrastructure hat will be operational in 2014 and run during the next 20 years a data collection for essential GHG variables including The presentation of ICOS will focus 1) on the mechanisms that have enabled the agencies / networks / governments to produce work products (data products, modeling products, and sensor acquired or human acquired measurements), and 2) on strategies to enable all identified user families, to take those products into assessments and analyses of European time varying maps GHG fluxes, including information on the attribution of these fluxes to underlying human and natural drivers and policy relevant information to improve GHG inventories at regional to national scale. These mechanisms take the form of adherence to technical standards (data, measurements, calibration/validation, modelling protocols), data policies, and governance mechanisms, which may prove complex when many different research councils and ministries are involved, as in the case of the ICOS preparation.

  11. Current Status of Legislative Proposals on Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Alternative Energy in the U.S. Congress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, L. J.

    2007-12-01

    The 110th Congress is now beginning to grapple with the issue of human-induced climate change and what, if anything, to do about it. A number of bills are currently being considered that would limit greenhouse gas emissions using various policy mechanisms and over various time frames. With a commitment by the current Congressional leadership to pass legislation addressing global warming, and significant hurdles remaining, it promises to be an eventful fall session. I will review the current status of these legislative proposals and their prospects of becoming law.

  12. Stable Isotopes in Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isotopes offer a unique way to have natural tracers present in the ecosystem to track produced greenhouse gases (GHG) through multiple scales. Isotopes are simply atoms of the same element (same number of protons) with differing number of neutrons. This differing number of neutrons leads to differen...

  13. 40 CFR 1036.108 - Greenhouse gas emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons, perflurocarbons... this paragraph (a)(1). The applicable test cycle for measuring CO2 emissions differs depending on the..., measure CO2 emissions using the steady-state duty cycle specified in 40 CFR 86.1362 (referred to as...

  14. Greenhouse gas fluxes in response to corn stover harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural soils play a critical role in the mitigation of increasing levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4). Identifying management strategies (fertilization, tillage, irrigation) that optimize corn stover removal rates ...

  15. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions from a waste lagoon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cost-effective approach was used to investigate the relationship between emission of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2, CH4, and N2O and energy fluxes from a swine waste lagoon. Energy fluxes were calculated using the Penman method. The energy fluxes showed a diurnal pattern as expected of such flux...

  16. High temporal frequency measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Variation in soil moisture can be very dynamic, and it is one of the dominant factors controlling the net exchange of these three GHGs. Although technologies for high-frequency,...

  17. GLOBAL GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM RESERVOIRS: A MATTER OF METHANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    More than a decade ago, St. Louis et al. demonstrated that, collectively, manmade reservoirs play an important role in the global balance of greenhouse gases (GHGs). To update and build upon this important seminal work, we compiled reservoir CO2, CH4, and N2O flux estimates from...

  18. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle housing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle are potential sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). These emissions include methane produced by fermentation within the gut (enteric), and methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manure. Life Cycle Analysis of North American (NA) beef cattle production systems consistently indicate that...

  19. Agricultural greenhouse gas flux determination via remote sensing and modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serious concerns have been raised about increasing levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) and associated climate change. For every degree in global temperature increase, grain production yields are expected to decrease 10%, while the global human population continues to increase by roughly 8...

  20. Special Issue From the 4th USDA Greenhouse Gas Symposium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse gases emitted from agricultural and forest systems continue to be a topic of interest because of their potential role in the global climate and the potential monetary return in the form of carbon credits from the adoption of mitigation strategies. There are several challenges in the scien...

  1. RE: Request for Correction, Technical Support Document, Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Industrial Energy Consumers of America (IECA) joins the U.S. Chamber of Commerce in its request for correction of information developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in a background technical support document titled Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry

  2. Correcting a fundamental error in greenhouse gas accounting related to bioenergy

    PubMed Central

    Haberl, Helmut; Sprinz, Detlef; Bonazountas, Marc; Cocco, Pierluigi; Desaubies, Yves; Henze, Mogens; Hertel, Ole; Johnson, Richard K.; Kastrup, Ulrike; Laconte, Pierre; Lange, Eckart; Novak, Peter; Paavola, Jouni; Reenberg, Anette; van den Hove, Sybille; Vermeire, Theo; Wadhams, Peter; Searchinger, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Many international policies encourage a switch from fossil fuels to bioenergy based on the premise that its use would not result in carbon accumulation in the atmosphere. Frequently cited bioenergy goals would at least double the present global human use of plant material, the production of which already requires the dedication of roughly 75% of vegetated lands and more than 70% of water withdrawals. However, burning biomass for energy provision increases the amount of carbon in the air just like burning coal, oil or gas if harvesting the biomass decreases the amount of carbon stored in plants and soils, or reduces carbon sequestration. Neglecting this fact results in an accounting error that could be corrected by considering that only the use of ‘additional biomass’ – biomass from additional plant growth or biomass that would decompose rapidly if not used for bioenergy – can reduce carbon emissions. Failure to correct this accounting flaw will likely have substantial adverse consequences. The article presents recommendations for correcting greenhouse gas accounts related to bioenergy. PMID:23576835

  3. Correcting a fundamental error in greenhouse gas accounting related to bioenergy.

    PubMed

    Haberl, Helmut; Sprinz, Detlef; Bonazountas, Marc; Cocco, Pierluigi; Desaubies, Yves; Henze, Mogens; Hertel, Ole; Johnson, Richard K; Kastrup, Ulrike; Laconte, Pierre; Lange, Eckart; Novak, Peter; Paavola, Jouni; Reenberg, Anette; van den Hove, Sybille; Vermeire, Theo; Wadhams, Peter; Searchinger, Timothy

    2012-06-01

    Many international policies encourage a switch from fossil fuels to bioenergy based on the premise that its use would not result in carbon accumulation in the atmosphere. Frequently cited bioenergy goals would at least double the present global human use of plant material, the production of which already requires the dedication of roughly 75% of vegetated lands and more than 70% of water withdrawals. However, burning biomass for energy provision increases the amount of carbon in the air just like burning coal, oil or gas if harvesting the biomass decreases the amount of carbon stored in plants and soils, or reduces carbon sequestration. Neglecting this fact results in an accounting error that could be corrected by considering that only the use of 'additional biomass' - biomass from additional plant growth or biomass that would decompose rapidly if not used for bioenergy - can reduce carbon emissions. Failure to correct this accounting flaw will likely have substantial adverse consequences. The article presents recommendations for correcting greenhouse gas accounts related to bioenergy.

  4. Greenhouse gas emission from soil amended with biochar made from hydrothermally carbonizing swine solids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar made from hydrothermally carbonizing swine solids was mixed with a 50/50 mixture of Norfolk Ap and E horizon at a rate of 20 g/kg. During the incubation period of 54 days, greenhouse gas (CO2 and N2O) emission fluxes were calculated by nonlinearly regressing time-series headspace gas concent...

  5. Calculating the detection limits of chamber-based greenhouse gas flux measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chamber-based measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from soil is a common technique. However, when changes in chamber headspace gas concentrations are small over time, determination of the flux can be problematic. Several factors contribute to the reliability of measured fluxes, including: samplin...

  6. Upscaling of greenhouse gas emissions in upland forestry following clearfell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toet, Sylvia; Keane, Ben; Yamulki, Sirwan; Blei, Emanuel; Gibson-Poole, Simon; Xenakis, Georgios; Perks, Mike; Morison, James; Ineson, Phil

    2016-04-01

    Data on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by forest management activities are limited. Management such as clearfelling may, however, have major impacts on the GHG balance of forests through effects of soil disturbance, increased water table, and brash and root inputs. Besides carbon dioxide (CO2), the biogenic GHGs nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) may also contribute to GHG emissions from managed forests. Accurate flux estimates of all three GHGs are therefore necessary, but, since GHG emissions usually show large spatial and temporal variability, in particular CH4 and N2O fluxes, high-frequency GHG flux measurements and better understanding of their controls are central to improve process-based flux models and GHG budgets at multiple scales. In this study, we determined CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions following felling in a mature Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) stand in an upland forest in northern England. High-frequency measurements were made along a transect using a novel, automated GHG chamber flux system ('SkyLine') developed at the University of York. The replicated, linear experiment aimed (1) to quantify GHG emissions from three main topographical features at the clearfell site, i.e. the ridges on which trees had been planted, the hollows in between and the drainage ditches, and (2) to determine the effects of the green-needle component of the discarded brash. We also measured abiotic soil and climatic factors alongside the 'SkyLine' GHG flux measurements to identify drivers of the observed GHG emissions. All three topographic features were overall sources of GHG emissions (in CO2 equivalents), and, although drainage ditches are often not included in studies, GHG emissions per unit area were highest from ditches, followed by ridges and lowest in hollows. The CO2 emissions were most important in the GHG balance of ridges and hollows, but CH4 emissions were very high from the drainage ditches, contributing to over 50% of their overall net GHG emissions

  7. Idaho National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gas FY08 Baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2010-09-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic attempt to account for the production and release of certain gasses generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gasses of interest are those which have become identified by climate science as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during fiscal year (FY) 2008 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. Concern about the environmental impact of GHGs has grown in recent years. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of a baseline estimate of total GHGs generated at the INL. Additionally, the INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE-sponsored national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federally-sponsored agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions in the future, and such documentation will require knowledge of a baseline against which reductions can be measured. INL’s FY08 GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in Federal recommendations and an as-yet-unpublished Technical and Support Document (TSD) using operational control boundary. It measures emissions generated in three Scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL’s organizational boundaries but are a consequence of INL’s activities). This inventory found that INL generated a total of 114,256 MT of CO2-equivalent emissions during fiscal year 2008 (FY08). The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL

  8. Idaho National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gas FY08 Baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2011-06-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic attempt to account for the production and release of certain gasses generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gasses of interest are those which have become identified by climate science as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during fiscal year (FY) 2008 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. Concern about the environmental impact of GHGs has grown in recent years. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of a baseline estimate of total GHGs generated at INL. Additionally, INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federal agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions in the future, and such documentation will require knowledge of a baseline against which reductions can be measured. INL's FY08 GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in federal GHG guidance documents using operational control boundaries. It measures emissions generated in three Scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL's organizational boundaries but are a consequence of INL's activities). This inventory found that INL generated a total of 113,049 MT of CO2-equivalent emissions during FY08. The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL's baseline GHG inventory: (1) Electricity (including the associated transmission and distribution losses) is the

  9. Characterization factors for water consumption and greenhouse gas emissions based on freshwater fish species extinction.

    PubMed

    Hanafiah, Marlia M; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A; Pfister, Stephan; Leuven, Rob S E W; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2011-06-15

    Human-induced changes in water consumption and global warming are likely to reduce the species richness of freshwater ecosystems. So far, these impacts have not been addressed in the context of life cycle assessment (LCA). Here, we derived characterization factors for water consumption and global warming based on freshwater fish species loss. Calculation of characterization factors for potential freshwater fish losses from water consumption were estimated using a generic species-river discharge curve for 214 global river basins. We also derived characterization factors for potential freshwater fish species losses per unit of greenhouse gas emission. Based on five global climate scenarios, characterization factors for 63 greenhouse gas emissions were calculated. Depending on the river considered, characterization factors for water consumption can differ up to 3 orders of magnitude. Characterization factors for greenhouse gas emissions can vary up to 5 orders of magnitude, depending on the atmospheric residence time and radiative forcing efficiency of greenhouse gas emissions. An emission of 1 ton of CO₂ is expected to cause the same impact on potential fish species disappearance as the water consumption of 10-1000 m³, depending on the river basin considered. Our results make it possible to compare the impact of water consumption with greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. Multi-objective optimisation of wastewater treatment plant control to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Sweetapple, Christine; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David

    2014-05-15

    This study investigates the potential of control strategy optimisation for the reduction of operational greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment in a cost-effective manner, and demonstrates that significant improvements can be realised. A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, NSGA-II, is used to derive sets of Pareto optimal operational and control parameter values for an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, with objectives including minimisation of greenhouse gas emissions, operational costs and effluent pollutant concentrations, subject to legislative compliance. Different problem formulations are explored, to identify the most effective approach to emissions reduction, and the sets of optimal solutions enable identification of trade-offs between conflicting objectives. It is found that multi-objective optimisation can facilitate a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions without the need for plant redesign or modification of the control strategy layout, but there are trade-offs to consider: most importantly, if operational costs are not to be increased, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is likely to incur an increase in effluent ammonia and total nitrogen concentrations. Design of control strategies for a high effluent quality and low costs alone is likely to result in an inadvertent increase in greenhouse gas emissions, so it is of key importance that effects on emissions are considered in control strategy development and optimisation.

  11. Current and Future Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Global Crop Intensification and Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, K. M.; Gerber, J. S.; Mueller, N. D.; O'Connell, C.; West, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Food systems currently contribute up to one-third of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, and these emissions are expected to rise as demand for agricultural products increases. Thus, improving the greenhouse gas emissions efficiency of agriculture - the tons or kilocalories of production per ton of CO2 equivalent emissions - will be critical to support a resilient future global system. Here, we model and evaluate global, 2000-era, spatially explicit relationships between a suite of greenhouse gas emissions from various agronomic practices (i.e., fertilizer application, peatland draining, and rice cultivation) and crop yields. Then, we predict potential emissions from future crop production increases achieved through intensification and extensification, including CO2 emissions from croplands replacing non-urban land cover. We find that 2000-era yield-scaled agronomic emissions are highly heterogeneous across crops types, crop management practices, and regions. Rice agriculture produces more total CO2-equivalent emissions than any other crop. Moreover, inundated rice in just a few countries contributes the vast majority of these rice emissions. Crops such as sunflower and cotton have low efficiency on a caloric basis. Our results suggest that intensification tends to be a more efficient pathway to boost greenhouse gas emissions efficiency than expansion. We conclude by discussing potential crop- and region-specific agricultural development pathways that may boost the greenhouse gas emissions efficiency of agriculture.

  12. Long-term trends and opportunities for managing regional water supply and wastewater greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Hall, Murray R; West, Jim; Sherman, Bradford; Lane, Joe; de Haas, David

    2011-06-15

    Greenhouse gas emissions are likely to rise faster than growth in population and more than double for water supply and wastewater services over the next 50 years in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. New sources of water supply such as rainwater tanks, recycled water, and desalination currently have greater energy intensity than traditional sources. In addition, direct greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs and wastewater treatment and handling have potentially the same magnitude as emissions from the use of energy. Centralized and decentralized water supply and wastewater systems are considered for a scenario based upon a government water supply strategy for the next 50 years. Many sources of data have large uncertainties which are estimated following the IPCC Good Practice Guidelines. Important sources of emissions with large uncertainties such as rainwater tanks and direct emissions were identified for further research and potential mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. Striking the balance between nutrient removal, greenhouse gas emissions, receiving water quality, and costs.

    PubMed

    Falk, Michael W; Reardon, David J; Neethling, J B; Clark, David L; Pramanik, Amit

    2013-12-01

    This Water Environment Research Foundation study considered the relationship between varying nutrient-removal levels at wastewater treatment plants, greenhouse gas emissions, receiving water quality (measured by potential algal production), and costs. The effluent nutrient concentrations required by some U.S. permits are very low, approaching the technology-best-achievable performance. This study evaluated five different treatment levels at a nominal 40 ML/d (10 mgd) flow. Greenhouse gas emissions and costs increase gradually up to the technologies' best-achievable performance, after which they increase exponentially. The gradual increase is attributed to additional biological treatment facilities, increased energy and chemical use, and additional tertiary nitrogen and phosphorus removal processes. Within the limited focus of this study, the evaluation shows that a point of diminishing return is reached as nutrient-removal objectives approach the technology-best-achievable performance, where greenhouse gas emissions and cost of treatment increases rapidly while the potential for algal growth reduce marginally.

  14. Warming effects on greenhouse gas fluxes in peatlands are modulated by vegetation composition.

    PubMed

    Ward, Susan E; Ostle, Nicholas J; Oakley, Simon; Quirk, Helen; Henrys, Peter A; Bardgett, Richard D

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the effects of warming on greenhouse gas feedbacks to climate change represents a major global challenge. Most research has focused on direct effects of warming, without considering how concurrent changes in plant communities may alter such effects. Here, we combined vegetation manipulations with warming to investigate their interactive effects on greenhouse gas emissions from peatland. We found that although warming consistently increased respiration, the effect on net ecosystem CO2 exchange depended on vegetation composition. The greatest increase in CO2 sink strength after warming was when shrubs were present, and the greatest decrease when graminoids were present. CH4 was more strongly controlled by vegetation composition than by warming, with largest emissions from graminoid communities. Our results show that plant community composition is a significant modulator of greenhouse gas emissions and their response to warming, and suggest that vegetation change could alter peatland carbon sink strength under future climate change.

  15. Carbon Geography. The political economy of congressional support for legislation intended to mitigate greenhouse gas production

    SciTech Connect

    CRAGG, MICHAEL I.; ZHOU, YUYU; GURNEY, KEVIN; KAHN, MATTHEW E.

    2012-04-20

    Over the last five years, the U.S Congress has voted on several pieces of legislation intended to sharply reduce the nation’s greenhouse gas emissions. Given that climate change is a world public bad, standard economic logic would predict that the United States would -free rideII and wait for other nations to reduce their emissions. Within the Congress, there are clear patterns to who votes in favor of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents a political economy analysis of the determinants of pro-greenII votes on such legislation. Conservatives consistently vote against such legislation. Controlling for a Representative’s ideology, representatives from richer districts and districts with a lower per-capita carbon dioxide footprint are more likely to vote in favor of climate change mitigation legislation. Representatives from districts where industrial emissions represent a larger share of greenhouse gas emissions are more likely to vote no.

  16. Greenhouse gas fluxes in southeastern U.S. coastal plain wetlands under contrasting land uses.

    PubMed

    Morse, Jennifer L; Ardón, Marcelo; Bernhardt, Emily S

    2012-01-01

    Whether through sea level rise or wetland restoration, agricultural soils in coastal areas will be inundated at increasing rates, renewing connections to sensitive surface waters and raising critical questions about environmental trade-offs. Wetland restoration is often implemented in agricultural catchments to improve water quality through nutrient removal. Yet flooding of soils can also increase production of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide and methane, representing a potential environmental trade-off. Our study aimed to quantify and compare greenhouse gas emissions from unmanaged and restored forested wetlands, as well as actively managed agricultural fields within the North Carolina coastal plain, USA. In sampling conducted once every two months over a two-year comparative study, we found that soil carbon dioxide flux (range: 8000-64 800 kg CO2 x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) comprised 66-100% of total greenhouse gas emissions from all sites and that methane emissions (range: -6.87 to 197 kg CH4 x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) were highest from permanently inundated sites, while nitrous oxide fluxes (range: -1.07 to 139 kg N2O x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) were highest in sites with lower water tables. Contrary to predictions, greenhouse gas fluxes (as CO2 equivalents) from the restored wetland were lower than from either agricultural fields or unmanaged forested wetlands. In these acidic coastal freshwater ecosystems, the conversion of agricultural fields to flooded young forested wetlands did not result in increases in greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. A rational procedure for estimation of greenhouse-gas emissions from municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Monteith, Hugh D; Sahely, Halla R; MacLean, Heather L; Bagley, David M

    2005-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment may lead to the emission of greenhouse gases. The current Intergovenmental Panel on Climate Change (Geneva, Switzerland) approach attributes only methane emissions to wastewater treatment, but this approach may overestimate greenhouse gas emissions from the highly aerobic processes primarily used in North America. To better estimate greenhouse gas emissions, a procedure is developed that can be used either with plant-specific data or more general regional data. The procedure was evaluated using full-scale data from 16 Canadian wastewater treatment facilities and then applied to all 10 Canadian provinces. The principal greenhouse gas emitted from municipal wastewater treatment plants was estimated to be carbon dioxide (CO2), with very little methane expected. The emission rates ranged from 0.005 kg CO2-equivalent/m3 treated for primary treatment facilities to 0.26 kg CO2-equivalent/m3 for conventional activated sludge, with anaerobic sludge digestion to over 0.8 kg CO2-equivalent/m3 for extended aeration with aerobic digestion. Increasing the effectiveness of biogas generation and use will decrease the greenhouse gas emissions that may be assigned to the wastewater treatment plant.

  18. Greenhouse gas mitigation can reduce sea-ice loss and increase polar bear persistence.

    PubMed

    Amstrup, Steven C; Deweaver, Eric T; Douglas, David C; Marcot, Bruce G; Durner, George M; Bitz, Cecilia M; Bailey, David A

    2010-12-16

    On the basis of projected losses of their essential sea-ice habitats, a United States Geological Survey research team concluded in 2007 that two-thirds of the world's polar bears (Ursus maritimus) could disappear by mid-century if business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions continue. That projection, however, did not consider the possible benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation. A key question is whether temperature increases lead to proportional losses of sea-ice habitat, or whether sea-ice cover crosses a tipping point and irreversibly collapses when temperature reaches a critical threshold. Such a tipping point would mean future greenhouse gas mitigation would confer no conservation benefits to polar bears. Here we show, using a general circulation model, that substantially more sea-ice habitat would be retained if greenhouse gas rise is mitigated. We also show, with Bayesian network model outcomes, that increased habitat retention under greenhouse gas mitigation means that polar bears could persist throughout the century in greater numbers and more areas than in the business-as-usual case. Our general circulation model outcomes did not reveal thresholds leading to irreversible loss of ice; instead, a linear relationship between global mean surface air temperature and sea-ice habitat substantiated the hypothesis that sea-ice thermodynamics can overcome albedo feedbacks proposed to cause sea-ice tipping points. Our outcomes indicate that rapid summer ice losses in models and observations represent increased volatility of a thinning sea-ice cover, rather than tipping-point behaviour. Mitigation-driven Bayesian network outcomes show that previously predicted declines in polar bear distribution and numbers are not unavoidable. Because polar bears are sentinels of the Arctic marine ecosystem and trends in their sea-ice habitats foreshadow future global changes, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions to improve polar bear status would have conservation benefits throughout

  19. Greenhouse gas mitigation can reduce sea-ice loss and increase polar bear persistence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Deweaver, E.T.; Douglas, D.C.; Marcot, B.G.; Durner, G.M.; Bitz, C.M.; Bailey, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of projected losses of their essential sea-ice habitats, a United States Geological Survey research team concluded in 2007 that two-thirds of the worlds polar bears (Ursus maritimus) could disappear by mid-century if business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions continue. That projection, however, did not consider the possible benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation. A key question is whether temperature increases lead to proportional losses of sea-ice habitat, or whether sea-ice cover crosses a tipping point and irreversibly collapses when temperature reaches a critical threshold. Such a tipping point would mean future greenhouse gas mitigation would confer no conservation benefits to polar bears. Here we show, using a general circulation model, that substantially more sea-ice habitat would be retained if greenhouse gas rise is mitigated. We also show, with Bayesian network model outcomes, that increased habitat retention under greenhouse gas mitigation means that polar bears could persist throughout the century in greater numbers and more areas than in the business-as-usual case. Our general circulation model outcomes did not reveal thresholds leading to irreversible loss of ice; instead, a linear relationship between global mean surface air temperature and sea-ice habitat substantiated the hypothesis that sea-ice thermodynamics can overcome albedo feedbacks proposed to cause sea-ice tipping points. Our outcomes indicate that rapid summer ice losses in models and observations represent increased volatility of a thinning sea-ice cover, rather than tipping-point behaviour. Mitigation-driven Bayesian network outcomes show that previously predicted declines in polar bear distribution and numbers are not unavoidable. Because polar bears are sentinels of the Arctic marine ecosystem and trends in their sea-ice habitats foreshadow future global changes, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions to improve polar bear status would have conservation benefits throughout

  20. An evaluation of the social and private efficiency of adoption: anaerobic digesters and greenhouse gas mitigation.

    PubMed

    Manning, D T; Hadrich, J C

    2015-05-01

    Climate science has begun to recognize the important role of non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions, including methane. Given the important contribution of methane, anaerobic digesters (ADs) on dairy farms in the U.S. present an opportunity to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We quantify the social and private costs and benefits of ADs that have been adopted in California and find that, despite high initial costs, large reductions in GHG emissions bring significant social benefits and represent good social investments given a $36 per-ton social cost of carbon. Subsidies that lower the initial private investment cost can help align socially and privately optimal adoption decisions.

  1. Effect of enhanced leachate recirculated (ELR) landfill operation and gas extraction on greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samir, Sonia

    The bioreactor/ enhanced leachate recirculated (ELR) landfill operation with the addition of moisture/ leachate to the landfill, accelerate the process of landfill waste decomposition; and increase the generation of LFG over a shorter period of time. Since emissions from the landfills are directly related to the gas generation, the increase in gas generation might also increase the emission from the landfill. On the contrary, the presence of gas extraction is suggested to mitigate the fugitive emissions from the landfills. Therefore, the motivation of the current study was to evaluate the effect of ELR operation as well as the gas extraction on the greenhouse gas emissions from the landfill. The current study was conducted in the City of Denton Landfill, Texas. Methane emission was investigated using a portable FID and static flux chamber technique from the landfill surface. Emission was measured from an ELR operated cell (cell 2) as well as a conventional cell (cell 0) in the City of Denton Landfill. Methane emission for cell 2 varied from 9544.3 ppm to 0 ppm while for cell 0, it varied from 0 ppm to 47 ppm. High spatial variations were observed during monitoring from both cells 0 and cell 2 which could be recognized as the variation of gas generation below the cover soil. The comparison between emissions from the slope and surface of the landfill showed that more methane emission occurred from the slopes than the top surface. In addition, the average landfill emission showed an increasing trend with increase in temperature and decreasing trend with increasing precipitation. The effect of ELR operation near the recirculation pipes showed a lag period between the recirculation and the maximum emission near the pipe. The emission near the pipe decreased after 1 day of recirculation and after the initial decrease, the emission started to increase and continued to increase up to 7 days after the recirculation. However, approximately after 10 days of recirculation, the

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative water supply processes in southern California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2012-12-01

    Burgeoning population centers and declining hydrological resources have encouraged the development of alternative water treatment systems, including desalination and wastewater recycling. These processes currently provide potable water for millions of people and assist in satisfying agricultural and landscaping irrigation demands. There are a variety of alternative water production methods in place, and while they help to reduce the demands placed on aquifers, during their operation they are also significant sources of greenhouse gases. The environmental advantages of these alternative water production methods need to be carefully weighed against their energy footprints and greenhouse gas emissions profiles. This study measured the greenhouse gas emissions of a wastewater treatment and recycling facility in Orange County, California to get a more complete picture of the carbon footprint of the plant. We measured atmospheric emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O throughout the water recycling process and at various times of the day and week. This allowed us to assemble a thorough, cross-sectional profile of greenhouse gas emissions from the facility. We then compared the measured emissions of the treatment plant to the modeled emissions of desalination plants in order to assess the relative carbon footprints of the two water production methods. Other water supply alternatives, including regional water importation, were also included in the comparison in order to provide a more complete understanding of the potential greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we assessed the significance of wastewater treatment as an urban greenhouse gas source when compared to other known emissions in the region. This research offers a valuable tool for sustainable urban and regional development by providing planners with a quantified comparison of the carbon footprints of several water production options.

  3. Use of UAVs for greenhouse gas monitoring at hotspot emissions zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, J. R.; Allen, G.; Mead, M. I.; Hollingsworth, P.; Kabbabe, K.; Roberts, G.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring greenhouse gas emissions from individual localised sources, or "hotspots", is important for both compliance monitoring and validating the techniques used to compile national emission inventories. Frequently ground based techniques are used, such as flux chamber measurements, which suffer from issues regarding sample representativeness, and tracer release methods, which for area sources rely heavily on release site configuration. Obtaining vertically resolved data can enable the use of a mass balance method to calculate greenhouse gas fluxes. This has been achieved using remote sensing techniques, but this usually requires the deployment of expensive, bulky instrumentation. Here we evaluate the suitability of using UAVs, in conjunction with emerging miniaturised sensor technology, as a highly manoeuvrable, low cost alternative for measuring hotspot greenhouse gas emissions. We describe a case study performed at a UK landfill site, where greenhouse gas measurements made on board a fixed wing UAV were used to estimate the bulk CH4 emission rate. Details of the mass balance technique employed, along with the key uncertainties associated with it, are discussed. This work is part of an ongoing study at the University of Manchester into the application of UAVs in atmospheric research, with the rapid advancement in miniaturised sensor technology providing new opportunities for integrating trace gas measurement with existing lightweight UAVs.

  4. Life-cycle greenhouse gas assessment of Nigerian liquefied natural gas addressing uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Amir; Freire, Fausto; Henggeler Antunes, Carlos

    2015-03-17

    Natural gas (NG) has been regarded as a bridge fuel toward renewable sources and is expected to play a greater role in future global energy mix; however, a high degree of uncertainty exists concerning upstream (well-to-tank, WtT) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of NG. In this study, a life-cycle (LC) model is built to assess uncertainty in WtT GHG emissions of liquefied NG (LNG) supplied to Europe by Nigeria. The 90% prediction interval of GHG intensity of Nigerian LNG was found to range between 14.9 and 19.3 g CO2 eq/MJ, with a mean value of 16.8 g CO2 eq/MJ. This intensity was estimated considering no venting practice in Nigerian fields. The mean estimation can shift up to 25 g CO2 eq when considering a scenario with a higher rate of venting emissions. A sensitivity analysis of the time horizon to calculate GHG intensity was also performed showing that higher GHG intensity and uncertainty are obtained for shorter time horizons, due to the higher impact factor of methane. The uncertainty calculated for Nigerian LNG, specifically regarding the gap of data for methane emissions, recommends initiatives to measure and report emissions and further LC studies to identify hotspots to reduce the GHG intensity of LNG chains.

  5. Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Lingbo; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn

    2012-11-01

    The pulp and paper industry ranks fourth in terms of energy consumption among industries worldwide. Globally, the pulp and paper industry accounted for approximately 5 percent of total world industrial final energy consumption in 2007, and contributed 2 percent of direct carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industry. Worldwide pulp and paper demand and production are projected to increase significantly by 2050, leading to an increase in this industry’s absolute energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Development of new energy-efficiency and GHG mitigation technologies and their deployment in the market will be crucial for the pulp and paper industry’s mid- and long-term climate change mitigation strategies. This report describes the industry’s processes and compiles available information on the energy savings, environmental and other benefits, costs, commercialization status, and references for 36 emerging technologies to reduce the industry’s energy use and GHG emissions. Although studies from around the world identify a variety of sector-specific and cross-cutting energy-efficiency technologies that have already been commercialized for the pulp and paper industry, information is scarce and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. The purpose of this report is to provide engineers, researchers, investors, paper companies, policy makers, and other interested parties with easy access to a well-structured resource of information on these technologies.

  6. A blue carbon soil database: Tidal wetland stocks for the US National Greenhouse Gas Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feagin, R. A.; Eriksson, M.; Hinson, A.; Najjar, R. G.; Kroeger, K. D.; Herrmann, M.; Holmquist, J. R.; Windham-Myers, L.; MacDonald, G. M.; Brown, L. N.; Bianchi, T. S.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal wetlands contain large reservoirs of carbon, and in 2015 the US National Greenhouse Gas Inventory began the work of placing blue carbon within the national regulatory context. The potential value of a wetland carbon stock, in relation to its location, soon could be influential in determining governmental policy and management activities, or in stimulating market-based CO2 sequestration projects. To meet the national need for high-resolution maps, a blue carbon stock database was developed linking National Wetlands Inventory datasets with the USDA Soil Survey Geographic Database. Users of the database can identify the economic potential for carbon conservation or restoration projects within specific estuarine basins, states, wetland types, physical parameters, and land management activities. The database is geared towards both national-level assessments and local-level inquiries. Spatial analysis of the stocks show high variance within individual estuarine basins, largely dependent on geomorphic position on the landscape, though there are continental scale trends to the carbon distribution as well. Future plans including linking this database with a sedimentary accretion database to predict carbon flux in US tidal wetlands.

  7. US major crops’ uncertain climate change risks and greenhouse gas mitigation benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing, Ian Sue; Monier, Erwan; Stern, Ari; Mundra, Anupriya

    2015-11-01

    We estimate the costs of climate change to US agriculture, and associated potential benefits of abating greenhouse gas emissions. Five major crops’ yield responses to climatic variation are modeled empirically, and the results combined with climate projections for a no-policy, high-warming future, as well as moderate and stringent mitigation scenarios. Unabated warming reduces yields of wheat and soybeans by 2050, and cotton by 2100, but moderate warming increases yields of all crops except wheat. Yield changes are monetized using the results of economic simulations within an integrated climate-economy modeling framework. Uncontrolled warming’s economic effects on major crops are slightly positive—annual benefits <4 B. These are amplified by emission reductions, but subject to diminishing returns—by 2100 reaching 17 B under moderate mitigation, but only 7 B with stringent mitigation. Costs and benefits are sensitive to irreducible uncertainty about the fertilization effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide, without which unabated warming incurs net costs of up to 18 B, generating benefits to moderate (stringent) mitigation as large as 26 B (20 B).

  8. Supporting Greenhouse Gas Management Strategies with Observations and Analysis - Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, J. H.; Tarasova, O. A.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-change challenges facing society in the 21st century require an improved understanding of the global carbon-cycle and of the impacts and feedbacks of past, present, and future emissions of carbon-cycle gases. Global society faces a major challenge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to virtually zero, most notably those of CO2, while at the same time facing variable and potentially overwhelming Earth System feedbacks. How it goes about this will depend upon the nature of impending international agreements, national laws, regional strategies, and social and economic forces. The challenge to those making observations to support, inform, or verify these reduction efforts, or to address potential Earth System feedbacks, lies in harmonizing a diverse array of observations and observing systems. Doing so is not trivial. Providing coherent, regional-scale information from these observations also requires improved modelling and ensemble reanalysis, but in the end such information must be relevant and reasonably certain. The challenge to us is to ensure a globally coherent observing and analysis system to supply the information that society will need to succeed. Policy-makers, scientists, government agencies, and businesses will need the best information available for decision-making and any observing and analysis system ultimately must be able to provide a coherent story over decades.

  9. Quantifying variability in life cycle greenhouse gas inventories of alternative middle distillate transportation fuels.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Russell W; Wong, Hsin Min; Hileman, James I

    2011-05-15

    The presence of variability in life cycle analysis (LCA) is inherent due to both inexact LCA procedures and variation of numerical inputs. Variability in LCA needs to be clearly distinguished from uncertainty. This paper uses specific examples from the production of diesel and jet fuels from 14 different feedstocks to demonstrate general trends in the types and magnitudes of variability present in life cycle greenhouse gas (LC-GHG) inventories of middle distillate fuels. Sources of variability have been categorized as pathway specific, coproduct usage and allocation, and land use change. The results of this research demonstrate that subjective choices such as coproduct usage and allocation methodology can be more important sources of variability in the LC-GHG inventory of a fuel option than the process and energy use of fuel production. Through the application of a consistent analysis methodology across all fuel options, the influence of these subjective biases is minimized, and the LC-GHG inventories for each feedstock-to-fuel option can be effectively compared and discussed. By considering the types and magnitudes of variability across multiple fuel pathways, it is evident that LCA results should be presented as a range instead of a point value. The policy implications of this are discussed.

  10. Impact of the Keystone XL pipeline on global oil markets and greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Peter; Lazarus, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Climate policy and analysis often focus on energy production and consumption, but seldom consider how energy transportation infrastructure shapes energy systems. US President Obama has recently brought these issues to the fore, stating that he would only approve the Keystone XL pipeline, connecting Canadian oil sands with US refineries and ports, if it `does not significantly exacerbate the problem of carbon pollution'. Here, we apply a simple model to understand the implications of the pipeline for greenhouse gas emissions as a function of any resulting increase in oil sands production. We find that for every barrel of increased production, global oil consumption would increase 0.6 barrels owing to the incremental decrease in global oil prices. As a result, and depending on the extent to which the pipeline leads to greater oil sands production, the net annual impact of Keystone XL could range from virtually none to 110 million tons CO2 equivalent annually. This spread is four times wider than found by the US State Department (1-27 million tons CO2e), who did not account for global oil market effects. The approach used here, common in lifecycle analysis, could also be applied to other pending fossil fuel extraction and supply infrastructure.

  11. Electrification of the transportation sector offers limited country-wide greenhouse gas reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2014-03-01

    Compared with conventional propulsion, plugin and hybrid vehicles may offer reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, regional air/noise pollution, petroleum dependence, and ownership cost. Comparing only plugins and hybrids amongst themselves, and focusing on GHG, relative merits of different options have been shown to be more nuanced, depending on grid-carbon-intensity, range and thus battery manufacturing and weight, and trip patterns. We present a life-cycle framework to compare GHG emissions for three drivetrains (plugin-electricity-only, gasoline-only-hybrid, and plugin-hybrid) across driving ranges and grid-carbon-intensities, for passenger cars, vans, buses, or trucks (well-to-wheel plus storage manufacturing). Parameter and model uncertainties are quantified via sensitivity analyses. We find that owing to the interplay of range, GHG/km, and portions of country-wide kms accessible to electrification, GHG reductions achievable from plugins (whether electricity-only or hybrids) are limited even when assuming low-carbon future grids. Furthermore, for policy makers considering GHG from electricity and transportation sectors combined, plugin technology may in fact increase GHG compared to gasoline-only-hybrids, regardless of grid-carbon-intensity.

  12. A demand-centered, hybrid life-cycle methodology for city-scale greenhouse gas inventories.

    PubMed

    Ramaswami, Anu; Hillman, Tim; Janson, Bruce; Reiner, Mark; Thomas, Gregg

    2008-09-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for individual cities is confounded by spatial scale and boundary effects that impact the allocation of regional material and energy flows. This paper develops a demand-centered, hybrid life-cycle-based methodology for conducting city-scale GHG inventories that incorporates (1) spatial allocation of surface and airline travel across colocated cities in larger metropolitan regions, and, (2) life-cycle assessment (LCA) to quantify the embodied energy of key urban materials--food, water, fuel, and concrete. The hybrid methodology enables cities to separately report the GHG impact associated with direct end-use of energy by cities (consistent with EPA and IPCC methods), as well as the impact of extra-boundary activities such as air travel and production of key urban materials (consistent with Scope 3 protocols recommended by the World Resources Institute). Application of this hybrid methodology to Denver, Colorado, yielded a more holistic GHG inventory that approaches a GHG footprint computation, with consistency of inclusions across spatial scale as well as convergence of city-scale per capita GHG emissions (approximately 25 mt CO2e/person/year) with state and national data. The method is shown to have significant policy impacts, and also demonstrates the utility of benchmarks in understanding energy use in various city sectors.

  13. Using infrastructure optimization to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from oil sands extraction and processing.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Richard S; Brandt, Adam R

    2013-02-05

    The Alberta oil sands are a significant source of oil production and greenhouse gas emissions, and their importance will grow as the region is poised for decades of growth. We present an integrated framework that simultaneously considers economic and engineering decisions for the capture, transport, and storage of oil sands CO(2) emissions. The model optimizes CO(2) management infrastructure at a variety of carbon prices for the oil sands industry. Our study reveals several key findings. We find that the oil sands industry lends itself well to development of CO(2) trunk lines due to geographic coincidence of sources and sinks. This reduces the relative importance of transport costs compared to nonintegrated transport systems. Also, the amount of managed oil sands CO(2) emissions, and therefore the CCS infrastructure, is very sensitive to the carbon price; significant capture and storage occurs only above 110$/tonne CO(2) in our simulations. Deployment of infrastructure is also sensitive to CO(2) capture decisions and technology, particularly the fraction of capturable CO(2) from oil sands upgrading and steam generation facilities. The framework will help stakeholders and policy makers understand how CCS infrastructure, including an extensive pipeline system, can be safely and cost-effectively deployed.

  14. Greenhouse gas emission reductions from domestic anaerobic digesters linked with sustainable sanitation in rural China.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Radhika; Christensen, Erick R; Liu, Yang; Zhong, Bo; Wu, Chang-Fu; Yost, Michael G; Remais, Justin V

    2011-03-15

    Anaerobic digesters provide clean, renewable energy (biogas) by converting organic waste to methane, and are a key part of China's comprehensive rural energy plan. Here, experimental and modeling results are used to quantify the net greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction from substituting a household anaerobic digester for traditional energy sources in Sichuan, China. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and radial plume mapping were used to estimate the mass flux of fugitive methane emissions from active digesters. Using household energy budgets, the net improvement in GHG emissions associated with biogas installation was estimated using global warming commitment (GWC) as a consolidated measure of the warming effects of GHG emissions from cooking. In all scenarios biogas households had lower GWC than nonbiogas households, by as much as 54%. Even biogas households with methane leakage exhibited lower GWC than nonbiogas households, by as much as 48%. Based only on the averted GHG emissions over 10 years, the monetary value of a biogas installation was conservatively estimated at US$28.30 ($16.07 ton(-1) CO(2)-eq), which is available to partly offset construction costs. The interaction of biogas installation programs with policies supporting improved stoves, renewable harvesting of biomass, and energy interventions with substantial health cobenefits are discussed.

  15. Greenhouse gas emission reductions from domestic anaerobic digesters linked with sustainable sanitation in rural China

    PubMed Central

    DHINGRA, RADHIKA; CHRISTENSEN, ERICK R.; LIU, YANG; ZHONG, BO; WU, CHANG-FU; YOST, MICHAEL G.; REMAIS, JUSTIN V.

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digesters provide clean, renewable energy (biogas) by converting organic waste to methane, and are a key part of China's comprehensive rural energy plan. Here, experimental and modeling results are used to quantify the net greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction from substituting a household anaerobic digester for traditional energy sources in Sichuan, China. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and radial plume mapping were used to estimate the mass flux of fugitive methane emissions from active digesters. Using household energy budgets, the net improvement in GHG emissions associated with biogas installation was estimated using global warming commitment (GWC) as a consolidated measure of the warming effects of GHG emissions from cooking. In all scenarios biogas households had lower GWC than non-biogas households, by as much as 54%. Even biogas households with methane leakage exhibited lower GWC than non-biogas households, by as much as 48%. Based only on the averted GHG emissions over 10 years, the monetary value of a biogas installation was conservatively estimated at US$28.30 ($16.07 ton−1 CO2-eq.), which is available to partly offset construction costs. The interaction of biogas installation programs with policies supporting improved stoves, renewable harvesting of biomass, and energy interventions with substantial health co-benefits, are discussed. PMID:21348471

  16. An issue of trust: state corruption, responsibility and greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frame, David J.; Hepburn, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is increasingly seen to raise difficult normative issues. To date, cumulative emissions have been disproportionately from the developed world, while the consequences of climate change are anticipated to hit poorer countries hardest. For this reason, amongst others, it is suggested that more economically developed countries with high greenhouse gas emissions ought to transfer resources to less economically developed, lower emissions countries. Some proponents would justify these resource transfers by ethical or justice-based arguments, often based on some function of the emissions per capita of each country, such that rights of some sort are created and those nations which are emitting more (per capita) than some amount are to compensate those who are emitting less. In this letter we show that national emissions per capita, scaled by economic output, show a systematic negative correlation with state corruption. We discuss this result in the context of justice-based arguments for per capita climate mitigation transfers, and suggest that it would be beneficial for the climate mitigation community to consider state corruption as a relevant factor in the development of mitigation policy.

  17. Increasing beef production could lower greenhouse gas emissions in Brazil if decoupled from deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira Silva, R.; Barioni, L. G.; Hall, J. A. J.; Folegatti Matsuura, M.; Zanett Albertini, T.; Fernandes, F. A.; Moran, D.

    2016-05-01

    Recent debate about agricultural greenhouse gas emissions mitigation highlights trade-offs inherent in the way we produce and consume food, with increasing scrutiny on emissions-intensive livestock products. Although most research has focused on mitigation through improved productivity, systemic interactions resulting from reduced beef production at the regional level are still unexplored. A detailed optimization model of beef production encompassing pasture degradation and recovery processes, animal and deforestation emissions, soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and upstream life-cycle inventory was developed and parameterized for the Brazilian Cerrado. Economic return was maximized considering two alternative scenarios: decoupled livestock-deforestation (DLD), assuming baseline deforestation rates controlled by effective policy; and coupled livestock-deforestation (CLD), where shifting beef demand alters deforestation rates. In DLD, reduced consumption actually leads to less productive beef systems, associated with higher emissions intensities and total emissions, whereas increased production leads to more efficient systems with boosted SOC stocks, reducing both per kilogram and total emissions. Under CLD, increased production leads to 60% higher emissions than in DLD. The results indicate the extent to which deforestation control contributes to sustainable intensification in Cerrado beef systems, and how alternative life-cycle analytical approaches result in significantly different emission estimates.

  18. Simulating greenhouse gas mitigation potentials for Chinese Croplands using the DAYCENT ecosystem model.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kun; Ogle, Stephen M; Parton, William J; Pan, Genxing

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the potential for greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation in agricultural lands is a critical challenge for climate change policy. This study uses the DAYCENT ecosystem model to predict GHG mitigation potentials associated with soil management in Chinese cropland systems. Application of ecosystem models, such as DAYCENT, requires the evaluation of model performance with data sets from experiments relevant to the climate and management of the study region. DAYCENT was evaluated with data from 350 cropland experiments in China, including measurements of nitrous oxide emissions (N2 O), methane emissions (CH4 ), and soil organic carbon (SOC) stock changes. In general, the model was reasonably accurate with R(2) values for model predictions vs. measurements ranging from 0.71 to 0.85. Modeling efficiency varied from 0.65 for SOC stock changes to 0.83 for crop yields. Mitigation potentials were estimated on a yield basis (Mg CO2 -equivalent Mg(-1) Yield). The results demonstrate that the largest decrease in GHG emissions in rainfed systems are associated with combined effect of reducing mineral N fertilization, organic matter amendments and reduced-till coupled with straw return, estimated at 0.31 to 0.83 Mg CO2 -equivalent Mg(-1) Yield. A mitigation potential of 0.08 to 0.36 Mg CO2 -equivalent Mg(-1) Yield is possible by reducing N chemical fertilizer rates, along with intermittent flooding in paddy rice cropping systems.

  19. The true cost of greenhouse gas emissions: analysis of 1,000 global companies.

    PubMed

    Ishinabe, Nagisa; Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2013-01-01

    This study elucidated the shadow price of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for 1,024 international companies worldwide that were surveyed from 15 industries in 37 major countries. Our results indicate that the shadow price of GHG at the firm level is much higher than indicated in previous studies. The higher shadow price was found in this study as a result of the use of Scope 3 GHG emissions data. The results of this research indicate that a firm would carry a high cost of GHG emissions if Scope 3 GHG emissions were the focus of the discussion of corporate social responsibility. In addition, such shadow prices were determined to differ substantially among countries, among sectors, and within sectors. Although a number of studies have calculated the shadow price of GHG emissions, these studies have employed country-level or industry-level data or a small sample of firm-level data in one country. This new data from a worldwide firm analysis of the shadow price of GHG emissions can play an important role in developing climate policy and promoting sustainable development.

  20. The True Cost of Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Analysis of 1,000 Global Companies

    PubMed Central

    Ishinabe, Nagisa; Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2013-01-01

    This study elucidated the shadow price of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for 1,024 international companies worldwide that were surveyed from 15 industries in 37 major countries. Our results indicate that the shadow price of GHG at the firm level is much higher than indicated in previous studies. The higher shadow price was found in this study as a result of the use of Scope 3 GHG emissions data. The results of this research indicate that a firm would carry a high cost of GHG emissions if Scope 3 GHG emissions were the focus of the discussion of corporate social responsibility. In addition, such shadow prices were determined to differ substantially among countries, among sectors, and within sectors. Although a number of studies have calculated the shadow price of GHG emissions, these studies have employed country-level or industry-level data or a small sample of firm-level data in one country. This new data from a worldwide firm analysis of the shadow price of GHG emissions can play an important role in developing climate policy and promoting sustainable development. PMID:24265710

  1. Greenhouse-gas emissions from biofuel use in Asia.

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D. G.; Waldhoff, S. T.

    1999-07-06

    Biomass is a primary fuel for much of the world's population. In some developing countries it can contribute 80-90% of total primary energy consumption. In Asia as a whole we estimate that biomass contributes about 22 EJ, almost 24% of total energy use. Much of this biomass is combusted in inefficient domestic stoves and cookers, enhancing the formation of products of incomplete combustion (PIC), many of which are greenhouse gases. An inventory of the combustion of biofuels (fuelwood, crop residues, and dried animal waste) in Asia is used to develop estimates of the emissions of carbon-containing greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2},CO, CH{sub 4}, and NMHC) in Asian countries. The data are examined from two perspectives: total carbon released and total global warming potential (GWP) of the gases. We estimate that blofuels contributed 573 Tg-C in 1990, about 28% of the total carbon emissions from energy use in Asia. China (259 Tg-C) and India (187 Tg-C) were the largest emitting countries by far. The majority of the emissions, 504 Tg-C, are in the form of CO{sub 2}; however, emissions of non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases are significant: 57 Tg-C as CO, 6.4 Tg-C as CH{sub 4}, and 5.9 Tg-C as NMHC. Because of the high rate of incomplete combustion in typical biofuel stoves and the high GWP coefficients of the products of incomplete combustion, biofuels comprise an even larger share of energy-related emissions when measured in terms of global warming potential (in CO{sub 2} equivalents): 38% over a 20-year time frame and 31% over 100 years. Even when the biofuel is assumed to be harvested on a completely sustainable basis (all CO{sub 2} emissions are reabsorbed in the following growing season), PIC emissions from biofuel combustion account for almost 5% of total carbon emissions and nearly 25% of CO{sub 2} equivalents in terms of short-term (20-year) GWP.

  2. Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Forested Wetland and Upland Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, K. E.; Davidson, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the most important greenhouse gases. Soils are the dominant natural source of N2O, and have been shown to be a small sink under N-limited conditions. Wetlands are a significant natural source of CH4, and dry upland soils a natural CH4 sink. Soils release CO2 produced by both autotrophic (root) and heterotrophic (microbial) respiration processes. Variation in soil moisture can be very dynamic, and it is one of the dominant factors controlling soil aeration, and hence the balance between aerobic (predominantly CO2 producing) and anaerobic (both CO2 and CH4 producing) respiration. The production and consumption of N2O is also highly dependent on spatial and temporal variation in soil moisture. Howland forest, ME is a mosaic of well drained upland, wetland and small transitional upland/wetland soils which makes for a unique and challenging environment to measure the effects of soil moisture on the net exchange of these important greenhouse gases. To quantify the flux of CO2, CH4 and N2O from the Howland forest soils, we utilized a previously developed automated chamber system for measuring CO2 efflux (Licor 6252 IRGA) from soils, and configured it to run in-line with a new model quantum cascade laser (QCL) system which measures N2O and CH4 (Aerodyne model QC-TILDAS-CS). This system allowed for simultaneous, high frequency, continuous measurement of all three greenhouse gases. Fourteen sampling chambers were deployed in an upland soil (8), nearby wetland (3) and a transitional upland/wetland (3). Each chamber was measured every 90 minutes. Upland soils were consistent sources of CO2 and sinks for CH4, however the N2O fluxes were transient between sources and sinks. The wetland soils were consistent sources of high CH4 emissions, low CO2 emissions and a consistently small N2O sink. The transitional upland/wetland soil was a consistent source of CO2 but was much more transient between CH4 and N2O sources and

  3. A suggestion to assess spilled hydrocarbons as a greenhouse gas source

    SciTech Connect

    McAlexander, Benjamin L.

    2014-11-15

    Petroleum-contaminated site management typically counts destruction of hydrocarbons by either natural or engineered processes as a beneficial component of remediation. While such oxidation of spilled hydrocarbons is often necessary for achieving risk reduction for nearby human and ecological receptors, site assessments tend to neglect that this also means that the pollutants are converted to greenhouse gases and emitted to the atmosphere. This article presents a suggestion that the current and long term greenhouse gas emissions from spilled hydrocarbons be incorporated to petroleum site assessments. This would provide a more complete picture of pollutant effects that could then be incorporated to remedial objectives. At some sites, this additional information may affect remedy selection. Possible examples include a shift in emphasis to remedial technologies that reduce pollutant greenhouse gas effects (e.g., by conversion of methane to carbon dioxide in the subsurface), and a more holistic context for considering remedial technologies with low emission footprints.

  4. Estimating methane gas generation from Devil's swamp landfill using greenhouse gas emission models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeyemi, Ayodeji Thompson

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) has been a key issue in the study, design, and management of landfills. Landfill gas (LFG) is considered either as a significant source of renewable energy (if extracted and processed accordingly) or significant source of pollution and risk (if not mitigated or processed). A municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill emits a significant amount of methane, a potent GHG. Thus, quantification and mitigation of GHG emissions is an important area of study in engineering and other sciences related to landfill technology and management. The present study will focus on estimating methane generation from Devils swamp landfill (DSLF), a closed landfill in Baton Rouge, LA. The landfill operated for 53 years (1940-1993) and contains both industrial and municipal waste products. Since the Clean Air Act of 1963, landfills are now classified as New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) waste (i.e., waste that will decompose to generate LFG). Currently, the DSLF is being used as source of renewable energy through the "Waste to Energy" program. For this study, to estimate the methane potential in the DSLF, it is important to determine the characteristics and classification of the landfill's wastes. The study uses and compares different GHG modeling tools---LandGEM, a multiphase model, and a simple first-order model---to estimate methane gas emission and compare results with the actual emissions from the DSLF. The sensitivity of the methane generation rate was analyzed by the methane generation models to assess the effects of variables such as initial conditions, specific growth rate, and reaction rate constants. The study concludes that methane (L0) and initial organic concentration in waste (k) are the most important parameters when estimating methane generation using the models.

  5. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Accounting of Urban Residential Consumption: A Household Survey Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tao; Yu, Yunjun; Bai, Xuemei; Feng, Ling; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Devising policies for a low carbon city requires a careful understanding of the characteristics of urban residential lifestyle and consumption. The production-based accounting approach based on top-down statistical data has a limited ability to reflect the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from residential consumption. In this paper, we present a survey-based GHG emissions accounting methodology for urban residential consumption, and apply it in Xiamen City, a rapidly urbanizing coastal city in southeast China. Based on this, the main influencing factors determining residential GHG emissions at the household and community scale are identified, and the typical profiles of low, medium and high GHG emission households and communities are identified. Up to 70% of household GHG emissions are from regional and national activities that support household consumption including the supply of energy and building materials, while 17% are from urban level basic services and supplies such as sewage treatment and solid waste management, and only 13% are direct emissions from household consumption. Housing area and household size are the two main factors determining GHG emissions from residential consumption at the household scale, while average housing area and building height were the main factors at the community scale. Our results show a large disparity in GHG emissions profiles among different households, with high GHG emissions households emitting about five times more than low GHG emissions households. Emissions from high GHG emissions communities are about twice as high as from low GHG emissions communities. Our findings can contribute to better tailored and targeted policies aimed at reducing household GHG emissions, and developing low GHG emissions residential communities in China. PMID:23405187

  6. Insights from EMF Associated Agricultural and Forestry Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Studies

    SciTech Connect

    McCarl, Bruce A.; Murray, Brian; Kim, Man-Keun; Lee, Heng-Chi; Sands, Ronald D.; Schneider, Uwe

    2007-11-19

    Integrated assessment modeling (IAM) as employed by the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) generally involves a multi-sector appraisal of greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) mitigation alternatives and climate change effects typically at the global level. Such a multi-sector evaluation encompasses potential climate change effects and mitigative actions within the agricultural and forestry (AF) sectors. In comparison with many of the other sectors covered by IAM, the AF sectors may require somewhat different treatment due to their critical dependence upon spatially and temporally varying resource and climatic conditions. In particular, in large countries like the United States, forest production conditions vary dramatically across the landscape. For example, some areas in the southern US present conditions favorable to production of fast growing, heat tolerant pine species, while more northern regions often favor slower-growing hardwood and softwood species. Moreover, some lands are currently not suitable for forest production (e.g., the arid western plains). Similarly, in agriculture, the US has areas where citrus and cotton can be grown and other areas where barley and wheat are more suitable. This diversity across the landscape causes differential GHGE mitigation potential in the face of climatic changes and/or responses to policy or price incentives. It is difficult for a reasonably sized global IAM system to reflect the full range of sub-national geographic AF production possibilities alluded to above. AF response in the face of climate change altered temperature precipitation regimes or mitigation incentives will likely involve region-specific shifts in land use and agricultural/forest production. This chapter addresses AF sectoral responses in climate change mitigation analysis. Specifically, we draw upon US-based studies of AF GHGE mitigation possibilities that incorporate sub-national detail drawing largely on a body of studies done by the authors in association with

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions accounting of urban residential consumption: a household survey based approach.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Yu, Yunjun; Bai, Xuemei; Feng, Ling; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Devising policies for a low carbon city requires a careful understanding of the characteristics of urban residential lifestyle and consumption. The production-based accounting approach based on top-down statistical data has a limited ability to reflect the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from residential consumption. In this paper, we present a survey-based GHG emissions accounting methodology for urban residential consumption, and apply it in Xiamen City, a rapidly urbanizing coastal city in southeast China. Based on this, the main influencing factors determining residential GHG emissions at the household and community scale are identified, and the typical profiles of low, medium and high GHG emission households and communities are identified. Up to 70% of household GHG emissions are from regional and national activities that support household consumption including the supply of energy and building materials, while 17% are from urban level basic services and supplies such as sewage treatment and solid waste management, and only 13% are direct emissions from household consumption. Housing area and household size are the two main factors determining GHG emissions from residential consumption at the household scale, while average housing area and building height were the main factors at the community scale. Our results show a large disparity in GHG emissions profiles among different households, with high GHG emissions households emitting about five times more than low GHG emissions households. Emissions from high GHG emissions communities are about twice as high as from low GHG emissions communities. Our findings can contribute to better tailored and targeted policies aimed at reducing household GHG emissions, and developing low GHG emissions residential communities in China.

  8. Developing a data life cycle for carbon and greenhouse gas measurements: challenges, experiences and visions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsch, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental research infrastructures and big data integration networks require common data policies, standardized workflows and sophisticated e-infrastructure to optimise the data life cycle. This presentation summarizes the experiences in developing the data life cycle for the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS), a European Research Infrastructure. It will also outline challenges that still exist and visions for future development. As many other environmental research infrastructures ICOS RI built on a large number of distributed observational or experimental sites. Data from these sites are transferred to Thematic Centres and quality checked, processed and integrated there. Dissemination will be managed by the ICOS Carbon Portal. This complex data life cycle has been defined in detail by developing protocols and assigning responsibilities. Since data will be shared under an open access policy there is a strong need for common data citation tracking systems that allow data providers to identify downstream usage of their data so as to prove their importance and show the impact to stakeholders and the public. More challenges arise from interoperating with other infrastructures or providing data for global integration projects as done e.g. in the framework of GEOSS or in global integration approaches such as fluxnet or SOCAt. Here, common metadata systems are the key solutions for data detection and harvesting. The metadata characterises data, services, users and ICT resources (including sensors and detectors). Risks may arise when data of high and low quality are mixed during this process or unexperienced data scientists without detailed knowledge on the data aquisition derive scientific theories through statistical analyses. The vision of fully open data availability is expressed in a recent GEO flagship initiative that will address important issues needed to build a connected and interoperable global network for carbon cycle and greenhouse gas

  9. A scenario analysis of the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of a new residential area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Säynäjoki, Antti; Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2012-09-01

    While buildings are often credited as accounting for some 40% of the global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the construction phase is typically assumed to account for only around one tenth of the overall emissions. However, the relative importance of construction phase emissions is quickly increasing as the energy efficiency of buildings increases. In addition, the significance of construction may actually be much higher when the temporal perspective of the emissions is taken into account. The construction phase carbon spike, i.e. high GHG emissions in a short time associated with the beginning of the building’s life cycle, may be high enough to question whether new construction, no matter how energy efficient the buildings are, can contribute to reaching the greenhouse gas mitigation goals of the near future. Furthermore, the construction of energy efficient buildings causes more GHG emissions than the construction of conventional buildings. On the other hand, renovating the current building stock together with making energy efficiency improvements might lead to a smaller construction phase carbon spike and still to the same reduced energy consumption in the use phase as the new energy efficient buildings. The study uses a new residential development project in Northern Europe to assess the overall life cycle GHG emissions of a new residential area and to evaluate the influence of including the temporal allocation of the life cycle GHG emissions in the assessment. In the study, buildings with different energy efficiency levels are compared with a similar hypothetical area of buildings of the average existing building stock, as well as with a renovation of an area with average buildings from the 1960s. The GHG emissions are modeled with a hybrid life cycle assessment. The study suggests that the carbon payback time of constructing new residential areas is several decades long even when using very energy efficient buildings compared to utilizing the current

  10. 78 FR 52898 - Science-Based Methods for Entity-Scale Quantification of Greenhouse Gas Sources and Sinks From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Science-Based Methods for Entity-Scale Quantification of Greenhouse Gas Sources and Sinks From Agriculture... methods for quantifying entity-scale greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals from the agriculture and... emissions and carbon sequestration at the farm-, forest- and entity-scale. The report and other...

  11. Comparison of net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity affected by management practices in two dryland cropping sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the effect of management practices on net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) that account for all sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in dryland cropping systems. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of a combinat...

  12. Improving greenhouse gas reduction calculations for bioenergy systems: Incremental life cycle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ney, Richard A.

    There are many scales that can be employed to calculate net greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy systems, ranging from single point source (stack gas) measurement, to full, multi-layered life cycle analyses considering all of the inputs and outputs throughout the economy. At an appropriate scale within these extremes, a method can be selected to support verification activities related to project-based trading of greenhouse gas emissions. The boundaries of the analysis must be carefully selected in order to meet the twin goals of the verification activity: (1) to meet scientific standards for emission balance quantification; and (2) to meet cost-effectiveness criteria of the emission trading community. The Incremental Life Cycle Analysis (ILCA) methodology is proposed and implemented for the quantification of greenhouse gas emission reductions arising from substitution of switchgrass for coal in electricity generation. The method utilizes an incremental progression through the fuel life cycle, evaluating each level of the life cycle for the quality the emission estimate produced. The method also reviews the scientific uncertainty underlying emission estimation procedures so that areas of relative weakness can be targeted and improved. The ILCA methodology is applied to the Chariton Valley Biomass Project (CVBP) for case study and evaluation. The CVBP is seeking to replace coal combustion in an existing 650-MW generation facility with switchgrass, cofired at a rate of 5 percent switchgrass to 95 percent coal. When the project reaches full capacity, the ILCA estimates that 239 pounds of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO2-eq) emissions will be reduced and/or removed from the atmosphere for every million Btu of switchgrass utilized, generating annual greenhouse gas reductions of 305,000 tons CO2-eq, leading to revenue for the project totaling over $1.5 million annually through trading of greenhouse gas emission reduction credits.

  13. Bringing a needle to a laser fight: comparing greenhouse gas sampling methods with gas chromatography and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As scientists, producers, policymakers, and the general public become more concerned about impacts of climate change, there is an increasing need to understand and quantify greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural practices, which often feed into global, multi-institution databases. Current best p...

  14. The effect of floating vegetation on denitrification and greenhouse gas production in wetland mesocosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, A. E.; Harrison, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic intensification of nitrogen (N) loading to aquatic ecosystems is widespread and can lead to the degradation of these systems. Wetlands are important sites for N removal via denitrification, the microbially mediated reduction of reactive nitrate to inert N2 gas, but they can also produce high levels of greenhouse gases. Floating plants play an important role in encouraging denitrification, since they create low oxygen conditions that may favor denitrification. We investigated whether wetland sediments with floating plant cover had higher denitrification and greenhouse gas production rates than wetland sediments without floating plants. Replicate flow-through mesocosms with wetland sediment and water were constructed in a growth chamber to mimic the wetland where the sediment and water were collected. Mesocosm treatments were covered with floating vegetation (duckweed), an opaque tarp, or no cover to determine how cover type affects denitrification and greenhouse gas production and whether biotic or abiotic factors are likely responsible for observed differences. Denitrification and greenhouse gas production rates were calculated by measuring excess N2 gas, methane, and nitrous oxide concentrations in the water column and measuring the gas exchange rates between the water column and the atmosphere. Gas exchange rates were measured using an inert volatile tracer added to the water column and accumulation of gas in the mesocosm headspace. Additional mesocosm experiments were performed to determine how duckweed-dominated wetland systems respond to nitrogen loading and which mechanism for lowering dissolved oxygen concentrations is important in affecting denitrification under floating vegetation. Mesocosms with floating vegetation had lower dissolved oxygen than no cover or tarp-covered mesocosms, which is consistent with field and literature observations. Water flowing out of the mesocosms had statistically lower total nitrogen and nitrate concentrations

  15. A review of water and greenhouse gas impacts of unconventional natural gas development in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, Doug; Logan, Jeff; Macknick, Jordan; Boyd, William; Medlock , Kenneth; O'Sullivan, Francis; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Huntington, Hill; Heath, Garvin; Statwick, Patricia M.; Bazilian, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in the production and use of unconventional natural gas in the United States with a focus on water and greenhouse gas emission implications. If unconventional natural gas in the U.S. is produced responsibly, transported and distributed with little leakage, and incorporated into integrated energy systems that are designed for future resiliency, it could play a significant role in realizing a more sustainable energy future; however, the increased use of natural gas as a substitute for more carbon intensive fuels will alone not substantially alter world carbon dioxide concentration projections.

  16. Beyond the Inventory: Planning for Campus Greenhouse Gas Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Climate change planning is fast becoming an important element in university policy and governance. As the causes and impacts of global climate change become more apparent, many universities are embracing climate planning roles as community leaders, educators and researchers, and operators of major activity centers. For example, 685 university…

  17. [Research on greenhouse-gas-induced climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesinger, M.

    1995-12-31

    This climate research focuses on the following topics: model development and testing; climate simulations and analyses; analyses of observed climate; development of analysis methods; global warming: physics, economics and policy; and participation in international research efforts. Also summarized are six projects that are proposed for the next five years.

  18. Minimizing field time to get reasonable greenhouse gas flux estimates from many chambers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse gas measurements from soil are typically derived from static chambers placed in several replicate field plots and in multiple locations within a plot. Inherent variability in emissions is due to a number of known and unknown factors. Getting robust emission estimates from numerous chamber...

  19. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2013

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the 2015 U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory developed by the U.S. Government to meet U.S. commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This version of the inventory covers the period from 1990 to 2013.

  20. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2007

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the 2009 U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory developed by the U.S. Government to meet U.S. commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This version of the inventory covers the period from 1990 to 2007.

  1. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2006

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the 2008 U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory developed by the U.S. Government to meet U.S. commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This version of the inventory covers the period from 1990 to 2006.

  2. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2008

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the 2008 U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory developed by the U.S. Government to meet U.S. commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This version of the inventory covers the period from 1990 to 2008.

  3. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2012

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the 2014 U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory developed by the U.S. Government to meet U.S. commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This version of the inventory covers the period from 1990 to 2012.

  4. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2011

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the 2013 U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory developed by the U.S. Government to meet U.S. commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This version of the inventory covers the period from 1990 to 2011.

  5. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2009

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the 2011 U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory developed by the U.S. Government to meet U.S. commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This version of the inventory covers the period from 1990 to 2009.

  6. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2010

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the 2012 U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory developed by the U.S. Government to meet U.S. commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This version of the inventory covers the period from 1990 to 2010.

  7. 78 FR 24378 - 2013 Revisions to the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule and Proposed Confidentiality Determinations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AR52 2013 Revisions to the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule and Proposed Confidentiality Determinations for New or Substantially Revised Data Elements Correction In proposed rule...

  8. Chapter 5: Quantifying greenhouse gas sources and sinks in animal production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this publication is to develop methods to quantify greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from U.S. agriculture and forestry. This chapter provides guidance for reporting GHG emissions from animal production systems. In particular, it focuses on methods for estimating emissions from beef cat...

  9. Groundwater pollution potential and greenhouse gas emission from soils amended with different swine biochars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although there exist numerous research studies in the literature on greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of soils amended with plant-based biochar made from traditional dry pyrolysis (hereafter referred as pyrochar), a very few such studies exist for hydrochar made from hydro...

  10. Greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of soils amended with raw and carbonized swine solids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research is to study the greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of the soils amended with raw swine solids and swine biochars made from different thermochemical conditions. Triplicate sets of small pots were designed: 1) control soil with a 50/50 mixture o...

  11. Greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of soils amended with different swine biochars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to study the greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of the soils amended with various biochars using different biomass feedstocks and thermal processing conditions. Triplicate sets of small pots were designed; control soil consisting of Histi...

  12. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-1996

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the 1998 U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory developed by the U.S. Government to meet U.S. commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This version of the inventory covers the period from 1990 to 1996.

  13. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-1997

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the 1999 U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory developed by the U.S. Government to meet U.S. commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This version of the inventory covers the period from 1990 to 1997.

  14. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-1998

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the 2000 U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory developed by the U.S. Government to meet U.S. commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This version of the inventory covers the period from 1990 to 1998.

  15. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2001

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the 2003 U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory developed by the U.S. Government to meet U.S. commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This version of the inventory covers the period from 1990 to 2001.

  16. Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions with Crop Production for Biofuel: Implications for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The growing biofuel commodity market for corn ethanol has the potential to reduce direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with fossil fuel combustion in the US. However, projected increases in cropland to accommodate this energy-based commodity will also impact emissions of GHGs from soils...

  17. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential of dryland cropping systems in the U.S. Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Great Plains contain significant expanses of agricultural land dedicated to dryland cropping. Dryland cropping systems in the region that sequester soil organic carbon (SOC) and minimize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions can serve to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of U.S. agriculture....

  18. Net greenhouse gas emissions affected by sheep grazing under dryland cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep grazing to control weeds during fallow may influence greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by consuming crop residue and returning feces and urine to the soil. We evaluated the effect of sheep grazing compared to herbicide application for weed control on soil temperature and water content at the 0- t...

  19. Soil greenhouse gas emissions affected by sheep grazing under dryland cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep grazing to control weeds during fallow may influence soil greenhouse gas (CO2, N2O, and CH4) emissions by consuming crop residue and returning feces and urine to the soil. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of sheep grazing compared to herbicide application on soil temperature ...

  20. Biochar alters manure's effect on nitrogen cycling and greenhouse gas emissions in a calcareous soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few multiyear field studies have examined the impacts of a one-time biochar application on net N mineralization and greenhouse gas emissions in an irrigated, calcareous soil; yet such applications are hypothesized as a means of sequestering atmospheric CO2 and improving soil quality. We fall-applie...

  1. Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater were measured with closed-chamber technique using a photoacoustic multigas analyzer. Theory behind the technique was discussed and the technique was demonstrated with actual field data. Nitrous ...

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure: Delaying pile mixing does not reduce overall emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of the timing of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during dairy manure composting was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover replicate pilot-scale compost piles. GHG emissions from compost piles that were mixed at 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks after initial c...

  3. Pile mixing increases greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from stored dairy manure was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover pilot-scale manure piles. GHG emissions from piles that were mixed four times during the 80 day trial were about 20% higher than unmixed piles. ...

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedlot pen surfaces in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate estimation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including nitrous oxide and methane from open-lot beef cattle feedlots is an increasing concern given the current and potential future reporting requirements for GHG emissions. Research concerning nitrous oxide and methane fluxes from the manure...

  5. Sub-surface soil carbon changes affects biofuel greenhouse gas emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in direct soil organic carbon (SOC) can have a major impact on overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from biofuels when using life-cycle assessment (LCA). Estimated changes in SOC, when accounted for in an LCA, are typically derived from near-surface soil depths (<30 cm). Changes in subsurf...

  6. Extraction, drainage, rewetting, flooding - Patterns of greenhouse gas turnover in restoring temperate peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatzel, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    The disturbance of natural peatlands destroys carbon sink and is often associated with nitrous oxide emissions. Therefore, the general efforts to mitigate greenhouse gas sources and to create carbon sinks also include peatland restoration. The variety of peatland type (most importantly bog or fen), use (extraction or agriculture), and restoration technique (rewetting or flooding) result in specific patterns of greenhouse gas uptake or emission. Based on examples from own work, I present an overview of the greenhouse gas turnover of following sites: • Cutover peat bogs in Eastern Canada and following rewetting, flooding, and abandonment • Drained cutover and agriculturally used peat bogs in Northern Germany and following extensive agricultural management, paludiculture, rewetting, flooding, and abandonment • Drained agriculturally used fens in Northern Germany and following flooding and paludiculture I show that rewetting, but not flooding may succeed in re-establishing long-term carbon sinks with low methane release rates comparable to the greenhouse gas turnover known from natural peatlands. Flooding risks creating, at least in the short term, extremely strong methane sources. Extensive agricultural management and paludiculture may result in low methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide release rates and could be a sensible option when aiming at reconciling peatland use and protection.

  7. Interactions among energy consumption, economic development and greenhouse gas emissions in Japan after World War II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The long-term dynamic changes in the triad, energy consumption, economic development, and Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in Japan after World War II were quantified, and the interactions among them were analyzed based on an integrated suite of energy, emergy and economic indices...

  8. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-1999

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the 2001 U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory developed by the U.S. Government to meet U.S. commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This version of the inventory covers the period from 1990 to 1999.

  9. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) MITIGATION AND MONITORING TECHNOLOGY PERFORMANCE: ACTIVITIES OF THE GHG TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and monitoring technology performance activities of the GHG Technology Verification Center. The Center is a public/private partnership between Southern Research Institute and the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development. It...

  10. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2005

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the 2007 U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory developed by the U.S. Government to meet U.S. commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This version of the inventory covers the period from 1990 to 2005.

  11. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2000

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the 2002 U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory developed by the U.S. Government to meet U.S. commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This version of the inventory covers the period from 1990 to 2000.

  12. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2004

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the 2006 U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory developed by the U.S. Government to meet U.S. commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This version of the inventory covers the period from 1990 to 2004.

  13. Evaluating the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation in dairy production.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Process-level modeling at the farm scale provides a tool for evaluating strategies for both mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to climate change. The Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) simulates representative crop, beef or dairy farms over many years of weather to predict performance...

  14. Subjective Well-Being Approach to Environmental Valuation: Evidence for Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beja, Edsel L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The subjective well-being approach to environmental valuation is applied to analyze the valuation of greenhouse gas emissions with a fairness-adjustment in the valuation exercise. Results indicate that industrialized countries have high willingness-to-pay to reduce emissions. Developing countries differ in their valuations. Results indicate that…

  15. Reducing Energy Cost and Greenhouse Gas Emission in the Corporate Sector, a Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Maxim L.

    2013-01-01

    The study is titled "Reducing energy cost and GreenHouse Gas emission in the corporate sector, A Delphi Study". The study applied the Delphi methodology and focused on the Green IT solutions that can help the modern corporate organizations with less than 1000 employees to decrease their energy costs and GHG emissions. The study presents…

  16. Cellulosic and grain bioenergy crops reduce net greenhouse gas emissions associated with transportation fuels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioenergy cropping systems could help offset GHG emissions, but quantifying that offset is complex. Adler et al. (2007, Ecol. Appl. 17:675-691) conducted a life cycle assessment of the net greenhouse gas flux from bioenergy cropping systems. Compared with the life cycle of gasoline and diesel, ethan...

  17. PROCEEDINGS: THE 1995 SYMPOSIUM ON GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND MITIGATION RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the 1995 Symposium on Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Research, sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division (EPA/APPCD), in Washington, DC on June 27-29, 1995. The symposium provided a forum of...

  18. Regulating greenhouse gas 'leakage': how California can evade the impending constitutional attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Brian H. Potts

    2006-06-15

    Federalist greenhouse gas regulation poses many constitutional pitfalls, and some fear that California's cap-and-trade and procurement cap proposals are vulnerable to constitutional challenge. An attack under the commerce clause seems to pose the biggest threat, but the author proposes an alternative that can eliminate this threat: market participation.

  19. Regulating Greenhouse Gas 'Leakage': How California Can Evade the Impending Constitutional Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Potts, Brian H.

    2006-06-15

    Federalist greenhouse gas regulation poses many constitutional pitfalls, and some fear that California's cap-and-trade and procurement cap proposals are vulnerable to constitutional challenge. An attack under the commerce clause seems to pose the biggest threat, but the author proposes an alternative that can eliminate this threat: market participation. (author)

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedlot pen surfaces in Texas during fall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate estimation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including nitrous oxide and methane from open beef cattle feedlots is an increasing concern given the current and potential future reporting requirements for GHG emissions. Research measuring emission fluxes of nitrous oxide and methane from ope...

  1. Nitrogen deposition and greenhouse gas emissions from grasslands: uncertainties and future directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increases in atmospheric nitrogen deposition (Ndep) can strongly affect the greenhouse gas (GHG; CO2, CH4 and N2O) sink capacity of terrestrial ecosystems. Grasslands play an important role in determining the concentration of GHGs in the atmosphere. Robust predictions of the net GHG sink strength of...

  2. EPA Takes First Steps to Address Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aircraft

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (06/10/15 -ATLANTA) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing to find under the Clean Air Act that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from commercial aircraft contribute to the pollution that causes climate change endangering the hea

  3. Sustainable bioenergy feedstock production systems: Integrating carbon dynamics, erosion, water quality, and greenhouse gas production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emission is one of several rationales for developing renewable biomass energy. Unfortunately, there are few studies reporting direct impacts of harvesting biomass feedstocks on GHG, especially effects on nitrous oxide (N2O) flux. Overzealous biomass harvest may accelera...

  4. Transformative Reduction of Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Opportunities for Change in Technologies and Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vimmerstedt, Laura; Brown, Austin; Newes, Emily; Markel, Tony; Schroeder, Alex; Zhang, Yimin; Chipman, Peter; Johnson, Shawn

    2015-04-30

    The transportation sector is changing, influenced by concurrent, ongoing, dynamic trends that could dramatically affect the future energy landscape, including effects on the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Battery cost reductions and improved performance coupled with a growing number of electric vehicle model offerings are enabling greater battery electric vehicle market penetration, and advances in fuel cell technology and decreases in hydrogen production costs are leading to initial fuel cell vehicle offerings. Radically more efficient vehicles based on both conventional and new drivetrain technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle-mile. Net impacts also depend on the energy sources used for propulsion, and these are changing with increased use of renewable energy and unconventional fossil fuel resources. Connected and automated vehicles are emerging for personal and freight transportation systems and could increase use of low- or non-emitting technologies and systems; however, the net effects of automation on greenhouse gas emissions are uncertain. The longstanding trend of an annual increase in transportation demand has reversed for personal vehicle miles traveled in recent years, demonstrating the possibility of lower-travel future scenarios. Finally, advanced biofuel pathways have continued to develop, highlighting low-carbon and in some cases carbon-negative fuel pathways. We discuss the potential for transformative reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions through these emerging transportation-sector technologies and trends and present a Clean Transportation Sector Initiative scenario for such reductions, which are summarized in Table ES-1.

  5. 76 FR 37175 - FY 2011 Discretionary Sustainability Funding Opportunity Transit Investments for Greenhouse Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Investments for Greenhouse Gas and Energy Reduction (TIGGER) Program and Clean Fuels Grant Program, Augmented... fossil fuels, making America energy independent by: Breaking Dependence on Oil. Promote the next... use of fossil fuels. Producing More Energy at Home. Enhance U.S. energy supplies through...

  6. 75 FR 18942 - FY 2010 Discretionary Sustainability Funding Opportunity; Transit Investments for Greenhouse Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Investments for Greenhouse Gas and Energy Reduction (TIGGER) Program and Clean Fuels Grant Program, Augmented... dependence on fossil fuels, making America energy independent by: Breaking Dependence on Oil. Provide... of alternative fuel vehicles. Producing More Energy at Home. Enhance U.S. energy supplies...

  7. Computer simulation of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and process economics of the fluid milk process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On-farm activities associated with fluid milk production contribute approximately 70% of total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while off-farm activities arising from milk processing, packaging, and refrigeration, contribute the remainder in the form of energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. W...

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from an irrigated dairy forage rotation as influenced by fertilizer and manure applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information is available regarding the long-term effects of nitrogen (N) fertilizer source on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from irrigated semiarid agricultural soils. In this study, conducted in south-central Idaho, we report nitrous oxide emissions along with carbon dioxide and methane fro...

  9. Spatial and Temporal Variations in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from an Agricultural Reservoir

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reservoirs are being built at an increasing rate each year to provide humans with resources such as hydroelectric power and drinking water. These man-made systems have provided society with important services, but these have come at the cost of enhanced greenhouse gas (GHG) emiss...

  10. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity affected by cropping sequence and nitrogen fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information is available about management practice effects on the net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) under dryland cropping systems. We evaluated the effects of cropping sequences (conventional-tillage malt barley [Hordeum vulgaris L.]–fallow [CTB-F], no-ti...

  11. Calculating the detection limits of chamber-based soil greenhouse gas flux measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Renewed interest in quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from soil has lead to an increase in the application of chamber-based flux measurement techniques. Despite the apparent conceptual simplicity of chamber-based methods, nuances in chamber design, deployment, and data analyses can have marked ef...

  12. Life cycle greenhouse gas and energy assessment of winegrape production in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: This study applies life cycle assessment (LCA) to assess greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use, and direct water use in winegrape production across common vineyard management scenarios in two representative growing regions of California, USA (Napa and Lodi). California hosts 90 percent...

  13. Corn stover removal impacts on soil greenhouse gas emissions in irrigated continuous corn systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvesting corn stover for livestock feed or for cellulosic biofuel production may impact the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential of high-yield irrigated corn. Soil emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured over the 2011 growing season at two irri...

  14. Water and greenhouse gas tradeoffs associated with a transition to a low carbon transportation system

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transportation fuels are heavily dominated by the use of petroleum, but concerns over oil depletion, energy security, and greenhouse gas emissions from petroleum combustion are driving the search for alternatives. As we look to shift away from petroleum-based transportation fuels...

  15. Chapter 10 - Management to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Western U.S. Croplands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture is a major activity in the western U.S. with approximately 57 million ha of harvested cropland of which 27% is irrigated; however, irrigated crops account for a high proportion of the economic returns because of their high economic value. We sought to summarize greenhouse gas (GHG) flux ...

  16. Chapter 10 – Management to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Western U.S. Croplands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture is a major activity in the western U.S. with approximately 57 million ha of harvested cropland of which 27% is irrigated; however, irrigated crops account for a high proportion of the economic returns because of their high economic value. We sought to summarize greenhouse gas (GHG) flux ...

  17. Production, management, and environment symposium: Environmental footprint of livestock production - Greenhouse gas emissions and climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is the introduction to the 2015 Production, Management, and Environment symposium titled “Environmental Footprint of Livestock Production – Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change” that was held at the Joint Annual Meeting of the ASAS and ADSA at the Rosen Shingle Creek Resort in...

  18. Measurement of greenhouse gas flux from agricultural soils using static chambers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurement of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes between the soil and the atmosphere, in both managed and unmanaged ecosystems, is critical to understanding the biogeochemical drivers of climate change and to the development and evaluation of GHG mitigation strategies based on modulation of landscape mana...

  19. The Effect of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation on Drought Impacts in the U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper, we present a methodology for analyzing the economic benefits in the U.S. of changes in drought frequency and severity due to global greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. We construct reduced-form models of the effect of drought on agriculture and reservoir recreation i...

  20. Software for evaluating greenhouse gas emissions and the carbon footprint of dairy production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract: Dairy production, along with all other types of animal agriculture, is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but little information exists on the net emissions from our farms. Component models for representing all important sources and sinks of CH4, N2O, and CO2 in dairy p...

  1. Strategies to meet the challenges of monitoring greenhouse gas emissions in agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying and predicting soil carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural systems have been research goals for numerous institutions, especially since the turn of the millennium. Cost, time, and politics are variables that have limited the rapid development of robust quant...

  2. 75 FR 49913 - Draft Guidance, “Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... QUALITY Draft Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting'' AGENCY: Council on... Federal agencies. Among other provisions, E.O. 13514 requires agencies to measure, report, and reduce... and accounting procedures. On April 5, 2010, DOE-FEMP submitted the final recommendations on...

  3. Managing the nitrogen cycle to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from crop production and biofuel expansion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS2) established under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 requires greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to be lower for biofuels relative to fossil fuel combustion. However, there is an extensive debate in the literature about the potential to red...

  4. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2002

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the 2004 U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory developed by the U.S. Government to meet U.S. commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This version of the inventory covers the period from 1990 to 2002.

  5. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2003

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the 2005 U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory developed by the U.S. Government to meet U.S. commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This version of the inventory covers the period from 1990 to 2003.

  6. PROTOTYPE TOOL FOR EVALUATING THE COST AND EFFECTIVENESS OF GREENHOUSE GAS MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper introduces the structure of a tool, being developed by the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development, that will be able to analyze the benefits of new technologies and strategies for controlling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. When completed, the tool will be able ...

  7. Effect of different agronomic practises on greenhouse gas emissions, especially N2O and nutrient cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koal, Philipp; Schilling, Rolf; Gerl, Georg; Pritsch, Karin; Munch, Jean Charles

    2014-05-01

    In order to achieve a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, management practises need to be adapted by implementing sustainable land use. At first, reliable field data are required to assess the effect of different farming practises on greenhouse gas budgets. The conducted field experiment covers and compares two main aspects of agricultural management, namely an organic farming system and an integrated farming system, implementing additionally the effects of diverse tillage systems and fertilisation practises. Furthermore, the analysis of the alterable biological, physical and chemical soil properties enables a link between the impact of different management systems on greenhouse gas emissions and the monitored cycle of matter, especially the nitrogen cycle. Measurements were carried out on long-term field trials at the Research Farm Scheyern located in a Tertiary hilly landscape approximately 40 km north of Munich (South Germany). The long-term field trials of the organic and integrated farming system were started in 1992. Since then, parcels in a field (each around 0,2-0,4 ha) with a particular interior plot set-up have been conducted. So the 20 years impacts of different tillage and fertilisation practises on soil properties including trace gases were examined. Fluxes of CH4, N2O and CO2 are monitored since 2007 for the integrated farming system trial and since 2012 for the organic farming system trial using an automated system which consists of chambers (per point: 4 chambers, each covering 0,4 m2 area) with a motor-driven lid, an automated gas sampling unit, an on-line gas chromatographic analysis system, and a control and data logging unit (Flessa et al. 2002). Each chamber is sampled 3-4 times in 24 hours. The main outcomes are the analysis of temporal and spatial dynamics of greenhouse gas fluxes as influenced by management practice events (fertilisation and tillage) and weather effects (drying-rewetting, freezing-thawing, intense rainfall and dry periods

  8. Life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission impacts of different corn ethanol plant types.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.; Wu, M.; Huo, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-04-01

    Since the United States began a program to develop ethanol as a transportation fuel, its use has increased from 175 million gallons in 1980 to 4.9 billion gallons in 2006. Virtually all of the ethanol used for transportation has been produced from corn. During the period of fuel ethanol growth, corn farming productivity has increased dramatically, and energy use in ethanol plants has been reduced by almost by half. The majority of corn ethanol plants are powered by natural gas. However, as natural gas prices have skyrocketed over the last several years, efforts have been made to further reduce the energy used in ethanol plants or to switch from natural gas to other fuels, such as coal and wood chips. In this paper, we examine nine corn ethanol plant types--categorized according to the type of process fuels employed, use of combined heat and power, and production of wet distiller grains and solubles. We found that these ethanol plant types can have distinctly different energy and greenhouse gas emission effects on a full fuel-cycle basis. In particular, greenhouse gas emission impacts can vary significantly--from a 3% increase if coal is the process fuel to a 52% reduction if wood chips are used. Our results show that, in order to achieve energy and greenhouse gas emission benefits, researchers need to closely examine and differentiate among the types of plants used to produce corn ethanol so that corn ethanol production would move towards a more sustainable path.

  9. Increased polar stratospheric ozone losses and delayed eventual recovery owing to increasing greenhouse-gas concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindell, Drew T.; Rind, David; Lonergan, Patrick

    1998-04-01

    The chemical reactions responsible for stratospheric ozone depletion are extremely sensitive to temperature. Greenhouse gases warm the Earth's surface but cool the stratosphere radiatively and therefore affect ozone depletion. Here we investigate the interplay between projected future emissions of greenhouse gases and levels of ozone-depleting halogen species using a global climate model that incorporates simplified ozone-depletion chemistry. Temperature and wind changes induced by the increasing greenhouse-gas concentrations alter planetary-wave propagation in our model, reducing the frequency of sudden stratospheric warmings in the Northern Hemisphere. This results in a more stable Arctic polar vortex, with significantly colder temperatures in the lower stratosphere and concomitantly increased ozone depletion. Increased concentrations of greenhouse gases might therefore be at least partly responsible for the very large Arctic ozone losses observed in recent winters. Arctic losses reach a maximum in the decade 2010 to 2019 in our model, roughly a decade after the maximum in stratospheric chlorine abundance. The mean losses are about the same as those over the Antarctic during the early 1990s, with geographically localized losses of up to two-thirds of the Arctic ozone column in the worst years. The severity and the duration of the Antarctic ozone hole are also predicted to increase because of greenhouse-gas-induced stratospheric cooling over the coming decades.

  10. Developing Water Resource Security in a Greenhouse Gas Constrained Context - A Case Study in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarroja, B.; Aghakouchak, A.; Samuelsen, S.

    2015-12-01

    The onset of drought conditions in regions such as California due to shortfalls in precipitation has brought refreshed attention to the vulnerability of our water supply paradigm to changes in climate patterns. In the face of a changing climate which can exacerbate drought conditions in already dry areas, building resiliency into our water supply infrastructure requires some decoupling of water supply availability from climate behavior through conservation, efficiency, and alternative water supply measures such as desalination and water reuse. The installation of these measures requires varying degrees of direct energy inputs and/or impacts the energy usage of the water supply infrastructure (conveyance, treatment, distribution, wastewater treatment). These impacts have implications for greenhouse gas emissions from direct fuel usage or impacts on the emissions from the electric grid. At the scale that these measures may need to be deployed to secure water supply availability, especially under climate change impacted hydrology, they can potentially pose obstacles for meeting greenhouse gas emissions reduction and renewable utilization goals. Therefore, the portfolio of these measures must be such that detrimental impacts on greenhouse gas emissions are minimized. This study combines climate data with a water reservoir network model and an electric grid dispatch model for the water-energy system of California to evaluate 1) the different pathways and scale of alternative water resource measures needed to secure water supply availability and 2) the impacts of following these pathways on the ability to meet greenhouse gas and renewable utilization goals. It was discovered that depending on the water supply measure portfolio implemented, impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and renewable utilization can either be beneficial or detrimental, and optimizing the portfolio is more important under climate change conditions due to the scale of measures required.

  11. Valuation of temporary and future greenhouse gas reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, K.R.

    1993-06-01

    The potential of augmented carbon sinks to decrease atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide has proved attractive to many government policy markers, politicians and industry representatives. Consequently, several proposals for new laws, both domestic and international, have recognized the CO{sub 2} emitters who are encouraged or required to reduce levels of emissions should also be allowed to offset their emissions by sequestering carbon in forest stands. This idea is described.

  12. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I.

    2010-01-01

    Undisturbed grasslands can sequester significant quantities of organic carbon (OC) in soils. Irrigation and fertilization enhance CO2 sequestration in managed turfgrass ecosystems but can also increase emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs). To better understand the GHG balance of urban turf, we measured OC sequestration rates and emission of N2O (a GHG ˜ 300 times more effective than CO2) in Southern California, USA. We also estimated CO2 emissions generated by fuel combustion, fertilizer production, and irrigation. We show that turf emits significant quantities of N2O (0.1-0.3 g N m-2 yr-1) associated with frequent fertilization. In ornamental lawns this is offset by OC sequestration (140 g C m-2 yr-1), while in athletic fields, there is no OC sequestration because of frequent surface restoration. Large indirect emissions of CO2 associated with turfgrass management make it clear that OC sequestration by turfgrass cannot mitigate GHG emissions in cities.

  13. Assessment of basic research needs for greenhouse gas control technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.M.; Chandler, W.; Edmonds, J.; Houghton, J.; Levine, M.; Bates, L.; Chum, H.; Dooley, J.; Grether, D.; Logan, J.; Wiltsee, G.; Wright, L.

    1998-09-01

    This paper is an outgrowth of an effort undertaken by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research to assess the fundamental research needs to support a national program in carbon management. Five topics were identified as areas where carbon management strategies and technologies might be developed: (1) capture of carbon dioxide, decarbonization strategies, and carbon dioxide disposal and utilization; (2) hydrogen development and fuel cells; (3) enhancement of the natural carbon cycle; (4) biomass production and utilization; and (5) improvement of the efficiency of energy production, conversion, and utilization. Within each of these general areas, experts came together to identify targets of opportunity for fundamental research likely to lead to the development of mid- to long-term solutions for stabilizing or decreasing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Basic research to support the options outlined above are far reaching-from understanding natural global processes such as the ocean and terrestrial carbon cycles to development of new materials and concepts for chemical separation. Examples of fundamental research needs are described in this paper.

  14. Perfluorotributylamine: A novel long-lived greenhouse gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Angela C.; Young, Cora J.; Hurley, Michael D.; Wallington, Timothy J.; Mabury, Scott A.

    2013-11-01

    Perfluorinated compounds impact the Earth's radiative balance. Perfluorotributylamine (PFTBA) belongs to the perfluoroalkyl amine class of compounds; these have not yet been investigated as long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs). Atmospheric measurements of PFTBA made in Toronto, ON, detected a mixing ratio of 0.18 parts per trillion by volume. An instantaneous radiative efficiency of 0.86 W m-2 ppb-1 was calculated from its IR absorption spectra, and a lower limit of 500 years was estimated for its atmospheric lifetime. PFTBA has the highest radiative efficiency of any compound detected in the atmosphere. If the concentration in Toronto is representative of the change in global background concentration since the preindustrial period, then the radiative forcing of PFTBA is 1.5 × 10-4 W m-2. We calculate the global warming potential of PFTBA over a 100 year time horizon to be 7100. Detection of PFTBA demonstrates that perfluoroalkyl amines are a class of LLGHGs worthy of future study.

  15. Storage management influences greenhouse gas emissions from biosolids.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Ramaprasad; Livesley, Stephen J; Gregory, David; Arndt, Stefan K

    2015-03-15

    Biosolids produced by wastewater treatment plants are often stored in stockpiles and can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHG). Growing trees in shallow stockpiled biosolids may remove nutrients, keep the biosolids drier and offset GHG emissions through C sequestration. We directly measured methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) flux from a large biosolid stockpile and two shallow stockpiles, one planted with Salix reichardtii (willow) trees, from December 2009 to January 2011. All stockpiles emitted large annual amounts of GHG ranging from 38 kg CO2-e Mg(-1) dry biosolid for the large stockpile, to 65 kg CO2-e Mg(-1) for the unplanted shallow stockpile, probably due to the greater surface area to volume ratio. GHG emissions were dominated by N2O and CO2 whilst CH4 emissions were negligible (<2%) from the large stockpile and the shallow stockpiles were actually a CH4 sink. Annual willow tree growth was 12 Mg dry biomass ha(-1), but this only offset 8% of the GHG emissions from the shallow planted stockpile. Our data highlight that biosolid stockpiles are significant sources for GHG emissions but alternate management options such as shallow stockpiles or planting for biomass production will not lead to GHG emission reductions.

  16. Avoided deforestation as a greenhouse gas mitigation tool: economic issues.

    PubMed

    Sohngen, Brent; Beach, Robert H; Andrasko, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Tropical deforestation is a significant contributor to accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. GHG emissions from deforestation in the tropics were in the range of 1 to 2 Pg C yr(-1) for the 1990s, which is equivalent to as much as 25% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. While there is growing interest in providing incentives to avoid deforestation and consequently reduce net carbon emissions, there is limited information available on the potential costs of these activities. This paper uses a global forestry and land use model to analyze the potential marginal costs of reducing net carbon emissions by avoiding deforestation in tropical countries. Our estimates suggest that about 0.1 Pg C yr(-1) of emissions reductions could be obtained over the next 30 to 50 yr for $5 per Mg C, and about 1.6 Pg C yr(-1) could be obtained over the same time frame for $100 per Mg C. In addition, the effects of carbon incentives on land use could be substantial. Relative to projected baseline conditions, we find that there would be around 3 million additional hectares (ha) of forestland in 2055 at $5 per Mg C and 422 million ha at $100 per Mg C. Estimates of reductions in area deforested, GHG mitigation potential, and annual land rental payments required are presented, all of which vary by region, carbon price paid, and time frame of mitigation.

  17. Sensor system for Greenhouse Gas Observing Satellite (GOSAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamazaki, Takashi; Kuze, Akihiko; Kondo, Kayoko

    2004-11-01

    Global warming has become a very serious issue for human beings. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP3), making it mandatory for developed nations to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by six (6) to eight (8) per cent of their total emissions in 1990, and to meet this goal sometime between 2008 and 2012. The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is design to monitor the global distribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) from orbit. GOSAT is a joint project of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the Ministry of Environment (MOE), and the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). JAXA is responsible for the satellite and instrument development, MOE is involved in the instrument development, and NIES is responsible for the satellite data retrieval. The satellite is scheduled to be launched in 2008. In order to detect the CO2 variation of boundary layers, both the technique to measure the column density and the retrieval algorithm to remove cloud and aerosol contamination are investigated. Main mission sensor of the GOSAT is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer with high optical throughput, spectral resolution and wide spectral coverage, and a cloud-aerosol detecting imager attached to the satellite. The paper presents the mission sensor system of the GOSAT together with the results of performance demonstration with proto-type instrument aboard an aircraft.

  18. Greenhouse-gas emissions from energy use in the water sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothausen, Sabrina G. S. A.; Conway, Declan

    2011-07-01

    Water management faces great challenges over the coming decades. Pressures include stricter water-quality standards, increasing demand for water and the need to adapt to climate change, while reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The processes of abstraction, conveyance and treatment of fresh water and wastewater all demand energy. Energy use in the water sector is growing, yet its importance is under-recognized, and gaps remain in our knowledge. Here we define the need to integrate energy use further into water resource management and identify opportunities for the water sector to understand and describe more effectively its role in greenhouse-gas emissions.

  19. Science and Technology Development to Integrate Energy Production and Greenhouse Gas Management

    SciTech Connect

    Pendergast, D.

    2004-10-03

    This paper reviews the carbon cycle from the point of view of past and present human influence. Potential future human input to the cycle through science and technology to manage atmospheric greenhouse gas are considered. The review suggests that humans will need to ingeniously exploit even more energy to integrate its use with control of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Continuing development and application of energy is essential if the development of human society is to be sustained through the coming centuries. The continuing development of nuclear energy seems an essential energy supply component.

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Dairy Manure Management: A Review of Field-based Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, J. J.; Silver, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    Dairy manure is a large potential source of agriculturally-derived greenhouse gases, but few studies have compared source locations or management strategies, nor evaluated how well emissions factors capture actual emission rates. We compiled published data on field-scale measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from working and research dairies and compared these to rates predicted by the IPCC Tier 2 approach. Greenhouse gas emissions varied by several orders of magnitude from all sources due to the heterogeneity of surface conditions and manure composition, the length of sampling, and the measurement technique. Anaerobic lagoons were the largest source of methane (1097 × 591 g hd-1 d-1), over twice that from enteric fermentation (~350 g hd-1 d-1). Corrals and manure piles were the largest sources of nitrous oxide. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from hardstandings and barn floors were negligible. Predicted methane emissions underestimated measured fluxes for slurry tanks, barns, and whole dairies. Predicted nitrous oxide emissions underestimated anaerobic lagoon fluxes but overestimated emissions from slurry tanks and barn floors. Refining these calculations requires: 1) within-site comparisons of measurement techniques, 2) multiple year data sets, 3) within-site comparisons across measurement scales, and 4) better metadata to constrain greenhouse gas emission models.