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Sample records for greenhouse gases observation

  1. Greenhouse Gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Greenhouse Gases Come From Outlook for Future Emissions Recycling and Energy Nonrenewable Sources Oil and Petroleum Products ... Power Wave Power Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Biomass Wood and Wood Waste Waste-to-Energy (MSW) Landfill ...

  2. On surface temperature, greenhouse gases, and aerosols: models and observations

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.F.B.; Davis, R.A.; Ingram, W.J.; Senior, C.A.

    1995-10-01

    The effect of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and sulphate aerosols on near-surface temperature is investigated using a version of the Hadley Centre atmospheric model coupled to a mixed layer ocean. The scattering of sunlight by sulphate aerosols is represented by appropriately enhancing the surface albedo. On doubling atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, the global mean temperature increases by 5.2 K. An integration with a 39% increase in CO{sub 2}, giving the estimated change in radiative heating due to increases in greenhouse gases since 1900, produced an equilibrium warming of 2.3 K, which, even allowing for oceanic inertia, is significantly higher than the observed warming over the same period. Furthermore, the simulation suggests a substantial warming everywhere, whereas the observations indicate isolated regions of cooling, including parts of the northern midlatitude continents. The addition of an estimate of the effect of scattering by current industrial aerosols (uncertain by a factor of at least 3) leads to improved agreement with the observed pattern of changes over the northern continents and reduces the global mean warming by about 30%. Doubling the aerosol forcing produces patterns that are still compatible with the observations, but further increase leads to unrealistically extensive cooling in the midlatitudes. The diurnal range of surface temperature decreases over most of the northern extratropics on increasing CO{sub 2}, in agreement with recent observations. The addition of the current industrial aerosol had little detectable effect on the diurnal range in the model because the direct effect of reduced solar heating at the surface is approximately balanced by the indirect effects of cooling. Thus, the ratio of the reduction in diurnal range to the mean warming is increased, in closer agreement with observations. Results from further sensitivity experiments with larger increases in aerosol and CO{sub 2} are presented.

  3. Fourier transform spectrometer for Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamazaki, Takashi; Kaneko, Yutaka; Kuze, Akihiko; Kondo, Kayoko

    2005-01-01

    Global warming has become a very serious issue for human beings. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP3), making it mandatory for developed nations to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by six (6) to eight (8) per cent of their total emissions in 1990, and to meet this goal sometime between 2008 and 2012. The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is designed to monitor the global distribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the space. GOSAT is a joint project of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the Ministry of Environment (MOE), and the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). JAXA is responsible for the satellite and instrument development, MOE is involved in the instrument development, and NIES is responsible for the satellite data retrieval. The satellite is scheduled to be launched in 2008. In order to detect the CO2 variation of boundary layers, both the technique to measure the column density and the retrieval algorithm to remove cloud and aerosol contamination are investigated. Main mission sensor of the GOSAT is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer with high optical throughput, spectral resolution and wide spectral coverage, and a cloud-aerosol detecting imager attached to the satellite. The paper presents the mission sensor system of the GOSAT together with the results of performance demonstration with proto-type instrument aboard an aircraft.

  4. The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasova, Oksana; Koide, Hiroshi; Dlugokencky, Edward; Montzka, Stephen A.; Butler, James H.

    2014-05-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) provides a framework for global observations and assessment of the state and development of atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases. It puts stringent requirements on the quality of the observations. These requirements are reviewed by the greenhouse gas science and measurement community at biennial WMO/IAEA Meetings on Carbon Dioxide, Other Greenhouse Gases, and Related Tracer Measurement Techniques. The 17th meeting was held in Beijing, China, on 10 - 14 June 2013 (http://ggmt-2013.cma.gov.cn/dct/page/1). Results of global analysis of the observational data are reported annually in the WMO/GAW Annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin. Bulletin No. 9 represents an update of the results for the year 2012 (extended version is available at http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ghg/ghg9-en-online.html). The cover story of this bulletin presents the attribution of methane sources in the context of the renewed growth of the global average methane mole fraction in 2007. The bulletin is prepared by the WMO/GAW Scientific Advisory Group for Greenhouse Gases (http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/CBS/Lists_WorkGroups/CAS/opag-epac/gaw%20sag%20ghg) in collaboration with the World Data Center for Greenhouse Gases. Observations used for global analysis are collected at more than 100 marine and terrestrial sites worldwide for CO2 and CH4 and at a smaller number of sites for other greenhouse gases. Globally averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) derived from this network reached new highs in 2012, with CO2 at 393.1±0.1 ppm, CH4 at 1819±1 ppb and N2O at 325.1±0.1 ppb. These values constitute 141%, 260% and 120% of pre-industrial (before 1750) levels, respectively. The increase of the annual mean CO2 mole fraction from 2011 to 2012 amounted to 2.2 ppm, which is greater than the average growth rate for the 1990s (~1.5 ppm yr-1) and for

  5. Noxious gases in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Likas, C; Exarchou, V; Gourgoulianis, K; Giaglaras, P; Gemptos, T; Kittas, K; Molyvdas, P A

    2001-01-01

    The concentration of NO(2) and SO(2) was measured in a commercial greenhouse from 23/9/1999 25/01/2000. The measurements showed that the level of the two gases is very high in the greenhouse atmosphere. Lung function tests in 42 workers showed that temporary work did not influence significantly the respiratory health status. PMID:11426932

  6. The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasova, Oksana; Koide, Hiroshi; Dlugokencky, Ed

    2016-04-01

    We present results from the eleventh annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin (http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ghg/GHGbulletin.html) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The results are based on research and observations performed by laboratories contributing to the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme (www.wmo.int/gaw). The Bulletin presents results of global analyses of observational data collected according to GAW recommended practices and submitted to the World Data Center for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG). Bulletins are prepared by the WMO/GAW Scientific Advisory Group for Greenhouse Gases (http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ScientificAdvisoryGroups.html) in collaboration with WDCGG. Observations used for global analysis are collected at more than 100 marine and terrestrial sites worldwide for CO2 and CH4 and at a smaller number of sites for other greenhouse gases. Globally averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2, CH4 and N2O derived from this network reached new highs in 2014, at 397.7±0.1 ppm, 1833±1 ppb and 327.1±0.1 ppb respectively. These values constitute 143%, 254% and 121% of pre-industrial (before 1750) levels. The atmospheric increase of CO2 from 2013 to 2014 was 1.9 ppm, which is smaller than the increase from 2012 to 2013 and the average growth rate for the past decade (˜2.06 ppm per year), but larger than the average growth rate for the 1990s (˜1.5 ppm per year). Smaller growth in 2014 compared with other recent years is most likely related to a relatively small net change in large fluxes between the atmosphere and terrestrial biosphere. The rise of atmospheric CO2 has been only about a half of what is expected if all excess CO2 from burning fossil-fuels stayed in the air. The other half has been absorbed by the land biosphere and the oceans, leading to ocean acidification. For both CH4 and N2O the increases from 2013 to 2014 were larger than those observed from 2012 to 2013 and the mean rates over the past 10 years. The National

  7. Hyper-spectral observations of greenhouse gases in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ding Yi; Zhang, Chun-ming; Qin, Lin; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Xiang-hong; Li, Hong-qun; Yang, Fu-Mo; Chen, Gang-Cai; Wang, Shu-peng; Zhang, Xing-ying; Zhang, Peng

    The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is the most ambitious hydroelectric and flood control project in human history. Its riparian zone has areas of ~300 km2 with water levels fluctuating between 175m above the sea in winter and 145m in summer, and is a special type of wetlands at the low water levels. These wetlands may release CO2 and CH4 with significantly spatial and temporal variations, and have been misleadingly described as a “methane menace” and caused a worldwide concern. A joint research program for TGR greenhouse gases monitoring is operated by several institutions and based at Yangtze Normal Univ. in Fuling of Chongqing. It is characterized by the combined satellite, airship, and ground-based hyper-spectral observations, which serve to simultaneously measure various eco-environmental parameters in a large area with high spatial and spectral resolutions, and to model the status and key dynamic processes of the TGR greenhouse gases. In this talk, the retrieval algorithm of the gas species from satellite near-infrared observations is discussed with special attentions paid to the mountainous and foggy TGR region. The distributions and variations of TGR greenhouse gases are studied by using the AIRS and SCIAMACHY monthly means of multiple years. The airship and ground-based observation system is outlined and expected to provide unique data needed to address the TGR environmental issues, and to evolve towards operational service.

  8. Thermal and near infrared sensor for carbon observation Fourier-transform spectrometer on the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite for greenhouse gases monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kuze, Akihiko; Suto, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Masakatsu; Hamazaki, Takashi

    2009-12-10

    The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) monitors carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and methane (CH(4)) globally from space using two instruments. The Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) detects gas absorption spectra of the solar short wave infrared (SWIR) reflected on the Earth's surface as well as of the thermal infrared radiated from the ground and the atmosphere. TANSO-FTS is capable of detecting three narrow bands (0.76, 1.6, and 2.0 microm) and a wide band (5.5-14.3 microm) with 0.2 cm(-1) spectral resolution (interval). The TANSO Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) is an ultraviolet (UV), visible, near infrared, and SWIR radiometer designed to detect cloud and aerosol interference and to provide the data for their correction. GOSAT is placed in a sun-synchronous orbit 666 km at 13:00 local time, with an inclination angle of 98 degrees . A brief overview of the GOSAT project, scientific requirements, instrument designs, hardware performance, on-orbit operation, and data processing is provided. PMID:20011012

  9. The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasova, Oksana; Koide, Hiroshi; Dlugokencky, Ed; Montzka, Stephen A.; Keeling, Ralph; Tanhua, Toste; Lorenzoni, Laura

    2015-04-01

    We present results from the tenth annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin (http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ ghg/GHGbulletin.html) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The results are based on research and observations performed by laboratories contributing to the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme (www.wmo.int/gaw). The Bulletin presents results of global analyses of observational data collected according to GAW recommended practices and submitted to the World Data Center for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG), and for the first time, it includes a summary of ocean acidification. Bulletins are prepared by the WMO/GAW Scientific Advisory Group for Greenhouse Gases (http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ScientificAdvisoryGroups.html) in collaboration with WDCGG. The summary of ocean acidification and trends in ocean pCO2 was jointly produced by the International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP) of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC-UNESCO), the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), and the Ocean Acidification International Coordination Centre (OA-ICC) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The tenth Bulletin included a special edition published prior to the United Nations Climate Summit in September 2014. The scope of this edition was to demonstrate the level of emission reduction necessary to stabilize radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases. It shows in particular that a reduction in radiative forcing from its current level (2.92 W m-2 in 2013) requires significant reductions in anthropogenic emissions of all major greenhouse gases. Observations used for global analysis are collected at more than 100 marine and terrestrial sites worldwide for CO2 and CH4 and at a smaller number of sites for other greenhouse gases. Globally averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide derived from this network reached new highs in 2013, with CO2 at 396.0 ± 0.1 ppm, CH4 at

  10. Global CO2 Distributions over Land from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammerling, Dorit M.; Michalak, Anna M.; O'Dell, Christopher; Kawa, Randolph S.

    2012-01-01

    January 2009 saw the successful launch of the first space-based mission specifically designed for measuring greenhouse gases, the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). We present global land maps (Level 3 data) of column-averaged CO2 concentrations (X(sub CO2)) derived using observations from the GOSAT ACOS retrieval algorithm, for July through December 2009. The applied geostatistical mapping approach makes it possible to generate maps at high spatial and temporal resolutions that include uncertainty measures and that are derived directly from the Level 2 observations, without invoking an atmospheric transport model or estimates of CO2 uptake and emissions. As such, they are particularly well suited for comparison studies. Results show that the Level 3 maps for July to December 2009 on a lO x 1.250 grid, at six-day resolution capture much of the synoptic scale and regional variability of X(sub CO2), in addition to its overall seasonality. The uncertainty estimates, which reflect local data coverage, X(sub CO2) variability, and retrieval errors, indicate that the Southern latitudes are relatively well-constrained, while the Sahara Desert and the high Northern latitudes are weakly-constrained. A probabilistic comparison to the PCTM/GEOS-5/CASA-GFED model reveals that the most statistically significant discrepancies occur in South America in July and August, and central Asia in September to December. While still preliminary, these results illustrate the usefulness of a high spatiotemporal resolution, data-driven Level 3 data product for direct interpretation and comparison of satellite observations of highly dynamic parameters such as atmospheric CO2.

  11. Opportunities for Coordinated Observations of CO2 with the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) and Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, David

    2008-01-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) and the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) are the first two satellites designed to make global measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with the precision and sampling needed identify and monitor surface sources and sinks of this important greenhouse gas. Because the operational phases of the OCO and GOSAT missions overlap in time, there are numerous opportunities for comparing and combining the data from these two satellites to improve our understanding of the natural processes and human activities that control the atmospheric CO2 and it variability over time. Opportunities for cross-calibration, cross-validation, and coordinated observations that are currently under consideration are summarized here.

  12. Airborne observations of greenhouse gases in the North Slope of Alaska during summer 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biraud, S.; Torn, M. S.; Sweeney, C.; Springston, S. R.; Sedlacek, A. J., III

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric temperatures are warming faster in the Arctic than predicted by climate models. The impact of this warming on permafrost degradation is not well understood, but it is projected to increase carbon decomposition and greenhouse gas production (CO2 and/or CH4) by arctic ecosystems. Airborne observations of atmospheric trace gases, aerosols and cloud properties in North Slopes of Alaska (NSA) are improving our understanding of global climate, with the goal of reducing the uncertainty in global and regional climate simulations and projections. From June 1 through September 15, 2015, the Atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) airborne facility (AAF) deployed a G1 research aircraft (ARM-ACME-V mission) to fly over the North Slope of Alaska, with occasional vertical profiling to measure trace gas concentrations, between Prudhoe Bay, Oliktok point, Barrow, Atqasuk, Ivotuk, and Toolik Lake. The aircraft payload includes a Picarro and a LGR analyzers for continuous measurements of CO2, CH4, H2O, and CO and N2O mixing ratios, and a 12-flask sampler for analysis of carbon cycle gases (CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, 13CO2, 14CO2, carbonyl sulfide, and trace hydrocarbon species including ethane). The aircraft payload also include measurements of aerosol properties (number size distribution, total number concentration, absorption, and scattering), cloud properties (droplet and ice size information), atmospheric thermodynamic state, and solar/infrared radiation. Preliminary results using CO2, CH4, CO, ethane, and soot spectroscopy observations are used to tease apart biogenic and thermogenic (biomass burning, and oil and gas production) contributions

  13. Greenhouse gases and greenhouse effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingar, G. V.; Sorokhtin, O. G.; Khilyuk, L.; Gorfunkel, M. V.

    2009-09-01

    Conventional theory of global warming states that heating of atmosphere occurs as a result of accumulation of CO2 and CH4 in atmosphere. The writers show that rising concentration of CO2 should result in the cooling of climate. The methane accumulation has no essential effect on the Earth’s climate. Even significant releases of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide into the atmosphere do not change average parameters of the Earth’s heat regime and the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Moreover, CO2 concentration increase in the atmosphere results in rising agricultural productivity and improves the conditions for reforestation. Thus, accumulation of small additional amounts of carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere as a result of anthropogenic activities has practically no effect on the Earth’s climate.

  14. Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases from the Baltimore-Washington Area: Results from WINTER 2015 Aircraft Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, R. R.; Ren, X.; Shepson, P. B.; Salmon, O. E.; Brown, S. S.; Thornton, J. A.; Whetstone, J. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Sahu, S.; Hall, D.; Grimes, C.; Wong, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Urban areas are responsible for a major component of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Quantification of urban GHG fluxes is important for establishing scientifically sound and cost-effective policies for mitigating GHGs. Discrepancies between observations and model simulations of GHGs suggest uncharacterized sources in urban environments. In this work, we analyze and quantify fluxes of CO2, CH4, CO (and other trace species) from the Baltimore-Washington area based on the mass balance approach using the two-aircraft observations conducted in February-March 2015. Estimated fluxes from this area were 110,000±20,000 moles s-1 for CO2, 700±330 moles s-1 for CH4, and 535±188 moles s-1 for CO. This implies that methane is responsible for ~20% of the climate forcing from these cities. Point sources of CO2 from four regional power plants and one point source of CH4 from a landfill were identified and the emissions from these point sources were quantified based on the aircraft observation and compared to the emission inventory data. Methane fluxes from the Washington area were larger than from the Baltimore area, indicating a larger leakage rate in the Washington area. The ethane-to-methane ratios, with a mean of 3.3%, in the limited canister samples collected during the flights indicate that natural gas leaks and the upwind oil and natural gas operations are responsible for a substantial fraction of the CH4 flux. These observations will be compared to models using Ensemble Kalman Filter Assimilation techniques.

  15. Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledley, Tamara S.; Sundquist, Eric; Schwartz, Stephen; Hall, Dorothy K.; Fellows, Jack; Killeen, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU), as a scientific organization devoted to research on the Earth and space sciences, provides current scientific information to the public on issues pertinent to geophysics. The Council of the AGU approved a position statement on Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases in December 1998. The statement, together with a short summary of the procedures that were followed in its preparation, review, and adoption were published in the February 2, 1999 issue of Eos ([AGU, 1999]. The present article reviews scientific understanding of this issue as presented in peer-reviewed publications that serves as the underlying basis of the position statement.

  16. Detection of optical path in spectroscopic space-based observations of greenhouse gases: Application to GOSAT data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshchepkov, Sergey; Bril, Andrey; Maksyutov, Shamil; Yokota, Tatsuya

    2011-07-01

    We present a method to detect optical path modification due to atmospheric light scattering in space-based greenhouse gas spectroscopic sounding. This method, which was applied to the analysis of radiance spectra measured by the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), is based on the path length probability density function (PPDF) and on retrieval of PPDF parameters from radiance spectra in the oxygen A-band of absorption at 0.76 μm. We show that these parameters can be effectively used to characterize the impact of atmospheric light scattering on carbon dioxide retrieval in the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption bands at 1.6 μm and 2.0 μm. The threshold for PPDF parameters is set so that the optical-path modification is negligible, and these settings are recommended as a basic guideline for selecting the clearest atmospheric scenarios. An example of data processing for six global GOSAT repeat cycles in April and July 2009 shows that PPDF-based selection efficiently removes CO2 retrieval biases associated with subvisible cirrus and sandstorm activities.

  17. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2015-12-30

    A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, have been observed in the higher-pressure region.

  18. Atmospheric observations for quantifying emissions of point-source synthetic greenhouse gases (CF4, NF3 and HFC-23)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Tim; Manning, Alistair J.; Li, Shanlan; Kim, Jooil; Park, Sunyoung; Fraser, Paul J.; Mitrevski, Blagoj; Steele, L. Paul; Krummel, Paul B.; Mühle, Jens; Weiss, Ray F.

    2016-04-01

    The fluorinated species carbon tetrafluoride (CF4; PFC-14), nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) and trifluoromethane (CHF3; HFC-23) are potent greenhouse gases with 100-year global warming potentials of 6,630, 16,100 and 12,400, respectively. Unlike the majority of CFC-replacement compounds that are emitted from fugitive and mobile emission sources, these gases are largely emitted from large single point sources - semiconductor manufacturing facilities (all three), aluminium smelting plants (CF4) and chlorodifluoromethane factories (HFC-23). In this work we show the potential for atmospheric measurements to understand regional sources of these gases and to highlight emission 'hotspots'. We target our analysis on measurements from two Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) long term monitoring sites that are particularly sensitive to regional emissions of these gases: Gosan on Jeju Island in the Republic of Korea and Cape Grim on Tasmania in Australia. These sites measure CF4, NF3 and HFC-23 alongside a suite of greenhouse and stratospheric ozone depleting gases every two hours using automated in situ gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry instrumentation. We couple each measurement to an analysis of air history using the regional atmospheric transport model NAME (Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment) driven by 3D meteorology from the Met Office's Unified Model, and use a Bayesian inverse method (InTEM - Inversion Technique for Emission Modelling) to calculate yearly emission changes over a decade (2005-2015) at high spatial resolution. At present these gases make a small contribution to global radiative forcing, however, given that their impact could rise significantly and that point sources of such gases can be mitigated, atmospheric monitoring could be an important tool for aiding emissions reduction policy.

  19. Path-radiance correction by polarization observation of Sun glint glitter for remote measurements of tropospheric greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Tadao; Aoki, Teruo; Fukabori, Masashi

    2002-08-20

    High-accuracy remote measurement of greenhouse gases is hampered by contamination of the field of view by the path radiance of solar radiation scattered from clouds and aerosols. A method is proposed for eliminating the effect of path radiance by differentiating two components of polarized light. The polarization of path radiance is measured directly at the wave-number region of strong water-vapor absorption. Using this measurement, we eliminate the components of path radiance involved in other bands, which are used for greenhouse gas measurements, by differentiating two components of the polarized light. It is shown that the effect of path radiance on retrieving the column amount of gases potentially can be reduced to below 0.1%. PMID:12206201

  20. Path-radiance correction by polarization observation of Sun glint glitter for remote measurements of tropospheric greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Tadao; Aoki, Teruo; Fukabori, Masashi

    2002-08-20

    High-accuracy remote measurement of greenhouse gases is hampered by contamination of the field of view by the path radiance of solar radiation scattered from clouds and aerosols. A method is proposed for eliminating the effect of path radiance by differentiating two components of polarized light. The polarization of path radiance is measured directly at the wave-number region of strong water-vapor absorption. Using this measurement, we eliminate the components of path radiance involved in other bands, which are used for greenhouse gas measurements, by differentiating two components of the polarized light. It is shown that the effect of path radiance on retrieving the column amount of gases potentially can be reduced to below 0.1%.

  1. Greenhouse Trace Gases in Deadwood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, Kristofer; Bueno de Mesquita, Cliff; Oberle, Brad; Maynard, Dan; Bettigole, Charles; Crowther, Thomas; Duguid, Marlyse; Steven, Blaire; Zanne, Amy; Lapin, Marc; Ashton, Mark; Oliver, Chad; Lee, Xuhui; Bradford, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Deadwood, long recognized as playing an important role in carbon cycling in forest ecosystems, is more recently drawing attention for its potential role in the cycling of other greenhouse trace gases. We report data from four independent studies measuring internal gas concentrations in deadwood in in three Quercus dominated upland forest systems in the Northeastern and Central United States. Mean methane concentrations in deadwood were 23 times atmospheric levels, indicating a lower bound, mean radial wood surface area flux of ~6 x 10-4 μmol CH4 m-2 s-1. Site, decay class, diameter, and species were all highly significant predictors of methane abundance in deadwood, and log diameter and decay stage interacted as important controls limiting methane concentrations in the smallest and most decayed logs. Nitrous oxide concentrations were negatively correlated with methane and on average ~25% lower than ambient, indicating net consumption of nitrous oxide. These data suggest nonstructural carbohydrates fuel archaeal methanogens and confirm the potential for widespread in situ methanogenesis in both living and deadwood. Applying this understanding to estimate methane emissions from microbial activity in living trees implies a potential global flux of 65.6±12.0 Tg CH4 yr-1, more than 20 times greater than currently considered.

  2. Simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric CO2 and light path modification from space-based spectroscopic observations of greenhouse gases: methodology and application to GOSAT measurements over TCCON sites.

    PubMed

    Oshchepkov, Sergey; Bril, Andrey; Yokota, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Yukio; Blumenstock, Thomas; Deutscher, Nicholas M; Dohe, Susanne; Macatangay, Ronald; Morino, Isamu; Notholt, Justus; Rettinger, Markus; Petri, Christof; Schneider, Matthias; Sussman, Ralf; Uchino, Osamu; Velazco, Voltaire; Wunch, Debra; Belikov, Dmitry

    2013-02-20

    This paper presents an improved photon path length probability density function method that permits simultaneous retrievals of column-average greenhouse gas mole fractions and light path modifications through the atmosphere when processing high-resolution radiance spectra acquired from space. We primarily describe the methodology and retrieval setup and then apply them to the processing of spectra measured by the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). We have demonstrated substantial improvements of the data processing with simultaneous carbon dioxide and light path retrievals and reasonable agreement of the satellite-based retrievals against ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer measurements provided by the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON).

  3. Simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric CO2 and light path modification from space-based spectroscopic observations of greenhouse gases: methodology and application to GOSAT measurements over TCCON sites.

    PubMed

    Oshchepkov, Sergey; Bril, Andrey; Yokota, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Yukio; Blumenstock, Thomas; Deutscher, Nicholas M; Dohe, Susanne; Macatangay, Ronald; Morino, Isamu; Notholt, Justus; Rettinger, Markus; Petri, Christof; Schneider, Matthias; Sussman, Ralf; Uchino, Osamu; Velazco, Voltaire; Wunch, Debra; Belikov, Dmitry

    2013-02-20

    This paper presents an improved photon path length probability density function method that permits simultaneous retrievals of column-average greenhouse gas mole fractions and light path modifications through the atmosphere when processing high-resolution radiance spectra acquired from space. We primarily describe the methodology and retrieval setup and then apply them to the processing of spectra measured by the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). We have demonstrated substantial improvements of the data processing with simultaneous carbon dioxide and light path retrievals and reasonable agreement of the satellite-based retrievals against ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer measurements provided by the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). PMID:23435008

  4. Remote sensing of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) using hyperspectral observations in the thermal infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crevoisier, Cyril; Chedin, Alain; Nobileau, Delphine; Armante, Raymond; Thonat, Thibaud; Scott, Noelle A.

    ; (3) a latitudinal decrease from 20 N to 20 S lower than what is observed at the surface but in excellent agreement with tropospheric aircraft measurements; (4) geographical patterns in good agree-ment with simulations from atmospheric transport and chemistry models, but with a higher variability; (5) signatures of CO2 and CH4 emissions transported to the troposphere such as CO2 emissions from biomass burnings, or a large plume of elevated tropospheric methane south of the Asian continent, which might be due to Asian emissions from rice paddies uplifted by deep convection during the monsoon period and then transported towards Indonesia. More-over, these retrievals, performed from the same instrument and with the same retrieval process, provide the means to study the correlation between CO2 and CH4, in particular its seasonal variation over regions of specific interest, which leads the way to a multi-species study of surface fluxes and atmospheric transport. In addition to bringing a greatly improved view of CO2 and CH4 atmospheric distribution, these results from thermal infrared observations should provide a means to observe and understand atmospheric transport pathways of these two greenhouse gases from the surface to the upper troposphere.

  5. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  6. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  7. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    ScienceCinema

    Fischer, Marc

    2016-07-12

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  8. Broader perspectives for comparing different greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Manning, Martin; Reisinger, Andy

    2011-05-28

    Over the last 20 years, different greenhouse gases have been compared, in the context of climate change, primarily through the concept of global warming potentials (GWPs). This considers the climate forcing caused by pulse emissions and integrated over a fixed time horizon. Recent studies have shown that uncertainties in GWP values are significantly larger than previously thought and, while past literature in this area has raised alternative means of comparison, there is not yet any clear alternative. We propose that a broader framework for comparing greenhouse gases has become necessary and that this cannot be addressed by using simple fixed exchange rates. From a policy perspective, the framework needs to be clearly aligned with the goal of climate stabilization, and we show that comparisons between gases can be better addressed in this context by the forcing equivalence index (FEI). From a science perspective, a framework for comparing greenhouse gases should also consider the full range of processes that affect atmospheric composition and how these may alter for climate stabilization at different levels. We cover a basis for a broader approach to comparing greenhouse gases by summarizing the uncertainties in GWPs, linking those to uncertainties in the FEIs consistent with stabilization, and then to a framework for addressing uncertainties in the corresponding biogeochemical processes.

  9. Development and evaluation of the interferometric monitor for greenhouse gases: a high-throughput fourier-transform infrared radiometer for nadir earth observation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, H; Shimota, A; Kondo, K; Okumura, E; Kameda, Y; Shimoda, H; Ogawa, T

    1999-11-20

    The interferometric monitor for greenhouse gases (IMG) was the precursor of the high-resolution Fourier-transform infrared radiometer (FTIR) onboard a satellite for observation of the Earth. The IMG endured the stress of a rocket launch, demonstrating that the high-resolution, high-throughput spectrometer is indeed feasible for use onboard a satellite. The IMG adopted a newly developed lubricant-free magnetic suspension mechanism and a dynamic alignment system for the moving mirror with a maximum traveling distance of 10 cm. We present the instrumentation of the IMG, characteristics of the movable mirror drive system, and the evaluation results of sensor specifications during space operation.

  10. Are recent Arctic ozone losses caused by increasing greenhouse gases?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, Harald E.; Polvani, Lorenzo M.

    2013-08-01

    has been suggested that the Arctic ozone losses observed in recent years might be a manifestation of climate change due to increasing greenhouse gases. We here offer evidence to the contrary, by focusing on the volume of polar stratospheric clouds (VPSC), a convenient proxy for polar ozone loss whose simplicity allows for easily reproducible results. First, we analyze the time series of VPSC in three reanalysis data sets and find no statistically significant trends in VPSC-nor changes in their probability density functions-over the period 1979-2011. Second, we analyze VPSC in a stratosphere-resolving chemistry-climate model forced uniquely with increasing greenhouse gases following the A1B scenario: here too, we find no significant changes in VPSC over the entire 21st century. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the sporadic high ozone losses in recent years have not been caused by increasing greenhouse gases.

  11. Are recent Arctic ozone losses caused by increasing greenhouse gases?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, H.; Polvani, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    It has been suggested that the Arctic ozone losses observed in recent years might be a manifestation of climate change due to increasing greenhouse gases. We here offer evidence to the contrary, by focusing on the volume of polar stratospheric clouds (VPSC), a convenient proxy for polar ozone loss whose simplicity allows for easily reproducible results. First, we analyze the time series of VPSC in three reanalysis datasets and find no statistically significant trends in VPSC - nor changes in their probability density functions - over the period 1979-2011. Second, we analyze VPSC in a stratosphere-resolving chemistry-climate model forced uniquely with increasing greenhouse gases following the A1B scenario: here too, we find no significant changes in VPSC over the entire 21st century. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the sporadic high ozone losses in recent years have not been caused by increasing greenhouse gases.

  12. Managing biogeochemical cycles to reduce greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Wilfred M; Venterea, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This special issue focuses on terrestrial biogeochemical cycles as they relate to North America-wide budgeting and future projection of biogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Understanding the current magnitude and providing guidance on the future trajectories of atmospheric concentrations of these gases requires investigation of their (i) biogeochemical origins, (ii) response to climate feedbacks and other environmental factors, and (iii) susceptibility to management practices. This special issue provides a group of articles that present the current state of continental scale sources and sinks of biogenic GHGs and the potential to better manage them in the future.

  13. Greenhouse gases in the stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Wenyi Zhong; Haigh, J.D. ); Pyle, J.A. )

    1993-02-20

    The potential radiative forcing in the stratosphere of changing concentrations of ozone, methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons 11 and 12 is assessed. Significant changes in heating rate in the lower stratosphere are found. The response of a fully interactive radiative-photochemical-dynamical two-dimensional model to such changes in gaseous concentrations is investigated. The inclusion of CH[sub 4], N[sub 2]O and the CFC in the radiation scheme causes a small (1 K) decrease in temperature throughout the stratosphere after 50 model years with a resulting increase in ozone column up to 1% in summer high latitudes. An experiment in which lower stratospheric ozone concentrations were forcibly reduced in line with recent satellite observations results in significant (several degrees) temperature decrease in this region. Such decreases may be very significant in maintaining polar ozone loss. 20 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  15. Space-Based Measurements of CO2 from the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and the NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, David

    2011-01-01

    Space-based remote sensing observations hold substantial promise for future long-term monitoring of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. The principal advantages of space based measurements include: (1) Spatial coverage (especially over oceans and tropical land) (2) Sampling density (needed to resolve CO2 weather). The principal challenge is the need for high precision To reach their full potential, space based CO2 measurements must be validated against surface measurements to ensure their accuracy. The TCCON network is providing the transfer standard There is a need for a long-term vision to establish and address community priorities (1) Must incorporate ground, air, space-based assets and models (2) Must balance calls for new observations with need to maintain climate data records.

  16. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  17. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  18. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  19. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  20. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  1. Remote Sensing Observations of Greenhouse Gases from space based and airborne platforms: from SCIAMACHY and MaMap to CarbonSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, John P.; Schneising, Oliver; Buchwitz, Michael; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Heymann, Jens; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krings, Thomas; Krautwurst, Sven; Dickerson, Russ

    2015-04-01

    Methane, CH4, e and carbon dioxide, CO2, play an important role in the earth carbon cycle. They are the two most important long lived greenhouse gases produced by anthropogenic fossil fuel combustion. In order to assess accurately the surface fluxes of CH4 or CO2. The Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric ChartographY, SCIAMACHY, was a national contribution to the ESA Envisat platform: the latter being launched on the 28th February 2002 and operating successfully until April 2012. The SCIAMACHY measurements of the up-welling radiation have been used to retrieve the dry mole fraction of XCH4 and XCO2, providing a unique 10 year record at the spatial resolution of 60 kmx30 km. This data has been used to observe the changing CH4 abundance in the atmosphere and identify anthropogenic such as Fracking and natural sources such as wetlands. The Methane and carbon dioxide Mapper, MaMap, was developed as an aircraft demonstration instrument for our CarbonSat and CarbonSat Constellation concepts. CarbonSat is in Phase A B1 studies as one of two candidate missions for ESA's Earth Explorer 8 Mission. Selected results from SCIAMACHY and Mamap will be presented with a focus on methane and the perspective for CarbonSat.

  2. Response of Thermospheric Hydrogen to Solar Variability and Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nossal, S. M.; Qian, L.; Solomon, S. C.; Burns, A. G.; Wang, W.; Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Roesler, F. L.; Woodward, R. C., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Geocoronal hydrogen forms the upper boundary of the Earth's HOx chemisty and is a byproduct of methane and water vapor below. We will discuss observational and modeling studies of the upper atmospheric hydrogen response to the solar cycle and increases in greenhouse gases. The Wisconsin Northern hemisphere hydrogen airglow data set spans over two solar cycles. These data show a statistically significant solar cycle variation and a possible increase in intensity between successive solar maximum periods. We will discuss these data in the context of recent modeling studies with a single-column version of the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model. We investigate mechanisms associated with the solar cycle and greenhouse gas forcing of hydrogen by separately doubling carbon dioxide and methane, as well as doubling both together. These simulations indicate that carbon dioxide cooling, as well as methane changes to the source species for hydrogen, both lead to predicted increases in the upper thermospheric hydrogen density and that the response of hydrogen to greenhouse gases depends on the phase of the solar cycle. However, the effect of greenhouse gas doubling is not as large as the modeled solar cycle variability of thermospheric hydrogen. I will discuss results from these simulations and comparisons to observations.

  3. A Simple Experiment to Demonstrate the Effects of Greenhouse Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, C. F.

    2007-01-01

    The role of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere is the subject of considerable discussion and debate. Global warming is well-documented, as is the continually increasing amount of greenhouse gases that human activity puts in the air. Is there a relationship between the two? The simple experiment described in this paper provides a good demonstration…

  4. 75 FR 79091 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... -equivalent CWPB center worked prebake FR Federal Register FTIR Fourier transform infrared GC gas... Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 98 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AQ33 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases AGENCY:...

  5. Greenhouse gases: What is their role in climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J.A.; Chandler, W.U. ); Wuebbles, D. )

    1990-12-01

    This paper summarizes information relevant to understanding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It examines the nature of the greenhouse effect, the Earth's radiation budget, the concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere, how these concentrations have been changing, natural processes which regulate these concentrations of greenhouse gases, residence times of these gases in the atmosphere, and the rate of release of gases affecting atmospheric composition by human activities. We address the issue of the greenhouse effect itself in the first section. In the second section we examine trends in atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases and emissions sources. In the third section, we examine the natural carbon cycle and its role in determining the atmospheric residence time of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). In the fourth section, we examine the role atmospheric chemistry plays in the determining the concentrations of greenhouse gases. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of these issues. Exhaustive treatments can be found in other volumes, many of which are cited throughout this paper. Rather, this paper is intended to summarize some of the major findings, unknowns, and uncertainties associated with the current state of knowledge regarding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. 57 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change.

    PubMed

    Montzka, S A; Dlugokencky, E J; Butler, J H

    2011-08-03

    Earth's climate is warming as a result of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO(2)) from fossil fuel combustion. Anthropogenic emissions of non-CO(2) greenhouse gases, such as methane, nitrous oxide and ozone-depleting substances (largely from sources other than fossil fuels), also contribute significantly to warming. Some non-CO(2) greenhouse gases have much shorter lifetimes than CO(2), so reducing their emissions offers an additional opportunity to lessen future climate change. Although it is clear that sustainably reducing the warming influence of greenhouse gases will be possible only with substantial cuts in emissions of CO(2), reducing non-CO(2) greenhouse gas emissions would be a relatively quick way of contributing to this goal.

  7. Global warming description using Daisyworld model with greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Susana L D; Savi, Marcelo A; Viola, Flavio M; Leiroz, Albino J K

    2014-11-01

    Daisyworld is an archetypal model of the earth that is able to describe the global regulation that can emerge from the interaction between life and environment. This article proposes a model based on the original Daisyworld considering greenhouse gases emission and absorption, allowing the description of the global warming phenomenon. Global and local analyses are discussed evaluating the influence of greenhouse gases in the planet dynamics. Numerical simulations are carried out showing the general qualitative behavior of the Daisyworld for different scenarios that includes solar luminosity variations and greenhouse gases effect. Nonlinear dynamics perspective is of concern discussing a way that helps the comprehension of the global warming phenomenon.

  8. Trace Gases, CO2, Climate, and the Greenhouse Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrecht, Gordon J., II

    1988-01-01

    Reports carbon dioxide and other trace gases can be the cause of the Greenhouse Effect. Discusses some effects of the temperature change and suggests some solutions. Included are several diagrams, graphs, and a table. (YP)

  9. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Greenhouse Gases Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Greenhouse Gases Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  10. Validation of aerosols, reactive gases and greenhouse gases in the CAMS forecasts, analyses and reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskes, Henk; Basart, Sara; Blechschmidt, Anne; Chabrillat, Simon; Clark, Hannah; Cuevas, Emilio; Engelen, Richard; Kapsomenakis, John; Katragkou, Eleni; Mantzius Hansen, Kaj; Niemeijer, Sander; Ramonet, Michel; Schulz, Michael; Sudarchikova, Natalia; Wagner, Annette; Warneke, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    The Atmosphere Monitoring Service of the European Copernicus Programme (CAMS) is an operational service providing analyses, reanalyses and daily forecasts of aerosols, reactive gases and greenhouse gases on a global scale, and air quality forecasts and reanalyses on a regional scale. CAMS is based on the systems developed during the European MACC I-II-III (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) research projects. In CAMS data assimilation techniques are applied to combine in-situ and remote sensing observations with global and European-scale models of atmospheric reactive gases, aerosols and greenhouse gases. The global component is based on the Integrated Forecast System of the ECMWF, and the regional component on an ensemble of 7 European air quality models. CAMS is implemented by ECMWF, and the transition from MACC to CAMS is currently being implemented (2015-2016). CAMS has a dedicated validation activity, a partnership of 13 institutes co-ordinated by KNMI, to document the quality of the atmospheric composition products. In our contribution we discuss this validation activity, including the measurement data sets, validation requirements, the operational aspects, the upgrade procedure, the validation reports and scoring methods, and the model configurations and assimilation systems validated. Of special concern are the forecasts of high pollution concentration events (fires, dust storms, air pollution events, volcano ash and SO2). A few interesting validation results will be shown.

  11. Sun and dust versus greenhouse gases: an assessment of their relative roles in global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, James E.; Lacis, Andrew A.

    1990-08-01

    Many mechanisms, including variations in solar radiation and atmospheric aerosol concentrations, compete with anthropogenic greenhouse gases as causes of global climate change. Comparisons of available data show that solar variability will not counteract greenhouse warming and that future observations will need to be made to quantify the role of tropospheric aerosols, for example.

  12. Sun and dust versus greenhouse gases - An assessment of their relative roles in global climate change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James E.; Lacis, Andrew A.

    1990-01-01

    Many mechanisms, including variations in solar radiation and atmospheric aerosol concentrations, compete with anthropogenic greenhouse gases as causes of global climate change. Comparisons of available data show that solar variability will not counteract greenhouse warming and that future observations will need to be made to quantify the role of tropospheric aerosols, for example.

  13. Synthetic greenhouse gases to decline if Montreal Protocol amended

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-07-01

    The Montreal Protocol, an international treaty designed to reduce the release into the atmosphere of ozone-depleting gases such as hydrochlorofluorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons, has been successful since its implementation in the late 1980s. However, related greenhouse gases, such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), have increased in concentration in the atmosphere since then. HFCs, along with other synthetic greenhouse gases (SGHGs), account for a radiative forcing almost 20% as large as that due to the increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) since the preindustrial era.

  14. 40 CFR 52.22 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs). 52.22 Section 52.22 Protection of Environment... greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in § 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter as the aggregate group of six greenhouse gases: Carbon dioxide,...

  15. 40 CFR 52.22 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs). 52.22 Section 52.22 Protection of Environment... greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in § 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter as the aggregate group of six greenhouse gases: Carbon dioxide,...

  16. 40 CFR 52.22 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs). 52.22 Section 52.22 Protection of Environment... greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in § 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter as the aggregate group of six greenhouse gases: Carbon dioxide,...

  17. 40 CFR 52.22 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs). 52.22 Section 52.22 Protection of Environment... greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in § 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter as the aggregate group of six greenhouse gases: Carbon dioxide,...

  18. 40 CFR 52.22 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs). 52.22 Section 52.22 Protection of Environment... greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in § 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter as the aggregate group of six greenhouse gases: Carbon dioxide,...

  19. Remote Sensing of Greenhouse Gases and Their Sources and Sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, Andre; Babenhauserheide, Arne; Bertleff, Marco; Checa-Garcia, Ramiro; Hahne, Philipp; Hase, Frank; Klappenbach, Friedrich; Kostinek, Julian; Aben, Ilse; Hasekamp, Otto; Landgraf, Jochen; Galli, Andre; Basu, Sourish

    2014-06-01

    The man-made emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are considered the main drivers of anthropogenically induced climate change. Major uncertainties persist when it comes to quantifying regional scale surface fluxes of these gases or predicting the evolution of the relevant source/sink processes in a changing climate. Remote sensing of the atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations from space-borne and ground-based platforms offers the opportunity to significantly advance our knowledge on spatial and temporal scales that are suitable for process attribution and mitigation actions. Overall, the most promising remote-sensing strategy exploits the rotational-vibrational absorption of CO2 and CH4 in sunlight penetrating the Earth's atmosphere. Typically, satellite sounders such as GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite), OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory), and S5P (Sentinel-5 precursor) as well as the ground-based spectrometers of the TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) cover various CO2, CH4, and O2 absorption bands in the near and shortwave infrared spectral range between 0.75 micron (13400cm-1) and 2.5 micron (4000cm-1). Accuracy of the inferred gas concentrations is contingent on the accuracy of the adopted spectroscopic parameters and spectroscopic models available in these spectral regions. Here, I will report on recent achievements and challenges within our greenhouse-gas remote-sensing activities mainly focusing on the GOSAT observational record. Since its launch in early 2009, the Fourier Transform Spectrometer onboard GOSAT delivers solar absorption spectra with good spectral resolution and high signal-to-noise. It has been shown that the CO2 and CH4 retrievals from these observations can achieve an accuracy on the order of fractions of a percent which makes them suitable for tracking regional scale source/sink processes and their response to climate events. In order to achieve the required accuracy, it is

  20. Greenhouse gases dissolved in soil solution - often ignored, but important?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weymann, Daniel; Brueggemann, Nicolas; Puetz, Thomas; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-05-01

    Flux measurements of climate-relevant trace gases from soils are frequently undertaken in contemporary ecosystem studies and substantially contribute to our understanding of greenhouse gas balances of the biosphere. While the great majority of such investigations builds on closed chamber and eddy covariance measurements, where upward gas fluxes to the atmosphere are measured, fewest concurrently consider greenhouse gas dissolution in the seepage and leaching of dissolved gases via the vadose zone to the groundwater. Here we present annual leaching losses of dissolved N2O and CO2 from arable, grassland, and forest lysimeter soils from three sites differing in altitude and climate. We aim to assess their importance in comparison to direct N2O emission, soil respiration, and further leaching parameters of the C- and N cycle. The lysimeters are part of the Germany-wide lysimeter network initiative TERENO-SoilCan, which investigates feedbacks of climate change to the pedosphere on a long-term scale. Soil water samples were collected weekly from different depths of the profiles by means of suction cups. A laboratory pre-experiment proved that no degassing occurred under those sampling conditions. We applied the headspace equilibration technique to determine dissolved gas concentrations by gas chromatography. The seepage water of all lysimeters was consistently supersaturated with N2O and CO2 compared to water equilibrated ambient air. In terms of N2O, leaching losses increased in the ascending order forest, grassland, and arable soils, respectively. In case of the latter soils, we observed a strong variability of N2O, with dissolved concentrations up to 23 μg N L-1. However, since seepage discharge of the arable lysimeters was comparatively small and mostly limited to the hydrological winter season, leached N2O appeared to be less important than direct N2O emissions. In terms of dissolved CO2,our measurements revealed considerable leaching losses from the mountainous

  1. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

  2. Greenhouse effect of chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, James; Lacis, Andrew; Prather, Michael

    1989-11-01

    A comparison is made of the radiative (greenhouse) forcing of the climate system due to changes of atmospheric chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases. It is found that CFCs, defined to include chlorofluorocarbons, chlorocarbons, and fluorocarbons, now provide about one-quater of current annual increases in anthropogenic greenhouse climate forcing. If the growth rates of CFC production in the early 1970s had continued to the present, current annual growth of climate forcing due to CFCs would exceed that due to CO2.

  3. Greenhouse effect of chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Lacis, Andrew; Prather, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A comparison is made of the radiative (greenhouse) forcing of the climate system due to changes of atmospheric chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases. It is found that CFCs, defined to include chlorofluorocarbons, chlorocarbons, and fluorocarbons, now provide about one-quater of current annual increases in anthropogenic greenhouse climate forcing. If the growth rates of CFC production in the early 1970s had continued to the present, current annual growth of climate forcing due to CFCs would exceed that due to CO2.

  4. Impact of greenhouse gases on the Earth's ozone layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadorozhny, Alexander

    A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the ozonosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the role of the greenhouse gases CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O in the future long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer, in particular in its recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circulation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the South to North Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from Climate Change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abundance of the greenhouse gases on the dynamics of recovery of the Earth's ozone layer, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2 , essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weakness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in Antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification begins to be more effective in Arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard the expected recovery of the

  5. Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Maroto-Valer, M.M.

    2011-02-01

    This editorial introduces readers and contributors to a new online journal. Through the publication of articles ranging from peer-reviewed research papers and short communications, to editorials and interviews on greenhouse gas emissions science and technology, this journal will disseminate research results and information that address the global crisis of anthropogenic climate change. The scope of the journal includes the full spectrum of research areas from capture and separation of greenhouse gases from flue gases and ambient air, to beneficial utilization, and to sequestration in deep geologic formations and terrestrial (plant and soil) systems, as well as policy and technoeconomic analyses of these approaches.

  6. Production of Greenhouse Gases in The Atmosphere of Early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kress, Monika E.; McKay, Christopher P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Mars was much warmer and wetter 3.5 to 4 billion years ago than it is today, suggesting that its climate was able to support life in the distant past. Carbon dioxide and methane are greenhouse gases which may have kept Mars warm during this time. We explore the possibility that these gases were produced via grain-catalyzed reactions in the warm, dusty aftermath of large comet and/or asteroid impacts which delivered Mars, volatile inventory.

  7. Biomass Burning and the Production of Greenhouse Gases. Chapter 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1994-01-01

    Biomass burning is a source of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. In addition, biomass burning is a source of chemically active gases, including carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and nitric oxide. These gases, along with methane, lead to the chemical production of tropospheric ozone (another greenhouse gas) as well as control the concentration of the hydroxyl radical, which regulates the lifetime of almost every atmospheric gas. Following biomass burning, biogenic emissions of nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and methane are significantly enhanced. It is hypothesized that enhanced postburn biogenic emissions of these gases are related to fire-induced changes in soil chemistry and/or microbial ecology. Biomass burning, once believed to be a tropical phenomenon, has been demonstrated by satellite imagery to also be a regular feature of the world's boreal forests. One example of biomass burning is the extensive 1987 fire that destroyed more than 12 million acres of boreal forest in the People's Republic of China and across its border in the Soviet Union. Recent estimates indicate that almost all biomass burning is human-initiated and that it is increasing with time. With the formation of greenhouse and chemically active gases as direct combustion products and a longer-term enhancement of biogenic emissions of gases, biomass burning may be a significant driver for global change.

  8. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small

  9. OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-12-01

    This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost.

  10. The Global Research Alliance on agricultural greenhouse gases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases was proposed by New Zealand at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP) in Copenhagen in 2009 and developed in partnership with the United States. This alliance now includes 32 member count...

  11. Iatrogenic greenhouse gases: the role of anaesthetic agents.

    PubMed

    Uzoigwe, Chika E; Sanchez Franco, Luis C; Forrest, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of health-care activity to climate change is not negligible and is increasing. Anaesthetic greenhouse gases, in particular the fluranes, have a much more potent global warming capacity, volume for volume, than carbon dioxide, but their emissions remain completely unregulated.

  12. Iatrogenic greenhouse gases: the role of anaesthetic agents.

    PubMed

    Uzoigwe, Chika E; Sanchez Franco, Luis C; Forrest, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of health-care activity to climate change is not negligible and is increasing. Anaesthetic greenhouse gases, in particular the fluranes, have a much more potent global warming capacity, volume for volume, than carbon dioxide, but their emissions remain completely unregulated. PMID:26903451

  13. Greenhouse gases and recovery of the Earth's ozone layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyominov, I. G.; Zadorozhny, A. M.

    A numerical two-dimension zonally average interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the atmosphere is used for investigation the role of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O in the recovery of the Earth's ozone layer after reduction of anthropogenic discharges in the atmosphere of chlorine and bromine compounds. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circulation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the South to North Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar stratospheric clouds of types I and II. The scenarios of future changes of the greenhouse gases and chlorine and bromine species are taken from Climate Change 1995. The calculations show that expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by the increasing of the greenhouse gases, particularly CO2, enhances the ozone concentration in the stratosphere due to a weakness of the efficiencies of all catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction caused by temperature dependencies of photochemical reactions. The result of this effect is a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges in the atmosphere of chlorine and bromine species. On the other hand, the cooling of the stratosphere intensifies a formation of the polar stratospheric clouds in the lower stratosphere in the Polar Regions. Heterogeneous reactions on the polar stratospheric clouds, which are the key processes in the destruction of the ozone layer at the high latitudes, lead to more intensive ozone depletion here, which causes a delay of the ozone layer recovery. The calculations show that this effect is weaker than the first one so that the global ozone will recover faster under conditions of continuing anthropogenic growth of the greenhouse gases. The model predicts in this case that the annual average global ozone will reach its undisturbed level of 1980 by about 2040. If the growth of the

  14. Inhomogeneous radiative forcing of homogeneous greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi; Tan, Xiaoxiao; Xia, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Radiative forcing of a homogeneous greenhouse gas (HGG) can be very inhomogeneous because the forcing is dependent on other atmospheric and surface variables. In the case of doubling CO2, the monthly mean instantaneous forcing at the top of the atmosphere is found to vary geographically and temporally from positive to negative values, with the range (-2.5-5.1 W m-2) being more than 3 times the magnitude of the global mean value (2.3 W m-2). The vertical temperature change across the atmospheric column (temperature lapse rate) is found to be the best single predictor for explaining forcing variation. In addition, the masking effects of clouds and water vapor also contribute to forcing inhomogeneity. A regression model that predicts forcing from geophysical variables is constructed. This model can explain more than 90% of the variance of the forcing. Applying this model to analyzing the forcing variation in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models, we find that intermodel discrepancy in CO2 forcing caused by model climatology leads to considerable discrepancy in their projected change in poleward energy transport.

  15. Greenhouse gases mitigation options and strategies for Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Mwandosya, M.J.; Meena, H.E.

    1996-12-31

    Tanzania became a party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UN FCCC) when she ratified the Convention in March, 1996. Now that Tanzania and other developing countries are Parties to the UN FCCC, compliance with its provisions is mandatory. The legal requirements therefore provide a basis for their participation in climate change studies and policy formulation. All parties to the Convention are required by Article 4.1 of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) to develop, periodically update, publish, and make available national inventories of anthropogenic emissions and removal of greenhouse gases that are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. This study on possible options for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Tanzania is a preliminary effort towards the fulfilment of the obligation. In order to fulfil their obligations under the UN FCCC and have a meaningful mitigation assessment, identification and quantification of anthropogenic sources of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases in the country was undertaken. In this respect, the study of anthropogenic emissions by source and removals by sink of GHGs in Tanzania was done with the main objective of increasing the quantity and quality of base-line data available in order to further scientific understanding of the relationship of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change. Furthermore, the study facilitated identification of national policy and technological options that could reduce the level of emissions in the country.

  16. A review of research on human activity induced climate change I. Greenhouse gases and aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingxing; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Xin

    2004-06-01

    Extensive research on the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, carbon cycle modeling, and the characterization of atmospheric aerosols has been carried out in China during the last 10 years or so. This paper presents the major achievements in the fields of emissions of greenhouse gases from agricultural lands, carbon cycle modeling, the characterization of Asian mineral dust, source identification of the precursors of the tropospheric ozone, and observations of the concentrations of atmospheric organic compounds. Special, more detailed information on the emissions of methane from rice fields and the physical and chemical characteristics of mineral aerosols are presented.

  17. 40 CFR 71.13 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) 71.13 Section 71.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 71.13 Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in § 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter...

  18. 40 CFR 71.13 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) 71.13 Section 71.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 71.13 Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) (a) Definitions—(1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in § 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter...

  19. 40 CFR 71.13 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 71.13 Section 71.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 71.13 Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions—(1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in § 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter...

  20. 40 CFR 71.13 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) 71.13 Section 71.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 71.13 Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) (a) Definitions—(1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in § 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter...

  1. 40 CFR 71.13 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 71.13 Section 71.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 71.13 Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions—(1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in § 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter...

  2. Greenhouse effect of trace gases, 1970-1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacis, A.; Hansen, J.; Lee, P.; Lebedeff, S.; Mitchell, T.

    1981-01-01

    Increased abundances were measured for several trace atmospheric gases in the decade 1970-1980. The equilibrium greenhouse warming for the measured increments of CH4, chlorofluorocarbons and N2O is between 50% and 100% of the equilibrium warming for the measured increase of atmospheric CO2 during the same 10 years. The combined warming of CO2 and trace gases should exceed natural global temperature variability in the 1980's and cause the global mean temperature to rise above the maximum of the late 1930's.

  3. Ozone depletion, greenhouse gases, and climate change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, Harold A.; Baker, D. James, Jr.; Bretherton, Francis P.; Burke, Kevin C.; Clark, William C.; Davis, Margaret B.; Dickinson, Robert E.; Imbrie, John; Malone, Thomas F.; Mcelroy, Michael B.

    1989-01-01

    This symposium was organized to study the unusual convergence of a number of observations, both short and long term that defy an integrated explanation. Of particular importance are surface temperature observations and observations of upper atmospheric temperatures, which have declined significantly in parts of the stratosphere. There has also been a dramatic decline in ozone concentration over Antarctica that was not predicted. Significant changes in precipitation that seem to be latitude dependent have occurred. There has been a threefold increase in methane in the last 100 years; this is a problem because a source does not appear to exist for methane of the right isotopic composition to explain the increase. These and other meteorological global climate changes are examined in detail.

  4. Keeping Mars warm with new super greenhouse gases

    PubMed Central

    Gerstell, M. F.; Francisco, J. S.; Yung, Y. L.; Boxe, C.; Aaltonee, E. T.

    2001-01-01

    Our selection of new super greenhouse gases to fill a putative “window” in a future Martian atmosphere relies on quantum-mechanical calculations. Our study indicates that if Mars could somehow acquire an Earth-like atmospheric composition and surface pressure, then an Earth-like temperature could be sustained by a mixture of five to seven fluorine compounds. Martian mining requirements for replenishing the fluorine could be comparable to current terrestrial extraction. PMID:11226208

  5. Keeping Mars warm with new super greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Gerstell, M F; Francisco, J S; Yung, Y L; Boxe, C; Aaltonee, E T

    2001-02-27

    Our selection of new super greenhouse gases to fill a putative "window" in a future Martian atmosphere relies on quantum-mechanical calculations. Our study indicates that if Mars could somehow acquire an Earth-like atmospheric composition and surface pressure, then an Earth-like temperature could be sustained by a mixture of five to seven fluorine compounds. Martian mining requirements for replenishing the fluorine could be comparable to current terrestrial extraction. PMID:11226208

  6. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report is the fifth annual update, covering national emissions over the period 1989--1995, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1996. The estimates contained in this report have been revised from those in last year`s report. Emissions estimates for carbon dioxide are reported in metric tons of carbon; estimates for other gases are reported in metric tons of gas. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapter 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Five appendixes are included with this report. 216 refs., 11 figs., 38 tabs.

  7. Remote sensing of atmospheric greenhouse gases: bridging spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpage, N.; Boesch, H.; Parker, R.; Hewson, W.; Sembhi, H.; Somkuti, P.; Webb, A.; Palmer, P. I.; Feng, L.

    2015-12-01

    Observed atmospheric variations of greenhouse gases (GHG) are determined by surface-atmosphere exchange, and atmospheric chemistry and transport. These processes occur over a wide spectrum of spatial and temporal scales. Confronting atmospheric transport models and ultimately improving the fidelity of surface flux estimates demands an integrated observing system that captures these scales. We will discuss using data the role of GHG remote sensing instruments and argue that our ability to deploy them from the ground and to fly them on satellite, aircraft, and unmanned airborne vehicles (UAV) mean that they represent the ideal technology to bridge the observed scales of variability. We will discuss a five-year record of global-scale column observations of CO2 and CH4 from the Japanese GOSAT satellite instrument that is available from University of Leicester as part of the ESA Climate Change Initiative. We will showcase new CO2 and CH4 column data that was collected by our shortwave infrared spectrometer GHOST oboard the NASA Global Hak during a regional survey over the eastern Pacific during early spring 2015, which included coincident overpasses from GOSAT and the NASA OCO-2. These data are being used to test atmospheric transport models over remote regions and to help validate satellite observations over the oceans. We will also discuss GHOST data collected on the UK Dornier 226 research aircraft to measure local-scale measurements over Leicester city centre, a major power plant, and downwind of a controlled Cumbrian heathland fire. Finally, we will report preliminary results from a new ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer station at Harwell (80 km west of London). We anticipate that this site will eventually join the TCCON network, which has been used to validation of satellite observations.

  8. Analyzers Measure Greenhouse Gases, Airborne Pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    to fuel cellular functions. "We think this chemical process did not exist when life first formed on Earth," he says, "because it is based on oxygen being available, and there was little oxygen available on the early Earth." It is possible that there are anaerobic regions beneath the sea floor in which life forms like those early non-Krebs Cycle microbes may yet exist. To detect and potentially collect samples of life emerging from hydrothermal vents, Flynn and his colleagues created Medusa, a multi-sensor instrument designed for long-term observation of diked vents on the ocean floor. When the vents erupt, Medusa assesses indicators of life within the expelled water. If the results are positive, the observatory collects samples and detaches from the ocean floor, making the long journey to the surface for retrieval by scientists. One of the indicators Medusa measures is the ratio of carbon isotopes in the water, namely carbon-12 and carbon-13. Living organisms preferentially take up carbon-12, Flynn says, so examining the ratio of these isotopes can help to determine the source of carbon in an environment as either biological or non-biological. "On Mars, there is evidence of localized methane in the atmosphere, and that methane could come from biological sources or from geochemical ones," Flynn says. "Determining the background planetary carbon isotope ratios and then evaluating the specific carbon ratios in this methane would help to determine how it was formed." A long-duration observatory similar to Medusa could one day provide essential evidence for or against the presence of life on the Red Planet or beneath the ice-crusted oceans of Europa.

  9. Modern inhalation anesthetics: Potent greenhouse gases in the global atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, Martin K.; Rhee, Tae Siek; Rigby, Matt; Hofstetter, Doris; Hill, Matthias; Schoenenberger, Fabian; Reimann, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    Modern halogenated inhalation anesthetics undergo little metabolization during clinical application and evaporate almost completely to the atmosphere. Based on their first measurements in a range of environments, from urban areas to the pristine Antarctic environment, we detect a rapid accumulation and ubiquitous presence of isoflurane, desflurane, and sevoflurane in the global atmosphere. Over the past decade, their abundances in the atmosphere have increased to global mean mole fractions in 2014 of 0.097ppt, 0.30ppt, and 0.13ppt (parts per trillion, 10-12, in dry air), respectively. Emissions of these long-lived greenhouse gases inferred from the observations suggest a global combined release to the atmosphere of 3.1 ± 0.6 million t CO2 equivalent in 2014 of which ≈80% stems from desflurane. We also report on halothane, a previously widely used anesthetic. Its global mean mole fraction has declined to 9.2ppq (parts per quadrillion, 10-15) by 2014. However, the inferred present usage is still 280 ±120t yr-1.

  10. Greenhouse gases as clues to permanence of farmlands.

    PubMed

    Janzen, H Henry

    2007-06-01

    Farmlands are expansive, diverse, and intensively managed ecosystems. These lands, so critical to human welfare, are threatened by growing stresses as demand for food escalates, fresh water wanes, cheap fuels deplete, and other uses jostle for space. With these coming pressures, how can we foster permanence on the lands that sustain us? In this essay I contemplate the hypothesis that the greenhouse gases, because they emanate from the interwoven flows of C, N, and energy in ecosystems, can help steer us toward permanence (sustainability). Alongside other indicators these emissions may detect the ecosystem's pulse, alerting us to inefficiencies and guiding us to better practices. To be effective signals, however, the greenhouse gases will need to be considered in their local settings, monitored longer and in more "listening places," and measured across boundaries of disciplines and biomes. This approach may help reduce greenhouse gas emissions from our farmlands. But we may find that, in the long run, the main beneficiaries of our inquiry have been, not just the atmosphere, but our fragile lands, perhaps in ways we cannot yet foresee.

  11. Greenhouse gases as clues to permanence of farmlands.

    PubMed

    Janzen, H Henry

    2007-06-01

    Farmlands are expansive, diverse, and intensively managed ecosystems. These lands, so critical to human welfare, are threatened by growing stresses as demand for food escalates, fresh water wanes, cheap fuels deplete, and other uses jostle for space. With these coming pressures, how can we foster permanence on the lands that sustain us? In this essay I contemplate the hypothesis that the greenhouse gases, because they emanate from the interwoven flows of C, N, and energy in ecosystems, can help steer us toward permanence (sustainability). Alongside other indicators these emissions may detect the ecosystem's pulse, alerting us to inefficiencies and guiding us to better practices. To be effective signals, however, the greenhouse gases will need to be considered in their local settings, monitored longer and in more "listening places," and measured across boundaries of disciplines and biomes. This approach may help reduce greenhouse gas emissions from our farmlands. But we may find that, in the long run, the main beneficiaries of our inquiry have been, not just the atmosphere, but our fragile lands, perhaps in ways we cannot yet foresee. PMID:17531045

  12. Observational determination of the greenhouse effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raval, A.; Ramanathan, V.

    1989-01-01

    Satellite measurements are used to quantify the atmospheric greenhouse effect, defined here as the infrared radiation energy trapped by atmospheric gases and clouds. The greenhouse effect is found to increase significantly with sea surface temperature. The rate of increase gives compelling evidence for the positive feedback between surface temperature, water vapor and the greenhouse effect; the magnitude of the feedback is consistent with that predicted by climate models. This study demonstrates an effective method for directly monitoring, from space, future changes in the greenhouse effect.

  13. The contribution of greenhouse gases to the recent slowdown in global-mean temperature trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Checa-Garcia, R.; Shine, K. P.; Hegglin, M. I.

    2016-09-01

    The recent slowdown in the rate of increase in global-mean surface temperature (GMST) has generated extensive discussion, but little attention has been given to the contribution of time-varying trends in greenhouse gas concentrations. We use a simple model approach to quantify this contribution. Between 1985 and 2003, greenhouse gases (including well-mixed greenhouse gases, tropospheric and stratospheric ozone, and stratospheric water vapour from methane oxidation) caused a reduction in GMST trend of around 0.03-0.05 K decade-1 which is around 18%-25% of the observed trend over that period. The main contributors to this reduction are the rapid change in the growth rates of ozone-depleting gases (with this contribution slightly opposed by stratospheric ozone depletion itself) and the weakening in growth rates of methane and tropospheric ozone radiative forcing. Although CO2 is the dominant greenhouse gas contributor to GMST trends, the continued increase in CO2 concentrations offsets only about 30% of the simulated trend reduction due to these other contributors. These results emphasize that trends in non-CO2 greenhouse gas concentrations can make significant positive and negative contributions to changes in the rate of warming, and that they need to be considered more closely in analyses of the causes of such variations.

  14. 75 FR 22699 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Minor Harmonizing Changes to the General Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AQ15 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Minor Harmonizing Changes to... withdrawing the direct final rule to amend the general provisions for the Mandatory Greenhouse Gas (GHG... Part 98 Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, Greenhouse gases,...

  15. 76 FR 37300 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to Best...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... Protection Agency FR Federal Register GHG greenhouse gas IBR incorporation by reference ICR information... 2010 (74 FR 56260) final rules for the Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases. Following the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AP99 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural...

  16. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

  17. 75 FR 74773 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Additional Sources of Fluorinated GHGs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... Manufacturing......... General Stationary Fuel Combustion. Fluorinated Gas Production........ General Stationary Fuel Combustion Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases. Electrical Equipment Use General Stationary Fuel Combustion. Imports and Exports of Fluorinated Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse GHGs Inside...

  18. Note: Measurement system for the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases in a laboratory scale.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The radiative forcing of the greenhouse gases has been studied being based on computational simulations or the observation of the real atmosphere meteorologically. In order to know the greenhouse effect more deeply and to study it from various viewpoints, the study on it in a laboratory scale is important. We have developed a direct measurement system for the infrared back radiation from the carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. The system configuration is similar with that of the practical earth-atmosphere-space system. Using this system, the back radiation from the CO2 gas was directly measured in a laboratory scale, which roughly coincides with meteorologically predicted value.

  19. Note: Measurement system for the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases in a laboratory scale.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The radiative forcing of the greenhouse gases has been studied being based on computational simulations or the observation of the real atmosphere meteorologically. In order to know the greenhouse effect more deeply and to study it from various viewpoints, the study on it in a laboratory scale is important. We have developed a direct measurement system for the infrared back radiation from the carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. The system configuration is similar with that of the practical earth-atmosphere-space system. Using this system, the back radiation from the CO2 gas was directly measured in a laboratory scale, which roughly coincides with meteorologically predicted value. PMID:26827362

  20. Integrated model shows that atmospheric brown clouds and greenhouse gases have reduced rice harvests in India

    PubMed Central

    Auffhammer, Maximilian; Ramanathan, V.; Vincent, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have found that atmospheric brown clouds partially offset the warming effects of greenhouse gases. This finding suggests a tradeoff between the impacts of reducing emissions of aerosols and greenhouse gases. Results from a statistical model of historical rice harvests in India, coupled with regional climate scenarios from a parallel climate model, indicate that joint reductions in brown clouds and greenhouse gases would in fact have complementary, positive impacts on harvests. The results also imply that adverse climate changes due to brown clouds and greenhouse gases contributed to the slowdown in harvest growth that occurred during the past two decades. PMID:17158795

  1. Integrated model shows that atmospheric brown clouds and greenhouse gases have reduced rice harvests in India.

    PubMed

    Auffhammer, Maximilian; Ramanathan, V; Vincent, Jeffrey R

    2006-12-26

    Previous studies have found that atmospheric brown clouds partially offset the warming effects of greenhouse gases. This finding suggests a tradeoff between the impacts of reducing emissions of aerosols and greenhouse gases. Results from a statistical model of historical rice harvests in India, coupled with regional climate scenarios from a parallel climate model, indicate that joint reductions in brown clouds and greenhouse gases would in fact have complementary, positive impacts on harvests. The results also imply that adverse climate changes due to brown clouds and greenhouse gases contributed to the slowdown in harvest growth that occurred during the past two decades.

  2. Integrated model shows that atmospheric brown clouds and greenhouse gases have reduced rice harvests in India

    SciTech Connect

    Auffhammer, M.; Ramanathan, V.; Vincent, J.R.

    2007-12-26

    Previous studies have found that atmospheric brown clouds partially offset the warming effects of greenhouse gases. This finding suggests a tradeoff between the impacts of reducing emissions of aerosols and greenhouse gases. Results from a statistical model of historical rice harvests in India, coupled with regional climate scenarios from a parallel climate model, indicate that joint reductions in brown clouds and greenhouse gases would in fact have complementary, positive impacts on harvests. The results also imply that adverse climate change due to brown clouds and greenhouse gases contributed to the slowdown in harvest growth that occurred during the past two decades.

  3. Direct and ozone-mediated forcing of the Southern Annular Mode by greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Olaf; Zeng, Guang; Dean, Sam M.; Joshi, Manoj; Abraham, N. Luke; Osprey, Annette

    2014-12-01

    We assess the roles of long-lived greenhouse gases and ozone depletion in driving meridional surface pressure gradients in the southern extratropics; these gradients are a defining feature of the Southern Annular Mode. Stratospheric ozone depletion is thought to have caused a strengthening of this mode during summer, with increasing long-lived greenhouse gases playing a secondary role. Using a coupled atmosphere-ocean chemistry-climate model, we show that there is cancelation between the direct, radiative effect of increasing greenhouse gases by the also substantial indirect—chemical and dynamical—feedbacks that greenhouse gases have via their impact on ozone. This sensitivity of the mode to greenhouse gas-induced ozone changes suggests that a consistent implementation of ozone changes due to long-lived greenhouse gases in climate models benefits the simulation of this important aspect of Southern Hemisphere climate.

  4. MERGE: An integrated assessment model of greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Manne, A.; Mendelsohn, R.; Richels, R.

    1994-12-31

    MERGE combines the Global 2200 model of world energy and carbon emissions with a climate and damage model. Original features of MERGE include a time scale through 2200, a five region breakdown of costs and damages, and an explicit nonmarket valuation function. The current version of the model implies that greenhouse gases, if left unchecked, will double by 2050, temperatures will increase by 2.5 C by 2090, and damages will reach a present value of $1.6 trillion through 220. The model predicts that carbon emission and stabilization programs, over the next 60 years, will be expensive and have limited impact controlling GHG concentrations through 2050. The benefits of implementing these more stringent control programs over the next few decades tends to be small compared to the costs. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  5. CARBONGASES: Retrieval and Analysis of Carbon Dioxide and Methane Greenhouse Gases from SCIAMACHY on Envisat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneising, O.; Buchwitz, M.; Reuter, M.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. Despite their importance our knowledge about their variable natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks has significant gaps. Satellite observations can add important global scale information on greenhouse gas sources and sinks provided the data are accurate and precise enough and are sensitive to the lowest atmospheric layers where the variability due to regional greenhouse gas sources and sinks are largest. SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT was the first and is now besides TANSO onboard GOSAT the only satellite instrument which covers important absorption bands of both gases in the near-infrared/shortwave- infrared (NIR/SWIR) spectral region. In nadir mode SCIAMACHY observes reflected and backscattered solar radiation. The daytime measurements are therefore very sensitive to near-surface greenhouse gas concentration changes except in case of significant cloud cover. The atmospheric greenhouse gas information is extracted from the SCIAMACHY spectra using the Weighting Function Modified Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (WFM-DOAS or WFMD) algorithm developed at the Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP) of the University of Bremen, Germany. In the framework of the CARBONGASES project, which is part of the Changing Earth Science Network, the afore existing data set focussing on the first three full years of the ENVISAT mission (2003-2005) is improved and extended up to end of 2009 constituting seven years of greenhouse gas information derived from European Earth observation data and closing the gap to GOSAT. The status of this retrieval activity and first results are presented.

  6. 76 FR 61293 - Extension of Public Comment Period: Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Technical Revisions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Categories of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION..., Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Technical Revisions to the Electronics Manufacturing and the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Categories of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule. In this action, EPA...

  7. 76 FR 59533 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to Best...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    .... Environmental Protection Agency. FR Federal Register. GHG greenhouse gas. ICR Information Collection Request... Systems of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule on November 30, 2010, 40 CFR part 98, subpart W (75 FR 74458... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AP99 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural...

  8. Adaptation to Impacts of Greenhouse Gases on the Ocean (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, K.

    2010-12-01

    Greenhouse gases are producing changes in ocean temperature and circulation, and these changes are already adversely affecting marine biota. Furthermore, carbon dioxide is absorbed by the oceans from the atmosphere, and this too is already adversely affecting some marine ecosystems. And, of course, sea-level rise affects both what is above and below the waterline. Clearly, the most effective approach to limit the negative impacts of climate change and acidification on the marine environment is to greatly diminish the rate of greenhouse gas emissions. However, there are other measures that can be taken to limit some of the negative effects of these stresses in the marine environment. Marine ecosystems are subject to multiple stresses, including overfishing, pollution, and loss of coastal wetlands that often serve as nurseries for the open ocean. The adaptive capacity of marine environments can be improved by limiting these other stresses. If current carbon dioxide emission trends continue, for some cases (e.g., coral reefs), it is possible that no amount of reduction in other stresses can offset the increase in stresses posed by warming and acidification. For other cases (e.g., blue-water top-predator fisheries), better fisheries management might yield improved population health despite continued warming and acidification. In addition to reducing stresses so as to improve the adaptive capacity of marine ecosystems, there is also the issue of adaptation in human communities that depend on this changing marine environment. For example, communities that depend on services provided by coral reefs may need to locate alternative foundations for their economies. The fishery industry will need to adapt to changes in fish abundance, timing and location. Most of the things we would like to do to increase the adaptive capacity of marine ecosystems (e.g., reduce fishing pressure, reduce coastal pollution, preserve coastal wetlands) are things that would make sense to do even in

  9. Greenhouse gases from wastewater treatment - A review of modelling tools.

    PubMed

    Mannina, Giorgio; Ekama, George; Caniani, Donatella; Cosenza, Alida; Esposito, Giovanni; Gori, Riccardo; Garrido-Baserba, Manel; Rosso, Diego; Olsson, Gustaf

    2016-05-01

    Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane are greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted from wastewater treatment that contribute to its carbon footprint. As a result of the increasing awareness of GHG emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), new modelling, design, and operational tools have been developed to address and reduce GHG emissions at the plant-wide scale and beyond. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and the recently developed tools used to understand and manage GHG emissions from WWTPs, and discusses open problems and research gaps. The literature review reveals that knowledge on the processes related to N2O formation, especially due to autotrophic biomass, is still incomplete. The literature review shows also that a plant-wide modelling approach that includes GHG is the best option for the understanding how to reduce the carbon footprint of WWTPs. Indeed, several studies have confirmed that a wide vision of the WWPTs has to be considered in order to make them more sustainable as possible. Mechanistic dynamic models were demonstrated as the most comprehensive and reliable tools for GHG assessment. Very few plant-wide GHG modelling studies have been applied to real WWTPs due to the huge difficulties related to data availability and the model complexity. For further improvement in GHG plant-wide modelling and to favour its use at large real scale, knowledge of the mechanisms involved in GHG formation and release, and data acquisition must be enhanced. PMID:26878638

  10. In-Situ Microbial Conversion of Sequestered Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, M; Balin, D F

    2012-09-06

    The objectives of the project are to use microbiological in situ bioconversion technology to convert sequestered or naturally-occurring greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, into methane and other useful organic compounds. The key factors affecting coal bioconversion identified in this research include (1) coal properties, (2) thermal maturation and coalification process, (3) microbial population dynamics, (4) hydrodynamics (5) reservoir conditions, and (6) the methodology of getting the nutrients into the coal seams. While nearly all cultures produced methane, we were unable to confirm sustained methane production from the enrichments. We believe that the methane generation may have been derived from readily metabolized organic matter in the coal samples and/or biosoluble organic material in the coal formation water. This raises the intriguing possibility that pretreatment of the coal in the subsurface to bioactivate the coal prior to the injection of microbes and nutrients might be possible. We determined that it would be more cost effective to inject nutrients into coal seams to stimulate indigenous microbes in the coal seams, than to grow microbes in fermentation vats and transport them to the well site. If the coal bioconversion process can be developed on a larger scale, then the cost to generate methane could be less than $1 per Mcf

  11. Greenhouse gases from wastewater treatment - A review of modelling tools.

    PubMed

    Mannina, Giorgio; Ekama, George; Caniani, Donatella; Cosenza, Alida; Esposito, Giovanni; Gori, Riccardo; Garrido-Baserba, Manel; Rosso, Diego; Olsson, Gustaf

    2016-05-01

    Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane are greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted from wastewater treatment that contribute to its carbon footprint. As a result of the increasing awareness of GHG emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), new modelling, design, and operational tools have been developed to address and reduce GHG emissions at the plant-wide scale and beyond. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and the recently developed tools used to understand and manage GHG emissions from WWTPs, and discusses open problems and research gaps. The literature review reveals that knowledge on the processes related to N2O formation, especially due to autotrophic biomass, is still incomplete. The literature review shows also that a plant-wide modelling approach that includes GHG is the best option for the understanding how to reduce the carbon footprint of WWTPs. Indeed, several studies have confirmed that a wide vision of the WWPTs has to be considered in order to make them more sustainable as possible. Mechanistic dynamic models were demonstrated as the most comprehensive and reliable tools for GHG assessment. Very few plant-wide GHG modelling studies have been applied to real WWTPs due to the huge difficulties related to data availability and the model complexity. For further improvement in GHG plant-wide modelling and to favour its use at large real scale, knowledge of the mechanisms involved in GHG formation and release, and data acquisition must be enhanced.

  12. Thermospheric hydrogen response to increases in greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nossal, S. M.; Qian, L.; Solomon, S. C.; Burns, A. G.; Wang, W.

    2016-04-01

    We investigated thermospheric hydrogen response to increase in greenhouse gases and the dependence of this response to solar activity, using a global mean version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model. We separately doubled carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) to study the influence of temperature and changes to source species for hydrogen. Our results indicate that both CO2 cooling and CH4 changes to the source species for hydrogen lead to predicted increases in the upper thermospheric hydrogen density. At 400 km, hydrogen increases ~30% under solar maximum and ~25% under solar minimum responding to doubling of CH4, indicating that hydrogen response to the source variation due to CH4 increase is relatively independent of solar activity. On the other hand, hydrogen response to doubling of CO2 highly depends on solar activity. At 400 km, doubling of CO2 results in an ~7% hydrogen increase at solar maximum, whereas it is ~25% at solar minimum. Consequently, at solar maximum, the predicted ~40% increase in atomic hydrogen in the upper thermosphere is primarily due to the source variation as a result of doubling of CH4, whereas at solar minimum, both cooling due to doubling of CO2 and the source variation due to doubling of CH4 have commensurate effects, resulting in an approximate 50% increase in the modeled upper thermospheric hydrogen.

  13. Evolution of the global inequality in greenhouse gases emissions using multidimensional generalized entropy measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remuzgo, Lorena; Trueba, Carmen; Sarabia, José María

    2016-02-01

    Given the cumulative consequences of climate change, global concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) must be reduced; being inequality in per-capita emissions levels a problem to achieve a commitment by all countries. Thus, the evolution of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions inequality has received special attention because CO2 is the most abundant GHG in the atmosphere. However, it is necessary to consider other gases to provide a real illustration of our starting point to achieve a multilateral agreement. In this paper, we study the evolution of global inequality in GHGs emissions during the period 1990-2011, considering the four main gases: CO2, methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and fluorinated gases (F-gases). The data used in this analysis is taken from the World Resources Institute (2014) and the groups of countries are constructed according to the quantity of emissions that each country released into the atmosphere in the first year of study. For this purpose we use the multidimensional generalized entropy measures proposed by Maasoumi (1986) that can be decomposable into the between- and within-group inequality components. The biggest fall in inequality is observed when we attach more weight to the emissions transfers between the most polluting countries and assume a low substitution degree among pollutants. Finally, some economic policy implications are commented.

  14. Diurnal cycle of greenhouse gases and biogenic hydrocarbons during summer near Cool, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, B. A.; Floerchinger, C.; Knighton, W. B.; Dubey, M. K.; Herndon, S. C.; Kelley, P.; Luke, W. T.; Shaw, W. J.; Barnard, J.; Laulainen, N.; Zaveri, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Photosynthesis by forests is a large sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and also a large source of biogenic volatile organics (VOCs) that produce aerosols, nucleate clouds, and interact with nitrogen oxides (NOx) to produce ozone. To elucidate these complex biogeochemical mechanisms, we performed continuous high temporal resolution measurements of CO2, VOC, trace gases, and aerosol in June 2010 at the T1 site, 70 km from Sacramento, CA, during the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) in June 2010. Throughout the month we find that diurnal profiles exhibit minima in CO2 and maxima in isoprene during daytime. Both their amplitudes are modulated strongly by cloud cover consistent with a common photosynthetic mechanism. In contrast, we find that diurnal monoterpene profiles peak at night while CO2 is at its maxima. Their amplitudes are modulated by temperature and boundary layer height. The monoterpenes and CO2 cycle show larger increases at warmer temperatures, suggesting respiration as a common driver. Additional measurements of CH4, CO, benzene, toluene, NO, NOy and O3 are used to define biogeochemical cycling of greenhouse gases and are demonstrated as a baseline for separating anthropogenic and biogenic emissions and observing transport of greenhouse gases and air pollution.

  15. Peru mitigation assessment of greenhouse gases: Sector -- Energy. Peru climate change country study; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the Inventory and propose Greenhouse Gases Mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting without delaying the development process required to improve Peruvian standard of living. The main idea of this executive abstract is to show concisely the results of the Greenhouse Gases Mitigation for Peru in the period 1990--2015. The studies about mitigation for the Energy Sector are shown in this summary.

  16. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1985--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-10

    The Earth`s capacity to support life depends on the moderating influences of gases that envelop the planet and warm its surface and protect it from harmful radiation. These gases are referred to as ``greenhouse gases.`` Their warming capacity, called ``the greenhouse effect,`` is essential to maintaining a climate hospitable to all plant, animal, and human life. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern that human activity may be affecting the intricate balance between the Earth`s absorption of heat from the sun and its capacity to reradiate excess heat back into space. Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities may be an important mechanism that affects global climate. Thus, research is intensifying to improve our understanding of the role human activities might play in influencing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. On the basis of scientific findings of the past few decades, the US Government and the international community at large are now taking steps toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. This report contributes to that process. Mandated by Congress this report provides estimates of US emissions of the principal greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds. Estimates are for the period 1985 to 1990. Preliminary estimates for 1991 have also been included, whenever data were available.

  17. 75 FR 70254 - PSD and Title V Permitting Guidance for Greenhouse Gases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... under the GHG Tailoring Rule at 75 FR 31514 (June 3, 2010). EPA invites public comment on all aspects of... AGENCY PSD and Title V Permitting Guidance for Greenhouse Gases AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... the EPA has posted its guidance titled, ``PSD and Title V Permitting Guidance for Greenhouse...

  18. Evaluation of headspace equilibration methods for quantifying greenhouse gases in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Jahangir, M M R; Johnston, P; Khalil, M I; Grant, J; Somers, C; Richards, K G

    2012-11-30

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the different headspace equilibration methods for the quantification of dissolved greenhouse gases in groundwater. Groundwater samples were collected from wells with contrasting hydrogeochemical properties and degassed using the headspace equilibration method. One hundred samples from each well were randomly selected, treatments were applied and headspace gases analysed by gas chromatography. Headspace equilibration treatments varied helium (He):water ratio, shaking time and standing time. Mean groundwater N(2)O, CO(2) and CH(4) concentrations were 0.024 mg N L(-1), 13.71 mg C L(-1) and 1.63 μg C L(-1), respectively. All treatments were found to significantly influence dissolved gas concentrations. Considerable differences in the optimal He:water ratio and standing time were observed between the three gases. For N(2)O, CO(2) and CH(4) the optimum operating points for He:water ratio was 4.4:1, 3:1 and 3.4:1; shaking time was 13, 12 and 13 min; and standing time was 63, 17 and 108 min, respectively. The headspace equilibration method needs to be harmonised to ensure comparability between studies. The experiment reveals that He:water ratio 3:1 and shaking time 13 min give better estimation of dissolved gases than any lower or higher ratios and shaking times. The standing time 63, 17 and 108 min should be applied for N(2)O, CO(2) and CH(4), respectively.

  19. 76 FR 73885 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    .... Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register GHG greenhouse gas GHGRP Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program... September 22, 2009 and published in the Federal Register on October 30, 2009 (74 FR 56260, October 30, 2009... notices were published in 2010 promulgating the requirements for subparts FF, II, and TT (75 FR...

  20. The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiehl, J. T.; Briegleb, B. P.

    1993-01-01

    Calculations of the effects of both natural and anthropogenic tropospheric sulfate aerosols indicate that the aerosol climate forcing is sufficiently large in a number of regions of the Northern Hemisphere to reduce significantly the positive forcing from increased greenhouse gases. Summer sulfate aerosol forcing in the Northern Hemisphere completely offsets the greenhouse forcing over the eastern United States and central Europe. Anthropogenic sulfate aerosols contribute a globally averaged annual forcing of -0.3 watt per square meter as compared with +2.1 watts per square meter for greenhouse gases. Sources of the difference in magnitude with the previous estimate of Charlson et al. (1992) are discussed.

  1. Understanding and quantifying greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions: the UK GHG Emissions and Feedback Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthiesen, Stephan; Palmer, Paul; Watson, Andrew; Williams, Mathew

    2016-04-01

    We give an overview over the structure, objectives, and methods of the UK-based Greenhouse Gases Emissions and Feedback Programme. The overarching objective of this research programme is to deliver improved GHG inventories and predictions for the UK, and for the globe at a regional scale. To address this objective, the Programme has developed a comprehensive, multi-year and interlinked measurement and data analysis programme, focussing on the major GHGs carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The Programme integrates three UK research consortia with complementary objectives, focussing on observation and modelling in the atmosphere, the oceans, and the terrestrial biosphere: GAUGE (Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions) will produce robust estimates of the UK GHG budget, using new and existing atmospheric measurement networks and modelling activities at a range of scales. It integrates inter-calibrated information from ground-based, airborne, ferry-borne, balloon-borne, and space-borne sensors, including new sensor technology. The GREENHOUSE (Generating Regional Emissions Estimates with a Novel Hierarchy of Observations and Upscaled Simulation Experiments) project aims to understand the spatio-temporal patterns of biogenic GHG emissions in the UK's landscape of managed and semi-managed ecosystems. It uses existing UK field data and several targeted new measurement campaigns to build regional GHG inventories and improve the capabilities of land surface models. RAGNARoCC (Radiatively active gases from the North Atlantic Region and Climate Change) is an oceanographic project to investigate the air-sea fluxes of GHGs in the North Atlantic region. Through dedicated research cruises as well as data collection from ships of opportunity, it develops a comprehensive budget of natural and anthropogenic components of the carbon cycle in the North Atlantic and a better understanding of why the air-sea fluxes of CO2 vary regionally, seasonally and multi

  2. Towards European organisation for integrated greenhouse gas observation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaukolehto, Marjut; Vesala, Timo; Sorvari, Sanna; Juurola, Eija; Paris, Jean-Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is one the most challenging problems that humanity will have to cope with in the coming decades. The perturbed global biogeochemical cycles of the greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) are a major driving force of current and future climate change. Deeper understanding of the driving forces of climate change requires full quantification of the greenhouse gas emissions and sinks and their evolution. Regional greenhouse gas budgets, tipping-points, vulnerabilities and the controlling mechanisms can be assessed by long term, high precision observations in the atmosphere and at the ocean and land surface. ICOS RI is a distributed infrastructure for on-line, in-situ monitoring of greenhouse gases (GHG) necessary to understand their present-state and future sinks and sources. ICOS RI provides the long-term observations required to understand the present state and predict future behaviour of the global carbon cycle and greenhouse gas emissions. Linking research, education and innovation promotes technological development and demonstrations related to greenhouse gases. The first objective of ICOS RI is to provide effective access to coherent and precise data and to provide assessments of GHG inventories with high temporal and spatial resolution. The second objective is to provide profound information for research and understanding of regional budgets of greenhouse gas sources and sinks, their human and natural drivers, and the controlling mechanisms. ICOS is one of several ESFRI initiatives in the environmental science domain. There is significant potential for structural and synergetic interaction with several other ESFRI initiatives. ICOS RI is relevant for Joint Programming by providing the data access for the researchers and acting as a contact point for developing joint strategic research agendas among European member states. The preparatory phase ends in March 2013 and there will be an interim period before the legal entity will

  3. Radiometric calibration for the airborne interferometric monitor for greenhouse gases simulator.

    PubMed

    Shimota, A; Kobayashi, H; Kadokura, S

    1999-01-20

    The Advanced Earth Observation Satellite (ADEOS), launched in the summer of 1996, has a high-resolution infrared Fourier transform spectrometer, with the interferometric monitor for greenhouse gases (IMG) onboard. The IMG has a high spectral resolution of 0.1 cm(-1) for the purpose of retrieving greenhouse gas profile maps of the Earth. To meet the requirements of the retrieval algorithms for greenhouse gas profiles, atmospheric emission spectra must be calibrated to better than 1 K accuracy. Prior to the launch of the ADEOS with the IMG, we developed an airborne simulator called the tropospheric infrared interferometric sounder (TIIS). We explain the calibration procedure for the TIIS, which determines the points with the same optical path difference on interferograms for complex Fourier transformation, using the retained phase term on the calibrated spectrum. The downward atmospheric radiation, measured with the TIIS, was well calibrated using this algorithm. Furthermore, calibration of the spectra obtained from the IMG initial checkout mission observation was carried out.

  4. The contribution from emissions of different gases to the enhanced greenhouse effect. Appendix B

    SciTech Connect

    Wigley, T.M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to compare the different contributions, that mankind has made to perturbing the atmosphere`s radiative balance. We have, and will continue to perturb both the balance of outgoing long-wave radiation and the balance of incoming short-wave radiation. Human activities since preindustrial times have caused a substantial enhancement of the greenhouse effect, a process involving the absorption of outgoing long-wave radiation which leads to a warming of the lower atmosphere. Because the atmosphere`s short-wave radiative balance is affected by the presence of small particles (aerosols) produced by the oxidation of sulphur compounds, anthropogenic emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) have also caused a perturbation of the overall balance. The greenhouse gases we will consider are, in order of importance: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), Methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and the halocarbons. We use observed and model-based concentration data together with the most recent information relating concentrations to radiative forcing to estimate the individual contributions of the different gases to the changing radiative balance of the atmosphere. We also estimate the ranges of uncertainty in each of these estimates. We base all results on the 1992 IPCC emissions scenarios IS92a-f. We begin with a summary of 1990 conditions, then consider each gas separately (but lumping the halocarbons into a single group), to compare their relative importance.

  5. Remote Sensing of Spatial Distributions of Greenhouse Gases in the Los Angles Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Dejian; Pongetti, Thomas J.; Sander, Stanley P.; Cheung, Ross; Stutz, Jochen; Park, Chang Hyoun; Li, Qinbin

    2011-01-01

    The Los Angeles air basin is a significant anthropogenic source of greenhouse gases and pollutants including CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO, contributing significantly to regional and global climate change. Recent legislation in California, the California Global Warming Solutions Act (AB32), established a statewide cap for greenhouse gas emissions for 2020 based on 1990 emissions. Verifying the effectiveness of regional greenhouse gas emissions controls requires high-precision, regional-scale measurement methods combined with models that capture the principal anthropogenic and biogenic sources and sinks. We present a novel approach for monitoring the spatial distributions of greenhouse gases in the Los Angeles basin using high resolution remote sensing spectroscopy. We participated in the CalNex 2010 campaign to provide greenhouse gas distributions for comparison between top-down and bottom-up emission estimates.

  6. Mechanisms of impact of greenhouse gases on the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadorozhny, Alexander; Dyominov, Igor

    A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the atmosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the impact of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O on the future long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer, in particular on its expected recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circu-lation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the North to South Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar strato-spheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from Climate Change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abun-dance of the greenhouse gases on the long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2, essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weak-ness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in Antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification be-gins to be more effective in Arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard

  7. Performance Verification of GOSAT-2 FTS-2 Simulator and Sensitivity Analysis for Greenhouse Gases Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamei, A.; Yoshida, Y.; Dupuy, E.; Hiraki, K.; Matsunaga, T.

    2015-12-01

    The GOSAT-2, which is scheduled for launch in early 2018, is the successor mission to the Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). The FTS-2 onboard the GOSAT-2 is a Fourier transform spectrometer, which has three bands in the near to short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) region and two bands in the thermal infrared (TIR) region to observe infrared light reflected and emitted from the Earth's surface and atmosphere with high-resolution spectra. Column amounts and vertical profiles of major greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are retrieved from acquired radiance spectra. In addition, the FTS-2 has several improvements from the FTS onboard the GOSAT: 1) added spectral coverage in the SWIR region for carbon monoxide (CO) retrieval, 2) increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for all bands, 3) extended range of along-track pointing angles for sunglint observations, 4) intelligent pointing to avoid cloud contamination. Since 2012, we have been developing a software tool, which is called the GOSAT-2 FTS-2 simulator, to simulate spectral radiance data that will be acquired by the GOSAT-2 FTS-2. The objective of it is to analyze/optimize data with respect to the sensor specification, the parameters for Level 1 processing, and the improvement of Level 2 retrieval algorithms. It consists of six components: 1) overall control, 2) sensor carrying platform, 3) spectral radiance calculation, 4) Fourier transform module, 5) Level 1B (L1B) processing, and 6) L1B data output. More realistic and faster simulations have been made possible by the improvement of details about sensor characteristics, the sophistication of data processing and algorithms, the addition of various observation modes, the use of surface and atmospheric ancillary data, and the speed-up and parallelization of radiative transfer code. This simulator is confirmed to be working properly from the reproduction of GOSAT FTS L1B data depends on the ancillary data. We will summarize the

  8. Greenhouse gases accounting and reporting for waste management - A South African perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2010-11-15

    This paper investigates how greenhouse gases are accounted and reported in the waste sector in South Africa. Developing countries (including South Africa) do not have binding emission reduction targets, but many of them publish different greenhouse gas emissions data which have been accounted and reported in different ways. Results show that for South Africa, inventories at national and municipal level are the most important tools in the process of accounting and reporting greenhouse gases from waste. For the development of these inventories international initiatives were important catalysts at national and municipal levels, and assisted in developing local expertise, resulting in increased output quality. However, discrepancies in the methodology used to account greenhouse gases from waste between inventories still remain a concern. This is a challenging issue for developing countries, especially African ones, since higher accuracy methods are more data intensive. Analysis of the South African inventories shows that results from the recent inventories can not be compared with older ones due to the use of different accounting methodologies. More recently the use of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) procedures in Africa, geared towards direct measurements of greenhouse gases from landfill sites, has increased and resulted in an improvement of the quality of greenhouse gas inventories at municipal level.

  9. Greenhouse gases accounting and reporting for waste management--a South African perspective.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2010-11-01

    This paper investigates how greenhouse gases are accounted and reported in the waste sector in South Africa. Developing countries (including South Africa) do not have binding emission reduction targets, but many of them publish different greenhouse gas emissions data which have been accounted and reported in different ways. Results show that for South Africa, inventories at national and municipal level are the most important tools in the process of accounting and reporting greenhouse gases from waste. For the development of these inventories international initiatives were important catalysts at national and municipal levels, and assisted in developing local expertise, resulting in increased output quality. However, discrepancies in the methodology used to account greenhouse gases from waste between inventories still remain a concern. This is a challenging issue for developing countries, especially African ones, since higher accuracy methods are more data intensive. Analysis of the South African inventories shows that results from the recent inventories can not be compared with older ones due to the use of different accounting methodologies. More recently the use of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) procedures in Africa, geared towards direct measurements of greenhouse gases from landfill sites, has increased and resulted in an improvement of the quality of greenhouse gas inventories at municipal level.

  10. Biomass burning and the production of greenhouse gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1991-01-01

    The present discussion of related aspects of biomass burning describes a technique for estimating the instantaneous emission of trace gases generated by such fires on the basis of satellite imagery, and notes that burning results in significantly enhanced biogenic emissions of N2O, NO, and CH4. Biomass burning therefore has both immediate and long-term impacts on the trace-gas content of the atmosphere. The effects of Kuwait's oil fires, which encompass both combustion gases and particulates, are compared with those of the more general problem.

  11. Carbon and Conservation: Cropping systems and greenhouse gases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying and predicting soil carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural systems have been research goals for numerous institutions, especially since the turn of the millennium. Cost, time, and politics are variables that have limited the rapid development of robust quant...

  12. Measurements of greenhouse gases at Beromünster tall-tower station in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayalneh Berhanu, Tesfaye; Satar, Ece; Schanda, Rudiger; Nyfeler, Peter; Moret, Hanspeter; Brunner, Dominik; Oney, Brian; Leuenberger, Markus

    2016-06-01

    In order to constrain the regional flux of greenhouse gases, an automated measurement system was built on an old radio tower at Beromünster, Switzerland. The measurement system has been running since November 2012 as part of the Swiss greenhouse gases monitoring network (CarboCount-CH), which is composed of four measurement sites across the country. The Beromünster tall tower has five sampling lines with inlets at 12.5, 44.6, 71.5, 131.6, and 212.5 m above ground level, and it is equipped with a Picarro cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) analyzer (G-2401), which continuously measures CO, CO2, CH4, and H2O. Sensors for detection of wind speed and direction, air temperature, barometric pressure, and humidity have also been installed at each height level. We have observed a non-negligible temperature effect in the calibration measurements, which was found to be dependent on the type of cylinder (steel or aluminum) as well as trace gas species (strongest for CO). From a target gas of known mixing ratio that has been measured once a day, we have calculated a long-term reproducibility of 2.79 ppb, 0.05 ppm, and 0.29 ppb for CO, CO2, and CH4, respectively, over 19 months of measurements. The values obtained for CO2 and CH4 are compliant with the WMO recommendations, while the value calculated for CO is higher than the recommendation. Since the installation of an air-conditioning system recently at the measurement cabin, we have acquired better temperature stability of the measurement system, but no significant improvement was observed in the measurement precision inferred from the target gas measurements. Therefore, it seems that the observed higher variation in CO measurements is associated with the instrumental noise, compatible with the precision provided by the manufacturer.

  13. The Importance of Ecosystem Thresholds in Assessing Safe Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janetos, A. C.

    2007-12-01

    There is a major strategic challenge in the public debate about global environmental change related to concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere that might lead to environmentally, socially, and economically unacceptable impacts. This project takes one approach to this problem: avoiding "dangerous anthropogenic interference" and "allowing ecosystems to adapt." But these phrases implicitly assume that the influences of climate change are likely to be gradual and that there will be substantial time for natural resources to adapt or for managers to cope with change. The current state of the science suggests that something quite different may be in the offing. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and other assessments of possible impacts now agree on two important points. One is that there is already well-documented evidence of the biological and ecological consequences of climate change - in the behavior of migratory birds, in corals bleached from the influence of warming ocean temperatures, in the loss of glaciers to warming air temperatures, and in the loss of sea grass beds to sea level rise. The second is that ecological systems may not in fact change gradually. Modeling studies and the historical record both suggest that changes in ecosystems can be rapid, large, and sometimes irreversible, i.e., there are thresholds that, once crossed, will present serious coping challenges to humans. Moreover, as suggested in a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) workshop on "Understanding and Responding to Multiple Environmental Stresses," dealing with threshold responses that may lead to sudden and dramatic change in societal or environmental structure and function will also require that we develop ways to proceed with decision-making despite the many uncertainties associated with thresholds. These observations present serious challenges to the modeling frameworks used in integrated assessment. Not only do the models have to characterize the

  14. Comparison of airborne measurements of greenhouse gases over Railroad Valley, Nevada to satellite and model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, T.; Yates, E. L.; Iraci, L. T.; Johnson, M. S.; Lopez, J.; Loewenstein, M.; Gore, W.; Tadic, J.; Kuze, A.; Kawakami, S.

    2014-12-01

    As part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) we have measured vertical profiles of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (i.e., carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4)) over Railroad Valley, NV (RRV) on a monthly basis since 2011. These GHG measurements are conducted to quantify trends of climatically important gases and to validate satellite-based GHG column estimates from Greenhouse Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2).The vertical profiles of GHGs observed over RRV show relatively uniform features below and above the boundary layer, and mixing ratios are increasing every year. Strong enhancements in the free troposphere are seen in these profiles in some instances. To assess possible sources of these enhancements and their effects on the GHG column average, GHG vertical profiles calculated by the 3-D GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (v9-01-03) and back-trajectory analysis from the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) are compared with airborne measurements. The main results that we will show are 1) the comparison of vertical GHG distribution calculated from GEOS-Chem and that measured by AJAX, 2) total column GHG values from the model, AJAX, and GOSAT, and 3) demonstrate the source apportionment in GHGs profiles measured at RRV.The RRV playa is a flat high altitude desert site where local sources and sinks of carbon-species are expected to be minimal except for a small oil field. RRV is a radiometrically flat region and has been used to calibrate various satellite radiometers before. These measurements are conducted as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) which regularly measures GHGs, ozone, and 3-D winds over California and Nevada. The Alpha Jet is operated from NASA Ames Research Center at Moffett Field and airborne instruments are installed in an unpressurized wing pod.

  15. Impact of equatorial and continental airflow on primary greenhouse gases in the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Yen, Ming-Cheng; Lin, Tang-Huang; Wang, Jia-Lin; Schnell, Russell C.; Lang, Patricia M.; Chantara, Somporn; Lin, Neng-Huei

    2015-06-01

    Four-year ground-level measurements of the two primary greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4)) were conducted at Dongsha Island (DSI), situated in the northern South China Sea (SCS), from March 2010 to February 2014. Their mean mixing ratios are calculated to be 396.3 ± 5.4 ppm and 1863.6 ± 50.5 ppb, with an annual growth rate of +2.19 ± 0.5 ppm yr-1 and +4.70 ± 4.4 ppb yr-1 for CO2 and CH4, respectively, over the study period. Our results suggest that the Asian continental outflow driven by the winter northeast monsoon could have brought air pollutants into the northern SCS, as denoted by significantly elevated levels of 6.5 ppm for CO2 and 59.6 ppb for CH4, which are greater than the marine boundary layer references at Cape Kumukahi (KUM) in the tropical northern Pacific in January. By contrast, the summertime CH4 at DSI is shown to be lower than that at KUM by 19.7 ppb, whereas CO2 is shown to have no differences (<0.42 ppm in July) during the same period. Positive biases of the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) L4B data against the surface measurements are estimated to be 2.4 ± 3.4 ppm for CO2 and 43.2 ± 36.8 ppb for CH4. The satellite products retrieved from the GOSAT showed the effects of anthropogenic emissions and vegetative sinks on land on a vertical profiling basis. The prevailing southeasterly winds originating from as far south as the equator or Southern Hemisphere pass through the lower troposphere in the northern SCS, forming a tunnel of relatively clean air masses as indicated by the low CH4 mixing ratios observed on the DSI in summer.

  16. Aspects regarding vertical distribution of greenhouse gases resulted from in situ airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscornea, Andreea; Sorin Vajaiac, Nicolae; Ardelean, Magdalena; Benciu, Silviu Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In the last decades the air quality, as well as other components of the environment, has been severely affected by uncontrolled emissions of gases - most known as greenhouse gases (GHG). The main role of GHG is given by the direct influence on the Earth's radiative budget, through Sun light scattering and indirectly by participating in cloud formation. Aldo, many efforts were made for reducing the high levels of these pollutants, e.g., International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) initiatives, Montreal Protocol, etc., this issue is still open. In this context, this study aims to present several aspects regarding the vertical distribution in the lower atmosphere of some greenhouse gases: water vapours, CO, CO2 and methane. Bucharest and its metropolitan area is one of the most polluted regions of Romania due to high traffic. For assessing the air quality of this area, in situ measurements of water vapours, CO, CO2 and CH4 were performed using a Britten Norman Islander BN2 aircraft equipped with a Picarro gas analyser, model G2401-mc, able to provide precised, continuous and accurate data in real time. This configuration consisting in aircraft and airborne instruments was tested for the first time in Romania. For accomplishing the objectives of the measurement campaign, there were proposed several flight strategies which included vertical and horizontal soundings from 105 m to 3300 m and vice-versa around Clinceni area (20 km West of Bucharest). During 5 days (25.08.2015 - 31.08.2015) were performed 7 flights comprising 10h 18min research flight hours. The measured concentrations of GHS ranged between 0.18 - 2.2 ppm for water vapours with an average maximum value of 1.7 ppm, 0.04 - 0.53 ppm for CO with an average maximum value of 0.21 ppm, 377 - 437.5 ppm for CO2 with an average maximum value of 397 ppm and 1.7 - 6.1 ppm for CH4 with an average maximum value of 2.195 ppm. It was noticed that measured concentrations of GHG are decreasing for high values of sounding

  17. Remote Sensing of Spatial Distributions of Greenhouse Gases in the Los Angeles Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Dejian; Sander, Stanley P.; Pongetti, Thomas J.; Cheung, Ross; Stutz, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    The Los Angeles air basin is a significant anthropogenic source of greenhouse gasses and pollutants including CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO, contributing significantly to regional and global climate change. Recent legislation in California, the California Global Warning Solutions Act (AB32), established a statewide cap for greenhouse gas emissions for 2020 based on 1990 emissions. Verifying the effectiveness of regional greenhouse gas emissions controls requires high-precision, regional-scale measurement methods combined with models that capture the principal anthropogenic and biogenic sources and sinks. We present a novel approach for monitoring the spatial distribution of greenhouse gases in the Los Angeles basin using high resolution remote sensing spectroscopy. We participated in the CalNex 2010 campaign to provide greenhouse gas distributions for comparison between top-down and bottom-up emission estimates.

  18. Effect of noble gases on an atmospheric greenhouse /Titan/.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cess, R.; Owen, T.

    1973-01-01

    Several models for the atmosphere of Titan have been investigated, taking into account various combinations of neon and argon. The investigation shows that the addition of large amounts of Ne and/or Ar will substantially reduce the hydrogen abundance required for a given greenhouse effect. The fact that a large amount of neon should be present if the atmosphere is a relic of the solar nebula is an especially attractive feature of the models, because it is hard to justify appropriate abundances of other enhancing agents.

  19. Measurements of greenhouse gases at Beromünster tall tower station in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berhanu, T. A.; Satar, E.; Schanda, R.; Nyfeler, P.; Moret, H.; Brunner, D.; Oney, B.; Leuenberger, M.

    2015-10-01

    In order to constrain the regional flux of greenhouse gases, an automated measurement system was built on an old radio tower at Beromünster, Switzerland. The measurement system has been running since November 2012 as part of the Swiss greenhouse gases monitoring network (CARBOCOUNT-CH), which is composed of four measurement sites across the country. The Beromünster tall tower has five sampling lines with inlets at 12.5, 44.6, 71.5, 131.6 and 212.5 m a.g.l., and it is equipped with a Picarro CRDS analyzer (G-2401), which continuously measures CO, CO2, CH4 and H2O. Sensors for detection of wind speed and direction, air temperature, barometric pressure, and humidity have also been installed at each height level. We have observed a non-negligible temperature effect in the calibration measurements, which was found to be dependent on the type of cylinder (steel or aluminum) as well as trace gas species (strongest for CO). From a target gas of known mixing ratio that has been measured once a day, we have calculated a long-term reproducibility of 2.79, 0.05 and 0.29 ppb for CO, CO2 and CH4, respectively over 19 months of measurements. The values obtained for CO2 and CH4 are compliant with the WMO recommendations, while the value calculated for CO is higher than the recommendation, which is mainly due to the above mentioned temperature effects.

  20. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-06-18

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

  1. Greenhouse gases emission from municipal waste management: The role of separate collection

    SciTech Connect

    Calabro, Paolo S.

    2009-07-15

    The municipal solid waste management significantly contributes to the emission in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) and therefore the management process from collection to treatment and disposal has to be optimized in order to reduce these emissions. In this paper, starting from the average composition of undifferentiated municipal solid waste in Italy, the effect of separate collection on greenhouse gases emissions from municipal waste management has been assessed. Different combinations of separate collection scenarios and disposal options (i.e. landfilling and incineration) have been considered. The effect of energy recovery from waste both in landfills and incinerators has also been addressed. The results outline how a separate collection approach can have a significant effect on the emission of greenhouse gases and how wise municipal solid waste management, implying the adoption of Best Available Technologies (i.e. biogas recovery and exploitation system in landfills and energy recovery system in Waste to Energy plants), can not only significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions but, in certain cases, can also make the overall process a carbon sink. Moreover it has been shown that separate collection of plastic is a major issue when dealing with global warming relevant emissions from municipal solid waste management.

  2. 78 FR 20632 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Notice of Data Availability Regarding Global Warming...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... AGENCY Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Notice of Data Availability Regarding Global Warming... EPA is announcing to the public the availability of estimated global warming potentials, as well as... requesting comments on the estimated global warming potentials and the data and analysis supporting them....

  3. Photoacoustic Experimental System to Confirm Infrared Absorption Due to Greenhouse Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Monjushiro, Hideaki; Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Kasai, Toshio; Harris, Harold H.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental system for detecting infrared absorption using the photoacoustic (PA) effect is described. It is aimed for use at high-school level to illustrate the difference in infrared (IR) absorption among the gases contained in the atmosphere in connection with the greenhouse effect. The experimental system can be built with readily…

  4. Documentation for Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2008

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 required the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) to prepare an inventory of aggregate U.S. national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987-1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report documents the methodology for the seventeenth annual inventory, covering national emissions over the period 1990-2008.

  5. 75 FR 17331 - Public Hearings for the Mandatory Reporting Rule for Greenhouse Gases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Injection and Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide.'' These two notices... above certain threshold levels monitor and report emissions and carbon dioxide injection and geologic... Systems, proposed 40 CFR part 98, subpart W), EPA-HQ-OAR-2009-0926 (Carbon Dioxide Injection and...

  6. Greenhouse gases emission from municipal waste management: The role of separate collection.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Paolo S

    2009-07-01

    The municipal solid waste management significantly contributes to the emission in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO(2), CH(4), N(2)O) and therefore the management process from collection to treatment and disposal has to be optimized in order to reduce these emissions. In this paper, starting from the average composition of undifferentiated municipal solid waste in Italy, the effect of separate collection on greenhouse gases emissions from municipal waste management has been assessed. Different combinations of separate collection scenarios and disposal options (i.e. landfilling and incineration) have been considered. The effect of energy recovery from waste both in landfills and incinerators has also been addressed. The results outline how a separate collection approach can have a significant effect on the emission of greenhouse gases and how wise municipal solid waste management, implying the adoption of Best Available Technologies (i.e. biogas recovery and exploitation system in landfills and energy recovery system in Waste to Energy plants), can not only significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions but, in certain cases, can also make the overall process a carbon sink. Moreover it has been shown that separate collection of plastic is a major issue when dealing with global warming relevant emissions from municipal solid waste management.

  7. Emission Potentials and Capacities of Sediments along Lower Savannah River for Greenhouse Gases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emission of CH4 and other greenhouse gases (CO2, & N2O) is extremely variable in both space and time. It is well known fact that Savannah River receives effluents from variety of anthropogenic activities. These activities could have significant impact on the amount of available C and other chemical ...

  8. 77 FR 10434 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule: Confidentiality Determinations and Best Available...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Organization of This Document. The following outline is provided to aid in locating information in this... Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Additional Sources of ] Fluorinated GHGs'' rule (75 FR 74774, hereinafter... authorities provided in CAA section 114. As stated in the preamble to the 2009 final rule (74 FR 56260)...

  9. Changes in the regional emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting compounds.

    PubMed

    Khalil, M Aslam K; Rasmussen, Reinhold A

    2004-01-15

    In the wake of the Kyoto and Montreal Protocols, there is a need to verify whether policies to reduce emissions are working. We present data showing that emissions of ozone-depleting compounds, such as the chlorofluorocarbons and methyl chloroform, are decreasing from some regions of the United States but emissions of the greenhouse gases do not appear to be declining. PMID:14750708

  10. 75 FR 26904 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Notice of Data Availability; Default Emission Factors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... of Greenhouse Gases: Additional Sources of Fluorinated GHGs (75 FR 18652) which included proposed... factor, EPA proposed a range of values differentiated by production technology generation (i.e., wafer... factors as well as the underlying data that was used to develop the draft emission factors available...

  11. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1987--1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-25

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1992, with annual updates thereafter. This is the third annual update report,covering national emissions over the period 1987--1993, with preliminary estimates of US carbon dioxide and halocarbon emissions for 1994. Calculating national aggregate emissions(or ``national inventories``) of greenhouse gases is a recently developed form of intellectual endeavor. Greenhouse gas emissions are rarely measured directly or reported to statistical agencies. Thus, to prepare emissions inventories usually requires inferring emissions indirectly from information collected for other purposes. Both the available information and the inferences drawn may be of varying reliability. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapters 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes.

  12. Emission of greenhouse gases from controlled incineration of cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Sun, Xiucui; Taniguchi, Miki; Takaoka, Masaki; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Fujiwara, Taku

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission is a potential limiting factor in livestock farming development. While incineration is one approach to minimize livestock manure, there are concerns about significant levels of nitrogen and organic compounds in manure as potential sources of greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CH4). In this study, the effects of various incineration conditions, such as the furnace temperature and air ratio on N2O and CH4 formation behaviour, of cattle manure (as a representative livestock manure) were investigated in a pilot rotary kiln furnace. The results revealed that N2O emissions decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing air ratio. In addition, CH4 emissions tended to be high above 800 degrees C at a low air ratio. The emission factors for N2O and CH4 under the general conditions (combustion temperature of 800-850 degrees C and air ratio of 1.4) were determined to be 1.9-6.0% g-N2O-N/g-N and 0.0046-0.26% g-CH4/g-burning object, respectively. The emission factor for CH4 differed slightly from the published values between 0.16 and 0.38% g-CH4/g-burning object. However, the emission factor for N2O was much higher than the currently accepted value of 0.7% g-N2O-N/g-N and, therefore, it is necessary to revise the N2O emission factor for the incineration of livestock manure.

  13. Climate-chemical interactions and greenhouse effects of trace gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Guang-Yu; Fan, Xiao-Biao

    1994-01-01

    A completely coupled one-dimensional radiative-convective (RC) and photochemical-diffusion (PC) model has been developed recently and used to study the climate-chemical interactions. The importance of radiative-chemical interactions within the troposphere and stratosphere has been examined in some detail. We find that increases of radiatively and/or chemically active trace gases such as CO2, CH4 and N2O have both the direct effects and the indirect effects on climate change by changing the atmospheric O3 profile through their interaction with chemical processes in the atmosphere. It is also found that the climatic effect of ozone depends strongly on its vertical distribution throughout the troposphere and stratosphere, as well on its column amount in the atmosphere.

  14. Miniaturized Laser Heterodyne Radiometer (LHR) for Measurements of Greenhouse Gases in the Atmospheric Column

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steel, Emily; McLinden, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This passive laser heterodyne radiometer (LHR) instrument simultaneously measures multiple trace gases in the atmospheric column including carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), and resolves their concentrations at different altitudes. This instrument has been designed to operate in tandem with the passive aerosol sensor currently used in AERONET (an established network of more than 450 ground aerosol monitoring instruments worldwide). Because aerosols induce a radiative effect that influences terrestrial carbon exchange, simultaneous detection of aerosols with these key carbon cycle gases offers a uniquely comprehensive measurement approach. Laser heterodyne radiometry is a technique for detecting weak signals that was adapted from radio receiver technology. In a radio receiver, a weak input signal from a radio antenna is mixed with a stronger local oscillator signal. The mixed signal (beat note, or intermediate frequency) has a frequency equal to the difference between the input signal and the local oscillator. The intermediate frequency is amplified and sent to a detector that extracts the audio from the signal. In the LHR instrument described here, sunlight that has undergone absorption by the trace gas is mixed with laser light at a frequency matched to a trace gas absorption feature in the infrared (IR). Mixing results in a beat signal in the RF (radio frequency) region that can be related to the atmospheric concentration. For a one-second integration, the estimated column sensitivities are 0.1 ppmv for CO2, and <1 ppbv for CH4. In addition to producing a standalone ground measurement product, this instrument could be used to calibrate/validate four Earth observing missions: ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons), OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory), OCO-3, and GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observational SATellite). The only network that currently measures CO2 and CH4 in the atmospheric column is TCCON (Total Carbon Column

  15. Moisture effects on greenhouse gases generation in nitrifying gas-phase compost biofilters.

    PubMed

    Maia, Guilherme D N; Day, George B; Gates, Richard S; Taraba, Joseph L; Coyne, Mark S

    2012-06-01

    Gas-phase compost biofilters are extensively used in concentrated animal feeding operations to remove odors and, in some cases, ammonia from air sources. The expected biochemical pathway for these predominantly aerobic systems is nitrification. However, non-uniform media with low oxygen levels can shift biofilter microbial pathways to denitrification, a source of greenhouse gases. Several factors contribute to the formation of anoxic/anaerobic zones: media aging, media and particle structure, air velocity distribution, compaction, biofilm thickness, and moisture content (MC) distribution. The present work studies the effects of media moisture conditions on ammonia (NH(3)) removal and greenhouse gas generation (nitrous oxide, N(2)O and methane, CH(4)) for gas-phase compost biofilters subject to a 100-day controlled drying process. Continuous recordings were made for the three gases and water vapor (2.21-h sampling cycle, each cycle consisted of three gas species, and water vapor, for a total of 10,050 data points). Media moisture conditions were classified into three corresponding media drying rate (DR) stages: Constant DR (wetter media), falling DR, and stable-dry system. The first-half of the constant DR period (0-750 h; MC=65-52%, w.b.) facilitated high NH(3) removal rates, but higher N(2)O generation and no CH(4) generation. At the drier stages of the constant DR (750-950 h; MC=52-48%, w.b.) NH(3) removal remained high but N(2)O net generation decreased to near zero. In the falling DR stage (1200-1480 h; MC=44-13%) N(2)O generation decreased, CH(4) increased, and NH(3) was no longer removed. No ammonia removal or greenhouse gas generation was observed in the stable-dry system (1500-2500 h; MC=13%). These results indicate that media should remain toward the drier region of the constant DR (in close proximity to the falling DR stage; MC=50%, approx.), to maintain high levels of NH(3) removal, reduced levels of N(2)O generation, and nullify levels of CH(4

  16. Green trees for greenhouse gases: a fair trade-off?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C W

    2001-03-01

    While forests retain carbon in plants, detritus, and soils, utility companies spew it into the air as carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas behind global warming. Industrial carbon dioxide emissions aren't currently regulated by federal law, but a number of companies are trying to address the problem voluntarily by launching carbon sequestration programs in heavily forested countries, where carbon is contained in so-called sinks. But the November 2000 meeting of the Kyoto Protocol delegates in The Hague collapsed over the issue of the acceptability of carbon sinks as a source of carbon pollution credits, delivering what many see as a deathblow to the concept. At issue are a host of ecological and statistical questions, differing local land use practices, cultural factors, issues of verifiability, and even disagreement over definitions of basic terms such as "forest" Kyoto negotiators are gearing up for another round of discussions in Bonn in May 2001, and it is likely that the continuing debate over carbon sinks will dominate the agenda. PMID:11333205

  17. Green trees for greenhouse gases: a fair trade-off?

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, C W

    2001-01-01

    While forests retain carbon in plants, detritus, and soils, utility companies spew it into the air as carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas behind global warming. Industrial carbon dioxide emissions aren't currently regulated by federal law, but a number of companies are trying to address the problem voluntarily by launching carbon sequestration programs in heavily forested countries, where carbon is contained in so-called sinks. But the November 2000 meeting of the Kyoto Protocol delegates in The Hague collapsed over the issue of the acceptability of carbon sinks as a source of carbon pollution credits, delivering what many see as a deathblow to the concept. At issue are a host of ecological and statistical questions, differing local land use practices, cultural factors, issues of verifiability, and even disagreement over definitions of basic terms such as "forest" Kyoto negotiators are gearing up for another round of discussions in Bonn in May 2001, and it is likely that the continuing debate over carbon sinks will dominate the agenda. PMID:11333205

  18. Greenhouse warming by minor gases on early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinrich, M. N.; Thompson, W. R.; Sagan, C.

    1992-01-01

    The early atmospheres of Earth and Mars were non-oxidizing mixtures likely derived from volcanic outgassing of a silicate mantle, with some fraction of the volatiles also contributed by impacting comets and meteorites. Here the authors investigate the potential of minor atmospheric constituents produced by ultraviolet and auroral chemistry to contribute to the thermal opacity of early Earth and Mars atmospheres. Using a very simple two-stream thermal opacity model, the authors show that HCN at 10 parts per million (ppm) and N2O at 100 ppm can each block radiation in thermal infrared windows sufficiently to increase the surface temperature by 7 K separately, or 14 K together. Small quantities of other species are also produced in such experiments. Some of these have especially complex infrared spectra and should be further investigated for their potential to help close windows in the CO2 + H2O infrared transmission. Enhancement of greenhouse warming by minor atmospheric species different from those present in today's atmosphere may have played important roles in the climate of early Earth and Mars.

  19. Green trees for greenhouse gases: a fair trade-off?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C W

    2001-03-01

    While forests retain carbon in plants, detritus, and soils, utility companies spew it into the air as carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas behind global warming. Industrial carbon dioxide emissions aren't currently regulated by federal law, but a number of companies are trying to address the problem voluntarily by launching carbon sequestration programs in heavily forested countries, where carbon is contained in so-called sinks. But the November 2000 meeting of the Kyoto Protocol delegates in The Hague collapsed over the issue of the acceptability of carbon sinks as a source of carbon pollution credits, delivering what many see as a deathblow to the concept. At issue are a host of ecological and statistical questions, differing local land use practices, cultural factors, issues of verifiability, and even disagreement over definitions of basic terms such as "forest" Kyoto negotiators are gearing up for another round of discussions in Bonn in May 2001, and it is likely that the continuing debate over carbon sinks will dominate the agenda.

  20. Evaluation of emission of greenhouse gases from soils amended with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Paramasivam, S; Fortenberry, Gamola Z; Julius, Afolabi; Sajwan, Kenneth S; Alva, A K

    2008-02-01

    Increase in concentrations of various greenhouse gases and their possible contributions to the global warming are becoming a serious concern. Anthropogenic activities such as cultivation of flooded rice and application of waste materials, such as sewage sludge which are rich in C and N, as soil amendments could contribute to the increase in emission of greenhouse gases such as methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) into the atmosphere. Therefore, evaluation of flux of various greenhouse gases from soils amended with sewage sludge is essential to quantify their release into the atmosphere. Two soils with contrasting properties (Candler fine sand [CFS] from Florida, and Ogeechee loamy sand [OLS] from Savannah, GA) were amended with varying rates (0, 24.7, 49.4, 98.8, and 148.3 Mg ha(-1)) of 2 types of sewage sludge (industrial [ISS] and domestic [DSS] origin. The amended soil samples were incubated in anaerobic condition at field capacity soil water content in static chamber (Qopak bottles). Gas samples were extracted immediately after amending soils and subsequently on a daily basis to evaluate the emission of CH(4), CO(2) and N(2)O. The results showed that emission rates and cumulative emission of all three gases increased with increasing rates of amendments. Cumulative emission of gases during 25-d incubation of soils amended with different types of sewage sludge decreased in the order: CO(2) > N(2)O > CH(4). The emission of gases was greater from the soils amended with DSS as compared to that with ISS. This may indicate the presence of either low C and N content or possible harmful chemicals in the ISS. The emission of gases was greater from the CFS as compared to that from the OLS. Furthermore, the results clearly depicted the inhibitory effect of acetylene in both soils by producing more N(2)O and CH(4) emission compared to the soils that did not receive acetylene at the rate of 1 mL g(-1) soil. Enumeration of microbial population by fluorescein diacetate

  1. The terrestrial biosphere as a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Ciais, Philippe; Michalak, Anna M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Saikawa, Eri; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Gurney, Kevin R.; Sitch, Stephen; Zhang, Bowen; Yang, Jia; Bousquet, Philippe; Bruhwiler, Lori; Chen, Guangsheng; Dlugokencky, Edward; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Melillo, Jerry; Pan, Shufen; Poulter, Benjamin; Prinn, Ronald; Saunois, Marielle; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2016-03-01

    The terrestrial biosphere can release or absorb the greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and therefore has an important role in regulating atmospheric composition and climate. Anthropogenic activities such as land-use change, agriculture and waste management have altered terrestrial biogenic greenhouse gas fluxes, and the resulting increases in methane and nitrous oxide emissions in particular can contribute to climate change. The terrestrial biogenic fluxes of individual greenhouse gases have been studied extensively, but the net biogenic greenhouse gas balance resulting from anthropogenic activities and its effect on the climate system remains uncertain. Here we use bottom-up (inventory, statistical extrapolation of local flux measurements, and process-based modelling) and top-down (atmospheric inversions) approaches to quantify the global net biogenic greenhouse gas balance between 1981 and 2010 resulting from anthropogenic activities and its effect on the climate system. We find that the cumulative warming capacity of concurrent biogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions is a factor of about two larger than the cooling effect resulting from the global land carbon dioxide uptake from 2001 to 2010. This results in a net positive cumulative impact of the three greenhouse gases on the planetary energy budget, with a best estimate (in petagrams of CO2 equivalent per year) of 3.9 ± 3.8 (top down) and 5.4 ± 4.8 (bottom up) based on the GWP100 metric (global warming potential on a 100-year time horizon). Our findings suggest that a reduction in agricultural methane and nitrous oxide emissions, particularly in Southern Asia, may help mitigate climate change.

  2. The terrestrial biosphere as a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Ciais, Philippe; Michalak, Anna M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Saikawa, Eri; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Gurney, Kevin R; Sitch, Stephen; Zhang, Bowen; et al

    2016-03-09

    The terrestrial biosphere can release or absorb the greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and therefore has an important role in regulating atmospheric composition and climate1. Anthropogenic activities such as land-use change, agriculture and waste management have altered terrestrial biogenic greenhouse gas fluxes, and the resulting increases in methane and nitrous oxide emissions in particular can contribute to climate change2, 3. The terrestrial biogenic fluxes of individual greenhouse gases have been studied extensively4, 5, 6, but the net biogenic greenhouse gas balance resulting from anthropogenic activities and its effect on the climate system remains uncertain.more » Here we use bottom-up (inventory, statistical extrapolation of local flux measurements, and process-based modelling) and top-down (atmospheric inversions) approaches to quantify the global net biogenic greenhouse gas balance between 1981 and 2010 resulting from anthropogenic activities and its effect on the climate system. We find that the cumulative warming capacity of concurrent biogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions is a factor of about two larger than the cooling effect resulting from the global land carbon dioxide uptake from 2001 to 2010. This results in a net positive cumulative impact of the three greenhouse gases on the planetary energy budget, with a best estimate (in petagrams of CO2 equivalent per year) of 3.9 ± 3.8 (top down) and 5.4 ± 4.8 (bottom up) based on the GWP100 metric (global warming potential on a 100-year time horizon). Lastly, our findings suggest that a reduction in agricultural methane and nitrous oxide emissions, particularly in Southern Asia, may help mitigate climate change.« less

  3. The terrestrial biosphere as a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Ciais, Philippe; Michalak, Anna M; Canadell, Josep G; Saikawa, Eri; Huntzinger, Deborah N; Gurney, Kevin R; Sitch, Stephen; Zhang, Bowen; Yang, Jia; Bousquet, Philippe; Bruhwiler, Lori; Chen, Guangsheng; Dlugokencky, Edward; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Melillo, Jerry; Pan, Shufen; Poulter, Benjamin; Prinn, Ronald; Saunois, Marielle; Schwalm, Christopher R; Wofsy, Steven C

    2016-03-10

    The terrestrial biosphere can release or absorb the greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and therefore has an important role in regulating atmospheric composition and climate. Anthropogenic activities such as land-use change, agriculture and waste management have altered terrestrial biogenic greenhouse gas fluxes, and the resulting increases in methane and nitrous oxide emissions in particular can contribute to climate change. The terrestrial biogenic fluxes of individual greenhouse gases have been studied extensively, but the net biogenic greenhouse gas balance resulting from anthropogenic activities and its effect on the climate system remains uncertain. Here we use bottom-up (inventory, statistical extrapolation of local flux measurements, and process-based modelling) and top-down (atmospheric inversions) approaches to quantify the global net biogenic greenhouse gas balance between 1981 and 2010 resulting from anthropogenic activities and its effect on the climate system. We find that the cumulative warming capacity of concurrent biogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions is a factor of about two larger than the cooling effect resulting from the global land carbon dioxide uptake from 2001 to 2010. This results in a net positive cumulative impact of the three greenhouse gases on the planetary energy budget, with a best estimate (in petagrams of CO2 equivalent per year) of 3.9 ± 3.8 (top down) and 5.4 ± 4.8 (bottom up) based on the GWP100 metric (global warming potential on a 100-year time horizon). Our findings suggest that a reduction in agricultural methane and nitrous oxide emissions, particularly in Southern Asia, may help mitigate climate change. PMID:26961656

  4. The terrestrial biosphere as a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Ciais, Philippe; Michalak, Anna M; Canadell, Josep G; Saikawa, Eri; Huntzinger, Deborah N; Gurney, Kevin R; Sitch, Stephen; Zhang, Bowen; Yang, Jia; Bousquet, Philippe; Bruhwiler, Lori; Chen, Guangsheng; Dlugokencky, Edward; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Melillo, Jerry; Pan, Shufen; Poulter, Benjamin; Prinn, Ronald; Saunois, Marielle; Schwalm, Christopher R; Wofsy, Steven C

    2016-03-10

    The terrestrial biosphere can release or absorb the greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and therefore has an important role in regulating atmospheric composition and climate. Anthropogenic activities such as land-use change, agriculture and waste management have altered terrestrial biogenic greenhouse gas fluxes, and the resulting increases in methane and nitrous oxide emissions in particular can contribute to climate change. The terrestrial biogenic fluxes of individual greenhouse gases have been studied extensively, but the net biogenic greenhouse gas balance resulting from anthropogenic activities and its effect on the climate system remains uncertain. Here we use bottom-up (inventory, statistical extrapolation of local flux measurements, and process-based modelling) and top-down (atmospheric inversions) approaches to quantify the global net biogenic greenhouse gas balance between 1981 and 2010 resulting from anthropogenic activities and its effect on the climate system. We find that the cumulative warming capacity of concurrent biogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions is a factor of about two larger than the cooling effect resulting from the global land carbon dioxide uptake from 2001 to 2010. This results in a net positive cumulative impact of the three greenhouse gases on the planetary energy budget, with a best estimate (in petagrams of CO2 equivalent per year) of 3.9 ± 3.8 (top down) and 5.4 ± 4.8 (bottom up) based on the GWP100 metric (global warming potential on a 100-year time horizon). Our findings suggest that a reduction in agricultural methane and nitrous oxide emissions, particularly in Southern Asia, may help mitigate climate change.

  5. Persistence of climate changes due to a range of greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Susan; Daniel, John S; Sanford, Todd J; Murphy, Daniel M; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2010-10-26

    Emissions of a broad range of greenhouse gases of varying lifetimes contribute to global climate change. Carbon dioxide displays exceptional persistence that renders its warming nearly irreversible for more than 1,000 y. Here we show that the warming due to non-CO(2) greenhouse gases, although not irreversible, persists notably longer than the anthropogenic changes in the greenhouse gas concentrations themselves. We explore why the persistence of warming depends not just on the decay of a given greenhouse gas concentration but also on climate system behavior, particularly the timescales of heat transfer linked to the ocean. For carbon dioxide and methane, nonlinear optical absorption effects also play a smaller but significant role in prolonging the warming. In effect, dampening factors that slow temperature increase during periods of increasing concentration also slow the loss of energy from the Earth's climate system if radiative forcing is reduced. Approaches to climate change mitigation options through reduction of greenhouse gas or aerosol emissions therefore should not be expected to decrease climate change impacts as rapidly as the gas or aerosol lifetime, even for short-lived species; such actions can have their greatest effect if undertaken soon enough to avoid transfer of heat to the deep ocean.

  6. Air Surface Temperature Correlation with Greenhouse Gases by Using Airs Data Over Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajab, Jasim Mohammed; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.

    2014-08-01

    The main objective of this study is to develop algorithms for calculating the air surface temperature (AST). This study also aims to analyze and investigate the effects of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the AST value in Peninsular Malaysia. Multiple linear regression is used to achieve the objectives of the study. Peninsular Malaysia has been selected as the research area because it is among the regions of tropical Southeast Asia with the greatest humidity, pockets of heavy pollution, rapid economic growth, and industrialization. The predicted AST was highly correlated ( R = 0.783) with GHGs for the 6-year data (2003-2008). Comparisons of five stations in 2009 showed close agreement between the predicted AST and the observed AST from AIRS, especially in the wet season (within 1.3 K). The in situ data ranged from 1 to 2 K. Validation results showed that AST ( R = 0.776-0.878) has values nearly the same as the observed AST from AIRS. We found that O3 during the wet season was indicated by a strongly positive beta coefficient (0.264-0.992) with AST. The CO2 yields a reasonable relationship with temperature with low to moderate beta coefficient (-0.065 to 0.238). The O3, CO2, and environmental variables experienced different seasonal fluctuations that depend on weather conditions and topography. The concentration of gases and pollution were the highest over industrial zones and overcrowded cities, and the dry season was more polluted compared with the wet season. These results indicate the advantage of using the satellite AIRS data and a correlation analysis to investigate the effect of atmospheric GHGs on AST over Peninsular Malaysia. An algorithm that is capable of retrieving Peninsular Malaysian AST in all weather conditions with total uncertainties ranging from 1 to 2 K was developed.

  7. Greenhouse effects due to man-made perturbations of trace gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, W. C.; Yung, Y. L.; Lacis, A. A.; Mo, T.; Hansen, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Nitrous oxide, methane, ammonia, and a number of other trace constituents of the earth's atmosphere have infrared absorption bands in the spectral range from 7 to 14 microns. Despite their small amounts, these gases can have a significant effect on the thermal structure of the atmosphere by transmitting most of the thermal radiation from the earth's surface to the lower atmosphere. In the present paper, this greenhouse effect is computed for a number of trace gases. The nature and climatic implications of possible changes in the concentrations of N2O, CH4, NH3, and HNO3 are discussed.

  8. What kept early Earth warm? Examining a diverse range of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, B.; Goldblatt, C.

    2013-12-01

    Over Earth's history the solar constant has increased from 70% of its current value. Over much of this period evidence has been found for a temperate climate and lack of glaciation. Enhancements in a variety of different greenhouse gases, most of which are biogenic, have been suggested to have kept the early Earth warm. However, different modelling approaches (and some model errors) have hampered comparison of different proposals. Here we present initial results of a project to calculate high-accuracy radiative forcings for all proposed greenhouse gases for early Earth (and some that have not previously been proposed). By reducing uncertainties in the radiative transfer calculations, we hope to push forward the debate on what kept early Earth warm, allowing future work to focus more on what biogeochemical processes controlled atmospheric composition.

  9. Counteracting the climate effects of volcanic eruptions using short-lived greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Samset, Bjørn H.; Shine, Keith P.

    2014-12-01

    A large volcanic eruption might constitute a climate emergency, significantly altering global temperature and precipitation for several years. Major future eruptions will occur, but their size or timing cannot be predicted. We show, for the first time, that it may be possible to counteract these climate effects through deliberate emissions of short-lived greenhouse gases, dampening the abrupt impact of an eruption. We estimate an emission pathway countering a hypothetical eruption 3 times the size of Mount Pinatubo in 1991. We use a global climate model to evaluate global and regional responses to the eruption, with and without counteremissions. We then raise practical, financial, and ethical questions related to such a strategy. Unlike the more commonly discussed geoengineering to mitigate warming from long-lived greenhouse gases, designed emissions to counter temporary cooling would not have the disadvantage of needing to be sustained over long periods. Nevertheless, implementation would still face significant challenges.

  10. Monitoring variation in greenhouse gases concentration in urban environment of Delhi.

    PubMed

    Sahay, Samraj; Ghosh, Chirashree

    2013-01-01

    Cities across the globe are considered as major anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHG), yet very few efforts has been made to monitor ambient concentration of GHG in cities, especially in a developing country like India. Here, variations in the ambient concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and methane (CH(4)) in residential, commercial, and industrial areas of Delhi are determined from fortnightly daytime observations from July, 2008 to March, 2009. Results indicate that the average daytime ambient concentration of CO(2) varied from 495 to 554 ppm in authorized residential areas, 503 to 621 ppm in the slums or jhuggies in the unauthorized residential areas, 489 to 582 ppm in commercial areas, and 512 to 568 ppm in industrial areas with an average of 541 ± 27 ppm. CH(4) concentration varied from 652 to 5,356 ppbv in authorized residential areas, 500 to 15,220 ppbv in the unauthorized residential areas, 921 to 11,000 ppbv in the commercial areas, and 250 to 2,550 ppbv in the industrial areas with an average of 3,226 ± 1,090 ppbv. A low mid-afternoon CO(2) concentration was observed at most of the sites, primarily due to strong biospheric photosynthesis coupled with strong vertical mixing.

  11. Are Greenhouse Gases Changing ENSO Precursors in the Western North Pacific?

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S-Y; Heureux, Michelle L.; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2013-09-01

    Using multiple observational and modeling datasets, we document a strengthening relationship between boreal winter sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the western North Pacific (WNP) and the development of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) one year later. The increased WNP-ENSO association emerged in the mid 20th century and has grown through the present, reaching correlation coefficients as high as ~0.70 in recent decades. Fully coupled climate experiments with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) replicate the WNP-ENSO association and indicate that greenhouse gases (GHG) are largely responsible for the observed increase. We speculate that shifts in the location and amplitudes of positive SST trends in the subtropical-tropical western Pacific impacts the low-level circulation so that WNP variability is increasingly influencing the development of ENSO one year later. A strengthened GHG-driven relationship between the WNP and ENSO provides an example of how anthropogenic climate change can potentially improve the skill of intraseasonal-to-interannual climate prediction.

  12. Integrated Modeling & Development of Emission Scenarios for Methane and Key Indirect Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Atul K.

    2005-09-30

    This report outlines main accomplishments on the development of Emission inventories and Scenarios for Key Indirect Greenhouse Gases (CO, VOCs, NOx) and methane supported by Office of Science (BER), US Department of Energy. This research produced 3 journal articles, 1 book chapter, and 4 research articles/abstracts in conference proceedings. In addition, this grant supported two PhD students and one undergraduate student at UIUC.

  13. European emissions of halogenated greenhouse gases inferred from atmospheric measurements.

    PubMed

    Keller, Christoph A; Hill, Matthias; Vollmer, Martin K; Henne, Stephan; Brunner, Dominik; Reimann, Stefan; O'Doherty, Simon; Arduini, Jgor; Maione, Michela; Ferenczi, Zita; Haszpra, Laszlo; Manning, Alistair J; Peter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    European emissions of nine representative halocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12, Halon 1211, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-22, HFC-125, HFC-134a, HFC-152a) are derived for the year 2009 by combining long-term observations in Switzerland, Italy, and Ireland with campaign measurements from Hungary. For the first time, halocarbon emissions over Eastern Europe are assessed by top-down methods, and these results are compared to Western European emissions. The employed inversion method builds on least-squares optimization linking atmospheric observations with calculations from the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The aggregated halocarbon emissions over the study area are estimated at 125 (106-150) Tg of CO(2) equiv/y, of which the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) make up the most important fraction with 41% (31-52%). We find that chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emissions from banks are still significant and account for 35% (27-43%) of total halocarbon emissions in Europe. The regional differences in per capita emissions are only small for the HFCs, while emissions of CFCs and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) tend to be higher in Western Europe compared to Eastern Europe. In total, the inferred per capita emissions are similar to estimates for China, but 3.5 (2.3-4.5) times lower than for the United States. Our study demonstrates the large benefits of adding a strategically well placed measurement site to the existing European observation network of halocarbons, as it extends the coverage of the inversion domain toward Eastern Europe and helps to better constrain the emissions over Central Europe. PMID:22192076

  14. European emissions of halogenated greenhouse gases inferred from atmospheric measurements.

    PubMed

    Keller, Christoph A; Hill, Matthias; Vollmer, Martin K; Henne, Stephan; Brunner, Dominik; Reimann, Stefan; O'Doherty, Simon; Arduini, Jgor; Maione, Michela; Ferenczi, Zita; Haszpra, Laszlo; Manning, Alistair J; Peter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    European emissions of nine representative halocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12, Halon 1211, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-22, HFC-125, HFC-134a, HFC-152a) are derived for the year 2009 by combining long-term observations in Switzerland, Italy, and Ireland with campaign measurements from Hungary. For the first time, halocarbon emissions over Eastern Europe are assessed by top-down methods, and these results are compared to Western European emissions. The employed inversion method builds on least-squares optimization linking atmospheric observations with calculations from the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The aggregated halocarbon emissions over the study area are estimated at 125 (106-150) Tg of CO(2) equiv/y, of which the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) make up the most important fraction with 41% (31-52%). We find that chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emissions from banks are still significant and account for 35% (27-43%) of total halocarbon emissions in Europe. The regional differences in per capita emissions are only small for the HFCs, while emissions of CFCs and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) tend to be higher in Western Europe compared to Eastern Europe. In total, the inferred per capita emissions are similar to estimates for China, but 3.5 (2.3-4.5) times lower than for the United States. Our study demonstrates the large benefits of adding a strategically well placed measurement site to the existing European observation network of halocarbons, as it extends the coverage of the inversion domain toward Eastern Europe and helps to better constrain the emissions over Central Europe.

  15. Investigating high concentrations of three greenhouse gases in the Los Angeles Basin and San Bernardino Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirpes, R.; Blake, D. R.; Marrero, J.

    2013-12-01

    Following the Montreal Protocol of 1987 calling for the phase-out of CFCs and other ozone depleting substances, HCFCs and HFCs were introduced as alternatives despite still being greenhouse gases with high global warming potentials. In this study, whole air samples were collected during four research flights over Southern California aboard the NASA DC-8 Airborne Science Laboratory as part of the NASA Student Airborne Science Program. These samples were then analyzed by gas chromatography using a suite of detectors for many compounds, including HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and HFC-152a. HCFC-22 is primarily used as a refrigerant, while HFC-134a and HFC-152a are also used as aerosol propellants and foam blowing agents. High concentrations of these three compounds were observed for samples taken at low altitudes over urban areas around Los Angeles and San Bernardino. Exceptionally high concentrations were seen for all three compounds in samples taken near the Ontario and San Bernardino airports. Concentrations of HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and HFC-152a were enhanced above background levels near other airports sampled in the Los Angeles Basin and San Bernardino Valley. It is clear that concentrations of these three gases are higher in the San Bernardino Valley than in the Los Angeles Basin, and locations with exceptionally high concentrations were investigated to identify potential point sources. Concentrations of these three compounds were also compared to data from past SARP missions and data collected at Trinidad Head, California since 2005 as part of the AGAGE network. Comparison of the average values for each of these campaigns reveal that the background concentrations of HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and HFC-152a are all increasing with a strong linear trend in Southern California.

  16. Potential effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on avian habitats and populations in the northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.

    1994-01-01

    Biotic response to the buildup of greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere is considerably more complex than an adjustment to changing temperature and precipitation. The fertilization effect carbon dioxide has on some plants, the impact UVB radiation has on health and productivity of organisms, and the resulting changes in competitive balance and trophic structure must also be considered. The intent of this paper is to review direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on wildlife, and to explore possible effects on populations of birds and their habitats in the northern Great Plains.Many of the potential effects of increasing greenhouse gases, such as declining plant nutritional value, changes in timing of insect emergence, and fewer and saltier wetlands, foreshadow a decline in avian populations on the Great Plains. However, other possible effects such as increased drought resistance and water use efficiency of vegetation, longer growing seasons, and greater overall plant biomass promise at least some mitigation. Effects of multiple simultaneous perturbations such as can be expected under doubled carbon dioxide scenarios will require substantial basic research to clarify.

  17. Anaerobic digestion: impact of future greenhouse gases mitigation policies on methane generation and usage.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, P F; Batstone, D J

    2005-01-01

    The debate as to whether carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and other greenhouse gas emissions will become subject to increasing regulation, increased restrictions, and probably to some form of carbon tax, has moved from a simple "yes" or "no" to "when". Wastewater treatment plants will be significantly impacted by increased energy costs and by specific regulations and/or penalties associated with emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. In this paper, the greenhouse gases emissions of different wastewater process options are estimated. The paper outlines the increasing need for wastewater treatment plants to factor greenhouse gas mitigation issues into their medium- as and long-term strategies, and identifies anaerobic enhouse as processes as being at the core of such strategies. Further, the paper identifies a number of key research challenges to be addressed if such strategies are to play a larger role in attenuating the likely impacts of GHG mitigation requirements on wastewater treatment plant design and operation. PMID:16180407

  18. Anaerobic digestion: impact of future greenhouse gases mitigation policies on methane generation and usage.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, P F; Batstone, D J

    2005-01-01

    The debate as to whether carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and other greenhouse gas emissions will become subject to increasing regulation, increased restrictions, and probably to some form of carbon tax, has moved from a simple "yes" or "no" to "when". Wastewater treatment plants will be significantly impacted by increased energy costs and by specific regulations and/or penalties associated with emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. In this paper, the greenhouse gases emissions of different wastewater process options are estimated. The paper outlines the increasing need for wastewater treatment plants to factor greenhouse gas mitigation issues into their medium- as and long-term strategies, and identifies anaerobic enhouse as processes as being at the core of such strategies. Further, the paper identifies a number of key research challenges to be addressed if such strategies are to play a larger role in attenuating the likely impacts of GHG mitigation requirements on wastewater treatment plant design and operation.

  19. Emissions of greenhouse gases from a North American megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunch, D.; Wennberg, P. O.; Toon, G. C.; Keppel-Aleks, G.; Yavin, Y. G.

    2009-08-01

    Atmospheric column abundances of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have been measured above the South Coast air basin (SCB), a densely populated urban region of Southern California, USA, which includes Los Angeles and the surrounding suburbs. Large diurnal variations in CO and CH4 are observed which correlate well with those in CO2. Weaker correlations are seen between N2O and CO2, with large uncertainties. We compute yearly SCB emissions of CO and CH4 to be 1.4 ± 0.3 Tg CO and 0.6 ± 0.1 Tg CH4. We compare our calculated emissions to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) estimates. Our measurements confirm that urban emissions are a significant source of CH4 and in fact may be substantially higher than currently estimated. If our emissions are typical of other urban centers, these findings suggest that urban emissions could contribute 7-15% to the global anthropogenic budget of methane.

  20. Enhancement of greenhouse gases associated with Canadian forest fire using multi sensor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rachita; Singh, Rachita; Chaturvedi, Ritu

    Forest fire is a common natural hazard that takes lives of people and billion dollar loss of properties almost every year. In the recent past frequency of forest fires have increased in Canada and throughout the world that is associated with the changes in land use and land cover practice. Multi sensor satellites are now capable in providing information about the land cover, atmosphere and meteorological parameters. The present paper deals with the multi sensor data (AIRS, MODIS, OMI AURA, TOMS) to study the changes in greenhouse and other gases (NOx, O3, CO, water vapor) and aerosol parameters. The detailed analysis of multi sensor data have shown elevated amount of greenhouse gases, total ozone column and aerosol optical depth during summer of 2004 at the time of Canadian forest fire compared to other years. The spatial distribution of greenhouse gas, aerosol optical depth and meteorological conditions are found to change after the onset of forest fire that shows the dynamic nature of the greenhouse gas and associated releases with the dispersion of the plume and smoke from the forest fire. The maximum changes are found from the surface up to a pressure level height 500 hPa, the change occur is found to be very much dependent on the distance from the source (forest fire location) and also on the meteorological conditions.

  1. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, E. Jr.; Vernet, J.E. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    DOE is developing guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and their reductions, under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The establishment of this voluntary program should encourage the reduction of greenhouse gases while providing the opportunity to share innovative approaches to achieving such reductions. This social learning aspect is an important element of the program. In addition to greenhouse gas reductions achieved during a given year, reporters are encouraged to also report their actual emissions of such gases for 1987 through 1990. Due to the voluntary nature of this program, and the myriad differences among the potential reporting entities and possible uses for the data reported, the guidelines will need to be structured so as to maximize participation without compromising the usefulness of the data collected. Through a broad notice of inquiry, published in the Federal Register on July 27, 1993, the Department began seeking input into development of the guidelines. Subsequently, to gain a better understanding of the various sectors of the economy, six public workshops were held during the 1993. One workshop addressed institutional issues of potential interest to all sectors of the economy, with the other five workshops focusing more on matters of concern to specific sectors. These meetings were structured so as to provide broad representation from potential reporting entities along with public interest organizations. It is clear that there are significant variations among those reporting greenhouse information. Presently voluntary, the program will need flexibility to encourage broad participation.

  2. Impact of rising greenhouse gases on mid-latitude storm tracks and associated hydroclimate variability and change

    SciTech Connect

    Seager, Richard

    2014-09-20

    Project Summary This project aimed to advance physical understanding of how and why the mid-latitude jet streams and storm tracks shift in intensity and latitude in response to changes in radiative forcing with an especial focus on rising greenhouse gases. The motivation, and much of the work, stemmed from the importance that these mean and transient atmospheric circulation systems have for hydroclimate. In particular drying and expansion of the subtropical dry zones has been related to a poleward shift of the mid-latitude jets and storm tracks. The work involved integrated assessment of observation and model projections as well as targeted model simulations.

  3. Emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants from commercial aircraft at international airports in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho

    2012-12-01

    The emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air pollutants from aircraft in the boundary layer at four major international airports in Korea over a two-year period (2009-2010) were estimated using the Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS) (i.e. activity-based (Landing/Take-Off (LTO) cycle) methodology). Both domestic and international LTOs and ground support equipment at the airports were considered. The average annual emissions of GHGs (CO2, N2O, CH4 and H2O) at all four airports during the study period were 1.11 × 103, 1.76 × 10-2, -1.85 × 10-3 and 3.84 × 108 kt yr-1, respectively. The emissions of air pollutants (NOx, CO, VOCs and particulate matter) were 5.20, 4.12, 7.46 × 10-1 and 3.37 × 10-2 kt yr-1, respectively. The negative CH4 emission indicates the consumption of atmospheric CH4 in the engine. The monthly and daily emissions of GHGs and air pollutants showed no significant variations at all airports examined. The emissions of GHGs and air pollutants for each aircraft operational mode differed considerably, with the largest emission observed in taxi-out mode.

  4. The impact of greenhouse gases on past changes in tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, C.; Waugh, D. W.; Olsen, M. A.; Douglass, A. R.; Liang, Q.; Nielsen, J. E.; Oman, L. D.; Pawson, S.; Stolarski, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The impact of changes in the abundance of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the evolution of tropospheric ozone (O3) between 1960 and 2005 is examined using a version of the Goddard Earth Observing System chemistry-climate model (GEOS CCM) with a combined troposphere-stratosphere chemical mechanism. Simulations are performed to isolate the relative role of increases in methane (CH4) and stratospheric ozone depleting substances (ODSs) on tropospheric O3. The 1960 to 2005 increases in GHGs (CO2, N2O, CH4, and ODSs) cause increases of around 1-8% in zonal-mean tropospheric O3 in the tropics and northern extratropics, but decreases of 2-4% in most of the southern extratropics. These O3 changes are due primarily to increases in CH4 and ODSs, which cause changes of comparable magnitude but opposite sign. The CH4-related increases in O3are similar in each hemisphere (˜6%), but the ODS-related decreases in the southern extratropics are much larger than in northern extratropics (10% compared to 2%). This results in an interhemispheric difference in the sign of past O3 change. Increases in the other GHGs (CO2 and N2O) and SSTs have only a small impact on the total burden over this period, but do cause zonal variations in the sign of changes in tropical O3 that are coupled to changes in vertical velocities and water vapor.

  5. Greenhouse Gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... is involved is critically important to projecting future climate change, but as yet is still fairly poorly measured ... feedbacks in the climate system leading to global climate change. As yet, though the basics of the hydrological ...

  6. The Marginal Damage Costs of Different Greenhouse Gases: An Application of FUND

    SciTech Connect

    Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anthoff, David; Rose, Steven K.; Tol, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We use FUND 3.8 to estimate the social cost of four greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and sulphur hexafluoride emissions. The damage potential for each gas—the ratio of the social cost of the non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas to the social cost of carbon dioxide—is also estimated. The damage potentials are compared to several metrics, focusing in particular on the global warming potentials, which are frequently used to measure the trade-off between gases in the form of carbon dioxide equivalents. We find that damage potentials could be significantly higher than global warming potentials. This finding implies that previous papers have underestimated the relative importance of reducing non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions from an economic damage perspective. We show results for a range of sensitivity analyses: carbon dioxide fertilization on agriculture productivity, terrestrial feedbacks, climate sensitivity, discounting, equity weighting, and socioeconomic and emissions scenarios. The sensitivity of the results to carbon dioxide fertilization is a primary focus as it is an important element of climate change that has not been considered in much of the previous literature. We estimate that carbon dioxide fertilization has a large positive impact that reduces the social cost of carbon dioxide with a much smaller effect on the other greenhouse gases. As a result, our estimates of the damage potentials of methane and nitrous oxide are much higher compared to estimates that ignore carbon dioxide fertilization. As a result, our base estimates of the damage potential for methane and nitrous oxide that include carbon dioxide fertilization are twice their respective global warming potentials. Our base estimate of the damage potential of sulphur hexafluoride is similar to the one previous estimate, both almost three times the global warming potential.

  7. Origins and seasonality of greenhouse gases over the South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Sabrina G.; Feist, Dietrich G.; Wang, Zhiting

    2016-04-01

    The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) has become the reference network for all total-column observations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) like CO2, CH4, CO, N2O and others. Within TCCON, the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry (MPI-BGC) has been operating a Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on Ascension Island (8°S, 14°W) since May 2012. This is currently the only TCCON station covering the South Atlantic Ocean. So far, the measurements span more than two complete seasonal cycles. Due to its location in the southern trade wind zone, the station is downwind from Africa most of the time. A detailed trajectory analysis shows that different parts of the total atmospheric column typically have different origins. Air in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) typically comes from the deep southern Atlantic Ocean and had only little GHG exchange with land surfaces. However, air in the free troposphere above the PBL usually comes from tropical and southern Africa and sometimes also from South America. A detailed analysis allowed us to separate the total column of CH4 into a tropospheric and stratospheric part. Together with independent flask measurements from the surface, the effects of the different origins of air parcels can be seen in the PBL, the free troposphere and the stratosphere. For example, there are striking differences in seasonality for CH4 between the PBL and the free troposphere. Unlike over typical land stations, trace gas concentrations in the free troposphere above Ascension Island seem to be generally much higher than near the surface. Above the PBL, there is a whole layer of GHGs transported from Africa which shows land seasonal effects and biomass burning signals. This layer remains undetectable for surface observations.

  8. Global warming: Experimental study about the effect of accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molto, Carlos; Mas, Miquel

    2010-05-01

    The project presented here was developed by fifteen year old students of the Institut Sabadell (Sabadell Secondary School. Spain). The objective of this project was to raise the students awareness' about the problem of climate change, mainly caused by the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is also intended that students use the scientific method as an effective system of troubleshooting and that they use the ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) to elicit data and process information. To develop this project, four lessons of sixty minutes each were needed. The first lesson sets out the role of the atmosphere as an Earth's temperature regulator, highlighting the importance of keeping the levels of carbon dioxide, methane and water steam in balance. The second lesson is focused on the experimental activity that students will develop in the following lesson. In lesson two, students will present and justify their hypothesis about the experiment. Some theoretical concepts, necessary to carry out the experiment, will also be explained. The third lesson involves the core of the project, that is the experiment in the laboratory. The experiment consists on performing the atmosphere heating on a little scale. Four different atmospheres are created inside four plastic boxes heated by an infrared lamp. Students work in groups (one group for each atmosphere) and have to monitor the evolution of temperature by means of a temperature sensor (Multilog software). The first group has to observe the relationship between temperature and carbon dioxide levels increase, mainly caused by the widespread practice of burning fossil fuels by growing human populations. The task of this group is to measure simultaneously the temperature of an empty box (without CO2) and the temperature of a box with high carbon dioxide concentration. The carbon dioxide concentration is the result of the chemical reaction when sodium carbonate mixes with hydrochloric acid. The

  9. Frontiers of QC Laser spectroscopy for high precision isotope ratio analysis of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmenegger, Lukas; Mohn, Joachim; Harris, Eliza; Eyer, Simon; Ibraim, Erkan; Tuzson, Béla

    2016-04-01

    An important milestone for laser spectroscopy was achieved when isotope ratios of greenhouse gases were reported at precision levels that allow addressing research questions in environmental sciences. Real-time data with high temporal resolution at moderate cost and instrument size make the optical approach highly attractive, complementary to the well-established isotope-ratio mass-spectrometry (IRMS) method. Especially appealing, in comparison to IRMS, is the inherent specificity to structural isomers having the same molecular mass. Direct absorption in the MIR in single or dual QCL configuration has proven highly reliable for the sta-ble isotopes of CO2, N2O and CH4. The longest time series of real-time measurements is currently available for δ13C and δ18O in CO2 at the high-alpine station Jung-fraujoch. At this well-equipped site, QCL based direct absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS) measurements are ongoing since 2008 1,2. Applications of QCLAS for N2O and CH4 stable isotopes are considerably more challenging because of the lower atmospheric mixing ratios, especially for the less abundant species, such as N218O and CH3D. For high precision (< 0.1 ‰) measurements in ambient air, QCLAS may be combined with a fully automated preconcentration unit yielding an up to 500 times concentration increase and the capability to separate the target gas from spectral interferants by se-quential desorption 3. Here, we review our recent developments on high precision isotope ratio analysis of greenhouse gases, with special focus on the isotopic species of N2O and CH4. Furthermore, we show environ-mental applications illustrating the highly valuable information that isotope ratios of atmospheric trace gases can carry. For example, the intramolecular distribution of 15N in N2O gives important information on the geochemical cycle of N2O4-6, while the analysis of δ13C and δ D in CH4 may be applied to disentangle microbial, fossil and landfill sources 7. 1 Sturm, P., Tuzson, B

  10. Global emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases until 2050: technical mitigation potentials and costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purohit, Pallav; Hoglund-Isaksson, Lena

    2016-04-01

    The anthropogenic fluorinated (F-gases) greenhouse gas emissions have increased significantly in recent years and are estimated to rise further in response to increased demand for cooling services and the phase out of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) under the Montreal Protocol. F-gases (HFCs, PFCs and SF6) are potent greenhouse gases, with a global warming effect up to 22,800 times greater than carbon dioxide (CO2). This study presents estimates of current and future global emissions of F-gases, their technical mitigation potential and associated costs for the period 2005 to 2050. The analysis uses the GAINS model framework to estimate emissions, mitigation potentials and costs for all major sources of anthropogenic F-gases for 162 countries/regions, which are aggregated to produce global estimates. For each region, 18 emission source sectors with mitigation potentials and costs were identified. Global F-gas emissions are estimated at 0.7 Gt CO2eq in 2005 with an expected increase to about 3.6 Gt CO2eq in 2050. There are extensive opportunities to reduce emissions by over 95 percent primarily through replacement with existing low GWP substances. The initial results indicate that at least half of the mitigation potential is attainable at a cost of less than 20€ per t CO2eq, while almost 90 percent reduction is attainable at less than 100€ per t CO2eq. Currently, several policy proposals have been presented to amend the Montreal Protocol to substantially curb global HFC use. We analyze the technical potentials and costs associated with the HFC mitigation required under the different proposed Montreal Protocol amendments.

  11. The Mexico greenhouse gases emissions inventory: Results and methodology contributions on agriculture and land use change

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz-Suarez, L.G.; Gonzalez, E.; Masera, O.

    1996-12-31

    The 1990 Preliminary Greenhouse Gases Emissions Inventory was released in October 1995. It was carried out with sponsorship of the US CSSP and UNEP. It was the product of a partnership between government and academic institutions. Total emissions of CO{sub 2} are 433,721 Gg. Land use change emissions of CO{sub 2} are 111,784 Gg which accounts for 25.8% of the national total. Methane is the second largest greenhouse gas, 3,801 Gg. When its warming potential is accounted for, it is equivalent to 18% of total greenhouse gases emissions. Livestock is the source of 51.3% of these emissions. Methane emissions from cattle and CO{sub 2} emissions from land use change are strongly associated. Besides the results on emission estimates, the inventory work allowed them to use and to improve on IPCC methodologies. Serious miscalculations may result from straightforward application of Tier 1 or even and even of Tier 2 IPPC methodologies for methane emissions from cattle. The need for nation specific forest categories and for more detailed information on the dynamics of land use change was shown. An analysis of emission trends shows the possibility of associated mitigation options for methane and CO{sub 2} from these two sources. A comparative analysis for mitigation potential of methane emissions from large and small scale cattle raising is under way.

  12. From Anti-greenhouse Effect of Solar Absorbers to Cooling Effect of Greenhouse Gases: A 1-D Radiative Convective Model Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shia, R.

    2012-12-01

    The haze layer in Titan's upper atmosphere absorbs 90% of the solar radiation, but is inefficient for trapping infrared radiation generated by the surface. Its existence partially compensates for the greenhouse warming and keeps the surface approximately 9°C cooler than would otherwise be expected from the greenhouse effect alone. This is the so called anti-greenhouse effect (McKay et al., 1991). This effect can be used to alleviate the warming caused by the increasing level of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. A one-dimensional radiative convective model (Kasting et al., 2009 and references listed there) is used to investigate the anti-greenhouse effect in the Earth atmosphere. Increasing of solar absorbers, e.g. aerosols and ozone, in the stratosphere reduces the surface solar flux and cool the surface. However, the absorption of the solar flux also increases the temperature in the upper atmosphere, while reduces the temperature at the surface. Thus, the temperature profile of the atmosphere changes and the regions with positive vertical temperature gradient are expanded. According to Shia (2010) the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases is directly related to the vertical temperature gradient. Under the new temperature profile increases of greenhouse gases should have less warming effect. When the solar absorbers keep increasing, eventually most of the atmosphere has positive temperature gradient and increasing greenhouse gases would cool the surface (Shia, 2011). The doubling CO2 scenario in the Earth atmosphere is simulated for different levels of solar absorbers using the 1-D RC model. The model results show that if the solar absorber increases to a certain level that less than 50% solar flux reaching the surface, doubling CO2 cools the surface by about 2 C. This means if the snowball Earth is generated by solar absorbers in the stratosphere, increasing greenhouse gases would make it freeze even more (Shia, 2011). References: Kasting, J. et al

  13. Continuous measurements of greenhouse gases and atmospheric oxygen at the Namib Desert Atmospheric Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, E. J.; Lavrič, J. V.; Seifert, T.; Chicoine, T.; Day, A.; Gomez, J.; Logan, R.; Sack, J.; Shuuya, T.; Uushona, E. G.; Vincent, K.; Schultz, U.; Brunke, E.-G.; Labuschagne, C.; Thompson, R. L.; Schmidt, S.; Manning, A. C.; Heimann, M.

    2015-06-01

    A new coastal background site has been established for observations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the central Namib Desert at Gobabeb, Namibia. The location of the site was chosen to provide observations for a data-poor region in the global sampling network for GHGs. Semi-automated continuous measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, atmospheric oxygen, and basic meteorology are made at a height of 21 m a.g.l., 50 km from the coast at the northern border of the Namib Sand Sea. Atmospheric oxygen is measured with a differential fuel cell analyzer (DFCA). Carbon dioxide and methane are measured with an early-model cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS); nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide are measured with an off-axis integrated cavity output spectrometer (OA-ICOS). Instrument-specific water corrections are employed for both the CRDS and OA-ICOS instruments in lieu of drying. The performance and measurement uncertainties are discussed in detail. As the station is located in a remote desert environment, there are some particular challenges, namely fine dust, high diurnal temperature variability, and minimal infrastructure. The gas handling system and calibration scheme were tailored to best fit the conditions of the site. The CRDS and DFCA provide data of acceptable quality when base requirements for operation are met, specifically adequate temperature control in the laboratory and regular supply of electricity. In the case of the OA-ICOS instrument, performance is significantly improved through the implementation of a drift correction through frequent measurements of a reference cylinder.

  14. Ammonia, Total Reduced Sulfides, and Greenhouse Gases of Pine Chip and Corn Stover Bedding Packs.

    PubMed

    Spiehs, Mindy J; Brown-Brandl, Tami M; Parker, David B; Miller, Daniel N; Berry, Elaine D; Wells, James E

    2016-03-01

    Bedding materials may affect air quality in livestock facilities. Our objective in this study was to compare headspace concentrations of ammonia (NH), total reduced sulfides (TRS), carbon dioxide (CO), methane (CH), and nitrous oxide (NO) when pine wood chips ( spp.) and corn stover ( L.) were mixed in various ratios (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, and 100% pine chips) and used as bedding with manure. Air samples were collected from the headspace of laboratory-scaled bedded manure packs weekly for 42 d. Ammonia concentrations were highest for bedded packs containing 0, 10, and 20% pine chips (equivalent to 501.7, 502.3, and 502.3 mg m, respectively) in the bedding mixture and were lowest when at least 80% pine chips were used as bedding (447.3 and 431.0 mg m, respectively for 80 and 100% pine chip bedding). The highest NH concentrations were observed at Day 28. The highest concentration of TRS was observed when 100% pine chips were used as bedding (11.4 µg m), with high concentrations occurring between Days 7 and 14, and again at Day 35. Greenhouse gases were largely unaffected by bedding material but CH and CO concentrations increased as the bedded packs aged and NO concentrations were highly variable throughout the incubation. We conclude that a mixture of bedding material that contains 30 to 40% pine chips may be the ideal combination to reduce both NH and TRS emissions. All gas concentrations increased as the bedded packs aged, suggesting that frequent cleaning of facilities would improve air quality in the barn, regardless of bedding materials used.

  15. Ammonia, Total Reduced Sulfides, and Greenhouse Gases of Pine Chip and Corn Stover Bedding Packs.

    PubMed

    Spiehs, Mindy J; Brown-Brandl, Tami M; Parker, David B; Miller, Daniel N; Berry, Elaine D; Wells, James E

    2016-03-01

    Bedding materials may affect air quality in livestock facilities. Our objective in this study was to compare headspace concentrations of ammonia (NH), total reduced sulfides (TRS), carbon dioxide (CO), methane (CH), and nitrous oxide (NO) when pine wood chips ( spp.) and corn stover ( L.) were mixed in various ratios (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, and 100% pine chips) and used as bedding with manure. Air samples were collected from the headspace of laboratory-scaled bedded manure packs weekly for 42 d. Ammonia concentrations were highest for bedded packs containing 0, 10, and 20% pine chips (equivalent to 501.7, 502.3, and 502.3 mg m, respectively) in the bedding mixture and were lowest when at least 80% pine chips were used as bedding (447.3 and 431.0 mg m, respectively for 80 and 100% pine chip bedding). The highest NH concentrations were observed at Day 28. The highest concentration of TRS was observed when 100% pine chips were used as bedding (11.4 µg m), with high concentrations occurring between Days 7 and 14, and again at Day 35. Greenhouse gases were largely unaffected by bedding material but CH and CO concentrations increased as the bedded packs aged and NO concentrations were highly variable throughout the incubation. We conclude that a mixture of bedding material that contains 30 to 40% pine chips may be the ideal combination to reduce both NH and TRS emissions. All gas concentrations increased as the bedded packs aged, suggesting that frequent cleaning of facilities would improve air quality in the barn, regardless of bedding materials used. PMID:27065410

  16. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 2: Appendixes A--S

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuchi, M.A. |

    1993-11-01

    This volume contains the appendices to the report on Emission of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity. Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and other greenhouse gases are discussed. Sources of emission including vehicles, natural gas operations, oil production, coal mines, and power plants are covered. The various energy industries are examined in terms of greenhouse gas production and emissions. Those industries include electricity generation, transport of goods via trains, trucks, ships and pipelines, coal, natural gas and natural gas liquids, petroleum, nuclear energy, and biofuels.

  17. Carbon dioxide separation from flue gases: a technological review emphasizing reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified. PMID:24696663

  18. Atmospheric aerosols versus greenhouse gases in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Andreae, Meinrat O

    2007-07-15

    Looked at in a simplistic way, aerosols have counteracted the warming effects of greenhouse gases (GHG) over the past century. This has not only provided some 'climate protection', but also prevented the true magnitude of the problem from becoming evident. In particular, it may have resulted in an underestimation of the sensitivity of the climate system to the effect of GHG. Over the present century, the role of aerosols in opposing global warming will wane, as there are powerful policy reasons to reduce their emissions and their atmospheric lifetimes are short in contrast to those of the GHG. On the other hand, aerosols will continue to play a role in regional climate change, especially with regard to the water cycle. The end of significant climate protection by atmospheric aerosols, combined with the potentially very high sensitivity of the climate system, makes sharp and prompt reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, especially CO2, very urgent.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gases: A Technological Review Emphasizing Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified. PMID:24696663

  20. Carbon dioxide separation from flue gases: a technological review emphasizing reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified.

  1. A Group Increment Scheme for Infrared Absorption Intensities of Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kokkila, Sara I.; Bera, Partha P.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    A molecule's absorption in the atmospheric infrared (IR) window (IRW) is an indicator of its efficiency as a greenhouse gas. A model for estimating the absorption of a fluorinated molecule within the IRW was developed to assess its radiative impact. This model will be useful in comparing different hydrofluorocarbons and hydrofluoroethers contribution to global warming. The absorption of radiation by greenhouse gases, in particular hydrofluoroethers and hydrofluorocarbons, was investigated using ab initio quantum mechanical methods. Least squares regression techniques were used to create a model based on this data. The placement and number of fluorines in the molecule were found to affect the absorption in the IR window and were incorporated into the model. Several group increment models are discussed. An additive model based on one-carbon groups is found to work satisfactorily in predicting the ab initio calculated vibrational intensities.

  2. [Emission inventory of greenhouse gases from agricultural residues combustion: a case study of Jiangsu Province].

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-hua; Jiang, Jing-yan; Zong, Liang-gang

    2011-05-01

    Burning of agricultural crop residues was a major source greenhouse gases. In this study, the proportion of crop straws (rice, wheat, maize, oil rape, cotton and soja) in Jiangsu used as household fuel and direct open burning in different periods (1990-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005 and 2006-2008) was estimated through questionnaire. The emission factors of CO2, CO, CH4 and NO20 from the above six types of crop straws were calculated by the simulated burning experiment. Thus the emission inventory of greenhouse gases from crop straws burning was established according to above the burning percentages and emission factors, ratios of dry residues to production and crop productions of different periods in Jiangsu province. Results indicated that emission factors of CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O depended on crop straw type. The emission factors of CO2 and CH4 were higher for oil rape straw than the other straws, while the maize and the rice straw had the higher N2O and CO emission factor. Emission inventory of greenhouse gases from agricultural residues burning in Jiangsu province showed, the annual average global warming potential (GWP) of six tested crop straws were estimated to be 9.18 (rice straw), 4.35 (wheat straw), 2.55 (maize straw), 1.63 (oil rape straw), 0.55 (cotton straw) and 0. 39 (soja straw) Tg CO2 equivalent, respectively. Among the four study periods, the annual average GWP had no obvious difference between the 1990-1995 and 2006-2008 periods, while the maximal annual average GWP (23.83 Tg CO2 equivalent) happened in the 1996-2000 period, and the minimum (20.30 Tg CO2 equivalent) in 1996-2000 period.

  3. Fluxes of greenhouse gases at two different aquaculture ponds in the coastal zone of southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping; He, Qinghua; Huang, Jiafang; Tong, Chuan

    2015-08-01

    Shallow water ponds are important contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes into the atmosphere. Aquaculture ponds cover an extremely large area in China's entire coastal zone. Knowledge of greenhouse gas fluxes from aquaculture ponds is very limited, but measuring GHG fluxes from aquaculture ponds is fundamental for estimating their impact on global warming. This study investigated the magnitude of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from two coastal aquaculture ponds during 2011 and 2012 in the Shanyutan wetland of the Min River estuary, southeastern China, and determined the factors that may regulate GHG fluxes from the two ponds. The average fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were 20.78 mgCO2 m-2h-1, 19.95 mgCH4 m-2h-1 and 10.74 μgN2O m-2h-1, respectively, in the shrimp pond. The average fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were -60.46 mgCO2 m-2h-1, 1.65 mgCH4 m-2h-1 and 11.8 μgN2O m-2h-1, respectively, in the mixed shrimp and fish aquaculture pond during the study period. The fluxes of all three gases showed distinct temporal variations. The variations in the GHG fluxes were influenced by interactions with the thermal regime, pH, trophic status and chlorophyll-a content. Significant differences in the CO2 and N2O fluxes between the shrimp pond and the mixed aquaculture pond were observed from September to November, whereas the CH4 fluxes from the two ponds were not significantly different. The difference in the CO2 flux likely was related to the effects of photosynthesis, biological respiration and the mineralization of organic matter, whereas the N2O fluxes were controlled by the interactions between nitrogen substrate availability and pH. Water salinity, trophic status and dissolved oxygen concentration likely affected CH4 emission. Our results suggest that subtropical coastal aquaculture ponds are important contributors to regional CH4 and N2O emissions into the atmosphere, and their contribution to global warming must be considered

  4. Renewable energies in electricity generation for reduction of greenhouse gases in Mexico 2025.

    PubMed

    Islas, Jorge; Manzini, Fabio; Martínez, Manuel

    2002-02-01

    This study presents 4 scenarios relating to the environmental futures of electricity generation in Mexico up to the year 2025. The first scenario emphasizes the use of oil products, particularly fuel oil, and represents the historic path of Mexico's energy policy. The second scenario prioritizes the use of natural gas, reflecting the energy consumption pattern that arose in the mid-1990s as a result of reforms in the energy sector. In the third scenario, the high participation of renewable sources of energy is considered feasible from a technical and economic point of view. The fourth scenario takes into account the present- and medium-term use of natural-gas technologies that the energy reform has produced, but after 2007 a high and feasible participation of renewable sources of energy is considered. The 4 scenarios are evaluated up to the year 2025 in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG) and acid rain precursor gases (ARPG).

  5. [Greenhouse gases emission or uptake in Inner Mongolia natural and free-grazing grasslands].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuesi; Xue, Min; Huang, Yao; Liu, Guangren; Wang, Mingxing; Gi, Baoming

    2003-03-01

    GC-MS was used to measure the greenhouse emission of Inner Mongolia Grassland. The results showed that four kinds of typical semi-arid grasslands in Inner Mongolia had their own special seasonal patterns as the source of atmospheric N2O and CO2 emission and the sink of atmopsheric CH4, which were controlled by seasonal weather variation. Different soil and vegetation types and precipitation influenced the intensity of emission and upatake of the gases. Compared with natural grassland, free grazing decreased CH4 uptake and N2O emission, but increased CO2 emission.

  6. Greenhouse gases fluxes and soil thermal properties in a pasture in central Missouri.

    PubMed

    Nkonglolo, Nsalambi Vakanda; Johnson, Shane; Schmidt, Kent; Eivazi, Frieda

    2010-01-01

    Fluctuations of greenhouse gases emissions and soil properties occur at short spatial and temporal scales, however, results are often reported for larger scales studies. We monitored CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes and soil temperature (T), thermal conductivity (K), resistivity (R) and thermal diffusivity (D) from 2004 to 2006 in a pasture. Soil air samples for determination of CO2, CH4 and N20 concentrations were collected from static and vented chambers and analyzed within two hours of collection with a gas chromatograph. T, K, R and D were measured in-situ using a KD2 probe. Soil samples were also taken for measurements of soil chemical and physical properties. The pasture acted as a sink in 2004, a source in 2005 and again a sink of CH4 in 2006. CO2 and CH4 were highest, but N2O as well as T, K and D were lowest in 2004. Only K was correlated with CO2 in 2004 while T correlated with both N2O (r = 0.76, p = 0.0001) and CO2 (r = 0.88, p = 0.0001) in 2005. In 2006, all gases fluxes were significantly correlated with T, K and R when the data for the entire year were considered. However, an in-depth examination of the data revealed the existence of month-to-month shifts, lack of correlation and differing spatial structures. These results stress the need for further studies on the relationship between soil properties and gases fluxes. K and R offer a promise as potential controlling factors for greenhouse gases fluxes in this pasture.

  7. Investigation of the relationship between atmospheric mercury and concentrations of key greenhouse gases at a mountainous monitoring site.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Brown, Richard J C; Sheu, Guey Rong; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Jung, Kweon; Kang, Chang-Hee

    2015-03-01

    The concentration of total gaseous mercury (TGM) was monitored, together with some key greenhouse gases (GHGs: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and water (H2O) vapor) at hourly intervals at a mountainous monitoring site close to the highly industrialized city of Seoul, Korea. Correlations between the concentrations of Hg and those of the greenhouse gases were examined to assess their source characteristics and responses to changes in meteorological conditions. The mean Hg levels in this study (3.58 ± 2.13 ng m(-3)) were considerably lower (by, e.g., 24.3%) than those measured previously in other comparable sites during 1999-2006 (4.73 ± 1.34 ng m(-3)). Accordingly, such a reduction in Hg levels suggests the effectiveness of the regulatory measures enforced over the years. The mean Hg level observed in this study is also lower (by approximately 5%) than those in other Asian locations. In contrast, the mean concentrations of the two most important GHGs (CO2 and CH4) were moderately higher than those of other locations across the world (by approximately 4-9%). The results of our analysis indicate that the behavior of Hg is strongly correlated with water vapor and CH4 in terms of their source characteristics, despite notable differences in their diurnal patterns.

  8. Radiative Forcing by Long-Lived Greenhouse Gases: Calculations with the AER Radiative Transfer Models

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, William; Iacono, Michael J.; Delamere, Jennifer S.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Shephard, Mark W.; Clough, Shepard A.; Collins, William D.

    2008-04-01

    A primary component of the observed, recent climate change is the radiative forcing from increased concentrations of long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs). Effective simulation of anthropogenic climate change by general circulation models (GCMs) is strongly dependent on the accurate representation of radiative processes associated with water vapor, ozone and LLGHGs. In the context of the increasing application of the Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) radiation models within the GCM community, their capability to calculate longwave and shortwave radiative forcing for clear sky scenarios previously examined by the radiative transfer model intercomparison project (RTMIP) is presented. Forcing calculations with the AER line-by-line (LBL) models are very consistent with the RTMIP line-by-line results in the longwave and shortwave. The AER broadband models, in all but one case, calculate longwave forcings within a range of -0.20 to 0.23 W m{sup -2} of LBL calculations and shortwave forcings within a range of -0.16 to 0.38 W m{sup -2} of LBL results. These models also perform well at the surface, which RTMIP identified as a level at which GCM radiation models have particular difficulty reproducing LBL fluxes. Heating profile perturbations calculated by the broadband models generally reproduce high-resolution calculations within a few hundredths K d{sup -1} in the troposphere and within 0.15 K d{sup -1} in the peak stratospheric heating near 1 hPa. In most cases, the AER broadband models provide radiative forcing results that are in closer agreement with high 20 resolution calculations than the GCM radiation codes examined by RTMIP, which supports the application of the AER models to climate change research.

  9. Shipboard monitoring of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in Asia and Oceania using commercially cargo vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nara, H.; Tanimoto, H.; Mukai, H.; Nojiri, Y.; Tohjima, Y.; Machida, T.; Hashimoto, S.

    2011-12-01

    The National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) has been performing a long-term program for monitoring trace gases of atmospheric importance over the Pacific Ocean since 1995. The NIES Voluntary Observing Ships (NIES-VOS) program currently makes use of commercial cargo vessels because they operate regularly over fixed routes for long periods and sail over a wide area between various ports (e.g., between Japan and the United States, between Japan and Australia/New Zealand, and between Japan and southeast Asia). This program allows systematic and continuous measurements of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, providing long-term datasets for background air over the Pacific Ocean and regionally polluted air around east Asia. We observe both long-lived greenhouse gases (e.g., carbon dioxide) and short-lived air pollutants (e.g., tropospheric ozone, carbon monoxide) on a continuous basis. Flask samples are collected for later laboratory analysis of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon monoxide by using gas chromatographic techniques. In addition, we recently installed cavity ringdown spectrometers for high-resolution measurement of methane and carbon dioxide to capture their highly variable features in regionally polluted air around southeast Asia (e.g., Hong Kong, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippine), which is now thought to be a large source due to expanding socioeconomic activities as well as biomass burnings. Contrasting the Japan-Australia/New Zealand and Japan-southeast Asia cruises revealed regional characteristics of sources and sinks of these atmospherically important species, suggesting the existence of additional sources for methane, nitrous oxides, and carbon monoxide in this tropical Asian region.

  10. Relative Contribution of Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Change to Temperature Trends in the Stratosphere: A Chemistry/Climate Model Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, A. R.; Newman, P. A.; Pawson, S.; Schoeberl, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term changes in greenhouse gases, primarily carbon dioxide, are expected to lead to a warming of the troposphere and a cooling of the stratosphere. We examine the cooling of the stratosphere and compare the contributions greenhouse gases and ozone change for the decades between 1980 and 2000. We use 150 years of simulation done with our coupled chemistry/climate model (GEOS 4 GCM with GSFC CTM chemistry) to calculate temperatures and constituents fiom,1950 through 2100. The contributions of greenhouse gases and ozone to temperature change are separated by a time-series analysis using a linear trend term throughout the period to represent the effects of greenhouse gases and an equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC) term to represent the effects of ozone change. The temperature changes over the 150 years of the simulation are dominated by the changes in greenhouse gases. Over the relatively short period (approx. 20 years) of ozone decline between 1980 and 2000 changes in ozone are competitive with changes in greenhouse gases. The changes in temperature induced by the ozone change are comparable to, but smaller than, those of greenhouse gases in the upper stratosphere (1-3 hPa) at mid latitudes. The ozone term dominates the temperature change near both poles with a negative temperature change below about 3-5 hPa and a positive change above. At mid latitudes in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere (above about 1 hPa) and in the middle stratosphere (3 to 70 ma), the greenhouse has term dominates. From about 70 hPa down to the tropopause at mid latitudes, cooling due to ozone changes is the largest influence on temperature. Over the 150 years of the simulation, the change in greenhouse gases is the most important contributor to temperature change. Ozone caused a perturbation that is expected to reverse over the coming decades. We show a model simulation of the expected temperature change over the next two decades (2006-2026). The simulation shows a

  11. Interactive Photochemistry in Earth System Models to Assess Uncertainty in Ozone and Greenhouse Gases. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Prather, Michael J.; Hsu, Juno; Nicolau, Alex; Veidenbaum, Alex; Smith, Philip Cameron; Bergmann, Dan

    2014-11-07

    Atmospheric chemistry controls the abundances and hence climate forcing of important greenhouse gases including N2O, CH4, HFCs, CFCs, and O3. Attributing climate change to human activities requires, at a minimum, accurate models of the chemistry and circulation of the atmosphere that relate emissions to abundances. This DOE-funded research provided realistic, yet computationally optimized and affordable, photochemical modules to the Community Earth System Model (CESM) that augment the CESM capability to explore the uncertainty in future stratospheric-tropospheric ozone, stratospheric circulation, and thus the lifetimes of chemically controlled greenhouse gases from climate simulations. To this end, we have successfully implemented Fast-J (radiation algorithm determining key chemical photolysis rates) and Linoz v3.0 (linearized photochemistry for interactive O3, N2O, NOy and CH4) packages in LLNL-CESM and for the first time demonstrated how change in O2 photolysis rate within its uncertainty range can significantly impact on the stratospheric climate and ozone abundances. From the UCI side, this proposal also helped LLNL develop a CAM-Superfast Chemistry model that was implemented for the IPCC AR5 and contributed chemical-climate simulations to CMIP5.

  12. Comment on "Radiative forcings for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases" by Byrne and Goldblatt (2014)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kochanov, R. V.; Gordon, I. E.; Rothman, L. S.; Sharpe, S. W.; Johnson, T. J.; Sams, R. L.

    2015-08-25

    In the recent article by Byrne and Goldblatt, "Radiative forcing for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases", Clim. Past. 10, 1779–1801 (2014), the authors employ the HITRAN2012 spectroscopic database to evaluate the radiative forcing of 28 Archean gases. As part of the evaluation of the status of the spectroscopy of these gases in the selected spectral region (50–1800 cm-1), the cross sections generated from the HITRAN line-by-line parameters were compared with those of the PNNL database of experimental cross sections recorded at moderate resolution. The authors claimed that for NO2, HNO3, H2CO, H2O2, HCOOH, C2H4, CH3OH and CH3Br there exist largemore » or sometimes severe disagreements between the databases. In this work we show that for only three of these eight gases a modest discrepancy does exist between the two databases and we explain the origin of the differences. For the other five gases, the disagreements are not nearly at the scale suggested by the authors, while we explain some of the differences that do exist. In summary, the agreement between the HITRAN and PNNL databases is very good, although not perfect. Typically differences do not exceed 10 %, provided that HITRAN data exist for the bands/wavelengths of interest. It appears that a molecule-dependent combination of errors has affected the conclusions of the authors. In at least one case it appears that they did not take the correct file from PNNL (N2O4 (dimer)+ NO2 was used in place of the monomer). Finally, cross sections of HO2 from HITRAN (which do not have a PNNL counterpart) were not calculated correctly in BG, while in the case of HF misleading discussion was presented there based on the confusion by foreign or noise features in the experimental PNNL spectra.« less

  13. Comment on "Radiative forcings for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases" by Byrne and Goldblatt (2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanov, R. V.; Gordon, I. E.; Rothman, L. S.; Sharpe, S. W.; Johnson, T. J.; Sams, R. L.

    2015-08-01

    In the recent article by Byrne and Goldblatt, "Radiative forcing for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases", Clim. Past. 10, 1779-1801 (2014), the authors employ the HITRAN2012 spectroscopic database to evaluate the radiative forcing of 28 Archean gases. As part of the evaluation of the status of the spectroscopy of these gases in the selected spectral region (50-1800 cm-1), the cross sections generated from the HITRAN line-by-line parameters were compared with those of the PNNL database of experimental cross sections recorded at moderate resolution. The authors claimed that for NO2, HNO3, H2CO, H2O2, HCOOH, C2H4, CH3OH and CH3Br there exist large or sometimes severe disagreements between the databases. In this work we show that for only three of these eight gases a modest discrepancy does exist between the two databases and we explain the origin of the differences. For the other five gases, the disagreements are not nearly at the scale suggested by the authors, while we explain some of the differences that do exist. In summary, the agreement between the HITRAN and PNNL databases is very good, although not perfect. Typically differences do not exceed 10 %, provided that HITRAN data exist for the bands/wavelengths of interest. It appears that a molecule-dependent combination of errors has affected the conclusions of the authors. In at least one case it appears that they did not take the correct file from PNNL (N2O4 (dimer)+ NO2 was used in place of the monomer). Finally, cross sections of HO2 from HITRAN (which do not have a PNNL counterpart) were not calculated correctly in BG, while in the case of HF misleading discussion was presented there based on the confusion by foreign or noise features in the experimental PNNL spectra.

  14. [Effects of urea and coated urea on harmful gases concentrations in plastic greenhouse].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xihong; Zeng, Qingru; Mao, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Litian; Liao, Bohan; Tie, Baiqing; Liao, Zongwen

    2006-09-01

    With simulation test and plastic greenhouse experiment, this paper studied the effects of urea and minerals- coated urea on the soil pH and harmful gases concentrations in plastic greenhouse. The results showed that under simulated condition, the application of these'two N fertilizers led to an initial increase of soil pH, which reached the maximum (an increment of > 50%) within the first week and dropped to the initial level by the end of the fifth week. In plastic greenhouse, applying urea and coated urea resulted in the increase of NH3, NO2 and O3 concentrations. The daily volatilization amount of NH3 and NO2 was higher in urea treatment than in coated urea treatment, and the highest value in urea treatment was 42.36 microg x m(-3) x d(-1) for NH3, 41.95 microg x m(-3) x d(-1) for NO2, and 86.00 microg x m(-3) x d(-1) for O3. The volatilization intensity of NH3 and NO2 was influenced by temperature and sunlight, while the O3 concentration was influenced by sunlight. PMID:17147165

  15. [Effects of urea and coated urea on harmful gases concentrations in plastic greenhouse].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xihong; Zeng, Qingru; Mao, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Litian; Liao, Bohan; Tie, Baiqing; Liao, Zongwen

    2006-09-01

    With simulation test and plastic greenhouse experiment, this paper studied the effects of urea and minerals- coated urea on the soil pH and harmful gases concentrations in plastic greenhouse. The results showed that under simulated condition, the application of these'two N fertilizers led to an initial increase of soil pH, which reached the maximum (an increment of > 50%) within the first week and dropped to the initial level by the end of the fifth week. In plastic greenhouse, applying urea and coated urea resulted in the increase of NH3, NO2 and O3 concentrations. The daily volatilization amount of NH3 and NO2 was higher in urea treatment than in coated urea treatment, and the highest value in urea treatment was 42.36 microg x m(-3) x d(-1) for NH3, 41.95 microg x m(-3) x d(-1) for NO2, and 86.00 microg x m(-3) x d(-1) for O3. The volatilization intensity of NH3 and NO2 was influenced by temperature and sunlight, while the O3 concentration was influenced by sunlight.

  16. Collaborative Emission Reduction Model Based on Multi-Objective Optimization for Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qing-chun; Rong, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Yi-min; Wan, Xiao-le; Liu, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Yu-zhi

    2016-01-01

    CO2 emission influences not only global climate change but also international economic and political situations. Thus, reducing the emission of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, has become a major issue in China and around the world as regards preserving the environmental ecology. Energy consumption from coal, oil, and natural gas is primarily responsible for the production of greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as SO2 and NOX, which are the main air pollutants in China. In this study, a mathematical multi-objective optimization method was adopted to analyze the collaborative emission reduction of three kinds of gases on the basis of their common restraints in different ways of energy consumption to develop an economic, clean, and efficient scheme for energy distribution. The first part introduces the background research, the collaborative emission reduction for three kinds of gases, the multi-objective optimization, the main mathematical modeling, and the optimization method. The second part discusses the four mathematical tools utilized in this study, which include the Granger causality test to analyze the causality between air quality and pollutant emission, a function analysis to determine the quantitative relation between energy consumption and pollutant emission, a multi-objective optimization to set up the collaborative optimization model that considers energy consumption, and an optimality condition analysis for the multi-objective optimization model to design the optimal-pole algorithm and obtain an efficient collaborative reduction scheme. In the empirical analysis, the data of pollutant emission and final consumption of energies of Tianjin in 1996-2012 was employed to verify the effectiveness of the model and analyze the efficient solution and the corresponding dominant set. In the last part, several suggestions for collaborative reduction are recommended and the drawn conclusions are stated.

  17. On the relationship between metrics to compare greenhouse gases - the case of IGTP, GWP and SGTP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azar, C.; Johansson, D. J. A.

    2012-11-01

    Metrics for comparing greenhouse gases are analyzed, with a particular focus on the integrated temperature change potential (IGTP) following a call from IPCC to investigate this metric. It is shown that the global warming potential (GWP) and IGTP are asymptotically equal when the time horizon approaches infinity when standard assumptions about a constant background atmosphere are used. The difference between IGTP and GWP is estimated for different greenhouse gases using an upwelling diffusion energy balance model with different assumptions on the climate sensitivity and the parameterization governing the rate of ocean heat uptake. It is found that GWP and IGTP differ by some 10% for CH4 (for a time horizon of less than 500 yr), and that the relative difference between GWP and IGTP is less for gases with a longer atmospheric life time. Further, it is found that the relative difference between IGTP and GWP increases with increasing rates of ocean heat uptake and increasing climate sensitivity since these changes increase the inertia of the climate system. Furthermore, it is shown that IGTP is equivalent to the sustained global temperature change potential (SGTP) under standard assumptions when estimating GWPs. We conclude that while it matters little for abatement policy whether IGTP, SGTP or GWP is used when making trade-offs, it is more important to decide whether society should use a metric based on time integrated effects such as GWP, a "snapshot metric" as GTP, or metrics where both economics and physical considerations are taken into account. Of equal importance is the question of how to choose the time horizon, regardless of the chosen metric. For both these overall questions, value judgments are needed.

  18. Atmospheric Removal of Very Long-lived Greenhouse Gases in the Mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totterdill, A.; Kovacs, T.; Gomez Martin, J.; FENG, W.; Chipperfield, M.; Plane, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons are known to have serious ozone depleting and global warming potentials. Perfluorinated compounds such as SF6, NF3, SF5CF3 and CF3CF2Cl which have very long lifetimes (ranging from a few centuries to over 3000 years) are too stable to affect stratospheric ozone but do have among the highest per molecule radiative forcing of any greenhouse pollutant, making them extremely potent greenhouse gases. Due to the stability of these gases in the lower atmosphere, mesospheric loss processes could significantly reduce their estimated atmospheric lifetimes and hence, overall climate impact. Potential sinks include reactions with metals and energetic particles such as electrons or short wavelength photons already present in the upper atmosphere. The metals, in this instance iron, sodium or potassium, are produced by meteoric ablation, while background and energetic electrons have the continuous source of photoionization and auroral precipitation, respectively. In this study we investigate the removal potentials of four very long lived gases (SF6, NF3, SF5CF3 and CF3CF2Cl). First, by four metals (Fe, Mg, Na and K), where rate coefficients are measured using the Fast Flow Tube and Pulsed Laser Flash Photolysis / Laser Induced Fluorescence techniques. Second, removal by electron attachment was investigated using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. measurements. Third, Lyman-alpha (121.56 nm) photolysis was measured in a VUV absorption cell. The resulting removal rate coefficients are currently being input into the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) to obtain lifetime measurements for these species.

  19. Collaborative Emission Reduction Model Based on Multi-Objective Optimization for Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi-min; Wan, Xiao-le; Liu, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Yu-zhi

    2016-01-01

    CO2 emission influences not only global climate change but also international economic and political situations. Thus, reducing the emission of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, has become a major issue in China and around the world as regards preserving the environmental ecology. Energy consumption from coal, oil, and natural gas is primarily responsible for the production of greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as SO2 and NOX, which are the main air pollutants in China. In this study, a mathematical multi-objective optimization method was adopted to analyze the collaborative emission reduction of three kinds of gases on the basis of their common restraints in different ways of energy consumption to develop an economic, clean, and efficient scheme for energy distribution. The first part introduces the background research, the collaborative emission reduction for three kinds of gases, the multi-objective optimization, the main mathematical modeling, and the optimization method. The second part discusses the four mathematical tools utilized in this study, which include the Granger causality test to analyze the causality between air quality and pollutant emission, a function analysis to determine the quantitative relation between energy consumption and pollutant emission, a multi-objective optimization to set up the collaborative optimization model that considers energy consumption, and an optimality condition analysis for the multi-objective optimization model to design the optimal-pole algorithm and obtain an efficient collaborative reduction scheme. In the empirical analysis, the data of pollutant emission and final consumption of energies of Tianjin in 1996–2012 was employed to verify the effectiveness of the model and analyze the efficient solution and the corresponding dominant set. In the last part, several suggestions for collaborative reduction are recommended and the drawn conclusions are stated. PMID:27010658

  20. Collaborative Emission Reduction Model Based on Multi-Objective Optimization for Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qing-chun; Rong, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Yi-min; Wan, Xiao-le; Liu, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Yu-zhi

    2016-01-01

    CO2 emission influences not only global climate change but also international economic and political situations. Thus, reducing the emission of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, has become a major issue in China and around the world as regards preserving the environmental ecology. Energy consumption from coal, oil, and natural gas is primarily responsible for the production of greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as SO2 and NOX, which are the main air pollutants in China. In this study, a mathematical multi-objective optimization method was adopted to analyze the collaborative emission reduction of three kinds of gases on the basis of their common restraints in different ways of energy consumption to develop an economic, clean, and efficient scheme for energy distribution. The first part introduces the background research, the collaborative emission reduction for three kinds of gases, the multi-objective optimization, the main mathematical modeling, and the optimization method. The second part discusses the four mathematical tools utilized in this study, which include the Granger causality test to analyze the causality between air quality and pollutant emission, a function analysis to determine the quantitative relation between energy consumption and pollutant emission, a multi-objective optimization to set up the collaborative optimization model that considers energy consumption, and an optimality condition analysis for the multi-objective optimization model to design the optimal-pole algorithm and obtain an efficient collaborative reduction scheme. In the empirical analysis, the data of pollutant emission and final consumption of energies of Tianjin in 1996-2012 was employed to verify the effectiveness of the model and analyze the efficient solution and the corresponding dominant set. In the last part, several suggestions for collaborative reduction are recommended and the drawn conclusions are stated. PMID:27010658

  1. Sensor system for Greenhouse Gas Observing Satellite (GOSAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamazaki, Takashi; Kuze, Akihiko; Kondo, Kayoko

    2004-11-01

    Global warming has become a very serious issue for human beings. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP3), making it mandatory for developed nations to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by six (6) to eight (8) per cent of their total emissions in 1990, and to meet this goal sometime between 2008 and 2012. The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is design to monitor the global distribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) from orbit. GOSAT is a joint project of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the Ministry of Environment (MOE), and the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). JAXA is responsible for the satellite and instrument development, MOE is involved in the instrument development, and NIES is responsible for the satellite data retrieval. The satellite is scheduled to be launched in 2008. In order to detect the CO2 variation of boundary layers, both the technique to measure the column density and the retrieval algorithm to remove cloud and aerosol contamination are investigated. Main mission sensor of the GOSAT is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer with high optical throughput, spectral resolution and wide spectral coverage, and a cloud-aerosol detecting imager attached to the satellite. The paper presents the mission sensor system of the GOSAT together with the results of performance demonstration with proto-type instrument aboard an aircraft.

  2. A new UK Greenhouse Gas measurement network providing ultra high-frequency measurements of key radiatively active trace gases taken from a network of tall towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, A.; O'Doherty, S.; Manning, A. J.; Simmonds, P. G.; Derwent, R. G.; Moncrieff, J. B.; Sturges, W. T.

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring of atmospheric concentrations of gases is important in assessing the impact of international policies related to the atmospheric environment. The effects of control measures on greenhouse gases introduced under the Montreal and Kyoto Protocols are now being observed. Continued monitoring is required to assess the overall success of the Protocols. For over 15 years the UK Government have funded high-frequency measurements of greenhouse gases and ozone depleting gases at Mace Head, a global background measurement station on the west coast of Ireland. These continuous, high-frequency, high-precision measurements are used to estimate regional (country-scale) emissions of greenhouse gases across the UK using an inversion methodology (NAME-Inversion) that links the Met Office atmospheric dispersion model (Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment - NAME) with the Mace Head observations. This unique inversion method acts to independently verify bottom up emission estimates of radiatively active and ozone-depleting trace gases. In 2011 the UK government (DECC) funded the establishment and integration of three new tall tower measurements stations in the UK, to provide enhanced resolution emission maps and decrease uncertainty of regional emission estimates produced using the NAME-Inversion. One station included in this new UK network was already established in Scotland and was used in collaboration with Edinburgh University. The two other new stations are in England and were set-up early in 2012, they contain brand new instrumentation for measurements of greenhouse gases. All three additional stations provide ultra high-frequency (1 sec) data of CO2 and CH4 using the Picarro© Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer and high frequency (20 min) measurements of N2O and SF6 from custom built sample modules with GC-ECD. We will present the new tall tower UK measurement network in detail. Using high-frequency measurements at new operational sites, including Mace

  3. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992: General Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, Congress authorized a voluntary program for the public to report achievements in reducing those gases. This document offers guidance on recording historic and current greenhouse gas emissions, emissions reductions, and carbon sequestration. Under the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) reporters will have the opportunity to highlight specific achievements. If you have taken actions to lessen the greenhouse gas effect, either by decreasing greenhouse gas emissions or by sequestering carbon, the Department of Energy (DOE) encourages you to report your achievements under this program. The program has two related, but distinct parts. First, the program offers you an opportunity to report your annual emissions of greenhouse gases. Second, the program records your specific projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Although participants in the program are strongly encouraged to submit reports on both, reports on either annual emissions or emissions reductions and carbon sequestration projects will be accepted. These guidelines and the supporting technical documents outline the rationale for the program and approaches to analyzing emissions and emissions reduction projects. Your annual emissions and emissions reductions achievements will be reported.

  4. O(1D) kinetic study of key ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Fleming, Eric L; Jackman, Charles H; Burkholder, James B

    2013-03-28

    A key stratospheric loss process for ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) is reaction with the O((1)D) atom. In this study, rate coefficients, k, for the O((1)D) atom reaction were measured for the following key halocarbons: chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) CFCl3 (CFC-11), CF2Cl2 (CFC-12), CFCl2CF2Cl (CFC-113), CF2ClCF2Cl (CFC-114), CF3CF2Cl (CFC-115); hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3CClF2 (HCFC-142b); and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) CHF3 (HFC-23), CHF2CF3 (HFC-125), CH3CF3 (HFC-143a), and CF3CHFCF3 (HFC-227ea). Total rate coefficients, kT, corresponding to the loss of the O((1)D) atom, were measured over the temperature range 217-373 K using a competitive reactive technique. kT values for the CFC and HCFC reactions were >1 × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), except for CFC-115, and the rate coefficients for the HFCs were in the range (0.095-0.72) × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Rate coefficients for the CFC-12, CFC-114, CFC-115, HFC-23, HFC-125, HFC-143a, and HFC-227ea reactions were observed to have a weak negative temperature dependence, E/R ≈ -25 K. Reactive rate coefficients, kR, corresponding to the loss of the halocarbon, were measured for CFC-11, CFC-115, HCFC-22, HCFC-142b, HFC-23, HFC-125, HFC-143a, and HFC-227ea using a relative rate technique. The reactive branching ratio obtained was dependent on the composition of the halocarbon and the trend in O((1)D) reactivity with the extent of hydrogen and chlorine substitution is discussed. The present results are critically compared with previously reported kinetic data and the discrepancies are discussed. 2D atmospheric model calculations were used to evaluate the local and global annually averaged atmospheric lifetimes of the halocarbons and the contribution of O((1)D) chemistry to their atmospheric loss. The O((1)D) reaction was found to be a major global loss process for CFC-114 and CFC-115 and a secondary global loss process for the other molecules included

  5. Using STELLA System Dynamic Model to Analyze Greenhouse Gases' Emission From Solid Waste Management in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Horng, Jao-Jia; Lee, R.F.; Liao, K.Y.

    2004-03-31

    Using a system dynamic model (SDM), such as STELLA, to analyze the waste management policy is a new trial for Taiwan's research communities. We have developed an easy and relatively accurate model for analyzing the greenhouse gases emission for the wastes from animal farming and municipalities. With the local research data of the past decade, we extract the most prominent factors and assemble the SDM. The results and scenarios were compared with the national inventory. By comparing to the past data, we found these models reasonably represent the situation in Taiwan. However, SDM can program many scenarios and produce a lot of prediction data. With the development of many program control tools on STELLA, we believe the models could be further used by researchers or policy-makers to find the needed research topics, to set the future scenarios and to determine the management tools.

  6. European trends in greenhouse gases emissions from integrated solid waste management.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Paolo S; Gori, Manuela; Lubello, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has 28 member states, each with very different characteristics (e.g. surface, population density, per capita gross domestic product, per capita municipal solid waste (MSW) production, MSW composition, MSW management options). In this paper several integrated waste management scenarios representative of the European situation have been generated and analysed in order to evaluate possible trends in the net emission of greenhouse gases and in the required landfill volume. The results demonstrate that an integrated system with a high level of separate collection, efficient energy recovery in waste-to-energy plants and very limited landfill disposal is the most effective according to the indices adopted. Moreover, it is evident that a fully integrated system can make MSW management a carbon sink with a potentiality of up to approximately 40 Mt CO2eq year(-1).

  7. [Regional simulation of rice yield change under two emission scenarios of greenhouse gases].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wei; Xu, Yinlong; Lin, Erda; Lu, Zhiguang

    2005-01-01

    Based on the newest emission scenarios of SO2 and greenhouse gases, i. e., the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A2 and B2 scenarios, and by using RCM (Regional Climate Model)-PRECIS and CERES-Rice model, this paper simulated the rice yield change in 2080 at 50 x 50 km scale. The results showed that there was a great range of yield change across whole China. The yield would increase along the Changjiang River and in South China, and decrease in North and Northeast China. Because of the direct effect of CO2 on rice growth, the SRES A2 scenario would be more positive to the increase of rice yield than B2. In 2080, the total rice yield in whole China would increase under A2 emission scenario, while decrease under B2 emission scenario.

  8. Sensitivity of precipitation extremes to radiative forcing of greenhouse gases and aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lei; Wang, Zhili; Xu, Yangyang; Fu, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols are the two most important anthropogenic forcing agents in the 21st century. The expected declines of anthropogenic aerosols in the 21st century from present-day levels would cause an additional warming of the Earth's climate system, which would aggravate the climate extremes caused by GHG warming. We examine the increased rate of precipitation extremes with global mean surface warming in the 21st century caused by anthropogenic GHGs and aerosols, using an Earth system model ensemble simulation. Similar to mean precipitation, the increased rate of precipitation extremes caused by aerosol forcing is significantly larger than that caused by GHG forcing. The aerosol forcing in the coming decades can play a critical role in inducing change in precipitation extremes if a lower GHG emission pathway is adopted. Our results have implications for policy-making on climate adaptation to extreme precipitation events.

  9. TDL based spectrometer for simultaneously monitoring local and column greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimchuk, A., Sr.; Semenov, V.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we present a concept of TDL based spectrometer for local and column greenhouse gases monitoring in particular for CO2, CH4, N2O and O2. The optical scheme of spectrometer's single gas monitoring channel is shown on the figure 1 for CO2 as an example. For each gas monitoring laser radiation is divided into four channels.One of the channels is used for monitoring CO2 abundance in the local atmosphere. This channel is presented by off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA ICOS). Mirrors with reflection coefficient R~99.99% are used in order to achieve effective optical path equal to 1500 meters for high precision CO2 monitoring. Measurements will be conducted at a pressure of 100 milibar and a compact diaphragm pump will be used. Reference gas spectra will be used for diode laser frequency stabilization. These spectra will be recorded in specified channel, which is also based on OA ICOS technique. Mirrors reflection coefficients are equal to ~99% in this case. A frequency scale calibration will be provided by Fabry-Perot (FP) ethanol in third channel. The same FP-ethanol will be used for each gas measurements. The last channel is presented by heterodyne spectroscopy and will be used for average column and vertical profiling measurements of greenhouse gases. The intermediate frequency bandwidth is 10 MHz. The spectral coverage is provided by laser wavelength sweep with 100 kHz frequency. Signal registration will be carried out by high-speed electronics without principal nonlinear elements in analog signal path. Present concept incorporates channels for local and column monitoring of CO2 (1.605μ), CH4 (1.65μ), O2 (1.27μ), N2O (2.25μ) and can be easily extended to H2O (1.39μ), CO (2.33μ), etc. measurements.

  10. On Road Study of Colorado Front Range Greenhouse Gases Distribution and Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petron, G.; Hirsch, A.; Trainer, M. K.; Karion, A.; Kofler, J.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A.; Kolodzey, W.; Miller, B. R.; Miller, L.; Montzka, S. A.; Kitzis, D. R.; Patrick, L.; Frost, G. J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Robers, J. M.; Tans, P.

    2008-12-01

    The Global Monitoring Division and Chemical Sciences Division of the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory have teamed up over the summer 2008 to experiment with a new measurement strategy to characterize greenhouse gases distribution and sources in the Colorado Front Range. Combining expertise in greenhouse gases measurements and in local to regional scales air quality study intensive campaigns, we have built the 'Hybrid Lab'. A continuous CO2 and CH4 cavity ring down spectroscopic analyzer (Picarro, Inc.), a CO gas-filter correlation instrument (Thermo Environmental, Inc.) and a continuous UV absorption ozone monitor (2B Technologies, Inc., model 202SC) have been installed securely onboard a 2006 Toyota Prius Hybrid vehicle with an inlet bringing in outside air from a few meters above the ground. To better characterize point and distributed sources, air samples were taken with a Portable Flask Package (PFP) for later multiple species analysis in the lab. A GPS unit hooked up to the ozone analyzer and another one installed on the PFP kept track of our location allowing us to map measured concentrations on the driving route using Google Earth. The Hybrid Lab went out for several drives in the vicinity of the NOAA Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) tall tower located in Erie, CO and covering areas from Boulder, Denver, Longmont, Fort Collins and Greeley. Enhancements in CO2, CO and destruction of ozone mainly reflect emissions from traffic. Methane enhancements however are clearly correlated with nearby point sources (landfill, feedlot, natural gas compressor ...) or with larger scale air masses advected from the NE Colorado, where oil and gas drilling operations are widespread. The multiple species analysis (hydrocarbons, CFCs, HFCs) of the air samples collected along the way bring insightful information about the methane sources at play. We will present results of the analysis and interpretation of the Hybrid Lab Front Range Study and conclude with perspectives

  11. Increased soil emissions of potent greenhouse gases under increased atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Osenberg, Craig W; Hungate, Bruce A

    2011-07-13

    Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) can affect biotic and abiotic conditions in soil, such as microbial activity and water content. In turn, these changes might be expected to alter the production and consumption of the important greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and methane (CH(4)) (refs 2, 3). However, studies on fluxes of N(2)O and CH(4) from soil under increased atmospheric CO(2) have not been quantitatively synthesized. Here we show, using meta-analysis, that increased CO(2) (ranging from 463 to 780 parts per million by volume) stimulates both N(2)O emissions from upland soils and CH(4) emissions from rice paddies and natural wetlands. Because enhanced greenhouse-gas emissions add to the radiative forcing of terrestrial ecosystems, these emissions are expected to negate at least 16.6 per cent of the climate change mitigation potential previously predicted from an increase in the terrestrial carbon sink under increased atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. Our results therefore suggest that the capacity of land ecosystems to slow climate warming has been overestimated.

  12. Comment on "Radiative forcings for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases" by Byrne and Goldblatt (2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Kochanov, R. V.; Gordon, I. E.; Rothman, L. S.; Sharpe, S. W.; Johnson, T. J.; Sams, R. L.

    2015-08-25

    In the recent article by Byrne and Goldblatt, "Radiative forcing for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases", Clim. Past. 10, 1779–1801 (2014), the authors employ the HITRAN2012 spectroscopic database to evaluate the radiative forcing of 28 Archean gases. As part of the evaluation of the status of the spectroscopy of these gases in the selected spectral region (50–1800 cm-1), the cross sections generated from the HITRAN line-by-line parameters were compared with those of the PNNL database of experimental cross sections recorded at moderate resolution. The authors claimed that for NO2, HNO3, H2CO, H2O2, HCOOH, C2H4, CH3OH and CH3Br there exist large or sometimes severe disagreements between the databases. In this work we show that for only three of these eight gases a modest discrepancy does exist between the two databases and we explain the origin of the differences. For the other five gases, the disagreements are not nearly at the scale suggested by the authors, while we explain some of the differences that do exist. In summary, the agreement between the HITRAN and PNNL databases is very good, although not perfect. Typically differences do not exceed 10 %, provided that HITRAN data exist for the bands/wavelengths of interest. It appears that a molecule-dependent combination of errors has affected the conclusions of the authors. In at least one case it appears that they did not take the correct file from PNNL (N2O4 (dimer)+ NO2 was used in place of the monomer). Finally, cross sections of HO2 from HITRAN (which do not have a PNNL counterpart) were not calculated correctly in BG, while in the case of HF misleading discussion was presented there based on the confusion by foreign or noise features in the experimental PNNL spectra.

  13. Greenhouse gases measurements in road tunnel in São Paulo Megacity, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaro, A.; Andrade, M. F.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Galichio, W.; Astolfo, R.; Miranda, R. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is the richest area in Brazil and is one of the largest megacities in the world, with more than 20 million inhabitants. The fleet, with more than 7 million vehicles, is unique in that most are fueled by ethanol or by a gasoline-ethanol (flex-fuel vehicles) mixture containing 75-78% gasoline (by volume) and 22-25% ethanol (a blend referred to as gasohol). Nowadays, approximately 50% of the fuel burned by the fleet is ethanol. The vehicular emissions are responsible for approximately 98, 97, and 96%, respectively, of all emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). In addition, the fleet is the largest source of CO2 emissions in the MASP. The goal is to evaluate of the vehicles emissions of the pollutants and greenhouse gases (CH4 and CO2) in the MASP. The gases carbon dioxide and methane were carried out by Picarro G2301 Analyzer for CO2/CH4/H2O in air. Field measurements were carried out in two road tunnels within the MASP: May 2 to 13, 2011 in the Janio Quadros (JQ) tunnel and from July 04 to 19, 2011 in the Rodoanel (RA) tunnel. The JQ tunnel is located in the southwest portion of São Paulo. It is a two-lane tunnel that is 1900 m in length, and the traffic in both lanes flows in the same directions. The in-tunnel emissions are mainly from gasohol- and ethanol-powered vehicles. The RA tunnel is located in the West portion of the city and different from JQ tunnel. It is 1700m in length and carries gasohol, ethanol and diesel powered vehicles, being that approximately 40% of the heavy-duty (burning diesel) in its four-lane. The results showed that the effects of the number and velocity of the vehicles in the variability of greenhouse gases and pollutants. The carbon dioxide reaching the hourly maximum value of 550 ppm in-inside the JQ tunnel, and 900 ppm in-side the RA tunnel.

  14. Greenhouse Gases Emission from Land Application of Swine Waste Water: A Comparison of Three Different Swine Slurry Application Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural activities (including land application of animal manures) account for about 20% of the total human induced global warming budget due to emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Recently, there has been an increasing emphasis on controlling these emissions from livestock operations. One of...

  15. Evaluation of photo-acoustic infrared multigas analyzer in measuring concentrations of greenhouse gases emitted from feedlot soil/manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Photo-acoustic infrared multigas analyzers (PIMAs) are being increasingly utilized to measure concentrations and fluxes of greenhouse gases (i.e., N2O, CO2, and CH4) at the soil surface because of their low cost, portability, and ease of operation. This research evaluated a PIMA in combination with ...

  16. Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land-Use Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searchinger, Timothy; Heimlich, Ralph; Houghton, R. A.; Dong, Fengxia; Elobeid, Amani; Fabiosa, Jacinto; Tokgoz, Simla; Hayes, Dermot; Yu, Tun-Hsiang

    2008-02-01

    Most prior studies have found that substituting biofuels for gasoline will reduce greenhouse gases because biofuels sequester carbon through the growth of the feedstock. These analyses have failed to count the carbon emissions that occur as farmers worldwide respond to higher prices and convert forest and grassland to new cropland to replace the grain (or cropland) diverted to biofuels. By using a worldwide agricultural model to estimate emissions from land-use change, we found that corn-based ethanol, instead of producing a 20% savings, nearly doubles greenhouse emissions over 30 years and increases greenhouse gases for 167 years. Biofuels from switchgrass, if grown on U.S. corn lands, increase emissions by 50%. This result raises concerns about large biofuel mandates and highlights the value of using waste products.

  17. Definition of yearly emission factor of dust and greenhouse gases through continuous measurements in swine husbandry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Annamaria; Guarino, Marcella

    The object of this study was to develop an accurate estimation method to evaluate the contribution of the various compartments of swine husbandry to dust and GHG (greenhouse gases, CO 2, CH 4 and N 2O) emission into the atmosphere during one year of observation. A weaning, a gestation, a farrowing and a fattening room in an intensive pig house were observed in three different periods (Autumn-Winter, Springtime and Summer, monitoring at least 60% of each period (20% at the beginning, in the middle and at the end) of each cycle). During monitoring, live weight, average live weight gain, number of animals and its variation, type of feed and feeding time were taken into account to evaluate their influence on PM 10, or the fraction of suspended particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 μm [Emission Inventory Guidebook, 2007. B1100 Particle Emissions from Animal Husbandry Activities. Available from: (accessed October 2008)] and to define GHG emission. The selected piggery had a ventilation control system using a free running impeller to monitor continuously real-time environmental and management parameters with an accuracy of 5%. PM 10 concentration was monitored by a sampler (Haz Dust EPAM 5000), either continuously or through traditional gravimetric technique, and the mean value of dust amount collected on the membranes was utilized as a correction factor to be applied to continuously collected data. PM 10 concentration amount incoming from inlets was removed from PM 10 emission calculation, to estimate the real contribution of pig house dust pollution into atmosphere. Mean yearly emission factor of PM 10 was measured in 2 g d -1 LU -1 for the weaning room, 0.09 g d -1 LU -1 for the farrowing room, 2.59 g d -1 LU -1 for the fattening room and 1.23 g d -1 LU -1 for the gestation room. The highest PM 10 concentration and emission per LU was recorded in the fattening compartment

  18. InGOS - a FP7 Infrastructure project for non-CO2 greenhouse gas Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeulen, A. T.; Hensen, A.; Bleeker, A.

    2012-04-01

    InGOS is an EU funded IA (Integrating Activities) project targeted at improving and extending the European observation capacity for non-CO2 greenhouse gases. The project will run from October 2011 to September 2015. InGOS is coordinated by ECN and involves 34 partners from 15 countries. There is a big need to support and integrate the observing capacity of Europe on non-CO2 greenhouse gases. The emissions of these gases are very uncertain and it is unknown how future climate change will feedback into these (mainly land use coupled) emissions. The InGOS infrastructure project will work on standardizing the measurements, strengthen the existing observation sites into supersites, capacity building in new member states, and prepare for integration of the network with other networks already in place or currently being set up (e.g. ICOS). Attribution of source categories by using advanced isotope techniques and data-assimilation methods using high resolution transport model will be an integral part of the network to allow design and evaluation of the measurements and will link the network to remote sensing data and bottom up inventory developments.

  19. The contribution of drained organic soils to the globally emitted greenhouse gases and emission hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthelmes, Alexandra; Couwenberg, John; Joosten, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Key words: organic soils, peatlands, drainage, emissions, globally Peatlands cover only 3% of the global land surface. Some 15% of these peatlands have been drained for agriculture, forestry and grazing, which leads to the release of huge amounts of carbon. The '2013 Supplement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Wetlands' (IPCC 2014) offers up-to-date default emission factors for different land use types on organic soil and thus enables proper reporting. For this, realistic area data of drained organic soils are needed at a national scale. We analysed the drained organic soil areas and related emissions as reported to the UNFCCC in 2014 for several Nordic-Baltic countries . The analysis revealed that the areas often seem to be underestimated and that several countries use outdated emission factors. The re-assessment of the drained area and the application of the IPCC (2014) default emission factors resulted in 5-10 x higher emissions from drained organic soils for some countries. Out of 9 Nordic-Baltic countries only 1 country seems to have overestimated the drainage related organic soil emissions. If adopting the default emission factors from IPCC (2014) globally, the emissions from drained and degrading organic soils (~ 1,600 Mt CO2-eq.) amount to almost double the amount of CO2 emissions from aviation, even when emissions from peat fires are not included . By far the top single emitter of drained peatland related greenhouse gases is Indonesia, followed by the European Union and Russia. 25 countries are together responsible for 95% of global emissions from peatland drainage, excluding fires. Fires raise the importance of particularly Indonesia and Russian Federation. In 25 countries emissions from peatland degradation are over 50% of the emissions from fossil fuels and cement production combined, hence peatland emissions are of national significance.

  20. Wood decomposition in Amazonian hydropower reservoirs: An additional source of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abril, Gwenaël; Parize, Marcelo; Pérez, Marcela A. P.; Filizola, Naziano

    2013-07-01

    Amazonian hydroelectric reservoirs produce abundant carbon dioxide and methane from large quantities of flooded biomass that decompose anaerobically underwater. Emissions are extreme the first years after impounding and progressively decrease with time. To date, only water-to-air fluxes have been considered in these estimates. Here, we investigate in two Amazonian reservoirs (Balbina and Petit Saut) the fate of above water standing dead trees, by combining a qualitative analysis of wood state and density through time and a quantitative analysis of the biomass initially flooded. Dead wood was much more decomposed in the Balbina reservoir 23 years after flooding than in the Petit Saut reservoir 10 years after flooding. Termites apparently played a major role in wood decomposition, occurring mainly above water, and resulting in a complete conversion of this carbon biomass into CO2 and CH4 at a timescale much shorter than reservoir operation. The analysis of pre-impounding wood biomass reveals that above-water decomposition in Amazonian reservoirs is a large, previously unrecognized source of carbon emissions to the atmosphere, representing 26-45% of the total reservoir flux integrated over 100 years. Accounting for both below- and above-water fluxes, we could estimate that each km2 of Amazonian forest converted to reservoir would emit over 140 Gg CO2-eq in 100 years. Hydropower plants in the Amazon should thus generate 0.25-0.4 MW h per km2 flooded area to produce lower greenhouse gas emissions than gas power plants. They also have the disadvantage to emit most of their greenhouse gases the earliest years of operation.

  1. Spatial mapping of greenhouse gases using laser absorption spectrometers at local scales of interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobler, Jeremy; Zaccheo, T. S.; Blume, Nathan; Braun, Michael; Botos, Chris; Pernini, Timothy G.

    2015-10-01

    Over the past two years a new system capable of measuring the 2-D spatial distribution of atmospheric CO2 over areas on the order of 1 km2 and time scales of a few minutes, has been developed and demonstrated. The Greenhouse gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE) - developed under a cooperative agreement with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - attempts to improve monitoring capabilities of Ground Carbon Storage (GCS) sites. GreenLITE sensors are based on an intensity modulated continuous wave (IM-CW) approach developed at ITT (now part of Harris Corp.) in 2004. The GreenLITE system recently completed a remote deployment of nearly 4,000 hours at a GCS site in Illinois. It provided continuous, real-time spatial distribution maps of CO2 via an open web-based interface from February to August 2015. In early 2015 we began work on a new implementation of GreenLITE capable of providing similar measurements over a 25 km2 area and are planning to test the system over a 5 km range late summer 2015. If successful the system will be deployed in an urban environment late 2015, demonstrating the utility of real-time 2-D spatial mapping of CO2 concentrations at this scale. This paper will review the concept for this new measurement capability, including results from the 1 km system. Ultimately, the measurement concept can be adapted to other greenhouse gases such as CH4 and NO2.

  2. Aerosol lidar observations of atmospheric mixing in Los Angeles: Climatology and implications for greenhouse gas observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, John; Kort, Eric A.; DeCola, Phil; Duren, Riley

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric observations of greenhouse gases provide essential information on sources and sinks of these key atmospheric constituents. To quantify fluxes from atmospheric observations, representation of transport—especially vertical mixing—is a necessity and often a source of error. We report on remotely sensed profiles of vertical aerosol distribution taken over a 2 year period in Pasadena, California. Using an automated analysis system, we estimate daytime mixing layer depth, achieving high confidence in the afternoon maximum on 51% of days with profiles from a Sigma Space Mini Micropulse LiDAR (MiniMPL) and on 36% of days with a Vaisala CL51 ceilometer. We note that considering ceilometer data on a logarithmic scale, a standard method, introduces, an offset in mixing height retrievals. The mean afternoon maximum mixing height is 770 m Above Ground Level in summer and 670 m in winter, with significant day-to-day variance (within season σ = 220m≈30%). Taking advantage of the MiniMPL's portability, we demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the detailed horizontal structure of the mixing layer by automobile. We compare our observations to planetary boundary layer (PBL) heights from sonde launches, North American regional reanalysis (NARR), and a custom Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model developed for greenhouse gas (GHG) monitoring in Los Angeles. NARR and WRF PBL heights at Pasadena are both systematically higher than measured, NARR by 2.5 times; these biases will cause proportional errors in GHG flux estimates using modeled transport. We discuss how sustained lidar observations can be used to reduce flux inversion error by selecting suitable analysis periods, calibrating models, or characterizing bias for correction in post processing.

  3. Export of Greenhouse Gases Across the Soil/Stream Interface in a Boreal Headwater Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oquist, M. G.; Bishop, K. H.; Laudon, H.; Klemedtsson, L.; Nilsson, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    Lateral export of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from groundwater to surface waters is often poorly quantified in GHG budgets of terrestrial ecosystems, including boreal forests. The importance of lateral CO2 export through groundwater for net ecosystem carbon balances is becoming increasingly evident. However, riparian zones in the boreal landscape often exhibit redox characteristics that promote production also of N2O and CH4, that may reach surface waters and add to the total GHG emissions. We estimate annual and seasonal groundwater export of CO2, N2O and CH4 from a boreal forested catchment (11.9 ha) draining into a 1st order stream and quantify the total emission of greenhouse gases across the soil/stream interface. We present annual GHG export for two years, one with annual discharge close to the long-term average and one when discharge was twice as high. During the year with normal discharge export of CO2, N2O and CH4 were 12.3, 0.0015, and 0.00014 g m-2 year-1, respectively, while the export during the wet year was 14.9, 0.001 and 0.0001 g m-2 year-1. In terms of CO2 equivalents the GHG export was dominated by CO2, 96% and 91% for the normal and we year, respectively. Corresponding contributions for N2O were 4% and 9%, respectively, while export of CH4 was <0.1% during both years. While the export of CO2 was evenly distributed between the growing season and the non-growing season, most of the N2O and CH4 export occurred during the non-growing season. Through measurements of groundwater nitrate concentrations the validity of the existing IPCC emission factor EF5-g for N2O emissions was tested. It showed that this emission factor underestimates actual groundwater N2O emissions from the catchment by 2-3 orders of magnitude.

  4. Emission Inventory of Halogenated greenhouse gases in China during 1980-2050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, X.; Velders, G. J. M.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Molina, M.; Su, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhou, X.; Hu, J.; Prinn, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    China is currently the largest producer and consumer of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) which are regulated by the Montreal Protocol (MP). Many ODSs are also powerful greenhouse gases (GHGs). The Multilateral Fund has subsidized ~1 billion US dollars for the ODS phase out in China, and thus the return on this investment is of great interest. This study gives a comprehensive emission inventory in China from 1980 to 2013 of halocarbons including ODSs and their alternatives, the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) that are also greenhouse gases. We then project these emissions up to 2050 according to the MP and several policy options. Total emissions of ODS and HFCs were estimated to be ~500 CO2-eq Tg/yr in 2013 which are equivalent to ~5% of total GHG emissions in China including fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Our estimate shows that China has succeeded in substantially reducing CFC-11-equivalent emissions (to protect the ozone layer), and CO2-equivalent emissions (to protect climate) of ODSs since the mid-1990s when their phase out started in China in compliance with the MP. Furthermore, the avoided CO2-eq emissions due to compliance with the MP are even greater compared to the reduced emissions, for example net cumulative avoided emissions during 19 year period between 1995-2013 are comparable to the current one year CO2 emissions from fossil fuels in China. We find that HFC CO2-eq emissions increased rapidly in last decade, which make up ~2% in 2005 to ~20% of total halocarbon CO2-eq emissions in 2013. Under a baseline scenario in which HFCs are used as alternatives in the ongoing phase out of HCFCs in China, emissions of HFCs are predicted to be important components of both China's and global future GHG emissions. However, potential exists for minimizing China's HFC emissions under mitigation scenarios. Our conclusions about China's past and future ODS and HFC emission trajectories are likely to apply to other developing countries, with important implications for mitigating

  5. A new method for estimating greenhouse gases and ammonia emissions from livestock buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrancos, José; Briz, Susana; Nolasco, Dácil; Melián, Gladys; Padilla, Germán; Padrón, Eleazar; Fernández, Isabel; Pérez, Nemesio; Hernández, Pedro A.

    2013-08-01

    It is widely known that carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the main greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. Emission factors for the aforementioned gases have been proposed in order to calculate the contribution of livestock farming to global climate change. However, these emission factors depend on many additional factors such as the housing system, environmental conditions, etc., which implies some uncertainties in their estimation. Therefore, works that aim at improving experimental calculation of these emissions are crucial to provide reliable estimates of the emissions produced by livestock. The purpose of this work was to apply a new methodology inspired by the accumulation chamber method to estimate emission rates from livestock buildings. The work was based on measuring the increase of gas emissions inside the livestock building by means of the remote sensing technique Open-Path FTIR (OP-FTIR). Previously to the measurements, livestock building cattle was confined outside of the building. Utilization of fan ventilation system favoured the homogenization of air inside the building. This experiment proved that evolution of CH4 and CO2 concentrations inside the livestock building behaved like an accumulation chamber unlike the N2O which did not show such behaviour. Results showed CH4, CO2 and NH3 emissions of 167 ± 54,700 ± 200 and 1.3 ± 0.2 kg head-1 year-1, respectively. One of the main parameters affecting the estimated emission factors is the type of animal feeding. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the influence of food composition on CH4 and CO2 emission in a relative larger number of operating cattle buildings since the methodology herein proposed is an easy and cheap tool to study livestock emission factors and their variability.

  6. Evaluation of different techniques to control hydrogen sulfide and greenhouse gases from animal production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Dhan Prasad

    The livestock manure management sector is one of the prime sources for the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and other pollutant gases such as ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which may affect the human health, animal welfare, and the environment. So, worldwide investigations are going on to mitigate these gaseous emissions. The overall objective of this research was to investigate different approaches (dietary manipulation and nanotechnology) for mitigating the gaseous emissions from livestock manure system. A field study was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary proteins (12 and 16%) and fat levels (3 to 5.5%) fed to beef cattle on gaseous emission (methane-CH4, nitrous oxide-N2O, carbon dioxide-CO 2 and hydrogen sulfide-H2S) from the pen surface. To evaluate the effects of different nanoparticles (zinc oxide-nZnO; and zirconium-nZrO 2) on these gaseous emissions from livestock manure stored under anaerobic conditions, laboratory studies were conducted with different treatments (control, bare NPs, NPs entrapped alginate beads applying freely and keeping in bags, and used NPs entrapped alginate beads). Field studies showed no significant differences in the GHG and H2S emissions from the manure pen surface. Between nZnO and nZrO2, nZnO outperformed the nZrO2 in terms of gases production and concentration reduction from both swine and dairy liquid manure. Application of nZnO at a rate of 3 g L-1 showed up to 82, 78, 40 and 99% reduction on total gas production, CH 4, CO2 and H2S concentrations, respectively. The effectiveness of nZnO entrapped alginate (alginate-nZnO) beads was statistically lower than the bare nZnO, but both of them were very effective in reducing gas production and concentrations. These gaseous reductions were likely due to combination of microbial inhibition of microorganisms and chemical conversion during the treatment, which was confirmed by microbial plate count, SEM-EDS, and XPS analysis. However

  7. Long open path Fourier transform spectroscopy measurements of greenhouse gases in the near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, David; Pöhler, Denis; Schmidt, Stefan; Hammer, Samuel; Vardag, Sanam; Levin, Ingeborg; Platt, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric composition measurements are an important tool to quantify local and regional emissions and sinks of greenhouse gases. But how representative are in situ measurements at one point in an inhomogeneous environment? Open path Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (FTS) measurements potentially offer spatial averaging and continuous measurements of several trace gases (including CO2, CH4, CO and N2O) simultaneously in the same airmass. Spatial averaging over kilometre scales is a better fit to the finest scale atmospheric models becoming available, and helps bridge the gap between models and in situ measurements. With what precision, accuracy and reliability can such measurements be made? Building on our pooled experience in ground-level open path Fourier transform spectroscopy and TCCON solar FTS in the infrared (Wollongong) and long path DOAS techniques in the UV-visible (Heidelberg), we set up a new type of open path measurement system across a 1.5 km one-way path in urban Heidelberg, Germany, using FTS in the near infrared. Direct open-atmosphere measurements of trace gases CO2, CH4, CO and N2O as well as O2 were retrieved from several absorption bands between 4000 and 8000 cm-1 (2.5 - 1.25 micron). At one end of the path an in situ FTIR analyser simultaneously collected well calibrated measurements of the same species for comparison with the open path-integrated measurements. The measurements ran continuously from June - November 2014. We introduce the open path FTS measurement system and present an analysis of the results, including assessment of precision, accuracy relative to co-incident in situ measurements, reliability, and avenues for further improvements and extensions. Short term precision of the open path measurement of CO2 was better than 1 ppm for 5 minute averages and thus sufficient for studies in urban and other non-background environments. Measurement bias relative to calibrated in situ measurements was stable across the measurement period. The

  8. Influence of nuclear power unit on decreasing emissions of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanek, Wojciech; Szargut, Jan; Kolenda, Zygmunt; Czarnowska, Lucyna

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents a comparison of selected power technologies from the point of view of emissions of greenhouse gases. Such evaluation is most often based only on analysis of direct emissions from combustion. However, the direct analysis does not show full picture of the problem as significant emissions of GHG appear also in the process of mining and transportation of fuel. It is demonstrated in the paper that comparison of power technologies from the GHG point of view has to be done using the cumulative calculus covering the whole cycle of fuel mining, processing, transportation and end-use. From this point of view coal technologies are in comparable level as gas technologies while nuclear power units are characterised with lowest GHG emissions. Mentioned technologies are compared from the point of view of GHG emissions in full cycle. Specific GHG cumulative emission factors per unit of generated electricity are determined. These factors have been applied to simulation of the influence of introduction of nuclear power units on decrease of GHG emissions in domestic scale. Within the presented simulations the prognosis of domestic power sector development according to the Polish energy policy till 2030 has been taken into account. The profitability of introduction of nuclear power units from the point of view of decreasing GHG emissions has been proved.

  9. Advances in data processing for open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry of greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Shao, Limin; Griffiths, Peter R; Leytem, April B

    2010-10-01

    The automated quantification of three greenhouse gases, ammonia, methane, and nitrous oxide, in the vicinity of a large dairy farm by open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP/FT-IR) spectrometry at intervals of 5 min is demonstrated. Spectral pretreatment, including the automated detection and correction of the effect of interrupting the infrared beam, is by a moving object, and the automated correction for the nonlinear detector response is applied to the measured interferograms. Two ways of obtaining quantitative data from OP/FT-IR data are described. The first, which is installed in a recently acquired commercial OP/FT-IR spectrometer, is based on classical least-squares (CLS) regression, and the second is based on partial least-squares (PLS) regression. It is shown that CLS regression only gives accurate results if the absorption features of the analytes are located in very short spectral intervals where lines due to atmospheric water vapor are absent or very weak; of the three analytes examined, only ammonia fell into this category. On the other hand, PLS regression works allowed what appeared to be accurate results to be obtained for all three analytes.

  10. Environmental hazards and health risk of common liquid perfluoro-n-alkanes, potent greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2009-02-01

    This article aimed at introducing the main physical properties and commercial/industrial uses of common liquid perfluoro-n-alkanes (including perfluoropentane, perfluorohexane, perfluoroheptane, perfluorooctane, and perfluorononane) and the environment and health hazards posed by their toxic decomposition products (especially in hydrogen fluoride and perfluoroisobutylene) because these perfluorocompounds are potent greenhouse gases, which have been blanketed into the Kyoto Protocol, but was rarely described in the National Inventory Reports by Annex I Parties. The environmental properties (including octanol-water partition coefficient, water solubility and Henry's law constant) of liquid perfluoro-n-alkanes were evaluated, and further discussed were its atmospheric implications according to the predicted properties and possible proposal for the formation of trifluoroacetic acid (CF(3)COOH) in the atmosphere by the ionized photolysis. These predicted values revealed that liquid perfluoro-n-alkanes tend to be hydrophobic and partitioned into organic matter, and they have exceptionally low solubility in water and extremely high vaporization from the water bodies, suggesting that it will sink into the atmosphere if it is released into the environment.

  11. Counteracting the climate effects of volcanic eruptions using short-lived greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samset, B. H.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Shine, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    A large volcanic eruption might constitute a climate emergency, significantly altering global temperature and precipitation for several years. Major future eruptions will occur, but their size or timing cannot be predicted. How could global society prepare for, and react to, such emergencies? One possibility is deliberate, coordinated emissions of short-lived greenhouse gases, along a pathway designed to match the climate responses to the eruption. We estimate such an emission pathway, countering a hypothetical eruption three times the size of Mt Pinatubo in 1991. Using a global climate model to evaluate global and regional responses to the eruption, with and without counter emissions, we show that it may be possible to counteract its climate effects, significantly dampening the abrupt impact of the eruption. We then raise practical, financial and ethical aspects related to such a strategy. Designed emissions to counter temporary global cooling would not have the disadvantages associated with more commonly discussed geoengineering to avoid long-term warming. Nevertheless, implementation would still face significant challenges.

  12. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 1, Main text

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuchi, M.A.

    1991-11-01

    This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles.

  13. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuchi, M.A. )

    1991-11-01

    This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles.

  14. Greenhouse gases emissions from waste management practices using Life Cycle Inventory model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsao-Chou; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2008-06-30

    When exploring the correlation between municipal solid waste management and green house gas emission, the volume and physical composition of the waste matter must be taken into account. Due to differences in local environments and lifestyles the quantity and composition of waste often vary. This leads to differences in waste treatment methods and causes different volumes of greenhouse gases (GHGs), highlighting the need for local research. In this study the Life Cycle Inventory method was used with global warming indicator GHGs as the variables. By quantifying the data and adopting a region-based approach, this created a model of household MSWM in Taipei City, a metropolitan region in Taiwan. To allow analysis and comparison a compensatory system was then added to expand the system boundary. The results of the analysis indicated that out of all the solid waste management sub-models for a function unit, recycling was the most effective method for reducing GHG emissions while using kitchen food waste as swine feeding resulted in the most GHG emissions. As for the impact of waste collection vehicles on emissions, if the efficiency of transportation could be improved and energy consumption reduced, this will help solid waste management to achieve its goal of reducing GHG emissions.

  15. POTENTIAL OF GREENHOUSE GASES REDUCTION BY FUEL CROP CULTIVATION UTILIZING SEWAGE SLUDGE IN JAPAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Ryo; Fukushi, Kensuke

    Potential of greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction was estimated and compared in six scenarios of fuel crop cultivation by utilizing sewage sludge in Japan. Bioethanol from corn and biodiesel fuel from soybean was selected as biofuel produced. When all the sludge discharged from sewage treatment plants in 18 major cities was utilized for soybean cultivation and subsequent biodiesel fuel production, produced biofuel corresponded to 4.0% of GHG emitted from sewage treatment in Japan. On the other hand, cultivation area for fuel crop cultivation was found to be the regulating factor. When fuel crop was cultivated only in abandoned agricultural fields, produced biofuel corresponded to 0.60% and 0.62%, respectively, in the case that corn and soybean was cultivated. Production of biodiesel fuel from soybean was estimated to have more net reduction potential than bioehanol production from corn when sludge production is limited, because required sewage sludge compost was 2.5-times larger in corn although reduction potential per crop area was 2-times larger in bioethanol production from corn.

  16. The Role of Carbon Management Technologies in Addressing Atmospheric Stabilization of Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, James A. ); Freund, Paul F.; Dooley, James J. ); David Williams, Bob Durie, et. al.

    2002-08-10

    Recent progress in decarbonization processes and engineered storage systems for CO2, together with preliminary cost estimates for these technologies, indicate that capture and storage of CO2 will have a major role to play in achieving deep reductions in emissions. These technologies hold the potential to reduce the cost of stabilizing the concentration of greenhouse gases, the ultimate objective of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). Their value rises as the allowable level of cumulative carbon emissions declines. The value of these technologies is robust regardless of whether the world's economically recoverable oil and gas resources are eventually found to be large or small. This paper considers the economic implication of those advances in the context of long-term, global climate change mitigation strategies. This indicates the need for a broad, robust research and development strategy to reduce the cost of separating CO2 and to make accessible the widest range of storage reservoirs. It is also important to demonstrate excellent security of storage, in order to win public acceptance of the use of capture and storage techniques.

  17. Effect of the greenhouse gases (CO2, H2O, SO2) on Martian paleoclimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postawko, S. E.; Kuhn, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    There is general agreement that certain surface features on Mars are indicative of the presence of liquid water at various times in the geologic past. In particular, the valley networks are difficult to explain by a mechanism other than the flow of liquid water. It has been suggested in several studies that a thick CO2 atmosphere on Mars early in its history could have provided a greenhouse warming that would have allowed the flow of water either on the surface or just below the surface. However, this effect was examined with a detailed radiation model, and it was found that if reduced solar luminosity early in the history of the solar system is taken into account, even three bars of CO2 will not provide sufficient greeenhouse warming. The addition of water vapor and sulflur dioxide (both plausible gases that may have been emitted by Martian volcanoes) to the atmosphere also fail to warm the surface above 273 K for reduced solar luminosity conditions. The increase in temperature may be large enough, however, for the formation of these features by brines.

  18. Simulations of greenhouse trace gases using the Los Alamos chemical tracer model

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, C.Y.J.; Morz, E. ); Tie, X. )

    1991-11-01

    Through three-dimensional global model studies on atmospheric composition and transport, we are improving our quantitative understanding of the origins and behavior of trace gases that affect Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. We will focus, in this paper, on the simulations of three individual trace gases including CFC-11, methyl chloroform, and methane. We first used our chemical tracer model to study the global distribution and trend of chemically inert CFC-11 observed by the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment. The results show that the model has the ability to reproduce the time-series of the observations. The purpose of this CFC-11 simulation was to test the transport of the model. We then used to model introduce methyl chloroform into the atmosphere according to the known emission patterns and iteratively varied OH fields so that the observed concentrations of methyl chloroform from the observations could be simulated well. The rationale behind this approach is that the reaction with OH is the dominant sink for metyl chloroform and the transport of the model has been tested in the previous CFC-11 study. Finally, using the inferred OH distributions, we conducted a steady-state simulation to reproduce the current methane distribution. The general agreement between the modeled an observed methane surface concentrations has laid a foundation for the simulation of the transient increase of methane.

  19. Simulations of greenhouse trace gases using the Los Alamos chemical tracer model

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, C.Y.J.; Morz, E.; Tie, X.

    1991-11-01

    Through three-dimensional global model studies on atmospheric composition and transport, we are improving our quantitative understanding of the origins and behavior of trace gases that affect Earth`s radiative energy balance and climate. We will focus, in this paper, on the simulations of three individual trace gases including CFC-11, methyl chloroform, and methane. We first used our chemical tracer model to study the global distribution and trend of chemically inert CFC-11 observed by the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment. The results show that the model has the ability to reproduce the time-series of the observations. The purpose of this CFC-11 simulation was to test the transport of the model. We then used to model introduce methyl chloroform into the atmosphere according to the known emission patterns and iteratively varied OH fields so that the observed concentrations of methyl chloroform from the observations could be simulated well. The rationale behind this approach is that the reaction with OH is the dominant sink for metyl chloroform and the transport of the model has been tested in the previous CFC-11 study. Finally, using the inferred OH distributions, we conducted a steady-state simulation to reproduce the current methane distribution. The general agreement between the modeled an observed methane surface concentrations has laid a foundation for the simulation of the transient increase of methane.

  20. The increase of Southern Ocean winds and SAM: is it caused by the ozone hole or by increased greenhouse gases?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscoe, H. K.

    2010-12-01

    The amplitude of the Southern Annular Mode of variability in sea level pressure has increased significantly since station records began in the late 1950s. As expected, this has led to an increase in surface winds over the Southern Ocean in meteorological analyses. Roscoe & Haigh (2007), using data to 2006, showed that the increase in SAM correlated at high significance with both the ozone hole and the increase in greenhouse gases, but the correlation with the ozone hole was more significant. However, it was difficult to quantify the meaning of this greater significance because of the then similarity between the trends in greenhouse gases and the ozone hole - the esoteric statistical concepts associated with the Akaike Information Criterion had to be used. Now the trends have diverged significantly, so the update presented here allows us to quantify the greater degree of significance of the ozone hole, using the more familiar statistical method of Student’s t-test.

  1. Evaluating Changes in Organic C and Emission of Greenhouse Gases in a California Agricultural Landscape.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolston, D. E.; Hopmans, J. W.; van Kessel, C.; Six, J.; Paw U, K.; Plant, R. E.; Hsiao, T. C.; Poch, R. M.; Shaver, G.; Ideris, A. J.; Lee, J.; Louie, D. T.; MacIntyre, J. L.; Matista, T. A.; Evatt, K. J.; King, A. P.

    2005-12-01

    yield was 73% of that in the ST treatment. Patterns of soil texture, ground water movement, and treatment effects are being explored to help explain the yield gap and other spatial patterns in the data. Upcoming years of the project include continued monitoring of greenhouse gases and soil C dynamics in the two tillage systems, comparison of field data with DNDC and Daycent models, and economic evaluation of the two systems. These results will help provide a realistic assessment of the role CA agriculture can play in C sequestration when land is converted from standard to minimum tillage.

  2. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Sustainable ForestManagement: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye , Jayant; Makundi , Willy; Goldberg ,Beth; Andrasko , Ken; Sanchez , Arturo

    1997-07-01

    The International Workshop on Sustainable Forest Management: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases was held in San Jose, Costa Rica, July 29-31, 1996. The main objectives of the workshop were to: (1) assemble key practitioners of forestry greenhouse gas (GHG) or carbon offset projects, remote sensing of land cover change, guidelines development, and the forest products certification movement, to offer presentations and small group discussions on findings relevant to the crucial need for the development of guidelines for monitoring and verifying offset projects, and (2) disseminate the findings to interested carbon offset project developers and forestry and climate change policy makers, who need guidance and consistency of methods to reduce project transaction costs and increase probable reliability of carbon benefits, at appropriate venues. The workshop brought together about 45 participants from developed, developing, and transition countries. The participants included researchers, government officials, project developers, and staff from regional and international agencies. Each shared his or her perspectives based on experience in the development and use of methods for monitoring and verifying carbon flows from forest areas and projects. A shared sense among the participants was that methods for monitoring forestry projects are well established, and the techniques are known and used extensively, particularly in production forestry. Introducing climate change with its long-term perspective is often in conflict with the shorter-term perspective of most forestry projects and standard accounting principles. The resolution of these conflicts may require national and international agreements among the affected parties. The establishment of guidelines and protocols for better methods that are sensitive to regional issues will be an important first step to increase the credibility of forestry projects as viable mitigation options. The workshop deliberations led

  3. Emissions of greenhouse gases from agriculture, land-use change, and forestry in the Gambia.

    PubMed

    Jallow, B P

    1995-01-01

    The Gambia has successfully completed a national greenhouse gas emissions inventory based on the results of a study funded by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/Global Environment Facility (GEF) Country Case Study Program. The concepts of multisectoral, multidisciplinary, and interdisciplinary collaboration were most useful in the preparation of this inventory. New data were gathered during the study period, some through regional collaboration with institutions such as Environment and Development in the Third World (ENDA-TM) Energy Program and the Ecological Monitoring Center in Dakar, Senegal, and some through national surveys and the use of remote sensing techniques, as in the Bushfires Survey. Most of the data collected are used in this paper. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change/Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/International Energy Agency (IPCC/OECD/IEA) methodology is used to calculate greenhouse gas emissions. Many of the default data in the IPCC/OECD/IEA methodology have also been used. Overall results indicate that in the biomass sectors (agriculture, forestry, and land-use change) carbon dioxide (CO2) is emitted most, with a total of 1.7 Tg. This is followed by methane (CH4), 22.3 Gg; carbon monoxide (CO), 18.7 Gg; nitrogen oxides (NOx), 0.3 Gg; and nitrous oxide (N2O), 0.014 Gg. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) was used as an index to describe the relative effects of the various gases reported here. Based on the emissions in The Gambia in 1993, it was found that CO2 will contribute 75%, CH4 about 24.5%, and N2O 0.2% of the warming expected in the 100-year period beginning in 1993. The results in this analysis are limited by the shortcomings of the IPCC/OECD/IEA methodology and scarce national data. Because the methodology was developed outside of the developing world, most of its emissions factors and coefficients were developed and tested in environments that are very different from The Gambia. This is likely

  4. Climate-active Trace Gases from ACE Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, P. F.; Brown, A.; Harrison, J.; Chipperfield, M.; Boone, C.; Wilson, C.; Walker, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    ACE (also known as SCISAT) is making a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of more than 30 trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) gives ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. A high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4400 cm-1) is measuring the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. Launched by NASA in August 2003 for a nominal two-year mission, ACE performance remains excellent after 8 years in orbit. Volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles of sixteen halogenated trace gases are routinely retrieved from ACE-FTS atmospheric spectra: CCl4, CF4, CCl3F (CFC-11), CCl2F2 (CFC-12), C2Cl3F3 (CFC-113), CH3Cl, ClONO2, COF2, COCl2, COClF, CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3CCl2F (HCFC-141b), CH3CClF2 (HCFC-142b), HCl, HF and SF6. ACE also provides VMR profiles for CH4, N2O and OCS; HCFC-23 (CHF3) is a recent research product. ACE-FTS measurements were compared to surface measurements made by the AGAGE network and output from the SLIMCAT three-dimensional (3-D) chemical transport model, which is constrained by similar surface data. ACE-FTS measurements of CFCs (and HCl) show declining trends which agree with both AGAGE and SLIMCAT values. The concentrations of HCFCs are increasing with ACE-FTS, SLIMCAT and AGAGE all showing positive trends. These results illustrate the success of the Montreal Protocol in reducing ozone depleting substances. The replacement of CFCs with HCFCs has led to an increase in the VMR of HF in the stratosphere. As chlorine containing compounds continue to be phased out and replaced by fluorine-containing molecules, it is likely that total atmospheric fluorine will continue increasing in the near future. These species are all powerful greenhouse gases. ACE provides near global VMR

  5. [The research on the law of greenhouse gases emission from warm temperate forest soils in Beijing region].

    PubMed

    Du, Rui; Huang, Jian-hui; Wan, Xiao-wei; Jia, Yue-hui

    2004-03-01

    In situ measurements by closed chamber technique were done to investigate the law of greenhouse gases (Methane, carbon dioxide and Nitrous Oxide) fluxes emission from different warm temperate forest soils (Broad-leaved forest, Form. Quercus liaotungensis and Form. Pinus tabulae) of Dongling mountain in Beijing region. Results show that the all representative types forest soils were sink of CH4 and source of CO2 and N2O. Different type of vegetables and soils result of different fluxes range of the main greenhouse gases. The fluxes range of CH4, CO2 and N2O emission from the three types forest soils were: 42-103 micrograms/(m2.h), 15-344 mg/(m2.h) and -61-101 micrograms/(m2.h); 13-182 micrograms CH4/m2.h, 23-380 mg/(m2.h) and -15-183 micrograms/(m2.h); 12-128 ug CH4/m2.h, 15-292 mg/(m2.h) and -94-153 micrograms/(m2.h); respectively. The mean fluxes of CH4, CO2 and N2O emission from the three types forest soils during the observation period were: -66 micrograms/(m2.h), 145 mg/(m2.h) and 22 micrograms/(m2.h); -67 micrograms/(m2.h), 146 mg/(m2.h) and 45 micrograms/(m2.h); -79 micrograms/(m2.h), 150 mg/(m2.h) and 31 micrograms/(m2.h), respectively. The total amounts of CH4 CO2 and N2O emission from the three types forest soils were -5.34 kg/(hm2.a), 13.9 Mg/(hm2.a) and 2.58 kg/(hm2.a); -6.20 kg/(hm2.a), 14.07 Mg/(hm2.a) and 4.19 kg/(hm2.a); -6.85 kg/(hm2.a), 15.71 Mg/(hm2.a) and 4.30 kg/(hm2.a), respectively.

  6. Interaction of biochar and organic residues from sugarcane industry in soil chemical attributes and greenhouse gases emissions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernanda Abbruzzini, Thalita; Feola Conz, Rafaela; Pellegrino Cerri, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Researchers have highlighted the importance of providing soil quality in agricultural systems, besides mitigating greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions to the atmosphere and increasing soil carbon sequestration. Therefore, several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of biochar as a soil conditioner, both in relation to increased C sequestration and improvements in soil chemical, physical and biological attributes, resulting in better conditions for plant growth. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of applying biochar produced from sugarcane straw to soils in relation to changes in soil chemical attributes and mitigation of greenhouse gases emissions into the atmosphere. To do so, we conducted a laboratory incubation under controlled environmental conditions (ie temperature and humidity) with and without the application of filter cake and vinasse (ie organic residues from sugarcane industry) and rates of biochar application (0, 10, 20 and 50 Mg ha-1). The fluxes of CO2, N2O and CH4 of each incubation unity were measured periodically (in days 1, 2, 5, 9, 13, 16, 20, 24, 28, 30, 47, 60, 91, 105, 123, 130, 138 and 150). Each treatment consisted of eight replicates with destructive samples evaluated at 30, 60, 90 and 150 days after incubation to characterize the chemical attributes of the incubated soil, besides GHG (CO2, N2O and CH4) emissions. In general, there was an increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes over time due to the application of filter cake and vinasse and increasing dose of biochar. Regarding nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, there was an increase of 82.35% with the application of vinasse and filter cake compared to the control treatment. However, different doses of biochar (10, 20 and 50 Mg ha-1) reduced N2O emissions by 29, 38.7 and 70.9%, respectively. The methane (CH4) flux was negligible in all treatments. We observed improvements in soil chemical attributes, such as higher pH, a substantial increase in the soil CEC, reduced exchangeable

  7. Greenhouse gases emission from soils under major crops in Northwest India.

    PubMed

    Jain, N; Arora, P; Tomer, R; Mishra, Shashi Vind; Bhatia, A; Pathak, H; Chakraborty, D; Kumar, Vinod; Dubey, D S; Harit, R C; Singh, J P

    2016-01-15

    Quantification of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions from agriculture is necessary to prepare the national inventories and to develop the mitigation strategies. Field experiments were conducted during 2008-2010 at the experimental farm of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India to quantify nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soils under cereals, pulses, millets, and oilseed crops. Total cumulative N2O emissions were significantly different (P>0.05) among the crop types. Emission of N2O as percentage of applied N was the highest in pulses (0.67%) followed by oilseeds (0.55%), millets (0.43%) and cereals (0.40%). The emission increased with increasing rate of N application (r(2)=0.74, P<0.05). The cumulative flux of CH4 from the rice crop was 28.64±4.40 kg ha(-1), while the mean seasonal integrated flux of CO2 from soils ranged from 3058±236 to 3616±157 kg CO2 ha(-1) under different crops. The global warming potential (GWP) of crops varied between 3053 kg CO2 eq. ha(-1) (pigeon pea) and 3968 kg CO2 eq. ha(-1) (wheat). The carbon equivalent emission (CEE) was least in pigeon pea (833 kg C ha(-1)) and largest in wheat (1042 kg C ha(-1)). The GWP per unit of economic yield was the highest in pulses and the lowest in cereal crops. The uncertainties in emission values varied from 4.6 to 22.0%. These emission values will be useful in updating the GHGs emission inventory of Indian agriculture.

  8. [Effects of antiseptic on the analysis of greenhouse gases concentrations in lake water].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qi-Tao; Hu, Zheng-Hu; James, Deng; Xiao, Wei; Liu, Shou-Dong; Li, Xu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight into antiseptic effects on the concentrations of CO2, CH4, and N2O in lake water, antisepetic (CuSO4 and HgCl2) were added into water sample, and concentrations of greenhouse gases were measured by the gas chromatography based on water equilibrium method. Experiments were conducted as following: the control group without antisepetic (CK), the treatment group with 1 mL CuSO4 solution (T1), the treatment group with 5 mL CuSO4 solution (T2), and the treatment group with 0.5 mL HgCl2 solution (T3). All groups were divided into two batches: immediately analysis (I), and after 2 days analysis (II). Results showed that CuSO4 and HgCl2 significantly increased CO2 concentration, the mean CO2 concentration (Mco2) of CK (I) and CK (II) were (11.5 +/- 1.47) micromol x L(-1) and (14.38 +/- 1.59) micromol x L(-1), respectively; the Mco2 of T1 (I) and T1 (II) were (376 +/- 70) micromol x L(-1) and (448 +/- 246.83) micromol x L(-1), respectively; the Mco2 of T2 (I) and T2 (II) were (885 +/- 51.53) micromol x L(-1) and (988.83 +/- 101.96) micromol x L(-1), respectively; the Mco2 of T3 (I) and T3 (II) were (287.19 +/- 30.01) micromol x L(-1) and (331.33 +/- 22.06) micromol x L(-1), respectively. The results also showed that there was no difference in CH4 and N2O concentrations among treatments. Water samples should be analyzed as soon as possible after pretreatment. Our findings suggest that adding antiseptic may lead an increase in CO2 concentration.

  9. Emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases during combined pre-composting and vermicomposting of duck manure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinzhi; Hu, Zhengyi; Xu, Xingkai; Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Xiaoning; Pan, Xubin; Kardol, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting has shown potential for reclamation of solid wastes, which is a significant source of ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gases (GHG), including nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Earthworms and amendments may both affect physico-chemical characteristics that control gas-producing processes, and thus affect NH3 and GHG emissions. Here, we used two-way ANOVA to test the effects of addition of reed straw and combined addition of reed straw and zeolite on NH3 and GHG emissions during pre-composting of duck manure, either with or without a follow-up phase of vermicomposting. Results showed that cumulative N2O, CH4, and CO2 emissions during pre-composting and vermicomposting ranged from 92.8, 5.8, and 260.6 mg kg(-)(1) DM to 274.2, 30.4, and 314.0 mg kg(-1) DM, respectively. Earthworms and amendments significantly decreased N2O and CH4 emissions. Emission of CO2 was not affected by earthworms, but increased in responses to addition of reed straw. Cumulative NH3 emission ranged from 3.0 to 8.1 g kg(-1) DM, and was significantly decreased by reed straw and zeolite addition. In conclusion, combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite addition would be strongly recommended in mitigating emissions of N2O, CH4, and NH3 from duck manure. Moreover, this method also provides nutrient-rich products that can be used as a fertilizer.

  10. Emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases during combined pre-composting and vermicomposting of duck manure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinzhi; Hu, Zhengyi; Xu, Xingkai; Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Xiaoning; Pan, Xubin; Kardol, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting has shown potential for reclamation of solid wastes, which is a significant source of ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gases (GHG), including nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Earthworms and amendments may both affect physico-chemical characteristics that control gas-producing processes, and thus affect NH3 and GHG emissions. Here, we used two-way ANOVA to test the effects of addition of reed straw and combined addition of reed straw and zeolite on NH3 and GHG emissions during pre-composting of duck manure, either with or without a follow-up phase of vermicomposting. Results showed that cumulative N2O, CH4, and CO2 emissions during pre-composting and vermicomposting ranged from 92.8, 5.8, and 260.6 mg kg(-)(1) DM to 274.2, 30.4, and 314.0 mg kg(-1) DM, respectively. Earthworms and amendments significantly decreased N2O and CH4 emissions. Emission of CO2 was not affected by earthworms, but increased in responses to addition of reed straw. Cumulative NH3 emission ranged from 3.0 to 8.1 g kg(-1) DM, and was significantly decreased by reed straw and zeolite addition. In conclusion, combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite addition would be strongly recommended in mitigating emissions of N2O, CH4, and NH3 from duck manure. Moreover, this method also provides nutrient-rich products that can be used as a fertilizer. PMID:24835490

  11. A robust optical parametric oscillator and receiver telescope for differential absorption lidar of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Iain; Jack, James W.; Rae, Cameron F.; Moncrieff, John B.

    2015-10-01

    We report the development of a differential absorption lidar instrument (DIAL) designed and built specifically for the measurement of anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The DIAL is integrated into a commercial astronomical telescope to provide high-quality receiver optics and enable automated scanning for three-dimensional lidar acquisition. The instrument is portable and can be set up within a few hours in the field. The laser source is a pulsed optical parametric oscillator (OPO) which outputs light at a wavelength tunable near 1.6 μm. This wavelength region, which is also used in telecommunications devices, provides access to absorption lines in both carbon dioxide at 1573 nm and methane at 1646 nm. To achieve the critical temperature stability required for a laserbased field instrument the four-mirror OPO cavity is machined from a single aluminium block. A piezoactuator adjusts the cavity length to achieve resonance and this is maintained over temperature changes through the use of a feedback loop. The laser output is continuously monitored with pyroelectric detectors and a custom-built wavemeter. The OPO is injection seeded by a temperature-stabilized distributed feedback laser diode (DFB-LD) with a wavelength locked to the absorption line centre (on-line) using a gas cell containing pure carbon dioxide. A second DFB-LD is tuned to a nearby wavelength (off-line) to provide the reference required for differential absorption measurements. A similar system has been designed and built to provide the injection seeding wavelengths for methane. The system integrates the DFB-LDs, drivers, locking electronics, gas cell and balanced photodetectors. The results of test measurements of carbon dioxide are presented and the development of the system is discussed, including the adaptation required for the measurement of methane.

  12. Spatial Heterogeneity of Greenhouse Gases at Howland Forest, Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez, E.; Savage, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Natural and human emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG's)- carbon dioxide (CO2), methane gas (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)- are important contributors to climate change. These GHG's are released naturally from forested soils. Carbon dioxide flux tends to have a relatively low coefficient of variation (CV) compared to CH4 and N2O. Methane and nitrous oxide are often characterized by "hot spots" and "hot moments", thus their CV are often very high compared to CO2, even in seemingly homogenous soil environments. The objective of this study is to determine the sampling intensity necessary for confidence estimates from forested soils of all three of these important GHGs. On July 2015, the emission of GHGs was measured from 36- randomly distributed soil flux- collars at the Howland Forest, Maine. A data analysis was run to determine how many chamber fluxes are needed to adequately estimate the mean and variance of GHGs fluxes. It was determined that both CO2 and CH4 had a 100% confidence estimate that a random 10,000 randomly sample group of an example of 8 fluxes had means within 50% of the full population mean and 14% confident for N2O. The confidence estimate that CO2, CH4, and N2O had means within 25% the full population mean was 97%, 92% and 9% and about 62%, 57% and 3% had means within the 10% full population mean. This analysis can be used to guide researchers when determining how many flux measurements may be necessary to achieve a desired level of confidence in their GHG estimates for their site.

  13. Estimation of pathways of the production of greenhouse gases in the tropical swamp forest in Thailand by stable isotope investigation.

    PubMed

    Boontanon, Narin; Ueda, Shingo; Wada, Eitaro

    2008-09-01

    Dynamics of greenhouse gases (N(2)O and CH(4)) with the dry-wet cycle along with the variation of oxidation-reduction boundaries were investigated in the tropical wetland in monsoon Asia. It was clarified that the production of N(2)O and CH(4) was closely related to the development of a redox boundary in the Bang Nara River systems. An intermittent increase in N(2)O was observed at the beginning of the rainy season, when a large amount of easily decomposable organic matter was introduced into the river. After 10 days, when dissolved oxygen was consumed completely at the middle reaches, the emission of CH(4) became maximal due to the possible occurrence of denitrification. The distribution of stable isotope ratios in N(2)O clearly demonstrated that nitrification is the major process for its production. Furthermore, the production of N(2)O in this study area was found to vary in time and space with changes in the redox boundary along the water flow.

  14. Economic feasibility study for intensive and extensive wastewater treatment considering greenhouse gases emissions.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, M; Hernández-Sancho, F; Sala-Garrido, R; Cirelli, G

    2013-07-15

    Economic feasibility assessments represent a key issue for selecting which wastewater treatment processes should be implemented. The few applications that exist focus on the positive economic value of externalities, overlooking the existence of negative externalities. However, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) consume a significant amount of energy, contributing to climate change. In this context, as a pioneering approach, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) have been incorporated as a negative externality of wastewater treatment. Within this framework, this study aims to compare the economic feasibility of five technologies, both intensive and extensive, for small communities. The results show that both the investment and operation costs are higher for intensive than for extensive technologies. Moreover, significant differences in the value of negative externalities were observed. This study demonstrates that from an economic perspective, constructed wetland is the most suitable option for treating wastewater in small agglomerations.

  15. Ecosystem Metabolism and Air-Water Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases in High Arctic Wetland Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnherr, I.; Venkiteswaran, J.; St. Louis, V. L.; Emmerton, C.; Schiff, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    Freshwater lakes and wetlands can be very productive systems on the Arctic landscape compared to terrestrial tundra ecosystems and provide valuable resources to many organisms, including waterfowl, fish and humans. Rates of ecosystem productivity dictate how much energy flows through food webs, impacting the abundance of higher-level organisms (e.g., fish), as well as the net carbon balance, which determines whether a particular ecosystem is a source or sink of carbon. Climate change is predicted to result in warmer temperatures, increased precipitation and permafrost melting in the Arctic and is already altering northern ecosystems at unprecedented rates; however, it is not known how freshwater systems are responding to these changes. To predict how freshwater systems will respond to complex environmental changes, it is necessary to understand the key processes, such as primary production and ecosystem respiration, that are driving these systems. We sampled wetland ponds (n=8) and lakes (n=2) on northern Ellesmere Island (81° N, Nunavut, Canada) during the open water season for a suite of biogeochemical parameters, including concentrations of dissolved gases (O2, CO2, CH4, N2O) as well as stable-isotope ratios of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13C-DIC), dissolved oxygen (δ18O-DO), and water (δ18O-H2O). We will present rates of primary production and ecosystem respiration, modeled from the concentration and stable isotope ratios of DIC and DO, as well as air-water gas exchange of greenhouse gases in these high Arctic ponds and lakes. Preliminary results demonstrate that ecosystem metabolism in these ponds was high enough to result in significant deviations in the isotope ratios of DIC and DO from atmospheric equilibrium conditions. In other words ecosystem rates of primary production and respiration were faster than gas exchange even in these small, shallow, well-mixed ponds. Furthermore, primary production was elevated enough at all sites except Lake Hazen, a

  16. The southern Brazilian grassland biome: soil carbon stocks, fluxes of greenhouse gases and some options for mitigation.

    PubMed

    Pillar, V D; Tornquist, C G; Bayer, C

    2012-08-01

    The southern Brazilian grassland biome contains highly diverse natural ecosystems that have been used for centuries for grazing livestock and that also provide other important environmental services. Here we outline the main factors controlling ecosystem processes, review and discuss the available data on soil carbon stocks and greenhouse gases emissions from soils, and suggest opportunities for mitigation of climatic change. The research on carbon and greenhouse gases emissions in these ecosystems is recent and the results are still fragmented. The available data indicate that the southern Brazilian natural grassland ecosystems under adequate management contain important stocks of organic carbon in the soil, and therefore their conservation is relevant for the mitigation of climate change. Furthermore, these ecosystems show a great and rapid loss of soil organic carbon when converted to crops based on conventional tillage practices. However, in the already converted areas there is potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by using cropping systems based on no soil tillage and cover-crops, and the effect is mainly related to the potential of these crop systems to accumulate soil organic carbon in the soil at rates that surpass the increased soil nitrous oxide emissions. Further modelling with these results associated with geographic information systems could generate regional estimates of carbon balance.

  17. Decomposition of Potent Greenhouse Gases SF6, CF4 and SF5CF3 by Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Renxi; Wang, Jingting; Cao, Xu; Hou, Huiqi

    2016-04-01

    For their distinguished global warming potential (GWP100) and long atmosphere lifespan, CF4, SF6 and SF5CF3 were significant in the field of greenhouse gas research. The details of discharging character and the optimal parameter were discussed by using a Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) reactor to decompose these potent greenhouse gases in this work. The results showed that SF6 could be decomposed by 92% under the conditions of 5 min resident time and 3000 V applied voltage with the partial pressure of 2.0 kPa, 28.2 kPa, and 1.8 kPa for SF6, air and water vapor, respectively. 0.4 kPa CF4 could be decomposed by 98.2% for 4 min resident time with 30 kPa Ar added. The decomposition of SF5CF3 was much more effective than that of SF6 and CF4 and moreover, 1.3 kPa SF5CF3, discharged with 30 kPa O2, Ar and air, could not be detected when the resident time was 80 s, 40 s, and 120 s, respectively. All the results indicated that DBD was a feasible technique for the abatement of potent greenhouse gases. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 20507004, 21577023)

  18. Emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases during combined pre-composting and vermicomposting of duck manure

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jinzhi; Hu, Zhengyi; Xu, Xingkai; Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Xiaoning; Pan, Xubin; Kardol, Paul

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Earthworms significantly decreased emissions of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4}, but had a marginal effect on CO{sub 2} emission. • NH{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 4} emissions were significantly reduced by reed straw and zeolite, CO{sub 2} emission was increased by reed straw. • Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite would be recommended for disposal of duck manure. - Abstract: Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting has shown potential for reclamation of solid wastes, which is a significant source of ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and greenhouse gases (GHG), including nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), methane (CH{sub 4}), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Earthworms and amendments may both affect physico-chemical characteristics that control gas-producing processes, and thus affect NH{sub 3} and GHG emissions. Here, we used two-way ANOVA to test the effects of addition of reed straw and combined addition of reed straw and zeolite on NH{sub 3} and GHG emissions during pre-composting of duck manure, either with or without a follow-up phase of vermicomposting. Results showed that cumulative N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} emissions during pre-composting and vermicomposting ranged from 92.8, 5.8, and 260.6 mg kg{sup −1} DM to 274.2, 30.4, and 314.0 mg kg{sup −1} DM, respectively. Earthworms and amendments significantly decreased N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions. Emission of CO{sub 2} was not affected by earthworms, but increased in responses to addition of reed straw. Cumulative NH{sub 3} emission ranged from 3.0 to 8.1 g kg{sup −1} DM, and was significantly decreased by reed straw and zeolite addition. In conclusion, combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite addition would be strongly recommended in mitigating emissions of N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and NH{sub 3} from duck manure. Moreover, this method also provides nutrient-rich products that can be used as a fertilizer.

  19. Climatic consequences of observed ozone loss in the 1980s: Relevance to the greenhouse problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, G. I.; Ko, M. K. W.; Zhou, S.; Sze, N. D.

    1994-01-01

    Recently published findings using satellite and ground-based observations indicate a large winter and summertime decrease in the column abundance of ozone at high and middle latitudes during the last decade. Using a simple ozone depletion profile reflecting the observed decrease in ozone column abundance, Ramaswamy et al. (1992) showed that the negative radiative forcing that results from the ozone decrease between 1979 and 1990 approximately balanced the greenhouse climate forcing due to the chlorofluorocarbons emitted during the same period. Here, we extend the forcing analyses by calculating the equilibrium surface temperature response explicitly, using an updated version of the Atmospheric and Environmental Research two-dimensional radiative-dynamical seasonal model. The calculated steady state responses suggest that the surface cooling due to the ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere offsets about 30% of the surface warming due to greenhouse gases emitted during the same decade. The temperature offset is roughly a factor of 2 larger than the corresponding offset obtained from forcing intercomparisons. This result appears to be related to the climate feedback mechanisms operating in the model troposphere, most notably that associated with atmospheric meridional heat transport. Thus a comprehensive assessment of ozone change effects on the predicted greenhouse warming cannot be accomplished based on forcing evaluations alone. Our results also show that calculations adopting a seasonally and latitudinally dependent ozone depletion profile produce a negative forcing about 50% smaller than that calculated for the depletion profile used by Ramaswamy et al. (1992).

  20. Influence of meteorology and interrelationship with greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) at a sub-urban site of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivas, G.; Mahesh, P.; Subin, J.; Kanchana, A. L.; Rao, P. V. N.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are important climate forcing agents due to their significant impact on the climate system. The present study brings out first continuous measurements of atmospheric GHG's using high precision Los Gatos Research's-greenhouse gas analyser (LGR-GGA) over Shadnagar, a suburban site of Central India during the period 2014. The annual mean of CO2 and CH4 over the study region is found to be 394 ± 2.92 and 1.92 ± 0.07 ppm (mean, μ ± 1 SD, σ) respectively. CO2 and CH4 showed a significant seasonal variation during the study period with maximum (minimum) CO2 observed during Pre-monsoon (Monsoon), while CH4 recorded maximum during post-monsoon and minimum in monsoon. A consistent diurnal mixing ratio of these gases is observed with high (low) during night (afternoon) hours throughout the study period. Influences of prevailing meteorology (air temperature, wind speed, wind direction and relative humidity) on GHG's have also been investigated. CO2 and CH4 showed a strong positive correlation during winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon with R equal to 0.80, 0.80, 0.61 and 0.72 respectively. It implies the seasonal variations in source-sink mechanisms of CO2 and CH4. Present study also confirms implicitly the presence OH radicals as a major sink of CH4 over the study region.

  1. 76 FR 56009 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Technical Revisions to the Electronics Manufacturing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... List FERC Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FR Federal Register GHG greenhouse gas GPA Gas... Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP) on December 1, 2010 (75 FR 74774) subpart I of the GHGRP requires..., 2010(75 FR 74458). Subpart W of the GHGRP, which applies to facilities in specific segments of...

  2. MAGGnet: An international network to foster mitigation of agricultural greenhouse gases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research networks provide a framework for review, synthesis, and systematic testing of theories by multiple scientists across international borders critical for addressing global-scale issues. In 2012, a greenhouse gas (GHG) research network referred to as MAGGnet (Managing Agricultural Greenhouse ...

  3. 76 FR 36339 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Additional Sources of Fluorinated GHGs: Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Regulations EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register GHG greenhouse gas mm millimeters...: Electronics Manufacturing of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule on December 1, 2010 (75 FR 74774). This subpart... Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993) and, therefore, not subject to review under Executive...

  4. A new analytical inversion method for determining regional and global emissions of greenhouse gases: sensitivity studies and application to halocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.; Seibert, P.; Arduini, J.; Eckhardt, S.; Fraser, P.; Greally, B. R.; Maione, M.; O'Doherty, S.; Prinn, R. G.; Reimann, S.; Saito, T.; Schmidbauer, N.; Simmonds, P. G.; Vollmer, M. K.; Weiss, R. F.; Yokouchi, Y.

    2008-11-01

    A new analytical inversion method has been developed to determine the regional and global emissions of long-lived atmospheric trace gases. It exploits in situ measurement data from a global network and builds on backward simulations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model. The emission information is extracted from the observed concentration increases over a baseline that is itself objectively determined by the inversion algorithm. The method was applied to two hydrofluorocarbons (HFC-134a, HFC-152a) and a hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC-22) for the period January 2005 until March 2007. Detailed sensitivity studies with synthetic as well as with real measurement data were done to quantify the influence on the results of the a priori emissions and their uncertainties as well as of the observation and model errors. It was found that the global a posteriori emissions of HFC-134a, HFC-152a and HCFC-22 all increased from 2005 to 2006. Large increases (21%, 16%, 18%, respectively) from 2005 to 2006 were found for China, whereas the emission changes in North America and Europe were modest. For Europe, the a posteriori emissions of HFC-134a and HFC-152a were slightly higher than the a priori emissions reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). For HCFC-22, the a posteriori emissions for Europe were substantially (by almost a factor 2) higher than the a priori emissions used, which were based on HCFC consumption data reported to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Combined with the reported strongly decreasing HCFC consumption in Europe, this suggests a substantial time lag between the reported timing of the HCFC-22 consumption and the actual timing of the HCFC-22 emission. Conversely, in China where HCFC consumption is increasing rapidly according to the UNEP data, the a posteriori emissions are only about 40% of the a priori emissions. This reveals a substantial storage of HCFC-22 and potential for future emissions in

  5. An analytical inversion method for determining regional and global emissions of greenhouse gases: Sensitivity studies and application to halocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.; Seibert, P.; Arduini, J.; Eckhardt, S.; Fraser, P.; Greally, B. R.; Lunder, C.; Maione, M.; Mühle, J.; O'Doherty, S.; Prinn, R. G.; Reimann, S.; Saito, T.; Schmidbauer, N.; Simmonds, P. G.; Vollmer, M. K.; Weiss, R. F.; Yokouchi, Y.

    2009-03-01

    A new analytical inversion method has been developed to determine the regional and global emissions of long-lived atmospheric trace gases. It exploits in situ measurement data from three global networks and builds on backward simulations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model. The emission information is extracted from the observed concentration increases over a baseline that is itself objectively determined by the inversion algorithm. The method was applied to two hydrofluorocarbons (HFC-134a, HFC-152a) and a hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC-22) for the period January 2005 until March 2007. Detailed sensitivity studies with synthetic as well as with real measurement data were done to quantify the influence on the results of the a priori emissions and their uncertainties as well as of the observation and model errors. It was found that the global a posteriori emissions of HFC-134a, HFC-152a and HCFC-22 all increased from 2005 to 2006. Large increases (21%, 16%, 18%, respectively) from 2005 to 2006 were found for China, whereas the emission changes in North America (-9%, 23%, 17%, respectively) and Europe (11%, 11%, -4%, respectively) were mostly smaller and less systematic. For Europe, the a posteriori emissions of HFC-134a and HFC-152a were slightly higher than the a priori emissions reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). For HCFC-22, the a posteriori emissions for Europe were substantially (by almost a factor 2) higher than the a priori emissions used, which were based on HCFC consumption data reported to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Combined with the reported strongly decreasing HCFC consumption in Europe, this suggests a substantial time lag between the reported time of the HCFC-22 consumption and the actual time of the HCFC-22 emission. Conversely, in China where HCFC consumption is increasing rapidly according to the UNEP data, the a posteriori emissions are only about 40% of the a priori

  6. Observation of Dynamical Fermionization in 1D Bose Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malvania, Neel; Xia, Lin; Xu, Wei; Wilson, Joshua M.; Zundel, Laura A.; Rigol, Marcos; Weiss, David S.

    2016-05-01

    The momentum distribution of a harmonically trapped 1D Bose gases in the Tonks-Girardeau limit is expected to undergo dynamical fermionization. That is, after the harmonic trap is suddenly turned off, the momentum distribution steadily transforms into that of an ideal Fermi gas in the same initial trap. We measure 1D momentum distributions at variable times after such a quench, and observe the predicted dynamical fermionization. In addition to working in the strong coupling limit, we also perform the experiment with intermediate coupling, where theoretical calculations are more challenging.

  7. Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases in the Second Generation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, Allen A.; Sands, Ronald D.

    2006-12-29

    The Second Generation Model (SGM) was developed for the purpose of analyzing policies designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper documents how greenhouse gas emissions are calculated in the SGM, an application to several Energy Modeling Forum scenarios that stabilize radiative forcing by using policies that either exclusively limit CO2 emissions or include both CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gasses, and an extension including advanced fossil generating technologies with CO2 capture and storage in the USA region of the SGM.

  8. Tree specie effects on soil microbial community composition and greenhouse gases emissions in a Mediterranean ecotone forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Maria Jose; Ortiz, Carlos; Kitzler, Barbara; Curiel, Jorge; Rubio, Agustin

    2016-04-01

    Over recent decades in the Iberian Peninsula, altitudinal shifts from Pinus sylvestris L. to Quercus pyrenaica Willd species has been observed as a consequence of Global Change, meaning changes in temperature, precipitation, land use and forestry. The forest conversion from pine to oak can alter the litter quality and quantity provided to the soil and thereby the soil microbial community composition and functioning. Since soil microbiota plays an important role in organic matter decomposition, and this in turn is key in biogeochemical cycles and forest ecosystems productivity, the rate in which forests produce and consume greenhouse gases can be also affected by changes in forest composition. In other words, changes in litter decomposition will ultimately affect downstream carbon and nitrogen dynamics although this impact is uncertain. In order to predict changes in carbon and nitrogen stocks in Global Change scenarios, it is necessary to deepen the impact of vegetation changes on soil microbial communities, litter decomposition dynamics (priming effect) and the underlying interactions between these factors. To test this, we conducted a full-factorial transplant microcosms experiment mixing both fresh soils and litter from Pyrenean oak, Scots pine and mixed stands collected inside their transitional area in Central Spain. The microcosms consisted in soil cylinders inside Kilner jars used as chambers inside an incubator. In this experiment, we investigated how and to what extent the addition of litter with different quality (needles, oak leaves and mixed needles-leaves) to soil inoculums with contrasting soil microbiota impact on (i) soil CO2, NO, N2O and CH4 efflux rates, (ii) total organic carbon and nitrogen and (iii) dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen. Furthermore, we assessed if these responses were controlled by changes in the microbial community structure using the PLFA analyses prior and after the incubation period of 54 days.

  9. Optimization Model for Reducing Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Automobiles (OMEGA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Vehicle Greenhouse Gas (VGHG) model is used to apply various technologies to a defined set of vehicles in order to meet a specified GHG emission target, and to then calculate the costs and benefits of doing so.

  10. An alternative approach to establishing trade-offs among greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Manne, A S; Richels, R G

    2001-04-01

    The Kyoto Protocol permits countries to meet part of their emission reduction obligations by cutting back on gases other than CO2 (ref. 1). This approach requires a definition of trade-offs among the radiatively active gases. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has suggested global warming potentials for this purpose, which use the accumulated radiative forcing of each gas by a set time horizon to establish emission equivalence. But it has been suggested that this approach has serious shortcomings: damages or abatement costs are not considered and the choice of time horizon for calculating cumulative radiative force is critical, but arbitrary. Here we describe an alternative framework for determining emission equivalence between radiatively active gases that addresses these weaknesses. We focus on limiting temperature change and rate of temperature change, but our framework is also applicable to other objectives. For a proposed ceiling, we calculate how much one should be willing to pay for emitting an additional unit of each gas. The relative prices then determine the trade-off between gases at each point in time, taking into account economical as well as physical considerations. Our analysis shows that the relative prices are sensitive to the lifetime of the gases, the choice of target and the proximity of the target, making short-lived gases more expensive to emit as we approach the prescribed ceiling.

  11. Imbalance of Nature due to Greenhouse Gases from Land-Use Change and Forestry in the State of Sinaloa, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman Galindo, T. D.; Plata Rocha, W. D.; Aguilar-Villegas, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    The imbalance of nature in recent years has been highlighted throughout the world due to the consequences of population and economic growth and changes land use in general. These changes are the result of complex processes between the human and natural environment. This is a very important phenomenon, especially from the point of view of sustainability, as these changes have been considered as one of the most important components of global change (Plata et al., 2009). In the same way the process of deforestation and forest degradation as a result of human activities are a major source of emissions of greenhouse gases in Mexico (Masera et al., 1997). However, forests in Mexico have great potential to become carbon sinks by adopting appropriate support policies, and implementation of sustainable forestry management techniques to improve their production. From this perspective, forest management and reforestation of forests are presented as options for short and medium term climate change mitigation (Sheinbaum and Masera, 2000). Based on the foregoing, the research updates emissions from the Land-Cover and Land-Use Change (LCLUC) for the period 2000 to 2005 for the State of Sinaloa, Mexico, from activity data and national emission factors, reliable and updated to improve certainty and to determine the emissions of greenhouse gases for the sector. This paper examines the updated statewide LCLUC inventory using the gradation level 2 of the IPCC and recommends climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies.t;

  12. Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model as a Link between Local-Scale Measurements of Greenhouse Gases and Larger-Scale Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uliasz, M.; Lu, L.; Denning, S.

    2008-12-01

    In order to represent small-scale variability in greenhouse gases we are considering a chain of nested models. First, a regional scale meteorological and transport is nested within a global transport model. In our studies SiB-RAMS (CSU Regional Atmospheric Modeling System coupled with Simple Biosphere model) is using CO2 fields from PCTM (Parameterized Chemistry and Transport Model) with the aid nudging approach. SiB-RAMS is capable to realistically represent regional and mesoscale transport over complex terrain. However, the simulated tracer fields are still available as grid cell averages which are difficult to compare directly to point observations from a tower network To overcame this problem, we run Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) backward in time from each tower to derive influence functions (footprints) for both concentration and flux measurements. In turn, the observation can be expressed as a sum of contribution from surface fluxes, advection fluxes across lateral boundaries and from initial concentration field. LPDM can be used over arbitrary subdomain ( rectangular or cylindrical) and any time period. The LPDM subdomain can be as large as the RAMS domain as in our regional CO2 inversion studies or just to cover a few grid cells of RAMS to provide a subgrid scale transport parameterization. The advantages of the LPDM in this application include: - accurate representation of a point observation which is not possible in a grid transport model - implementing additional transport/mixing process which are not represented in RAMS but may significantly affect the tower measurements. We implemented a parameterization of non-Gaussian (skewed) turbulence within the convective boundary layer and are considering a parameterization of intermittent turbulence in the nocturnal boundary layer in the same framework. - including surface fluxes with resolution finer (if available) than provided by a grid transport model near the tower. We will illustrate this

  13. Data on greenhouse gases emission in condensate separation unit of a petrochemical company in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Dastorian, Mehrshad; Jafarzadeh, Nemat; Jorfi, Sahand; Ramavandi, Bahman

    2016-09-01

    Since global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions is no respecter of geographical boundaries of countries, concerted mitigation activities such as Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), are suitable. In this mechanism, some developed countries can gain certified emission reduction credits from emission reduction actions undertaken in developing countries. Thus, the data of greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries would be informative for implementing of CDM. Herein, the data of greenhouse gas emissions of Bandar Imam Petrochemical Complex, one of the biggest petrochemical companies in the Middle East region is presented. The data was acquired using emission factor method and self-presented raw information of the Bandar Imam Petrochemical Complex. Overall, the data will be interesting for environmentalists, non-governmental organization (NGO), and developed countries to perform CDM. PMID:27500190

  14. Data on greenhouse gases emission in condensate separation unit of a petrochemical company in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Dastorian, Mehrshad; Jafarzadeh, Nemat; Jorfi, Sahand; Ramavandi, Bahman

    2016-09-01

    Since global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions is no respecter of geographical boundaries of countries, concerted mitigation activities such as Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), are suitable. In this mechanism, some developed countries can gain certified emission reduction credits from emission reduction actions undertaken in developing countries. Thus, the data of greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries would be informative for implementing of CDM. Herein, the data of greenhouse gas emissions of Bandar Imam Petrochemical Complex, one of the biggest petrochemical companies in the Middle East region is presented. The data was acquired using emission factor method and self-presented raw information of the Bandar Imam Petrochemical Complex. Overall, the data will be interesting for environmentalists, non-governmental organization (NGO), and developed countries to perform CDM.

  15. Distinguishing the impacts of ozone-depleting substances and well-mixed greenhouse gases on Arctic stratospheric ozone and temperature trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, Harald E.; Polvani, Lorenzo M.; Solomon, Susan

    2014-04-01

    Whether stratospheric cooling due to increases in well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHG) could increase the depletion of Arctic stratospheric ozone has been the subject of scientific and public attention for decades. Here we provide evidence that changes in the concentrations of ozone-depleting substances (ODS), not WMGHG, have been the primary driver of observed Arctic lower stratospheric trends in both ozone and temperature. We do so by analyzing polar cap ozone and temperature trends in reanalysis data: these clearly suggest that both trends are mainly driven by ODS in the lower stratosphere. This observation-based finding is supported by results from a stratosphere-resolving chemistry-climate model driven with time-varying ODS and WMGHG, specified in isolation and in combination. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that ODS are the main driver of changes in the Arctic lower stratospheric temperatures and ozone, whereas WMGHG are the primary driver of changes in the upper stratosphere.

  16. Effects of water-saving irrigation on emissions of greenhouse gases and prokaryotic communities in rice paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Choi, Min-Young; Kim, Byung-Yong; Lee, Jong-Sik; Song, Jaekyeong; Kim, Gun-Yeob; Weon, Hang-Yeon

    2014-08-01

    The effects of water-saving irrigation on emissions of greenhouse gases and soil prokaryotic communities were investigated in an experimental rice field. The water layer was kept at 1-2 cm in the water-saving (WS) irrigation treatment and at 6 cm in the continuous flooding (CF) irrigation treatment. WS irrigation decreased CH(4) emissions by 78 % and increased N(2)O emissions by 533 %, resulting in 78 % reduction of global warming potential compared to the CF irrigation. WS irrigation did not affect the abundance or phylogenetic distribution of bacterial/archaeal 16S rRNA genes and the abundance of bacterial/archaeal 16S rRNAs. The transcript abundance of CH(4) emission-related genes generally followed CH(4) emission patterns, but the difference in abundance between mcrA transcripts and amoA/pmoA transcripts best described the differences in CH(4) emissions between the two irrigation practices. WS irrigation increased the relative abundance of 16S rRNAs and functional gene transcripts associated with Anaeromyxobacter and Methylocystis spp., suggesting that their activities might be important in emissions of the greenhouse gases. The N(2)O emission patterns were not reflected in the abundance of N(2)O emission-related genes and transcripts. We showed that the alternative irrigation practice was effective for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from rice fields and that it did not affect the overall size and structure of the soil prokaryotic community but did affect the activity of some groups.

  17. Sources of greenhouse gases and carbon monoxide in central London (UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfter, Carole; Tremper, Anja; Zazzeri, Giulia; Barlow, Janet F.; Nemitz, Eiko

    2015-04-01

    Biosphere-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been on the scientific agenda for several decades and new technology now also allows for high-precision, continuous monitoring of fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Compared to the natural environment, flux measurements in the urban environment, which is home to over 50% of the population globally, are still rare despite high densities of anthropogenic sources of pollutants. We report on over three years of measurements atop a 192 m tower in central London (UK), Europe's largest city, which started in October 2011. Fluxes of methane, carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide are measured by eddy-covariance (EC) at the British Telecom tower (51° 31' 17.4' N 0° 8' 20.04' W). In addition to the long-term measurements, EC fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured in February 2014. All four trace gases exhibit diurnal trends consistent with anthropogenic activities with minimum emissions at night and early afternoon maxima. Segregating emissions by wind direction reveals heterogeneous source distributions with temporal patterns and source strengths that differ between compounds. The lowest emissions for CO, CO2 and CH4 were recorded for NW winds. The highest emissions of methane were in the SE sector, in the NE for CO2 and in the W for CO. Fluxes of all 3 gases exhibited marked seasonal trends characterised by a decrease in emissions in summer (63% reduction for CO, 36% for CO2 and 22% for CH4). Monthly fluxes of CO and CO2 were linearly correlated to air temperature (R2 = 0.7 and 0.59 respectively); a weaker dependence upon temperature was also observed for CH4 (R2 = 0.31). Diurnal and seasonal emissions of CO and CO2 are mainly controlled by local fossil fuel combustion and vehicle cold starts are thought to account for 20-30% of additional emissions of CO during the winter. Fugitive emissions of CH4 from the natural gas distribution network are thought to be substantial, which is consistent

  18. Uncertainties in flux estimations of biogenic greenhouse gases from the world`s oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Rapsomanikis, S.

    1994-12-31

    The author determines the concentrations of N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, OCS and (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}S (DMS) in surface waters of estuaries, shelf, shelf edge, open oceans using continuous equilibration techniques and automated gas chromatography, as described by Bange et al. Atmospheric concentrations of these gases are also determined in tandem. Horizontal profiles during cruise tracks have time resolution of up to one hour. Super- or under-saturation of surface sea waters for these gases is established, after computing equilibrium air-sea values using the high precision atmospheric concentration measurements and Henry law constants.

  19. Life-cycle analysis of dryland greenhouse gases affected by cropping sequence and nitrogen fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information is available about management practices effect on net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) under dryland cropping systems. We evaluated the effects of cropping sequences (conventional till malt barley-fallow [CTB-F], no-till malt barley-pea [NTB-P], a...

  20. "An Inconvenient Truth" Increases Knowledge, Concern, and Willingness to Reduce Greenhouse Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Since May 24, 2006 millions of people have seen the movie "An Inconvenient Truth." Several countries have even proposed using the film as an educational tool in school classrooms. However, it is not yet clear that the movie accomplishes its apparent goals of increasing knowledge and concern, and motivating people to reduce their greenhouse gas…

  1. 76 FR 36472 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases; Changes to Provisions for Electronics Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... proposal (75 FR 18652) concerning the monitoring and reporting methods for electronics manufacturing... Manufacturing of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule on December 1, 2011 (40 CFR part 98, subpart I) (75 FR 74774... Electronics Manufacturing (Subpart I) To Provide Flexibility AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  2. 76 FR 59542 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Changes to Provisions for Electronics Manufacturing To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... (DRE); and (3) Stack Testing (75 FR 36472). For more information on the three options, please refer to... Removal Efficiency. EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. FR Federal Register. GHG greenhouse gas. ICR... Display. LED Light-emitting Diodes. m\\2\\ square meters. mm millimeter. MEMS...

  3. Modeling the infrastructure dynamics of China -- Water, agriculture, energy, and greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, S.H.; Drennen, T.E.; Engi, D.; Harris, D.L.; Jeppesen, D.M.; Thomas, R.P.

    1998-08-01

    A comprehensive critical infrastructure analysis of the People`s Republic of China was performed to address questions about China`s ability to meet its long-term grain requirements and energy needs and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions in China likely to result from increased agricultural production and energy use. Four dynamic computer simulation models of China`s infrastructures--water, agriculture, energy and greenhouse gas--were developed to simulate, respectively, the hydrologic budgetary processes, grain production and consumption, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions in China through 2025. The four models were integrated into a state-of-the-art comprehensive critical infrastructure model for all of China. This integrated model simulates diverse flows of commodities, such as water and greenhouse gas, between the separate models to capture the overall dynamics of the integrated system. The model was used to generate projections of China`s available water resources and expected water use for 10 river drainage regions representing 100% of China`s mean annual runoff and comprising 37 major river basins. These projections were used to develop estimates of the water surpluses and/or deficits in the three end-use sectors--urban, industrial, and agricultural--through the year 2025. Projections of the all-China demand for the three major grains (corn, wheat, and rice), meat, and other (other grains and fruits and vegetables) were also generated. Each geographic region`s share of the all-China grain demand (allocated on the basis of each region`s share of historic grain production) was calculated in order to assess the land and water resources in each region required to meet that demand. Growth in energy use in six historically significant sectors and growth in greenhouse gas loading were projected for all of China.

  4. Sugarcane field renovation: influence of tillage and no-tillage in the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packer, Ana Paula; Degaspari, Iracema A. M.; Ramos, Nilza Patricia; Vilela, Viviane A. A.; do Carmo, Janaina B.; Cabral, Osvaldo M. R.; Rossi, Paulo; de Andrade, Cristiano A.

    2015-04-01

    The management of agricultural soils can play an important role in the greenhouse gases (GHG) balance, depending on the adopted practices. In the agricultural system, current GHG emissions generated by anthropogenic activities include land use, land use change and management practices, which have contributed to disrupt the C and N cycles in terrestrial ecosystems. The GHG (CO2, N2O and CH4) emissions from agricultural soils depend on the biophysical processes, and the incorporation/decomposition of organic residues. Agricultural soils preparation requires a combination of several implements, which can produce great soil disturbance as is the case of conventional tillage or minimum soil mobilization in the reduced tillage or no-tillage. Tillage breaks soil aggregates leading to enhanced organic matter decomposition and reduced C and N concentrations and no-tillage increases the stability of soil macroaggregates, reducing the emissions of CO2. In this study, we evaluated the CO2 emissions from different management practices widely used in the renewal of sugarcane fields previously planted with soybean, in an Acric Oxisol plantation in the southeast region of Brazil. The conventional tillage (CT) operation consisted of an offset disk harrowing using a tool with 36 disks x 26" and a subsoiling with an implement reaching nearly 50 cm depth. The reduced tillage (RT) was carried out with subsoiling operation in the row planting and in the no-tillage (NT), the soybean trash from the last harvest was left on the soil. The soil preparation and the establishment of four experimental plots (30 m x 30 m each) occurred within two days. During the studied period, two CO2 and N2O emission peaks were observed after the soil preparation, the first one on day 4 and the second on day 35 after a 55 mm rain. The cumulative emissions were measured during 40 days after soil preparation. We observed higher emissions in the conventional tillage (CT), and lower values in the reduced tillage

  5. GREENHOUSE GASES FROM BIOMASS AND FOSSIL FUEL STOVES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A MANILA PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples were taken of the combustion gases released by household cookstoves in Manila, Philippines. In a total of 24 samples, 14 cookstoves were tested. These were fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene (three kinds of stoves), charcoal, and wood. Ambient samples were ...

  6. Assessing Greenhouse Gas emissions in the Greater Toronto Area using atmospheric observations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, F. R.; Chan, E.; Huang, L.; Levin, I.; Worthy, D.

    2013-12-01

    Urban areas are said to be responsible for approximately 75% of anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emissions while comprising only two percent of the land area [1]. This limited spatial expansion should facilitate a monitoring of anthropogenic GHGs from atmospheric observations. As major sources of emissions, cities also have a huge potential to drive emissions reductions. To effectively manage emissions, cities must however, first measure and report these publicly [2]. Modelling studies and measurements of CO2 from fossil fuel burning (FFCO2) in densely populated areas does, however, pose several challenges: Besides continuous in-situ observations, i.e. finding an adequate atmospheric transport model, a sufficiently fine-grained FFCO2 emission model and the proper background reference observations to distinguish the large-scale from the local/urban contributions to the observed FFCO2 concentration offsets ( ΔFFCO2) are required. Pilot studies which include the data from two 'sister sites*' in the vicinity of Toronto, Canada helped to derive flux estimates for Non-CO2 GHGs [3] and improve our understanding of urban FFCO2 emissions. Our 13CO2 observations reveal that the contribution of natural gas burning (mostly due to domestic heating) account for 80%×7% of FFCO2 emissions in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) during winter. Our 14CO2 observations in the GTA, furthermore, show that the local offset of CO2 (ΔCO2) between our two sister sites can be largely attributed to urban FFCO2 emissions. The seasonal cycle of the observed ΔFFCO2 in Toronto, combined with high-resolution atmospheric modeling, helps to independently assess the contribution from different emission sectors (transportation, primary energy and industry, domestic heating) as predicted by a dedicated city-scale emission inventory, which deviates from a UNFCCC-based inventory. [1] D. Dodman. 2009. Blaming cities for climate change? An analysis of urban greenhouse gas emissions inventories

  7. Effects of 17β-estradiol on emissions of greenhouse gases in simulative natural water body.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Aidong; Zhao, Ying; Liu, Chenxiao; Zong, Fengjiao; Yu, Zhongbo

    2015-05-01

    Environmental estrogens are widely spread across the world and are increasingly thought of as serious contaminators. The present study looks at the influence of different concentrations of 17β-estradiol on greenhouse gas emissions (CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O) in simulated systems to explore the relationship between environmental estrogen-pollution and greenhouse gas emissions in natural water bodies. The present study finds that 17β-estradiol pollution in simulated systems has significant promoting effects on the emissions of CH4 and CO2 , although no significant effects on N2 O emissions. The present study indicates that 17β-estradiol has different effects on the different elements cycles; the mechanism of microbial ecology is under review.

  8. Air-water greenhouse gases exchange in two coastal systems in Cadiz Bay (SW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos, Macarena; Ortega, Teodora; Forja, Jesús

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas are subject to a great anthropogenic pressure because more than half of the world's population lives in its vicinity, causing organic matter inputs, which intensifies greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Water surface greenhouse gas concentrations (CH4 and N2O) have been estimated in two aquatic systems of Cadiz Bay Natural Park: Rio San Pedro Creek and Sancti Petri Channel Water renewal in Rio San Pedro Creek is tidally controlled. Due to its little freshwater input, the Creek is essentially a marine system. Several fish farms are distributed on its banks discharging effluents without previous treatment. Nine sampling stations are distributed along this system 12 Km length. Sancti Petri Channel is a flow channel-ebb tides extending from the inner Cadiz Bay to the Atlantic Ocean along 17 Km. Organic matter pollution sources in this environment are straggly. There exist anthropogenic inputs such as aquaculture effluents and sewage discharges coming through the Iro River, which flows into the Channel central part. In addition there are natural organic matter inputs from surrounding marshes. It has been established 11 sampling stations crossing this system. Sampling was conducted seasonally during 2013. CH4 and N2O concentrations were obtained though a gas chromatograph connected to an equilibration system. Greenhouse gas values vary between 24 and 295 nM and 16 and 27 nM for CH4 and N2O, respectively. Gas concentrations increase close to the fish farm effluent in Rio San Pedro Creek, and next to Iro River's mouth in Sancti Petri tidal Channel. Both environments act as greenhouse gas sources into the atmosphere, showing seasonal variations. It has been estimated mean fluxes of 75.3 μmol m-2 d-1 of CH4 and 31.9 μmol m-2 d-1 of N2O for both systems.

  9. Airborne measurements and emission estimates of greenhouse gases and other trace constituents from the 2013 California Yosemite Rim wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, E. L.; Iraci, L. T.; Singh, H. B.; Tanaka, T.; Roby, M. C.; Hamill, P.; Clements, C. B.; Lareau, N.; Contezac, J.; Blake, D. R.; Simpson, I. J.; Wisthaler, A.; Mikoviny, T.; Diskin, G. S.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Choi, Y.; Ryerson, T. B.; Jimenez, J. L.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Loewenstein, M.; Gore, W.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents airborne measurements of multiple atmospheric trace constituents including greenhouse gases (such as CO2, CH4, O3) and biomass burning tracers (such as CO, CH3CN) downwind of an exceptionally large wildfire. In summer 2013, the Rim wildfire, ignited just west of the Yosemite National Park, California, and burned over 250,000 acres of the forest during the 2-month period (17 August to 24 October) before it was extinguished. The Rim wildfire plume was intercepted by flights carried out by the NASA Ames Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) on 29 August and the NASA DC-8, as part of SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys), on 26 and 27 August during its intense, primary burning period. AJAX revisited the wildfire on 10 September when the conditions were increasingly smoldering, with slower growth. The more extensive payload of the DC-8 helped to bridge key measurements that were not available as part of AJAX (e. g. CO). Data analyses are presented in terms of emission ratios (ER), emission factors (EF) and combustion efficiency and are compared with previous wildfire studies. ERs were 8.0 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 on 26 August, 6.5 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 on 29 August and 18.3 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 on 10 September 2013. The increase in CH4 ER from 6.5 to 8.0 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 during the primary burning period to 18.3 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 during the fire's slower growth period likely indicates enhanced CH4 emissions from increased smoldering combustion relative to flaming combustion. Given the magnitude of the Rim wildfire, the impacts it had on regional air quality and the limited sampling of wildfire emissions in the western United States to date, this study provides a valuable dataset to support forestry and regional air quality management, including observations of ERs of a wide number of species from the Rim wildfire.

  10. Airborne Measurements and Emission Estimates of Greenhouse Gases and Other Trace Constituents From the 2013 California Yosemite Rim Wildfire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, E. L.; Iraci, L. T.; Singh, H. B.; Tanaka, T.; Roby, M. C.; Hamill, P.; Clements, C. B.; Lareau, N.; Contezac, J.; Blake, D. R.; Simpson, I. J.; Wisthaler, A.; Mikoviny, T.; Diskin, G. S.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Choi, Y.; Ryerson, T. B.; Jimenez, J. L.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Loewenstein, M.; Gore, W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents airborne measurements of multiple atmospheric trace constituents including greenhouse gases (such as CO2, CH4, O3) and biomass burning tracers (such as CO, CH3CN) downwind of an exceptionally large wildfire. In summer 2013, the Rim wildfire, ignited just west of the Yosemite National Park, California, and burned over 250,000 acres of the forest during the 2-month period (17 August to 24 October) before it was extinguished. The Rim wildfire plume was intercepted by flights carried out by the NASA Ames Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) on 29 August and the NASA DC-8, as part of SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys), on 26 and 27 August during its intense, primary burning period. AJAX revisited the wildfire on 10 September when the conditions were increasingly smoldering, with slower growth. The more extensive payload of the DC-8 helped to bridge key measurements that were not available as part of AJAX (e. g. CO). Data analyses are presented in terms of emission ratios (ER), emission factors (EF) and combustion efficiency and are compared with previous wildfire studies. ERs were 8.0 ppb CH4/(ppm CO2) on 26 August, 6.5 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)1 on 29 August and 18.3 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)1 on 10 September 2013. The increase in CH4 ER from 6.5 to 8.0 ppb CH4/(ppm CO2) during the primary burning period to 18.3 ppb CH4/(ppm CO2) during the fire's slower growth period likely indicates enhanced CH4 emissions from increased smoldering combustion relative to flaming combustion. Given the magnitude of the Rim wildfire, the impacts it had on regional air quality and the limited sampling of wildfire emissions in the western United States to date, this study provides a valuable dataset to support forestry and regional air quality management, including observations of ERs of a wide number of species from the Rim wildfire.

  11. Estimation of the atmosphere-ocean fluxes of greenhouse gases and aerosols at the finer resolution of the coastal ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Vasco; Sahlée, Erik; Jurus, Pavel; Clementi, Emanuela; Pettersson, Heidi; Mateus, Marcos

    2016-04-01

    The balances and fluxes of greenhouse gases and aerosols between atmosphere and ocean are fundamental for Earth's heat budget. Hence, the scientific community needs to know and simulate them with accuracy in order to monitor climate change from Earth-Observation satellites and to produce reliable estimates of climate change using Earth-System Models (ESM). So far, ESM have represented earth's surface with coarser resolutions so that each cell of the marine domain is dominated by the open ocean. In such case it is enough to use simple algorithms considering the wind speed 10m above sea-surface (u10) as sole driver of the gas transfer velocity. The formulation by Wanninkhof (1992) is broadly accepted as the best. However, the ESM community is becoming increasingly aware of the need to model with finer resolutions. Then, it is no longer enough to only consider u10 when modelling gas transfer velocities across the coastal oceans' surfaces. More comprehensive formulations are required that adjust better to local conditions by also accounting for the effects of sea-surface agitation, wave breaking, atmospheric stability of the Surface Boundary Layer, current drag with the bottom, surfactants and rain. Accurate algorithms are also fundamental to monitor atmosphere and ocean greenhouse gas concentrations using satellite data and reverse modelling. Past satellite missions ERS, Envisat, Jason-2, Aqua, Terra and Metop, have already been remotely sensing the ocean's surface at much finer resolutions than ESM using instruments like MERIS, MODIS, AMR, AATSR, MIPAS, Poseidon-3, SCIAMACHY, SeaWiFS, and IASI. The planned new satellite missions Sentinel-3, OCO-2 and GOSAT will further increase the resolutions. We developed a framework to congregate competing formulations for the estimation of the solubility and transfer velocity of virtually any gas on the biosphere taking into consideration the atmosphere and ocean fundamental variables and their derived geophysical processes

  12. The early faint sun paradox: organic shielding of ultraviolet-labile greenhouse gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.; Chyba, C.

    1997-01-01

    Atmospheric mixing ratios of approximately 10(-5 +/- 1) for ammonia on the early Earth would have been sufficient, through the resulting greenhouse warming, to counteract the temperature effects of the faint early sun. One argument against such model atmospheres has been the short time scale for ammonia photodissociation by solar ultraviolet light. Here it is shown that ultraviolet absorption by steady-state amounts of high-altitude organic solids produced from methane photolysis may have shielded ammonia sufficiently that ammonia resupply rates were able to maintain surface temperatures above freezing.

  13. On the role of atmosphere-ocean interactions in the expected long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer caused by greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadorozhny, Alexander; Dyominov, Igor

    It is well known that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere produce a global warming of the troposphere and a global cooling of the stratosphere. The expected stratospheric cooling essentially influences the ozone layer via increased polar stratospheric cloud formation and via temperature dependences of the gas phase reaction rates. One more mechanism of how greenhouse gases influences the ozone layer is enhanced water evaporation from the oceans into the atmosphere because of increasing temperatures of the ocean surface due to greenhouse effect. The subject of this paper is a study of the influence of anthropogenic pollution of the atmosphere by the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and ozone-depleting chlorine and bromine compounds on the expected long-term changes of the ozone layer with taking into account an increase of water vapour content in the atmosphere due to greenhouse effect. The study based on 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the troposphere and stratosphere. The model allows to self-consistently calculating diabatic circulation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the South to North Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar stratospheric clouds of two types. It was supposed in the model that an increase of the ocean surface temperature caused by greenhouse effect is similar to calculated increase of atmospheric surface temperature. Evaporation rate from the ocean surface was computed in dependence of latitude. The model time-dependent runs were made for the period from 1975 to 2100 using two IPCC scenarios depicting maximum and average expected increases of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The model calculations show that anthropogenic increasing of water vapour abundance in the atmosphere due to heating of the ocean surface caused by greenhouse effect gives a sensible contribution to the expected ozone

  14. Supporting Greenhouse Gas Management Strategies with Observations and Analysis - Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, J. H.; Tarasova, O. A.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-change challenges facing society in the 21st century require an improved understanding of the global carbon-cycle and of the impacts and feedbacks of past, present, and future emissions of carbon-cycle gases. Global society faces a major challenge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to virtually zero, most notably those of CO2, while at the same time facing variable and potentially overwhelming Earth System feedbacks. How it goes about this will depend upon the nature of impending international agreements, national laws, regional strategies, and social and economic forces. The challenge to those making observations to support, inform, or verify these reduction efforts, or to address potential Earth System feedbacks, lies in harmonizing a diverse array of observations and observing systems. Doing so is not trivial. Providing coherent, regional-scale information from these observations also requires improved modelling and ensemble reanalysis, but in the end such information must be relevant and reasonably certain. The challenge to us is to ensure a globally coherent observing and analysis system to supply the information that society will need to succeed. Policy-makers, scientists, government agencies, and businesses will need the best information available for decision-making and any observing and analysis system ultimately must be able to provide a coherent story over decades.

  15. Results from the ICOS Fall 2008 intensive campaign for boundary layer height detection and greenhouse gases vertical distribution study at Orleans forest, France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueref-Remy, I.; Loaec, S.; Feist, D.; Lavric, J.-V.; Roininen, R.; Romanini, D.; Delmotte, M.; Schmidt, M.; Ramonet, M.; Ciais, P.

    2009-04-01

    An intensive field campaign of three weeks has been carried out in October 2008 in Orléans Forest, France, dedicated 1/ to the assessment of different instrument types for retrieval of the continental boundary layer (CBL) height and 2/ to the study of vertical distribution and diurnal cycle of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG). This campaign occured in the framework of ICOS (Integrated Carbon Observing System) which is one of the infrastructures selected in the ESFRI roadmap. ICOS aims at getting a homogeneous and dense network for greenhouse gases monitoring in Europe operating for the next 25 years. Launched in 2008, ICOS is currently in its preliminary phase (until 2012). One current mandatory step is to identify the instrumentation that will be deployed in the stations of the network. All stations will be equiped with GHG analysers, as well as CBL probes to allow calculation of GHG budget in the CBL. During the campaign, one Lidar, one ceilometer and one cloud telemeter have been intercompared for CBL height detection. Radiosoundings have been carried out simultaneously to serve as a reference for this intercomparison. In parallel, GHG (and especially CO2) in-situ measurements have been recorded at four altitude levels on a tall tower (5m, 50m, 100m and 180m), between 100m and 3000m using in-situ and flask sampling instruments onboard a small aircraft, and between the surface and 200m using a probe attached to a captive balloon deployed by Meteo France. We will hereby present ICOS, the test site, the instrumentation and selected results from the intensive campaign.

  16. Applications of fiber lasers for remote sensing of atmospheric greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobler, Jeremy T.; Braun, Michael; Nagel, James; Temyanko, Valery L.; Zaccheo, T. Scott; Harrison, F. Wallace; Browell, Edward V.; Kooi, Susan A.

    2013-02-01

    In 2004 ITT Exelis developed the Multifunctional Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL) for measuring atmospheric CO2. This lidar relies on high efficiency telecom laser components and Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFA's) to implement a unique Continuous Wave (CW) Intensity Modulated (IM) differential absorption lidar measurement. This same approach has also been used to measure atmospheric O2 by replacing the EDFA's with fiber Raman amplifier technology. The use of all fiber coupled components results in a highly reliable, flexible and robust instrument. The general architecture of the MFLL, its implementation for greenhouse gas measurements, and as a pseudorandom noise encoded altimeter system is reviewed. Results from a 2011 flight campaign on the NASA DC-8 aircraft which included CO2, O2, and PN altimetry using a single receiver for all three measurements are also discussed. In addition, an introduction to a novel variation of this approach that will enable greenhouse gas monitoring from a geostationary orbit is given. This paper provides a general overview of a set of applications for fiber lasers in the area of active remote sensing that have been developed by Exelis over the past several years.

  17. Elastic and plastic soil deformation and its influence on emission of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Christoph; Holthusen, Dörthe; Mordhorst, Anneka; Lipiec, Jerzy; Horn, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    Soil management alters physical, chemical and biological soil properties. Stress application affects microbiological activity and habitats for microorganisms in the root zone and causes soil degradation. We hypothesized that stress application results in altered greenhouse gas emissions if soil strength is exceeded. In the experiments, soil management dependent greenhouse gas emissions of intact soil cores (no, reduced, conventional tillages) were determined using two experimental setups; CO2 emissions were determined with: a dynamic measurement system, and a static chamber method before and after a vertical soil stress had been applied. For the latter CH4 and N2O emissions were analyzed additionally. Stress dependent effects can be summed as follows: In the elastic deformation range microbiological activity increased in conventional tillage soil and decreased in reduced tillage and no tillage. Beyond the precompression stress a release of formerly protected soil organic carbon and an almost total loss of CH4 oxidizability occurred. Only swelling and shrinkage of no tillage and reduced tillage regenerated their microhabitat function. Thus, the direct link between soil strength and microbial activity can be applied as a marker for soil rigidity and the transition to new disequilibria concerning microbial activity and composition.

  18. The Role of the Ozone Hole and Elevated Greenhouse Gases as Drivers of Antarctic Sea Ice Extent Increase Via Changes in Atmospheric Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, J. O.; Orr, A.; Marshall, G.; Abraham, N. L.

    2015-12-01

    Antarctic sea ice extent has displayed an overall increase across the duration of the 35-year satellite record. However, the cause of this increase is uncertain, with both anthropogenic and natural forcing changes proposed as drivers. Here, we investigate two possible anthropogenic forcings that could influence sea ice extent via changes in the near-surface wind field over the Southern Ocean; (i) ozone depletion and (ii) greenhouse gas increases. We employ an atmosphere-only version of the UK Met Office model, HadGEM3, with prescribed sea surface temperatures and sea ice coupled to the UKCA interactive climate-chemistry model. Starting from a pre-industrial control simulation, two additional simulations were spun off, one investigating the forcing from increased 21st century greenhouse gases and one investigating the forcing from the ozone hole. Based on the work of Holland & Kwok (2012) we analyse the changes in Antarctic circulation, in particular the surface wind properties which have been shown to correlate with sea ice extent. We examine changes in the surface wind field in these two model simulations relative to that in the pre-industrial control simulation, compare them to observed changes during the satellite record, and assess their potential role in driving a response in sea ice extent at both continental and regional scales.

  19. Emission Factors of Greenhouse Gases and Particulates from Australian Savanna Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desservettaz, Maximilien; Paton-Walsh, Clare; Griffith, David; Kettlewell, Graham; Wilson, Stephen; Keywood, Melita; Van der Schoot, Marcel; Seleck, Paul; Ward, Jason; Harwell, James; Reisen, Fabienne; Lawson, Sarah; Ristovski, Zoran; Mallet, Marc; Miljevic, Brenka; Milic, Andjelija; Atkinson, Brad

    2016-04-01

    In June 2014 a measurement campaign took place at the Australian Tropical Atmospheric Research Station (ATARS), in the Northern Territory, Australia, during the early dry season. The campaign was focused on understanding biomass burning emissions from savanna fires. In order to achieve this, a suite of aerosol, reactive and trace gases instruments were deployed. Seven smoke events were extracted from the 4 weeks of continuous measurements using carbon monoxide as a proxy for biomass burning. Those events were then analysed and emission factors were calculated for CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, NOx and aerosols (Aitken and Accumulation mode, and chemical speciation), along with the modified combustion efficiency (MCE). Upon review of the emission factors, smoke events could then be classified in 3 groups: high MCE events (0.98) were characterised by emission factors typical of savanna grass fires while low MCE events (0.88) were characteristic of shrub fires. Intermediate MCE events (0.93) were found not to reflect any distinct vegetation type. This presentation will outline the campaign and present emission factors of trace and reactive gases as well as the first emission factors for aerosols reported for Australian savanna fires.

  20. Observations of atmospheric trace gases by MAX-DOAS in the coastal boundary layer over Jiaozhou Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xianxin; Wang, Zhangjun; Meng, Xiangqian; Zhou, Haijin; Du, Libin; Qu, Junle; Chen, Chao; An, Quan; Wu, Chengxuan; Wang, Xiufen

    2014-11-01

    Atmospheric trace gases exist in the atmosphere of the earth rarely. But the atmospheric trace gases play an important role in the global atmospheric environment and ecological balance by participating in the global atmospheric cycle. And many environmental problems are caused by the atmospheric trace gases such as photochemical smog, acid rain, greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, etc. So observations of atmospheric trace gases become very important. Multi Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) developed recently is a kind of promising passive remote sensing technology which can utilize scattered sunlight received from multiple viewing directions to derive vertical column density of lower tropospheric trace gases like ozone, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. It has advantages of simple structure, stable running, passive remote sensing and real-time online monitoring automatically. A MAX-DOAS has been developed at Shandong Academy of Sciences Institute of Oceanographic Instrumentation (SDIOI) for remote measurements of lower tropospheric trace gases (NO2, SO2, and O3). In this paper, we mainly introduce the stucture of the instrument, calibration and results. Detailed performance analysis and calibration of the instrument were made at Qingdao. We present the results of NO2, SO2 and O3 vertical column density measured in the coastal boundary layer over Jiaozhou Bay. The diurnal variation and the daily average value comparison of vertical column density during a long-trem observation are presented. The vertical column density of NO2 and SO2 measured during Qingdao oil pipeline explosion on November 22, 2013 by MAX-DOAS is also presented. The vertical column density of NO2 reached to a high value after the explosion. Finally, the following job and the outlook for future possible improvements are given. Experimental calibration and results show that the developed MAX-DOAS system is reliable and credible.

  1. Observations of halogenated trace gases in Taiwan and Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooch, Lauren J.; Laube, Johannes C.; Sturges, William T.; Oram, David E.; Wang, Jia-Lin; Ou-Yang, Cheng-Feng; Lin, Neng-Huei; Mead, Iq; Rigby, Matt; White, Emily

    2015-04-01

    There are a large variety of halocarbons present in the atmosphere that significantly impact on stratospheric ozone depletion and/or global warming. Though the use of some of these compounds has been phased out and replaced under global control measures, relatively long atmospheric lifetimes, imperfect substitutes and incomplete reductions in usage mean that global concentrations of halocarbons still require regular monitoring. This is especially true for the rapidly developing East Asian region, where high emissions have been repeatedly reported in recent years. We here present results from an air sampling activity in Taiwan and Malaysia during the spring months of 2013 and 2014. A large range of halocarbons, including a number of novel gases, were investigated via high sensitivity gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We find periods of relatively clean air as well as episodes that appear to be impacted by urban and/or industrial emissions and examine correlations between individual species. Observed mixing ratios are compared in context with both global background data and other regional studies. Enhancements in the abundances of many halocarbons are detected with examples including the Halons 1211 and 1202 as well as the very long-lived perfluorocarbons c-C4F8, C5F12 and C7F16. We also show and evaluate unusually high mixing ratios of other globally growing halocarbons such as sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), HCFC-133a (CF3CH2Cl), and CFC-113a (CF3CCl3). Finally, we use NAME analysis to produce back-trajectories in order to assess possible regional emission sources.

  2. Method for evaluating trends in greenhouse gases from ground-based remote FTIR measurements over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, T.; Forbes, A.; Woods, P.; Demaziere, M.; Vigouroux, C.; Mahieu, E.; Demoulin, P.; Velazco, V.; Notholt, J.; Blumenstock, T.; Hase, F.; Kramer, I.; Sussman, R.; Stremme, W.; Mellqvist, J.; Strandberg, A.; Ellingsen, K.; Gauss, M.

    2007-11-01

    This paper describes the statistical analysis of annual trends in long term datasets of greenhouse gas measurements taken over ten or more years. The analysis technique employs a bootstrap resampling method to determine both the long-term and intra-annual variability of the datasets, together with the uncertainties on the trend values. The method has been applied to data from a European network of ground-based solar FTIR instruments to determine the trends in the tropospheric, stratospheric and total columns of ozone, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ethane and HCFC-22. The suitability of the method has been demonstrated through statistical validation of the technique, and comparison with ground-based in-situ measurements and 3-D atmospheric models.

  3. The Role of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases and Aerosols in Climate Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Bond, Tami C.; Wigley, Tom M.; de la Chesnaye, Francisco; Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2003-11-17

    Forcing agents other than carbon dioxide, such as methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and perhaps aerosol particles, may play a major role in mitigating climate change. Of these agents, methane is the most important greenhouse gas and has substantial mitigation potential. The role of black and organic carbon aerosols has attracted increasing interest and we explicitly include these carbonaceous aerosols in our calculations. This paper analyzes the potential role of different forcing agents in reducing future climate forcing in a multi-gas, integrated assessment model in which mitigation options compete and interact. Our framework includes all of the important atmospheric forcing agents: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, sulfur dioxide, and carbonaceous aerosols along with an array of potential mitigation options. Through an integrated analysis of all available options we present a realistic portrait of the potential role of these forcing agents in limiting future climate change.

  4. CLAIRE: a Canadian Small Satellite Mission for Measurement of Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, James; Grant, Cordell; Germain, Stephane; Durak, Berke; McKeever, Jason; Latendresse, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    CLAIRE, a Canadian mission operated by GHGSat Inc. of Montreal, is the world's first satellite designed to measure greenhouse gas emissions from single targeted industrial facilities. Claire was launched earlier this year into a 500 km polar sun-synchronous orbit selected to provide an acceptable balance between return frequency and spatial resolution. Extensive simulations of oil & gas facilities, power plants, hydro reservoirs and even animal feedlots were used to predict the mission performance. The principal goal is to measure the emission rates of carbon dioxide and methane from selected targets with greater precision and lower cost than ground-based alternatives. CLAIRE will measure sources having surface areas less than 10 x 10 km2 with a spatial resolution better than 50 m, thereby providing industrial site operators and government regulators with the information they need to understand, manage and ultimately to reduce greenhouse gas emissions more economically. The sensor is based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer, coupled with a 2D InGaAs focal plane array operating in the short-wave infrared with a spectral resolution of about 0.1 nm. The patented, high étendue, instrument design provides signal to noise ratios that permit quantification of emission rates with accuracies adequate for most regulatory reporting thresholds. The very high spatial resolution of the density maps produced by the CLAIRE mission resolves plume shapes and emitter locations so that advanced dispersion models can derive accurate emission rates of multiple sources within the field of view. The satellite bus, provided by the University of Toronto's Space Flight Laboratory, is based on the well-characterized NEMO architecture, including hardware that has significant spaceflight heritage. The mission is currently undergoing initial test and validation measurements in preparation for commercial operation later this year.

  5. Recycling of wood for particle board production: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    PubMed

    Merrild, Hanna; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the recycling of wood waste have been assessed with the purpose to provide useful data that can be used in accounting of greenhouse gas emissions. Here we present data related to the activities in a material recovery facility (MRF) where wood waste is shredded and foreign objects are removed in order to produce wood chips for use in the production of particleboard. The data are presented in accordance with the UOD (upstream, operational, downstream) framework presented in Gentil et al. (Waste Management & Research, 27, 2009). The GHG accounting shows that the emissions related to upstream activities (5 to 41 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne( -1) wood waste) and to activities at the MRF (approximately 5 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) wood waste) are negligible compared to the downstream processing (-560 to -120 kg CO(2)equivalents tonne(-1) wood waste). The magnitude of the savings in GHG emissions downstream are mainly related to savings in energy consumption for drying of fresh wood for particleboard production. However, the GHG account highly depends on the choices made in the modelling of the downstream system. The inclusion of saved electricity from avoided chipping of virgin wood does not change the results radically (-665 to -125 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(- 1) wood waste). However, if in addition it is assumed that the GHG emissions from combustion of wood has no global warming potential (GWP) and that the energy produced from excess wood due to recycling substitutes energy from fossil fuels, here assumed to be coal, potentially large downstream GHG emissions savings can be achieved by recycling of waste wood (-1.9 to -1.3 tonnes CO(2)-equivalents tonne(- 1) wood waste). As the data ranges are broad, it is necessary to carefully evaluate the feasibility of the data in the specific system which the GHG accounting is to be applied to.

  6. Impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel on emissions of regulated pollutants and greenhouse gases on a 2000 heavy duty diesel truck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Kwangsam; Biswas, Subhasis; Robertson, William; Sahay, Keshav; Okamoto, Robert; Mitchell, Alexander; Lemieux, Sharon

    2015-04-01

    As part of a broad evaluation of the environmental impacts of biodiesel and renewable diesel as alternative motor fuels and fuel blends in California, the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) Heavy-duty Diesel Emission Testing Laboratory conducted chassis dynamometer exhaust emission measurements on in-use heavy-heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDT). The results presented here detail the impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels and fuel blends as compared to CARB ULSD on particulate matter (PM), regulated gases, and two greenhouse gases emissions from a HHDDT with a 2000 C15 Caterpillar engine with no exhaust after treatment devices. This vehicle was tested over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and the cruise portion of the California HHDDT driving schedule. Three neat blend stocks (soy-based and animal-based fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesels, and a renewable diesel) and CARB-certified ultra-low sulfur diesel (CARB ULSD) along with their 20% and 50% blends (blended with CARB ULSD) were tested. The effects of blend level on emission characteristics were discussed on g·km-1 basis. The results showed that PM, total hydrocarbon (THC), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were dependent on driving cycles, showing higher emissions for the UDDS cycles with medium load than the highway cruise cycle with high load on per km basis. When comparing CARB ULSD to biodiesels and renewable diesel blends, it was observed that the PM, THC, and CO emissions decreased with increasing blend levels regardless of the driving cycles. Note that biodiesel blends showed higher degree of emission reductions for PM, THC, and CO than renewable diesel blends. Both biodiesels and renewable diesel blends effectively reduced PM emissions, mainly due to reduction in elemental carbon emissions (EC), however no readily apparent reductions in organic carbon (OC) emissions were observed. When compared to CARB ULSD, soy- and animal-based biodiesel blends showed statistically

  7. Intensive flux measurements and analysis of greenhouse gases from an upland cabbage field at Kunsan, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Na, U.

    2010-12-01

    significantly higher than those (negative value) during January (winter) when sub soil have low temperature and relatively high moisture due to snow during the winter measurement period. Averages of soil temperature and moisture during these months were 17.5±1.2oC, 45.7±8.2%WFPS for October; and 1.4±1.3oC, 89.9±8.8%WFPS for January. It may indicate that soil temperature and moisture have significant role in determining whether the CO2 and CH4 emission or uptake take place. Low temperature and high moisture above a certain optimum level during winter could weaken microbial activity and the gas diffusion in soil matrix, and then make soil GHG emission to the atmosphere decrease. Other soil parameters were also correlated with GHG emissions and discussed. Both positive and negative gas fluxes in CH4 and CO2 were observed during these measurements, but not for N2O. CH4 and CO2 gases seem to be emitted from soil surface or up taken by the soil depending on other factors such as background concentrations and physicochemical soil conditions. However, still there are many uncertainties and large scarcities in both their determination methods and soil GHG flux data. Improvement of measurement techniques and well-understanding of relationships between gas emission and controlling factors in such environments need to be required.

  8. Increased spring flooding of agricultural fields will exhibit altered production of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, R. F.; Smith, C. M.; Smyth, E. M.; Kantola, I. B.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Corn Belt currently is a net source of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, but is also a sink of methane. Among the proposed effects of climate change in the North American Midwest region is an increase in the frequency and duration of spring flooding events. This would cause ponding in fields which may change the greenhouse gas balance of the region, especially by providing a suitable anoxic environment for the proliferation of methanogens, increasing methane emissions. To determine whether methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural soils of the Midwest and how other gas fluxes are affected, we installed collars into the ground of a research field located in central Illinois. The control group was maintained at the same conditions as the surrounding field. Two groups of collars were sustained with water flooding the headspaces via a drip irrigation system; one treatment was analyzed for gas fluxes of CH4, N2O, and CO2 evolving from the collars, and a separate treatment of flooded collars was used for soil sampling. Comparing flooded soils versus control we measured reduced N2O fluxes (-3.12 x 10-6 × 6.8 x 10-7 g N m-2 min-1), reduced CO2 fluxes (-6.13 x 10-3 × 9.3 x 10-4 g CO2 m-2 min-1), and increased methane fluxes (+2.72 x 10-6 × 5.8 x 10-7 g CH4 m-2 min-1). After only one week of treatment the flooded soils switched from being sinks to sources of methane, which continued across the duration of the experiment. These preliminary results indicate that methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural fields, and suggest including regional modeling into further study. Although the global warming potential of methane is 25 times greater than CO2, our measured rates of methane production were compensated by reductions in nitrous oxide and CO2 fluxes, reducing the total 100-year horizon global warming potential of the flooded soils we studied by 64.8%. This indicates that accounting for more frequent seasonal ponding would significantly

  9. Greenhouse gases generated from the anaerobic biodegradation of natural offshore asphalt seepages in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenson, T.D.; Wong, Florence L.; Dartnell, Peter; Sliter, Ray W.

    2014-01-01

    Significant offshore asphaltic deposits with active seepage occur in the Santa Barbara Channel offshore southern California. The composition and isotopic signatures of gases sampled from the oil and gas seeps reveal that the coexisting oil in the shallow subsurface is anaerobically biodegraded, generating CO2 with secondary CH4 production. Biomineralization can result in the consumption of as much as 60% by weight of the original oil, with 13C enrichment of CO2. Analyses of gas emitted from asphaltic accumulations or seeps on the seafloor indicate up to 11% CO2 with 13C enrichment reaching +24.8‰. Methane concentrations range from less than 30% up to 98% with isotopic compositions of –34.9 to –66.1‰. Higher molecular weight hydrocarbon gases are present in strongly varying concentrations reflecting both oil-associated gas and biodegradation; propane is preferentially biodegraded, resulting in an enriched 13C isotopic composition as enriched as –19.5‰. Assuming the 132 million barrels of asphaltic residues on the seafloor represent ~40% of the original oil volume and mass, the estimated gas generated is 5.0×1010 kg (~76×109 m3) CH4 and/or 1.4×1011 kg CO2 over the lifetime of seepage needed to produce the volume of these deposits. Geologic relationships and oil weathering inferences suggest the deposits are of early Holocene age or even younger. Assuming an age of ~1,000 years, annual fluxes are on the order of 5.0×107 kg (~76×106 m3) and/or 1.4×108 kg for CH4 and CO2, respectively. The daily volumetric emission rate (2.1×105 m3) is comparable to current CH4 emission from Coal Oil Point seeps (1.5×105 m3/day), and may be a significant source of both CH4 and CO2 to the atmosphere provided that the gas can be transported through the water column.

  10. Prospects of and requirements for nuclear power as a contributor toward managing greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Hassberger, J.A., Schock, R.N.; Isaacs, T.H.

    1997-10-23

    The world`s population, energy demand, and rate of carbon emissions are increasing, but the rates of increase are uncertain. Even modest growth rates present significant challenges to existing and developing technologies for reducing carbon and greenhouse gas emissions while meeting growing energy demands. Nuclear power is currently the most developed alternative to fossil fuel combustion and is one of the options for meeting these challenges. However, there remain significant technical, economic and institutional barriers inhibiting growth of nuclear capacity in the U.S. and slowing implementation worldwide. In the near-term, the major barriers to nuclear power, especially in the U.S., appear to be economic and institutional, with the risks such as safety, waste management and proliferation having reasonably acceptable limits considering the current installed capacity. Future growth of nuclear power, however, may well hinge on continuous evolutionary and perhaps revolutionary reduction of these risks such that the overall risk of nuclear power, aggregated over the entire installed capacity, remains at or below today`s risks.

  11. Co-control of urban air pollutants and greenhouse gases in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    West, J Jason; Osnaya, Patricia; Laguna, Israel; Martínez, Julia; Fernández, Adrián

    2004-07-01

    This study addresses the synergies of mitigation measures to control urban air pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in developing integrated "co-control" strategies for Mexico City. First, existing studies of emissions reduction measures--PROAIRE (the air quality plan for Mexico City) and separate GHG studies--are used to construct a harmonized database of options. Second, linear programming (LP) is developed and applied as a decision-support tool to analyze least-cost strategies for meeting co-control targets for multiple pollutants. We estimate that implementing PROAIRE measures as planned will reduce 3.1% of the 2010 metropolitan CO2 emissions, in addition to substantial local air pollutant reductions. Applying the LP, PROAIRE emissions reductions can be met at a 20% lower cost, using only the PROAIRE measures, by adjusting investments toward the more cost-effective measures; lower net costs are possible by including cost-saving GHG mitigation measures, but with increased investment. When CO2 emission reduction targets are added to PROAIRE targets, the most cost-effective solutions use PROAIRE measures for the majority of local pollutant reductions, and GHG measures for additional CO2 control. Because of synergies, the integrated planning of urban-global co-control can be beneficial, but we estimate that for Mexico City these benefits are often small.

  12. The seasonal variation of emission of greenhouse gases from a full-scale sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Shuhei; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Sano, Itsumi; Li, Yu-You; Nishimura, Osamu

    2015-12-01

    The seasonal variety of greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions and the main emission source in a sewage treatment plant were investigated. The emission coefficient to treated wastewater was 291gCO2m(-3). The main source of GHGs was CO2 from the consumption of electricity, nitrous oxide from the sludge incineration process, and methane from the water treatment process. They accounted for 43.4%, 41.7% and 8.3% of the total amount of GHGs emissions, respectively. The amount of methane was plotted as a function of water temperature ranging between 13.3 and 27.3°C. An aeration tank was the main source of methane emission from all the units. Almost all the methane was emitted from the aeration tank, which accounted for 86.4% of the total gaseous methane emission. However, 18.4% of the methane was produced in sewage lines, 15.4% in the primary sedimentation tank, and 60.0% in the aeration tank.

  13. Relevance of emissions timing in biofuel greenhouse gases and climate impacts.

    PubMed

    Schwietzke, Stefan; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2011-10-01

    Employing life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as a key performance metric in energy and environmental policy may underestimate actual climate change impacts. Emissions released early in the life cycle cause greater cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) over the next decades than later emissions. Some indicate that ignoring emissions timing in traditional biofuel GHG accounting overestimates the effectiveness of policies supporting corn ethanol by 10-90% due to early land use change (LUC) induced GHGs. We use an IPCC climate model to (1) estimate absolute CRF from U.S. corn ethanol and (2) quantify an emissions timing factor (ETF), which is masked in the traditional GHG accounting. In contrast to earlier analyses, ETF is only 2% (5%) over 100 (50) years of impacts. Emissions uncertainty itself (LUC, fuel production period) is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher, which dwarfs the timing effect. From a GHG accounting perspective, emissions timing adds little to our understanding of the climate impacts of biofuels. However, policy makers should recognize that ETF could significantly decrease corn ethanol's probability of meeting the 20% GHG reduction target in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. The added uncertainty of potentially employing more complex emissions metrics is yet to be quantified.

  14. Composting and compost utilization: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K; Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas H; Favoino, Enzo

    2009-11-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to composting of organic waste and the use of compost were assessed from a waste management perspective. The GHG accounting for composting includes use of electricity and fuels, emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from the composting process, and savings obtained by the use of the compost. The GHG account depends on waste type and composition (kitchen organics, garden waste), technology type (open systems, closed systems, home composting), the efficiency of off-gas cleaning at enclosed composting systems, and the use of the compost. The latter is an important issue and is related to the long-term binding of carbon in the soil, to related effects in terms of soil improvement and to what the compost substitutes; this could be fertilizer and peat for soil improvement or for growth media production. The overall global warming factor (GWF) for composting therefore varies between significant savings (-900 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) wet waste (ww)) and a net load (300 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne( -1) ww). The major savings are obtained by use of compost as a substitute for peat in the production of growth media. However, it may be difficult for a specific composting plant to document how the compost is used and what it actually substitutes for. Two cases representing various technologies were assessed showing how GHG accounting can be done when specific information and data are available.

  15. Greenhouse gases and other airborne pollutants from household stoves in China: a database for emission factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Smith, K. R.; Ma, Y.; Ye, S.; Jiang, F.; Qi, W.; Liu, P.; Khalil, M. A. K.; Rasmussen, R. A.; Thorneloe, S. A.

    Emissions from household stoves, especially those using solid fuels, can contribute significantly to greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories and have adverse health impacts. Few data are available on emissions from the numerous types of cookstoves used in developing countries. We have systematically measured emissions from 56 fuel/stove combinations in India and China, a large fraction of the combinations in use world-wide. A database was generated containing emission factors of direct and indirect GHGs and other airborne pollutants such as CO 2, CO, CH 4, TNMHC, N 2O, SO 2, NO x, TSP, etc. In this paper, we report on the 28 fuel/stove combinations tested in China. Since fuel and stove parameters were measured simultaneously along with the emissions, the database allows construction of complete carbon balances and analyses of the trade-off of emissions per unit fuel mass and emissions per delivered energy. Results from the analyses show that the total emissions per unit delivered energy were substantially greater from burning the solid fuels than from burning the liquid or gaseous fuels, due to lower thermal and combustion efficiencies for solid-fuel/stove combinations. For a given biomass fuel type, increasing overall stove efficiency tends to increase emissions of products of incomplete combustion. Biomass fuels are typically burned with substantial production of non-CO 2 GHGs with greater radiative forcing, indicating that biomass fuels have the potential to produce net global warming commitments even when grown renewably.

  16. Quantified estimates of total GWPs for greenhouse gases taking into account tropospheric chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Tamaresis, J.S.; Patten, K.O.

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to give interim account of the progress being made at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in developing an improved capability for assessing the direct and indirect effects on Global Warming Potentials. Much of our current efforts are being devoted to improving the capability for modeling of global tropospheric processes in our state-of-the-art zonally-averaged chemical-radiative-transport model of the troposphere and stratosphere. These efforts are in preparation for an improved evaluation and better quantification of the indirect GWPs resulting from effects on tropospheric ozone from ethane and other gases with significant human-related emissions. There are three major findings that should result from this project that should have significant impacts on EPA and its programs. First, the current and ongoing studies of the direct and indirect GWPs should have a significant influence on the continuing national and international assessments of climate change. Second, the improved capability for modeling of chemical and physical processes should lead to enhanced understanding of the controlling factors influencing ozone, hydroxyl and other key tropospheric constituents. Third, the enhanced modeling capability should be important to future studies of human-related influences on tropospheric and stratospheric chemical processes.

  17. Emission Factors of Greenhouse Gases and Particulates from Australian Savanna Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desservettaz, M.; Paton-Walsh, C.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Kettlewell, G.; Wilson, S. R.; Keywood, M. D.; van der Schoot, M. V.; Selleck, P. W.; Ward, J.; Harnwell, J.; Reisen, F.; Lawson, S. J.; Ristovski, Z.; Mallet, M.; Miljevic, B.; Atkinson, B.; Milic, A.

    2015-12-01

    In June 2014 a measurement campaign took place at Gunn Point in the Northern Territory, Australia, aimed at characterising the emissions from early dry season savanna fires. The campaign was especially focused on understanding aerosol composition and size distribution. Equipment deployed to measure aerosol properties included a multi-angle absorption photometer, a nephelometer, a cloud condensation nuclei counter, a condensation particle counter, two scanning mobility particle sizer, two aerosol mass spectrometers (one a time of flight instrument) , a multi-axis differential optical absorption spectrometer, a volatility-humidity tandem differential mobility analyser and two high volume aerosol samplers (one PM10 and one MOUDI). In addition there were measurements of mercury in both gas and aerosol phase. Complementary measurements of trace gases were provided by a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer, a volatile organic compounds sequencer, a Fourier transform spectrometer, an ozone analyser and a nitrogen oxides monitor. This presentation will present results from the Fourier transform spectrometer, the scanning mobility particulate sizer, the beta attenuation monitor and the aerosol mass spectrometer. In particular individual fire events have been identified and emission factors calculated for CO2, CO, CH4 N2O and aerosols (PM1, PM10, Aitken and Accumulation mode).

  18. Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation fuel-cyl

    2000-06-20

    The GREET model estimates the full fuel-cycle energy use and emissions associated with various transportation fuels and advanced vehile technologies applied to motor vehicles. GREET 1.5 includes the following cycles: petroleum to conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, conventional diesel, reformulated diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity via residual oil; natural gas to compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, dimethyl ether, hydrogen, and electricity; coal to electricity; corn, woody biomass, andmore » herbaceous biomass to ethanol; soybeans to biodiesel; flared gas to methanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and dimethyl ether; and landfill gases to methanol. For a given fuel/transportation technology combination, GREET 1.5 calculates (1) the fuel-cycle consumption of total energy (all energy sources), fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, and coal), and petroleum; (2) the fuel-cycle emissions of GHGs -- primarily carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N20); and (3) the fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (C0), nitrogen oxides (N0x), sulfur oxides (S0x), and particulate matter with a diameter measuring 10 micrometers or less (PM10). The model is designed to readily allow researchers to input their own assumptions and generate fuel-cycle energy and emission results for specified fuel/technology combinations.« less

  19. Potential effects of clean coal technologies on acid precipitation, greenhouse gases, and solid waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T.J.; Miller, R.L.; McCold, L.N.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) was initially funded by Congress to demonstrate more efficient, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable coal technologies. Although the environmental focus at first was on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) because their relationship to acid precipitation, the CCTDP may also lead to reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions and in the volume of solid waste produced, compared with conventional technologies. The environmental effects of clean coal technologies (CCTs) depend upon which (if any) specific technologies eventually achieve high acceptance in the marketplace. In general, the repowering technologies and a small group of retrofit technologies show the most promise for reducing C0{sub 2} emissions and solid waste. These technologies also compare favorably with other CCTs in terms of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} reductions. The upper bound for CO{sup 2} reductions in the year 2010 is only enough to reduce global ``greenhouse`` warming potential by about 1%. However, CO{sub 2} emissions come from such variety of sources around the globe that no single technological innovation or national policy change could realistically be expected to reduce these emissions by more than a few percent. Particular CCTs can lead to either increases or decreases in the amount of solid waste produced. However, even if decreases are not achieved, much of the solid waste from clean coal technologies would be dry and therefore easier to dispose of than scrubber sludge.

  20. Recycling of metals: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    PubMed

    Damgaard, Anders; Larsen, Anna W; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to recycling of metals in post-consumer waste are assessed from a waste management perspective; here the material recovery facility (MRF), for the sorting of the recovered metal. The GHG accounting includes indirect upstream emissions, direct activities at the MRF as well as indirect downstream activities in terms of reprocessing of the metal scrap and savings in terms of avoided production of virgin metal. The global warming factor (GWF) shows that upstream activities and the MRF causes negligible GHG emissions (12.8 to 52.6 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) recovered metal) compared to the reprocessing of the metal itself (360-1260 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) of recovered aluminium and 400- 1020 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(- 1) of recovered steel).The reprocessing is however counterbalanced by large savings of avoided virgin production of steel and aluminium. The net downstream savings were found to be 5040-19 340 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) of treated aluminium and 560-2360 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) of treated steel. Due to the huge differences in reported data it is hard to compare general data on the recovery of metal scrap as they are very dependent on the technology and data choices. Furthermore, the energy used in both the recovery process as well as the avoided primary production is crucial. The range of avoided impact shows that recovery of metals will always be beneficial over primary production, due to the high energy savings, and that the GHG emissions associated with the sorting of metals are negligible.

  1. Modern to millennium-old greenhouse gases emitted from freshwater ecosystems of the eastern Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, F.; Laurion, I.; Preskienis, V.; Fortier, D.; Xu, X.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2015-07-01

    Ponds and lakes are widespread across the rapidly changing permafrost environments. Aquatic systems play an important role in global biogeochemical cycles, especially in greenhouse gas (GHG) exchanges between terrestrial systems and the atmosphere. The source, speciation and emission of carbon released from permafrost landscapes are strongly influenced by local specific conditions rather than general environmental setting. This study reports on GHG ages and emission rates from aquatic systems on Bylot Island in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Dissolved and ebullition gas samples were collected during the summer season from different types of water bodies located in a highly dynamic periglacial valley: polygonal ponds, collapsed ice-wedge trough ponds, and larger lakes overlying unfrozen soils (talik). The results showed strikingly different ages and fluxes depending on aquatic system types. Polygonal ponds were net sinks of dissolved CO2, but variable sources of dissolved CH4. They presented the highest ebullition fluxes, one or two orders of magnitude higher than from other ponds and lakes. Trough ponds appeared as substantial GHG sources, especially when their edges were actively eroding. Both types of ponds produced modern to hundreds of years old (<550 yr BP) GHG, even if trough ponds could contain much older carbon (>2000 yr BP) derived from freshly eroded peat. Lakes had small dissolved and ebullition fluxes, however they released much older GHG, including millennium-old CH4 (up to 3500 yr BP) sampled from lake central areas. Acetoclastic methanogenesis dominated at all study sites and there was minimal, if any, methane oxidation in gas emitted through ebullition. These findings provide new insights on the variable role of permafrost aquatic systems as a positive feedback mechanism on climate.

  2. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics and greenhouse gases emissions in constructed wetlands: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahangir, M. M. R.; Fenton, O.; Gill, L.; Müller, C.; Johnston, P.; Richards, K. G.

    2014-07-01

    The nitrogen (N) removal efficiency of constructed wetlands (CWs) is very inconsistent and does not alone explain if the removed species are reduced by physical attenuation or if they are transformed to other reactive forms (pollution swapping). There are many pathways for the removed N to remain in the system: accumulation in the sediments, leaching to groundwater (nitrate-NO3- and ammonium-NH4+), emission to atmosphere via nitrous oxide- N2O and ammonia and/or conversion to N2 gas and adsorption to sediments. The kinetics of these pathways/processes varies with CWs management and therefore needs to be studied quantitatively for the sustainable use of CWs. For example, the quality of groundwater underlying CWs with regards to the reactive N (Nr) species is largely unknown. Equally, there is a dearth of information on the extent of Nr accumulation in soils and discharge to surface waters and air. Moreover, CWs are rich in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and produce substantial amounts of CO2 and CH4. These dissolved carbon (C) species drain out to ground and surface waters and emit to the atmosphere. The dynamics of dissolved N2O, CO2 and CH4 in CWs is a key "missing piece" in our understanding of global greenhouse gas budgets. In this review we provide an overview of the current knowledge and discussion about the dynamics of C and N in CWs and their likely impacts on aquatic and atmospheric environments. We suggest that the fate of various N species in CWs and their surface emissions and subsurface drainage fluxes need to be evaluated in a holistic way to better understand their potential for pollution swapping. Research on the process based N removal and balancing the end products into reactive and benign forms are critical to assess environmental impacts of CWs. Thus we strongly suggest that in situ N transformation and fate of the transformation products with regards to pollution swapping requires further detailed examination.

  3. Greenhouse gases in non-oxygenated and artificially oxygenated eutrophied lakes during winter stratification.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, J T; Hammar, T; Alm, J; Silvola, J; Martikainen, P J

    2001-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured in the water columns of non-oxygenated and artificially oxygenated, ice-covered eutrophied lakes in the mid-boreal zone in Finland during late winter 1997 and 1999. Sampling was conducted during winter stratification, the critical period for oxygen (O2) deficiency in seasonally ice-covered, thermally stratified lakes. Oxygen concentrations were maintained at least at a moderate level throughout the oxygenated water columns, whereas the non-oxygenated columns suffered anoxic hypolimnia. The mean concentrations of dissolved CH4 exceeding the atmospheric equilibrium were greater in the non-oxygenated water columns (20.6-154 microM) than in the oxygenated ones (0.01-1.41 microM). In contrast, the mean excess CO2 concentrations varied less between the non-oxygenated and oxygenated sites (0.28-0.47 and 0.25-0.31 mM, respectively). Oxygenated water columns had greater mean excess concentrations of N2O (0.018-0.032 microM) than the non-oxygenated ones (0.005-0.024 microM). If the accumulated greenhouse gas stores in the water columns during winter are assumed to be released to the atmosphere during the spring overturn, the global warming potentials (GWP, time horizon 100 yr) of these potential emissions at the non-oxygenated, eutrophic study sites ranged from 177 to 654 g CO2 equivalent (CO2-e) m-2 compared with 144 to 173 g CO2-e m-2 at the oxygenated sites. The increase in the accumulation of CH4 was the main reason for the higher GWP of the non-oxygenated sites. Anthropogenic eutrophication of lake ecosystems can generate increased CH4 emissions due to associated O2 depletion of their sediment and water column.

  4. Recycling of plastic: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    PubMed

    Astrup, Thomas; Fruergaard, Thilde; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    Major greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to plastic waste recycling were evaluated with respect to three management alternatives: recycling of clean, single-type plastic, recycling of mixed/contaminated plastic, and use of plastic waste as fuel in industrial processes. Source-separated plastic waste was received at a material recovery facility (MRF) and processed for granulation and subsequent downstream use. In the three alternatives, plastic was assumed to be substituting virgin plastic in new products, wood in low-strength products (outdoor furniture, fences, etc.), and coal or fuel oil in the case of energy utilization. GHG accounting was organized in terms of indirect upstream emissions (e.g. provision of energy, fuels, and materials), direct emissions at the MRF (e.g. fuel combustion), and indirect downstream emissions (e.g. avoided emissions from production of virgin plastic, wood, or coal/oil). Combined, upstream and direct emissions were estimated to be roughly between 5 and 600 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) of plastic waste depending on treatment at the MRF and CO(2) emissions from electricity production. Potential downstream savings arising from substitution of virgin plastic, wood, and energy fuels were estimated to be around 60- 1600 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) of plastic waste depending on substitution ratios and CO(2) emissions from electricity production. Based on the reviewed data, it was concluded that substitution of virgin plastic should be preferred. If this is not viable due to a mixture of different plastic types and/or contamination, the plastic should be used for energy utilization. Recycling of plastic waste for substitution of other materials such as wood provided no savings with respect to global warming.

  5. Recycling of glass: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anna W; Merrild, Hanna; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to recycling of glass waste were assessed from a waste management perspective. Focus was on the material recovery facility (MRF) where the initial sorting of glass waste takes place. The MRF delivers products like cullet and whole bottles to other industries. Two possible uses of reprocessed glass waste were considered: (i) remelting of cullet added to glass production; and (ii) re-use of whole bottles. The GHG emission accounting included indirect upstream emissions (provision of energy, fuels and auxiliaries), direct activities at the MRF and bottle-wash facility (combustion of fuels) as well as indirect downstream activities in terms of using the recovered glass waste in other industries and, thereby, avoiding emissions from conventional production. The GHG accounting was presented as aggregated global warming factors (GWFs) for the direct and indirect upstream and downstream processes, respectively. The range of GWFs was estimated to 0-70 kg CO(2)eq. tonne( -1) of glass waste for the upstream activities and the direct emissions from the waste management system. The GWF for the downstream effect showed some significant variation between the two cases. It was estimated to approximately -500 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(- 1) of glass waste for the remelting technology and -1500 to -600 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(-1) of glass waste for bottle re-use. Including the downstream process, large savings of GHG emissions can be attributed to the waste management system. The results showed that, in GHG emission accounting, attention should be drawn to thorough analysis of energy sources, especially electricity, and the downstream savings caused by material substitution.

  6. Emission of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide and methane from constructed wetlands in europe.

    PubMed

    Søvik, A K; Augustin, J; Heikkinen, K; Huttunen, J T; Necki, J M; Karjalainen, S M; Kløve, B; Liikanen, A; Mander, U; Puustinen, M; Teiter, S; Wachniew, P

    2006-01-01

    The potential atmospheric impact of constructed wetlands (CWs) should be examined as there is a worldwide increase in the development of these systems. Fluxes of N(2)O, CH(4), and CO(2) have been measured from CWs in Estonia, Finland, Norway, and Poland during winter and summer in horizontal and vertical subsurface flow (HSSF and VSSF), free surface water (FSW), and overland and groundwater flow (OGF) wetlands. The fluxes of N(2)O-N, CH(4)-C, and CO(2)-C ranged from -2.1 to 1000, -32 to 38 000, and -840 to 93 000 mg m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Emissions of N(2)O and CH(4) were significantly higher during summer than during winter. The VSSF wetlands had the highest fluxes of N(2)O during both summer and winter. Methane emissions were highest from the FSW wetlands during wintertime. In the HSSF wetlands, the emissions of N(2)O and CH(4) were in general highest in the inlet section. The vegetated ponds in the FSW wetlands released more N(2)O than the nonvegetated ponds. The global warming potential (GWP), summarizing the mean N(2)O and CH(4) emissions, ranged from 5700 to 26000 and 830 to 5100 mg CO(2) equivalents m(-2) d(-1) for the four CW types in summer and winter, respectively. The wintertime GWP was 8.5 to 89.5% of the corresponding summertime GWP, which highlights the importance of the cold season in the annual greenhouse gas release from north temperate and boreal CWs. However, due to their generally small area North European CWs were suggested to represent only a minor source for atmospheric N(2)O and CH(4).

  7. Emissions of greenhouse gases and other airborne pollutants from charcoal making in Kenya and Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennise, David M.; Smith, Kirk R.; Kithinji, Jacob P.; Rezende, Maria Emilia; Raad, Tulio Jardim; Zhang, Junfeng; Fan, Chengwei

    2001-10-01

    Airborne emissions from charcoal-making kilns commonly used in Kenya and Brazil were measured during typical operating conditions. Emission factors were determined for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO), total nonmethane hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and total suspended particulates (TSP) along with charcoal production efficiency and charcoal and fuelwood carbon and energy contents. The conversion of wood carbon to charcoal carbon ranged from 37 to 69%, depending on kiln type. Emission factors, expressed as grams of pollutant per kilogram of charcoal produced, for the eight kilns ranged from 543 to 3027 for CO2, 32-62 for CH4, 143-373 for CO, 24-124 for total nonmethane organic compounds, 0.011-0.30 for N2O, 0.0054-0.13 for NOx, and 13-41 for TSP. On average, fuelwood carbon was approximately diverted as follows: 51% to charcoal, 27% to CO2, and 13% to products of incomplete combustion (PIC). Due to the higher global warming potentials (GWPs) of PIC relative to CO2 on a carbon atom basis, such kilns can produce rather large net greenhouse gas emissions, even when the wood is harvested renewably. Based on published GWPs for CO2, CH4, and N2O only, we estimate that 0.77-1.63 kg C-CO2 (carbon as carbon dioxide equivalents) is emitted per kilogram of charcoal produced. We estimate that the total primary global warming commitment (GWC) of Kenyan and Brazilian charcoal-making kiln emissions is about 2.7 and 7.5 million tons (Mt) C-CO2, respectively. For comparison, the primary GWC from fossil fuel use in the United States is almost 1700 Mt C-CO2.

  8. Quantifying the Sources and Sinks of Greenhouse Gases: What Does It Take to Satisfy Scientific and Decision-Making Needs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, K. J.; Keller, K.; Ogle, S. M.; Smith, S.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) are key drivers of anthropogenic climate change. It is hence not surprising that current and emerging U.S. governmental science priorities and programs focused on climate change (e.g. a U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Plan; the U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program, the U.S. Global Change Research Program, Executive Order 13653 'Preparing the U.S. for the Impacts of Climate Change') all call for an improved understanding of these sources and sinks.. Measurements of the total atmospheric burden of these gases are well established, but measurements of their sources and sinks are difficult to make over spatial and temporal scales that are relevant for scientific and decisionmaking needs. Quantifying the uncertainty in these measurements is particularly challenging. This talk reviews the intersection of the state of knowledge of GHG sources and sinks, focusing in particular on CO2 and CH4, and science and decision-making needs for this information. Different science and decision-making needs require differing levels of uncertainty. A number of high-priority needs (early detection of changes in the Earth system, projections of future climate, support of markets or regulations) often require a high degree of accuracy and/or precision. We will critically evaluate current U.S. planning to documents to infer current perceived needs for GHG source/sink quantification, attempting to translate these needs into quantitative uncertainty metrics. We will compare these perceived needs with the current state of the art of GHG source/sink quantification, including the apparent pattern of systematic differences between so-called "top down" and "bottom-up" flux estimates. This comparison will enable us to identify where needs can be readily satisfied, and where gaps in technology exist. Finally, we will examine what steps could be taken to close existing gaps.

  9. Inspection of non-CO2 greenhouse gases from emission sources and in ambient air by Fourier-transform-infrared-spectrometry: Measurements with FTIS-MAPS.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, K; Haus, R; Heland, J

    1994-05-01

    Infrared spectrometry is a versatile basis to analyse greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. A multicomponent air pollution software (MAPS) was developed for retrieval of gas concentrations from radiation emission as well as absorption measurements. Concentrations of CO, CH4, N2O, and H2O as well as CO2, NO, NO2, NH3, SO2, HCl, HCHO, and the temperature of warm gases are determined on-line. The analyses of greenhouse gases in gaseous emission sources and in ambient air are performed by a mobile remote sensing system using the double-pendulum interferometer K300 of the Munich company Kayser-Threde. Passive radiation measurements are performed to retrieve CO, N2O, and H2O as well as CO2, NO, SO2, and HCl concentrations in smoke stack effluents of thermal power plants and municipal incinerators and CO and H2O as well as CO2 and NO in exhausts of aircraft engines. Open-path radiation measurements are used to determine greenhouse gas concentrations at different ambient air conditions and greenhouse gas emission rates of diffusive sources as garbage deposits, open coal mining, stock farming together with additional compounds (e.g. NH3), and from road traffic together with HCHO. Some results of measurements are shown. A future task is the verification of emission cadastres by these inspection measurements.

  10. Eddy covariance measurements of greenhouse gases from a restored and rewetted raised bog ecosystem.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. C.; Christen, A.; Black, T. A.; Johnson, M. S.; Ketler, R.; Nesic, Z.; Merkens, M.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland ecosystems play a significant role in the global carbon (C) cycle. Wetlands act as a major long-term storage of carbon by sequestrating carbon-dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. Meanwhile, they can emit significant amounts of methane (CH4) due to anaerobic microbial decomposition. The Burns Bog Ecological Conservancy Area (BBECA) is recognized as one of Canada's largest undeveloped natural areas retained within an urban area. Historically, it has been substantially reduced in size and degraded by peat mining and agriculture. Since 2005, the bog has been declared a conservancy area, and the restoration efforts in BBECA focus on rewetting the disturbed ecosystems to promote a transition back to a raised bog. A pilot study measured CH4, CO2 and N2O exchanges in 2014 and concluded to monitor CO2, CH4 fluxes continuously. From the perspective of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, CO2 sequestered in bog needs to be protected and additional CO2 and CH4 emissions due to land-cover change need to be reduced by wise management. In this study, we measured the growing-season (June-September) fluxes of CO2 and CH4 exchange using eddy covariance (EC). A floating platform with an EC system for both CO2 (closed-path) and CH4 (open-path) began operation in June 2015. During the growing-season, gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) averaged 5.87 g C m-2 day-1 and 2.02 g C m-2 day-1, respectively. The magnitude of GEP and Re were lower than in previous studies of pristine northern peatlands. The daily average CH4 emission was 0.99 (±1.14) g C m-2 day-1 and it was higher than in most previous studies. We also characterized how environmental factors affected the seasonal dynamics of these exchanges in this disturbed peatland. Our measurements showed that soil temperature and soil water content were major drivers of seasonal changes of GHG fluxes. The daily average GHG warming potential (GWP) of the emissions in the growing seasons (from CO2 and CH4

  11. Why the developing nations like India need strong capacity building efforts in greenhouse gases mitigation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishal, V.; Sudhakaran, A.; Singh, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    Today, India rubs shoulders with nations like USA and China for being the major shareholders in global greenhouse emissions and has more emissions than Russia! Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) has been proven as a reliable method to counter global warming and keep the 2ºC per year policy in check and is currently in the pilot stage in many developed nations. The three major requirements for CCUS are: manpower in diverse fields, implementation potential and capital. Keeping other social problems aside, India still has sufficient mankind in all spheres of research ranging from earth science, engineering, basic sciences, economy, policy making, regulation, public outreach etc. to successfully work on such challenges. India has leading academic institutions, research labs and universities in science and engineering. They also have a working power force in aspects like economy, policy making, regulation, public outreach etc. in various management institutes of repute. India, however, lacks in sufficient funding for advanced research and capacity building schemes to support projects of such scale. Deployment of facts and concepts on climate change need an approach of much greater scope than what is anticipated. The above workforces can put forth a clear picture about the various entities surrounding CCUS and provide sensible planning and implementation information through scientific research. CCUS is only possible when the direct anthropogenic emitters like fossil fuel plants modify their features to incorporate the methods associated with it. The rural population has to be educated in context to the safety of the storage sites. Above all, the Indian government must holistically divert funds for such programs and provide economic incentives to the industries for the industries. The bottom line is that India has been working in lots of aspects with not very clear cuts objectives. There are CO2 capture technologies like amine scrubbing and membrane

  12. Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China

    SciTech Connect

    Niu Dongjie; Huang Hui; Dai Xiaohu; Zhao Youcai

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO{sub 2}, biogenic CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4,} and avoided CO{sub 2} as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO{sub 2}-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO{sub 2}), while the net CO{sub 2}-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO{sub 2}). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO{sub 2}-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO{sub 2}-eq reduction.

  13. Attribution of Ozone Changes in the Near Future: Nonlinear Feedbacks between Ozone Depleting Substances and Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meul, Stefanie; Oberländer, Sophie; Langematz, Ulrike

    2014-05-01

    In the first half of the 21st century the stratospheric burden of ozone depleting substances (ODSs) is predicted to decrease due to the regulations in the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. Concomitantly, the concentrations of well-mixed greenhouse gases (GHGs) will continue to rise. As the removal of the ODSs from the stratosphere is also affected by changes in the Brewer-Dobson Circulation, the decrease of halogens will also depend on the rate of the GHG increase. Furthermore, the increasing concentrations of the GHGs methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) can modify the halogen-ozone chemistry. Therefore, a non-linear contribution has to be included in the attribution analysis of the ozone changes to ODS and GHG changes. In this study we detect and analyze this non-linear term in a set of appropriately defined timeslice simulations for the year 2045 with the Chemistry-Climate-Model EMAC. The causal processes of the non-linear interactions are studied in more detail by separating the relative ozone changes in the contribution from chemistry (production and loss) and transport. This allows us to identify not only feedbacks between chemistry and temperature but also between chemistry and dynamics, i.e. ozone transport.

  14. Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Dong-jie; Huang, Hui; Dai, Xiao-hu; Zhao, You-cai

    2013-01-01

    About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening+anaerobic digestion+dewatering+residue land application in China. Fossil CO(2), biogenic CO(2), CH(4,) and avoided CO(2) as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO(2)-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO(2)), while the net CO(2)-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO(2)). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO(2)-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO(2)-eq reduction.

  15. [Diurnal changes in greenhouse gases at water-air interface of Xiangxi River in autumn and their influencing factors].

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Min; Zhu, Kong-Xian; Zhao, Wei; Yu, Bo-Shi; Yuan, Xi-Gong; Feng, Rui-Jie; Bi, Yong-Hong; Hu, Zheng-Yu

    2013-04-01

    With the closed chamber and gas chromatography method, a 24-hour continuous monitoring was carried out to understand the greenhouse gases fluxes across the water-air interface of the Xiangxi River Bay, the Three-Gorges Reservoir in Autumn. Results indicated that the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O across the water-air interface showed an obvious diurnal variation. The absorption and emission process of CH4 showed strong diurnal variation during the experimental period, reaching the highest emission at 1 am, whereas CO2 and N2O were emitted all day. The fluxes of CO2 ranged from 20.1-97.5 mg x (m2 x h)(-1) at day and 32.7-42.5 mg x (m2 x h)(-1) at night, the fluxes of N2O ranged from 18.4-133.7 microg x (m2 x h)(-1) at day and 42.1-102.6 microg x (m2 x h)(-1) at night. The fluxes of CO2 had positive correlation with wind speed and negative correlation with pH. The fluxes of N2O had positive correlation with pH.

  16. An environmental and economic evaluation of pyrolysis for energy generation in Taiwan with endogenous land greenhouse gases emissions.

    PubMed

    Kung, Chih-Chun; McCarl, Bruce A; Chen, Chi-Chung

    2014-03-11

    Taiwan suffers from energy insecurity and the threat of potential damage from global climate changes. Finding ways to alleviate these forces is the key to Taiwan's future social and economic development. This study examines the economic and environmental impacts when ethanol, conventional electricity and pyrolysis-based electricity are available alternatives. Biochar, as one of the most important by-product from pyrolysis, has the potential to provide significant environmental benefits. Therefore, alternative uses of biochar are also examined in this study. In addition, because planting energy crops would change the current land use pattern, resulting in significant land greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, this important factor is also incorporated. Results show that bioenergy production can satisfy part of Taiwan's energy demand, but net GHG emissions offset declines if ethanol is chosen. Moreover, at high GHG price conventional electricity and ethanol will be driven out and pyrolysis will be a dominant technology. Fast pyrolysis dominates when ethanol and GHG prices are low, but slow pyrolysis is dominant at high GHG price, especially when land GHG emissions are endogenously incorporated. The results indicate that when land GHG emission is incorporated, up to 3.8 billion kWh electricity can be produced from fast pyrolysis, while up to 2.2 million tons of CO2 equivalent can be offset if slow pyrolysis is applied.

  17. Evaluation of process conditions triggering emissions of green-house gases from a biological wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Caballero, A; Aymerich, I; Poch, M; Pijuan, M

    2014-09-15

    In this study, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission dynamics of a plug-flow bioreactor located in a municipal full-scale wastewater treatment plant were monitored during a period of 10 weeks. In general, CH4 and N2O gas emissions from the bioreactor accounted for 0.016% of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 0.116% of the influent total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) respectively. In order to identify the emission patterns in the different zones, the bioreactor was divided in six different sampling sites and the gas collection hood was placed for a period of 2-3 days in each of these sites. This sampling strategy also allowed the identification of different process perturbations leading to CH4 or N2O peak emissions. CH4 emissions mainly occurred in the first aerated site, and were mostly related with the influent and reject wastewater flows entering the bioreactor. On the other hand, N2O emissions were given along all the aerated parts of the bioreactor and were strongly dependant on the occurrence of process disturbances such as periods of no aeration or nitrification instability. Dissolved CH4 and N2O concentrations were monitored in the bioreactor and in other parts of the plant, as a contribution for the better understanding of the transport of these greenhouse gases across the different stages of the treatment system.

  18. Low-power, open-path mobile sensing platform for high-resolution measurements of greenhouse gases and air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Lei; Sun, Kang; Miller, David J.; Pan, Dan; Golston, Levi M.; Zondlo, Mark A.

    2015-04-01

    A low-power mobile sensing platform has been developed with multiple open-path gas sensors to measure the ambient concentrations of greenhouse gases and air pollutants with high temporal and spatial resolutions over extensive spatial domains. The sensing system consists of four trace gas sensors including two custom quantum cascade laser-based open-path sensors and two LICOR open-path sensors to measure CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, NH3, and H2O mixing ratios simultaneously at 10 Hz. In addition, sensors for meteorological and geolocation data are incorporated into the system. The system is powered by car batteries with a low total power consumption (~200 W) and is easily transportable due to its low total mass (35 kg). Multiple measures have been taken to ensure robust performance of the custom, open-path sensors located on top of the vehicle where the optics are exposed to the harsh on-road environment. The mobile sensing system has been integrated and installed on top of common passenger vehicles and participated in extensive field campaigns (>400 h on-road time with >18,000 km total distance) in both the USA and China. The simultaneous detection of multiple trace gas species makes the mobile sensing platform a unique and powerful tool to identify and quantify different emission sources through mobile mapping.

  19. An Environmental and Economic Evaluation of Pyrolysis for Energy Generation in Taiwan with Endogenous Land Greenhouse Gases Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Chih-Chun; McCarl, Bruce A.; Chen, Chi-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Taiwan suffers from energy insecurity and the threat of potential damage from global climate changes. Finding ways to alleviate these forces is the key to Taiwan’s future social and economic development. This study examines the economic and environmental impacts when ethanol, conventional electricity and pyrolysis-based electricity are available alternatives. Biochar, as one of the most important by-product from pyrolysis, has the potential to provide significant environmental benefits. Therefore, alternative uses of biochar are also examined in this study. In addition, because planting energy crops would change the current land use pattern, resulting in significant land greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, this important factor is also incorporated. Results show that bioenergy production can satisfy part of Taiwan’s energy demand, but net GHG emissions offset declines if ethanol is chosen. Moreover, at high GHG price conventional electricity and ethanol will be driven out and pyrolysis will be a dominant technology. Fast pyrolysis dominates when ethanol and GHG prices are low, but slow pyrolysis is dominant at high GHG price, especially when land GHG emissions are endogenously incorporated. The results indicate that when land GHG emission is incorporated, up to 3.8 billion kWh electricity can be produced from fast pyrolysis, while up to 2.2 million tons of CO2 equivalent can be offset if slow pyrolysis is applied. PMID:24619159

  20. [Soil greenhouse gases emission from an Acacia crassicarpa plantation under effects of understory removal and Cassia alata addition].

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Fang; Zhang, Xing-Feng

    2010-03-01

    Forest soil is one of the main sources of greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O. By using static chamber and GS technique, this paper measured in situ the CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes of Acacia crassicarpa plantation in Heshan Hilly Land Interdisciplinary Experimental Station under Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), and studied the soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from the plantation under effects of understory removal and Cassia alata addition. The CO2 flux of the plantation maintained at a higher level during rainy season but decreased obviously in dry season, while the CH4 and N2O fluxes varied widely from September to November, with the peaks in October. Under the effects of understory removal and C. alata addition, the soil in the plantation could be a sink or a source of CH4, but consistently a source of CO2 and N2O. Understory removal enhanced the soil CO2 emission (P < 0.05 ), C. alata addition increased the soil CH4 emission (P < 0.05), while both understory removal and C. alata addition increased the soil N2O emission (P < 0.05). Surface soil temperature, moisture content, NO3(-) -N concentration, and microbial biomass carbon were the main factors affecting the soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions.

  1. Anthropogenic effects on the subtropical jet in the Southern Hemisphere: aerosols versus long-lived greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotstayn, L. D.; Collier, M. A.; Jeffrey, S. J.; Kidston, J.; Syktus, J. I.; Wong, K. K.

    2013-03-01

    We use single-forcing historical simulations with a coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate model to compare the effects of anthropogenic aerosols (AAs) and increasing long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) on simulated winter circulation in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). Our primary focus is on the subtropical jet, which is an important source of baroclinic instability, especially in the Australasian region, where the speed of the jet is largest. For the period 1950 to 2005, our simulations suggest that AAs weaken the jet, whereas increasing LLGHGs strengthen the jet. The different responses are explained in terms of thermal wind balance: increasing LLGHGs preferentially warm the tropical mid-troposphere and upper troposphere, whereas AAs have a similar effect of opposite sign. In the mid-troposphere, the warming (cooling) effect of LLGHGs (AAs) is maximal between 20S and 30S; this coincides with the descending branch of the Hadley circulation, which may advect temperature changes from the tropical upper troposphere to the subtropics of the SH. It follows that LLGHGs (AAs) increase (decrease) the mid-tropospheric temperature gradient between low latitudes and the SH mid-latitudes. The strongest effects are seen at longitudes where the southward branches of the Hadley cell in the upper troposphere are strongest, notably at those that correspond to Asia and the western Pacific warm pool.

  2. Laser-based sensors on UAVs for quantifying local emissions of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zondlo, Mark; Tao, Lei; O'Brien, Anthony; Ross, Kevin; Khan, Amir; Pan, Da; Golston, Levi; Sun, Kang; DiGangi, Josh

    2015-04-01

    well above the surface (up to 100 m). In addition, plumes were very narrow horizontally (10-30 m width) within 200 m of the emission origin. By using a mass balance approach of upwind versus downwind CH4 concentrations, coupled to meteorological wind data, the CH4 emission rate from the compressor station averaged 13 ± 5 g CH4 s-1, consistent with individual, leak surveys measured within the compressor station itself. More recently, we developed a mid-infrared version of the same sensor using an antimonide laser at 3.3 microns. This sensor has a precision of 2 ppbv CH4 at 10 Hz, a mass of 1.3 kg, and consumes 10 W of power. Flight tests show the improved precision is capable of detecting methane leaks from landfills and cattle feedlots at higher altitudes (500 m) and greater distances downwind (several km) than the near infrared CH4 sensor. Sampling strategy is particularly important for not only UAS-based flight patterns but also sensor design. Many tradeoffs exist between the sampling density of the flight pattern, sensor precision, accuracy of wind data, and geographic isolation of the source of interest, and these will be discussed in the context of airborne-based CH4 measurements in the field. The development of compact yet robust trace gas sensors to be deployed on small UAS opens new capabilities for atmospheric sensing such as quantifying local source emissions (e.g. farms, well pads), vertical profiling of trace gases in a forest canopy, and trace gas distributions in complex areas (mountains, urban canyons).

  3. Measurement of Greenhouse gases (GHGs) and source apportionment in Bakersfield, CA during CalNex 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, A.; Gentner, D. R.; Weber, R.; Gardner, A.; Provencal, R. A.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2011-12-01

    The California Global Warming Solutions Act 2006 (AB 32) creates a need to verify and validate the state GHG inventory, which is largely based on activity data and emission factor based estimates. The "bottom-up" emission factors for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have large uncertainties and there is a lack of adequate "top-down" measurements to characterize emission rates from sources. Emissions from non-CO2 GHG sources display spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability, and are thus, often, poorly characterized. The Central Valley of California is an agriculture and industry intensive region with huge concentration of dairies, refineries and active oil fields which are known CH4 sources. As part of the CalNex campaign, we performed measurements of principal trace GHG gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) and combustion tracer CO at the Bakersfield super-site during the summer of 2010. Measurements were made over a period of six weeks using fast response lasers based on cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (LGR Inc. CA). Coincident measurements of hundreds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) served as anthropogenic and biogenic tracers of the GHG sources at local and regional levels. The local mean CH4 (1.93ppm) and N2O (325ppb) minimum are larger than that measured at Mauna Loa (NOAA). Daytime winds from the north-west draw emissions from the city center, Fruitvale oilfield and two refineries. Huge enhancements of CH4 relative to CO2 (> 4ppm of CH4) are seen on some days but almost on each night, when wind reversal and valley backflow brings winds from the east (oil fields and landfill). Winds from south-southwest (dairies) have ΔCH4 / ΔCO2 ratios similar to previous dairy chamber studies (Mitloehner et al., 2009). The ΔCH4 / ΔCO ratios at Bakersfield are much larger than that calculated downwind of Los Angeles at Mt. Wilson (Hsu et al., 2009) or in-flight measurements during CalNex (NOAA) suggesting additional non-combustion sources strongly influence

  4. Comparison of emission estimates for non-CO2 greenhouse gases from livestock and poultry in Korea from 1990 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Paik, Chunhyun; Chung, Yongjoo; Kim, Hugon; Kim, Young Jin

    2016-04-01

    It has often been claimed that non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gases (NCGGs), such as methane, nitrous oxide and fluorinated greenhouse gases, are significant contributors to climate change. Here we nvestigate emission estimates of methane and nitrous oxide from livestock and poultry production, which is recognized as a major source of those NCGGs, in Korea over the period of 1990 through 2010. Based on the data on livestock and poultry populations, emission estimates of methane and nitrous oxide are first derived based on the Tier 1 approach. Then, the Tier 2 approach is adopted to obtain emission estimates of methane and nitrous oxide from cattle, which are known to be the largest sources of these NCGGs and account for about 70% of emissions from livestock and poultry in Korea. The result indicates that the Tier 2 estimates of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from enteric fermentation and manure management are significantly different from the Tier 1 estimates over the analysis period.

  5. AIRS: Improving Weather Forecasting and Providing New Data on Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chahine, Moustafa T.; Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Atlas, Robert; Barnet, Christopher; Blaisdell, John; Chen, Luke; Divakarla, Murty; Fetzer, Eric J.; Goldberg, Mitch; Gautier, Catherine; Granger, Stephanie; Hannon, Scott; Irion, Fredrick W; Kakar, Ramesh; Kalnay, Eugenia; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Lee, Sung-Yung; Marshall, John Le; McMillan, W. Wallace; McMillin, Larry; Olsen, Edward T.; Revercomb, Henry; Rosenkranz, Philip; Smith, William L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the performance of AIRS and examines how it is meeting its operational and research objectives based on the experience of more than 2 yr with AIRS data. We describe the science background and the performance of AIRS in terms of the accuracy and stability of its observed spectral radiances. We examine the validation of the retrieved temperature and water vapor profiles against collocated operational radiosondes, and then we assess the impact thereof on numerical weather forecasting of the assimilation of the AIRS spectra and the retrieved temperature. We close the paper with a discussion on the retrieval of several minor tropospheric constituents from AIRS spectra.

  6. Regional air pollution brightening reverses the greenhouse gases induced warming-elevation relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhenzhong; Chen, Anping; Ciais, Philippe; Li, Yue; Li, Laurent Z. X.; Vautard, Robert; Zhou, Liming; Yang, Hui; Huang, Mengtian; Piao, Shilong

    2015-06-01

    Mountain waters, glaciers, hazards, and biodiversity are vulnerable to the impacts of global warming. Warming is projected to amplify over mountains by global climate models, yet meteorological records do not show a uniform acceleration of warming with elevation. Here we explore warming-elevation relationships using records from 2660 meteorological stations and determine that the vertical gradient of warming rate varies with location. The warming is faster at higher altitudes in Asia and western North America, but the opposite is observed over Central Europe and eastern North America which have received more short-wave radiation (brightening) associated with a decrease of aerosols and clouds since the 1980s. We found that altitudinal differences in air pollution (brightening), with observations showing more short-wave radiation received at low altitudes than at mountains, modulate the warming-elevation relationships. The advance in understanding of the drivers of regional climate change will contribute to the formulation of strategies for climate change mitigation at high elevations.

  7. Observations of seasonal variations in atmospheric greenhouse trapping and its enhancement at high sea surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallberg, Robert; Inamdar, Anand K.

    1993-01-01

    Greenhouse trapping is examined theoretically using a version of the radiative transfer equations that demonstrates how atmospheric greenhouse trapping can vary. Satellite observations of atmospheric greenhouse trapping are examined for four months representing the various seasons. The cause of the super greenhouse effect at the highest SSTs is examined, and four processes are found to contribute. The middle and upper troposphere must be particularly moist and the temperature lapse rate must be increasingly unstable over the warmest regions to explain the observed distribution of atmospheric greenhouse trapping. Since the highest SSTs are generally associated with deep convection, this suggests that deep convection acts to moisten the middle and upper troposphere in regions of the highest SSTs relative to other regions. The tropical atmospheric circulation acts to both increase the temperature lapse rate and greatly increase the atmospheric water vapor concentration with spatially increasing SST.

  8. Temperature and Precipitation Extremes in the United States: Quantifying the Responses to Aerosols and Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascioli, N. R.; Fiore, A. M.; Previdi, M. J.; Correa, G. J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Climate model outputs usually have much coarser spatial resolution than is needed by impacts models. Although higher resolution can be achieved using regional climate models for dynamical downscaling, further downscaling is often required. The final resolution gap is often closed with a combination of spatial interpolation and bias correction, which constitutes a form of statistical downscaling. We use this technique to downscale regional climate model data and evaluate its skill in reproducing extreme events. We downscale output from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) dataset from its native 50-km spatial resolution to the 4-km resolution of University of Idaho's METDATA gridded surface meterological dataset, which derives from the PRISM and NLDAS-2 observational datasets. We operate on the major variables used in impacts analysis at a daily timescale: daily minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation, humidity, pressure, solar radiation, and winds. To interpolate the data, we use the patch recovery method from the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) regridding package. We then bias correct the data using Kernel Density Distribution Mapping (KDDM), which has been shown to exhibit superior overall performance across multiple metrics. Finally, we evaluate the skill of this technique in reproducing extreme events by comparing raw and downscaled output with meterological station data in different bioclimatic regions according to the the skill scores defined by Perkins et al in 2013 for evaluation of AR4 climate models. We also investigate techniques for improving bias correction of values in the tails of the distributions. These techniques include binned kernel density estimation, logspline kernel density estimation, and transfer functions constructed by fitting the tails with a generalized pareto distribution.

  9. Designing optimal greenhouse gas observing networks that consider performance and cost

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lucas, D. D.; Yver Kwok, C.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Graven, H.; Bergmann, D.; Guilderson, T. P.; Weiss, R.; Keeling, R.

    2014-12-23

    Emission rates of greenhouse gases (GHGs) entering into the atmosphere can be inferred using mathematical inverse approaches that combine observations from a network of stations with forward atmospheric transport models. Some locations for collecting observations are better than others for constraining GHG emissions through the inversion, but the best locations for the inversion may be inaccessible or limited by economic and other non-scientific factors. We present a method to design an optimal GHG observing network in the presence of multiple objectives that may be in conflict with each other. As a demonstration, we use our method to design a prototypemore » network of six stations to monitor summertime emissions in California of the potent GHG 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CH2FCF3, HFC-134a). We use a multiobjective genetic algorithm to evolve network configurations that seek to jointly maximize the scientific accuracy of the inferred HFC-134a emissions and minimize the associated costs of making the measurements. The genetic algorithm effectively determines a set of "optimal" observing networks for HFC-134a that satisfy both objectives (i.e., the Pareto frontier). The Pareto frontier is convex, and clearly shows the tradeoffs between performance and cost, and the diminishing returns in trading one for the other. Without difficulty, our method can be extended to design optimal networks to monitor two or more GHGs with different emissions patterns, or to incorporate other objectives and constraints that are important in the practical design of atmospheric monitoring networks.« less

  10. Designing optimal greenhouse gas observing networks that consider performance and cost

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lucas, D. D.; Yver Kwok, C.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Graven, H.; Bergmann, D.; Guilderson, T. P.; Weiss, R.; Keeling, R.

    2015-06-16

    Emission rates of greenhouse gases (GHGs) entering into the atmosphere can be inferred using mathematical inverse approaches that combine observations from a network of stations with forward atmospheric transport models. Some locations for collecting observations are better than others for constraining GHG emissions through the inversion, but the best locations for the inversion may be inaccessible or limited by economic and other non-scientific factors. We present a method to design an optimal GHG observing network in the presence of multiple objectives that may be in conflict with each other. As a demonstration, we use our method to design a prototypemore » network of six stations to monitor summertime emissions in California of the potent GHG 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CH2FCF3, HFC-134a). We use a multiobjective genetic algorithm to evolve network configurations that seek to jointly maximize the scientific accuracy of the inferred HFC-134a emissions and minimize the associated costs of making the measurements. The genetic algorithm effectively determines a set of "optimal" observing networks for HFC-134a that satisfy both objectives (i.e., the Pareto frontier). The Pareto frontier is convex, and clearly shows the tradeoffs between performance and cost, and the diminishing returns in trading one for the other. Without difficulty, our method can be extended to design optimal networks to monitor two or more GHGs with different emissions patterns, or to incorporate other objectives and constraints that are important in the practical design of atmospheric monitoring networks.« less

  11. An extensive study of O(1D) reaction rate coefficients for key ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkholder, J. B.; Baasandorj, M.; Fleming, E. L.; Jackman, C. H.

    2012-12-01

    A key stratospheric loss process for ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) is their gas-phase reaction with electronically excited oxygen atoms, O(1D). Although numerous O(1D) reactions have been studied in the past, large uncertainties in the recommended rate coefficients and reactive yields, i.e., loss of ODS or GHG, for use in atmospheric modeling still exist for a number of key compounds. Our understanding of the coupling of atmospheric chemistry and climate-change requires the most accurate reaction rate coefficient data to be used in climate-change model calculations. In this presentation, results from an extensive laboratory study of the total reaction rate coefficient, corresponding to loss of O(1D), and reactive rate coefficients, corresponding to the loss of the reactant compound, will be presented for the ODSs: CFCl3 (CFC-11), CF2Cl2 (CFC-12), CFCl2CF2Cl (CFC-113), CF2ClCF2Cl (CFC-114), CF3CF2Cl (CFC-115), HClCF2 (HCFC-22), CH3CClF2 (HCFC-142b); GHGs: CHF3 (HFC-23), CHF2CF3 (HFC-125), CF3CHCF3 (HFC-227ea), and CF3CH3 (HFC-143a); and the persistent (long-lived) GHGs: NF3, SF5CF3, C2F6, c-C4F8, n-C5F12, and n-C6F14. The results from this work will be compared with results from previous studies and discrepancies discussed along with the atmospheric implications of the improved kinetic dataset on the atmospheric lifetimes of these compounds.

  12. Spatial variations in immediate greenhouse gases and aerosol emissions and resulting radiative forcing from wildfires in interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shengli; Liu, Heping; Dahal, Devendra; Jin, Suming; Li, Shuang; Liu, Shuguang

    2016-02-01

    Boreal fires can cool the climate; however, this conclusion came from individual fires and may not represent the whole story. We hypothesize that the climatic impact of boreal fires depends on local landscape heterogeneity such as burn severity, prefire vegetation type, and soil properties. To test this hypothesis, spatially explicit emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols and their resulting radiative forcing are required as an important and necessary component towards a full assessment. In this study, we integrated remote sensing (Landsat and MODIS) and models (carbon consumption model, emission factors model, and radiative forcing model) to calculate the carbon consumption, GHGs and aerosol emissions, and their radiative forcing of 2001-2010 fires at 30 m resolution in the Yukon River Basin of Alaska. Total carbon consumption showed significant spatial variation, with a mean of 2,615 g C m-2 and a standard deviation of 2,589 g C m-2. The carbon consumption led to different amounts of GHGs and aerosol emissions, ranging from 593.26 Tg (CO2) to 0.16 Tg (N2O). When converted to equivalent CO2 based on global warming potential metric, the maximum 20 years equivalent CO2 was black carbon (713.77 Tg), and the lowest 20 years equivalent CO2 was organic carbon (-583.13 Tg). The resulting radiative forcing also showed significant spatial variation: CO2, CH4, and N2O can cause a 20-year mean radiative forcing of 7.41 W m-2 with a standard deviation of 2.87 W m-2. This emission forcing heterogeneity indicates that different boreal fires have different climatic impacts. When considering the spatial variation of other forcings, such as surface shortwave forcing, we may conclude that some boreal fires, especially boreal deciduous fires, can warm the climate.

  13. Greenhouse Gases Life Cycle Assessment (GHGLCA) as a decision support tool for municipal solid waste management in Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the most problems in developing countries is the integrated waste management and the effects on Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emission, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used in this paper as a decision supporting tool in planning Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) managements. Methods In this paper the EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) that provide GHG emission factors for waste stream components that are based on life Cycle Inventory (LCI) framework were used and The MSW management methods comprised in seven scenarios. Results The amount of GHG which was generated from Iran’s waste sector estimated about 17836079 Metric Tons of Carbon dioxide Equivalents (MT CO2e) in this study. The lowest amount of GHG was generated by LFG capture system with energy recovery (557635 MT CO2e), while Incineration of materials being sent to landfill (1756823 MT CO2e), Landfill Gas (LFG) capture system with flaring (2929150 MT CO2e) and Improved source reduction and recycling (4780278 MT CO2e) emitted fewer GHG than the other scenarios. Lowest levels of gross energy consumption occur in source reduction with recycling and composting (-89356240 Mega British Thermal Unit, M BTU), recycling and composting (-86772060 M BTU) as well as Improved source reduction with recycling and composting (-54794888 M BTU). Conclusions It appears that recycling and composting each offer significant GHG emissions and energy consumption reductions (scenarios 4, 5 and 6). Upon of the GHG emission and energy consumption results concluded that improved source reduction and recycling scenario has been the Balanced and appropriate technology for handling the solid waste streams in municipalities. PMID:24910776

  14. [Synergistic emission reduction of chief air pollutants and greenhouse gases-based on scenario simulations of energy consumptions in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuan-bo; Li, Wei

    2013-05-01

    It is one of the common targets and important tasks for energy management and environmental control of Beijing to improve urban air quality while reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Here, based on the interim and long term developmental planning and energy structure of the city, three energy consumption scenarios in low, moderate and high restrictions were designed by taking the potential energy saving policies and environmental targets into account. The long-range energy alternatives planning (LEAP) model was employed to predict and evaluate reduction effects of the chief air pollutants and GHG during 2010 to 2020 under the three given scenarios. The results showed that if urban energy consumption system was optimized or adjusted by exercising energy saving and emission reduction and pollution control measures, the predicted energy uses will be reduced by 10 to 30 million tons of coal equivalents by 2020. Under the two energy scenarios with moderate and high restrictions, the anticipated emissions of SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, VOC and GHG will be respectively reduced to 71 to 100.2, 159.2 to 218.7, 89.8 to 133.8, 51.4 to 96.0, 56.4 to 74.8 and 148 200 to 164 700 thousand tons. Correspondingly, when compared with the low-restriction scenario, the reducing rate will be 53% to 67% , 50% to 64% , 33% to 55% , 25% to 60% , 41% to 55% and 26% to 34% respectively. Furthermore, based on a study of synergistic emission reduction of the air pollutants and GHG, it was proposed that the adjustment and control of energy consumptions shall be intensively developed in the three sectors of industry, transportation and services. In this way the synergistic reduction of the emissions of chief air pollutants and GHG will be achieved; meanwhile the pressures of energy demands may be deliberately relieved.

  15. Emission of greenhouse gases from geographically isolated wetlands of Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovatskaya, E.; Dyukarev, E.; Veretennikova, E.

    2014-12-01

    Wetlands are integral components of landscapes with specific nutrient dynamics and carbon sequestration potentials, which frequently differ, based on hydroperiod and seasonal hydropattern, as well as the constituent concentration of inputs, site-specific storages and vegetation structures. Human modifications have the potential to significantly alter controls on carbon dynamics. This study focused on determining carbon emissions (CO2 and CH4) from geographically isolated peatlands within the Ob-Tom River Interfluve area of Western Siberia affected by water diversion for municipal use by the city of Tomsk, Russia. Two oligotrophic wetlands within the study area were selected for site-specific CO2 studies, the Timiryazevskoe (16 ha) and Kirsanovskoe wetlands (29 ha), both affected by the Tomsk water intake (177 water wells 250 000 m3 water daily). Measurements of СО2 and CH4 emissions from peat surfaces were carried out bi-monthly in growing periods from 2008-2013 in two dominate vegetation zones, pine- shrub-sphagnum phytocenosis (ryam) and sedge-sphagnum fens. СО2 emissions were measured using OPTOGAS-500.4 infrared gas analyzer and dark chamber. Methane emissions were measured using static chamber method. Air samples were collected by syringes and analyzed at gas chromatograph Shimadzu-GC14B. Observations were accompanied by measurement of air temperature and humidity, surface temperature, peat temperature at various depths and the water table level. CО2 emission over the vegetative growing period had clearly pronounced seasonal dynamics with maximum values in the middle of the growing season (mid-July) and minimum values in spring and autumn. The average total flux over the studied period is 123±55 gС/m2 at sedge-sphagnum fen of Kirsanovskoe wetland and 323±66 gС/m2 at fen of Timiryazevskoe wetland. Total СО2 flux for the snow-free period at ryam sites of Timiryazevskoe and Kirsanovskoe wetlands is 238±84 and 260±47 gС/m2 accordingly. Methane

  16. Atmospheric station Křešín u Pacova, Czech Republic - a Central European research infrastructure for studying greenhouse gases, aerosols and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorská, A.; Sedlák, P.; Schwarz, J.; Fusek, M.; Hanuš, V.; Vodička, P.; Trusina, J.

    2015-05-01

    Long-lasting research infrastructures covering the research areas of atmospheric chemistry, meteorology and climatology are of highest importance. The Atmospheric Station (AS) Křešín u Pacova, central Czech Republic, is focused on monitoring of the occurence and long-range transport of greenhouse gases, atmospheric aerosols, selected gaseous atmospheric pollutants and basic meteorological characteristics. The AS and its 250 m tall tower was built according to the recommendations of the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) and cooperates with numerous national and international projects and monitoring programmes. First measurements conducted at ground started in 2012, vertical profile measurements were added in 2013. A seasonal variability with slightly higher autumn and winter concentrations of elemental and organic carbon was revealed. The suitability of the doubly left-censored Weibull distribution for modelling and interpretation of elemental carbon concentrations, which are often lower than instrumental quantification limits, was verified. Initial data analysis also suggests that in summer, the tower top at 250 m is frequently above the nocturnal surface inversions, thus being decoupled from local influences.

  17. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases and Fine Particles (PM2.5) from Wildland Fires in the United States from 2003 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Larkin, N. K.; Raffuse, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Wildland fires not only affect adjacent communities, but also produce smoke that can travel long distances and significantly impact downwind communities, alter weather patterns, and contribute to global climate change. As air quality standards have tightened, smoke from wildland fires has faced greater scrutiny from the air quality management community. Wildland fire emissions in the United States from 2003 to 2011 were estimated using the SmartFire2 system and the BlueSky Smoke Modeling Framework. Based on various sources of observational fire activity data, including ground-based incident reports and satellite-derived fire perimeters, fire information was reconciled and passed through a chain of models that estimate fuel loading, fuel consumption, and smoke emissions. While the spatial and temporal distributions of prescribed fires follow a stable pattern, wildfires are difficult to predict and their effects vary greatly from fire to fire. We analyzed the area burned and the emissions of select greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide and methane) and fine particles (PM2.5) from the model outputs to characterize long-term temporal and spatial variations. We will present these results, discuss factors that cause variability and uncertainty, and make comparisons to typical global modeling methods.

  18. Dissolved greenhouse gases (nitrous oxide and methane) associated with the naturally iron-fertilized Kerguelen region (KEOPS 2 cruise) in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farías, L.; Florez-Leiva, L.; Besoain, V.; Sarthou, G.; Fernández, C.

    2015-03-01

    The concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), were measured in the Kerguelen Plateau region (KPR). The KPR is affected by an annual microalgal bloom caused by natural iron fertilization, and this may stimulate the microbes involved in GHG cycling. This study was carried out during the KEOPS 2 cruise during the austral spring of 2011. Oceanographic variables, including N2O and CH4, were sampled (from the surface to 500 m depth) in two transects along and across the KRP, the north-south (TNS) transect (46°-51° S, ~ 72° E) and the east-west (TEW) transect (66°-75° E, ~ 48.3° S), both associated with the presence of a plateau, polar front (PF) and other mesoscale features. The TEW presented N2O levels ranging from equilibrium (105%) to slightly supersaturated (120%) with respect to the atmosphere, whereas CH4 levels fluctuated dramatically, being highly supersaturated (120-970%) in areas close to the coastal waters of the Kerguelen Islands and in the PF. The TNS showed a more homogenous distribution for both gases, with N2O and CH4 levels ranging from 88 to 171% and 45 to 666% saturation, respectively. Surface CH4 peaked at southeastern stations of the KPR (A3 stations), where a phytoplankton bloom was observed. Both gases responded significantly, but in contrasting ways (CH4 accumulation and N2O depletion), to the patchy distribution of chlorophyll a. This seems to be associated to the supply of iron from various sources. Air-sea fluxes for N2O (from -10.5 to 8.65, mean 1.25 ± 4.04 μmol m-2 d-1) and for CH4 (from 0.32 to 38.1, mean 10.01 ± 9.97 μmol-2 d-1) indicated that the KPR is both a sink and a source for N2O, as well as a considerable and variable source of CH4. This appears to be associated with biological factors, as well as the transport of water masses enriched with Fe and CH4 from the coastal area of the Kerguelen Islands. These previously unreported results for the Southern Ocean suggest an intense

  19. One year observations of atmospheric reactive gases (O3, CO, NOx, SO2) at Jang Bogo base in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siek Rhee, Tae; Seo, Sora

    2016-04-01

    Antarctica is a remote area surrounded by the Southern Ocean and far from the influence of human activities, giving us unique opportunity to investigate the background variation of trace gases which are sensitive to the human activities. Korean Antarctic base, Jang Bogo, was established as a unique permanent overwintering base in Terra Nova Bay in February, 2014. One year later, we installed a package of instruments to monitor atmospheric trace gases at the base, which includes long-lived greenhouse gases, CO2, CH4, and N2O, and reactive gases, O3, CO, NOx, and SO2. The atmospheric chemistry observatory, where these scientific instruments were installed, is located ca. 1 km far from the main building and power plant, minimizing the influence of pollution that may come from the operation of the base. Here we focus on the reactive gases measured in-situ at the base; O3 displays a typical seasonal variation with high in winter and low in summer with seasonal amplitude of ~18 ppb, CO was high in September at ~56 ppb, probably implying the invasion of lower latitude air mass with biomass burning, and low in late summer due to photochemical oxidation. NO did not show clear seasonal variation, but SO2 reveals larger values in summer than in winter. We will discuss potential atmospheric processes behind these first observations of reactive gases in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica.

  20. Comparative Climate Responses of Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases, All Major Aerosol Components, Black Carbon, and Methane, Accounting for the Evolution of the Aerosol Mixing State and of Clouds/Precipitation from Multiple Aerosol Size Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2005-12-01

    evolution accounted for the first and second indirect effects and the mixing state of aerosol particles. The optical properties of clouds were found by treating black carbon inclusions surrounded by a shell of water. The albedos of snow, sea ice, and water were calculated with radiative transfer solutions, assuming black carbon inclusions in the case of snow and sea ice. The simulations accounted for 3-D energy diffusion to the deep ocean and 2-D ocean circulation. Major conclusions are (a) the most important constituents of global warming, in terms of climate response, appear to be, in order, carbon dioxide, black carbon, and methane, (b) aerosol particles (all together) appear to act on top of greenhouse gases to enhance extremes in both regional cooling and regional warming, (b) the combination of important greenhouse gases and aerosol particles can explain observed major regions of historic warming and cooling, and (d) eliminating all anthropogenic aerosol emission could more than double current global warming but would have less of an effect than independently doubling carbon dioxide.

  1. Assessment of Ground-based Atmospheric Observations for Tracking Changes in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKain, K.; Wofsy, S. C.; Nehrkorn, T.; Eluszkiewicz, J.

    2011-12-01

    The fairness and effectiveness of agreements to limit greenhouse gas emissions depends on our ability to verify reported changes in emissions using direct atmospheric observations. The goal of this work was to test whether ground-based measurements of greenhouse gases from urban regions can be used to quantify changes in emissions. We performed an atmospheric inversion for Salt Lake City, Utah using an existing dataset of CO2 measurements, prior estimates of emissions, and a high-resolution Lagrangian atmospheric transport model. By comparing simulated and observed CO2 for Salt Lake City, we were able to constrain emissions to within 15%. Substantial improvements in our ability to estimate emissions using urban surface observations are not expected because of limitations imposed by the character of the data, namely the dominance of the stochastic component of the signal and the inverse relationship between the daily cycle of emissions and CO2 concentration enhancements. Based on these results, we believe ground- and space-based measurements of column enhancements in the urban dome offer a superior route for verification purposes.

  2. Future Climate Impacts of Direct Radiative Forcing Anthropogenic Aerosols, Tropospheric Ozone, and Long-lived Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Wei-Ting; Liao, Hong; Seinfeld, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs) are the most important driver of climate change over the next century. Aerosols and tropospheric ozone (O3) are expected to induce significant perturbations to the GHG-forced climate. To distinguish the equilibrium climate responses to changes in direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols, tropospheric ozone, and GHG between present day and year 2100, four 80-year equilibrium climates are simulated using a unified tropospheric chemistry-aerosol model within the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM) 110. Concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, primary organic (POA) carbon, secondary organic (SOA) carbon, black carbon (BC) aerosols, and tropospheric ozone for present day and year 2100 are obtained a priori by coupled chemistry-aerosol GCM simulations, with emissions of aerosols, ozone, and precursors based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenario (SRES) A2. Changing anthropogenic aerosols, tropospheric ozone, and GHG from present day to year 2100 is predicted to perturb the global annual mean radiative forcing by +0.18 (considering aerosol direct effects only), +0.65, and +6.54 W m(sup -2) at the tropopause, and to induce an equilibrium global annual mean surface temperature change of +0.14, +0.32, and +5.31 K, respectively, with the largest temperature response occurring at northern high latitudes. Anthropogenic aerosols, through their direct effect, are predicted to alter the Hadley circulation owing to an increasing interhemispheric temperature gradient, leading to changes in tropical precipitation. When changes in both aerosols and tropospheric ozone are considered, the predicted patterns of change in global circulation and the hydrological cycle are similar to those induced by aerosols alone. GHG-induced climate changes, such as amplified warming over high latitudes, weakened Hadley circulation, and increasing precipitation over the

  3. Profiling wind and greenhouse gases by infrared-laser occultation: results from end-to-end simulations in windy air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plach, A.; Proschek, V.; Kirchengast, G.

    2015-07-01

    The new mission concept of microwave and infrared-laser occultation between low-Earth-orbit satellites (LMIO) is designed to provide accurate and long-term stable profiles of atmospheric thermodynamic variables, greenhouse gases (GHGs), and line-of-sight (l.o.s.) wind speed with focus on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). While the unique quality of GHG retrievals enabled by LMIO over the UTLS has been recently demonstrated based on end-to-end simulations, the promise of l.o.s. wind retrieval, and of joint GHG and wind retrieval, has not yet been analyzed in any realistic simulation setting. Here we use a newly developed l.o.s. wind retrieval algorithm, which we embedded in an end-to-end simulation framework that also includes the retrieval of thermodynamic variables and GHGs, and analyze the performance of both stand-alone wind retrieval and joint wind and GHG retrieval. The wind algorithm utilizes LMIO laser signals placed on the inflection points at the wings of the highly symmetric C18OO absorption line near 4767 cm-1 and exploits transmission differences from a wind-induced Doppler shift. Based on realistic example cases for a diversity of atmospheric conditions, ranging from tropical to high-latitude winter, we find that the retrieved l.o.s. wind profiles are of high quality over the lower stratosphere under all conditions, i.e., unbiased and accurate to within about 2 m s-1 over about 15 to 35 km. The wind accuracy degrades into the upper troposphere due to the decreasing signal-to-noise ratio of the wind-induced differential transmission signals. The GHG retrieval in windy air is not vulnerable to wind speed uncertainties up to about 10 m s-1 but is found to benefit in the case of higher speeds from the integrated wind retrieval that enables correction of wind-induced Doppler shift of GHG signals. Overall both the l.o.s. wind and GHG retrieval results are strongly encouraging towards further development and implementation of a LMIO mission.

  4. Nonlinear response of modelled stratospheric ozone to changes in greenhouse gases and ozone depleting substances in the recent past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meul, S.; Oberländer-Hayn, S.; Abalichin, J.; Langematz, U.

    2015-06-01

    In the recent past, the evolution of stratospheric ozone (O3) was affected by both increasing ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs). The impact of the single forcings on O3 is well known. Interactions between the simultaneously increased GHG and ODS concentrations, however, can occur and lead to nonlinear O3 changes. In this study, we investigate if nonlinear processes have affected O3 changes between 1960 and 2000. This is done with an idealised set of time slice simulations with the chemistry-climate model EMAC. Due to nonlinearity the past ozone loss is diminished throughout the stratosphere, with a maximum reduction of 1.2 % at 3 hPa. The total ozone column loss between 1960 and 2000 that is mainly attributed to the ODS increase is mitigated in the extra-polar regions by up to 1.1 % due to nonlinear processes. A separation of the O3 changes into the contribution from chemistry and transport shows that nonlinear interactions occur in both. In the upper stratosphere a reduced efficiency of the ClOx-catalysed O3 loss chiefly causes the nonlinear O3 increase. An enhanced formation of halogen reservoir species through the reaction with methane (CH4) reduces the abundance of halogen radicals significantly. The temperature-induced deceleration of the O3 loss reaction rate in the Chapman cycle is reduced, which leads to a nonlinear O3 decrease and counteracts the increase due to ClOx. Nonlinear effects on the NOx abundance cause hemispheric asymmetric nonlinear changes of the O3 loss. Nonlinear changes in O3 transport occur in particular in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) during the months September to November. Here, the residual circulation is weakened in the lower stratosphere, which goes along with a reduced O3 transport from the tropics to high latitudes. Thus, O3 decreases in the SH polar region but increases in the SH midlatitudes. The existence of nonlinearities implies that future ozone change due to ODS decline slightly depends on the

  5. Spatial variations in immediate greenhouse gases and aerosol emissions and resulting radiative forcing from wildfires in interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, Shengli; Liu, Heping; Dahal, Devendra; Jin, Suming; Li, Shuang; Liu, Shu-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Boreal fires can cool the climate; however, this conclusion came from individual fires and may not represent the whole story. We hypothesize that the climatic impact of boreal fires depends on local landscape heterogeneity such as burn severity, prefire vegetation type, and soil properties. To test this hypothesis, spatially explicit emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols and their resulting radiative forcing are required as an important and necessary component towards a full assessment. In this study, we integrated remote sensing (Landsat and MODIS) and models (carbon consumption model, emission factors model, and radiative forcing model) to calculate the carbon consumption, GHGs and aerosol emissions, and their radiative forcing of 2001–2010 fires at 30 m resolution in the Yukon River Basin of Alaska. Total carbon consumption showed significant spatial variation, with a mean of 2,615 g C m−2 and a standard deviation of 2,589 g C m−2. The carbon consumption led to different amounts of GHGs and aerosol emissions, ranging from 593.26 Tg (CO2) to 0.16 Tg (N2O). When converted to equivalent CO2 based on global warming potential metric, the maximum 20 years equivalent CO2 was black carbon (713.77 Tg), and the lowest 20 years equivalent CO2 was organic carbon (−583.13 Tg). The resulting radiative forcing also showed significant spatial variation: CO2, CH4, and N2O can cause a 20-year mean radiative forcing of 7.41 W m−2 with a standard deviation of 2.87 W m−2. This emission forcing heterogeneity indicates that different boreal fires have different climatic impacts. When considering the spatial variation of other forcings, such as surface shortwave forcing, we may conclude that some boreal fires, especially boreal deciduous fires, can warm the climate.

  6. Greenhouse gas variations observed from the surface over the past 25 years: groundtruthing future satellite instruments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, D.

    The perturbation to radiative climate forcing which has the largest magnitude and the least scientific uncertainty is the forcing related to changes in those greenhouse gases that are long-lived and well mixed in the atmosphere, in particular carbon dioxide (CO_2), methane (CH_4), nitrous oxide (N_2O) and the halocarbons (mainly CFCs). All of these long-lived greenhouse gases have been monitored around the world since the 1970's mainly by NOAA's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL), in Boulder, Colorado, and its forerunner, the Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change (GMCC) program. CMDL operates four fully instrumented baseline climate observatories at Pt. Barrow, Alaska; Mauna Loa, Hawaii; American Samoa; and South Pole Station, Antarctica, where the concentrations of the greenhouse gases are measured continuously as well as by flask sample. In a cooperative program CMDL collects air samples in flasks from over 50 global sites. All flask air samples are analyzed for carbon gas concentrations and isotopic ratios in Boulder. The global cooperative sites are in clean, unpolluted regions such as on seacoasts where the measurements are generally representative of large-scale maritime regions. These data will be presented here and analyzed in terms of their changes and the changes in radiative forcing during the 25-year period encompassing 1978 through 2003. The most notable change in the past several years is that because the forcing by CFCs is declining and that due to methane has stopped increasing, the fraction related to carbon dioxide has increased from about 59% to 62%. The measurements reported here will form the basis for ground-truthing future efforts to detect carbon dioxide from space with new satellite instruments.

  7. Microscopic Observation of Pauli Blocking in Degenerate Fermionic Lattice Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilker, Timon; Omran, Ahmed; Boll, Martin; Salomon, Guillaume; Bloch, Immanuel; Gross, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold atoms in optical lattices provide a powerful platform for the controlled study of quantum many-body physics. We present here the first studies with a new generation quantum gas microscope, which allows to observe the full atom number statistics on every site. The common problem of light induced losses during imaging is avoided by an additional small scale ``pinning lattice'' used for Raman sideband cooling in the imaging process. We report the local observation of the Pauli exclusion principle in a spin-polarized degenerate gas of 6 Li fermions in an optical lattice. In the band insulating regime, we measure a tenfold suppression of particle number fluctuations per site compared to classical particles. From the remaining fluctuations we extract a local entropy as low as 0.3 kB per atom. Our work opens an exciting avenue for studying local density and even magnetic correlations in fermionic quantum matter both in and out of equilibrium.

  8. Calibration and validation of an activated sludge model for greenhouse gases no. 1 (ASMG1): prediction of temperature-dependent N₂O emission dynamics.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lisha; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2014-02-01

    An activated sludge model for greenhouse gases no. 1 was calibrated with data from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) without control systems and validated with data from three similar plants equipped with control systems. Special about the calibration/validation approach adopted in this paper is that the data are obtained from simulations with a mathematical model that is widely accepted to describe effluent quality and operating costs of actual WWTPs, the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2). The calibration also aimed at fitting the model to typical observed nitrous oxide (N₂O) emission data, i.e., a yearly average of 0.5% of the influent total nitrogen load emitted as N₂O-N. Model validation was performed by challenging the model in configurations with different control strategies. The kinetic term describing the dissolved oxygen effect on the denitrification by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was modified into a Haldane term. Both original and Haldane-modified models passed calibration and validation. Even though their yearly averaged values were similar, the two models presented different dynamic N₂O emissions under cold temperature conditions and control. Therefore, data collected in such situations can potentially permit model discrimination. Observed seasonal trends in N₂O emissions are simulated well with both original and Haldane-modified models. A mechanistic explanation based on the temperature-dependent interaction between heterotrophic and autotrophic N₂O pathways was provided. Finally, while adding the AOB denitrification pathway to a model with only heterotrophic N₂O production showed little impact on effluent quality and operating cost criteria, it clearly affected N2O emission productions. PMID:23728837

  9. Calibration and validation of an activated sludge model for greenhouse gases no. 1 (ASMG1): prediction of temperature-dependent N₂O emission dynamics.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lisha; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2014-02-01

    An activated sludge model for greenhouse gases no. 1 was calibrated with data from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) without control systems and validated with data from three similar plants equipped with control systems. Special about the calibration/validation approach adopted in this paper is that the data are obtained from simulations with a mathematical model that is widely accepted to describe effluent quality and operating costs of actual WWTPs, the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2). The calibration also aimed at fitting the model to typical observed nitrous oxide (N₂O) emission data, i.e., a yearly average of 0.5% of the influent total nitrogen load emitted as N₂O-N. Model validation was performed by challenging the model in configurations with different control strategies. The kinetic term describing the dissolved oxygen effect on the denitrification by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was modified into a Haldane term. Both original and Haldane-modified models passed calibration and validation. Even though their yearly averaged values were similar, the two models presented different dynamic N₂O emissions under cold temperature conditions and control. Therefore, data collected in such situations can potentially permit model discrimination. Observed seasonal trends in N₂O emissions are simulated well with both original and Haldane-modified models. A mechanistic explanation based on the temperature-dependent interaction between heterotrophic and autotrophic N₂O pathways was provided. Finally, while adding the AOB denitrification pathway to a model with only heterotrophic N₂O production showed little impact on effluent quality and operating cost criteria, it clearly affected N2O emission productions.

  10. Observing Organic Molecules in Interstellar Gases: Non Equilibrium Excitation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesenfeld, Laurent; Faure, Alexandre; Remijan, Anthony; Szalewicz, Krzysztof

    2014-06-01

    In order to observe quantitatively organic molecules in interstellar gas, it is necessary to understand the relative importance of photonic and collisional excitations. In order to do so, collisional excitation transfer rates have to be computed. We undertook several such studies, in particular for H_2CO and HCOOCH_3. Both species are observed in many astrochemical environments, including star-forming regions. We found that those two molecules behave in their low-lying rotational levels in an opposite way. For cis methyl-formate, a non-equilibrium radiative transfer treatment of rotational lines is performed, using a new set of theoretical collisional rate coefficients. These coefficients have been computed in the temperature range 5 to 30 K by combining coupled-channel scattering calculations with a high accuracy potential energy surface for HCOOCH_3 -- He. The results are compared to observations toward the Sagittarius B2(N) molecular cloud. A total of 2080 low-lying transitions of methyl formate, with upper levels below 25 K, were treated. These lines are found to probe a cold (30 K), moderately dense (n ˜ 104 cm-3) interstellar gas. In addition, our calculations indicate that all detected emission lines with a frequency below 30 GHz are collisionally pumped weak masers amplifying the background of Sgr B2(N). This result demonstrates the generality of the inversion mechanism for the low-lying transitions of methyl formate. For formaldehyde, we performed a similar non-equilibrium treatment, with H_2 as the collisional partner, thanks to the accurate H_2CO - H_2 potential energy surface . We found very different energy transfer rates for collisions with para-H_2 (J=0) and ortho-H_2 (J=1). The well-known absorption against the cosmological background of the 111→ 101 line is shown to depend critically on the difference of behaviour between para and ortho-H_2, for a wide range of H_2 density. We thank the CNRS-PCMI French national program for continuous support

  11. "Atmospheric Measurements by Ultra-Light SpEctrometer" (AMULSE) dedicated to vertical profile measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4) under stratospheric balloons: instrumental development and field application.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maamary, Rabih; Joly, Lilian; Decarpenterie, Thomas; Cousin, Julien; Dumelié, Nicolas; Grouiez, Bruno; Albora, Grégory; Chauvin, Nicolas; Miftah-El-Khair, Zineb; Legain, Dominique; Tzanos, Diane; Barrié, Joel; Moulin, Eric; Ramonet, Michel; Bréon, François-Marie; Durry, Georges

    2016-04-01

    Human activities disrupt natural biogeochemical cycles such as the carbon and contribute to an increase in the concentrations of the greenhouse gases (carbone dioxide and methane) in the atmosphere. The current atmospheric transport modeling (the vertical trade) still represents an important source of uncertainty in the determination of regional flows of greenhouse gases, which means that a good knowledge of the vertical distribution of CO2 is necessary to (1) make the link between the ground measurements and spatial measurements that consider an integrated concentration over the entire column of the atmosphere, (2) validate and if possible improve CO2 transport model to make the link between surface emissions and observed concentration. The aim of this work is to develop a lightweight instrument (based on mid-infrared laser spectrometry principles) for in-situ measuring at high temporal/spatial resolution (5 Hz) the vertical profiles of the CO2 and the CH4 using balloons (meteorological and BSO at high precision levels (< 1 ppm in 1 second integration time for the CO2 sensor, and smaller than several tenths of ppb in 1 second integration time for the CH4 sensor). The instrument should be lighter than 2.5 kg in order to facilitate authorizations, costs and logistics flights. These laser spectrometers are built on recent instrumental developments. Several flights were successfully done in the region Champagne-Ardenne and in Canada recently. Aknowledgments: The authors acknowledge financial supports from CNES, CNRS défi instrumental and the region Champagne-Ardenne.

  12. Tree species influence soil-atmosphere fluxes of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 and N2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffens, Christina; Vesterdal, Lars; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2016-04-01

    In the temperate zone, forests are the greatest terrestrial sink for atmospheric CO2, and tree species affect soil C stocks and soil CO2 emissions. When considering the total greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of the forest soil, the relevant GHGs CH4 and N2O should also be considered as they have a higher global warming potential than CO2. The presented data are first results from a field study in a common garden site in Denmark where tree species with ectomycorrhizal colonization (beech - Fagus sylvatica, oak - Quercus robur) and with arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization (maple - Acer pseudoplatanus, ash - Fraxinus excelsior) have been planted in monocultures in adjacent blocks of about 0.25 ha in the year 1973 on former arable land. The soil-atmosphere fluxes of all three gases were measured every second week since August 2015. The hypothesis is that the total GHG efflux from forest soil would differ between species, and that these differences could be related to the type of mycorrhizal association and leaf litter quality. Preliminary results (August to December 2015) indicate that tree species influence the fluxes (converted to CO2-eq) of the three GHGs. Total soil CO2 efflux was in the low end of the range reported for temperate broadleaved forests but similar to the measurements at the same site approximately ten years ago. It was highest under oak (9.6±2.4 g CO2 m-2 d-1) and lowest under maple (5.2±1.6 g CO2 m-2 d-1). In contrast, soil under oak was a small but significant sink for CH4(-0.005±0.003 g CO2-eq m-2 d-1), while there were almost no detectable CH4 fluxes in maple. Emissions of N2O were highest under beech (0.6±0.6 g CO2-eq m-2 d-1) and oak (0.2±0.09 g CO2-eq m-2 d-1) and lowest under ash (0.03±0.04 g CO2-eq m-2 d-1). In the total GHG balance, soil CH4 uptake was negligible (≤0.1% of total emissions). Emissions of N2O (converted to CO2-eq) contributed <1% (ash) to 8% (beech) to total GHG emissions. Summing up all GHG emissions, the tree species

  13. Laser Atmospheric Transmitter Receiver-Network (LAnTeRN): A new approach for active measurement of atmospheric greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobler, J. T.; Braun, M.; Zaccheo, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Laser Atmospheric Transmitter Receiver-Network (LAnTeRN) is a new measurement concept that will enable local, regional and continental determination of key greenhouse gases, with unparalleled accuracy and precision. This new approach will offer the ability to make low bias, high precision, quasi-continuous, measurements to the accuracies required for separating anthropogenic and biogenic sources and sinks. In 2004 ITT Exelis developed an airborne demonstration unit, based on an intensity modulated continuous wave (IM-CW) lidar approach, for actively measuring atmospheric CO2 and O2. The multi-functional fiber laser lidar (MFLL) system relies on low peak power, high reliability, and efficient telecom laser components to implement this unique measurement approach. While evaluating methods for discriminating against thin clouds for the MFLL instrument, a new measurement concept was conceived. LAnTeRN has several fundamental characteristics in common with the MFLL instrument, but is a fundamentally different implementation and capability. The key difference is that LAnTeRN operates in transmission rather than in the traditional backscatter lidar configuration, which has several distinct advantages. Operating as a forward scatter, bistatic lidar system, LAnTeRN enables consideration of continuous monitoring from a geostationary orbit to multiple locations on the ground. Having the receivers on the ground significantly lowers cost and risk compared to an all space based mission, and allows the transmitter subsystem to be implemented, near term, as a hosted payload. Furthermore, the LAnTeRN measurement approach is also applicable for ground to ground measurements where high precision measurements over a long open path is required, such as facilities monitoring, or monitoring of passive volcanoes and fault lines. Using narrow linewidth laser sources allows flexibility to select the position on the absorption feature being probed. This feature allows for weighting the

  14. Tree species influence soil-atmosphere fluxes of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 and N2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffens, Christina; Vesterdal, Lars; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2016-04-01

    In the temperate zone, forests are the greatest terrestrial sink for atmospheric CO2, and tree species affect soil C stocks and soil CO2 emissions. When considering the total greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of the forest soil, the relevant GHGs CH4 and N2O should also be considered as they have a higher global warming potential than CO2. The presented data are first results from a field study in a common garden site in Denmark where tree species with ectomycorrhizal colonization (beech - Fagus sylvatica, oak - Quercus robur) and with arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization (maple - Acer pseudoplatanus, ash - Fraxinus excelsior) have been planted in monocultures in adjacent blocks of about 0.25 ha in the year 1973 on former arable land. The soil-atmosphere fluxes of all three gases were measured every second week since August 2015. The hypothesis is that the total GHG efflux from forest soil would differ between species, and that these differences could be related to the type of mycorrhizal association and leaf litter quality. Preliminary results (August to December 2015) indicate that tree species influence the fluxes (converted to CO2-eq) of the three GHGs. Total soil CO2 efflux was in the low end of the range reported for temperate broadleaved forests but similar to the measurements at the same site approximately ten years ago. It was highest under oak (9.6±2.4 g CO2 m‑2 d‑1) and lowest under maple (5.2±1.6 g CO2 m‑2 d‑1). In contrast, soil under oak was a small but significant sink for CH4(-0.005±0.003 g CO2-eq m‑2 d‑1), while there were almost no detectable CH4 fluxes in maple. Emissions of N2O were highest under beech (0.6±0.6 g CO2-eq m‑2 d‑1) and oak (0.2±0.09 g CO2-eq m‑2 d‑1) and lowest under ash (0.03±0.04 g CO2-eq m‑2 d‑1). In the total GHG balance, soil CH4 uptake was negligible (≤0.1% of total emissions). Emissions of N2O (converted to CO2-eq) contributed <1% (ash) to 8% (beech) to total GHG emissions. Summing up all GHG

  15. Development and integration of a solar powered unmanned aerial vehicle and a wireless sensor network to monitor greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Malaver, Alexander; Motta, Nunzio; Corke, Peter; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2015-02-11

    Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX) and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology.

  16. Development and Integration of a Solar Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and a Wireless Sensor Network to Monitor Greenhouse Gases

    PubMed Central

    Malaver, Alexander; Motta, Nunzio; Corke, Peter; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX) and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology. PMID:25679312

  17. Development and integration of a solar powered unmanned aerial vehicle and a wireless sensor network to monitor greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Malaver, Alexander; Motta, Nunzio; Corke, Peter; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX) and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology. PMID:25679312

  18. Biogeochemistry, transport fluxes and emission of greenhouse gases from the Ogooué River (west central Africa): preliminary results after two years of monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darchambeau, François; Bouillon, Steven; Mbega, Jean-Daniel; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V.

    2014-05-01

    The Ogooué River is the fourth largest river in Africa by discharge. The Ogooué Basin mostly consists of undisturbed rainforest with some savanna grassland. Yet, there is no information on the biogeochemistry, transport fluxes and greenhouse gases in this river. Here, we report initial results of a monitoring campaign whereby 2-weekly samples were collected at Lambaréné (Gabon) [10.24°E 0.69°S] between April 2012 and March 2014 for a suite of physico-chemical and biogeochemical characteristics, including total suspended matter (TSM) concentrations, concentration and stable isotope composition of particulate organic carbon (POC and δ13C-POC) and particulate nitrogen (PN and δ15N-PN), chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC and δ13C-DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and δ13C-DIC), concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO2, CH4 and N2O), as well as major elements, total alkalinity, and oxygen isotope signatures of water (δ18O-H2O). This dataset allows us to construct annual budgets for particulate and dissolved carbon fluxes, nutrient exports, as well as a first seasonally resolved characterisation of the GHGs emitted to the atmosphere by the Ogooué River.

  19. Nitric oxide and greenhouse gases emissions following the application of different cattle slurry particle size fractions to soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fangueiro, David; Coutinho, João; Cabral, Fernanda; Fidalgo, Paula; Bol, Roland; Trindade, Henrique

    2012-02-01

    The application to soil of different slurry particle size fractions may lead to variable gaseous soil emissions and associated differential environmental impacts. An incubation experiment was carried out during 70 d to assess the influence on nitric oxide (NO) and greenhouse gas (GHG; i.e. nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane) emissions following incorporation of 4 particle size fractions, obtained through laboratorial separation from cattle slurry, to agricultural sandy loam soil (Dystric Cambisol). The response to these applied slurry fractions (>2000 μm, 2000-500 μm, 500-100 μm, <100 μm) was compared to other experimental treatments, including whole slurry (WS), ammonium sulphate (AS) and an unamended control (CON). The highest value of cumulated NO emissions (6.3 mg NO-N kg -1 dry soil) were observed from the AS treatment. The cumulated amount of NO emitted (˜1 mg NO-N kg -1 dry soil) was not significantly different between slurry fractions, thereby indicating that slurry particle size had no effect on NO emissions. The largest slurry fraction (>2000 μm) induced significantly higher N 2O emissions (1.8 mg N 2O-N kg -1 dry soil) compared to the other smaller sized fractions (1.0 mg N 2O-N kg -1 dry soil). The >2000 μm, fraction, being more than 55% of the slurry by weight, was the major contributor to daily and cumulative N 2O emissions. Hence, for N 2O, the application of WS to agricultural soil is a better option that amendment with the >2000 μm, fraction. Low CH 4 emissions (<200 μg CH 4-C kg -1 dry soil d -1) were observed, but only in treatments amended with slurry or its fractions. The CH 4 emissions were short-lived and rates returned to control levels within 3 d after the slurry application. Higher CO 2 emissions were observed in soils amended with slurry fractions when compared to application with whole slurry. Clearly, slurry separation can increase soil CO 2 emissions relative to whole slurry application. Overall, N 2O contributed 10

  20. [Anesthetic gases, the ozone layer and the greenhouse effect. How harmful are the anesthetic emissions for the global environment?].

    PubMed

    Dale, O; Dale, T

    1991-06-30

    During the last decade, world society has acknowledged the harmful effects on the environment of the greenhouse effect and of depletion of the ozone layer, caused by industrial emissions of man-made compounds. Ozone depletion is caused mainly by chlorine compounds or nitrogen oxides released by degradation in the stratosphere. The greenhouse effect is caused by increased trapping of terrestrial heat radiation. Degradation of the anaesthetic vapours halothane, enflurane and isoflurane releases chlorine, and nitrous oxide degradation produces reactive nitrogen oxides. Nitrous oxide in particular, but also the vapours, absorb terrestrial radiation. The total discharge of anaesthetic vapours contributes to less than 0.01% of the total atmospheric chlorine load, and the annual Norwegian release of approximately two tons accounts for 0.2% of the world total. It is estimated that the total amount of nitrous oxide released from anaesthetics accounts for 0.05% of the greenhouse effect, while annual Norwegian emissions of nitrous oxide (less than 160 tons) comprise 0.2-0.4% of world total. Because of their favourable clinical properties and their modest contribution to ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect, medical use of inhalational anaesthetic agents should not be banned. However, low flow anaesthetic techniques should be employed, in order to reduce their negative impacts on the atmosphere.

  1. The Role of Long-Lived Greenhouse Gases as Principal LW Control Knob that Governs the Global Surface Temperature for Past and Future Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacis, Andrew A.; Hansen, James E.; Russell, Gary L.; Oinas, Valdar; Jonas, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The climate system of the Earth is endowed with a moderately strong greenhouse effect that is characterized by non-condensing greenhouse gases (GHGs) that provide the core radiative forcing. Of these, the most important is atmospheric CO2. There is a strong feedback contribution to the greenhouse effect by water vapor and clouds that is unique in the solar system, exceeding the core radiative forcing due to the non-condensing GHGs by a factor of three. The significance of the non-condensing GHGs is that once they have been injected into the atmosphere, they remain there virtually indefinitely because they do not condense and precipitate from the atmosphere, their chemical removal time ranging from decades to millennia. Water vapor and clouds have only a short lifespan, with their distribution determined by the locally prevailing meteorological conditions, subject to Clausius-Clapeyron constraint. Although solar irradiance is the ultimate energy source that powers the terrestrial greenhouse effect, there has been no discernible long-term trend in solar irradiance since precise monitoring began in the late 1970s. This leaves atmospheric CO2 as the effective control knob driving the current global warming trend. Over geological time scales, volcanoes are the principal source of atmospheric CO2, and the weathering of rocks is the principal sink, with the biosphere participating as both a source and a sink. The problem at hand is that human industrial activity is causing atmospheric CO2, to increase by 2 ppm per year, whereas the interglacial rate has been 0.005 ppm per year. This is a geologically unprecedented rate to turn the CO2 climate control knob. This is causing the global warming that threatens the global environment.

  2. [Errors Analysis and Correction in Atmospheric Methane Retrieval Based on Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite Data].

    PubMed

    Bu, Ting-ting; Wang, Xian-hua; Ye, Han-han; Jiang, Xin-hua

    2016-01-01

    High precision retrieval of atmospheric CH4 is influenced by a variety of factors. The uncertainties of ground properties and atmospheric conditions are important factors, such as surface reflectance, temperature profile, humidity profile and pressure profile. Surface reflectance is affected by many factors so that it is difficult to get the precise value. The uncertainty of surface reflectance will cause large error to retrieval result. The uncertainties of temperature profile, humidity profile and pressure profile are also important sources of retrieval error and they will cause unavoidable systematic error. This error is hard to eliminate only using CH4 band. In this paper, ratio spectrometry method and CO2 band correction method are proposed to reduce the error caused by these factors. Ratio spectrometry method can decrease the effect of surface reflectance in CH4 retrieval by converting absolute radiance spectrometry into ratio spectrometry. CO2 band correction method converts column amounts of CH4 into column averaged mixing ratio by using CO2 1.61 μm band and it can correct the systematic error caused by temperature profile, humidity profile and pressure profile. The combination of these two correction methods will decrease the effect caused by surface reflectance, temperature profile, humidity profile and pressure profile at the same time and reduce the retrieval error. GOSAT data were used to retrieve atmospheric CH4 to test and validate the two correction methods. The results showed that CH4 column averaged mixing ratio retrieved after correction was close to GOSAT Level2 product and the retrieval precision was up to -0.24%. The studies suggest that the error of CH4 retrieval caused by the uncertainties of ground properties and atmospheric conditions can be significantly reduced and the retrieval precision can be highly improved by using ratio spectrometry method and CO2 hand correction method.

  3. [Errors Analysis and Correction in Atmospheric Methane Retrieval Based on Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite Data].

    PubMed

    Bu, Ting-ting; Wang, Xian-hua; Ye, Han-han; Jiang, Xin-hua

    2016-01-01

    High precision retrieval of atmospheric CH4 is influenced by a variety of factors. The uncertainties of ground properties and atmospheric conditions are important factors, such as surface reflectance, temperature profile, humidity profile and pressure profile. Surface reflectance is affected by many factors so that it is difficult to get the precise value. The uncertainty of surface reflectance will cause large error to retrieval result. The uncertainties of temperature profile, humidity profile and pressure profile are also important sources of retrieval error and they will cause unavoidable systematic error. This error is hard to eliminate only using CH4 band. In this paper, ratio spectrometry method and CO2 band correction method are proposed to reduce the error caused by these factors. Ratio spectrometry method can decrease the effect of surface reflectance in CH4 retrieval by converting absolute radiance spectrometry into ratio spectrometry. CO2 band correction method converts column amounts of CH4 into column averaged mixing ratio by using CO2 1.61 μm band and it can correct the systematic error caused by temperature profile, humidity profile and pressure profile. The combination of these two correction methods will decrease the effect caused by surface reflectance, temperature profile, humidity profile and pressure profile at the same time and reduce the retrieval error. GOSAT data were used to retrieve atmospheric CH4 to test and validate the two correction methods. The results showed that CH4 column averaged mixing ratio retrieved after correction was close to GOSAT Level2 product and the retrieval precision was up to -0.24%. The studies suggest that the error of CH4 retrieval caused by the uncertainties of ground properties and atmospheric conditions can be significantly reduced and the retrieval precision can be highly improved by using ratio spectrometry method and CO2 hand correction method. PMID:27228765

  4. Solar energy collection/storage system for greenhouses: observed and simulated performance

    SciTech Connect

    Willits, D.H.; Chandra, P.; Miller, C.H.

    1981-01-01

    Performance data are pesented and some operating characteristics of a solar energy collection/storage system for greenhouses are examined. The system uses an external rock storage connected to a 6.7 x 12.2 m, fiberglass-covered greenhouse to hold excess energy collected with the greenhouse during the day for use in supplementing heating requirements during periods of deficit. Fuel consumption in the test house is compared to that in an identical, unmodified control house for three growing seasons over 1 1/2 years. Tomatoes were grown for two of the three seasons (Fall 78 and Spring 79) and lettuce was grown during the third (Fall 79). The data indicate that a savings of 31.1% was achieved for the Fall 79 season as compared to 16.9% for the same period of the previous year. This improvement is attributed to the reduced operating temperature and evapotranspiration load of the lettuce crop as well as to some improvements made to the system during the summer of 1979. Increased electrical consumption required to pump the air through the rock storage was observed to be a small percentage of the total energy saved. Yield data for the three growing seasons are pesented but no conclusions are drawn. Simulation studies performed in an effort to answer some pertinent questions about the performance of the system indicate that: (1) the uncontrolled release of heat from internal storages can be detrimental during periods when little or no heating is required resulting in higher greenhouse temperatures, and therefore higher plant respiration rates, than houses using external storages; and (2) better performance can be expected with double polyethylene-covered greenhouses than with fiberglass greenhouses owing to reduced nighttime heating load and increased solar energy collection.

  5. Greenhouse gases emission and carbon sequestration in agro-ecosystems under long-term no-till: implications for global warming mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacinthe, P.; Dick, W. A.; Lal, R.; Shrestha, R. K.; Bilen, S.

    2011-12-01

    No-till (NT) management has gained wide acceptance in US agriculture, and could contribute to global warming mitigation by offsetting fossil fuel emission. While C sequestration in NT systems is fairly well documented, the dynamics of greenhouse gases (GHG) emission is less well understood. However, the literature abounds with viewpoints and assumptions. Because of crop residue accumulation on NT surface and generally higher soil moisture, it is often assumed that production of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) is greater in NT systems compared to conventional tillage (MP). But it is also possible that long-term implementation of NT could increase soil macro-porosity, lead to the evolution of an active population of methanotrophs, and ultimately result in enhanced CH4 uptake. Field data are needed to reconcile these conflicting assumptions. A 2-year (2009-2011) study was conducted to quantify C sequestration, and compare GHG fluxes in adjacent forest and cropland under MP and long-term NT (9, 13, 36 and 48 years). The study sites were located across Ohio on soil series with similar drainage characteristics (moderately well drained, MWD) so that duration of NT management is the experimental factor. We also included a site under NT for 48 years but located on somewhat poorly-drained soil (SPD) in order to assess the impact of soil drainage. Results revealed marked effect of NT duration and soil drainage characteristics on GHG fluxes. As hypothesized, we found a positive impact of NT on CH4 uptake, but significant difference with MP management was noted at sites under NT for > 10 years. At the sites under NT for 48 years, CH4 uptake rate was 10-12 times higher in MWD than in SPD soils. When data from all sites were pooled, N2O fluxes were significantly higher under MP (2.01 mg N2O-N m-2 d-1) than under NT (0.73), but the trend varied with NT duration. While at recent (<10 y) NT sites, N2O emission was significantly lower than under MP, the

  6. Infrared and infrared emission spectroscopic study of selected magnesium carbonate minerals containing ferric iron--implications for the geosequestration of greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Frost, Ray L; Bahfenne, Silmarilly; Graham, Jessica

    2008-12-15

    The proposal to remove greenhouse gases by pumping liquid carbon dioxide several kilometres below ground level implies that many carbonate containing minerals will be formed. Among these minerals, the formation of two hydrotalcite-like minerals coalingite and brugnatellite is possible, thus necessitating a study of such minerals and their thermal stability. The two such carbonate-bearing minerals brugnatellite and coalingite have been characterised by a combination of infrared and infrared emission spectroscopy. Infrared emission spectroscopy is most useful to determine the stability of these minerals. The infrared spectra of the OH stretching region are characterised by OH and water stretching vibrations. Intense (CO3)(2-) symmetric and antisymmetric stretching vibrations support the concept that the carbonate ion is distorted in these minerals. The position of the water bending vibration indicates that the water is strongly hydrogen bonded in the mineral structure. IES spectra show the temperature range of the thermal stability of these minerals.

  7. Observation of the Leggett-Rice effect in an ensemble of 2D Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luciuk, Christopher; Smale, Scott; Trotzky, Stefan; Sharum, Haille; Enss, Tilman; Thywissen, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    Transport properties of unitary Fermi gases have been studied extensively in the past few years. Because of strong interparticle scattering at unitarity, many transport phenomenon, in particular the spin diffusivity, are observed to be bounded. However, anomalously slow spin diffusion has been observed in two dimensions and remains to be understood. Here we study the spin currents that arise as a result of a non-equilibrium magnetization in an ensemble of two dimensional Fermi gases. Spin currents possess both a dissipative and reactive component. The dissipative component - parameterized by the spin diffusivity - is a measure of the scattering rate. The reactive component describes a part of the spin current that precesses around the local magnetization known as the Leggett-Rice effect. Using a spin-echo sequence we measure both the amplitude and phase of magnetization dynamics to extract these two transport parameters at a range of interaction strengths near a Feshbach resonance.

  8. Effects of ploughing on land-atmosphere exchange of greenhouse gases in a managed temperate grassland in central Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfter, Carole; Drewer, Julia; Anderson, Margaret; Scholtes, Bob; Rees, Bob; Skiba, Ute

    2015-04-01

    Grasslands are important ecosystems covering > 20% and > 30% of EU and Scotland's land area respectively. Management practices such as grazing, fertilisation and ploughing can have significant short- and long-term effects on greenhouse gas exchange. Here we report on two separate ploughing events two years apart in adjacent grasslands under common management. The Easter Bush grassland, located 10 km south of Edinburgh (55° 52'N, 3° 2'W), comprises two fields separated by a fence and is used for grazing by sheep and cattle. The vegetation is predominantly Lolium perenne (> 90%) growing on poorly drained clay loam. The fields receive several applications of mineral fertiliser a year in spring and summer. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been monitored continuously by eddy-covariance (EC) since 2002 which has demonstrated that the site is a consistent yet variable sink of atmospheric CO2. The EC system comprises a LI-COR 7000 closed-path analyser and a Gill Instruments Windmaster Pro ultrasonic anemometer mounted atop a 2.5 m mast located along the fence line separating the fields. In addition, fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4)and CO2were measured with static chambers installed along transects in each field. Gas samples collected from the chambers were analysed by gas chromatography and fluxes calculated for each 60-minute sampling period. The ploughing events in 2012 and 2014 exhibited multiple similarities in terms of NEE. The light response (i.e. relationship between CO2 flux, and photosynthetically active radiation, PAR) of the NF and SF during the month preceding each ploughing event was of comparable magnitude in both years. Following ploughing, CO2 uptake ceased in the ploughed field for approximately one month and full recovery of the photosynthetic potential was observed after ca. 2 months. During the month following the 2014 ploughing event, the ploughed NF released on average 333 ± 17 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1. In contrast, the

  9. A comparative study of vertical flow and free-water surface constructed wetlands for low C/N ratio domestic wastewater treatment and its greenhouse gases emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, K.; Liu, C.; Ebie, Y.; Inamori, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Constructed wetland (CW) systems are reliable, flexible in design, and can be built, operated, and maintained at lower costs compared to conventional methods of chemical treatment. Therefore, CW systems are widely used for controlling water-body eutrophication as an ease-operation and cost-effective ecological technology in developing countries. However, growing attention has been directed to its greenhouse side-effect and global-warming potential in recent years. In this study, two typical constructed wetlands: Vertical flow (VF) and Free-water surface (FWS) constructed wetlands were used not only to compare the nutrients removal performance for treatment of low C/N ratio loading domestic wastewater, but also to investigate and compare their CH4 and N2O greenhouse gases emission characteristics. The results indicated that the VF CW showed a comparatively good performance for nitrogen and phosphorus removal than FWS constructed wetland, which was 98.5, 95.9, 93.2 and 90.7 percent for BOD5, SS, NH4-N and TP under 6 days HRT, respectively. It was found that the FWS CW had the higher tendency to emit CH4 than the VF CW during four seasons of one year.

  10. Direct observation of the superfluid phase transition in ultracold Fermi gases.

    PubMed

    Zwierlein, Martin W; Schunck, Christian H; Schirotzek, André; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2006-07-01

    Phase transitions are dramatic phenomena: water freezes into ice, atomic spins spontaneously align in a magnet, and liquid helium becomes superfluid. Sometimes, such a drastic change in behaviour is accompanied by a visible change in appearance. The hallmark of Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity in trapped, weakly interacting Bose gases is the sudden formation of a dense central core inside a thermal cloud. However, in strongly interacting gases--such as the recently observed fermionic superfluids--there is no longer a clear separation between the superfluid and the normal parts of the cloud. The detection of fermion pair condensates has required magnetic field sweeps into the weakly interacting regime, and the quantitative description of these sweeps presents a major theoretical challenge. Here we report the direct observation of the superfluid phase transition in a strongly interacting gas of 6Li fermions, through sudden changes in the shape of the clouds--in complete analogy to the case of weakly interacting Bose gases. By preparing unequal mixtures of the two spin components involved in the pairing, we greatly enhance the contrast between the superfluid core and the normal component. Furthermore, the distribution of non-interacting excess atoms serves as a direct and reliable thermometer. Even in the normal state, strong interactions significantly deform the density profile of the majority spin component. We show that it is these interactions that drive the normal-to-superfluid transition at the critical population imbalance of 70 +/- 5 per cent (ref. 12).

  11. Observation of the Efimovian expansion in scale-invariant Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Shujin; Shi, Zhe-Yu; Diao, Pengpeng; Yu, Qianli; Zhai, Hui; Qi, Ran; Wu, Haibin

    2016-07-01

    Scale invariance plays an important role in unitary Fermi gases. Discrete scaling symmetry manifests itself in quantum few-body systems such as the Efimov effect. Here, we report on the theoretical prediction and experimental observation of a distinct type of expansion dynamics for scale-invariant quantum gases. When the frequency of the harmonic trap holding the gas decreases continuously as the inverse of time t, the expansion of the cloud size exhibits a sequence of plateaus. The locations of these plateaus obey a discrete geometric scaling law with a controllable scale factor, and the expansion dynamics is governed by a log-periodic function. This marked expansion shares the same scaling law and mathematical description as the Efimov effect.

  12. Observation of the Efimovian expansion in scale-invariant Fermi gases.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shujin; Shi, Zhe-Yu; Diao, Pengpeng; Yu, Qianli; Zhai, Hui; Qi, Ran; Wu, Haibin

    2016-07-22

    Scale invariance plays an important role in unitary Fermi gases. Discrete scaling symmetry manifests itself in quantum few-body systems such as the Efimov effect. Here, we report on the theoretical prediction and experimental observation of a distinct type of expansion dynamics for scale-invariant quantum gases. When the frequency of the harmonic trap holding the gas decreases continuously as the inverse of time t, the expansion of the cloud size exhibits a sequence of plateaus. The locations of these plateaus obey a discrete geometric scaling law with a controllable scale factor, and the expansion dynamics is governed by a log-periodic function. This marked expansion shares the same scaling law and mathematical description as the Efimov effect.

  13. Observation of the Efimovian expansion in scale-invariant Fermi gases.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shujin; Shi, Zhe-Yu; Diao, Pengpeng; Yu, Qianli; Zhai, Hui; Qi, Ran; Wu, Haibin

    2016-07-22

    Scale invariance plays an important role in unitary Fermi gases. Discrete scaling symmetry manifests itself in quantum few-body systems such as the Efimov effect. Here, we report on the theoretical prediction and experimental observation of a distinct type of expansion dynamics for scale-invariant quantum gases. When the frequency of the harmonic trap holding the gas decreases continuously as the inverse of time t, the expansion of the cloud size exhibits a sequence of plateaus. The locations of these plateaus obey a discrete geometric scaling law with a controllable scale factor, and the expansion dynamics is governed by a log-periodic function. This marked expansion shares the same scaling law and mathematical description as the Efimov effect. PMID:27463669

  14. A research proposal on spectroscopy of gases and solids observed in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, F. P. J.; Allamandola, L. J.; Chackerian, C., Jr.; Giver, L. P.; Goorvitch, D.

    1986-01-01

    It is well recognized and accepted that the interpretation and analysis of any type of remote planetary spectroscopic observation requires that basic molecular parameters be available. Furthermore, the newly developed capabilities of air, ground, and space borne spectrometers trained on bodies in the solar system are producing results which are extremely difficult to understand on the basis of available data. This is particularly true in the case of spectral features arising from gases and volatiles condensed as ices. With the objective to continue to extend the understanding of spectroscopic observations of solar system objects (including comets) , laboratory studies of both gas phase molecules and ices and dusts are proposed.

  15. Trend analysis of greenhouse gases over Europe measured by a network of ground-based remote FTIR instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, T.; Forbes, A.; de Mazière, M.; Vigouroux, C.; Mahieu, E.; Demoulin, P.; Velazco, V.; Notholt, J.; Blumenstock, T.; Hase, F.; Kramer, I.; Sussmann, R.; Stremme, W.; Mellqvist, J.; Strandberg, A.; Ellingsen, K.; Gauss, M.

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes the statistical analysis of annual trends in long term datasets of greenhouse gas measurements taken over ten or more years. The analysis technique employs a bootstrap resampling method to determine both the long-term and intra-annual variability of the datasets, together with the uncertainties on the trend values. The method has been applied to data from a European network of ground-based solar FTIR instruments to determine the trends in the tropospheric, stratospheric and total columns of ozone, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ethane and HCFC-22. The suitability of the method has been demonstrated through statistical validation of the technique, and comparison with ground-based in-situ measurements and 3-D atmospheric models.

  16. Renewable Energy Production and Urban Remediation: Modeling the biogeochemical cycle at contaminated urban brownfields and the potential for renewable energy production and mitigation of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, G.

    2014-12-01

    greenhouse gas emissions are explored. Tradeoffs between renewable energy production,contaminant removal, and mitigation of greenhouse gases are also evaluated. Results indicate that a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions of 29-43% is possible, together with an estimated increase in renewable energy production of 7-22%.

  17. GreenHouse gas Observations of the Stratosphere and Troposphere (GHOST): Deployment of a Novel Shortwave Infrared Spectrometer On Board the NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpage, N.; Boesch, H.; Palmer, P. I.; Parr-Burman, P.; Vick, A.; Bezawada, N.; Black, M.; Born, A.; Gao, X.; Pearson, D.; Samara-Ratna, P.; Strachan, J.; Wells, M.

    2015-12-01

    GHOST is a novel, compact shortwave infrared spectrometer, designed for remote sensing of tropospheric columns of greenhouse gases (GHGs) over the ocean from an unmanned aircraft. This is achieved by observing solar radiation at high spectral resolution which has been directly reflected by the ocean surface. The GHOST system has been specifically designed and built to address the following science objectives: 1) testing of atmospheric transport models; 2) validation of GHG column observations over oceans obtained using polar orbiting satellites; and 3) complement in-situ tropopause transition layer observations from other instruments. During January and February 2015 GHOST successfully underwent rigorous environmental testing and was installed on board the Northrop Grumman Global Hawk N872NA, an unmanned aircraft operated by NASA from the Armstrong Flight Research Centre at Edwards Air Force Base, California. Here, we present first results from two Global Hawk flights which took place in March 2015 as part of the CAST-ATTREX campaign. The science flights comprised long, approximately north-south transects over the eastern Pacific Ocean, providing an opportunity to observe spatial trends in GHG column concentrations on regional scale. The second science flight on 10th March 2015 coincided with overpasses from both the NASA OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory) and the JAXA GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite) satellites, enabling inter-comparison of the GHOST results with total column observations from both satellites. A TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) station was also operational at Edwards during the two flights, allowing the GHOST observations to be validated against ground based total column measurements of GHGs.

  18. Energy use and recovery in waste management and implications for accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    PubMed

    Fruergaard, Thilde; Astrup, Tomas; Ekvall, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    The energy system plays an essential role in accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste management systems and waste technologies. This paper focuses on energy use and energy recovery in waste management and outlines how these aspects should be addressed consistently in a GHG perspective. Essential GHG emission data for the most common fuels, electricity and heat are provided. Average data on electricity provision show large variations from country to country due to different fuels being used and different efficiencies for electricity production in the individual countries (0.007-1.13 kg CO(2)-eq. kWh(-1)). Marginal data on electricity provision show even larger variations (0.004-3 kg CO(2)-eq. kWh( -1)). Somewhat less variation in GHG emissions is being found for heat production (0.01-0.69 kg CO(2)-eq. kWh( -1)). The paper further addresses allocation principles and the importance of applying either average or marginal energy data, and it discusses the consequences of introducing reduction targets on CO( 2) emissions. All discussed aspects were found to significantly affect the outcome of GHG accounts suggesting transparent reporting to be critical. Recommendations for use of average/marginal energy data are provided.

  19. Accelerated greenhouse gases versus slow insolation forcing induced climate changes in southern South America since the Mid-Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Ana Laura; Silvestri, Gabriel E.; Rojas, Maisa; Tonello, Marcela S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper is a pioneering analysis of past climates in southern South America combining multiproxy reconstructions and the state-of-the-art CMIP5/PMIP3 paleoclimatic models to investigate the time evolution of regional climatic conditions from the Mid-Holocene (MH) to the present. This analysis allows a comparison between the impact of the long term climate variations associated with insolation changes and the more recent effects of anthropogenic forcing on the region. The PMIP3 multimodel experiments suggest that changes in precipitation over almost all southern South America between MH and pre-industrial (PI) times due to insolation variations are significantly larger than those between PI and the present, which are due to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations. Anthropogenic forcing has been particularly intense over western Patagonia inducing reduction of precipitation in summer, autumn and winter as a consequence of progressively weaker westerly winds over the region, which have moved further poleward, between ca. 35-55°S and have become stronger south of about 50°S. Orbital variations between the MH to the PI period increased insolation over southern South America during summer and autumn inducing warmer conditions in the PI, accentuated by the effect of anthropogenic forcing during the last century. On the other hand, changes in orbital parameters from the MH to the PI period reduced insolation during winter and spring inducing colder conditions, which have been reversed by the anthropogenic forcing.

  20. Summer fluxes of atmospheric greenhouse gases N2O, CH4 and CO2 from mangrove soil in South China.

    PubMed

    Chen, G C; Tam, N F Y; Ye, Y

    2010-06-01

    The atmospheric fluxes of N(2)O, CH(4) and CO(2) from the soil in four mangrove swamps in Shenzhen and Hong Kong, South China were investigated in the summer of 2008. The fluxes ranged from 0.14 to 23.83 micromol m(-2)h(-1), 11.9 to 5168.6 micromol m(-2)h(-1) and 0.69 to 20.56 mmol m(-2)h(-1) for N(2)O, CH(4) and CO(2), respectively. Futian mangrove swamp in Shenzhen had the highest greenhouse gas fluxes, followed by Mai Po mangrove in Hong Kong. Sha Kong Tsuen and Yung Shue O mangroves in Hong Kong had similar, low fluxes. The differences in both N(2)O and CH(4) fluxes among different tidal positions, the landward, seaward and bare mudflat, in each swamp were insignificant. The N(2)O and CO(2) fluxes were positively correlated with the soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphate, total iron and NH(4)(+)-N contents, as well as the soil porosity. However, only soil NH(4)(+)-N concentration had significant effects on CH(4) fluxes.

  1. [Rules and impact factors of greenhouse gases emission in the saline-alkali paddy fields in different years].

    PubMed

    Tang, Jie; Fang, Tian-Ru; Hou, Ke-Yi; Zhao, Ren-Zhu; Liang, Shuang

    2014-12-01

    With the method of combining field sampling and plot test, we took saline-alkali paddy field of Qianguo county, Jilin province as an investigation object. According to the nature of soil in the area, we monitored CH4 and N2O which released from soil during rice growth period and tested the soil pH and soil organic carbon to analyze the law and reasons of greenhouse gas emission in the paddy fields. The results showed that N2O emission from paddy fields presented three peaks with distinct seasonal patterns. Application of fertilizer provided additional reactive substrate, which affected N2O emission significantly. Under flooding conditions, the main source of N2O is a denitrification process, while after drainage, nitrification was the predominance. CH4 emission showed a single peak at rice tillering stage when rice grew vigorously. That deoxidation condition dominated in the deep water layer in the paddy fields provided suitable conditions for CH4 producing microorganisms, which result in the emergence of CH4 emission peak. The pH doesn't have an obvious influence on CH4 and N2O, while SOC content in soil and pattern of CH4 emission showed a significantly positive correlation. PMID:25826947

  2. Adsorption of CO₂, CH₄, and N₂ on ordered mesoporous carbon: approach for greenhouse gases capture and biogas upgrading.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bin; Wu, Xiaofei; Chen, Yingxi; Huang, Jianhan; Luo, Hongmei; Deng, Shuguang

    2013-05-21

    Separation of CO₂ and N₂ from CH₄ is significantly important in natural gas upgrading, and capture/removal of CO₂, CH₄ from air (N₂) is essential to greenhouse gas emission control. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of CO₂, CH₄, and N₂ on an ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) sample were systematically investigated to evaluate its capability in the above two applications. The OMC was synthesized and characterized with TEM, TGA, small-angle XRD, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements. Pure component adsorption isotherms of CO₂, CH₄, and N₂ were measured at 278, 298, and 318 K and pressures up to 100 kPa, and correlated with the Langmuir model. These data were used to estimate the separation selectivities for CO₂/CH₄, CH₄/N₂, and CO₂/N₂ binary mixtures at different compositions and pressures according to the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) model. At 278 K and 100 kPa, the predicted selectivities for equimolar CO₂/CH₄, CH4/N₂, and CO₂/N₂ are 3.4, 3.7, and 12.8, respectively; and the adsorption capacities for CH₄ and CO₂ are 1.3 and 3.0 mmol/g, respectively. This is the first report of a versatile mesoporous material that displays both high selectivities and large adsorption capacities for separating CO₂/CH₄, CH₄/N₂, and CO₂/N₂ mixtures.

  3. [Rules and impact factors of greenhouse gases emission in the saline-alkali paddy fields in different years].

    PubMed

    Tang, Jie; Fang, Tian-Ru; Hou, Ke-Yi; Zhao, Ren-Zhu; Liang, Shuang

    2014-12-01

    With the method of combining field sampling and plot test, we took saline-alkali paddy field of Qianguo county, Jilin province as an investigation object. According to the nature of soil in the area, we monitored CH4 and N2O which released from soil during rice growth period and tested the soil pH and soil organic carbon to analyze the law and reasons of greenhouse gas emission in the paddy fields. The results showed that N2O emission from paddy fields presented three peaks with distinct seasonal patterns. Application of fertilizer provided additional reactive substrate, which affected N2O emission significantly. Under flooding conditions, the main source of N2O is a denitrification process, while after drainage, nitrification was the predominance. CH4 emission showed a single peak at rice tillering stage when rice grew vigorously. That deoxidation condition dominated in the deep water layer in the paddy fields provided suitable conditions for CH4 producing microorganisms, which result in the emergence of CH4 emission peak. The pH doesn't have an obvious influence on CH4 and N2O, while SOC content in soil and pattern of CH4 emission showed a significantly positive correlation.

  4. Biotechnologies for greenhouse gases (CH₄, N₂O, and CO₂) abatement: state of the art and challenges.

    PubMed

    López, Juan C; Quijano, Guillermo; Souza, Theo S O; Estrada, José M; Lebrero, Raquel; Muñoz, Raúl

    2013-03-01

    Today, methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions represent approximately 98 % of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory worldwide, and their share is expected to increase significantly in this twenty-first century. CO2 represents the most important GHG with approximately 77 % of the total GHG emissions (considering its global warming potential) worldwide, while CH4 and N2O are emitted to a lesser extent (14 and 8 %, respectively) but exhibit global warming potentials 23 and 298 times higher than that of CO2, respectively. Most members of the United Nations, based on the urgent need to maintain the global average temperature 2 °C above preindustrial levels, have committed themselves to significantly reduce their GHG emissions. In this context, an active abatement of these emissions will help to achieve these target emission cuts without compromising industrial growth. Nowadays, there are sufficient empirical evidence to support that biological technologies can become, if properly tailored, a low-cost and environmentally friendly alternative to physical/chemical methods for the abatement of GHGs. This study constitutes a state-of-the-art review of the microbiology (biochemistry, kinetics, and waste-to-value processes) and bioreactor technology of CH4, N2O, and CO2 abatement. The potential and limitations of biological GHG degradation processes are critically discussed, and the current knowledge gaps and technology niches in the field are identified.

  5. The natural flux of greenhouse gases in the case of monitoring the flux of juvenile carbon dioxide in the Hranice Karst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geršl, Milan; Stepišnik, Uroš; Mareček, Jan; Geršlová, Eva; Hammerschmiedt, Michal

    2015-04-01

    Located in the Teplice nad Bečvou district 40 km SE of Olomouc (Czech Republic), the hydrothermal Hranice Karst with the Zbrašov Aragonite Caves has been developed in the sequence of Palaeozoic limestones as a result of deep influx of thermal water charged with subcrustal carbon dioxide (CO2). This area of discharge of juvenile carbon dioxide is a unique place where one can study the long-term natural production of a greenhouse gas and confront it with the anthropogenic production. As a result, the continuous measurements of the properties of the cave microclimate with additional seasonal measurements of flux of carbon dioxide give rise to a rare pool of data that cover natural routes of greenhouse gases. Repeated seasonal analysis of the ratio of stable carbon isotopes in carbon dioxide (d13C around -5 ) (Meyberg - Rinne, 1995)has suggested the juvenile (mantle) origin of this gas. Isotopic analyses in the mineral water of dissolved gases (He) show that some part of these gases come from the upper mantle of the Earth. The lower floors of the caves are filled with carbon dioxide producing so-called gas lakes in the area. Concentrations of the gas commonly reach 40 % by volume. In 1999, for example, the average concentration in the Gallas dome was 84.9 % by volume. Flux of CO2 (g.m-2.d-1) was measured on the surface and in the cave. The homogenisation chamber and the pumping test were applied to evaluate the CO2 flux. The average CO2 flux in the soil ranged from 74 to 125 g.m-2.d-1, reflecting the venting of subcrustal CO2 in the Hranice area (Geršl et al., 2012). In the Zbrašov Aragonite Caves the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere fluctuates from 0,X to 85 % with the measured constant flux being 32 894 g.m-2.d-1. Since 2005, the CO2 concentrations in the cave area have been reported by an automatic monitoring system at 10 cave sites. CO2 concentrations are recorded in 5-min intervals. Interpretation can be put into the context of measuring concentrations of

  6. Sub-arctic Wetland Greenhouse Gases (CO2, CH4 & N2O) Emissions are Driven by Interactions of Environmental Controls and Herbivore Grazers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelsey, K.; Leffler, A. J.; Beard, K. H.; Choi, R. T.; Welker, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is increasing temperatures, altering precipitation regimes and causing earlier growing seasons, particularly at northern latitudes. Such changes in local environmental conditions have the potential to affect biogeochemical cycling including the exchange of greenhouses gases between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. In addition to the effects of these environmental controls, animals such as migratory geese also influence biogeochemical cycles through grazing, trampling and delivering nutrient-rich fecal matter. In this work we aimed to quantify how local environmental conditions and the presence of grazing interact as drivers of emissions of three key greenhouse gases, CO2, CH4 and N2O, in coastal wetlands of the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta. We explored the magnitude of emissions across gradients of soil temperature and water table depth, and across vegetation types related to the presence of grazing, ranging from no vegetation through grazed and ungrazed vegetation. We also investigated emissions from grazed areas using experimental manipulations of the timing of grazing and advancement of the growing season. We found that local environmental conditions and use by grazers exert interacting controls on emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O. Emissions of CO2 and CH4 were positively related to soil temperature and CH4 emissions were inversely related to water table depth, but the relationship varied by vegetation type. Net emissions of CO2 were greatest in ungrazed vegetation types (6.62 umols CO2 m-2 sec-1; p=0.0007) whereas CH4 emissions were greatest in the grazed vegetation (122.56 nmols CH4 m-2 sec-1; p=0.037). Flux of N2O was less than 1 nmol N2O m-2 sec-1 across all landscape positions under typical grazing and temperature conditions, but emissions were stimulated to over 10 nmols m-2 sec-1 when grazing occurred early relative to a typical season. Our results indicate that environmental conditions and the presence of migratory herbivores are both

  7. Greenhouse warming and changes in the seasonal cycle of temperature: Model versus observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Michael E.; Park, Jeffrey

    Thomson [1995] argues that an enhanced green-house effect may be altering the seasonal cycle in temperature. We compare trends in the amplitude and phase of the seasonal cycle in observational temperature data in the northern hemisphere with the response of two general circulation models to increased CO2 concentrations. Sizeable amplitude decreases are observed in both models and observations. Significant phase delays (ie, later seasonal transitions) are found in the simulations, opposite to the phase advances isolated in the observations. The retreat of winter sea ice in high-latitude regions appears to explain the models' response to CO2 increase. Much of the variability in the observational data is not predicted by the models.

  8. Effect of cattle urine addition on the surface emissions and subsurface concentrations of greenhouse gases from a UK lowland peatland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, Alex; Robinson, Steve; Chadwick, David; Cardenas, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Grazing systems represent a substantial percentage of the global anthropogenic flux of nitrous oxide (N2O) as a result of nitrogen addition to the soil. Cattle urine has been shown to stimulate N2O production due to the dual effect of a large pool of readily available N and C and increased soil water content. Studies indicate that even short-term grazing can cause a significant increase in N2O emissions, particularly when combined with compaction and seasonal water-table rise. Peat soils have different physical and chemical characteristics to mineral soils including higher organic carbon content, higher porosity and greater variation in hydraulic properties due to swell and shrink. Peat soils have been shown to have increased N2O emissions with respect to mineral soils as a result of a combination of these factors, particularly when amended with fertilisers or livestock excreta. Many lowland peatland environments in the UK are under seasonal grazing management and cattle are increasingly being introduced to manage fen vegetation in lowland peatland. In this study, we simulated small urination events on a conservation area of UK peat grassland that is intensively grazed for a short period of time during autumn seasonal water-table rise. We measured subsurface and surface emissions of N2O, methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) alongside soil physical and chemical changes to determine the key mechanisms of greenhouse gas production and transport. CO2emission peaked at 5200 mg CO2 m-2 d-1 directly after application from a background value of 905 mg CO2 m-2 d-1. CH4 flux decreased to -2000 μg CH4 m-2 d-1two days after application (control plots -580 μg CH4 m-2 d-1); however, net CH4 flux was positive from urine treated plots and negative from control plots. N2O emission peaked at 37 mg N2O m-2 d-1 12 days after application (1.08 mg N2O m-2 d-1 in control plots). Subsurface CH4 and N2O concentrations were higher in the urine treated plots than the controls. There was

  9. Forests on drained agricultural peatland are potentially large sources of greenhouse gases - insights from a full rotation period simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hongxing; Jansson, Per-Erik; Svensson, Magnus; Björklund, Jesper; Tarvainen, Lasse; Klemedtsson, Leif; Kasimir, Åsa

    2016-04-01

    The CoupModel was used to simulate a Norway Spruce forest on fertile drained peat over 60 years, from planting in 1951 until 2011, describing abiotic, biotic and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2 and N2O). By calibrating the model against tree ring derived biomass data and measured 6 year abiotic data we obtained a "reference" model by which we were able to describe the GHG fluxes and controlling factors over the 60 years. The GHG fluxes are composed of two important quantities, the forest carbon (C) uptake, 405 g C m‑2 yr‑1 and the decomposition of peat soil, 396 g C m‑2 yr‑1. N2O emissions contribute to the GHG emissions by 0.5 g N m‑2 yr‑1, corresponding to 56.8 g C m‑2 yr‑1. The 60-year-old Spruce forest has an accumulated biomass of 164 Mg C ha‑1. However, over this period 208 Mg C ha‑1 GHG has been added to the atmosphere, which means a net addition of GHG emissions. The main losses are from the peat soil and, indirectly, from forest thinning products, which we assume have a short lifetime. Model sensitivity analysis by changing initial soil C, drainage depth and initial soil C/N ratio also confirms that forests on drained agricultural peatland are a GHG source. We conclude that after harvest at an age of 80 years, most of the stored biomass carbon is liable to be released, the system having captured C only temporarily and with a cost of disappeared peat, adding both CO2 and N2O to the atmosphere.

  10. Forests on drained agricultural peatland are potentially large sources of greenhouse gases - insights from a full rotation period simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, H.; Jansson, P.-E.; Svensson, M.; Björklund, J.; Tarvainen, L.; Klemedtsson, L.; Kasimir, Å.

    2015-12-01

    The CoupModel was used to simulate a Norway Spruce forest on fertile drained peat over 60 years, from planting in 1951 until 2011, describing abiotic, biotic and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2 and N2O). By calibrating the model against tree ring data we obtained a "reference" model by which we were able to describe the fluxes and controlling factors over the 60 years. We discuss some conceptual issues relevant to improving the model in order to better understand peat soil simulations. However, the present model was able to describe the most important ecosystem dynamics such as the plant biomass development and GHG emissions. The GHG fluxes are composed of two important quantities, the forest carbon (C) uptake, 405 g C m-2 yr-1 and the decomposition of peat soil, 396 g C m-2 yr-1. N2O emissions contribute to the GHG emissions by 0.5 g N m-2 yr-1, corresponding to 56.8 g C m-2 yr-1. The 60-year-old Spruce forest has an accumulated biomass of 164 Mg C ha-1. However, over this period 208 Mg C ha-1 GHG has been added to the atmosphere, which means a net addition of GHG emissions. The main losses are from the peat soil and, indirectly, from forest thinning products, which we assume have a short lifetime. We conclude that after harvest at an age of 80 years, most of the stored biomass carbon is liable to be released, the system having captured C only temporarily and with a cost of disappeared peat, adding CO2 to the atmosphere.

  11. Comparison of life cycle greenhouse gases from natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fan; Jaramillo, Paulina; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-06-16

    The low-cost and abundant supply of shale gas in the United States has increased the interest in using natural gas for transportation. We compare the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from different natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles (MHDVs). For Class 8 tractor-trailers and refuse trucks, none of the natural gas pathways provide emissions reductions per unit of freight-distance moved compared to diesel trucks. When compared to the petroleum-based fuels currently used in these vehicles, CNG and centrally produced LNG increase emissions by 0-3% and 2-13%, respectively, for Class 8 trucks. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) powered with natural gas-produced electricity are the only fuel-technology combination that achieves emission reductions for Class 8 transit buses (31% reduction compared to the petroleum-fueled vehicles). For non-Class 8 trucks (pick-up trucks, parcel delivery trucks, and box trucks), BEVs reduce emissions significantly (31-40%) compared to their diesel or gasoline counterparts. CNG and propane achieve relatively smaller emissions reductions (0-6% and 19%, respectively, compared to the petroleum-based fuels), while other natural gas pathways increase emissions for non-Class 8 MHDVs. While using natural gas to fuel electric vehicles could achieve large emission reductions for medium-duty trucks, the results suggest there are no great opportunities to achieve large emission reductions for Class 8 trucks through natural gas pathways with current technologies. There are strategies to reduce the carbon footprint of using natural gas for MHDVs, ranging from increasing vehicle fuel efficiency, reducing life cycle methane leakage rate, to achieving the same payloads and cargo volumes as conventional diesel trucks. PMID:25938939

  12. Forests on drained agricultural peatland are potentially large sources of greenhouse gases - insights from a full rotation period simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hongxing; Jansson, Per-Erik; Svensson, Magnus; Björklund, Jesper; Tarvainen, Lasse; Klemedtsson, Leif; Kasimir, Åsa

    2016-04-01

    The CoupModel was used to simulate a Norway spruce forest on fertile drained peat over 60 years, from planting in 1951 until 2011, describing abiotic, biotic and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2 and N2O). By calibrating the model against tree ring data a "vegetation fitted" model was obtained by which we were able to describe the fluxes and controlling factors over the 60 years. We discuss some conceptual issues relevant to improving the model in order to better understand peat soil simulations. However, the present model was able to describe the most important ecosystem dynamics such as the plant biomass development and GHG emissions. The GHG fluxes are composed of two important quantities, the spruce forest carbon (C) uptake, 413 g C m-2 yr-1 and the decomposition of peat soil, 399 g C m-2 yr-1. N2O emissions contribute to the GHG emissions by up to 0.7 g N m-2 yr-1, corresponding to 76 g C m-2 yr-1. The 60-year old spruce forest has an accumulated biomass of 16.0 kg C m-2 (corresponding to 60 kg CO2 m-2). However, over this period, 26.4 kg C m-2 (97 kg CO2eq m-2) has been added to the atmosphere, as both CO2 and N2O originating from the peat soil and, indirectly, from forest thinning products, which we assume have a short lifetime. We conclude that after harvest at an age of 80 years, most of the stored biomass carbon is liable to be released, the system having captured C only temporarily and with a cost of disappeared peat, adding CO2 to the atmosphere.

  13. Forests on drained agricultural peatland are potentially large sources of greenhouse gases - insights from a full rotation period simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hongxing; Jansson, Per-Erik; Svensson, Magnus; Björklund, Jesper; Tarvainen, Lasse; Klemedtsson, Leif; Kasimir, Åsa

    2016-04-01

    The CoupModel was used to simulate a Norway Spruce forest on fertile drained peat over 60 years, from planting in 1951 until 2011, describing abiotic, biotic and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2 and N2O). By calibrating the model against tree ring derived biomass data and measured 6 year abiotic data we obtained a "reference" model by which we were able to describe the GHG fluxes and controlling factors over the 60 years. The GHG fluxes are composed of two important quantities, the forest carbon (C) uptake, 405 g C m-2 yr-1 and the decomposition of peat soil, 396 g C m-2 yr-1. N2O emissions contribute to the GHG emissions by 0.5 g N m-2 yr-1, corresponding to 56.8 g C m-2 yr-1. The 60-year-old Spruce forest has an accumulated biomass of 164 Mg C ha-1. However, over this period 208 Mg C ha-1 GHG has been added to the atmosphere, which means a net addition of GHG emissions. The main losses are from the peat soil and, indirectly, from forest thinning products, which we assume have a short lifetime. Model sensitivity analysis by changing initial soil C, drainage depth and initial soil C/N ratio also confirms that forests on drained agricultural peatland are a GHG source. We conclude that after harvest at an age of 80 years, most of the stored biomass carbon is liable to be released, the system having captured C only temporarily and with a cost of disappeared peat, adding both CO2 and N2O to the atmosphere.

  14. [Temporal variation of soil greenhouse gases fluxes in a cold-temperate Larix gmelinii forest in Inner Mongolia, China].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiu-Zhi; Zhang, Qiu-Liang; Li, Chang-Sheng; Chen, Gao-Wa; Wang, Fei

    2012-08-01

    By using static chamber-gas chromatograph technique, an in situ measurement was conducted on the soil CH4, CO2, and N2O fluxes in a cold-temperate Larix gmelinii forest in Inner Mongolia from June to September 2007, aimed to understand the diurnal and seasonal variations of soil greenhouse gasses fluxes and their relations with the associated environmental factors in L. gmelinii forests in cold-temperate zone. In growth season, the soil in the L. gmelinii forest was the sink of atmospheric CH4, with the flux ranged from 22.3 to 107.8 microg CH4-C x m(-2) x h(-1). The mean monthly uptake of CH4 in June, July, August, and September was 34.0 +/- 7.1, 71.4 +/- 9.4, 86.3 +/- 7.9, and 40.7 +/- 6.2 microg x m(-2) x h(-1), respectively. The mean diurnal flux of soil CH4 from June to September showed the same variation trend, i. e., peaked at 10:00 am. The diurnal variation of soil CO2 flux showed an obvious double-peak, and the mean monthly CO2 flux was in the order of July > August > June > September. Soil N2O flux varied dramatically from -9.1 to 31.7 microg x m(-2) x h(-1). Soil temperature and humidity were the main factors affecting the CH4 and CO2 fluxes, and soil temperature mainly affected the N2O flux. In the L. gmelinii forest, the CH4, CO2, and N2O fluxes measured at 10:00 am could represent the diurnal CH4, CO2, and N2O fluxes on the same day.

  15. Comparison of life cycle greenhouse gases from natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fan; Jaramillo, Paulina; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-06-16

    The low-cost and abundant supply of shale gas in the United States has increased the interest in using natural gas for transportation. We compare the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from different natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles (MHDVs). For Class 8 tractor-trailers and refuse trucks, none of the natural gas pathways provide emissions reductions per unit of freight-distance moved compared to diesel trucks. When compared to the petroleum-based fuels currently used in these vehicles, CNG and centrally produced LNG increase emissions by 0-3% and 2-13%, respectively, for Class 8 trucks. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) powered with natural gas-produced electricity are the only fuel-technology combination that achieves emission reductions for Class 8 transit buses (31% reduction compared to the petroleum-fueled vehicles). For non-Class 8 trucks (pick-up trucks, parcel delivery trucks, and box trucks), BEVs reduce emissions significantly (31-40%) compared to their diesel or gasoline counterparts. CNG and propane achieve relatively smaller emissions reductions (0-6% and 19%, respectively, compared to the petroleum-based fuels), while other natural gas pathways increase emissions for non-Class 8 MHDVs. While using natural gas to fuel electric vehicles could achieve large emission reductions for medium-duty trucks, the results suggest there are no great opportunities to achieve large emission reductions for Class 8 trucks through natural gas pathways with current technologies. There are strategies to reduce the carbon footprint of using natural gas for MHDVs, ranging from increasing vehicle fuel efficiency, reducing life cycle methane leakage rate, to achieving the same payloads and cargo volumes as conventional diesel trucks.

  16. The "Lung": a software-controlled air accumulator for quasi-continuous multi-point measurement of agricultural greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. J.; Bromley, A. M.; Harvey, M. J.; Moss, R. C.; Pattey, E.; Dow, D.

    2011-10-01

    We describe the design and testing of a flexible bag ("Lung") accumulator attached to a gas chromatographic (GC) analyzer capable of measuring surface-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange fluxes in a wide range of environmental/agricultural settings. In the design presented here, the Lung can collect up to three gas samples concurrently, each accumulated into a Tedlar bag over a period of 20 min or longer. Toggling collection between 2 sets of 3 bags enables quasi-continuous collection with sequential analysis and discarding of sample residues. The Lung thus provides a flexible "front end" collection system for interfacing to a GC or alternative analyzer and has been used in 2 main types of application. Firstly, it has been applied to micrometeorological assessment of paddock-scale N2O fluxes, discussed here. Secondly, it has been used for the automation of concurrent emission assessment from three sheep housed in metabolic crates with gas tracer addition and sampling multiplexed to a single GC. The Lung allows the same GC equipment used in laboratory discrete sample analysis to be deployed for continuous field measurement. Continuity of measurement enables spatially-averaged N2O fluxes in particular to be determined with greater accuracy, given the highly heterogeneous and episodic nature of N2O emissions. We present a detailed evaluation of the micrometeorological flux estimation alongside an independent tuneable diode laser system, reporting excellent agreement between flux estimates based on downwind vertical concentration differences. Whilst the current design is based around triplet bag sets, the basic design could be scaled up to a larger number of inlets or bags and less frequent analysis (longer accumulation times) where a greater number of sampling points are required.

  17. High-sensitivity remote detection of atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gases at low ppm levels using near-infrared tunable diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Anirban; Upadhyay, Abhishek; Chakraborty, Arup Lal

    2016-05-01

    The concentration of atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gases needs to be precisely monitored for sustainable industrial development and to predict the climate shifts caused by global warming. Such measurements are made on a continuous basis in ecologically sensitive and urban areas in the advanced countries. Tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) is the most versatile non-destructive technology currently available for remote measurements of multiple gases with very high selectivity (low cross-sensitivity), very high sensitivity (on the order of ppm and ppb) and under hazardous conditions. We demonstrate absolute measurements of acetylene, methane and carbon dioxide using a fielddeployable fully automated TDLS system that uses calibration-free 2f wavelength modulation spectroscopy (2f WMS) techniques with sensitivities of low ppm levels. A 40 mW, 1531.52 nm distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser, a 10 mW, 1650 nm DFB laser and a 1 mW, 2004 nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) are used in the experiments to probe the P9 transition of acetylene, R4 transition of methane and R16 transition of carbon dioxide respectively. Data acquisition and on-board analysis comprises a Raspberry Pi-based embedded system that is controllable over a wireless connection. Gas concentration and pressure are simultaneously extracted by fitting the experimental signals to 2f WMS signals simulated using spectroscopic parameters obtained from the HITRAN database. The lowest detected concentration is 11 ppm for acetylene, 275 ppm for methane and 285 ppm for carbon dioxide using a 28 cm long single-pass gas cell.

  18. Radiative Forcing by Well-Mixed Greenhouse Gases: Estimates from Climate Models in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W. D.; Ramaswamy, V.; Schwarzkopf, M. D.; Sun, Y.; Portmann, R. W.; Fu, Q.; Casanova, S. E. B.; Dufresne, J.-L.; Fillmore, D. W.; Forster, P. M. D.; Galin, V. Y.; Gohar, L. K.; Ingram, W. J.; Kratz, D. P.; Lefebvre, M.-P.; Li, J.; Marquet, P.; Oinas, V.; Tsushima, Y.; Uchiyama, T.; Zhong, W. Y.

    2006-01-01

    The radiative effects from increased concentrations of well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHGs) represent the most significant and best understood anthropogenic forcing of the climate system. The most comprehensive tools for simulating past and future climates influenced by WMGHGs are fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs). Because of the importance of WMGHGs as forcing agents it is essential that AOGCMs compute the radiative forcing by these gases as accurately as possible. We present the results of a radiative transfer model intercomparison between the forcings computed by the radiative parameterizations of AOGCMs and by benchmark line-by-line (LBL) codes. The comparison is focused on forcing by CO2, CH4, N2O, CFC-11, CFC-12, and the increased H2O expected in warmer climates. The models included in the intercomparison include several LBL codes and most of the global models submitted to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). In general, the LBL models are in excellent agreement with each other. However, in many cases, there are substantial discrepancies among the AOGCMs and between the AOGCMs and LBL codes. In some cases this is because the AOGCMs neglect particular absorbers, in particular the near-infrared effects of CH4 and N2O, while in others it is due to the methods for modeling the radiative processes. The biases in the AOGCM forcings are generally largest at the surface level. We quantify these differences and discuss the implications for interpreting variations in forcing and response across the multimodel ensemble of AOGCM simulations assembled for the IPCC AR4.

  19. Photocatalytic TiO2 coating-to reduce ammonia and greenhouse gases concentration and emission from animal husbandries.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Marcella; Costa, Annamaria; Porro, Marco

    2008-05-01

    Animal production is a main source of NH3 emission into the environment and a significant producer of other polluting gases. Most of the best available techniques (BAT) that could be used today are not very widely applied in the field because of costs, especially in existing livestock buildings. Industrial applications show that TiO2 catalytic paint can be used to transform NH3 into N2, N2O or NO and water. Field experiments aimed at determining effects on indoor air quality and NH3 and polluting gas emissions into the environment of coating pig house walls with TiO2 catalytic paint and to assess the potential efficiency of this simple painting technique as a low cost BAT technique for animal farmers. The trial was performed in two identical mechanical ventilated farrowing rooms in a swine farm in Northern Italy. Environmental parameters, ventilation rate and gas concentrations were continuously monitored in the two units throughout a 28 day production cycle. NH3, N2O, CO2, CH4 average concentrations of 5.41, 1.18, 6.28 and 2109.38 mg m(-3) (reference unit without treatment) and 3.76, 1.13, 5.32 and 1881.64 mg m(-3) (experimental unit) were, respectively, recorded during a full farrowing cycle. Pollutant emissions, expressed on a Livestock Unit (LU, i.e., 500 kg live weight) basis, were 16.33, 3.57, 18.96 and 6365.01 kg y(-1)LU(-1) (reference unit) and 11.37, 3.43, 16.11 and 5695.58 kg y(-1) LU(-1) (experimental unit), respectively. Significantly higher pollutant concentrations and emissions were found in the untreated reference unit, under similar environmental conditions and with identical numbers of sows and piglets per unit.

  20. Estimates of global biomass burning emissions for reactive greenhouse gases (CO, NMHCs, and NOx) and CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Atul K.; Tao, Zhining; Yang, Xiaojuan; Gillespie, Conor

    2006-03-01

    Open fire biomass burning and domestic biofuel burning (e.g., cooking, heating, and charcoal making) algorithms have been incorporated into a terrestrial ecosystem model to estimate CO2 and key reactive GHGs (CO, NOx, and NMHCs) emissions for the year 2000. The emissions are calculated over the globe at a 0.5° × 0.5° spatial resolution using tree density imagery, and two separate sets of data each for global area burned and land clearing for croplands, along with biofuel consumption rate data. The estimated global and annual total dry matter (DM) burned due to open fire biomass burning ranges between 5221 and 7346 Tg DM/yr, whereas the resultant emissions ranges are 6564-9093 Tg CO2/yr, 438-568 Tg CO/yr, 11-16 Tg NOx/yr (as NO), and 29-40 Tg NMHCs/yr. The results indicate that land use changes for cropland is one of the major sources of biomass burning, which amounts to 25-27% (CO2), 25 -28% (CO), 20-23% (NO), and 28-30% (NMHCs) of the total open fire biomass burning emissions of these gases. Estimated DM burned associated with domestic biofuel burning is 3,114 Tg DM/yr, and resultant emissions are 4825 Tg CO2/yr, 243 Tg CO/yr, 3 Tg NOx/yr, and 23 Tg NMHCs/yr. Total emissions from biomass burning are highest in tropical regions (Asia, America, and Africa), where we identify important contributions from primary forest cutting for croplands and domestic biofuel burning.

  1. Reported emissions of organic gases are not consistent with observations

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Ronald C.; Spiegelman, Clifford H.; Collins, John F.; Park, EunSug

    1997-01-01

    Regulatory agencies and photochemical models of ozone rely on self-reported industrial emission rates of organic gases. Incorrect self-reported emissions can severely impact on air quality models and regulatory decisions. We compared self-reported emissions of organic gases in Houston, Texas, to measurements at a receptor site near the Houston ship channel, a major petrochemical complex. We analyzed hourly observations of total nonmethane organic carbon and 54 hydrocarbon compounds from C-2 to C-9 for the period June through November, 1993. We were able to demonstrate severe inconsistencies between reported emissions and major sources as derived from the data using a multivariate receptor model. The composition and the location of the sources as deduced from the data are not consistent with the reported industrial emissions. On the other hand, our observationally based methods did correctly identify the location and composition of a relatively small nearby chemical plant. This paper provides strong empirical evidence that regulatory agencies and photochemical models are making predictions based on inaccurate industrial emissions. PMID:11038551

  2. Greenhouse gases inventory and carbon balance of two dairy systems obtained from two methane-estimation methods.

    PubMed

    Cunha, C S; Lopes, N L; Veloso, C M; Jacovine, L A G; Tomich, T R; Pereira, L G R; Marcondes, M I

    2016-11-15

    The adoption of carbon inventories for dairy farms in tropical countries based on models developed from animals and diets of temperate climates is questionable. Thus, the objectives of this study were to estimate enteric methane (CH4) emissions through the SF6 tracer gas technique and through equations proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 2 and to calculate the inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from two dairy systems. In addition, the carbon balance of these properties was estimated using enteric CH4 emissions obtained using both methodologies. In trial 1, the CH4 emissions were estimated from seven Holstein dairy cattle categories based on the SF6 tracer gas technique and on IPCC equations. The categories used in the study were prepubertal heifers (n=6); pubertal heifers (n=4); pregnant heifers (n=5); high-producing (n=6); medium-producing (n=5); low-producing (n=4) and dry cows (n=5). Enteric methane emission was higher for the category comprising prepubertal heifers when estimated by the equations proposed by the IPCC Tier 2. However, higher CH4 emissions were estimated by the SF6 technique in the categories including medium- and high-producing cows and dry cows. Pubertal heifers, pregnant heifers, and low-producing cows had equal CH4 emissions as estimated by both methods. In trial 2, two dairy farms were monitored for one year to identify all activities that contributed in any way to GHG emissions. The total emission from Farm 1 was 3.21t CO2e/animal/yr, of which 1.63t corresponded to enteric CH4. Farm 2 emitted 3.18t CO2e/animal/yr, with 1.70t of enteric CH4. IPCC estimations can underestimate CH4 emissions from some categories while overestimate others. However, considering the whole property, these discrepancies are offset and we would submit that the equations suggested by the IPCC properly estimate the total CH4 emission and carbon balance of the properties. Thus, the IPCC equations should be utilized with

  3. Greenhouse gases inventory and carbon balance of two dairy systems obtained from two methane-estimation methods.

    PubMed

    Cunha, C S; Lopes, N L; Veloso, C M; Jacovine, L A G; Tomich, T R; Pereira, L G R; Marcondes, M I

    2016-11-15

    The adoption of carbon inventories for dairy farms in tropical countries based on models developed from animals and diets of temperate climates is questionable. Thus, the objectives of this study were to estimate enteric methane (CH4) emissions through the SF6 tracer gas technique and through equations proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 2 and to calculate the inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from two dairy systems. In addition, the carbon balance of these properties was estimated using enteric CH4 emissions obtained using both methodologies. In trial 1, the CH4 emissions were estimated from seven Holstein dairy cattle categories based on the SF6 tracer gas technique and on IPCC equations. The categories used in the study were prepubertal heifers (n=6); pubertal heifers (n=4); pregnant heifers (n=5); high-producing (n=6); medium-producing (n=5); low-producing (n=4) and dry cows (n=5). Enteric methane emission was higher for the category comprising prepubertal heifers when estimated by the equations proposed by the IPCC Tier 2. However, higher CH4 emissions were estimated by the SF6 technique in the categories including medium- and high-producing cows and dry cows. Pubertal heifers, pregnant heifers, and low-producing cows had equal CH4 emissions as estimated by both methods. In trial 2, two dairy farms were monitored for one year to identify all activities that contributed in any way to GHG emissions. The total emission from Farm 1 was 3.21t CO2e/animal/yr, of which 1.63t corresponded to enteric CH4. Farm 2 emitted 3.18t CO2e/animal/yr, with 1.70t of enteric CH4. IPCC estimations can underestimate CH4 emissions from some categories while overestimate others. However, considering the whole property, these discrepancies are offset and we would submit that the equations suggested by the IPCC properly estimate the total CH4 emission and carbon balance of the properties. Thus, the IPCC equations should be utilized with

  4. The full budget of greenhouse gases in the terrestrial biosphere: From global C project to global GHG project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, H.; Lu, C.; Ciais, P.; Michalak, A. M.; Canadell, J.; Saikawa, E.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Gurney, K. R.; Sitch, S.; Zhang, B.; Yang, J.; Bousquet, P.; Bruhwiler, L.; Chen, G.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Friedlingstein, P.; Melillo, J. M.; Pan, S.; Poulter, B.; Prinn, R. G.; Saunois, M.; Schwalm, C.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) partially mitigates global climate change induced by anthropogenic greenhouse (GHG) emissions. However, warming from increasing biogenic emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) resulting from human activities may negate the cooling effect of CO2 uptake by the terrestrial biosphere. Terrestrial fluxes of individual GHGs have been studied intensively, but the net balance of the three major GHGs (CO2, CH4 and N2O) remains uncertain. Here we use bottom-up (BU: e.g., inventory, statistical extrapolation of local flux measurements, process-based modeling) and top-down (TD: atmospheric inversions) approaches to quantify net terrestrial biogenic fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from natural ecosystems, croplands, and other biogenic sectors. After subtracting modeled estimates of pre-industrial fluxes from contemporary biogenic fluxes, we find the biogenic CH4 and N2O emissions resulting from human activities are opposite in sign but 1.6 times in magnitude equivalent to the global land uptake of CO2 in the 2000s based on global warming potential on 100-year time horizon. Among the emissions of CH4 and N2O, those from agriculture are the most important human perturbation, offsetting 1.2 to 1.4 times the global land CO2 sink. Our results suggest that the role of the terrestrial biosphere in exacerbating climate change could be alleviated if net human-induced biogenic GHG emissions were reduced through the implementation of land-based mitigation strategies, with the largest mitigation potential being in Southern Asia, a region that includes both China and India. This study highlights the importance of simultaneously considering three major GHGs in global and regional climate assessments, mitigation options and climate policy decisions, given the likely countervailing impacts of mitigation efforts, such as enhanced N2O emissions with soil C sequestration, paddy-drying to reduce CH4 emissions, and indirect emissions from biofuels.

  5. Analysis of potential for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in municipal solid waste in Brazil, in the state and city of Rio de Janeiro

    SciTech Connect

    Loureiro, S.M.; Rovere, E.L.L.; Mahler, C.F.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► We constructed future scenarios of emissions of greenhouse gases in waste. ► Was used the IPCC methodology for calculating emission inventories. ► We calculated the costs of abatement for emissions reduction in landfill waste. ► The results were compared to Brazil, state and city of Rio de Janeiro. ► The higher the environmental passive, the greater the possibility of use of biogas. - Abstract: This paper examines potential changes in solid waste policies for the reduction in GHG for the country of Brazil and one of its major states and cities, Rio de Janeiro, from 2005 to 2030. To examine these policy options, trends in solid waste quantities and associated GHG emissions are derived. Three alternative policy scenarios are evaluated in terms of effectiveness, technology, and economics and conclusions posited regarding optimal strategies for Brazil to implement. These scenarios are been building on the guidelines for national inventories of GHG emissions (IPCC, 2006) and adapted to Brazilian states and municipalities’ boundaries. Based on the results, it is possible to say that the potential revenue from products of solid waste management is more than sufficient to transform the current scenario in this country into one of financial and environmental gains, where the negative impacts of climate change have created a huge opportunity to expand infrastructure for waste management.

  6. Emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide from pigs fed standard diets and diets supplemented with dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Trabue, Steven; Kerr, Brian

    2014-07-01

    Swine producers are supplementing animal diets with increased levels of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to offset the cost of a standard corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet. However, the environmental impact of these diets on emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia (NH), and hydrogen sulfide (HS) is largely unknown. Twenty-four pigs (103.6 kg initial body weight) were fed a standard CSBM diet or a CSBM diet containing 35% DDGS for 42 d. Pigs were fed and their manure was collected twice daily over the 42-d trial. Pigs fed diets containing DDGS had reduced manure pH ( < 0.01), increased surface crust coverage ( < 0.01), increased manure dry matter content ( < 0.01), and increased manure C ( < 0.01), N ( < 0.01), and S ( < 0.01) contents. Animals fed DDGS diets also had significantly higher concentrations of total ammoniacal nitrogen ( < 0.01) and sulfide ( < 0.01) in their manure compared with animals fed CSBM diets. Manure emissions of NH ( < 0.01) and HS ( < 0.05) were significantly higher in animals fed the CSBM diet. There was no dietary treatment effect for methane or nitrous oxide emissions from manure. This study demonstrates that diets containing DDGS can significantly affect manure composition and potentially lower emissions of NH and HS.

  7. A novel method to decompose two potent greenhouse gases: photoreduction of SF6 and SF5CF3 in the presence of propene.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Shen, Yan; Dong, Wenbo; Zhang, Renxi; Zhang, Jianliang; Hou, Huiqi

    2008-03-01

    SF5CF3 and SF6 are the most effective greenhouse gases on a per molecule basis in the atmosphere. Original laboratory trial for photoreduction of them by use of propene as a reactant was performed to develop a novel technique to destroy them. The highly reductive radicals produced during the photolysis of propene at 184.9 nm, such as .CH3, .C2H3, and .C3H5, could efficiently decompose SF6 and SF5CF3 to CH4, elemental sulfur and trace amounts of fluorinated organic compounds. It was further demonstrated that the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of SF5X (X represented F or CF3) was highly dependent on the initial propene-to-SF5X ratio. The addition of certain amounts of oxygen and water vapor not only enhanced the DRE but avoided the generation of deposits. In both systems, employment nitrogen as dilution gas lessened the DRE slightly. Given the advantage of less toxic products, the technique might contribute to SF5X remediation.

  8. Relative roles of anthropogenic aerosols and greenhouse gases in land and oceanic monsoon changes during past 156 years in CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Tim

    2016-05-01

    Relative roles of anthropogenic aerosols (AAs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) in land and oceanic monsoon changes during boreal summer over the period 1850-2005 in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models are explored. It is found that the GHG effect dominates rainfall trend over oceanic monsoon region. As a result, precipitation over western North Pacific (WNP) monsoon region and Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over tropical eastern Pacific are strengthened through the so-called "richest-get-richer" mechanism. Over land monsoon region, GHG and AA effects are different over India and East Asia (EA). The two effects tend to offset each other over India, but the AA effect dominates over EA and induces a drying trend. The weakened effect of GHGs on EA is attributed to the large offset of thermodynamic and dynamic effects associated with GHGs. While the former tends to strengthen EA rainfall through increased moisture, the latter tends to decrease EA rainfall due to the strengthened WNP monsoon impact.

  9. Quantifying sources and sinks of reactive gases in the lower atmosphere using airborne flux observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, G. M.; Hanisco, T. F.; Arkinson, H. L.; Bui, T. P.; Crounse, J. D.; Dean-Day, J.; Goldstein, A.; Guenther, A.; Hall, S. R.; Huey, G.; Jacob, D. J.; Karl, T.; Kim, P. S.; Liu, X.; Marvin, M. R.; Mikoviny, T.; Misztal, P. K.; Nguyen, T. B.; Peischl, J.; Pollack, I.; Ryerson, T.; St. Clair, J. M.; Teng, A.; Travis, K. R.; Ullmann, K.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wisthaler, A.

    2015-10-01

    Atmospheric composition is governed by the interplay of emissions, chemistry, deposition, and transport. Substantial questions surround each of these processes, especially in forested environments with strong biogenic emissions. Utilizing aircraft observations acquired over a forest in the southeast U.S., we calculate eddy covariance fluxes for a suite of reactive gases and apply the synergistic information derived from this analysis to quantify emission and deposition fluxes, oxidant concentrations, aerosol uptake coefficients, and other key parameters. Evaluation of results against state-of-the-science models and parameterizations provides insight into our current understanding of this system and frames future observational priorities. As a near-direct measurement of fundamental process rates, airborne fluxes offer a new tool to improve biogenic and anthropogenic emissions inventories, photochemical mechanisms, and deposition parameterizations.

  10. Quantifying Sources and Sinks of Reactive Gases in the Lower Atmosphere Using Airborne Flux Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, G. M.; Hanisco, T. F.; Arkinson, H. L.; Bui, T. P.; Crounse, J. D.; Dean-Day, J.; Goldstein, A.; Guenther, A.; Hall, S. R.; Huey, G.; Jacob, D. J.; Karl, T.; Kim, P. S.; Liu, X.; Marvin, M. R.; Mikoviny, T.; Misztal, P. K.; Nguyen, T. B.; Peischl, J.; Pollack, I.; Ryerson, T.; St. Clair, J. M.; Teng, A.; Travis, K. R.; Ullmann, K.; Wennberg, P.O.; Wisthaler, A.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric composition is governed by the interplay of emissions, chemistry, deposition, and transport. Substantial questions surround each of these processes, especially in forested environments with strong biogenic emissions. Utilizing aircraft observations acquired over a forest in the southeast U.S., we calculate eddy covariance fluxes for a suite of reactive gases and apply the synergistic information derived from this analysis to quantify emission and deposition fluxes, oxidant concentrations, aerosol uptake coefficients, and other key parameters. Evaluation of results against state-of-the-science models and parameterizations provides insight into our current understanding of this system and frames future observational priorities. As a near-direct measurement of fundamental process rates, airborne fluxes offer a new tool to improve biogenic and anthropogenic emissions inventories, photochemical mechanisms, and deposition parameterizations.

  11. Observation of threshold effects in positron scattering from the noble gases.

    PubMed

    Jones, A C L; Caradonna, P; Makochekanwa, C; Slaughter, D S; McEachran, R P; Machacek, J R; Sullivan, J P; Buckman, S J

    2010-08-13

    Channel coupling is a phenomenon that has been investigated for many scattering processes, and is responsible for the formation of cusps or steps in the cross sections for open scattering channels at, or near, the onset of a new scattering channel. It has long been speculated that the opening of the positronium formation channel may lead to the formation of such cusp features in the elastic positron scattering cross section. In this work, elastic scattering of positrons has been measured in the region of the positronium formation threshold for the noble gases He-Xe. Cusplike behavior is observed and, while the features which are observed appear broad, they represent a magnitude of between 4 and 15% of the total elastic cross section. No evidence is found of any other features in this region, at least within the uncertainty of the present data, discounting the possibility of scattering resonances. PMID:20868040

  12. Quantifying sources and sinks of reactive gases in the lower atmosphere using airborne flux observations

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, Glenn; Hanisco, T. F.; Atkinson, H. L.; Bui, Thaopaul; Crounse, J. D.; Dean-Day, J.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Hall, S. R.; Huey, L. G.; Jacob, D.; Karl, T.; Kim, P. S.; Liu, X.; Marvin, M. R.; Mikoviny, Tomas; Misztal, Pawel K.; Nguyen, Tran B.; Peischl, Jeff; Pollack, Ilana; Ryerson, T. B.; St Clair, J. M.; Teng, A. P.; Travis, Katherine; Ullmann, K.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wisthaler, Armin

    2015-10-16

    Atmospheric composition is governed by the interplay of emissions, chemistry, deposition, and transport. Substantial questions surround each of these processes, especially in forested environments with strong biogenic emissions. Utilizing aircraft observations acquired over a forest in the southeast U.S., we calculate eddy covariance fluxes for a suite of reactive gases and apply the synergistic information derived from this analysis to quantify emission and deposition fluxes, oxidant concentrations, aerosol uptake coefficients, and other key parameters. Evaluation of results against state-of-the-science models and parameterizations provides insight into our current understanding of this system and frames future observational priorities. As a near-direct measurement of fundamental process rates, airborne fluxes offer a new tool to improve biogenic and anthropogenic emissions inventories, photochemical mechanisms, and deposition parameterizations.

  13. How ground-based observations can support satellite greenhouse gas retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, J. H.; Tans, P. P.; Sweeney, C.; Dlugokencky, E. J.

    2012-04-01

    Global society will eventually accelerate efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in a variety of ways. These would likely involve international treaties, national policies, and regional strategies that will affect a number of economic, social, and environmental sectors. Some strategies will work better than others and some will not work at all. Because trillions of dollars will be involved in pursuing greenhouse gas emission reductions - through realignment of energy production, improvement of efficiencies, institution of taxes, implementation of carbon trading markets, and use of offsets - it is imperative that society be given all the tools at its disposal to ensure the ultimate success of these efforts. Providing independent, globally coherent information on the success of these efforts will give considerable strength to treaties, policies, and strategies. Doing this will require greenhouse gas observations greatly expanded from what we have today. Satellite measurements may ultimately be indispensable in achieving global coverage, but the requirements for accuracy and continuity of measurements over time are demanding if the data are to be relevant. Issues such as those associated with sensor drift, aging electronics, and retrieval artifacts present challenges that can be addressed in part by close coordination with ground-based and in situ systems. This presentation identifies the information that ground-based systems provide very well, but it also looks at what would be deficient even in a greatly expanded surface system, where satellites can fill these gaps, and how on-going, ground and in situ measurements can aid in addressing issues associated with accuracy, long-term continuity, and retrieval artifacts.

  14. Global warming potentials; Part 7 of 7 supporting documents. Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the general guidelines for voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Public review draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-31

    This document provides methods to account for the different effects of different gases on the atmosphere. It discusses the rationale and uses for simplified measures to represent human-related effects on climate and provides a brief introduction to a major index, the global warming potential (GWP) index. Appendix 7.A analyzes the science underlying the development of indices for concerns about climate, which is still evolving, evaluates the usefulness of currently available indices, and presents the state of the art for numerical indices and their uncertainties. For concerns about climate, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been instrumental in examining relative indices for comparing the radiative influences of greenhouse gases. The IPCC developed the concept of GWPs to provide a simple representation of the relative effects on climate resulting from a unit mass emission of a greenhouse gas. Alternative measures and variations on the definition of GWPs have also been considered and reported.

  15. Detecting ozone- and greenhouse gas-driven wind trends with observational data.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sukyoung; Feldstein, Steven B

    2013-02-01

    Modeling studies suggest that Antarctic ozone depletion and, to a lesser degree, greenhouse gas (GHG) increase have caused the observed poleward shift in the westerly jet during the austral summer. Similar studies have not been performed previously with observational data because of difficulties in separating the two contributions. By applying a cluster analysis to daily ERA-Interim data, we found two 7- to 11-day wind clusters, one resembling the models' responses to GHG forcing and the other resembling ozone depletion. The trends in the clusters' frequency of occurrence indicate that the ozone contributed about 50% more than GHG toward the jet shift, supporting the modeling results. Moreover, tropical convection apparently plays an important role for the GHG-driven trend.

  16. Multi-Model CIMP5 projected impacts of increased greenhouse gases on the Niger basin and implications for hydropower production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyerinde, Ganiyu; Wisser, Dominik

    2014-05-01

    Climate change could potentially have large impacts on water availability in West Africa and the predictions are accrued with high uncertainties in this region. Countries in the Niger River basin (West Africa) plan the investment of 200 million in the installation of an additional 400MW of hydropower in the nearest future, adding to the existing 685MW. With the impacts of climate change in the basin already occurring, there is a need for comprehending the influence of future hydro-climatic changes on water resources and hydro-power generation in the basin. This study uses a hydrological model to simulate river flow under present and future conditions and evaluates the impacts of potential changes on electricity production of the largest hydroelectric dam (Kainji) in the Niger Basin. The Kainji reservoir produces 25 per cent of the current energy needs of Nigeria and was subject to large fluctuations in energy production as a result of variable inflow and operational reasons. Inflow into the reservoir was simulated using hydroclimatic data from a set of 7 regional climate models (RCM) with two emission scenarios from the CORDEX-Africa regional downscaling experiment, driven with CMIP5 data. Based on observations of inflow, water level in the reservoir, and energy production we developed a simple hydroelectricity production model to simulate future energy production for the reservoir. Results suggest increases in river flow for the majority of RCM data as a result of increases in precipitation in the headwaters of the basin around 2050 and slightly decreasing trends for low emission scenarios by the end of the century. Despite this consistent increase, shifts in timing of river flow can challenge the reliable production of energy. This analysis could help assess the planning of hydropower schemes in the basin for a sustainable production of hydroelectricity in the future.

  17. Organic trace gases of oceanic origin observed at South Pole during ISCAT 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Aaron L.; Davis, Douglas D.; Arimoto, Richard; Roberts, Pauline; Atlas, Elliot L.; Flocke, Frank; Meinardi, Simone; Sherwood Rowland, F.; Blake, Donald R.

    2004-10-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured at the South Pole (SP) from late Austral spring to mid-summer 2000 as part of the Investigation of Sulfur Chemistry in the Antarctic Troposphere Program (ISCAT-2000). This paper focuses on VOCs that are directly emitted from the ocean, specifically dimethyl sulfide (DMS), methyl nitrate (CH3ONO2), methyl iodide (CH3I) and bromoform (CHBr3). A partial seasonal cycle of these gases was also recorded during the year following ISCAT-2000. During the summer, the SP periodically receives relatively fresh marine air containing short-lived oceanic trace gases, such as DMS (τ≈1 day). However, DMS was not detected at the SP until January even though DMS emissions from the Southern Ocean typically start peaking in November and elevated levels of other ocean-derived VOCs, including CH3ONO2 and CHBr3, were observed in mid-November. We speculate that in November and December most of the DMS is oxidized before it reaches the SP: a strong correlation between CH3ONO2 and methane sulfonate (MSA), an oxidation product of DMS, supports this hypothesis. Based on a limited number of samples taken over the course of one year, CH3ONO2 apparently accumulates to a quasi-steady-state level over the SP in winter, most likely due to continuing emissions of the compound coupled with a lower rate of photochemical destruction. Oceanic emissions were concluded to be the dominant source of alkyl nitrates at the SP; this is in sharp contrast to northern high latitudes where total alkyl nitrate mixing ratios are dominated by urban sources.

  18. Transport fluxes and emission of greenhouse gases of the Middle Niger River (west Africa): disproprotionate importance of the recent red floods in the Niamey region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darchambeau, François; Bouillon, Steven; Alhou, Bassirou; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V.

    2014-05-01

    The Niger River is Africa's third longest river and drains an area of ~2,120,000 km². It encompasses six hydrographic regions and crosses almost all possible ecosystem zones in West Africa. Since few decades, the Middle Niger River presents a two flood hydrograph, the local flood, or red flood, occurring during the rainy season being the more pronounced one. Here, we report initial results of a monitoring campaign whereby 2-weekly samples were collected at Niamey (Niger) [2.01°E 13.57°N] between April 2011 and March 2013 for a suite of physico-chemical and biogeochemical characteristics, including total suspended matter (TSM) concentrations, concentration and stable isotope composition of particulate organic carbon (POC and δ13C-POC) and particulate nitrogen (PN and δ15N-PN), chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC and δ13C-DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and δ13C-DIC), concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO2, CH4 and N2O), as well as major elements, total alkalinity, and oxygen isotope signatures of water (δ18O-H2O). This dataset allows us to construct seasonal budgets for particulate and dissolved carbon fluxes, nutrient exports, as well as a first seasonally resolved characterisation of the GHGs emitted to the atmosphere by the Middle Niger River. The red flood, concentrated on 2 months (August-September), contributed to more than 80% of the annual transport fluxes of TSM and POC and to approximately 30% of the annual transport fluxes of DIC and DOC.

  19. [Greenhouse gases fluxes of biological soil crusts and soil ecosystem in the artificial sand-fixing vegetation region in Shapotou area].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi-Gang; Feng, Yu-Lan; Zhang, Zhi-Shan; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Bing-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainties still existed for evaluating greenhouse gases fluxes (GHGs), including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) at the regional scale for desert ecosystem because available GHGs data about biological soil crusts (BSCs) was very scarce. In 2011 and 2012, soil ecosystem covered by various types of BSCs and BSCs at different succession stages in an artificial sand-fixing vegetation region established in various periods at southeast of the Shapotou area in Tengger Desert was selected to measure fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O using static chamber and gas chromatography. The results showed that curst type, recovery time and their interactions with sampling date significantly affected CO2 flux. Recovery time and interaction of crust type and sampling date significantly affected CH4 flux. Sampling date significantly affected the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O. The mean annual flux of CO2 for moss crust (105.1 mg x m(-2) x h(-1)) was significantly higher than that of algae crust (37.7 mg x m(-2) x h(-1)) at the same succession stage. Annual mean CH4 and N2O consumption was 19.9 and 3.4 microg x m(-2) x h(-1), respectively. Mean annual consumption of CH4 and N2O for algae crust was slightly higher than that of moss crust, however, significant difference was not found. Ecosystem respiration (Re) of desert soil covered by BSCs increased with the recovery process of desert ecosystem, in contrast, consumption of CH4 and N2O decreased. Re of moss crust was more sensitive to temperature and moisture variation than algae crust and Re sensitivity of temperature and moisture gradually increased with the development and succession of BSCs. Both soil temperature and moisture were not the main factor to determine CH4 and N2O fluxes of BSCs-soil in desert ecosystem.

  20. Carbon and nitrogen compounds and emission of greenhouse gases in ancient and modern soils of the Arkaim Reserve in the Steppe Trans-Ural Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inubushi, K.; Prikhodko, V. E.; Nagano, Kh.; Manakhov, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon and nitrogen compounds and the emission of CO2, CH4, and N2O were studied in the ancient buried and modern background soils developed from different parent materials in the Arkaim Reserve of Chelyabinsk oblast. The studies were performed after an 18-year-long period of absence of anthropogenic loads on the local ecosystems. Element contents in the humus horizons of the chernozems of the former plowland and pastures and of the forest soil reach 28-45.6 g/kg for Corg, 2.5-4.5 g/kg for Ntot, 140-423 mg/kg for labile carbon (Cl), 32-73 mg/kg for labile nitrogen (Nl), 350-952 mg/kg for carbon of microbial biomass (Cmic), and 38-85 mg/kg for nitrogen of microbial biomass (Nmic). The contents of different forms of C and N depend on the soil type and texture and on the type of land use, including that before reservation of the territory. The emission of greenhouse gases was examined in this area for the first time. The production of CO2 by the soil buried about 4000 years ago is an order of magnitude lower than that by the modern soil. The emission and sink of N2O are small in both modern and ancient soils. The behavior of methane is clearly different in the automorphic and hydromorphic soils: the former serve as methane sinks, whereas the latter act as methane sources. The rate of the CO2 emission from the soils is controlled by many factors, including the soil type, texture, degree of hydromorphism, composition of parent materials, and type of land use.

  1. Spatial Variability of Trace Gases During DISCOVER-AQ: Planning for Geostationary Observations of Atmospheric Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follette-Cook, Melanie B.; Pickering, K.; Crawford, J.; Appel, W.; Diskin, G.; Fried, A.; Loughner, C.; Pfister, G.; Weinheimer, A.

    2015-01-01

    Results from an in-depth analysis of trace gas variability in MD indicated that the variability in this region was large enough to be observable by a TEMPO-like instrument. The variability observed in MD is relatively similar to the other three campaigns with a few exceptions: CO variability in CA was much higher than in the other regions; HCHO variability in CA and CO was much lower; MD showed the lowest variability in NO2All model simulations do a reasonable job simulating O3 variability. For CO, the CACO simulations largely under over estimate the variability in the observations. The variability in HCHO is underestimated for every campaign. NO2 variability is slightly overestimated in MD, more so in CO. The TX simulation underestimates the variability in each trace gas. This is most likely due to missing emissions sources (C. Loughner, manuscript in preparation).Future Work: Where reasonable, we will use these model outputs to further explore the resolvability from space of these key trace gases using analyses of tropospheric column amounts relative to satellite precision requirements, similar to Follette-Cook et al. (2015).

  2. The impact and importance of intercalibration and intercomparisons for greenhouse gas observational networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavert, Ann; O'Doherty, Simon; Rigby, Matthew; Palmer, Paul; Stanley, Kieran; Young, Dickon; Lunt, Mark; Grant, Aoife; Pitt, Joseph; Bauguitte, Stephane; Helfter, Carole; Mullinger, Neil; Robinson, Andrew; Harris, Neil; Riddick, Stuart; Sonderfeld, Hannah; Boesch, Hartmut; Foster, Grant

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by the UK 2008 Climate Change Act, which requires the UK to decrease its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 80% of 1990 levels by 2050, the Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissons (GAUGE) project aims to better quantify UK CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions. As part of this project a UK-focused GHG observational network has been established, drawing together new and existing GHG data streams from regional to global scales. These included high-density regional studies, tall-tower sites, moving platforms (ferry and aircraft) and satellite observations. Under the project these observations will be combined with modelling approaches to better quantify and characterise UK GHG emissions and place them within a global context. This presentation will describe the efforts made to ensure that common calibration scales were used within the GAUGE project and an assessment of the intercomparability of the stationary sites and moving platforms (including 6 near surface regional focused sites, 6 tall tower sites, ferry and aircraft measurements). This assessment was undertaken using both a cylinder intercomparison program (ICP) and a comparison between co-located flask and in situ measurements. The majority of the sites agreed within the WMO comparability guidelines, however, small relative biases in CO2 and CH4 were identified at some sites. These biases generally increased with concentration, with differences up to 0.3ppm in CO2 and 3ppb CH4 observed between tall tower sites and mobile platforms, while larger biases were found at some of the regional study sites. In order to investigate the impact of biases of these types an experiment using pseudo emissions and observations was conducted. To achieve this, sets of emissions estimates for key GHG sources (e.g. for CH4 the sum of anthropogenic, biomass burning, wetlands, rice and oceans and other natural sources) were used to estimate the GHG concentrations at the GAUGE observation sites and mobile platforms via the Met office

  3. Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions inventories for agricultural burning using satellite observations of active fires.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jin, Yufang; Giglio, Louis; Foley, Jonathan A; Randerson, James T

    2012-06-01

    Fires in agricultural ecosystems emit greenhouse gases and aerosols that influence climate on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Annex 1 countries of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), many of which ratified the Kyoto Protocol, are required to report emissions of CH4 and N2O from these fires annually. In this study, we evaluated several aspects of this reporting system, including the optimality of the crops targeted by the UNFCCC globally and within Annex 1 countries, and the consistency of emissions inventories among different countries. We also evaluated the success of individual countries in capturing interannual variability and long-term trends in agricultural fire activity. In our approach, we combined global high-resolution maps of crop harvest area and production, derived from satellite maps and ground-based census data, with Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements of active fires. At a global scale, we found that adding ground nuts (e.g., peanuts), cocoa, cotton and oil palm, and removing potato, oats, rye, and pulse other from the list of 14 crops targeted by the UNFCCC increased the percentage of active fires covered by the reporting system by 9%. Optimization led to a different recommended list for Annex 1 countries, requiring the addition of sunflower, cotton, rapeseed, and alfalfa and the removal of beans, sugarcane, pulse others, and tuber-root others. Extending emissions reporting to all Annex 1 countries (from the current set of 19 countries) would increase the efficacy of the reporting system from 6% to 15%, and further including several non-Annex 1 countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Kazakhstan, Mexico, and Nigeria) would capture over 55% of active fires in croplands worldwide. Analyses of interannual trends from the United States and Australia showed the importance of both intensity of fire use and crop production in controlling year

  4. Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions inventories for agricultural burning using satellite observations of active fires.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jin, Yufang; Giglio, Louis; Foley, Jonathan A; Randerson, James T

    2012-06-01

    Fires in agricultural ecosystems emit greenhouse gases and aerosols that influence climate on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Annex 1 countries of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), many of which ratified the Kyoto Protocol, are required to report emissions of CH4 and N2O from these fires annually. In this study, we evaluated several aspects of this reporting system, including the optimality of the crops targeted by the UNFCCC globally and within Annex 1 countries, and the consistency of emissions inventories among different countries. We also evaluated the success of individual countries in capturing interannual variability and long-term trends in agricultural fire activity. In our approach, we combined global high-resolution maps of crop harvest area and production, derived from satellite maps and ground-based census data, with Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements of active fires. At a global scale, we found that adding ground nuts (e.g., peanuts), cocoa, cotton and oil palm, and removing potato, oats, rye, and pulse other from the list of 14 crops targeted by the UNFCCC increased the percentage of active fires covered by the reporting system by 9%. Optimization led to a different recommended list for Annex 1 countries, requiring the addition of sunflower, cotton, rapeseed, and alfalfa and the removal of beans, sugarcane, pulse others, and tuber-root others. Extending emissions reporting to all Annex 1 countries (from the current set of 19 countries) would increase the efficacy of the reporting system from 6% to 15%, and further including several non-Annex 1 countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Kazakhstan, Mexico, and Nigeria) would capture over 55% of active fires in croplands worldwide. Analyses of interannual trends from the United States and Australia showed the importance of both intensity of fire use and crop production in controlling year

  5. GreenHouse Observations of the Stratosphere and Troposphere (GHOST): a novel shortwave infrared spectrometer developed for the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpage, Neil; Bösch, Hartmut; Palmer, Paul I.; Parr-Burman, Phil M.; Vick, Andrew J. A.; Bezawada, Naidu N.; Black, Martin; Born, Andrew J.; Pearson, David; Strachan, Jonathan; Wells, Martyn

    2014-10-01

    The tropospheric distribution of greenhouse gases (GHGs) depends on surface flux variations, atmospheric chemistry and transport processes over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Accurate and precise atmospheric concentration observations of GHGs can be used to infer surface flux estimates, though their interpretation relies on unbiased atmospheric transport models. GHOST is a novel, compact shortwave infrared spectrometer which will observe tropospheric columns of CO2, CO, CH4 and H2O (along with the HDO/H2O ratio) during deployment on board the NASA Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle. The primary science objectives of GHOST are to: 1) test atmospheric transport models; 2) evaluate satellite observations of GHG column observations over oceans; and 3) complement in-situ tropopause transition layer observations from other Global Hawk instruments. GHOST comprises a target acquisition module (TAM), a fibre slicer and feed system, and a multiple order spectrograph. The TAM is programmed to direct solar radiation reflected by the ocean surface into a fibre optic bundle. Incoming light is then split into four spectral bands, selected to optimise remote observations of GHGs. The design uses a single grating and detector for all four spectral bands. We summarise the GHOST concept and its objectives, and describe the instrument design and proposed deployment aboard the Global Hawk platform.

  6. Reactive and nonreactive quenching of O(1D) by the potent greenhouse gases SO2F2, NF3, and SF5CF3.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhijun; Laine, Patrick L; Nicovich, J Michael; Wine, Paul H

    2010-04-13

    A laser flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique has been employed to measure rate coefficients and physical vs. reactive quenching branching ratios for O((1)D) deactivation by three potent greenhouse gases, SO(2)F(2)(k(1)), NF(3)(k(2)), and SF(5)CF(3)(k(3)). In excellent agreement with one published study, we find that k(1)(T) = 9.0 x 10(-11) exp(+98/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and that the reactive quenching rate coefficient is k(1b) = (5.8 +/- 2.3) x 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) independent of temperature. We find that k(2)(T) = 2.0 x 10(-11) exp(+52/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) with reaction proceeding almost entirely (approximately 99%) by reactive quenching. Reactive quenching of O((1)D) by NF(3) is more than a factor of two faster than reported in one published study, a result that will significantly lower the model-derived atmospheric lifetime and global warming potential of NF(3). Deactivation of O((1)D) by SF(5)CF(3) is slow enough (k(3) < 2.0 x 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K) that reaction with O((1)D) is unimportant as an atmospheric removal mechanism for SF(5)CF(3). The kinetics of O((1)D) reactions with SO(2) (k(4)) and CS(2) (k(5)) have also been investigated at 298 K. We find that k(4) = (2.2 +/- 0.3) x 10(-10) and k(5) = (4.6 +/- 0.6) x 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1); branching ratios for reactive quenching are 0.76 +/- 0.12 and 0.94 +/- 0.06 for the SO(2) and CS(2) reactions, respectively. All uncertainties reported above are estimates of accuracy (2sigma) and rate coefficients k(i)(T) (i = 1,2) calculated from the above Arrhenius expressions have estimated accuracies of +/- 15% (2sigma).

  7. Profiling wind and greenhouse gases by infrared-laser occultation: algorithm and results from end-to-end simulations in windy air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plach, A.; Proschek, V.; Kirchengast, G.

    2015-01-01

    The new mission concept of microwave and infrared-laser occultation between low-Earth-orbit satellites (LMIO) is designed to provide accurate and long-term stable profiles of atmospheric thermodynamic variables, greenhouse gases (GHGs), and line-of-sight (l.o.s.) wind speed with focus on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). While the unique quality of GHG retrievals enabled by LMIO over the UTLS has been recently demonstrated based on end-to-end simulations, the promise of l.o.s. wind retrieval, and of joint GHG and wind retrieval, has not yet been analyzed in any realistic simulation setting so far. Here we describe a newly developed l.o.s. wind retrieval algorithm, which we embedded in an end-to-end simulation framework that also includes the retrieval of thermodynamic variables and GHGs, and analyze the performance of both standalone wind retrieval and joint wind and GHG retrieval. The wind algorithm utilizes LMIO laser signals placed on the inflection points at the wings of the highly symmetric C18OO absorption line near 4767 cm-1 and exploits transmission differences from wind-induced Doppler shift. Based on realistic example cases for a diversity of atmospheric conditions, ranging from tropical to high-latitude winter, we find that the retrieved l.o.s wind profiles are of high quality over the lower stratosphere under all conditions, i.e., unbiased and accurate to within about 2 m s-1 over about 15 to 35 km. The wind accuracy degrades into the upper troposphere due to decreasing signal-to-noise ratio of the wind-induced differential transmission signals. The GHG retrieval in windy air is not vulnerable to wind speed uncertainties up to about 10 m s-1 but is found to benefit in case of higher speeds from the integrated wind retrieval that enables correction of wind-induced Doppler shift of GHG signals. Overall both the l.o.s. wind and GHG retrieval results are strongly encouraging towards further development and implementation of a LMIO mission.

  8. [Short-term effects of fire disturbance on greenhouse gases emission from Betula platyphylla-forested wetland in Xiaoxing'an Mountains, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Mu, Chang-cheng; Zhang, Bo-wen; Han, Li-dong; Yu, Li-li; Gu, Han

    2011-04-01

    could decrease the greenhouse gases emission from Betula platyphylla-forested wetland, and planned firing could be properly implemented in wetland management.

  9. SAFT-γ force field for the simulation of molecular fluids: 2. Coarse-grained models of greenhouse gases, refrigerants, and long alkanes.

    PubMed

    Avendaño, Carlos; Lafitte, Thomas; Adjiman, Claire S; Galindo, Amparo; Müller, Erich A; Jackson, George

    2013-03-01

    In the first paper of this series [C. Avendaño, T. Lafitte, A. Galindo, C. S. Adjiman, G. Jackson, and E. A. Müller, J. Phys. Chem. B2011, 115, 11154] we introduced the SAFT-γ force field for molecular simulation of fluids. In our approach, a molecular-based equation of state (EoS) is used to obtain coarse-grained (CG) intermolecular potentials that can then be employed in molecular simulation over a wide range of thermodynamic conditions of the fluid. The macroscopic experimental data for the vapor-liquid equilibria (saturated liquid density and vapor pressure) of a given system are represented with the SAFT-VR Mie EoS and used to estimate effective intermolecular parameters that provide a good description of the thermodynamic properties by exploring a wide parameter space for models based on the Mie (generalized Lennard-Jones) potential. This methodology was first used to develop a simple single-segment CG Mie model of carbon dioxide (CO2) which allows for a reliable representation of the fluid-phase equilibria (for which the model was parametrized), as well as an accurate prediction of other properties such as the enthalpy of vaporization, interfacial tension, supercritical density, and second-derivative thermodynamic properties (thermal expansivity, isothermal compressibility, heat capacity, Joule-Thomson coefficient, and speed of sound). In our current paper, the methodology is further applied and extended to develop effective SAFT-γ CG Mie force fields for some important greenhouse gases including carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), modeled as simple spherical molecules, and for long linear alkanes including n-decane (n-C10H22) and n-eicosane (n-C20H42), modeled as homonuclear chains of spherical Mie segments. We also apply the SAFT-γ methodology to obtain a CG homonuclear two-segment Mie intermolecular potential for the more challenging polar and asymmetric compound 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (HFO-1234yf), a novel replacement

  10. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Urban Trace Gases and Pollutants Observed with a Light Rail Vehicle Platform in Salt Lake City, UT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, L.; Crosman, E.; Fasoli, B.; Leclair-Marzolf, L.; Jacques, A.; Horel, J.; Lin, J. C.; Bowling, D. R.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Urban environments are characterized by both spatial complexity and temporal variability, each of which present challenges for measurement strategies aimed at constraining estimates of greenhouse gas emissions and air quality. To address these challenges we initiated a project in December 2014 to measure trace species (CO2, CH4, O3, and Particulate Matter) by way of a Utah Transit Authority (UTA) light rail vehicle whose route traverses the Salt Lake Valley in Utah on an hourly basis, retracing the same route through commercial, residential, suburban, and rural typologies. Light rail vehicles present advantages as a measurement platform, including the absence of in-situ fossil fuel emissions, repeated transects across a urban region that provides both spatial and temporal information, and relatively low operating costs. We present initial results from the first year of operations including the spatiotemporal patterns of greenhouse gases and pollutants across Salt Lake City, UT with an emphasis on criteria pollutants, identification of sources, and future applications of this measurement platform.

  11. Assimilating Earth observation data across the UK for estimating greenhouse gas budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Martin; Disney, Mathias; Lewis, Philip; Smallman, Luke; Williams, Mathew

    2016-04-01

    Successful monitoring of biogenic greenhouse gas emissions at regional scale requires a research framework that brings together knowledge about the spatiotemporal variability of gas fluxes under current and anticipated environmental and anthropogenic conditions. In this framework, knowledge about emissions derived from finer spatiotemporal scales is aggregated to calibrate and validate models operating at coarser scales, while top-down estimates of surface biophysical conditions are used to constrain models operating at finer scales. A key challenge in forming this framework is finding a solid basis to link process-based knowledge of individual research sites with Earth Observation (EO) data covering the landscape at approximately a 500m to 1km resolution. Approaches to provide for this link have often considered data from individual satellites or overflights, posing important limitations on the number of observations available through space and time, especially for regions frequently covered in clouds. A novel approach considers a data assimilation scheme through which a vast set of data from a constellation of satellites can be used to inform upon the biophysical state of the land surface. The simultaneous use of these data in a data assimilation scheme requires normalization with respect to the various instrument specifications, including bandpass and sun-sensor-target geometry at times of overpass. In this study we demonstrate a linear mapping of spectral reflectances across an array of satellites, including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MERIS), Sentinel 2 (S2), and Vegetation (VGT). The implications of this linear mapping scheme on data availability for the estimation of biophysical characteristics and associated uncertainties are discussed.

  12. Experimental observation of a traveling plasma grating formed by two crossing filaments in gases

    SciTech Connect

    Durand, Magali; Liu Yi; Forestier, Benjamin; Houard, Aurelien; Mysyrowicz, Andre

    2011-03-21

    The spatial motion and effective duration of a traveling plasma grating formed by two interfering femtosecond laser filaments in gases is characterized by its Doppler effect imparted on a probe pulse. The shift velocity determined experimentally agrees with the theoretical calculations.

  13. Assessment of a multi-species in situ FTIR for precise atmospheric greenhouse gas observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, S.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Konrad, G.; Vardag, S.; Caldow, C.; Levin, I.

    2013-05-01

    We thoroughly evaluate the performance of a multi-species, in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyser with respect to high-accuracy needs for greenhouse gas monitoring networks. The in situ FTIR analyser is shown to measure CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O mole fractions continuously, all with better reproducibility than the inter-laboratory compatibility (ILC) goals, requested by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) programme. Simultaneously determined δ13CO2 reaches reproducibility as good as 0.03‰. Second-order dependencies between the measured components and the thermodynamic properties of the sample, (temperature, pressure and flow rate) and the cross sensitivities among the sample constituents are investigated and quantified. We describe an improved sample delivery and control system that minimises the pressure and flow rate variations, making post-processing corrections for those quantities non-essential. Temperature disequilibrium effects resulting from the evacuation of the sample cell are quantified and improved by the usage of a faster temperature sensor. The instrument has proven to be linear for all measured components in the ambient concentration range. The temporal stability of the instrument is characterised on different time scales. Instrument drifts on a weekly time scale are only observed for CH4 (0.04 nmol mol-1 day-1) and δ13CO2 (0.02‰ day-1). Based on 10 months of continuously collected quality control measures, the long-term reproducibility of the instrument is estimated to ±0.016 μmol mol-1 CO2, ±0.03‰ δ13CO2, ±0.14 nmol mol-1 CH4, ±0.1 nmol mol-1 CO and ±0.04 nmol mol-1 N2O. We propose a calibration and quality control scheme with weekly calibrations of the instrument that is sufficient to reach WMO-GAW inter-laboratory compatibility goals.

  14. Survey Observation of S-bearing Species toward Neptune's Atmosphere to Constrain the Origin of Abundant Volatile Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iino, T.; Mizuno, A.; Nagahama, T.; Nakajima, T.

    2013-09-01

    We present our recent sub-mm waveband observation result of CS, CO and HCN gases on Neptune's atmosphere. Obtained abundance of both CO and HCN were comparable to previous observations. In turn, CS gas, which was produced largely after the impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter in 1994 was not detected. Obtained [CS]/[CO] value was at least 300 times more lower than the case of SL9 event while the calculated lifetime of CS gas by thermo-chemical simulation is quite longer than other S-bearing species. The interpretation of the absence of CS bring the new mystery of the origin of trace gases on Neptune's atmosphere.

  15. The detection of climate change due to the enhanced greenhouse effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiffer, Robert A.; Unninayar, Sushel

    1991-01-01

    The greenhouse effect is accepted as an undisputed fact from both theoretical and observational considerations. In Earth's atmosphere, the primary greenhouse gas is water vapor. The specific concern today is that increasing concentrations of anthropogenically introduced greenhouse gases will, sooner or later, irreversibly alter the climate of Earth. Detecting climate change has been complicated by uncertainties in historical observations and measurements. Thus, the primary concern for the GEDEX project is how can climate change and enhanced greenhouse effects be unambiguously detected and quantified. Specifically examined are the areas of: Earth surface temperature; the free atmosphere (850 millibars and above); space-based measurements; measurement uncertainties; and modeling the observed temperature record.

  16. Simultaneous quantification of methane and carbon dioxide fluxes reveals that a shallow arctic methane seep is a net sink for greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohlman, J.; Greinert, J.; Ruppel, C. D.; Silyakova, A.; Vielstädte, L.; Magen, C.; Casso, M.; Bunz, S.; Mienert, J.

    2015-12-01

    Warming of high-latitude continental-margin oceans has the potential to release large quantities of carbon from gas hydrate and other sedimentary reservoirs. To assess how carbon mobilized from the seafloor might amplify global warming or alter ocean chemistry, a robust analysis of the concentrations and isotopic content of methane and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the water column and atmosphere is required. To this effect, a gas analysis system consisting of three cavity ring-down spectrometers was developed to obtain a real-time, three-dimensional characterization of the distribution and isotopic variability of methane and CO2 at a shallow (<100 m water depth) bubbling methane seep offshore of western Svalbard. Surface water methane concentrations from the continuous-flow CRDS system agreed remarkably well with discrete samples analyzed by the GC-based headspace analysis technique and with a CRDS-based discrete sample analysis module. Reliable carbon isotope data were also obtained from the CRDSs once an isotopic calibration routine was applied. The resulting data revealed that CO2 uptake from the atmosphere within the surface water methane plume overlying the gas seep was elevated by 36-45% relative to surrounding waters. In comparison to the positive radiative forcing effect expected from the methane emissions, the negative radiative forcing potential from CO2 uptake was 32-43 times greater. Lower water temperatures, elevated chlorophyll-fluorescence and 13C-enriched CO2 within the surface methane plume suggest that bubble-driven upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich water stimulated CO2 uptake by phytoplankton. The observation that a shallow methane seep has a net negative radiative forcing effect challenges the widely-held perception that methane seeps contribute to the global atmospheric greenhouse gas burden.

  17. Assessment of ground-based atmospheric observations for verification of greenhouse gas emissions from an urban region.

    PubMed

    McKain, Kathryn; Wofsy, Steven C; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Ehleringer, James R; Stephens, Britton B

    2012-05-29

    International agreements to limit greenhouse gas emissions require verification to ensure that they are effective and fair. Verification based on direct observation of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations will be necessary to demonstrate that estimated emission reductions have been actualized in the atmosphere. Here we assess the capability of ground-based observations and a high-resolution (1.3 km) mesoscale atmospheric transport model to determine a change in greenhouse gas emissions over time from a metropolitan region. We test the method with observations from a network of CO(2) surface monitors in Salt Lake City. Many features of the CO(2) data were simulated with excellent fidelity, although data-model mismatches occurred on hourly timescales due to inadequate simulation of shallow circulations and the precise timing of boundary-layer stratification and destratification. Using two optimization procedures, monthly regional fluxes were constrained to sufficient precision to detect an increase or decrease in emissions of approximately 15% at the 95% confidence level. We argue that integrated column measurements of the urban dome of CO(2) from the ground and/or space are less sensitive than surface point measurements to the redistribution of emitted CO(2) by small-scale processes and thus may allow for more precise trend detection of emissions from urban regions.

  18. Assessment of ground-based atmospheric observations for verification of greenhouse gas emissions from an urban region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKain, Kathryn; Wofsy, Steven C.; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Ehleringer, James R.; Stephens, Britton B.

    2012-05-01

    International agreements to limit greenhouse gas emissions require verification to ensure that they are effective and fair. Verification based on direct observation of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations will be necessary to demonstrate that estimated emission reductions have been actualized in the atmosphere. Here we assess the capability of ground-based observations and a high-resolution (1.3 km) mesoscale atmospheric transport model to determine a change in greenhouse gas emissions over time from a metropolitan region. We test the method with observations from a network of CO2 surface monitors in Salt Lake City. Many features of the CO2 data were simulated with excellent fidelity, although data-model mismatches occurred on hourly timescales due to inadequate simulation of shallow circulations and the precise timing of boundary-layer stratification and destratification. Using two optimization procedures, monthly regional fluxes were constrained to sufficient precision to detect an increase or decrease in emissions of approximately 15% at the 95% confidence level. We argue that integrated column measurements of the urban dome of CO2 from the ground and/or space are less sensitive than surface point measurements to the redistribution of emitted CO2 by small-scale processes and thus may allow for more precise trend detection of emissions from urban regions.

  19. Greenhouse Observations of the Stratosphere and Troposphere (GHOST): a novel shortwave infrared spectrometer developed for the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpage, Neil; Boesch, Hartmut; Palmer, Paul; Parr-Burman, Phil; Vick, Andy; Bezawada, Naidu; Black, Martin; Born, Andy; Pearson, David; Strachan, Jonathan; Wells, Martyn

    2014-05-01

    The tropospheric distribution of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is dependent on surface flux variations, atmospheric chemistry and transport processes over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Errors in assumed atmospheric transport can adversely affect surface flux estimates inferred from surface, aircraft or satellite observations of greenhouse gas concentrations using inverse models. We present a novel, compact shortwave infrared spectrometer (GHOST) for installation on the NASA Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle to provide tropospheric column observations of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O and HDO over the ocean to address the need for large-scale, simultaneous, finely resolved measurements of key GHGs. These species cover a range of lifetimes and source processes, and measurements of their tropospheric columns will reflect the vertically integrated signal of their vertical and horizontal transport within the troposphere. The primary science objectives of GHOST are to: 1) provide observations which can be used to test atmospheric transport models; 2) validate satellite observations of GHG column observations over oceans, thus filling a critical gap in current validation capabilities; and 3) complement in-situ tropopause transition layer tracer observations from other instrumentation on board the Global Hawk to provide a link between upper and lower troposphere concentration measurements. The GHOST spectrometer system comprises a target acquisition module (TAM), a fibre slicer and feed system, and a multiple order spectrograph. The TAM design utilises a gimbal behind an optical dome, which is programmed to direct solar radiation reflected by the ocean surface into a fibre optic bundle. The fibre slicer and feed system then splits the light into the four spectral bands using order sorting filters. The fibres corresponding to each band are arranged with a small sideways offset to correctly centre each spectrum on the detector array. The spectrograph design is unique in that a

  20. Continuous multi-plot measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O and H2O in a managed boreal forest - The importance of accounting for all greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestin, P.; Mölder, M.; Sundqvist, E.; Båth, A.; Lehner, I.; Weslien, P.; Klemedtsson, L.; Lindroth, A.

    2015-12-01

    In order to assess the effects of different management practices on the exchange of greenhouse gases (GHG), it is desirable to perform repeated and parallel measurements on both experimental and control plots. Here we demonstrate how a system system combining eddy covariance and gradient techniques can be used to perform this assessment in a managed forest ecosystem.The net effects of clear-cutting and stump harvesting on GHG fluxes were studied at the ICOS site Norunda, Sweden. Micrometeorological measurements (i.e., flux-gradient measurements in 3 m tall towers) allowed for quantification of CO2, CH4 and H2O fluxes (from May 2010) as well as N2O and H2O fluxes (from June 2011) at two stump harvested plots and two control plots. There was one wetter and one drier plot of each treatment. Air was continuously sampled at two heights in the towers and gas concentrations were analyzed for CH4, CO2, H2O (LGR DLT-100, Los Gatos Research) and N2O, H2O (QCL Mini Monitor, Aerodyne Research). Friction velocities and sensible heat fluxes were measured by sonic anemometers (Gill Windmaster, Gill Instruments Ltd). Automatic chamber measurements (CO2, CH4, H2O) were carried out in the adjacent forest stand and at the clear-cut during 2010.Average CO2 emissions for the first year ranged between 14.4-20.2 ton CO2 ha-1 yr-1. The clear-cut became waterlogged after harvest and a comparison of flux-gradient data and chamber data (from the adjacent forest stand) indicated a switch from a weak CH4 sink to a significant source at all plots. The CH4 emissions ranged between 0.8-4.5 ton CO2-eq. ha-1 yr-1. N2O emissions ranged between 0.4-2.6 ton CO2-eq. ha-1 yr-1. Enhanced N2O emission on the drier stump harvested plot was the only clear treatment effect on GHG fluxes that was observed. Mean CH4 and N2O emissions for the first year of measurements amounted up to 29% and 20% of the mean annual CO2 emissions, respectively. This highlights the importance of including all GHGs

  1. Distribution and Sources of Trace Gases and Aerosols in the Asian Summer Monsoon Anticyclone - Aircraft Observations and Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlager, H.; Klausner, T.; Aufmhoff, H.; Baumann, R.; Gottschaldt, K. D.

    2015-12-01

    We report aircraft observations of trace gases and aerosols from recent field campaigns in the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone. Measurements were performed with the DLR Falcon and HALO aircraft at altitudes up to 15 km across the boundary of the anticyclone over the Arabian Sea during June, July and September conditions. Sharp gradients in chemical tracer mixing ratios were observed at the boundary of the anticyclone. In particular, sulfur dioxide and aerosols were enhanced inside the anticyclone. Ozone and carbon monoxide were enhanced or reduced in the anticyclone depending on the degree of in-mixing of air from the stratosphere inferred from observations of the stratospheric tracer hydrochloric acid. Backward trajectory analysis, tracer dispersion calculations, and simulations with the chemistry-climate model EMAC, nudged to the meteorological conditions of the measurements, were used to investigate the origin and transport of trace gases in and in the vicinity of the anticyclone. A chemistry-aerosol box model was used to simulate the formation of sulfate aerosol from sulfur dioxide inside the anticyclone uplifted by deep convection over northern India and in the Gulf of Bengal.

  2. Comparison of the observed and calculated clear sky greenhouse effect - Implications for climate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiehl, J. T.; Briegleb, B. P.

    1992-01-01

    The clear sky greenhouse effect is defined in terms of the outgoing longwave clear sky flux at the top of the atmosphere. Recently, interest in the magnitude of the clear sky greenhouse effect has increased due to the archiving of the clear sky flux quantity through the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The present study investigates to what degree of accuracy this flux can be analyzed by using independent atmospheric and surface data in conjunction with a detailed longwave radiation model. The conclusion from this comparison is that for most regions over oceans the analyzed fluxes agree to within the accuracy of the ERBE-retrieved fluxes (+/- 5 W/sq m). However, in regions where deep convective activity occurs, the ERBE fluxes are significantly higher (10-15 W/sq m) than the calculated fluxes. This bias can arise from either cloud contamination problems or variability in water vapor amount. It is argued that the use of analyzed fluxes may provide a more consistent clear sky flux data set for general circulation modeling validation. Climate implications from the analyzed fluxes are explored. Finally, results for obtaining longwave surface fluxes over the oceans are presented.

  3. Mesospheric removal of very long-lived greenhouse gases SF6 and CFC-115 by metal reactions, Lyman-α photolysis, and electron attachment.

    PubMed

    Totterdill, Anna; Kovács, Tamás; Gómez Martín, Juan Carlos; Feng, Wuhu; Plane, John M C

    2015-03-12

    The fluorinated gases SF6 and C2F5Cl (CFC-115) are chemically inert with atmospheric lifetimes of many centuries which, combined with their strong absorption of IR radiation, results in unusually high global warming potentials. Very long lifetimes imply that mesospheric sinks could make important contributions to their atmospheric removal. In order to investigate this, the photolysis cross sections at the prominent solar Lyman-α emission line (121.6 nm), and the reaction kinetics of SF6 and CFC-115 with the neutral meteoric metal atoms Na, K, Mg, and Fe over large temperature ranges, were measured experimentally. The Na and K reactions exhibit significant non-Arrhenius behavior; quantum chemistry calculations of the potential energy surfaces for the SF6 reactions indicate that the Na and K reactions with SF6 are probably activated by vibrational excitation of the F-SF5 (v3) stretching mode. A limited set of kinetic measurements on Na + SF5CF3 are also presented. The atmospheric removal of these long-lived gases by a variety of processes is then evaluated. For SF6, the removal processes in decreasing order of importance are electron attachment, VUV photolysis, and reaction with K, Na, and H. For CFC-115, the removal processes in decreasing order of importance are reaction with O((1)D), VUV photolysis, and reaction with Na, K, and H.

  4. Gases, God and the balance of nature: a commentary on Priestley (1772) 'Observations on different kinds of air'.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, John G

    2015-04-13

    Historians of chemistry usually associate the eighteenth century with the Chemical Revolution, but it could just as readily be called 'the century of gases' (or 'airs', as they were called in the eighteenth century). In the early part of the century, the British pneumatic chemists struggled to replace the traditional notion 'Air', understood as an inert chemical element, with the concept of 'air', regarded as the third state of matter, encompassing a wide variety of chemical species. These developments constituted a necessary condition for the Chemical Revolution, which occurred in the latter part of the century. In 'Observations', Priestley took pneumatic chemistry to a new level, with the discovery of eight simple inorganic gases. Motivated by his belief in a benevolent God and a pious utilitarianism, Priestly explored the role of the atmosphere in the balance of nature and the politics of the state, which he linked to the movement of Rational Dissent. He styled himself an 'aerial philosopher' to signal the interdisciplinary nature of his inquiries, which he regarded not as a branch of ordinary chemistry, but as a mode of thought that encompassed physics, chemistry and natural theology. Priestley saw it as a source of principles and secrets of nature more extensive than that of 'gravity itself'. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  5. Gases, God and the balance of nature: a commentary on Priestley (1772) 'Observations on different kinds of air'.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, John G

    2015-04-13

    Historians of chemistry usually associate the eighteenth century with the Chemical Revolution, but it could just as readily be called 'the century of gases' (or 'airs', as they were called in the eighteenth century). In the early part of the century, the British pneumatic chemists struggled to replace the traditional notion 'Air', understood as an inert chemical element, with the concept of 'air', regarded as the third state of matter, encompassing a wide variety of chemical species. These developments constituted a necessary condition for the Chemical Revolution, which occurred in the latter part of the century. In 'Observations', Priestley took pneumatic chemistry to a new level, with the discovery of eight simple inorganic gases. Motivated by his belief in a benevolent God and a pious utilitarianism, Priestly explored the role of the atmosphere in the balance of nature and the politics of the state, which he linked to the movement of Rational Dissent. He styled himself an 'aerial philosopher' to signal the interdisciplinary nature of his inquiries, which he regarded not as a branch of ordinary chemistry, but as a mode of thought that encompassed physics, chemistry and natural theology. Priestley saw it as a source of principles and secrets of nature more extensive than that of 'gravity itself'. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750146

  6. [Summer Greenhouse Gases Exchange Flux Across Water-air Interface in Three Water Reservoirs Located in Different Geologic Setting in Guangxi, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-hong; Pu, Jun-bing; Sun, Ping-an; Yuan, Dao-xian; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Tao; Mo, Xue

    2015-11-01

    Due to special hydrogeochemical characteristics of calcium-rich, alkaline and DIC-rich ( dissolved inorganic carbon) environment controlled by the weathering products from carbonate rock, the exchange characteristics, processes and controlling factors of greenhouse gas (CO2 and CH4) across water-air interface in karst water reservoir show obvious differences from those of non-karst water reservoir. Three water reservoirs (Dalongdong reservoir-karst reservoir, Wulixia reservoir--semi karst reservoir, Si'anjiang reservoir-non-karst reservoir) located in different geologic setting in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China were chosen to reveal characteristics and controlling factors of greenhouse gas exchange flux across water-air interface. Two common approaches, floating chamber (FC) and thin boundary layer models (TBL), were employed to research and contrast greenhouse gas exchange flux across water-air interface from three reservoirs. The results showed that: (1) surface-layer water in reservoir area and discharging water under dam in Dalongdong water reservoir were the source of atmospheric CO2 and CH4. Surface-layer water in reservoir area in Wulixia water reservoir was the sink of atmospheric CO2 and the source of atmospheric CH4, while discharging water under dam was the source of atmospheric CO2 and CH4. Surface-layer water in Si'anjiang water reservoir was the sink of atmospheric CO2 and source of atmospheric CH4. (2) CO2 and CH4 effluxes in discharging water under dam were much more than those in surface-layer water in reservoir area regardless of karst reservoir or non karst reservoir. Accordingly, more attention should be paid to the CO2 and CH4 emission from discharging water under dam. (3) In the absence of submerged soil organic matters and plants, the difference of CH4 effluxes between karst groundwater-fed reservoir ( Dalongdong water reservoir) and non-karst area ( Wulixia water reservoir and Si'anjiang water reservoir) was less. However, CO2

  7. [Summer Greenhouse Gases Exchange Flux Across Water-air Interface in Three Water Reservoirs Located in Different Geologic Setting in Guangxi, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-hong; Pu, Jun-bing; Sun, Ping-an; Yuan, Dao-xian; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Tao; Mo, Xue

    2015-11-01

    Due to special hydrogeochemical characteristics of calcium-rich, alkaline and DIC-rich ( dissolved inorganic carbon) environment controlled by the weathering products from carbonate rock, the exchange characteristics, processes and controlling factors of greenhouse gas (CO2 and CH4) across water-air interface in karst water reservoir show obvious differences from those of non-karst water reservoir. Three water reservoirs (Dalongdong reservoir-karst reservoir, Wulixia reservoir--semi karst reservoir, Si'anjiang reservoir-non-karst reservoir) located in different geologic setting in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China were chosen to reveal characteristics and controlling factors of greenhouse gas exchange flux across water-air interface. Two common approaches, floating chamber (FC) and thin boundary layer models (TBL), were employed to research and contrast greenhouse gas exchange flux across water-air interface from three reservoirs. The results showed that: (1) surface-layer water in reservoir area and discharging water under dam in Dalongdong water reservoir were the source of atmospheric CO2 and CH4. Surface-layer water in reservoir area in Wulixia water reservoir was the sink of atmospheric CO2 and the source of atmospheric CH4, while discharging water under dam was the source of atmospheric CO2 and CH4. Surface-layer water in Si'anjiang water reservoir was the sink of atmospheric CO2 and source of atmospheric CH4. (2) CO2 and CH4 effluxes in discharging water under dam were much more than those in surface-layer water in reservoir area regardless of karst reservoir or non karst reservoir. Accordingly, more attention should be paid to the CO2 and CH4 emission from discharging water under dam. (3) In the absence of submerged soil organic matters and plants, the difference of CH4 effluxes between karst groundwater-fed reservoir ( Dalongdong water reservoir) and non-karst area ( Wulixia water reservoir and Si'anjiang water reservoir) was less. However, CO2

  8. The earth's radiation budget and its relation to atmospheric hydrology. I - Observations of the clear sky greenhouse effect. II - Observations of cloud effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Graeme L.; Greenwald, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The clear-sky components of the earth's radiation budget (ERB), the relationship of these components to the sea surface temperature (SST), and microwave-derived water-vapor amount are analyzed in an observational study along with the relationship between the cloudy-sky components of ERB and space/time coincident observations of SST, microwave-derived cloud liquid water, and cloud cover. The purpose of the study is to use these observations for establishing an understanding of the couplings between radiation and the atmosphere that are important to understanding climate feedback. A strategy for studying the greenhouse effect of earth by analyzing the emitted clear-sky longwave flux over the ocean is proposed. It is concluded that the largest observed influence of clouds on ERB is more consistent with macrophysical properties of clouds as opposed to microphysical properties. The analysis for clouds and the greenhouse effect of clouds is compared quantitatively with the clear sky results. Land-ocean differences and tropical-midlatitude differences are shown and explained in terms of the cloud macrostructure.

  9. Quantum gases. Observation of Fermi surface deformation in a dipolar quantum gas.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, K; Baier, S; Frisch, A; Mark, M; Ravensbergen, C; Ferlaino, F

    2014-09-19

    In the presence of isotropic interactions, the Fermi surface of an ultraco